10-K 1 tgi-2012331x10k.htm TGI-2012.3.31-10K

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
____________________________________________________________________________
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
 
x
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(D) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012
or
o
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(D) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                    to                  

Commission File No. 1-12235
Triumph Group, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
51-0347963
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
899 Cassatt Road, Suite 210, Berwyn, Pennsylvania 19312
(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)
Registrant's telephone number, including area code:(610) 251-1000
____________________________________________________________________________
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Common Stock, par value $.001 per share
(Title of each class)
New York Stock Exchange
(Name of each exchange on which registered)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
____________________________________________________________________________
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes x    No o
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Yes o    No x
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x    No o
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate website, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes x    No o
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of Registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. o
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," and "smaller reporting company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. (Check one)
Large accelerated filer x
Accelerated filer o
Non-accelerated filer o
(Do not check if a
smaller reporting company)
Smaller reporting company o
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934). Yes o    No x
As of September 30, 2011, the aggregate market value of the shares of Common Stock held by non-affiliates of the Registrant was approximately $2,341 million. Such aggregate market value was computed by reference to the closing price of the Common Stock as reported on the New York Stock Exchange on September 30, 2011. For purposes of making this calculation only, the Registrant has defined affiliates as including all directors and executive officers.
The number of outstanding shares of the Registrant's Common Stock, par value $.001 per share, on May 15, 2012 was 49,825,972.
____________________________________________________________________________
Documents Incorporated by Reference
Portions of the following document are incorporated herein by reference:
The Proxy Statement of Triumph Group, Inc. to be filed in connection with our 2012 Annual Meeting of Stockholders is incorporated in part in Part III hereof, as specified herein.



Table of Contents

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PART I
Item 1.
Business
This report contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 relating to our future operations and prospects, including statements that are based on current projections and expectations about the markets in which we operate, and management's beliefs concerning future performance and capital requirements based upon current available information. Actual results could differ materially from management's current expectations. Additional capital may be required and, if so, may not be available on reasonable terms, if at all, at the times and in the amounts we need. In addition to these factors and others described elsewhere in this report, other factors that could cause actual results to differ materially include competitive and cyclical factors relating to the aerospace industry, dependence of some of our businesses on key customers, requirements of capital, product liabilities in excess of insurance, uncertainties relating to the integration of acquired businesses, general economic conditions affecting our business segment, technological developments, limited availability of raw materials or skilled personnel, changes in governmental regulation and oversight and international hostilities and terrorism. For a more detailed discussion of these and other factors affecting us, see the Risk Factors described in Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. We do not undertake any obligation to revise these forward-looking statements to reflect future events.
General
Triumph Group, Inc. ("Triumph" or the "Company") was incorporated in 1993 in Delaware. Our companies design, engineer, manufacture, repair, overhaul and distribute a broad portfolio of aerostructures, aircraft components, accessories, subassemblies and systems. We serve a broad, worldwide spectrum of the aviation industry, including original equipment manufacturers, or OEMs, of commercial, regional, business and military aircraft and aircraft components, as well as commercial and regional airlines and air cargo carriers.
In June 2010, we acquired Vought Aircraft Industries, Inc. ("Vought") from The Carlyle Group. The acquisition of Vought established the Company as a leading global manufacturer of aerostructures for commercial, military and business jet aircraft. Products include fuselages, wings, empennages, nacelles and helicopter cabins. Strategically, the acquisition of Vought substantially increased our design capabilities and provides further diversification across customers and programs, as well as exposure to new growth platforms. The acquired business is operating as Triumph Aerostructures—Vought Commercial Division, Triumph Aerostructures—Vought Integrated Programs Division and Triumph Structures—Everett. The results of Vought are included in the Company's Aerostructures Segment from the date of acquisition.
Products and Services
We offer a variety of products and services to the aerospace industry through three groups of operating segments: (i) Triumph Aerostructures Group, whose companies' revenues are derived from the design, manufacture, assembly and integration of metallic and composite aerostructures and structural components for the global aerospace original equipment manufacturers, or OEM, market; (ii) Triumph Aerospace Systems Group, whose companies design, engineer and manufacture a wide range of proprietary and build-to-print components, assemblies and systems also for the OEM market; and (iii) Triumph Aftermarket Services Group, whose companies serve aircraft fleets, notably commercial airlines, the U.S. military and cargo carriers, through the maintenance, repair and overhaul of aircraft components and accessories manufactured by third parties.
Our Aerostructures Group utilizes its capabilities to design, manufacture and build complete metallic and composite aerostructures and structural components. This group also includes companies performing complex manufacturing, machining and forming processes for a full range of structural components, as well as complete assemblies and subassemblies. This group services the full spectrum of aerospace customers, which include aerospace OEMs and the top-tier manufacturers who supply them and airlines, air cargo carriers, and domestic and foreign militaries.
The products that companies within this group design, manufacture, build and repair include:
Acoustic and thermal insulation systems
Aircraft wings
Composite and metal bonding
Composite ducts and floor panels
Empennages
Engine nacelles
Flight control surfaces
Floor beams

3


Fuselage sections
Helicopter cabins
Stretch-formed leading edges and fuselage skins
Windows and window assemblies
Wing spars and stringers
Our Aerospace Systems Group utilizes its capabilities to design and engineer mechanical, electromechanical, hydraulic and hydromechanical control systems, while continuing to broaden the scope of detailed parts and assemblies that we supply to the aerospace market. Customers typically return such systems to us for repairs and overhauls and spare parts. This group services the full spectrum of aerospace customers, which include aerospace OEMs and the top-tier manufacturers who supply them and airlines, air cargo carriers, and domestic and foreign militaries.
The products that companies within this group design, engineer, build and repair include:
Aircraft and engine mounted accessory drives
Cargo hooks
Cockpit control levers
Control system valve bodies
Exhaust nozzles and ducting
Geared transmissions
Heat exchangers
High lift actuation
Hydraulic systems and components
Landing gear actuation systems
Landing gear components and assemblies
Main engine gear box assemblies
Secondary flight control systems
Vibration absorbers
Our Aftermarket Services Group performs maintenance, repair and overhaul services ("MRO") and supplies spare parts of various types of cockpit instruments, and gauges for the commercial and military aviation industry and primarily services the world's airline and air cargo carrier customers. This group also designs, engineers, manufactures, repairs and overhauls aftermarket aerospace gas turbines engine components, offers comprehensive MRO solutions, leasing packages, exchange programs and parts and services to airline, air cargo and third-party overhaul facilities. We also continue to develop Federal Aviation Administration, or FAA, approved Designated Engineering Representative, or DER, proprietary repair procedures for the components we repair and overhaul, which range from detailed components to complex subsystems. Some specialties include navigation, flight, and engine monitoring instruments as well as autopilots, voice and data recorders, smoke detection systems and aircraft lighting. Companies in our Aftermarket Services Group repair and overhaul various components for the aviation industry including:
Air cycle machines
APUs
Cockpit instrumentation
Constant speed drives
Engine and airframe accessories
Flight control surfaces
Integrated drive generators
Nacelles
Remote sensors

4


Thrust reversers
Blades and vanes
Cabin interior panes, shades, light lenses and other plastic components
Combustors
Stators
Transition ducts
Sidewalls
Light assemblies
Overhead bins
Certain financial information about our three segments can be found in Note 21 of "Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements."
Proprietary Rights
We benefit from our proprietary rights relating to designs, engineering and manufacturing processes and repair and overhaul procedures. For some products, our unique manufacturing capabilities are required by the customer's specifications or designs, thereby necessitating reliance on us for the production of such specially designed products.
We view our name and mark, as well as the Vought tradename, as significant to our business as a whole. Our products are protected by a portfolio of patents, trademarks, licenses or other forms of intellectual property that expire at various dates in the future. We develop and acquire new intellectual property on an ongoing basis and consider all of our intellectual property to be valuable. However, based on the broad scope of our product lines, management believes that the loss or expiration of any single intellectual property right would not have a material effect on our results of operations, our financial position or our business segments. Our policy is to file applications and obtain patents for our new products as appropriate, including product modifications and improvements. While patents generally expire 20 years after the patent application filing date, new patents are issued to us on a regular basis.
In our overhaul and repair businesses, OEMs of equipment that we maintain for our customers increasingly include language in repair manuals that relate to their equipment asserting broad claims of proprietary rights to the contents of the manuals used in our operations. There can be no assurance that OEMs will not try to enforce such claims including the possible use of legal proceedings. In the event of such legal proceedings, there can be no assurance that such actions against the Company will be unsuccessful. However, we believe that our use of manufacture and repair manuals is lawful.
Raw Materials and Replacement Parts
We purchase raw materials, primarily consisting of extrusions, forgings, castings, aluminum and titanium sheets and shapes, from various vendors. We also purchase replacement parts which are utilized in our various repair and overhaul operations. We believe that the availability of raw materials to us is adequate to support our operations.
Operating Locations
We conduct our business through operating segments. The following chart describes the operations, customer base and certain other information with respect to our principal operating locations at March 31, 2012:

Operation
Subsidiary
Operating
Location
Business
Type of Customers
Number of
Employees
TRIUMPH AEROSTRUCTURES GROUP
Triumph Aerospace
Systems—Wichita(1)
Triumph Aerospace
Systems—Wichita, Inc.
Wichita, KS
Designs and manufactures aircraft windows, sheet metal assemblies (wing spars and leading edges), pilot/co-pilot control wheels, cockpit sun visors, and structural composite parts for the aerospace industry.
Commercial and General Aviation OEMs; General Aviation Aftermarket.
189

5


Operation
Subsidiary
Operating
Location
Business
Type of Customers
Number of
Employees
Triumph
Aerostructures—
Vought Aircraft Division
Triumph
Aerostructures, LLC
Dallas, TX
Grand Prairie, TX
Hawthorne, CA
Torrance, CA
Nashville, TN
Stuart, FL
Milledgeville, GA
Develops and manufactures a wide range of complex aerostructures such as aircraft fuselages, wing and tail assemblies, wing panels and skins, engine nacelles, flight control surfaces and helicopter cabins.
Commercial, General Aviation and Military OEMs.
5,647
Triumph Composite Systems
Triumph Composite Systems, Inc.
Spokane, WA
Designs and manufactures structural and non-structural composites for the aviation industry, including environmental control systems ducting, floor panels, structural thermoplastic clips/brackets as well as a variety of composite interior components.
Commercial, General Aviation, and Military OEMs; Commercial Aftermarket.
608
Triumph Fabrications—Fort Worth(1)
Triumph Fabrications—Fort Worth, Inc.
Fort Worth, TX
Manufactures metallic/composite bonded components and assemblies.
Commercial, General Aviation and Military OEMs and Aftermarket.
139
Triumph Fabrications—Hot Springs
Triumph Fabrications—Hot Springs, Inc.
Hot Springs, AR
Produces complex sheet metal parts and assemblies, titanium hot forming, and performs chem-milling and other metal finishing processes.
Commercial, General Aviation and Military OEMs and Aftermarket.
334
Triumph Fabrications—Shelbyville
The Triumph Group Operations, Inc.
Shelbyville, IN
Produces aircraft fuselage skins, leading edges and web assemblies through the stretch forming of sheet, extrusion, rolled shape and light plate metals.
Commercial, General Aviation and Military OEMs.
104
Triumph Fabrications—San Diego(1)
Triumph Fabrications—San Diego, Inc.
El Cajon, CA
Produces complex welded and riveted sheet metal assemblies for aerospace applications. Components include exhaust systems, ducting, doors, panels, control surfaces and engine components.
Commercial, General Aviation and Military OEMs.
151
Triumph Insulation Systems
Triumph Insulation Systems, LLC
Hawthorne, CA
Mexicali, Mexico
Beijing, China(2)
Designs, manufactures and repairs thermal-acoustic insulation systems for commercial aerospace applications.
Commercial and Military OEMs.
995
Triumph Processing
Triumph Processing, Inc.
Lynwood, CA
Provides high-quality finishing services to the aerospace, military and commercial industries.
Commercial, General Aviation, and Military OEMs.
87
Triumph Structures—East Texas
Triumph Structures—East Texas, Inc.
Kilgore, TX
Manufactures structural components specializing in complex precision machining primarily for commercial and military aerospace programs.
Commercial and Military OEMs.
125
Triumph Structures—Everett
Triumph Structures—Everett, Inc.
Everett, WA
Brea, CA
Precision machining of complex aluminum and hard metal structural components and subassemblies, serving commercial and military aerospace customers, ranging in size from a few inches to 120 feet long.
Commercial, General Aviation and Military OEMs.
214

6


Operation
Subsidiary
Operating
Location
Business
Type of Customers
Number of
Employees
Triumph Structures—Kansas City
Triumph Structures—Kansas City, Inc.
Grandview, MO
Manufactures precision machined parts and mechanical assemblies for the aviation, aerospace and defense industries.
Commercial and Military OEMs.
130
Triumph Structures—Long Island
Triumph Structures—Long Island, LLC
Westbury, NY
Manufactures high-quality structural and dynamic parts and assemblies for commercial and military aerospace programs.
Commercial and Military OEMs.
130
Triumph Structures—Los Angeles
Triumph Structures—Los Angeles, Inc.
Chatsworth, CA
City of Industry, CA
Walnut, CA
Manufactures long structural components, such as stringers, cords, floor beams and spars, for the aviation industry. Machines, welds and assembles large, complex, precision structural components.
Commercial, General Aviation and Military OEMs.
284
Triumph Structures—Wichita
Triumph Structures—Wichita, Inc.
Wichita, KS
Specializes in complex, high-speed monolithic precision machining, turning, subassemblies, and sheet metal fabrication, serving domestic and international aerospace customers.
Commercial and Military OEMs.
139
TRIUMPH AEROSPACE SYSTEMS GROUP
Construction Brevetees d'Alfortville
Construction Brevetees d'Alfortville SAS
Alfortville, France
Manufactures mechanical ball bearing control assemblies for the aerospace, ground transportation, defense and marine industries.
Commercial and Military OEMs, Ground Transportation and Marine OEMs.
65
Triumph Actuation & Motion Control Systems
Triumph Actuation & Motion Control Systems—UK, Ltd.
Buckley, UK
Designs and builds proprietary advanced control products for flight actuation and motor control applications in all electrical aircraft and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles ("UAVs").
Commercial, General Aviation, and Military OEMs.
49
Triumph Actuation Systems—Clemmons(1)
Triumph Actuation Systems—Freeport
Triumph Actuation Systems, LLC
Clemmons, NC
Freeport, NY
Designs, manufactures and repairs complex hydraulic and hydromechanical aircraft components and systems, such as variable displacement pumps and motors, linear actuators and valves, and cargo door actuation systems.
Commercial, General Aviation, and Military OEMs; Commercial Airlines, General Aviation and Military Aftermarket.
250
Triumph Actuation Systems—Connecticut
Triumph Actuation Systems—Connecticut, LLC
Bloomfield, CT
East Lyme, CT
Bethel, CT
Designs, manufactures and repairs complex hydraulic, hydromechanical and mechanical components and systems, such as nose wheel steering motors, helicopter blade lag dampers, mechanical hold open rods, coupling and latching devices, as well as mechanical and electromechanical actuation products.
Commercial, General Aviation, and Military OEMs; Military Aftermarket.
153

7


Operation
Subsidiary
Operating
Location
Business
Type of Customers
Number of
Employees
Triumph Actuation Systems—Valencia(1)
Triumph Actuation Systems—Valencia, Inc.
Valencia, CA
Designs, manufactures and repairs complex hydraulic and hydromechanical aircraft components and systems, such as accumulators, actuators, complex valve packages, and landing gear retract actuators.
Commercial, General Aviation, and Military OEMs.
190
Triumph Aerospace Systems—Newport News
Triumph Aerospace Systems—Newport News, Inc.
Newport News, VA
San Diego, CA
Huntsville, AL
Offers a fully integrated range of capabilities, including systems engineering, conceptual engineering, mechanical design and analysis, prototype and limited-rate production, instrumentation, assembly and testing services and complex structural composite design and manufacturing.
Commercial and Military OEMs; Commercial and Military Aftermarket.
119
Triumph Aerospace Systems—Seattle
Triumph Actuation Systems—Connecticut, LLC
Redmond, WA
Rochester, NY
System engineering and integration for landing gear, hydraulic, deployment, cargo door and electro-mechanical type systems. Capabilities include design, analysis and testing to support these types of systems and components.
Commercial, General Aviation and Military OEMs.
111
Triumph Controls(1)
Triumph Controls, LLC
North Wales, PA
Shelbyville, IN
Designs and manufactures mechanical and electromechanical control systems.
Commercial, General Aviation and Military OEMs and Aftermarket.
149
Triumph Controls—Germany
Triumph Controls—UK
Triumph Controls—Germany, GmbH
Triumph Controls—UK, Ltd.
Heiligenhaus, Germany
Basildon, UK
Produces and repairs cable control systems for ground, flight, engine management and cabin comfort features in aircraft.
Commercial and Military OEMs.
39
Triumph Fabrications—St. Louis
Triumph Fabrications—St. Louis, Inc.
East Alton, IL
Orangeburg, SC
Provides maintenance and manufactured solutions for aviation drive train, mechanical, hydraulic and electrical hardware items including gearboxes, cargo hooks and vibration absorbers. Also, produces fabricated textile items such as seat cushions and sound insulation blankets for military rotary-wing platforms.
Commercial, General Aviation and Military Aftermarket.
65
Triumph Fabrications—Phoenix
Triumph Engineered Solutions, Inc.
Chandler, AZ
Produces complex welded and riveted sheet metal assemblies for aerospace applications. Components include exhaust systems, ducting, doors, panels, control surfaces and engine components.
Commercial, General Aviation and Military OEMs.
78
Triumph Gear Systems—Park City(1)
Triumph Gear Systems—Macomb(1)
Triumph Gear Systems, Inc.
Triumph Gear Systems—Macomb, Inc.
Park City, UT
Macomb, MI
Specializes in the design, development, manufacture, sale and repair of gearboxes, high-lift flight control actuators, gear-driven actuators and gears for the aerospace industry.
Commercial and Military OEMs and Aftermarket.
443

8


Operation
Subsidiary
Operating
Location
Business
Type of Customers
Number of
Employees
Triumph Northwest
The Triumph Group Operations, Inc.
Albany, OR
Machines and fabricates refractory, reactive, heat and corrosion-resistant precision products.
Military, Medical and Electronic OEMs.
26
Triumph Thermal Systems(1)
Triumph Thermal Systems, Inc.
Forest, OH
Designs, manufactures and repairs engine and aircraft thermal transfer systems and components.
Commercial, General Aviation and Military OEMs.
186
TRIUMPH AFTERMARKET SERVICES GROUP
Triumph Accessory Services—Wellington(1)
The Triumph Group Operations, Inc.
Wellington, KS
Provides maintenance services for aircraft heavy accessories and airborne electrical power generation devices, including constant speed drives, integrated drive generators, air cycle machines and electrical generators.
Commercial, General Aviation and Military Aftermarket.
116
Triumph Accessory Services—Grand Prairie(1)
Triumph Accessory Services—Grand Prairie, Inc.
Grand Prairie, TX
Provides maintenance services for engine and airframe accessories including a variety of engine gearboxes, pneumatic starters, valves and drive units, hydraulic actuators, lube system pumps, fuel nozzles, fuel pumps and fuel controls.
Commercial and Military Aftermarket.
114
Triumph Air Repair(1)
The Triumph Group Operations, Inc.
Phoenix, AZ
Repairs and overhauls auxiliary power units (APUs) and related accessories; sells, leases and exchanges APUs, related components and other aircraft material.
Commercial, General Aviation and Military Aftermarket.
100
Triumph Airborne Structures(1)
Triumph Airborne Structures, Inc.
Hot Springs, AR
Repairs and overhauls fan reversers, nacelle components, flight control surfaces and other aerostructures.
Commercial Aftermarket.
201
Triumph Aviation Services—Asia(1)
Triumph Aviation Services Asia Ltd.
Chonburi, Thailand
Repairs and overhauls complex aircraft operational components, such as auxiliary power units (APUs), nacelles, constant speed drives, fan reversers and related accessories.
Commercial Aftermarket.
128
Triumph Engines—Tempe(1)
Triumph Engineered Solutions, Inc.
Tempe, AZ
Designs, engineers, manufactures, repairs and overhauls aftermarket aerospace gas turbine engine components and provides repair services and aftermarket parts and services to aircraft operators, maintenance providers, and third-party overhaul facilities.
Commercial, General Aviation and Military Aftermarket.
97

9


Operation
Subsidiary
Operating
Location
Business
Type of Customers
Number of
Employees
Triumph Instruments—Burbank(1)
Triumph Instruments—Burbank, Inc.
Burbank, CA
Van Nuys, CA
Repairs and overhauls aircraft avionics, electrical accessories, power systems and instrumentation. Distributes and repairs smoke detectors, multiple OEM avionic and instrument components as well as industrial instrumentation, controls, valves, miscellaneous components and switches.  Install, service and upgrade avionics.
Commercial, General Aviation and Military Aftermarket.
65
Triumph Instruments—
Ft. Lauderdale(1)
Triumph Instruments, Inc.
Ft. Lauderdale, FL
Specalizes in exchange, overhaul, and repair of electronic, electromechanical, gyroscopic, and pneumatic aircraft instruments, avionics, and antennas.
Commercial, General Aviation and Military Aftermarket.
41
Triumph Interiors(1)
Triumph Interiors, LLC
Atlanta, GA Oakdale, PA
Grand Prairie, TX
Refurbishes and repairs aircraft interiors such as sidewalls, ceiling panels, galleys and overhead storage bins and manufactures a full line of interior lighting and plastic components.
Commercial Aftermarket.
191
Triumph San Antonio Support Center
The Triumph Group Operations, Inc.
San Antonio, TX
Provides maintenance services for aircraft ground support equipment.
Military Aftermarket.
37
CORPORATE AND OTHER
Triumph Group, Inc.
Triumph Group, Inc.
Berwyn, PA
Parent company
N/A
105
Triumph Group—Mexico
Triumph Group—Mexico, S. de R.L. de C.V.
Zacatecas, Mexico
Provides rough machining of gears, actuations and structure components, as well as assembly, fabrications, engineering and composites to Triumph companies and certain customers.
Commercial and General Aviation OEMs
208

(1)
Designates FAA-certified repair station.
(2)
Through an affiliate, Triumph Insulation Systems, LLC manages an 80% interest in a venture, operating in Beijing, China, with Beijing Kailan Aviation Technology Co., Ltd., an unrelated party based in China.
Sales, Marketing and Engineering
While each of our operating companies maintains responsibility for selling and marketing its specific products, we have developed two marketing teams at the group level who are focused on cross-selling our broad capabilities. One team supports the Aerostructures and Aerospace Systems Groups and the other the Aftermarket Services Group. These teams are responsible for selling systems, integrated assemblies and repair and overhaul services, reaching across our operating companies, to our OEM, military, airline and air cargo customers. We also conduct sales activities in the Wichita, Kansas area through Triumph Wichita Support Center, a third-party sales organization dedicated solely to a sales effort on behalf of Triumph Group companies, which is staffed by sales professionals focused on Boeing IDS, Spirit AeroSystems, Cessna, Bombardier/Learjet and Raytheon. In certain limited cases, we use independent, commission-based representatives to serve our customer's changing needs and the current trends in some of the markets/geographic regions in which we operate.
All three of these marketing organizations operate as the front-end of the selling process, establishing or maintaining relationships, identifying opportunities to leverage our brand, and providing service for our customers. Each individual operating company is responsible for its own technical support, pricing, manufacturing and product support. Also, within the Aerospace Systems Group, we have created a group engineering function to provide integrated solutions to meet our customer needs by designing systems that integrate the capabilities of our companies.

10


A significant portion of our government and defense contracts are awarded on a competitive bidding basis. We generally do not bid or act as the primary contractor, but will typically bid and act as a subcontractor on contracts on a fixed-price basis. We generally sell to our other customers on a fixed-price, negotiated contract or purchase order basis.
Backlog
We have a number of long-term agreements with several of our customers. These agreements generally describe the terms under which the customer may issue purchase orders to buy our products and services during the term of the agreement. These terms typically include a list of the products or repair services customers may purchase, initial pricing, anticipated quantities and, to the extent known, delivery dates. In tracking and reporting our backlog, however, we only include amounts for which we have actual purchase orders with firm delivery dates or contract requirements generally within the next 24 months, which primarily relates to sales to our OEM customer base. Purchase orders issued by our aftermarket customers are usually completed within a short period of time. As a result, our backlog data relates primarily to the OEM customers. The backlog information set forth below does not include the sales that we expect to generate from long-term agreements for which we do not have actual purchase orders with firm delivery dates.
As of March 31, 2012, our continuing operations had outstanding purchase orders representing an aggregate invoice price of approximately $3,907 million, of which $3,185 million, $690 million and $32 million relate to the Aerostructures Group, the Aerospace Systems Group and the Aftermarket Services Group, respectively. As of March 31, 2011, our continuing operations had outstanding purchase orders representing an aggregate invoice price of approximately $3,780 million, of which $3,082 million, $664 million and $34 million relate to the Aerostructures Group, the Aerospace Systems Group and the Aftermarket Services Group, respectively. Of the existing backlog of $3,907 million, approximately $596 million will not be shipped by March 31, 2013.
Dependence on Significant Customer
For the fiscal years ended March 31, 2012, 2011 and 2010, the Boeing Company, or Boeing, represented approximately 47%, 45% and 30%, respectively, of our net sales, covering virtually every Boeing plant and product. A significant reduction in sales to Boeing could have a material adverse impact on our financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.
United States and International Operations
Our revenues from continuing operations to customers in the United States for the fiscal years ended March 31, 2012, 2011 and 2010 were approximately $2,944 million, $2,511 million, and $1,039 million, respectively. Our revenues from our continuing operations to customers in all other countries for the fiscal years ended March 31, 2012, 2011 and 2010 were approximately $464 million, $395 million, and $256 million, respectively.
As of March 31, 2012 and 2011, our long-lived assets for continuing operations located in the United States were approximately $3,046 million and $3,068 million, respectively. As of March 31, 2012 and 2011, our long-lived assets for continuing operations located in all other countries were approximately $90 million and $96 million, respectively.
Competition
We compete primarily with Tier 1 and Tier 2 systems integrators and the manufacturers that supply them, some of which are divisions or subsidiaries of other large companies, in the manufacture of aircraft systems components and subassemblies. OEMs are increasingly focusing on assembly and integration activities while outsourcing more manufacturing, and therefore are less of a competitive force than in previous years.
Competition for the repair and overhaul of aviation components comes from three primary sources, some of whom possess greater financial and other resources than we have: OEMs, major commercial airlines, government support depots and other independent repair and overhaul companies. Some major commercial airlines continue to own and operate their own service centers, while others have begun to sell or outsource their repair and overhaul services to other aircraft operators or third parties. Large domestic and foreign airlines that provide repair and overhaul services typically provide these services not only for their own aircraft but for other airlines as well. OEMs also maintain service centers which provide repair and overhaul services for the components they manufacture. Many governments maintain aircraft support depots in their military organizations that maintain and repair the aircraft they operate. Other independent service organizations also compete for the repair and overhaul business of other users of aircraft components.
Participants in the aerospace industry compete primarily on the basis of breadth of technical capabilities, quality, turnaround time, capacity and price.
Government Regulation and Industry Oversight
The aerospace industry is highly regulated in the United States by the FAA and in other countries by similar agencies. We must be certified by the FAA and, in some cases, by individual OEMs, in order to engineer and service parts and components used in specific aircraft models. If material authorizations or approvals were revoked or suspended, our operations would be

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adversely affected. New and more stringent government regulations may be adopted, or industry oversight heightened, in the future and these new regulations, if enacted, or any industry oversight, if heightened, may have an adverse impact on us.
We must also satisfy the requirements of our customers, including OEMs, that are subject to FAA regulations, and provide these customers with products and repair services that comply with the government regulations applicable to aircraft components used in commercial flight operations. The FAA regulates commercial flight operations and requires that aircraft components meet its stringent standards. In addition, the FAA requires that various maintenance routines be performed on aircraft components, and we currently satisfy these maintenance standards in our repair and overhaul services. Several of our operating locations are FAA-approved repair stations.
Generally, the FAA only grants licenses for the manufacture or repair of a specific aircraft component, rather than the broader licenses that have been granted in the past. The FAA licensing process may be costly and time-consuming. In order to obtain an FAA license, an applicant must satisfy all applicable regulations of the FAA governing repair stations. These regulations require that an applicant have experienced personnel, inspection systems, suitable facilities and equipment. In addition, the applicant must demonstrate a need for the license. Because an applicant must procure manufacturing and repair manuals from third parties relating to each particular aircraft component in order to obtain a license with respect to that component, the application process may involve substantial cost.
The license approval processes for the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA was formed in 2002 and is handling most of the responsibilities of the national aviation authorities in Europe, such as the United Kingdom Civil Aviation Authority), which regulates this industry in the European Union, the Civil Aviation Administration of China, and other comparable foreign regulatory authorities are similarly stringent, involving potentially lengthy audits.
Our operations are also subject to a variety of worker and community safety laws. For example, the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, or OSHA, mandates general requirements for safe workplaces for all employees. In addition, OSHA provides special procedures and measures for the handling of hazardous and toxic substances. Specific safety standards have been promulgated for workplaces engaged in the treatment, disposal or storage of hazardous waste. We believe that our operations are in material compliance with OSHA's health and safety requirements.
Environmental Matters
Our business, operations and facilities are subject to numerous stringent federal, state, local and foreign environmental laws and regulation by government agencies, including the Environmental Protection Agency, or the EPA. Among other matters, these regulatory authorities impose requirements that regulate the emission, discharge, generation, management, transportation and disposal of hazardous materials, pollutants and contaminants, govern public and private response actions to hazardous or regulated substances which may be or have been released to the environment, and require us to obtain and maintain licenses and permits in connection with our operations. This extensive regulatory framework imposes significant compliance burdens and risks on us. Although management believes that our operations and our facilities are in material compliance with such laws and regulations, future changes in these laws, regulations or interpretations thereof or the nature of our operations or regulatory enforcement actions which may arise, may require us to make significant additional capital expenditures to ensure compliance in the future.
Certain of our facilities, including facilities acquired and operated by us or one of our subsidiaries have at one time or another been under active investigation for environmental contamination by federal or state agencies when acquired, and at least in some cases, continue to be under investigation or subject to remediation for potential environmental contamination. We are frequently indemnified by prior owners or operators and/or present owners of the facilities for liabilities which we incur as a result of these investigations and the environmental contamination found which pre-dates our acquisition of these facilities, subject to certain limitations. We also maintain a pollution liability policy that provides coverage for material liabilities associated with the clean-up of on-site pollution conditions, as well as defense and indemnity for certain third-party suits (including Superfund liabilities at third-party sites), in each case, to the extent not otherwise indemnified. This policy applies to all of our manufacturing and assembly operations worldwide. However, if we were required to pay the expenses related to environmental liabilities for which neither indemnification nor insurance coverage is available, these expenses could have a material adverse effect on us.
Employees
As of March 31, 2012, we employed 12,602 persons, of whom 2,904 were management employees, 115 were sales and marketing personnel, 682 were technical personnel, 759 were administrative personnel and 8,142 were production workers.
Several of our subsidiaries are parties to collective bargaining agreements with labor unions. Under those agreements, we currently employ approximately 3,573 full-time employees. Currently, approximately 28% of our permanent employees are represented by labor unions and approximately 64% of net sales are derived from the facilities at which at least some employees are unionized. Our inability to negotiate an acceptable contract with any of these labor unions could result in strikes by the affected workers and increased operating costs as a result of higher wages or benefits paid to union members. If the

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unionized workers were to engage in a strike or other work stoppage, or other employees were to become unionized, we could experience a significant disruption of our operations and higher ongoing labor costs, which could have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
We have not experienced any material labor-related work stoppage and consider our relations with our employees to be good.
Research and Development Expenses
Certain information about our research and development expenses for the fiscal years ended March 31, 2012, 2011 and 2010 is available in Note 2 of "Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements."
Executive Officers
Name
Age
 
Position
Richard C. Ill
68

 
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer
Jeffry D. Frisby
57

 
President and Chief Operating Officer
M. David Kornblatt
52

 
Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer
John B. Wright, II
58

 
Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary
Kevin E. Kindig
55

 
Vice President and Controller

Richard C. Ill was elected Chairman in July 2009, and had been our President and Chief Executive Officer and a director since 1993. Mr. Ill continues to serve as Chief Executive Officer. Mr. Ill is a director of P.H. Glatfelter Company, Mohawk Industries, Inc. and Baker Industries and a trustee of the Eisenhower Fellowships. Mr. Ill expects to retire as Chief Executive Officer of the Company effective July 19, 2012, the date of the Company’s next regular board meeting and its annual meeting of stockholders. Jeffry D. Frisby, currently President and Chief Operating Officer, is expected to assume the role of Chief Executive Officer of Triumph Group at that time. Mr. Ill is expected to remain as Chairman.
Jeffry D. Frisby has been our President and Chief Operating Officer since July 2009. Mr. Frisby joined the Company in 1998 as President of Frisby Aerospace, Inc. upon its acquisition by Triumph. In 2000, Mr. Frisby was named Group President of the Triumph Control Systems Group and was later named Group President of our Aerospace Systems Group upon its formation in April, 2003. Mr. Frisby is expected to assume the role of Chief Executive Officer of Triumph effective July 19, 2012. Mr. Frisby serves on the Board of Directors of Quaker Chemical Corporation.
M. David Kornblatt became Executive Vice President in July 2009 and had been Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer since June 2007. Mr. Kornblatt continues to serve as Chief Financial Officer. From 2006 until joining us, Mr. Kornblatt served as Senior Vice President—Finance and Chief Financial Officer at Carpenter Technology Corporation, a manufacturer and distributor of specialty alloys and various engineered products. From 2003 to 2005, he was Vice President and Chief Financial Officer at York International, prior to its acquisition by Johnson Controls in December 2005. Before that, Mr. Kornblatt was the Director of Taxes-Europe for The Gillette Company in London, England for three years. Mr. Kornblatt is a director of Universal Stainless & Alloy Products, Inc.
John B. Wright, II has been a Vice President and our General Counsel and Secretary since 2004. From 2001 until he joined us, Mr. Wright was a partner with the law firm of Ballard Spahr, LLP, where he practiced corporate and securities law.
Kevin E. Kindig has been our Controller since 1993 and a Vice President since April 1999.
Available Information
For more information about us, visit our website at www.triumphgroup.com. The contents of the website are not part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Our electronic filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC (including all Forms 10-K, 10-Q and 8-K, and any amendments to these reports) are available free of charge through our website immediately after we electronically file with or furnish them to the SEC. These filings may also be read and copied at the SEC's Public Reference Room which is located at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. Information about the operation of the Public Reference Room can be obtained by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers who file electronically with the SEC at www.sec.gov.






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Item 1A.
Risk Factors
Factors that have an adverse impact on the aerospace industry may adversely affect our results of operations and liquidity.
A substantial percentage of our gross profit and operating income derives from commercial aviation. Our operations have been focused on designing, engineering, manufacturing, repairing and overhauling a broad portfolio of aerostructures, aircraft components, accessories, subassemblies and systems. Therefore, our business is directly affected by economic factors and other trends that affect our customers in the aerospace industry, including a possible decrease in outsourcing by OEMs and aircraft operators or projected market growth that may not materialize or be sustainable. We are also significantly dependent on sales to the commercial aerospace market, which has been cyclical in nature with significant downturns in the past. When these economic and other factors adversely affect the aerospace industry, they tend to reduce the overall customer demand for our products and services, which decreases our operating income. Economic and other factors that might affect the aerospace industry may have an adverse impact on our results of operations and liquidity. We have credit exposure to a number of commercial airlines, some of which have encountered financial difficulties. In addition, an increase in energy costs and the price of fuel to the airlines, similar to that which occurred in 2008, could result in additional pressure on the operating costs of airlines. The market for jet fuel is inherently volatile and is subject to, among other things, changes in government policy on jet fuel production, fluctuations in the global supply of crude oil and disruptions in oil production or delivery caused by sudden hostility in oil producing areas. Airlines are sometimes unable to pass on increases in fuel prices to customers by increasing fares due to the competitive nature of the airline industry, and this compounds the pressure on operating costs. Other events of general impact such as natural disasters, war, terrorist attacks against the industry or pandemic health crises may lead to declines in the worldwide aerospace industry that could adversely affect our business and financial condition.
In addition, demand for our maintenance, repair and overhaul services is strongly correlated with worldwide flying activity. A significant portion of the MRO activity required on commercial aircraft is mandated by government regulations that limit the total time or number of flights that may elapse between scheduled MRO events. As a result, although short-term deferrals are possible, MRO activity is ultimately required to continue to operate the aircraft in revenue-producing service. Therefore, over the intermediate and long-term, trends in the MRO market are closely related to the size and utilization level of the worldwide aircraft fleet, as reflected by the number of available seat miles, commonly referred to as ASMs, and cargo miles flown. Consequently, conditions or events which contribute to declines in worldwide ASMs and cargo miles flown, such as those mentioned above, could negatively impact our MRO business.
Demand for military and defense products is dependent upon government spending.
The military and defense market is largely dependent upon government budgets, particularly the U.S. defense budget, and even an increase in defense spending may not be allocated to programs that would benefit our business. Moreover, the new military aircraft programs in which we participate may not enter full-scale production as expected. A change in the levels of defense spending or levels of military flight operations could curtail or enhance our prospects in the military and defense market depending upon the programs affected.
For the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012, approximately 32% of our net sales were derived from the military and defense market, which includes primarily indirect sales to the U.S. Government. As a result, our exposure to the military and defense market is significant.
The programs in which we participate must compete with other programs and policy imperatives for consideration during the budget and appropriation process. Concerns about increased deficit spending, along with continued economic challenges, continue to place pressure on U.S. and international customer budgets. While we believe that our programs are well aligned with national defense and other priorities, shifts in domestic and international spending and tax policy, changes in security, defense, and intelligence priorities, the affordability of our products and services, general economic conditions and developments, and other factors may affect a decision to fund or the level of funding for existing or proposed programs.
During 2011, the U.S. Government was unable to reach agreement on budget reduction measures required by the Budget Control Act of 2011 (the "Budget Act") passed by Congress. Unless Congress and the Administration take further action, the Budget Act will trigger automatic reductions in both defense and discretionary spending in January 2013. While the impact of sequestration is yet to be determined, automatic across-the-board cuts would approximately double the $487 billion top-line reduction already reflected in the defense funding over a ten-year period, with a $52 billion reduction occurring in the government’s fiscal year 2013. The resulting automatic across-the-board budget cuts in sequestration would have significant adverse consequences for our business and industry. There would be disruption of ongoing programs and initiatives, facilities closures and personnel reductions that would severely impact advanced manufacturing operations and engineering expertise, and accelerate the loss of skills and knowledge, directly undermining a key provision of the new security strategy, which is to preserve the industrial base.

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We currently have agreements in place with Boeing for orders to support C-17 production through March 2014. Boeing currently has confirmed orders with the U.S. Air Force, India and various other foreign governments to support production of C-17 through 2014 at a rate of approximately 10 aircraft per year. We do not anticipate that the U.S. Air Force will support the procurement of additional C-17 beyond those currently ordered. The President’s proposed fiscal 2013 budget does not include funding for the procurement of new C-17 aircraft. Boeing has reported that there is interest for additional orders from India, other foreign governments and other potential customers. However, there can be no assurance that these additional orders will materialize. Our business could be adversely impacted if Boeing does not secure future orders from the U.S. Air Force, Foreign Militaries or other customers. The loss of the C-17 program and the failure to win additional work to replace the C-17 program could materially reduce our cash flow and results of operations.
Cancellations, reductions or delays in customer orders may adversely affect our results of operations.
Our overall operating results are affected by many factors, including the timing of orders from large customers and the timing of expenditures to manufacture parts and purchase inventory in anticipation of future sales of products and services. A large portion of our operating expenses are relatively fixed. Because several of our operating locations typically do not obtain long-term purchase orders or commitments from our customers, they must anticipate the future volume of orders based upon the historic purchasing patterns of customers and upon our discussions with customers as to their anticipated future requirements. These historic patterns may be disrupted by many factors, including changing economic conditions, inventory adjustments, or work stoppages or labor disruptions at our customers' locations. Cancellations, reductions or delays in orders by a customer or group of customers could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may fail to realize all of the expected benefits of the acquisition of Vought.
On June 16, 2010, we completed the acquisition of Vought. Vought was a company with revenues almost twice our revenues prior to the acquisition and approximately as many employees. The acquisition of Vought is by far the largest acquisition we have made. The success of the acquisition of Vought will depend, in part, on our ability to realize the anticipated benefits from combining the businesses of Triumph and Vought. However, to realize these anticipated benefits, we must successfully combine the businesses. If we are not able to achieve these objectives, or do not do so in a timely manner, the anticipated benefits of the acquisition of Vought may not be realized fully or at all or may take longer to realize than expected.
In addition, it is possible that the integration process could result in the loss of key employees, the disruption of each company's ongoing businesses or inconsistencies in standards, controls, procedures and policies that adversely affect our ability to maintain relationships with customers, suppliers and employees or to achieve the anticipated benefits of the acquisition of Vought. Integration efforts between the two companies will also divert management attention and resources and could have an adverse effect on us during the transition period.
Our acquisition strategy exposes us to risks, including the risk that we may not be able to successfully integrate acquired businesses.
We have a consistent strategy to grow, in part, through the acquisition of additional businesses in the aerospace industry and are continuously evaluating various acquisition opportunities, including those outside the United States and those that may have a material impact on our business. Our ability to grow by acquisition is dependent upon, among other factors, the availability of suitable acquisition candidates. Growth by acquisition involves risks that could adversely affect our operating results, including difficulties in integrating the operations and personnel of acquired companies, the risk of diverting the attention of senior management from our existing operations, the potential amortization of acquired intangible assets, the potential impairment of goodwill and the potential loss of key employees of acquired companies. We may not be able to consummate acquisitions on satisfactory terms or, if any acquisitions are consummated, successfully integrate these acquired businesses.
A significant decline in business with a key customer could have a material adverse effect on us.
The Boeing Company, or Boeing Commercial, Military & Space, represented approximately 47% of our net sales for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012, covering virtually every Boeing plant and product. As a result, a significant reduction in purchases by Boeing could have a material adverse impact on our financial position, results of operations, and cash flows. In addition, some of our other group companies rely significantly on particular customers, the loss of which could have an adverse effect on those businesses.

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Future volatility in the financial markets may impede our ability to successfully access capital markets and ensure adequate liquidity and may adversely affect our customers and suppliers.
Future turmoil in the capital markets may impede our ability to access the capital markets when we would like, or need, to raise capital or restrict our ability to borrow money on favorable terms. Such market conditions could have an adverse impact on our flexibility to react to changing economic and business conditions and on our ability to fund our operations and capital expenditures in the future. In addition, interest rate fluctuations, financial market volatility or credit market disruptions may also negatively affect our customers' and our suppliers' ability to obtain credit to finance their businesses on acceptable terms. As a result, our customers' need for and ability to purchase our products or services may decrease, and our suppliers may increase their prices, reduce their output or change their terms of sale. If our customers' or suppliers' operating and financial performance deteriorates, or if they are unable to make scheduled payments or obtain credit, our customers may not be able to pay, or may delay payment of, accounts receivable owed to us, and our suppliers may restrict credit or impose different payment terms. Any inability of customers to pay us for our products and services or any demands by suppliers for different payment terms may adversely affect our earnings and cash flow.
Our international sales and operations are subject to applicable laws relating to trade, export controls and foreign corrupt practices, the violation of which could adversely affect our operations.
We must comply with all applicable export control laws and regulations of the United States and other countries. United States laws and regulations applicable to us include the Arms Export Control Act, the International Traffic in Arms Regulations ("ITAR"), the Export Administration Regulations ("EAR") and the trade sanctions laws and regulations administered by the United States Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control ("OFAC"). EAR restricts the export of dual-use products and technical data to certain countries, while ITAR restricts the export of defense products, technical data and defense services. The U.S. Government agencies responsible for administering EAR and ITAR have significant discretion in the interpretation and enforcement of these regulations. We cannot provide services to certain countries subject to United States trade sanctions unless we first obtain the necessary authorizations from OFAC. In addition, we are subject to the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act which generally bars bribes or unreasonable gifts to foreign governments or officials.
Violations of these laws or regulations could result in significant additional sanctions, including fines, more onerous compliance requirements, more extensive debarments from export privileges, loss of authorizations needed to conduct aspects of our international business and criminal penalties and may harm our ability to enter into contracts with the U.S. government. A future violation of ITAR or the other regulations enumerated above could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our expansion into international markets may increase credit, currency and other risks, and our current operations in international markets expose us to such risks.
As we pursue customers in Asia, South America and other less developed aerospace markets throughout the world, our inability to ensure the creditworthiness of our customers in these areas could adversely impact our overall profitability. In addition, with operations in China, France, Germany, Mexico, Thailand and the United Kingdom, and customers throughout the world, we will be subject to the legal, political, social and regulatory requirements and economic conditions of other jurisdictions. In the future, we may also make additional international capital investments, including further acquisitions of companies outside the United States or companies having operations outside the United States. Risks inherent to international operations include, but are not limited to, the following:
difficulty in enforcing agreements in some legal systems outside the United States;
imposition of additional withholding taxes or other taxes on our foreign income, tariffs or other restrictions on foreign trade and investment, including currency exchange controls;
fluctuations in exchange rates which may affect demand for our products and services and may adversely affect our profitability in U.S. dollars;
inability to obtain, maintain or enforce intellectual property rights;
changes in general economic and political conditions in the countries in which we operate;
unexpected adverse changes in the laws or regulatory requirements outside the United States, including those with respect to environmental protection, export duties and quotas;
failure by our employees or agents to comply with U.S. laws affecting the activities of U.S. companies abroad;
difficulty with staffing and managing widespread operations; and
difficulty of and costs relating to compliance with the different commercial and legal requirements of the countries in which we operate.

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We may need additional financing for acquisitions and capital expenditures and additional financing may not be available on terms acceptable to us.
A key element of our strategy has been, and continues to be, internal growth supplemented by growth through the acquisition of additional aerospace companies and product lines. In order to grow internally, we may need to make significant capital expenditures, such as investing in facilities in low-cost countries, and may need additional capital to do so. Our ability to grow is dependent upon, and may be limited by, among other things, access to markets and conditions of markets, availability under the Credit Facility and the Securitization Facility, each as defined below, and by particular restrictions contained in the Credit Facility and our other financing arrangements. In that case, additional funding sources may be needed, and we may not be able to obtain the additional capital necessary to pursue our internal growth and acquisition strategy or, if we can obtain additional financing, the additional financing may not be on financial terms that are satisfactory to us.
Competitive pressures may adversely affect us.
We have numerous competitors in the aerospace industry. We compete primarily with the top-tier systems integrators and the manufacturers that supply them, some of which are divisions or subsidiaries of OEMs and other large companies that manufacture aircraft components and subassemblies. Our OEM competitors, which include Boeing, Airbus, Bell Helicopter, Bombardier, Cessna, General Electric, Gulfstream, Honeywell, Lockheed Martin, Northrop Grumman, Raytheon, Rolls Royce and Sikorsky, may choose not to outsource production of aerostructures or other components due to, among other things, their own direct labor and overhead considerations, capacity utilization at their own facilities and desire to retain critical or core skills. Consequently, traditional factors affecting competition, such as price and quality of service, may not be significant determinants when OEMs decide whether to produce a part in-house or to outsource. We also face competition from non-OEM component manufacturers, including Alenia Aeronautica, Fuji Heavy Industries, GKN Westland Aerospace (U.K.), Goodrich Corp., Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Spirit AeroSystems and Stork Aerospace. Competition for the repair and overhaul of aviation components comes from three primary sources: OEMs, major commercial airlines and other independent repair and overhaul companies.
We may need to expend significant capital to keep pace with technological developments in our industry.
The aerospace industry is constantly undergoing development and change and it is likely that new products, equipment and methods of repair and overhaul service will be introduced in the future. In order to keep pace with any new developments, we may need to expend significant capital to purchase new equipment and machines or to train our employees in the new methods of production and service.
The construction of aircraft is heavily regulated and failure to comply with applicable laws could reduce our sales or require us to incur additional costs to achieve compliance, and we may incur significant expenses to comply with new or more stringent governmental regulation.
The aerospace industry is highly regulated in the United States by the FAA and in other countries by similar agencies. We must be certified by the FAA and, in some cases, by individual OEMs in order to engineer and service parts, components and aerostructures used in specific aircraft models. If any of our material authorizations or approvals were revoked or suspended, our operations would be adversely affected. New or more stringent governmental regulations may be adopted, or industry oversight heightened in the future, and we may incur significant expenses to comply with any new regulations or any heightened industry oversight.
Some contractual arrangements with customers may cause us to bear significant up-front costs that we may not be able to recover.
Many new aircraft programs require that major suppliers bear the cost of design, development and engineering work associated with the development of the aircraft usually in exchange for a long-term agreement to supply critical parts once the aircraft is in production. If the aircraft fails to reach the full production stage or we fail to win the long-term contract, the outlays we have made in research and development and other start-up costs may not generate our anticipated return on investment.
We may not realize our anticipated return on capital commitments made to expand our capabilities.
We continually make significant capital expenditures to implement new processes and to increase both efficiency and capacity. Some of these projects require additional training for our employees and not all projects may be implemented as anticipated. If any of these projects do not achieve the anticipated increase in efficiency or capacity, our returns on these capital expenditures may be lower than expected.

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Any product liability claims in excess of insurance may adversely affect our financial condition.
Our operations expose us to potential liability for personal injury or death as a result of the failure of an aircraft component that has been serviced by us or the failure of an aircraft component designed or manufactured by us. While we believe that our liability insurance is adequate to protect us from these liabilities, our insurance may not cover all liabilities. Additionally, as the number of insurance companies providing general aviation product liability insurance coverage has decreased in recent years, insurance coverage may not be available in the future at a cost acceptable to us. Any material liability not covered by insurance or for which third-party indemnification is not available could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition.
The lack of available skilled personnel may have an adverse effect on our operations.
From time to time, some of our operating locations have experienced difficulties in attracting and retaining skilled personnel to design, engineer, manufacture, repair and overhaul sophisticated aircraft components. Our ability to operate successfully could be jeopardized if we are unable to attract and retain a sufficient number of skilled personnel to conduct our business. Additionally, the service of key members of the Vought management team and other personnel are expected to be critical to ensure the smooth and timely integration of Vought's business into Triumph.
Any exposure to environmental liabilities may adversely affect us.
Our business, operations and facilities are subject to numerous stringent federal, state, local and foreign environmental laws and regulations, and we are subject to potentially significant fines or penalties, including criminal sanctions, if we fail to comply with these requirements. In addition, we could be affected by future laws and regulations, including those imposed in response to climate change concerns and other actions commonly referred to as "green initiatives." Compliance with current and future environmental laws and regulations currently requires and is expected to continue to require significant operating and capital costs.
Pursuant to certain environmental laws, a current or previous owner or operator of a contaminated site may be held liable for the entire cost of investigation, removal or remediation of hazardous materials at such property, whether or not the owner or operator knew of, or was responsible for, the presence of any hazardous materials. Although management believes that our operations and facilities are in material compliance with such laws and regulations, future changes in such laws, regulations or interpretations thereof or the nature of our operations or regulatory enforcement actions which may arise, may require us to make significant additional capital expenditures to ensure compliance in the future. Certain of our facilities, including facilities acquired and operated by us or one of our subsidiaries, have at one time or another been under active investigation for environmental contamination by federal or state agencies when acquired and, at least in some cases, continue to be under investigation or subject to remediation for potential or identified environmental contamination. Lawsuits, claims and costs involving environmental matters are likely to continue to arise in the future. Individual facilities of ours have also been subject to investigation on occasion for possible past waste disposal practices which might have contributed to contamination at or from remote third-party waste disposal sites. In some instances, we are indemnified by prior owners or operators and/or present owners of the facilities for liabilities which we incur as a result of these investigations and the environmental contamination found which pre-dates our acquisition of these facilities, subject to certain limitations, including but not limited to specified exclusions, deductibles and limitations on the survival period of the indemnity. We also maintain a pollution liability policy that provides coverage, subject to specified limitations, for specified material liabilities associated with the clean-up of certain on-site pollution conditions, as well as defense and indemnity for certain third-party suits (including Superfund liabilities at third-party sites), in each case, to the extent not otherwise indemnified. However, if we were required to pay the expenses related to environmental liabilities for which neither indemnification nor insurance coverage is available, these expenses could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.
We are currently involved in intellectual property litigation, which could have a material and adverse impact on our profitability, and we could become so involved again in the future.
We and other companies in our industry possess certain proprietary rights relating to designs, engineering, manufacturing processes and repair and overhaul procedures. In the event that we believe that a third party is infringing upon our proprietary rights, we may bring an action to enforce such rights. In addition, third parties may claim infringement by us with respect to their proprietary rights and may initiate legal proceedings against us in the future. The expense and time of bringing an action to enforce such rights or defending against infringement claims can be significant, as in the case of the litigation arising out of the claims of Eaton Corporation discussed in "Item 3. Legal Proceedings." Intellectual property litigation involves complex legal and factual questions which makes the outcome of any such proceedings subject to considerable uncertainty. Not only can such litigation divert management's attention, but it can also expose the Company to damages and potential injunctive relief which, if granted, may preclude the Company from making, using or selling particular products or technology. The expense and time associated with such litigation may have a material and adverse impact on our profitability.

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We do not own certain intellectual property and tooling that is important to our business.
In our overhaul and repair businesses, OEMs of equipment that we maintain for our customers increasingly include language in repair manuals relating to their equipment asserting broad claims of proprietary rights to the contents of the manuals used in our operations. Although we believe that our use of manufacture and repair manuals is lawful, there can be no assurance that OEMs will not try to enforce such claims, including through the possible use of legal proceedings, or that any such actions will be unsuccessful.
Our business also depends on using certain intellectual property and tooling that we have rights to use pursuant to license grants under our contracts with our OEM customers. These contracts contain restrictions on our use of the intellectual property and tooling and may be terminated if we violate certain of these restrictions. Our loss of a contract with an OEM customer and the related license rights to use an OEM's intellectual property or tooling would materially adversely affect our business.
Our fixed-price contracts may commit us to unfavorable terms.
For the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012, a significant portion of our net sales were derived from fixed-price contracts under which we have agreed to provide components or aerostructures for a price determined on the date we entered into the contract. Several factors may cause the costs we incur in fulfilling these contracts to vary substantially from our original estimates, and we bear the risk that increased or unexpected costs may reduce our profit or cause us to sustain losses on these contracts. In a fixed-price contract, we must fully absorb cost overruns, notwithstanding the difficulty of estimating all of the costs we will incur in performing these contracts. Because our ability to terminate contracts is generally limited, we may not be able to terminate our performance requirements under these contracts at all or without substantial liability and, therefore, in the event we are sustaining reduced profits or losses, we could continue to sustain these reduced profits or losses for the duration of the contract term. Our failure to anticipate technical problems, estimate delivery reductions, estimate costs accurately or control costs during performance of a fixed-price contract may reduce our profitability or cause significant losses.
Any significant disruption from key suppliers of raw materials and key components could delay production and decrease revenue.
We are highly dependent on the availability of essential raw materials such as carbon fiber, aluminum and titanium, and purchased engineered component parts from our suppliers, many of which are available only from single customer-approved sources. Moreover, we are dependent upon the ability of our suppliers to provide raw materials and components that meet our specifications, quality standards and delivery schedules. Our suppliers' failure to provide expected raw materials or component parts could require us to identify and enter into contracts with alternate suppliers that are acceptable to both us and our customers, which could result in significant delays, expenses, increased costs and management distraction and adversely affect production schedules and contract profitability.
We have from time to time experienced limited interruptions of supply, and we may experience a significant interruption in the future. Our continued supply of raw materials and component parts are subject to a number of risks including:
availability of capital to our suppliers;
the destruction of our suppliers' facilities or their distribution infrastructure;
a work stoppage or strike by our suppliers' employees;
the failure of our suppliers to provide raw materials or component parts of the requisite quality;
the failure of essential equipment at our suppliers' plants;
the failure or shortage of supply of raw materials to our suppliers;
contractual amendments and disputes with our suppliers; and
geopolitical conditions in the global supply base.
In addition, some contracts with our suppliers for raw materials, component parts and other goods are short-term contracts, which are subject to termination on a relatively short-term basis. The prices of our raw materials and component parts fluctuate depending on market conditions, and substantial increases in prices could increase our operating costs, which, as a result of our fixed-price contracts, we may not be able to recoup through increases in the prices of our products.
Due to economic difficulty, we may face pressure to renegotiate agreements resulting in lower margins. Our suppliers may discontinue provision of products to us at attractive prices or at all, and we may not be able to obtain such products in the future from these or other providers on the scale and within the time periods we require. Furthermore, substitute raw materials or component parts may not meet the strict specifications and quality standards we and our customers demand, or that the U.S. Government requires. If we are not able to obtain key products on a timely basis and at an affordable cost, or we experience significant delays or interruptions of their supply, revenues from sales of products that use these supplies will decrease.

19


Our operations depend on our manufacturing facilities, which are subject to physical and other risks that could disrupt production.
Our manufacturing facilities could be damaged or disrupted by a natural disaster, war, or terrorist activity. We maintain property damage and business interruption insurance at the levels typical in our industry, however, a major catastrophe, such as an earthquake, hurricane, flood, tornado or other natural disaster at any of our sites, or war or terrorist activities in any of the areas where we conduct operations could result in a prolonged interruption of our business. Any disruption resulting from these events could cause significant delays in shipments of products and the loss of sales and customers and we may not have insurance to adequately compensate us for any of these events.
Significant consolidation by aerospace industry suppliers could adversely affect our business.
The aerospace industry has recently experienced consolidation among suppliers. Suppliers have consolidated and formed alliances to broaden their product and integrated system offerings and achieve critical mass. This supplier consolidation is in part attributable to aircraft manufacturers more frequently awarding long-term sole-source or preferred supplier contracts to the most capable suppliers, thus reducing the total number of suppliers. This consolidation could cause us to compete against certain competitors with greater financial resources, market penetration and purchasing power. When we purchase component parts and services from suppliers to manufacture our products, consolidation reduces price competition between our suppliers, which could diminish incentives for our suppliers to reduce prices. If this consolidation continues, our operating costs could increase and it may become more difficult for us to be successful in obtaining new customers.
Due to the size and long-term nature of many of our contracts, we are required by GAAP to estimate sales and expenses relating to these contracts in our financial statements, which may cause actual results to differ materially from those estimated under different assumptions or conditions.
Our financial statements are prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States. These principles require our management to make estimates and assumptions regarding our contracts that affect the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Contract accounting requires judgment relative to assessing risks, estimating contract sales and costs, and making assumptions for schedule and technical issues. Due to the size and nature of many of our contracts, the estimation of total sales and cost at completion is complicated and subject to many variables. While we base our estimates on historical experience and on various assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances at the time made, actual results may differ materially from those estimated.
We may be subject to work stoppages at our facilities or those of our principal customers and suppliers, which could seriously impact the profitability of our business.
At March 31, 2012, we employed 12,602 people, of which 28.4% belonged to unions. Our unionized workforces and those of our customers and suppliers may experience work stoppages. For example, the International Association of Machinists-represented employees at Vought's Nashville, Tennessee, plant engaged in a strike that continued for approximately 16 weeks during 2008 and 2009 (prior to our acquisition of Vought). A contingency plan was implemented that allowed production to continue in Nashville during the course of that strike. Additionally, our union contract with Local 848 of the United Auto Workers with employees at our Dallas and Grand Prairie, Texas, facilities expires in October 2013. If we are unable to negotiate a new contract with that workforce, our operations may be disrupted and we may be prevented from completing production and delivery of products from those facilities, which would negatively impact our results of operations.
Many aircraft manufacturers, airlines and aerospace suppliers have unionized workforces. Strikes, work stoppages or slowdowns experienced by aircraft manufacturers, airlines or aerospace suppliers could reduce our customers' demand for our products or prevent us from completing production. In turn, this may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Financial market conditions may adversely affect the benefit plan assets we have inherited from Vought, increase funding requirements and materially impact our statements of financial position and cash flows.
The benefit plan assets we have inherited as a result of the acquisition of Vought are invested in a diversified portfolio of investments in both the equity and debt categories, as well as limited investments in real estate and other alternative investments. The current market values of all of these investments, as well as the related benefit plan liabilities are impacted by the movements and volatility in the financial markets. In accordance with the Compensation—Retirement Benefits topic of the Accounting Standards Codification (ASC), we have recognized the over-funded or under-funded status of a defined benefit postretirement plan as an asset or liability in its balance sheet, and will recognize changes in that funded status in the year in which the changes occur. The funded status is measured as the difference between the fair value of the plan's assets and the projected benefit obligation. A decrease in the fair value of these plan assets or an increase in interest rates resulting from movements in the financial markets will increase the under-funded status of the plans recorded in our statement of financial position and result in additional cash funding requirements to meet the minimum required funding levels.

20


The U.S. Government is a significant customer of our largest customers, and we and they are subject to specific U.S. Government contracting rules and regulations.
As a result of the acquisition of Vought, we have become a more significant provider of aerostructures to military aircraft manufacturers. The military aircraft manufacturers' business, and by extension, our business, is affected by the U.S. Government's continued commitment to programs under contract with our customers. The terms of defense contracts with the U.S. Government generally permit the government to terminate contracts partially or completely, either for its convenience or if we default by failing to perform under the contract. Termination for convenience provisions provide only for our recovery of unrecovered costs incurred or committed, settlement expenses and profit on the work completed prior to termination. Termination for default provisions provide for the contractor to be liable for excess costs incurred by the U.S. Government in procuring undelivered items from another source. On contracts where the price is based on cost, the U.S. Government may review our costs and performance, as well as our accounting and general business practices. Based on the results of such audits, the U.S. Government may adjust our contract-related costs and fees, including allocated indirect costs. In addition, under U.S. Government purchasing regulations, some of our costs, including most financing costs, portions of research and development costs, and certain marketing expenses may not be subject to reimbursement.
We bear the potential risk that the U.S. Government may unilaterally suspend our customers or us from new contracts pending the resolution of alleged violations of procurement laws or regulations. Sales to the U.S. Government are also subject to changes in the government's procurement policies in advance of design completion. An unexpected termination of, or suspension from, a significant government contract, a reduction in expenditures by the U.S. Government for aircraft using our products, lower margins resulting from increasingly competitive procurement policies, a reduction in the volume of contracts awarded to us, or substantial cost overruns could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
We are subject to the requirements of the National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual for facility security clearance, which is a prerequisite for our ability to perform on classified contracts for the U.S. Government.
A Department of Defense, or DoD, facility security clearance is required in order to be awarded and perform on classified contracts for the DoD and certain other agencies of the U.S. Government, which is a significant part of our business. We have obtained clearance at appropriate levels that require stringent qualifications, and it may be required to seek higher level clearances in the future. We cannot assure you that we will be able to maintain our security clearance. If for some reason our security clearance is invalidated or terminated, we may not be able to continue to perform our present classified contracts or be able to enter into new classified contracts, which could affect our ability to compete for and capture new business.
We may be unable to effectively implement the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system at Vought.
In May 2011, Vought "went live" with an ERP system. If this implementation is not managed effectively, it could continue to cause disruption resulting in additional costs and it may delay our ability to obtain accurate financial information with respect to the Vought business or obtain the information necessary to effectively manage the Vought business, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

Item 1B.
Unresolved Staff Comments
None.

21



Item 2.
Properties
As of March 31, 2012, we owned or leased the following facilities.
Location
Description
 
Square
Footage
 
Owned/
Leased
TRIUMPH AEROSTRUCTURES GROUP
 
 
 
 
Hot Springs, AR
Manufacturing facility/office
 
217,300

 
Owned
Brea, CA
Manufacturing facility
 
90,000

 
Leased
Chatsworth, CA
Manufacturing facility/office
 
101,900

 
Owned
Chatsworth, CA
Manufacturing facility
 
21,600

 
Leased
City of Industry, CA
Manufacturing facility/office
 
75,000

 
Leased
El Cajon, CA
Manufacturing facility/office
 
122,400

 
Leased
Hawthorne, CA
Manufacturing facility
 
1,348,700

 
Leased
Lynwood, CA
Processing and finishing facility/office
 
59,700

 
Leased
Lynwood, CA
Office/warehouse/aerospace metal processing
 
105,000

 
Leased
San Diego, CA
Force measurement systems facility
 
7,000

 
Leased
Torrance, CA
Processing facility
 
84,700

 
Leased
Walnut, CA
Manufacturing facility/office
 
105,000

 
Leased
Bejing, China
Manufacturing facility/office
 
43,700

 
Leased
New Haven, CT
Engineering/manufacturing
 
2,400

 
Leased
Stuart, FL
Manufacturing facility
 
519,700

 
Leased
Milledgeville, GA
Manufacturing facility/assembly facility
 
566,200

 
Owned
Shelbyville, IN
Manufacturing facility/office
 
193,900

 
Owned
Wichita, KS
Manufacturing facility/office
 
145,200

 
Leased
Mexicali, Mexico
Manufacturing facility/office
 
261,000

 
Leased
Grandview, MO
Manufacturing facility/office
 
78,000

 
Owned
Westbury, NY
Manufacturing facility/office
 
93,500

 
Leased
Westbury, NY
Aerospace metal processing
 
12,500

 
Leased
Nashville, TN
Manufacturing facility/assembly facility/office
 
2,198,700

 
Owned
Dallas, TX
High-speed wind tunnel
 
28,900

 
Owned
Dallas, TX
Manufacturing facility/office
 
4,855,300

 
Leased
Fort Worth, TX
Manufacturing facility/office
 
114,100

 
Owned
Grand Prairie, TX
Manufacturing facility
 
804,500

 
Leased
Kilgore, TX
Manufacturing facility/office
 
83,000

 
Owned
Everett, WA
Manufacturing facility
 
153,000

 
Leased
Spokane, WA
Manufacturing facility/office
 
392,000

 
Owned


22


Location
Description
 
Square
Footage
 
Owned/
Leased

TRIUMPH AEROSPACE SYSTEMS GROUP
 
 
 
 
Chandler, AZ
Manufacturing facility/office
 
34,300

 
Leased
Valencia, CA
Manufacturing facility/office
 
87,000

 
Leased
Bethel, CT
Office
 
1,700

 
Leased
Bloomfield, CT
Manufacturing facility/office
 
29,800

 
Leased
East Lyme, CT
Manufacturing facility/office
 
59,600

 
Owned
Alfortville, France
Manufacturing facility/office
 
7,500

 
Leased
Heiligenhaus, Germany
Manufacturing facility/office
 
2,200

 
Leased
East Alton, IL
Machine shop/office
 
25,000

 
Leased
Shelbyville, IN
Manufacturing facility/office
 
100,000

 
Owned
Wichita, KS
Manufacturing facility/office
 
130,300

 
Leased
Macomb, MI
Manufacturing facility/office
 
86,000

 
Leased
Freeport, NY
Manufacturing facility/office/warehouse
 
29,000

 
Owned
Rochester, NY
Engineering office
 
5,000

 
Leased
Clemmons, NC
Manufacturing facility/repair/office
 
110,000

 
Owned
Forest, OH
Manufacturing facility/office
 
125,000

 
Owned
Albany, OR
Machine shop/office
 
25,000

 
Owned
North Wales, PA
Manufacturing facility/office
 
111,400

 
Owned
Orangeburg, SC
Machine shop
 
52,000

 
Owned
Basildon, UK
Manufacturing facility/office
 
1,900

 
Leased
Buckley, UK
Manufacturing facility/office
 
8,000

 
Leased
Park City, UT
Manufacturing facility/office
 
180,000

 
Owned
Newport News, VA
Engineering/manufacturing/office
 
93,000

 
Leased
Redmond, WA
Manufacturing facility/office
 
19,400

 
Leased

23


Location
Description
 
Square
Footage
 
Owned/
Leased

TRIUMPH AFTERMARKET SERVICES GROUP
 
 
 
 
Hot Springs, AR
Machine shop/office
 
219,700

 
Owned
Chandler, AZ
Thermal processing facility/office
 
15,000

 
Leased
Phoenix, AZ
Repair and overhaul shop/office
 
50,000

 
Leased
Phoenix, AZ
Repair and overhaul/office
 
24,800

 
Leased
Tempe, AZ
Manufacturing facility/office
 
13,500

 
Owned
Tempe, AZ
Machine shop
 
9,300

 
Owned
Tempe, AZ
Machine shop
 
32,000

 
Owned
Burbank, CA
Instrument shop/warehouse/office
 
23,000

 
Leased
Ft. Lauderdale, FL
Instrument shop/warehouse/office
 
11,700

 
Leased
Atlanta, GA
Manufacturing facility/office
 
32,000

 
Leased
Wellington, KS
Repair and overhaul/office
 
65,000

 
Leased
Oakdale, PA
Production/warehouse/office
 
68,000

 
Leased
Dallas, TX
Production/office
 
28,600

 
Leased
Grand Prairie, TX
Repair and overhaul shop/office
 
60,000

 
Leased
San Antonio, TX
Repair and overhaul/office
 
30,000

 
Leased
Chonburi, Thailand
Repair and overhaul shop/office
 
85,000

 
Owned

CORPORATE AND OTHER
 
 
 
 
 
Berwyn, PA
Office
 
17,000

 
Leased
Zacatecas, Mexico
Manufacturing facility/office
 
270,000

 
Owned
We believe that our properties are adequate to support our operations for the foreseeable future.
Item 3.
Legal Proceedings
On July 9, 2004, Eaton Corporation and several Eaton subsidiaries filed a complaint against us, our subsidiary, Frisby Aerospace, LLC (now named Triumph Actuation Systems, LLC), certain related subsidiaries and certain employees of ours and our subsidiaries. The complaint was filed in the Circuit Court of the First Judicial District of Hinds County, Mississippi and alleged nineteen causes of action under Mississippi law. In particular, the complaint alleged the misappropriation of trade secrets and intellectual property allegedly belonging to Eaton relating to hydraulic pumps and motors used in military and commercial aviation. Triumph Actuation Systems and the individual defendants filed separate responses to Eaton's claims. Triumph Actuation Systems filed counterclaims against Eaton alleging common law unfair competition, interference with existing and prospective contracts, abuse of process, defamation, violation of North Carolina's Unfair and Deceptive Trade Practices Act, and violation of the false advertising provisions of the Lanham Act. We and defendant Jeff Frisby, President of Triumph Actuation Systems at the time the engineer defendants were hired, moved to dismiss the complaint for lack of personal jurisdiction.
The above allegations also relate to alleged conduct that has been the subject of an investigation by the office of the U.S. Attorney in Jackson, Mississippi. On January 22, 2004, a search warrant was executed on the offices of Triumph Actuation Systems in connection with this investigation. Triumph Actuation Systems cooperated with the investigation. On December 20, 2006, five engineers of Triumph Actuation Systems who are former employees of Eaton Aerospace, LLC, were indicted by a grand jury sitting in the Southern District of Mississippi on five counts of trade secret misappropriation, conspiracy to misappropriate trade secrets, and mail and wire fraud. On June 15, 2007, all counts other than part of one count were dismissed by the court, leaving a charge of conspiracy to misappropriate trade secrets.
On October 11, 2007, the government obtained a new indictment against the same five engineer defendants, raising new charges arising out of the same investigation, which were essentially reiterated in a second superseding indictment obtained on November 7, 2007. The defendant engineers subsequently filed pretrial motions, including motions to dismiss. On April 25, 2008, the court granted some of those motions and dismissed seven of the twelve counts of the second superseding indictment. The government appealed the dismissal with respect to three of the seven counts dismissed. On January 21, 2009, while the appeal was still pending, the government obtained a new indictment against the five engineers containing three counts stating essentially the same charges as those covered by the government's appeal. On February 9, 2009, the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit unanimously affirmed the dismissal of one of the counts covered by the government's appeal and

24


reversed as to the other two counts. (The government thereafter dismissed the two counts of the most recent indictment similar to the two counts restored by the appellate court.) Thus, there are seven charges against the engineers remaining pending under the second superseding indictment in addition to the one count remaining in the most recent indictment. On September 10, 2009, upon agreement of the government and the defendant engineers, the trial court entered an order continuing the case until after the trial in the civil case filed by Eaton and staying all proceedings except the issuance of orders related to previously filed motions and the parties' compliance with ongoing discovery obligations. The trial court has since disposed of all pending motions. On April 25, 2012, the trial court lifted the stay and set the matter for trial in October 2012.
No charges have been brought against Triumph Actuation Systems or us, and we understand that neither Triumph Actuation Systems nor the Company is currently the subject of the criminal investigation.
In the civil case, following stays of most discovery while the parties litigated a motion to dismiss and a motion to protect the defendant engineers' Fifth Amendment rights, discovery recommenced in late August 2007. However, on January 4, 2008, the judge in the civil case, Judge Bobby DeLaughter, recused himself on his own motion. The case was reassigned to Chief Judge W. Swan Yerger.
On January 24, 2008, Triumph Actuation Systems filed a motion to stay all discovery in order to review and reconsider Judge DeLaughter's prior orders based on the ongoing federal investigation of an alleged ex parte and inappropriate relationship between Judge DeLaughter and Ed Peters, a lawyer representing Eaton for whom Judge DeLaughter had worked prior to his appointment to the bench. Judge DeLaughter was thereafter suspended from the bench and indicted by a federal grand jury sitting in the Northern District of Mississippi. On July 30, 2009, Judge DeLaughter pled guilty to a count of obstruction of justice contained in the indictment and, on November 13, 2009, was sentenced to 18 months in federal prison.
Triumph Actuation Systems filed other motions relating to this alleged inappropriate relationship with Mr. Peters, including a motion for sanctions. Judge Yerger ordered that this conduct be examined and has undertaken, along with a newly appointed Special Master, to review Judge DeLaughter's rulings in the case from the time Mr. Peters became involved.
On December 22, 2010, the court entered a final order dismissing with prejudice all of the claims that had been asserted by Eaton. The order of dismissal fully ended the litigation of claims by Eaton in the Circuit Court. On December 28, 2010, Eaton filed a notice of appeal to the Mississippi Supreme Court appealing the order of dismissal and other matters.
On December 28, 2010, Triumph, Triumph Actuation Systems and the engineer defendants filed a motion for leave to amend the counterclaims which remained pending to include causes of action based on the Eaton misconduct that led to the dismissal of their claims. Judge Yerger retired from the bench on December 31, 2010, and the matter was reassigned to Judge Jeffrey Weill. On March 14, 2011, Judge Weill granted to the motion for leave to amend the counterclaims. The amended counterclaims were filed on March 18, 2011. In addition, on February 1, 2011, Triumph Actuation Systems filed a complaint in the District Court for the Middle District of North Carolina against Eaton Corporation and several of its subsidiaries alleging three counts of antitrust violations under the Sherman Act based on the various actions and misconduct of Eaton and its subsidiaries in the Mississippi state court litigation.
On April 18, 2012, in the course of a hearing in the proceedings remaining before Judge Weill in the civil case, Eaton produced several e-mails that were responsive to discovery requests propounded in the investigation of the involvement of Mr. Peters which should have been produced several years earlier. The appearance of the e-mails has led to the suspension of Eaton's appeal in the Mississippi Supreme Court and caused Judge Weill to issue an order on May 10, 2012 directing Eaton's counsel (both inside and outside) and its Chairman and CEO, Alexander M. Cutler, to produce within seven days all remaining relevant documents, accompanied by sworn affidavits explaining the failure to produce the documents earlier and suggesting appropriate sanctions against Eaton and its counsel for the failure.
Given the fact of Eaton's appeal of the dismissal of its claims, it is too early to determine what, if any, exposure to liability Triumph Actuation Systems or the Company might face as a result of the civil suit. We intend to continue to vigorously defend the dismissal of Eaton's claims on appeal and to vigorously prosecute the counterclaims brought by Triumph Actuation Systems.
In addition to the foregoing, in the ordinary course of our business, we are involved in disputes, claims, lawsuits, and governmental and regulatory inquiries that we deem to be immaterial. Some may involve claims or potential claims of substantial damages, fines or penalties. While we cannot predict the outcome of any pending or future litigation or proceeding, we do not believe that any pending matter will have a material effect, individually or in the aggregate, on our financial position or results of operations, although no assurances can be given to that effect.

Item 4.
Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.


25


PART II

Item 5.
Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Range of Market Price
Our Common Stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol "TGI." The following table sets forth the range of high and low prices for our Common Stock for the periods indicated:

 
High
 
Low
Fiscal 2011
 
 
 
1st Quarter
$
40.94

 
$
30.19

2nd Quarter
40.73
 
31.85
3rd Quarter
46.28
 
37.00
4th Quarter
48.65
 
41.02
Fiscal 2012
 
 
 
1st Quarter
$
50.47

 
$
39.84

2nd Quarter
54.82

 
42.78

3rd Quarter
60.90

 
43.92

4th Quarter
66.77

 
58.16


On May 15, 2012, the reported closing price for our Common Stock was $62.83. As of May 15, 2012, there were approximately 128 holders of record of our Common Stock and we believe that our Common Stock was beneficially owned by approximately 30,000 persons.
Dividend Policy
During fiscal 2012 and 2011, we paid cash dividends of $0.14 per share and $0.08 per share, respectively. However, our declaration and payment of cash dividends in the future and the amount thereof will depend upon our results of operations, financial condition, cash requirements, future prospects, limitations imposed by credit agreements or indentures governing debt securities and other factors deemed relevant by our Board of Directors. No assurance can be given that cash dividends will continue to be declared and paid at historical levels or at all. Certain of our debt arrangements, including our credit facility, restrict our paying dividends and making distributions on our capital stock, except for the payment of stock dividends and redemptions of an employee's shares of capital stock upon termination of employment. On April 23, 2012, the Company announced that its Board of Directors declared a regular quarterly dividend of $0.04 per share on its outstanding common stock. The dividend is payable June 15, 2012 to stockholders of record as of June 1, 2012.
Repurchases of Stock
The following summarizes repurchases made pursuant to the Company's share repurchase plan during the three years ended March 31, 2012. In December 1998, we announced a program to repurchase up to 500,000 shares of our common stock. In February 2008, the Company's Board of Directors authorized an increase in the Company's existing stock repurchase program by up to an additional 500,000 shares of its common stock. From the inception of the program through March 31, 2012, we have repurchased a total of 499,200 shares (prior to fiscal 2012 stock split) for a total purchase price of $19.2 million. As a result, as of May 15, 2012, the Company remains able to purchase an additional 500,800 shares. Repurchases may be made from time to time in open market transactions, block purchases, privately negotiated transactions or otherwise at prevailing prices. No time limit has been set for completion of the program.
Period
Total number of
shares purchased
 
Average price
paid per share
 
Total number of
shares purchased
as part of publicly
announced plans
 
Maximum number
of shares that may
yet be purchased
under the plans
April 1, 2009 - March 31, 2012

 
N/A
 
499,200

 
500,800



26


Equity Compensation Plan Information
The information required regarding equity compensation plan information is included in our Proxy Statement in connection with our 2012 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held on July 19, 2012, under the heading "Equity Compensation Plan Information" and is incorporated herein by reference.
The following graph compares the cumulative 5-year total return provided stockholders on Triumph Group, Inc.'s common stock relative to the cumulative total returns of the Russell 2000 index and the S&P Aerospace & Defense index. An investment of $100 (with reinvestment of all dividends) is assumed to have been made in our common stock and in each of the indexes on March 31, 2007 and its relative performance is tracked through March 31, 2012.
COMPARISON OF 5-YEAR CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURN*
Among Triumph Group, Inc., The Russell 2000 Index
And The S&P Aerospace & Defense Index
* $100 invested on March 31, 2007 in stock or index, including reinvestment of dividends. Fiscal year ended March 31.

 
3/07
 
3/08
 
3/09
 
3/10
 
3/11
 
3/12
Triumph Group, Inc. 
100.00
 
103.11
 
69.45
 
127.88
 
161.72
 
229.72
Russell 2000
100.00
 
87.00
 
54.37
 
88.50
 
111.32
 
111.12
S&P Aerospace & Defense
100.00
 
105.11
 
61.14
 
104.51
 
115.55
 
120.78

        The stock price performance included in this graph is not necessarily indicative of future stock price performance.

27



Item 6.
Selected Financial Data
The following selected financial data should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and related Notes thereto and "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" included herein.
 
Fiscal Years Ended March 31,
 
2012(1)
 
2011(2)
 
2010(3)
 
2009(4)
 
2008(5)(6)
 
(in thousands, except per share data)
Operating Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net sales
$
3,407,929

 
$
2,905,348

 
$
1,294,780

 
$
1,240,378

 
$
1,151,090

Cost of sales
2,564,995

 
2,231,864

 
927,211

 
877,744

 
822,288

 
842,934

 
673,484

 
367,569

 
362,634

 
328,802

Selling, general and administrative expense
242,553

 
238,889

 
157,870

 
162,109

 
159,262

Depreciation and amortization
119,724

 
99,657

 
54,418

 
48,611

 
43,215

Curtailment gain, net
(40,400
)
 

 

 

 

Acquisition and integration expenses
6,342

 
20,902

 

 

 

Operating income
514,715

 
314,036

 
155,281

 
151,914

 
126,325

Interest expense and other
77,138

 
79,559

 
28,865

 
16,929

 
19,942

Gain on early extinguishment of debt

 

 
(39
)
 
(880
)
 

Income from continuing operations, before income taxes
437,577

 
234,477

 
126,455

 
135,865

 
106,383

Income tax expense
155,955

 
82,066

 
41,167

 
43,124

 
34,748

Income from continuing operations
281,622

 
152,411

 
85,288

 
92,741

 
71,635

Loss from discontinued operations
(765
)
 
(2,512
)
 
(17,526
)
 
(4,745
)
 
(8,468
)
Net income
$
280,857

 
$
149,899

 
$
67,762

 
$
87,996

 
$
63,167

Earnings per share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Income from continuing operations:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
$
5.77

 
$
3.39

 
$
2.59

 
$
2.83

 
$
2.17

Diluted(7)
$
5.43

 
$
3.21

 
$
2.56

 
$
2.80

 
$
2.04

Cash dividends declared per share
$
0.14

 
$
0.08

 
$
0.08

 
$
0.08

 
$
0.08

Shares used in computing earnings per share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
48,821

 
45,006

 
32,918

 
32,768

 
32,994

Diluted(7)
51,873

 
47,488

 
33,332

 
33,168

 
35,080

 
 
As of March 31,
 
2012(1)
 
2011(2)
 
2010(3)
 
2009(4)
 
2008(5)(6)
 
(in thousands)
Balance Sheet Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Working capital
$
698,402

 
$
436,638

 
$
487,411

 
$
372,159

 
$
416,842

Total assets
4,554,757

 
4,477,234

 
1,692,578

 
1,591,207

 
1,412,760

Long-term debt, including current portion
1,158,862

 
1,312,004

 
505,780

 
459,396

 
395,981

Total stockholders' equity
$
1,793,369

 
$
1,632,217

 
$
860,686

 
$
788,563

 
$
706,436


(1)
Includes the acquisition of Aviation Network Services, LLC. (October 2011) from the date of acquisition. See Note 3 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
(2)
Includes the acquisition of Vought Aircraft Industries, Inc. (June 2010) from the date of acquisition. See Note 3 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
(3)
Includes the acquisition of DCL Avionics, Inc. (January 2010) and Fabritech, Inc. (March 2010) from the date of each respective acquisition. See Note 3 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
(4)
Includes the acquisition of Merritt Tool Company, Inc., Saygrove Defence and Aerospace Group Limited, The Mexmil Company, LLC and acquisition of the aviation segment of Kongsberg Automotive Holdings ASA from the date of each respective acquisition (March 2009).
(5)
Includes the acquisition of the assets and business of B. & R. Machine & Tool Corp. from the date of acquisition (February 2008).
(6)
During 2008, the Company sold the assets of Triumph Precision, Inc. and also decided to sell Triumph Precision Castings Co. These businesses have been classified as discontinued operations. See Note 4 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
(7)
Diluted earnings per share for the fiscal years ended March 31, 2012, 2011 and 2008, included 2,606,189, 2,040,896 and 1,554,118 shares, respectively, related to the dilutive effects of the Company's Convertible Notes.

28



Item 7.
Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
(The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and notes thereto contained elsewhere herein.)

OVERVIEW
We are a major supplier to the aerospace industry and have three operating segments: (i) Triumph Aerostructures Group, whose companies' revenues are derived from the design, manufacture, assembly and integration of metallic and composite aerostructures and structural components for the global aerospace original equipment manufacturers, or OEM, market; (ii) Triumph Aerospace Systems Group, whose companies design, engineer and manufacture a wide range of proprietary and build-to-print components, assemblies and systems also for the OEM market; and (iii) Triumph Aftermarket Services Group, whose companies serve aircraft fleets, notably commercial airlines, the U.S. military and cargo carriers, through the maintenance, repair and overhaul of aircraft components and accessories manufactured by third parties.
On June 16, 2010, we acquired Vought Aircraft Industries, Inc. ("Vought") from The Carlyle Group. The acquisition of Vought establishes the Company as a leading global manufacturer of aerostructures for commercial, military and business jet aircraft. Products include fuselages, wings, empennages, nacelles and helicopter cabins. Strategically, the acquisition of Vought substantially increased our design capabilities and provided further diversification across customers and programs, as well as exposure to new growth platforms. The acquired business is operating as Triumph Aerostructures—Vought Commercial Division and Triumph Aerostructures—Vought Integrated Programs Division. The Company's consolidated financial statements include Vought's results of operations and cash flows from June 16, 2010.
Financial highlights for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012 include:
Net sales for fiscal 2012 increased 17.3% to $3.41 billion, including a 6.6% increase due to organic growth.
Operating income in fiscal 2012 increased 63.9% to $514.7 million, which included a $40.4 million increase due to a net curtailment gain resulting from amendments to defined benefit plans, partially offset by $6.3 million of acquisition and integration expenses associated with the fiscal year 2011 acquisition of Vought.
Net income for fiscal 2012 increased 87.4% to $280.9 million.
Backlog increased 3.4% over the prior year to $3.91 billion.
For the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012, net sales totaled $3.41 billion, a 17.3% increase from fiscal year 2011 net sales of $2.91 billion. Net income for fiscal year 2012 increased 87.4% to $280.9 million, or $5.41 per diluted common share, versus $149.9 million, or $3.16 per diluted common share, for fiscal year 2011. As discussed in further detail below under "Results of Operations," the increase in net income is attributable to contribution from the acquisition of Vought for the full year, a $40.4 million curtailment gain, net of special termination benefits resulting from amendments to certain defined benefit pension plans, and organic growth. Also, the prior year included the acquisition and integration expenses and additional interest expense associated with the financing of the acquisition of Vought.
Our working capital needs are generally funded through cash flows from operations and borrowings under our credit arrangements. For the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012, we generated $227.8 million of cash flows from operating activities, used $69.8 million in investing activities and used $166.3 million from financing activities. Cash flows from operating activities in fiscal year 2012 included $122.2 million in pension contributions.
We continue to remain focused on growing our core businesses as well as growing through strategic acquisitions. Our organic sales increased in fiscal 2012 due to continuing improvement to the overall economy, increased build rates by Boeing and Airbus, increased passenger and freight traffic from previously depressed levels and less airline inventory de-stocking. Our Company has an aggressive but selective acquisition approach that adds capabilities and increases our capacity for strong and consistent internal growth.
The Budget Act, which became law in August 2011, has two primary parts. The first mandates a $487 billion reduction to previously planned defense spending over the next decade. The second part is a sequester mechanism that would impose an additional $500 billion of cuts on defense funding between the government's fiscal year 2013 (ending September 30) and fiscal year 2021 if Congress does not identify a means to reduce the U.S. deficit by $1.2 trillion. As of May 25, 2012, Congress has not identified these required savings. If Congress does not identify the required reduction, defense spending would likely sustain further cuts. For fiscal year 2013, the President has requested total defense funding of $525 billion, including $168 billion for investment accounts. In accordance with the first part of the Budget Act, the DoD’s five-year spending plan submitted with the fiscal year 2013 funding request incorporates $259 billion of cuts when compared with the previous five-year plan. However, the spending plan does not include the impact of sequestration, the second part of the Budget Act. Due to the planned reductions in defense spending under the Budget Act, we expect the declining trend in the military end market to

29


continue.
In fiscal 2012, our wholly-owned subsidiary, Triumph Interiors, LLC, acquired the assets of Aviation Network Services, LLC ("ANS"), a leading provider of repair and refurbishment of aircraft interiors primarily for commercial airlines. ANS provides Triumph Interiors, LLC with additional capacity and expanded product offerings, such as the repair and refurbishment of passenger service units and other interior products. The results of Triumph Interiors, LLC continue to be included in the Company's Aftermarket Services segment. This acquisition did not have a material impact on the fiscal 2012 results of operations.
In fiscal 2012, we began efforts to establish a new facility in Red Oak, Texas to expand our capacity, particularly under the Bombardier Global 7000/8000 program. As of March 31, 2012, we have incurred approximately $9.0 million in capital expenditures.
In fiscal 2010, we began efforts to establish a new manufacturing facility in Zacatecas, Mexico to complement our existing manufacturing sites. Our expansion is expected to allow us to better manage our production costs in a competitive global market and to effectively increase capacity at our existing domestic plants and involve a significant number of our operating companies and a wide range of capabilities and technologies. As of March 31, 2012, we have incurred approximately $32.5 million in capital expenditures in Zacatecas.

RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following includes a discussion of our consolidated and business segment results of operations. The Company's diverse structure and customer base do not provide for precise comparisons of the impact of price and volume changes to our results. However, we have disclosed the significant variances between the respective periods.
Non-GAAP Financial Measures
We prepare and publicly release quarterly unaudited financial statements prepared in accordance with GAAP. In accordance with Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC") guidance on Compliance and Disclosure Interpretations, we also disclose and discuss certain non-GAAP financial measures in our public releases. Currently, the non-GAAP financial measure that we disclose is EBITDA, which is our income from continuing operations before interest, income taxes, amortization of acquired contract liabilities, curtailment gains (losses), depreciation and amortization, and Adjusted EBITDA, which is EBITDA adjusted for acquisition-related costs associated with the acquisition of Vought. We disclose EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA on a consolidated and a reportable segment basis in our earnings releases, investor conference calls and filings with the SEC. The non-GAAP financial measures that we use may not be comparable to similarly titled measures reported by other companies. Also, in the future, we may disclose different non-GAAP financial measures in order to help our investors more meaningfully evaluate and compare our future results of operations to our previously reported results of operations.
We view EBITDA as an operating performance measure and, as such, we believe that the GAAP financial measure most directly comparable to it is income from continuing operations. In calculating EBITDA, we exclude from income from continuing operations the financial items that we believe should be separately identified to provide additional analysis of the financial components of the day-to-day operation of our business. We have outlined below the type and scope of these exclusions and the material limitations on the use of these non-GAAP financial measures as a result of these exclusions. EBITDA is not a measurement of financial performance under GAAP and should not be considered as a measure of liquidity, as an alternative to net income (loss), income from continuing operations, or as an indicator of any other measure of performance derived in accordance with GAAP. Investors and potential investors in our securities should not rely on EBITDA as a substitute for any GAAP financial measure, including net income (loss) or income from continuing operations. In addition, we urge investors and potential investors in our securities to carefully review the reconciliation of EBITDA to income from continuing operations set forth below, in our earnings releases and in other filings with the SEC and to carefully review the GAAP financial information included as part of our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and our Annual Reports on Form 10-K that are filed with the SEC, as well as our quarterly earnings releases, and compare the GAAP financial information with our EBITDA.
EBITDA is used by management to internally measure our operating and management performance and by investors as a supplemental financial measure to evaluate the performance of our business that, when viewed with our GAAP results and the accompanying reconciliation, we believe provides additional information that is useful to gain an understanding of the factors and trends affecting our business. We have spent more than 15 years expanding our product and service capabilities partially through acquisitions of complementary businesses. Due to the expansion of our operations, which included acquisitions, our income from continuing operations has included significant charges for depreciation and amortization. EBITDA excludes these charges and provides meaningful information about the operating performance of our business, apart from charges for depreciation and amortization. We believe the disclosure of EBITDA helps investors meaningfully evaluate and compare our performance from quarter to quarter and from year to year. We also believe EBITDA is a measure of our ongoing operating

30


performance because the isolation of non-cash charges, such as depreciation and amortization, and non-operating items, such as interest and income taxes, provides additional information about our cost structure, and, over time, helps track our operating progress. In addition, investors, securities analysts and others have regularly relied on EBITDA to provide a financial measure by which to compare our operating performance against that of other companies in our industry.
Set forth below are descriptions of the financial items that have been excluded from our income from continuing operations to calculate EBITDA and the material limitations associated with using this non-GAAP financial measure as compared to income from continuing operations:
Curtailment gains (losses) may be useful for investors to consider because it represents the current period impact of the change in the defined benefit obligation due to the reduction in future service costs. We do not believe these earnings necessarily reflect the current and ongoing cash earnings related to our operations.
Amortization of acquired contract liabilities may be useful for investors to consider because it represents the non-cash earnings on the fair value of off market contracts acquired through the acquisition of Vought. We do not believe these earnings necessarily reflect the current and ongoing cash earnings related to our operations.
Amortization expense may be useful for investors to consider because it represents the estimated attrition of our acquired customer base and the diminishing value of product rights and licenses. We do not believe these charges necessarily reflect the current and ongoing cash charges related to our operating cost structure.
Depreciation may be useful for investors to consider because it generally represents the wear and tear on our property and equipment used in our operations. We do not believe these charges necessarily reflect the current and ongoing cash charges related to our operating cost structure.
The amount of interest expense and other we incur may be useful for investors to consider and may result in current cash inflows or outflows. However, we do not consider the amount of interest expense and other to be a representative component of the day-to-day operating performance of our business.
Income tax expense may be useful for investors to consider because it generally represents the taxes which may be payable for the period and the change in deferred income taxes during the period and may reduce the amount of funds otherwise available for use in our business. However, we do not consider the amount of income tax expense to be a representative component of the day-to-day operating performance of our business.
Management compensates for the above-described limitations of using non-GAAP measures by using a non-GAAP measure only to supplement our GAAP results and to provide additional information that is useful to gain an understanding of the factors and trends affecting our business.
The following table shows our EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA reconciled to our income from continuing operations for the indicated periods (in thousands):
 
Fiscal year ended March 31,
 
2012
 
2011
 
2010
Income from continuing operations
$
281,622

 
$
152,411

 
$
85,288

Amortization of acquired contract liability
(26,684
)
 
(29,214
)
 

Depreciation and amortization
119,724

 
99,657

 
54,418

Curtailment gain, net
(40,400
)
 

 

Interest expense and other
77,138

 
79,559

 
28,865

Gain on early extinguishment of debt

 

 
(39
)
Income tax expense
155,955

 
82,066

 
41,167

EBITDA
567,355

 
384,479

 
209,699

Acquisition and integration expenses
6,342

 
20,902

 

Adjusted EBITDA
$
573,697

 
$
405,381

 
$
209,699

    

31


The following tables show our EBITDA by reportable segment reconciled to our operating income for the indicated periods (in thousands):
 
Fiscal year ended March 31, 2012
 
Total
 
Aerostructures
 
Aerospace
Systems
 
Aftermarket
Services
 
Corporate/
Eliminations
Operating income
$
514,715

 
$
403,414

 
$
90,035

 
$
31,859

 
$
(10,593
)
Curtailment gain, net
(40,400
)
 

 

 

 
(40,400
)
Amortization of acquired contract liability
(26,684
)
 
(26,684
)
 

 

 

Depreciation and amortization
119,724

 
89,113

 
17,363

 
9,487

 
3,761

EBITDA
$
567,355

 
$
465,843

 
$
107,398

 
$
41,346

 
$
(47,232
)
 
 
Fiscal year ended March 31, 2011
 
Total
 
Aerostructures
 
Aerospace
Systems
 
Aftermarket
Services
 
Corporate/
Eliminations
Operating income
$
314,036

 
$
267,783

 
$
75,292

 
$
28,774

 
$
(57,813
)
Amortization of acquired contract liability
(29,214
)
 
(29,214
)
 

 

 

Depreciation and amortization
99,657

 
69,451

 
17,183

 
11,101

 
1,922

EBITDA
$
384,479

 
$
308,020

 
$
92,475

 
$
39,875

 
$
(55,891
)
 
 
Fiscal year ended March 31, 2010
 
Total
 
Aerostructures
 
Aerospace
Systems
 
Aftermarket
Services
 
Corporate/
Eliminations
Operating income
$
155,281

 
$
102,271

 
$
68,069

 
$
11,226

 
$
(26,285
)
Depreciation and amortization
54,418

 
24,025

 
16,804

 
12,855

 
734

EBITDA
$
209,699

 
$
126,296

 
$
84,873

 
$
24,081

 
$
(25,551
)

The fluctuations from period to period within the amounts of the components of the reconciliations above are discussed further below within Results of Operations.
Fiscal year ended March 31, 2012 compared to fiscal year ended March 31, 2011
 
Year Ended March 31,
 
2012
 
2011
 
(in thousands)
Net sales
$
3,407,929

 
$
2,905,348

Segment operating income
$
525,308

 
$
371,849

Corporate general and administrative expenses
(10,593
)
 
(57,813
)
Total operating income
514,715

 
314,036

Interest expense and other
77,138

 
79,559

Income tax expense
155,955

 
82,066

Income from continuing operations
281,622

 
152,411

Loss from discontinued operations, net
(765
)
 
(2,512
)
Net income
$
280,857

 
$
149,899


Net sales increased by $502.6 million, or 17.3%, to $3.4 billion for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012 from $2.9 billion for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011. The results for fiscal 2012 include full year contribution from the acquisition of Vought, as compared to results from June 16, 2010 through March 31, 2011 in fiscal 2011. The acquisitions of Vought and ANS contributed $1.9 billion in net sales in fiscal 2012, as compared to $1.5 billion in net sales in fiscal 2011. Excluding the effects of the acquisitions of Vought and ANS, organic sales increased $90.9 million, or 6.6%, due to the expected increase in commercial production rates of various customer programs. The prior year period was negatively impacted by challenges such as the decreased demand for business jets and regional jets as well as commercial rate reductions (particularly in the 777 program).

32


Cost of sales increased by $333.1 million, or 14.9%, to $2.6 billion for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012 from $2.2 billion for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011. This increase resulted from the acquisitions noted above, which contributed an additional $264.9 million. Gross margin for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012 was 24.7% compared with 23.2% for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011. The improvement in gross margin was due to synergies related to the acquisition of Vought, lower pension and other postretirement benefit expenses and favorable cumulative catch-up adjustments on long-term contracts discussed further below.
Segment operating income increased by $153.5 million, or 41.3%, to $525.3 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012 from $371.8 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011. The operating income increase was due to the contribution from the acquisitions ($133.2 million) and increased organic sales ($14.3 million). The contribution of Vought included favorable cumulative catch-up adjustments to operating income ($18.3 million) and lower pension and other postretirement benefit expenses ($34.9 million). Segment operating income also improved due to decreases in overall head count resulting in lower compensation and benefits primarily as a result of the continued integration of Vought ($19.1 million). The favorable cumulative catch-up adjustments to operating income included gross favorable adjustments of $29.5 million and gross unfavorable adjustments of $11.3 million. The cumulative catch-up adjustments were due to lower overall overhead cost assumptions, revisions in our mix of various material and labor costs related to our efforts to gain efficiencies through expansion of our in-sourcing capabilities and the reduction in provisions for technical problems on production lots at or near completion, net of ERP system implementation expenses.
Corporate expenses decreased by $47.2 million, or 81.7%, to $10.6 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012 from $57.8 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011. Corporate expenses decreased primarily due to $40.4 million in curtailment gain, net of special termination benefits associated with amendments made to certain defined benefit plans. Corporate expenses also included $6.3 million in acquisition-related transaction and integration costs associated with the acquisition of Vought for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012, as compared to $20.9 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011. Absent the aforementioned improvements to corporate expenses were increases due to increased compensation and benefits ($4.9 million) due to increased corporate head count as compared to the prior year, and an increase of $1.9 million of costs related to our Mexican facility compared to the prior year period.
Interest expense and other decreased by $2.4 million, or 3.0%, to $77.1 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012 compared to $79.6 million for the prior year. This decrease was due to lower average debt outstanding during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012 due to the extinguishment of the term loan credit agreement (the "Term Loan") in April 2011, along with lower interest rates on our revolving credit facility. Interest expense and other includes the write-off of $7.7 million of unamortized discounts and deferred financing fees associated with the extinguishment of the Term Loan, offset by a $2.9 million favorable fair value adjustment due to the reduction of the fair value of a contingent earnout liability associated with a prior acquisition due to changes in the projected earnings over the respective earnout periods. The Company also considered these changes in projected earnings to be an indicator of impairment of the long-lived assets directly related to this acquisition and, as a result, tested these long-lived assets for recoverability and concluded that the assets were recoverable. The fiscal year ended March 31, 2011 also included an additional $4.0 million for amortization of discount on the Convertible Notes, as defined below. The discount on the Convertible Notes was fully amortized as of September 30, 2011.
The effective tax rate was 35.6% for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012 and 35.0% for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011. The income tax provision for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012 included $1.6 million of tax expense due to the recapture of domestic production deductions taken in prior carryback periods, offset by a $1.2 million net tax benefit related to provision to return adjustments upon filing our fiscal 2011 tax return. The effective income tax rate was impacted by the expiration of the research and development tax credit as of December 31, 2011 and the absence of the domestic production deduction due to the Company's net operating loss position for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012. The effective income tax rate for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011 was impacted by the $20.9 million in acquisition and integration expenses, which were only partially deductible for tax purposes, offset by the retroactive reinstatement of the research and development tax credit back to January 1, 2010.
In July 2011, the Company completed the sale of Triumph Precision Castings Co. for proceeds of $3.9 million, resulting in no gain or loss on the disposition. Loss from discontinued operations before income taxes was $1.2 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012, compared with a loss from discontinued operations before income taxes of $3.9 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011. Loss from discontinued operations for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011 includes a $2.3 million charge related to the termination of an agreement. The income tax benefit for discontinued operations was $0.4 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012 compared to a benefit of $1.4 million for the prior year.


33


Fiscal year ended March 31, 2011 compared to fiscal year ended March 31, 2010
 
Year Ended March 31,
 
2011
 
2010
 
(in thousands)
Net sales
$
2,905,348

 
$
1,294,780

Segment operating income
$
371,849

 
$
181,566

Corporate general and administrative expenses
(57,813
)
 
(26,285
)
Total operating income
314,036

 
155,281

Interest expense and other
79,559

 
28,865

Gain on early extinguishment of debt

 
(39
)
Income tax expense
82,066

 
41,167

Income from continuing operations
152,411

 
85,288

Loss from discontinued operations, net
(2,512
)
 
(17,526
)
Net income
$
149,899

 
$
67,762


Net sales increased by $1.6 billion, or 124.4%, to $2.9 billion for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011 from $1.3 billion for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2010. The acquisition of Vought and the fiscal 2010 acquisitions contributed $1.5 billion in net sales. Excluding the effects of the Vought and fiscal 2010 acquisitions, organic sales increased $106.8 million, or 8.2%. The prior year period was negatively impacted by the reduction in demand for business jets, major program delays (particularly in the 747-8 and 787 programs), the decline in the regional jet market due to the overall economy, lower passenger and freight traffic and airline inventory de-stocking. While organic sales demonstrated improvement, we continued to face challenges such as the decreased demand for business jets and regional jets as well as commercial rate reductions (particularly in the 777 program).
Cost of sales increased by $1.3 billion, or 140.7%, to $2.2 billion for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011 from $927.2 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2010. This increase resulted from the acquisitions noted above, which contributed $1.27 billion. Gross margin for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011 was 23.2% compared with 28.4% for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2010. The decline in gross margin was impacted by lower margins contributed from the acquisition of Vought. Excluding the effects of the Vought and fiscal 2010 acquisitions, gross margin was 29.2% for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011, compared with 28.4% for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2010.
Segment operating income increased by $190.3 million, or 104.8%, to $371.9 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011 from $181.6 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2010. Operating income increased due to the contribution from the Vought and fiscal 2010 acquisitions ($163.1 million) and favorable settlements of retroactive pricing agreements ($3.0 million), offset by costs related to the signing of a collective bargaining agreement.
Corporate expenses increased by $31.5 million, or 119.9%, to $57.8 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011 from $26.3 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2010. Corporate expenses included $20.9 million of non-recurring acquisition-related transaction and integration costs associated with the acquisition of Vought. Corporate expenses also increased due to increased compensation and benefits ($5.4 million) due to increased corporate head count as compared to the prior year period, and an increase of $4.3 million of start-up costs related to the Mexican facility compared to the prior year period.
Interest expense and other increased by $50.7 million, or 175.6%, to $79.6 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011 compared to $28.9 million for the prior year. This increase was due to higher average debt outstanding during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011 in connection with the financing of the acquisition of Vought, as compared to the fiscal year ended March 31, 2010, including the Senior Subordinated Notes due 2017 (the "2017 Notes"), the Senior Notes due 2018 (the "2018 Notes") and the Term Loan, along with higher interest rates on our revolving credit facility.
The effective tax rate was 35.0% for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011 and 32.6% for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2010. The effective income tax rate was impacted by the $20.9 million in acquisition and integration expenses, which were only partially deductible for tax purposes, offset by the retroactive reinstatement of the research and development tax credit back to January 1, 2010. In December 2010, the Tax Hike Prevention Act of 2010 reinstated the research and development tax credit retroactive to January 1, 2010 through December 31, 2011.
Loss from discontinued operations before income taxes was $3.9 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011, compared with a loss from discontinued operations before income taxes of $26.9 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2010, which included impairment charges of $19.9 million. Loss from discontinued operations for the fiscal year ended

34


March 31, 2011 includes a $2.3 million charge related to the termination of an agreement. Due to failed negotiations with certain potential buyers of the business occurring during the quarter ended December 31, 2009, the Company reassessed its estimated fair value of the business based on current viable offers to purchase the business, recent performance results and overall market conditions, resulting in a write-down, which was applied to accounts receivable, inventory and property, plant and equipment. The Company recognized a pretax loss of $17.4 million in the third quarter of fiscal 2010, based on the write-down of the carrying value of the business to estimated fair value less cost to sell. Included in the loss from discontinued operations for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2010 is an additional impairment charge of $2.5 million recorded during the first quarter of fiscal 2010. The income tax benefit for discontinued operations was $1.4 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011 compared to a benefit of $9.4 million for the prior year.
Business Segment Performance
We report our financial performance based on the following three reportable segments: the Aerostructures Group, the Aerospace Systems Group and the Aftermarket Services Group. The Company's Chief Operating Decision Maker ("CODM") utilizes EBITDA as a primary measure of profitability to evaluate performance of its segments and allocate resources.
The results of operations among our reportable segments vary due to differences in competitors, customers, extent of proprietary deliverables and performance. For example, our Aerostructures segment generally includes long-term sole-source or preferred supplier contracts and the success of these programs provides a strong foundation for our business and positions us well for future growth on new programs and new derivatives. This compares to our Aerospace Systems segment which generally includes proprietary products and/or arrangements where we become the primary source or one of a few primary sources to our customers, where our unique manufacturing capabilities command a higher margin. Also, OEMs are increasingly focusing on assembly activities while outsourcing more manufacturing and repair to third parties, and as a result, are less of a competitive force than in previous years. In contrast, our Aftermarket Services segment provides MRO services on components and accessories manufactured by third parties, with more diverse competition, including airlines, OEMs and other third-party service providers. In addition, variability in the timing and extent of customer requests performed in the Aftermarket Services segment can provide for greater volatility and less predictability in revenue and earnings than that experienced in the Aerostructures and Aerospace Systems segments.
The Aerostructures segment consists of the Company's operations that manufacture products primarily for the aerospace OEM market. The Aerostructures segment's revenues are derived from the design, manufacture, assembly and integration of metallic and composite aerostructures and structural components, including aircraft wings, fuselage sections, tail assemblies, engine nacelles, flight control surfaces as well as helicopter cabins. Further, the segment's operations also design and manufacture composite assemblies for floor panels and environmental control system ducts. These products are sold to various aerospace OEMs on a global basis.
The Aerospace Systems segment consists of the Company's operations that also manufacture products primarily for the aerospace OEM market. The segment's operations design and engineer mechanical and electromechanical controls, such as hydraulic systems, main engine gearbox assemblies, accumulators, mechanical control cables and non-structural cockpit components. These products are sold to various aerospace OEMs on a global basis.
The Aftermarket Services segment consists of the Company's operations that provide maintenance, repair and overhaul services to both commercial and military markets on components and accessories manufactured by third parties. Maintenance, repair and overhaul revenues are derived from services on auxiliary power units, airframe and engine accessories, including constant-speed drives, cabin compressors, starters and generators, and pneumatic drive units. In addition, the segment's operations repair and overhaul thrust reversers, nacelle components and flight control surfaces. The segment's operations also perform repair and overhaul services and supply spare parts for various types of cockpit instruments and gauges for a broad range of commercial airlines on a worldwide basis.
We currently generate a majority of our revenue from clients in the commercial aerospace industry, the military, the business jet industry and the regional airline industry. Our growth and financial results are largely dependent on continued demand for our products and services from clients in these industries. If any of these industries experiences a downturn, our clients in these sectors may conduct less business with us. The following table summarizes our net sales by end market by business segment. The loss of one or more of our major customers or an economic downturn in the commercial airline or the military and defense markets could have a material adverse effect on our business.


35


 
Year Ended March 31,
 
2012
 
2011
 
2010
Aerostructures
 
 
 
 
 
Commercial aerospace
39.4
%
 
35.4
%
 
24.4
%
Military
23.5

 
26.4

 
14.8

Business Jets
11.3

 
9.7

 
3.6

Regional
0.5

 
0.6

 
1.6

Non-aviation
0.7

 
1.0

 
2.2

Total Aerostructures net sales
75.4
%
 
73.1
%
 
46.6
%
Aerospace Systems
 
 
 
 
 
Commercial aerospace
5.9
%
 
5.7
%
 
11.0
%
Military
7.7

 
9.3

 
20.0

Business Jets
0.8

 
0.8

 
1.0

Regional
0.5

 
0.7

 
1.6

Non-aviation
1.1

 
1.0

 
2.5

Total Aerospace Systems net sales
16.0
%
 
17.5
%
 
36.1
%
Aftermarket Services
 
 
 
 
 
Commercial aerospace
6.6
%
 
7.0
%
 
12.9
%
Military
0.9

 
1.2

 
2.5

Business Jets
0.4

 
0.4

 
0.7

Regional
0.2

 
0.2

 
0.5

Non-aviation
0.5

 
0.6

 
0.7

Total Aftermarket Services net sales
8.6
%
 
9.4
%
 
17.3
%
Total Consolidated net sales
100.0
%
 
100.0
%
 
100.0
%

The increase in our percentage of net sales of commercial aerospace and business jets was attributable to the acquisition of Vought. We continue to experience an increase in the mix of the commercial aerospace end-market. We recently have experienced slight growth in the business jet end-market, offset by a slight decrease in our military end market. Due to the planned reductions in defense spending under the Budget Act, we expect the declining trend in the military end market to continue. The shift in our sales mix from fiscal 2010 to fiscal 2011 across segments was due to the acquisition of Vought; however, the acquisition of Vought had little impact on the change in the sales by end market on a consolidated basis.
Business Segment Performance—Fiscal year ended March 31, 2012 compared to fiscal year ended March 31, 2011
 
 
Year Ended March 31,
 
%
Change
 
% of Total Sales
 
 
2012
 
2011
 
 
2012
 
2011
 
 
(in thousands)
 
 
 
 
 
 
NET SALES
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Aerostructures
 
$
2,571,576

 
$
2,126,040

 
21.0
%
 
75.5
 %
 
73.2
 %
Aerospace Systems
 
551,800

 
513,435

 
7.5
%
 
16.2
 %
 
17.6
 %
Aftermarket Services
 
292,674

 
272,728

 
7.3
%
 
8.6
 %
 
9.4
 %
Elimination of inter-segment sales
 
(8,121
)
 
(6,855
)
 
18.5
%
 
(0.2
)%
 
(0.2
)%
Total net sales
 
$
3,407,929

 
$
2,905,348

 
17.3
%
 
100.0
 %
 
100.0
 %


36


 
 
Year Ended March 31,
 
%
Change
 
% of Segment
Sales
 
 
2012
 
2011
 
 
2012
 
2011
 
 
(in thousands)
 
 
 
 
 
 
SEGMENT OPERATING INCOME
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Aerostructures
 
$
403,414

 
$
267,783

 
50.6
 %
 
15.7
%
 
12.6
%
Aerospace Systems
 
90,035

 
75,292

 
19.6
 %
 
16.3
%
 
14.7
%
Aftermarket Services
 
31,859

 
28,774

 
10.7
 %
 
10.9
%
 
10.6
%
Corporate
 
(10,593
)
 
(57,813
)
 
(81.7
)%
 
n/a

 
n/a

Total segment operating income
 
$
514,715

 
$
314,036

 
63.9
 %
 
15.1
%
 
10.8
%

 
 
Year Ended March 31,
 
%
Change
 
% of Segment
Sales
 
 
2012
 
2011
 
 
2012
 
2011
EBITDA
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Aerostructures
 
$
465,843

 
$
308,020

 
51.2
 %
 
18.1
%
 
14.5
%
Aerospace Systems
 
107,398

 
92,475

 
16.1
 %
 
19.5
%
 
18.0
%
Aftermarket Services
 
41,346

 
39,875

 
3.7
 %
 
14.1
%
 
14.6
%
Corporate
 
(47,232
)
 
(55,891
)
 
(15.5
)%
 
n/a

 
n/a

 
 
$
567,355

 
$
384,479

 
47.6
 %
 
16.6
%
 
13.2
%

Aerostructures:    The Aerostructures segment net sales increased by $445.5 million, or 21.0%, to $2.6 billion for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012 from $2.1 billion for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011. The increase was primarily due to the acquisition of Vought ($407.4 million), in addition to an increase in organic sales of $38.1 million, or 6.4% due to the increase in commercial production rates of various customer programs. The prior year period was negatively impacted by the decreased demand for business jets and regional jets as well as commercial rate reductions (particularly in the 777 program).
Aerostructures segment operating income increased by $135.6 million, or 50.6%, to $403.4 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012 from $267.8 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011. Operating income increased due to the increase in organic sales ($4.0 million) and contribution from the acquisition of Vought ($131.6 million). The contribution of Vought included cumulative catch-up adjustments to operating income with gross favorable adjustments of $29.5 million and gross unfavorable adjustments of $11.3 million, as well as lower pension and other postretirement benefit expenses of $34.9 million. The contribution of Vought also included improvements due to decreases in overall head count resulting in lower compensation and benefits primarily as a result of the continued integration ($18.5 million). These same factors contributed to the increase in EBITDA year over year.
Aerostructures segment operating income as a percentage of segment sales increased to 15.7% for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012 as compared with 12.6% for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011, due to the net favorable cumulative catch-up adjustments and lower pension and other postretirement benefit expenses discussed above, which also caused the improvements in EBITDA margin.
Aerospace Systems:    The Aerospace Systems segment net sales increased by $38.4 million, or 7.5%, to $551.8 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012 from $513.4 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011. Net sales increased due to continued improvements in the broader market and benefits from large outsourcing programs.
Aerospace Systems segment operating income increased by $14.7 million, or 19.6%, to $90.0 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012 from $75.3 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011. Operating income increased primarily due to increases in gross margin ($9.0 million) due to sales mix and increased efficiencies in production associated with higher volume of work and increased sales ($12.2 million), offset by increased legal fees ($2.4 million) due in part to the inclusion in the prior year of the net recovery of $0.8 million of prior legal costs and increased development costs ($4.6 million). These same factors contributed to the increase in EBITDA year over year.
Aerospace Systems segment operating income as a percentage of segment sales increased to 16.3% for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012 as compared with 14.7% for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011, due to improvements in gross margin as noted above, which also caused the improvements in EBITDA margin.

37


Aftermarket Services:    The Aftermarket Services segment net sales increased by $19.9 million, or 7.3%, to $292.7 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012 from $272.7 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011. The acquisition of ANS contributed $4.2 million of increased net sales. Organic net sales increased due to continued improvement in global commercial air traffic and decreases in airline inventory de-stocking.
Aftermarket Services segment operating income increased by $3.1 million, or 10.7%, to $31.9 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012 from $28.8 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011. Operating income increased primarily due to contribution from the acquisition of ANS ($1.6 million) and increased efficiencies in production associated with higher volume of work ($0.9 million). Also, the period was favorably impacted by decreased depreciation and amortization expense ($1.6 million) as certain intangible assets became fully depreciated during fiscal 2011, offset by $1.1 million in increased bad debt reserves associated with the bankruptcies of American Airlines, Pinnacle and Aveos. These same factors contributed to the increase in EBITDA year over year; however, the growth in EBITDA was less than the growth in operating income, as depreciation and amortization was lower in fiscal year 2012 versus fiscal year 2011.
Aftermarket Services segment operating income as a percentage of segment sales increased to 10.9% for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012 as compared with 10.6% for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011, due to the increase in sales volume and related efficiencies noted above. However, the EBITDA margin declined as $1.6 million of our operating income improvement was due to lower depreciation and amortization, which does not impact EBITDA.
Business Segment Performance—Fiscal year ended March 31, 2011 compared to fiscal year ended March 31, 2010
 
 
Year Ended March 31,
 
%
Change
 
% of Total Sales
 
 
2011
 
2010
 
 
2011
 
2010
 
 
(in thousands)
 
 
 
 
 
 
NET SALES
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Aerostructures
 
$
2,126,040

 
$
605,423

 
251.2
 %
 
73.2
 %
 
46.8
 %
Aerospace Systems
 
513,435

 
473,409

 
8.5
 %
 
17.6
 %
 
36.5
 %
Aftermarket Services
 
272,728

 
224,663

 
21.4
 %
 
9.4
 %
 
17.4
 %
Elimination of inter-segment sales
 
(6,855
)
 
(8,715
)
 
(21.3
)%
 
(0.2
)%
 
(0.7
)%
Total net sales
 
$
2,905,348

 
$
1,294,780

 
124.4
 %
 
100.0
 %
 
100.0
 %

 
 
Year Ended March 31,
 
%
Change
 
% of Segment
Sales
 
 
2011
 
2010
 
 
2011
 
2010
 
 
(in thousands)
 
 
 
 
 
 
SEGMENT OPERATING INCOME
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Aerostructures
 
$
267,783

 
$
102,271

 
161.8%
 
12.6%
 
16.9%
Aerospace Systems
 
75,292

 
68,069

 
10.6%
 
14.7%
 
14.4%
Aftermarket Services
 
28,774

 
11,226

 
156.3%
 
10.6%
 
5.0%
Corporate
 
(57,813
)
 
(26,285
)
 
119.9%
 
n/a
 
n/a
Total segment operating income
 
$
314,036

 
$
155,281

 
102.2%
 
10.8%
 
12.0%

 
 
Year Ended March 31,
 
%
Change
 
% of Total
Sales
 
 
2011
 
2010
 
 
2011
 
2010
EBITDA
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Aerostructures
 
$
308,020

 
$
126,296

 
143.9
%
 
14.5
%
 
20.9
%
Aerospace Systems
 
92,475

 
84,873

 
9.0
%
 
18.0
%
 
17.9
%
Aftermarket Services
 
39,875

 
24,081

 
65.6
%
 
14.6
%
 
10.7
%
Corporate
 
(55,891
)
 
(25,551
)
 
118.7
%
 
n/a

 
n/a

 
 
$
384,479

 
$
209,699

 
83.3
%
 
13.2
%
 
16.2
%


38


Aerostructures:    The Aerostructures segment net sales increased by $1.5 billion, or 251.2%, to $2.1 billion for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011 from $605.4 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2010. The acquisition of Vought contributed $1.5 billion of increased net sales. Excluding the elimination of intercompany sales to Vought for the year ended March 31, 2011, organic sales increased $20.9 million, or 3.5%, as compared to the prior year, when the respective sales were not eliminated. The prior year period was negatively impacted by reductions in the business jet and regional jet markets due to the overall economic conditions and by major program delays (particularly in the 787 and 747-8 programs). The fiscal year ended March 31, 2011 continued to be negatively impacted by the decreased demand for business jets and regional jets as well as commercial rate reductions (particularly in the 777 program). On a pro forma basis, assuming the acquisition of Vought occurred in the prior year period, the current year was also negatively impacted by rate reductions to the C-17 program and decreased non-recurring sales associated with the transition to the 747-8 program.
Aerostructures segment operating income increased by $165.5 million, or 161.8%, to $267.8 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011 from $102.3 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2010. Operating income increased primarily due to contribution from the acquisition of Vought ($161.6 million), as well as improvements in organic gross margin, partially offset by increases in legal expenses ($0.9 million). These same factors contributed to the increase in EBITDA year over year. The increase of EBITDA was greater than the increase in operating income, due to the increase in depreciation and amortization, which is not included in EBITDA. The increase in depreciation and amortization expense was due principally to the Vought acquisition.
Aerostructures segment operating income as a percentage of segment sales decreased to 12.6% for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011 as compared with 16.9% for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2010, due to lower margins from Vought, which also caused the decline in EBITDA margin.
Aerospace Systems:    The Aerospace Systems segment net sales increased by $40.0 million, or 8.5%, to $513.4 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011 from $473.4 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2010. The acquisition of Fabritech contributed $15.0 million of increased net sales. Organic sales increased by $25.0 million due to improvements in the broader market and benefits from large outsourcing programs. The prior year period sales were negatively impacted by the Boeing strike.
Aerospace Systems segment operating income increased by $7.2 million, or 10.6%, to $75.3 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011 from $68.1 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2010. Operating income increased primarily due to margins attained on increased sales ($7.5 million), including the contribution from the Fabritech acquisition ($1.5 million), as well as decreases in legal fees ($4.0 million), partially offset by decreases in organic gross margin ($4.0 million) due in part to increased warranty reserves and increases in bad debt expense ($1.0 million). These same factors contributed to the increase in EBITDA year over year.
Aerospace Systems segment operating income as a percentage of segment sales increased slightly to 14.7% for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011 as compared with 14.4% for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2010, due to decreases in selling, general and administrative expenses noted above, offset by the decreases in organic gross margin. The EBITDA margin remained relatively stable year over year.
Aftermarket Services:    The Aftermarket Services segment net sales increased by $48.0 million, or 21.4%, to $272.7 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011 from $224.7 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2010. The prior year period was negatively impacted by a decline in global commercial air traffic and airline inventory de-stocking resulting in lower demand for the repair and overhaul of auxiliary power units and the brokering of similar units. While we expect segment net sales to continue to experience growth over our prior fiscal year, it is unlikely it will continue at the current growth rates.
Aftermarket Services segment operating income increased by $17.6 million, or 156.3%, to $28.8 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011 from $11.2 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2010. Operating income increased primarily due to increased sales volume. In addition, the sales volume increases improved our production efficiencies by increasing gross margins to 25.0% from 22.6% in the prior fiscal year. Also, the period was favorably impacted by the gain on sale of certain intellectual property ($0.7 million) and decreased salaries and benefits ($0.7 million) due to lower headcounts, as well as $0.3 million in expenses incurred to shut down a service facility in Austin, Texas in the prior period. These same factors contributed to the increase in EBITDA year over year, however, the growth in EBITDA was less than the growth in operating income, as depreciation and amortization was lower in fiscal year 2011 versus fiscal year 2010.
Aftermarket Services segment operating income as a percentage of segment sales increased to 10.6% for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011 as compared with 5.0% for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2010, due to the increase in sales volume and related efficiencies noted above which also caused the improvement in the EBITDA margin.

39


Liquidity and Capital Resources
Our working capital needs are generally funded through cash flow from operations and borrowings under our credit arrangements. During the year ended March 31, 2012, we generated approximately $227.8 million of cash flow from operating activities, used approximately $69.8 million in investing activities and used approximately $166.3 million in financing activities. Cash flows from operating activities included $122.2 million in pension contributions in fiscal 2012, compared to $135.1 million in fiscal 2011.
Cash flows from operations for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012 increased $85.5 million, or 60.1%, from the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011. Our cash flows from operations increased due to an increase in net income of $131.0 million, and an increase of $58.4 million in noncash charges such as depreciation and amortization associated with the acquisition of Vought, the write-off of unamortized discounts and deferred financing fees on the extinguishment of the Term Loan and the reduction in income taxes paid due to the utilization of the net operating loss carryforward acquired in the acquisition of Vought.
These increases were offset in part by a decrease of $106.1 million in net working capital changes. Net working capital changes included increased cash uses for inventories of $47.5 million for fiscal 2012, as compared to $21.0 million in fiscal 2011 due to production buildup and increases in capitalized pre-production costs. Capitalized pre-production costs are expected to continue to increase, while our production buildup is expected to decline over the next few quarters. Also, cash uses for excess funding above expense of our pension and other postretirement benefits plans increased to $157.1 million for fiscal 2012, as compared to $124.3 million in fiscal 2011. In addition, cash uses for accounts receivable increased to $82.1 million for fiscal 2012, from $15.9 million in fiscal 2011 due largely to the increase in sales. Cash flows from operations for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012 included the receipt of an income tax refund of $29.3 million as a result of carrying back tax losses from fiscal 2011 to prior years.
Cash flows used in investing activities for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012 decreased $349.2 million from the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011. Our cash flows used in investing activities decreased as the prior year period included the acquisition of Vought ($333.1 million). Cash flows used in investing activities for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012 included $20.0 million in funds received from escrow on the acquisition of Vought for the settlement of opening balance sheet liabilities, offset by $7.3 million in cash payments for the acquisition of Aviation Network Services, LLC. Cash flows from financing activities for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012 decreased $324.6 million from the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011 included the extinguishment of the Term Loan ($350.0 million), the redemption of certain Convertible Notes ($50.4 million), and the payment of contingent earnouts and deferred acquisition payments ($7.3 million).
As of March 31, 2012, $496.8 million was available under our revolving credit facility (the “Credit Facility”).  On March 31, 2012, an aggregate amount of approximately $320.0 million was outstanding under the Credit Facility, all of which was accruing interest at LIBOR plus applicable basis points totaling 2.00% per annum. Amounts repaid under the Credit Facility may be reborrowed.

On April 5, 2011, the Company amended the Credit Facility with its lenders to (i) increase the availability under the Credit Facility to $850.0 million, with a $50.0 million accordion feature, from $535.0 million, (ii) extend the maturity date to April 5, 2016 and (iii) amend certain other terms and covenants. The amendment resulted in a more favorable pricing grid and a more streamlined package of covenants and restrictions. Using the availability under the Credit Facility, the Company immediately extinguished its Term Loan at face value of $350.0 million, plus accrued interest. The Company recognized a pretax loss of approximately $7.7 million associated with these transactions during the first quarter of fiscal 2012 due to the write-off of unamortized discounts and deferred financing fees on the Term Loan.
Pursuant to the Credit Facility, the Company can borrow, repay and re-borrow revolving credit loans, and cause to be issued letters of credit, in an aggregate principal amount not to exceed $850.0 million outstanding at any time. The Credit Facility bears interest at either: (i) LIBOR plus between 1.75% and 3.00%; (ii) the prime rate; or (iii) an overnight rate at the option of the Company. The applicable interest rate is based upon the Company's ratio of total indebtedness to earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization. In addition, the Company is required to pay a commitment fee of between 0.30% and 0.50% on the unused portion of the Credit Facility. The Company's obligations under the Credit Facility are guaranteed by the Company's domestic subsidiaries.
The level of unused borrowing capacity under the Company's revolving Credit Facility varies from time to time depending in part upon its compliance with financial and other covenants set forth in the related agreement. The Credit Facility contains certain affirmative and negative covenants including limitations on specified levels of indebtedness to earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization, and interest coverage requirements, and includes limitations on, among other things, liens, mergers, consolidations, sales of assets, and incurrence of debt. As of March 31, 2012, the Company was in compliance with all such covenants.

40


In June 2010, the Company issued the 2018 Notes for $350.0 million in principal amount. The 2018 Notes were sold at 99.27% of principal amount for net proceeds of $347.5 million, and have an effective interest yield of 8.75%. Interest on the 2018 Notes is payable semiannually in cash in arrears on January 15 and May 15 of each year. We used the net proceeds as partial consideration of the acquisition of Vought. In connection with the issuance of the 2018 Notes, the Company incurred approximately $7.3 million of costs, which were deferred and are being amortized on the effective interest method over the term of the notes.
Also in June 2010, the Company entered into a six-year Term Loan for $350.0 million in principal amount. The proceeds of the Term Loan, which were 99.50% of the principal amount, were used to consummate the acquisition of Vought. In connection with the closing on the Term Loan, the Company incurred approximately $7.1 million of costs, which were deferred and were to be amortized into expense over the term of the Term Loan. As noted above, however, the Term Loan was extinguished in April 2011.
In June 2011, the Company amended its $175.0 million receivable securitization facility (the "Securitization Facility") extending the term through June 2014. Under the Securitization Facility, the Company sells on a revolving basis certain accounts receivable to Triumph Receivables, LLC, a wholly-owned special-purpose entity, which in turn sells a percentage ownership interest in the receivables to commercial paper conduits sponsored by financial institutions. The Company is the servicer of the accounts receivable under the Securitization Facility. As of March 31, 2012, the maximum amount available under the Securitization Facility was $144.3 million. Interest rates are based on prevailing market rates for short-term commercial paper plus a program fee and a commitment fee. The program fee is 0.55% on the amount outstanding under the Securitization Facility. Additionally, the commitment fee is 0.55% on 102% of the maximum amount available under the Securitization Facility. At March 31, 2012, there was $120.0 million outstanding under the Securitization Facility. The Company securitizes its accounts receivable, which are generally non-interest bearing, in transactions that are accounted for as borrowings pursuant to the Transfers and Servicing topic of the ASC. The agreement governing the Securitization Facility contains restrictions and covenants which include limitations on the making of certain restricted payments, creation of certain liens, and certain corporate acts such as mergers, consolidations and the sale of substantially all assets.
Cash flows from operations for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011 decreased $27.3 million or 16.1%, from the fiscal year ended March 31, 2010. Our cash flows from operations decreased despite an increase of $82.1 million in net income, due to excess funding above expense of our pension and other postretirement benefits plans of $124.3 million, $12.4 million of interest paid at closing on assumed debt from the acquisition of Vought and an increased use of cash related to inventory of $51.2 million driven by a decrease of $56.5 million due to the timing of advanced payments, partially offset by the reduction in income taxes paid due to the utilization of the net operating loss carryforward acquired in the acquisition of Vought.
Cash flows used in investing activities for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011 increased $356.5 million from the fiscal year ended March 31, 2010. Our cash flows used in investing activities increased due to the acquisition of Vought ($333.1 million), as well as increased capital expenditures of $58.4 million for our Mexican facility and Vought. Cash flows from financing activities for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011 increased $123.1 million from the fiscal year ended March 31, 2010 in order to finance the acquisition of Vought.
At March 31, 2012, $19.5 million of cash and cash equivalents were held by foreign subsidiaries and were primarily denominated in foreign currencies. If these amounts would be remitted as dividends, the Company may be subject to additional U.S. taxes, net of allowable foreign tax credits. We currently expect to utilize the balances to fund our foreign operations.
In the fourth quarter of fiscal 2010, the Company acquired Fabritech, Inc. (now Triumph Fabrications—St. Louis) and DCL Avionics, Inc. (now part of Triumph Instruments—Burbank), collectively, the "fiscal 2010 acquisitions." The total cash paid at closing for the fiscal 2010 acquisitions of $23.2 million was funded by cash from operations. The fiscal 2010 acquisitions provide for deferred and contingent payments of $0.1 million and $16.0 million, respectively.
In November 2009, the Company issued $175.0 million principal amount of 8% senior subordinated notes due 2017 (the "2017 Notes"). The 2017 Notes were sold at 98.558% of principal amount for net proceeds of $172.5 million, and have an effective interest rate of 8.25%. Interest on the 2017 Notes is payable semiannually in cash in arrears on May 15 and November 15 of each year. In connection with the issuance of the 2017 Notes, the Company incurred approximately $4.4 million of costs, which were deferred and are being amortized on the effective interest method over the term of the notes.
In March 2009, we entered in