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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                      to                     
Commission file number 001-00812
RTX Corporation
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware06-0570975
(State or Other Jurisdiction of Incorporation or Organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
 1000 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, Virginia 22209
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
(781)522-3000
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock ($1 par value)RTXNew York Stock Exchange
(CUSIP 75513E 101)
2.150% Notes due 2030RTX 30New York Stock Exchange
(CUSIP 75513E AB7)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes       No  ¨
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes   ¨    No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes      No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes       No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large Accelerated FilerAccelerated Filer
Non-Accelerated FilerSmaller Reporting Company
Emerging Growth Company
1


If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes       No  
The aggregate market value of the voting Common Stock held by non-affiliates at June 30, 2023 was approximately $142,484,650,285, based on the New York Stock Exchange closing price for such shares on that date. For purposes of this calculation, the Registrant has assumed that its directors and executive officers are affiliates.
At January 31, 2024, there were 1,326,826,896 shares of Common Stock outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the Registrant’s Definitive Proxy Statement for its 2024 Annual Meeting of Shareowners are incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K.
2

Table of Contents
INDEX
PART I
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 1C.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
PART II
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
Item 9C.
PART III
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
PART IV
Item 15.
Item 16.


RTX Corporation and its subsidiaries’ names, abbreviations thereof, logos, and products and services designators are all either the registered or unregistered trademarks or tradenames of RTX Corporation and its subsidiaries. Names, abbreviations of names, logos, and products and services designators of other companies are either the registered or unregistered trademarks or tradenames of their respective owners. References to internet web sites in this Form 10-K are provided for convenience only. Information available through these web sites is not incorporated by reference into this Form 10-K.
3

Table of Contents
PART I
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
General
RTX Corporation is an aerospace and defense company that provides advanced systems and services for commercial, military, and government customers worldwide. The terms “we,” “us,” “our,” the “Company”, and “RTX” mean RTX Corporation and its subsidiaries, unless the context indicates another meaning. We serve commercial and government customers in both the original equipment and aftermarket parts and services segments of the aerospace industry. Our defense business serves both domestic and international customers as a prime contractor or subcontractor on a broad portfolio of defense and related programs for military and government customers. RTX Corporation, formerly known as Raytheon Technologies, was incorporated in Delaware in 1934.
The following description of our business should be read in conjunction with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” within Item 7 of this Form 10-K, including the information contained therein under the heading “Business Overview.”
Business Segments
As previously announced, effective July 1, 2023, we streamlined the structure of our core businesses to three principal business segments: Collins Aerospace (Collins), Pratt & Whitney, and Raytheon, with each segment comprised of groups of similar operations. All segment information included in this Form 10-K is reflective of this new structure and prior period information has been recast to conform to our current period presentation.
Collins Aerospace is a leading global provider of technologically advanced aerospace and defense products and aftermarket service solutions for civil and military aircraft manufacturers, commercial airlines, and regional, business and general aviation, as well as for defense and commercial space operations. Collins designs, manufactures and supplies electric power generation, management and distribution systems, environmental control systems, flight control systems, air data and aircraft sensing systems, engine control systems, engine components, engine nacelle systems, including thrust reversers and mounting pylons, interior and exterior aircraft lighting, aircraft cargo systems, evacuation systems, landing systems (including landing gear, wheels and braking systems), communication, navigation, surveillance systems, fire and ice detection and protection systems, actuation systems, integrated avionics, and propeller systems. Collins also designs, manufactures, and supports complete cabin interiors, including seating, oxygen systems, food and beverage preparation, storage and galley systems, lavatory, and wastewater management systems. Collins’ solutions support human space exploration with environmental control and power systems and extravehicular activity suits. Collins also provides connected aviation solutions and services through worldwide voice and data communication networks, airport systems and integrations, and air traffic management solutions. Collins supports government and defense customer missions by providing systems solutions for connected battlespace, test and training range systems, crew escape systems, and simulation and training. Aftermarket services include spare parts, overhaul and repair, engineering and technical support, training and fleet management solutions, asset management services, and information management services.
Collins sells aerospace and defense products and services to aircraft manufacturers, airlines and other aircraft operators, the U.S. and foreign governments, defense contractors, maintenance, repair and overhaul providers, and independent distributors around the world. Collins’ largest commercial customers are Boeing and Airbus with combined sales, prior to discounts and incentives, of 19%, 18%, and 15% of total Collins segment sales in 2023, 2022, and 2021, respectively.
In 2023, Boeing selected Collins for key positions on their X-66A sustainable flight demonstrator aircraft. Collins also achieved long-term agreements with global airlines valued at $3.5 billion in the aggregate. Collins continued to receive numerous commercial air transport contract awards for airline selected buyer-furnished equipment installation for interiors, avionics, and wheels and brakes, and long-term FlightSense airline maintenance agreements. Collins was selected to serve as a key supplier of Command and Control (C2) capabilities as part of the Australian Air6500 effort. In addition, Collins continued its significant product development activities, including for major systems on the Airbus A321XLR, the Boeing 777X and 737 MAX 10, the Dassault Falcon 6X, and systems in support of the Boeing T-7A trainer and the Boeing VC-25B. Collins achievements also include an order milestone of 6,000 routers enabling digital transformation for global airlines. Collins also received a contract for a multi-system mobile Air Traffic Navigation Integration and Coordination System (ATNAVICS).
Collins also continues to invest in sustainable technologies, such as opening an electric airborne power research center in Rockford, IL, where a prototype 1-megawatt motor was run at its design target limit in a ground test. Collins’ aircraft power and thermal management team demonstrated a full scale prototype cooling system which can deliver 2.5 times the current cooling capacity to enable potential F-35 block upgrades.
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Pratt & Whitney is among the world’s leading suppliers of aircraft engines for commercial, military, business jet, and general aviation customers. Pratt & Whitney’s Commercial Engines and Military Engines businesses design, develop, produce, and maintain families of large engines for wide- and narrow-body and large regional aircraft for commercial customers and for fighter, bomber, tanker, and transport aircraft for military customers. Pratt & Whitney’s small engine business, Pratt & Whitney Canada, is among the world’s leading suppliers of engines powering regional airlines, general and business aviation, as well as helicopters. Pratt & Whitney also produces, sells, and services military and commercial auxiliary power units. Pratt & Whitney provides fleet management services and aftermarket maintenance, repair, and overhaul services in all of these segments.
Pratt & Whitney sells products and services principally to aircraft manufacturers, airlines and other aircraft operators, aircraft leasing companies, and the U.S. and foreign governments. Pratt & Whitney’s largest commercial customer by sales is Airbus, with sales, prior to discounts and incentives, of 48%, 33%, and 31% of total Pratt & Whitney segment sales in 2023, 2022, and 2021, respectively. Segment sales in 2023 includes the reduction in sales associated with the Powder Metal Matter discussed below.
Pratt & Whitney produces the PW1000G Geared Turbofan (GTF) engine family, the first of which, the PW1100G-JM which powers the Airbus A320neo family of aircraft, entered into service in January 2016. The PW1000G GTF engine has demonstrated a significant reduction in fuel burn and noise levels and lower environmental emissions compared to prior-generation engines. GTF engine models also power the Airbus A220 and Embraer E-Jets E2 aircraft families. In addition, Pratt & Whitney Canada’s PW800 engine has been selected to exclusively power Gulfstream’s G400, G500, and G600 business jets. Moreover, Dassault’s Falcon 6X business jet entered into service in December 2023.
Pratt & Whitney produces and sustains the F135 engine for the U.S. government’s F-35 Joint Program Office to power the single-engine F-35 Lightning II aircraft (commonly known as the Joint Strike Fighter) produced by Lockheed Martin. F135 propulsion system configurations are used for the U.S Air Force’s F-35A, the U.S. Marine Corps’ F-35B, and the U.S. Navy’s F-35C jets. F135 engines are also used on F-35 aircraft purchased by Joint Strike Fighter partner countries and other countries through foreign military sales arrangements. Pratt & Whitney is also under contract to build engines for the U.S. Air Force’s B-21 long-range strike bomber.
The development of new engines and improvements to current production engines present important growth opportunities for Pratt & Whitney. In view of the risks and costs associated with developing new engines, Pratt & Whitney has entered into collaboration arrangements in which revenues, costs, and risks are shared with third parties. At December 31, 2023, the interests of third-party collaboration participants in Pratt & Whitney-directed jet engine programs ranged, in the aggregate per program, from 13% to 49%. See “Note 1: Basis of Presentation and Summary of Accounting Principles” within Item 8 of this Form 10-K for a description of our accounting for collaboration arrangements. Pratt & Whitney also continues to enhance its programs through performance improvement measures and product base expansion, utilizing similar collaboration arrangements.
In 2023, Pratt & Whitney continued to reach significant milestones on the GTF engine program, including surpassing 1.4 billion gallons of fuel saved and 14 million metric tons of carbon emissions avoided since entry into service. The GTF Advantage configuration currently under testing is expected to extend the benefits of today’s GTF engine, increasing takeoff thrust up to 8 percent and reducing fuel consumption by up to an additional 1 percent, maintaining the engine’s lead as the most efficient powerplant for the A320neo family. The GTF family now powers more than 1,700 aircraft for 70 operators across three aircraft platforms: Airbus A320neo family, Airbus A220, and Embraer E-Jets E2. The GTF Advantage engine continues Federal Aviation Regulations Part 33 (FAR33) certification testing to operate with, and has successfully run on, 100% sustainable aviation fuel (SAF). In 2023, Pratt & Whitney announced it will supply two GTF engines to power the Boeing X-66A sustainable flight demonstrator aircraft. As previously disclosed, Pratt & Whitney determined this year that a rare condition in powder metal used to manufacture certain engine parts requires accelerated inspection of the PW1100G-JM fleet (herein referred to as Powder Metal Matter) as described further in “Note 17: Commitments and Contingencies” within Item 8 of this Form 10-K.
The year also saw the certification of the PW127XT-L engine for the ATR short takeoff and landing regional turboprop, marking the 200th engine certification for Pratt & Whitney Canada. The Hybrid Electric Flight Demonstrator program, targeting a 30% fuel efficiency improvement and CO2 emissions reduction compared to existing advanced regional turboprops, successfully completed a rated power test of the demonstrator's 1 megawatt electric motor, developed by Collins. Textron Aviation announced that the PW545D engine was selected to power the new Cessna Citation Ascend business jet. In addition, Pratt & Whitney received a significant number of contract awards for the F135 program, including a supplemental contract for Lots 15-17 and funding to continue work on an F135 engine core upgrade. The F135 program also added the Czech Republic as a new customer. In addition, significant activity continued on development programs including the Next Generation Adaptive Propulsion Program, as well as the first flight of the B-21 Raider, which is powered by Pratt & Whitney engines. Pratt & Whitney also secured substantial awards for sustainment of the F117, F119, and F100 engine fleets.
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Raytheon is a leading provider of defensive and offensive threat detection, tracking and mitigation capabilities for U.S. and foreign government and commercial customers. Raytheon designs, develops, and provides advanced capabilities in integrated air and missile defense, smart weapons, missiles, advanced sensors and radars, interceptors, space-based systems, hypersonics, and missile defense across land, air, sea, and space. Raytheon provides air-to-air and air-to-ground sensors, command and control and weapons including the Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM), StormBreaker smart weapon, Long Range Stand Off Weapon (LRSO), and the Early Warning Radar. Raytheon also provides advanced naval sensors, command and control and weapons including classified naval radars, the Next Generation Jammer (NGJ), shipboard missiles including the Tomahawk and Standard Missile 6 (SM-6), air-to-air missiles such as the AIM-9X SIDEWINDER missile, and integrated systems such as the SPY-6 radar. In addition, Raytheon provides advanced systems and products that span layered land and integrated air and missile defense, including the proven Patriot air and missile defense system, the Lower Tier Air and Missile Defense Sensor (LTAMDS), the National Advanced Surface-to-Air Missile System (NASAMS), Javelin, Excalibur, Stinger, and High-Energy Lasers. Raytheon also provides technologically advanced sensors, satellites and interceptors, including the AN/TPY-2 radar, and Standard Missile 3 (SM-3). Raytheon delivers integrated space solutions including sensors, mission orchestration, satellite control, and software. Raytheon also focuses on the development and early introduction of next-generation technologies and systems, including hypersonics, counter-hypersonics, next-generation radars, sensor experimentation and electro-optical/infrared (EO/IR) advancements, and aligns products that use shared technologies, including fire control radars, surveillance radars, EO/IR, space-qualified satellite components, and electronics.
Raytheon serves as a prime contractor or major subcontractor on numerous programs with the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), including the U.S. Navy, U.S. Army, Missile Defense Agency (MDA), U.S. Air Force, and U.S. Space Force, as well as programs with U.S federal civil customers, and other international and classified customers.
In 2023, Raytheon achieved key advancements in, or received contract awards for, the following programs: Naval Strike Missile (NSM), the StormBreaker smart weapon, AIM-9X and the AMRAAM program, and certain advanced technologies, including classified programs and an advanced development program. Major new awards in 2023 include a NATO contract to provide Guidance Enhanced Missiles (GEM-T) for the NATO Support and Procurement Agency (NSPA), AMRAAM for the U.S. Air Force and Navy and international customers; a contract to provide Patriot Air Defense systems to Switzerland, a contract to provide StormBreaker for the U.S. Air Force and Navy, a contract to provide Next Generation Jammer Mid-Band (NGJ-MB) for the U.S. Navy and the government of Australia, a contract for the SPY-6 Hardware Production and Sustainment base for the U.S. Navy, a contract to provide Excalibur guided munitions for the U.S. Army and international customers, a contract to provide the Next Generation Short Range Interceptor (NGSRI) for the U.S. Army, and a contract to develop and produce Hypersonic Attack Cruise Missiles (HACM) for the U.S. Air Force.

Sales and Customers
We have substantial U.S. government sales, which we conduct through all three of our business segments. In addition, as a global company, all three of our business segments have substantial international sales. See “Note 20: Segment Financial Data” within Item 8 of this Form 10-K for additional information.
U.S. Government Sales. Our U.S. government sales were as follows:
(dollars in millions)202320222021
Sales to the U.S. government (1)
$31,628 $30,317 $31,177 
Sales to the U.S. government as a percentage of total net sales (1) (2)
46 %45 %48 %
(1)    Excludes foreign military sales through the U.S. government.
(2)    2023 total net sales includes the reduction in sales from the Powder Metal Matter.
International Sales. Our sales to international customers, based on customer end use location, where known, were as follows:
(dollars in millions)202320222021
Total international sales$29,440 $25,884 $24,377 
Total international sales as a percentage of total net sales (1)
43 %39 %38 %
(1)    2023 total net sales includes the reduction in sales from the Powder Metal Matter.
Backlog. Backlog, which is equivalent to our remaining performance obligations (RPO) for our sales contracts, represents the aggregate dollar value of firm orders for which products have not been provided or service has not been performed and
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excludes unexercised contract options and potential orders under ordering-type contracts (e.g., indefinite-delivery, indefinite-quantity (IDIQ) type contracts).
Total backlog was $196 billion and $175 billion as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. Of the total RPO as of December 31, 2023, we expect approximately 25% will be recognized as sales over the next 12 months.
Competition
All of our businesses are subject to significant competition. Our businesses compete on a variety of factors such as price, delivery schedule, past performance, reliability, customer service, product development, innovation, and technology. Many of our competitors have substantial financial resources and significant technological capabilities. Further, some non-U.S. competitors receive government research and development assistance, marketing subsidies, and other assistance for their products beyond the assistance that may be available to us as a U.S. company.
Our aerospace businesses compete with numerous domestic and foreign manufacturers, customers, and companies that obtain regulatory agency approval to manufacture spare parts. Customer selections of aircraft engines, components, and systems can also have a significant impact on future sales of parts and services. In addition, the U.S. government’s and other governments’ policies of purchasing parts from suppliers other than the original equipment manufacturer affect military spare parts sales. Some competitors may offer substantial discounts and other financial incentives, performance and operating cost guarantees, and participation in financing arrangements in an effort to compete for the aftermarket associated with these products.
Our defense businesses compete with numerous U.S. and foreign companies in most defense and government electronics, space, effectors, communications, command and control, technical services and support, and other segments. We frequently partner on defense programs with our major suppliers, some of whom are, from time to time, competitors on other programs. In addition, the competitive landscape in the defense industry continues to evolve with trends such as the continued increase in commercial competitors and increased government, particularly foreign, sponsorship of competitors on defense development programs.
People
As a global technology and innovation-driven company, we depend on a highly skilled workforce. Attracting, developing, advancing, and retaining the best talent is critical for us to execute our strategy and grow our business. Individuals with technical, engineering, and science backgrounds, experience, or interests are particularly important for us to succeed in the industries in which we compete. In addition, our defense business in particular requires qualified personnel with security clearances due to our classified programs. Shifts in macroeconomic, industry and labor market conditions may affect the environment for hiring and retaining employees with relevant qualifications and experience, and we have experienced, and continue to experience, challenges hiring highly qualified personnel. We continuously monitor labor market conditions and trends to mitigate hiring and retention issues.
Governance. The Human Capital & Compensation Committee of the RTX Board of Directors oversees the Company’s human capital management.
Workforce Demographics. As of December 31, 2023, our global employee population consisted of a total of approximately 185,000 employees, including approximately 57,000 engineering professionals and approximately 32,000 employees represented by labor unions and other employee representative bodies. Our employees are located in 51 countries, with 70% of our employees located in the U.S. As of December 31, 2023, women represented 25% of our global workforce and 33% of our global executives, and people of color represented 33% of our U.S. employee population and 17% of our U.S. executives. In addition, we had over 2,200 U.S. new hires who self-identified as veterans in 2023.
Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion (DE&I). We strive to advance a diverse, equitable, and inclusive work environment. We believe a work environment where all individuals are respected, valued, and supported enables them to focus on developing the most innovative solutions to our industry’s greatest challenges. Our RTX DE&I Pillars for Action framework is focused on workforce diversity, supplier diversity, community engagement, and DE&I public policy. We have a DE&I advisory board of senior leaders. We review diversity in talent development and promotion, employee compensation practices and succession planning, and embed DE&I training into our leadership development programs. We have published our U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity EEO-1 report data as part of our Environmental Social Governance (ESG) Report. We have nine global employee resource groups (ERGs), which are volunteer-run organizations that are open to all employees and are intended to foster an inclusive culture. Approximately 16% of our workforce across 25 of the countries in which we operate are members of one or more of these ERGs. We also support science, technology, engineering, and mathematics initiatives for women and people of color, and provide opportunities to attract, develop and engage military veterans, people with disabilities, and the LGBTQ+ community.
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Talent Acquisition, Development, and Retention; Employee Health and Safety. We continuously monitor the hiring, retention, and management of our employees by business and function with a focus to attract, develop, engage, advance, and retain the best talent in the industry. We aim to identify and hire quality, diverse external talent with skills matched to our Company’s business needs. We invest in our workforce through internal and external education, training and development programs, and tuition assistance benefits. We also provide market competitive compensation and benefits. We recognize and reward performance during our annual review process. We regularly conduct succession planning to ensure that we continue to cultivate the leadership pipeline of talent needed to execute our business strategy. We solicit employee feedback on RTX’s performance as an employer via confidential surveys in the pre-hire, active, and exit stages of employment, and use those results to improve our workplace and employee experience. These surveys cover various topics related to employee engagement, inclusion, and belonging.
We have industry-leading health and safety programs to help maintain a safe work environment for all employees and mitigate workplace incidents, risks, and hazards. We review and monitor our performance and encourage employee input to identify opportunities to reduce incidents. Moreover, we have industry-leading ethics and compliance programs to help mitigate associated employee risks. We also provide health and wellness benefits and support flexible work arrangements for our employees.
Additional information regarding our human capital strategy is available in our “People” section of our ESG Report that can be found on our company website. Information on our website, including our ESG Report, is not incorporated by reference into this Form 10-K.
For information on the risks related to our human capital resources, see Item 1A. “Risk Factors” of this Form 10-K.
Research and Development and Operations
Our innovative products and services incorporate advanced technologies. As a result, we invest substantial amounts in research and development (R&D) activities using our own funds and under contractual arrangements with our customers, to enhance existing products and services and develop future technologies to meet our customers’ changing needs and requirements, as well as to address new business opportunities.
We manufacture and service our products in approximately 230 manufacturing, production or overhaul facilities in approximately 30 countries, including the U.S. In addition, RTX has offices in approximately 10 other countries.
Intellectual Property
We maintain a robust portfolio of patents, trademarks, copyrights, trade secrets, licenses and franchises related to our businesses. We rely on a combination of these rights, along with nondisclosure agreements, information technology (IT) security systems, internal controls and compliance systems, and other measures to protect our intellectual property. The U.S. government and foreign governments have licenses to certain of our intellectual property, including certain patents, which are developed or used in the performance of government contracts. Commercial customers also have licenses to certain of our intellectual property largely in connection with the sale of our products. While our intellectual property rights in the aggregate are important to the operation of each of our businesses, we do not believe that our business would be materially affected by the expiration of any particular intellectual property right or termination of any particular intellectual property patent license agreement.
Suppliers and Raw Materials
We are dependent on a global supply chain for a wide range of raw materials, commodities, components, and services. Some of our products require relatively scarce raw materials. In some instances, we depend upon a single source of supply or participate in commodity markets that may be subject to allocations of limited supplies by suppliers. In addition, in some cases, we must comply with specific procurement requirements, which may limit the suppliers and subcontractors we may utilize. We are largely dependent upon foreign sources for certain raw materials, such as cobalt, tantalum, chromium, rhenium, nickel, and titanium, and we rely on foreign suppliers as single-source suppliers of some components.
In 2023, we continued to experience supply chain disruptions that impacted our ability to procure raw materials, microelectronics, and certain commodities, and resulted in delays and increased costs. These disruptions were driven by supply chain market constraints and macroeconomic conditions, including inflation and labor market shortages. High inflation increased material and component prices, labor rates and supplier costs, and put pressure on our margins. Current geopolitical conditions, including conflicts and other causes of strained intercountry relations, as well as sanctions and other trade restrictive activities, are contributing to these supply chain issues.
We have implemented certain actions and programs to mitigate some of the impacts, but anticipate supply chain disruptions to continue into 2024. We work with our suppliers and subcontractors to assess the causes of performance failures and delays and
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work to address them, including by providing suppliers with raw materials and technical support. We have arranged second and third supply source alternatives and have increased our materials and parts inventory. We regularly pursue cost reductions through a number of mechanisms, including consolidating or re-sourcing our purchases, expanding the use of long-term agreements, reducing the number of suppliers generally (except as described above for important supply alternatives), strategic sourcing in cost competitive regions, competitions among suppliers and other low-cost sourcing initiatives, and extending our contractually negotiated raw material pricing to higher-tier suppliers in our supply chain. For additional information related to supply chain issues, see Item IA. “Risk Factors” of this Form 10-K.
Other Matters Relating to Our Business
As worldwide businesses, our operations can be affected by a variety of economic, industry, and other factors, including those described in this section, in Item 7. “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” in Item 1. “Cautionary Note Concerning Factors That May Affect Future Results,” and in Item 1A. “Risk Factors” of this Form 10-K.
Regulatory Matters
Our businesses are subject to extensive regulation in the industries we serve. We deal with numerous U.S. government agencies and entities, including but not limited to all of the branches of the DoD, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the Department of Homeland Security. Similar government authorities exist in all of the countries in which we do business.
U.S. Government Contracts. As previously discussed, the U.S. government is our largest customer, representing a substantial majority of our total defense sales. U.S. government contracts are subject to termination by the government, either for convenience or for default in the event of our failure to perform under the applicable contract. In the case of a termination for convenience, we would normally be entitled to reimbursement for our allowable costs incurred, termination costs, and a reasonable profit. If terminated by the government as a result of our default, we could be liable for payments made to us for undelivered goods or services, additional costs the government incurs in acquiring undelivered goods or services from another source, and any other damages it suffers. Our U.S. government contracts generally are subject to the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR), which sets forth policies, procedures, and requirements for the acquisition of goods and services by the U.S. government; department-specific regulations that implement or supplement the FAR, such as the DoD’s Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS); and other applicable laws and regulations. These regulations impose a broad range of requirements, many of which are unique to government contracting, including various procurement, import and export, security, contract pricing and cost, contract termination and adjustment, audit, and product integrity requirements. A contractor’s failure to comply with these regulations and requirements could result in reductions to the value of contracts, contract modifications or termination, cash withholds on contract payments, forfeiture of profits, and/or the assessment of civil or criminal penalties and fines, and could lead to suspension or debarment, for cause, from U.S. government contracting or subcontracting for a period of time.
For further discussion of risks related to government contracting, including on-going litigation associated with U.S. government audits and investigations, see Item 1A. “Risk Factors” and Item 3. “Legal Proceedings” of this Form 10-K and “Note 17: Commitments and Contingencies” within Item 8 of this Form 10-K.
Commercial Aerospace Product Regulation. Our commercial aerospace products are subject to regulations by the FAA, foreign aviation administration authorities, and international regulatory bodies, including on production and quality systems, airworthiness and installation approvals, repair procedures, and continuing operational safety. In addition, commercial aerospace regulations and regulator approaches differ across jurisdictions and changes in such regulations and implementing legislation can impact our operations.
Environmental Regulation. Our operations are subject to and affected by environmental regulation by federal, state, and local authorities in the U.S. and regulatory authorities with jurisdiction over our international operations, including with respect to the generation, treatment, storage, disposal, and remediation of hazardous substances and wastes. We use hazardous substances and generate hazardous wastes in some of our operations and have incurred, and will likely continue to incur, costs associated with environmental compliance activities and management of remediation matters at sites with pollutants. A portion of these costs are eligible for future recovery through the pricing of our products and services under our contracts with the U.S. government. In addition, we have been identified as a potentially responsible party under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act, also known as the Superfund law, or state law counterparts to the Superfund law, for a number of sites. The nature and extent of environmental concerns vary from site to site and our share of responsibility varies from sole responsibility to very little responsibility. We also manage various government-owned facilities on behalf of the U.S. government. At such facilities, environmental compliance and remediation costs have historically been primarily the responsibility of the U.S. government, and we have relied upon the U.S. government funding to pay such costs. We do not anticipate that compliance with current provisions or requirements relating to the protection of the environment or that any
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payments we may be required to make for cleanup liabilities will have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, results of operations, financial condition, or liquidity. Environmental matters are further addressed in “Note 1: Basis of Presentation and Summary of Accounting Principles” and “Note 17: Commitments and Contingencies” within Item 8 of this Form 10-K.
Most of the U.S. laws governing environmental matters include criminal provisions. If we were convicted of a violation of the federal Clean Air Act or Clean Water Act, the facility or facilities involved in the violation could be deemed ineligible to be used in performing any U.S. government contract we are awarded until the Environmental Protection Agency thereafter certifies that the condition giving rise to the violation has been corrected.
In addition, we could be affected by future foreign or domestic laws or regulations imposed in response to concerns over climate change, and we monitor developments in environmental and climate-related laws and regulations and their potential impact to our business and financial condition. Changes in environmental and climate-related laws or regulations, including regulations on greenhouse gas emissions, carbon pricing, energy taxes, product efficiency standards, and mandatory disclosure obligations could lead to new or additional investment in product designs and facility upgrades and could increase our operational and environmental compliance expenditures, including increased energy and raw materials costs and costs associated with manufacturing changes.
For further discussion of risks related to environmental and climate matters and other government regulations, see Item 1A. “Risk Factors” of this Form 10-K.
Other Applicable Regulations. We conduct our businesses through subsidiaries and affiliates worldwide. As a result, our businesses and operations are subject to both U.S. and non-U.S. government laws, regulations, and procurement policies and practices, including regulations relating to export and import controls, tariffs, taxes, investment, sanctions, exchange controls, anti-corruption, privacy, and cash repatriation. Our international sales are also subject to varying currency, political, and economic risks.
Cautionary Note Concerning Factors That May Affect Future Results
This Form 10-K contains statements which, to the extent they are not statements of historical or present fact, constitute “forward-looking statements” under the securities laws. From time to time, oral or written forward-looking statements may also be included in other information released to the public. These forward-looking statements are intended to provide management’s current expectations or plans for our future operating and financial performance, based on assumptions currently believed to be valid, and are not statements of historical fact. Forward-looking statements can be identified by the use of words such as “believe,” “expect,” “expectations,” “plans,” “strategy,” “prospects,” “estimate,” “project,” “target,” “commit,” “commitment,” “anticipate,” “will,” “should,” “see,” “guidance,” “outlook,” “goals,” “objectives,” “confident,” “on track,” and other words of similar meaning. Forward-looking statements may include, among other things, statements relating to future sales, earnings, cash flow, results of operations, uses of cash, share repurchases (including the accelerated share repurchase program), tax payments and rates, research and development spending, cost savings, other measures of financial performance, potential future plans, strategies or transactions, credit ratings and net indebtedness, a rare condition in powder metal used to manufacture certain engine parts requiring accelerated inspection of the PW1100G-JM (PW1100) Geared Turbofan (GTF) fleet (herein referred to as the Powder Metal Matter) and related matters and activities, including without limitation other engine models that may be impacted, anticipated benefits to RTX of its segment realignment, pending dispositions of Raytheon’s Cybersecurity, Intelligence and Services business and Collins’ actuation and flight control business, targets and commitments (including for share repurchases or otherwise), and other statements which are not solely historical facts. All forward-looking statements involve risks, uncertainties, and other factors that may cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied in the forward-looking statements. For those statements, we claim the protection of the safe harbor for forward-looking statements contained in the U.S. Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Such risks, uncertainties, and other factors include, without limitation:
the effect of changes in economic, capital market, and political conditions in the U.S. and globally, such as from the global sanctions and export controls with respect to Russia, and any changes therein, including related to financial market conditions, bank failures, and other banking industry disruptions, fluctuations in commodity prices or supply (including energy supply), inflation, interest rates and foreign currency exchange rates, disruptions in global supply chain and labor markets, and geopolitical risks;
risks associated with U.S. government sales, including changes or shifts in defense spending due to budgetary constraints, spending cuts resulting from sequestration, a continuing resolution, a government shutdown, the debt ceiling or measures taken to avoid default, or otherwise, and uncertain funding of programs;
risks relating to our performance on our contracts and programs, including our ability to control costs, and our inability to pass some or all of our costs on fixed price contracts to the customer;
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challenges in the development, production, delivery, support, and performance of RTX advanced technologies and new products and services and the realization of the anticipated benefits (including our expected returns under customer contracts), as well as the challenges of operating in RTX’s highly-competitive industries;
risks relating to RTX’s reliance on U.S. and non-U.S. suppliers and commodity markets, including the effect of sanctions, delays, and disruptions in the delivery of materials and services to RTX or its suppliers and price increases;
risks relating to RTX international operations from, among other things, changes in trade policies and implementation of sanctions, foreign currency fluctuations, economic conditions, political factors, sales methods, and U.S. or local government regulations;
the condition of the aerospace industry;
the ability of RTX to attract, train, and retain qualified personnel and maintain its culture and high ethical standards, and the ability of our personnel to continue to operate our facilities and businesses around the world;
the scope, nature, timing, and challenges of managing acquisitions, investments, divestitures, and other transactions, including the realization of synergies and opportunities for growth and innovation, the assumption of liabilities, and other risks and incurrence of related costs and expenses, and risks related to completion of announced divestitures;
compliance with legal, environmental, regulatory, and other requirements, including, among other things, export and import requirements such as the International Traffic in Arms Regulations and the Export Administration Regulations, anti-bribery and anticorruption requirements, such as the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, industrial cooperation agreement obligations, and procurement and other regulations in the U.S. and other countries in which RTX and its businesses operate;
the outcome of pending, threatened, and future legal proceedings, investigations, and other contingencies, including those related to U.S. government audits and disputes;
factors that could impact RTX’s ability to engage in desirable capital-raising or strategic transactions, including its credit rating, capital structure, levels of indebtedness and related obligations, capital expenditures, and research and development spending, and capital deployment strategy including with respect to share repurchases, and the availability of credit, borrowing costs, credit market conditions, and other factors;
uncertainties associated with the timing and scope of future repurchases by RTX of its common stock, including the ability to complete the accelerated share repurchase (ASR), the purchase price of the shares acquired pursuant to the ASR agreement, and the timing and duration of the ASR program, or declarations of cash dividends, which may be discontinued, accelerated, suspended, or delayed at any time due to various factors, including market conditions and the level of other investing activities and uses of cash;
risks relating to realizing expected benefits from, incurring costs for, and successfully managing the Company’s segment realignment effective July 1, 2023, and other RTX strategic initiatives such as cost reduction, restructuring, digital transformation, and other operational initiatives;
risks of additional tax exposures due to new tax legislation or other developments in the U.S. and other countries in which RTX and its businesses operate;
risks relating to addressing the Powder Metal Matter, including, without limitation, the number and expected timing of shop visits, inspection results and scope of work to be performed, turnaround time, availability of parts, available capacity at overhaul facilities, outcomes of negotiations with impacted customers, and risks related to other engine models that may be impacted by the Powder Metal Matter, and in each case the timing and costs relating thereto, as well as other issues that could impact RTX product performance, including quality, reliability, or durability;
risks relating to a RTX product safety failure or other failure affecting RTX’s or its customers’ or suppliers’ products or systems;
risks relating to cybersecurity, including cyber-attacks on RTX’s information technology infrastructure, products, suppliers, customers and partners, and cybersecurity-related regulations;
risks relating to our intellectual property and certain third party intellectual property;
threats to RTX facilities and personnel, as well as other events outside of RTX’s control such as public health crises, damaging weather, or other acts of nature;
the effect of changes in accounting estimates for our programs on our financial results;
the effect of changes in pension and other postretirement plan estimates and assumptions and contributions;
risks relating to an impairment of goodwill and other intangible assets;
the effects of climate change and changing or new climate-related regulations, customer and market demands, products and technologies; and
the intended qualification of (1) the Raytheon merger as a tax-free reorganization and (2) the separation transactions and other internal restructurings as tax-free to us (formerly known as United Technologies Corporation (UTC)) and former UTC shareowners, in each case, for U.S. federal income tax purposes.
In addition, this Form 10-K includes important information as to risks, uncertainties, and other factors that may cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied in the forward-looking statements. See “Note 17: Commitments and
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Contingencies” within Item 8 of this Form 10-K, the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” under the headings “Business Overview,” “Critical Accounting Estimates,” “Results of Operations,” and “Liquidity and Financial Condition,” within Item 7 of this Form 10-K, and the sections titled Item 1A. “Risk Factors” and Item 3. “Legal Proceedings,” of this Form 10-K. This Form 10-K also includes important information as to these factors in the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” under the heading “Government Matters,” within Item 7 of this Form 10-K, and in the “Business” section under the headings “General,” “Business Segments”, “Other Matters Relating to Our Business”, and “Regulatory Matters.” The forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this report or, in the case of any document incorporated by reference, the date of that document. We undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events, or otherwise, except as required by applicable law. Additional information as to factors that may cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied in the forward-looking statements is disclosed from time to time in our other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).

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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
Our business, operating results, financial condition, and liquidity can be impacted by the factors set forth below, any one of which could cause our actual results to vary materially from recent results or from our anticipated future results.
INDUSTRY RISKS
Our business may be adversely affected by changes in global economic, capital market, and political conditions. Our business, operating results, financial condition, and liquidity may be adversely affected by changes in global economic conditions, international relations, and geopolitical events and actions, including inflation, credit market conditions, levels of consumer and business confidence, commodity (including energy) prices and supply, trade policies, exchange rates, changing policy positions or priorities, levels of government spending and deficits, the threat environment, political conditions, and actual or anticipated default on sovereign debt. The current global supply chain challenges and inflationary pressures have negatively affected, and we expect will continue to negatively affect, our performance as well as the performance of our suppliers and subcontractors. High inflation levels have increased material and component prices, labor rates, and supplier costs. In addition, due to the nature of our government and commercial aerospace businesses, and their respective customer and supplier contracts, we may be unable to increase our contract value or pricing to offset cost increases, in particular on our fixed price contracts. Our operating profits and margins under our contracts could be adversely affected by these factors. Similarly, interest rate increases have created financial market volatility and could further negatively impact financial markets, lead to an economic downturn or recession, and tighten the availability of, and increase the cost of, capital for the Company, which could have an adverse effect on our operating results, financial condition, and liquidity. Tightening of credit in financial markets also could adversely affect the ability of our customers and suppliers to obtain financing for significant purchases and operations, could result in a decrease in, or cancellation of, orders for our products and services, could impact the ability of our customers to make payments, and could increase the risk of supplier financial distress. Our global business is also adversely affected by decreases in the general level of economic activity, such as decreases in business and consumer spending, air travel, the financial strength of airlines and business jet operators, and government procurement. In addition, geopolitical risks could affect government priorities, budgets, and policies, such as U.S. approvals of our foreign defense sales as well as sanctions and other trade-restrictive activities, which could impact sales of defense and other products and services.
Changes in U.S. government defense spending could negatively impact our financial position, results of operations, liquidity, and overall business. U.S. government sales constitute a significant portion of our consolidated sales. Our U.S. government revenues largely result from contracts awarded under various U.S. government programs, primarily defense-related programs with the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and a broad range of programs with the U.S. Intelligence Community and other departments and agencies. Changes in U.S. government defense spending for various reasons, including as a result of potential changes in policy or budgetary positions or priorities, could negatively impact our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity. Our programs are subject to U.S. government policies, budget decisions, and appropriation processes, which are driven by numerous factors including U.S. domestic and broader geopolitical events, macroeconomic conditions, and the ability of the U.S. government to enact relevant legislation, such as appropriations bills. In recent years, U.S. government appropriations have been affected by larger U.S. government budgetary issues and related legislation, and the U.S. government has been unable to complete its budget process before the end of its fiscal year, resulting in both governmental shutdowns and continuing resolutions (CRs) providing only enough funds for U.S. government agencies to continue operating at prior-year levels. The U.S. government is currently operating under a CR to keep the government funded while Congress works to enact full year fiscal year 2024 (FY24) appropriation bills. While we expect Congress to complete the full year FY24 appropriations bills before the current CR expire, if Congress is unable to complete the FY24 appropriation bills, (or pass another CR), then the U.S. government would shut down during which federal agencies would cease all non-essential functions. Our business, program performance, and results of operations could be impacted by the resulting disruptions to federal government offices, workers, and operations, including risks relating to the funding of certain programs, stop work orders, as well as delays in contract awards, new program starts, payments for work performed, and other actions. We also may experience similar impacts in the event of an extended period of continuing resolutions. Generally, the significance of these impacts will primarily be based on the length of the continuing resolution or shutdown. Furthermore, under the Fiscal Responsibility Act of 2023, which imposes limits on discretionary spending for defense and non-defense programs in exchange for the lifting of the debt ceiling in June 2023, if Congress fails to enact all appropriation bills by April 30, 2024, then the budget caps will be reduced and corresponding automatic reductions to agency budget accounts will be enforced through sequestration. As a result, U.S. government defense spending levels are subject to a wide range of outcomes and are difficult to predict beyond the near-term due to numerous factors, including the external threat environment, future governmental priorities, and the state of governmental finances. Significant changes in U.S. government defense spending or changes in U.S. government priorities, policies, and requirements could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity.
We face risks relating to our U.S. government contracts and programs, including the mix of our U.S. government contracts and programs, our performance, and our ability to control costs. The termination of one or more of our U.S. government
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contracts, or the occurrence of performance delays, cost overruns (due to inflation or otherwise), product failures, shortages in materials, components, or labor, contract definitization delays, or other failures to perform to customer expectations and contract requirements, could negatively impact our reputation and competitive position, results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity. U.S. government contracts generally permit the government to terminate the contract, in whole or in part, without prior notice, at the U.S. government’s convenience or for default based on performance. If one of our contracts is terminated for convenience, we would generally be entitled to payments for our allowable costs incurred, termination costs, and would receive some allowance for profit on the work performed. If one of our contracts is terminated for default, we would generally be entitled to payments for work accepted by the U.S. government. A termination arising out of our default could expose us to liability and have a negative impact on our ability to obtain future contracts and orders. In addition, we are a subcontractor on some programs, and the U.S. government could terminate the prime contract for convenience or otherwise, without regard to our performance as a subcontractor. We may not be able to offset lost revenues resulting from contract termination. Moreover, because the funding of U.S. government programs is subject to congressional appropriations made on a fiscal year basis even for multi-year programs, programs are often only partially funded initially and may not continue to be funded in future years. Appropriation bills may be delayed, which may result in delays to funding, the collection of receivables, and our contract performance due to lack of authorized funds to procure related products and services. The timing of contract definitization can be affected by factors specific to the U.S. government, including staffing limitations. Under certain circumstances, we may use our own funds to meet our customer’s desired delivery dates or other requirements, but we may not be reimbursed. Further, if appropriations for one of our programs become unavailable, reduced, or delayed, the U.S. government may terminate for convenience our contract or subcontract under that program. In addition, our U.S. government contracts typically involve the development, application, and manufacture of advanced defense and technology systems and products aimed at achieving challenging goals. As a result of untested or unproven technologies, or modified requirements or specifications, we may experience technological and other performance difficulties (including delays, setbacks, cost overruns, or product failures), our attention or resources may be diverted from other projects, and our future sales opportunities may be impacted. Additionally, as our customers demand more mature and proven solutions, we may be required to invest in development prior to contract award with no guarantee of award.
Our U.S. government contracts are typically either fixed-priced contracts or cost reimbursement contracts. Fixed-price contracts are predominantly either firm fixed-price (FFP) contracts or fixed-price incentive (FPI) contracts. Under FFP contracts, we receive a fixed price irrespective of the actual costs we incur, and we therefore carry the burden of any cost overruns. Under FPI contracts, we generally share with the U.S. government savings for cost underruns less than target costs and expenses for cost overruns exceeding target costs up to a negotiated ceiling price. We carry the entire burden of cost overruns exceeding the ceiling price amount under FPI contracts, which may result in a cumulative adjustment in the period our estimates change. Under cost reimbursable contracts, we are reimbursed for allowable costs and are typically paid a fixed or performance-based fee, but we are generally not reimbursed for unauthorized costs exceeding a cost ceiling amount or costs not allowable under the contract or applicable regulations. Excess costs on cost reimbursable contracts could also result in lower profit rates. We may incur unexpected costs for various reasons, including technical and manufacturing challenges, schedule delays, shortages in materials, components, or labor, internal and subcontractor performance, product quality issues, inability to achieve the benefits of our cost reduction, digital transformation, manufacturing, operating, and other strategic initiatives, inflation, and changing laws or regulations, natural disasters, and public health crises. If we are unable to control costs or if our initial cost estimates are incorrect, our profitability could be negatively affected, particularly under fixed-price development contracts. We may also experience cost underruns which would reduce contract value and related expected revenues, and we may be unable to expand the contract scope or secure additional work to offset the resulting lost revenues. While contracts for development programs with complex design and technical challenges are often cost reimbursable, they can be FFP or FPI, which can significantly increase our risk of a potential negative profit adjustment, as development contracts by nature involve elements that have not been undertaken before and, thus, are highly subject to future unexpected cost growth. In addition, other contracts in backlog are for the transition from development to production, which includes starting and stabilizing a manufacturing and test line while the final design is still being validated. Moreover, over the past several years, the DoD has increased its use of Other Transaction Authority (OTA) agreements, under which it awards certain prototypes, research, and production contracts without all of the procurement requirements that typically apply to DoD contracts, including justification of sole source awards. OTAs may use fixed-price contracting during all phases of the contract, or mandated contract cost sharing. They may also require non-traditional subcontractor participation and impose other requirements that differ from our other DoD contracts. Our business may be negatively impacted if we are unable to bid for OTA work and/or perform on our OTA agreements, including any applicable non-traditional requirements. In addition, in order to support U.S. government priorities, we may begin performance prior to completing contract negotiations for an undefinitized contract action with a not-to-exceed price. Uncertainties in final contract price, specifications and terms, or loss of negotiating leverage associated with particularly long delays in contract definitization may negatively affect our profitability. Our U.S. government contracts also require us to comply with extensive and evolving procurement rules and regulations and subject us to potential U.S. government surveillance, audits, investigations,
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and disputes. We are also involved in programs that are classified by the U.S. government, which have security requirements that place limits on our ability to discuss our performance on these programs, including any risks, disputes, and claims.
Our international business is subject to economic, regulatory, competition, and other risks. Our international sales and operations are subject to risks associated with political and economic factors, regulatory requirements, competition, and other risks. A significant portion of our sales are international, including U.S. export sales. Our non-U.S. operations transactions may be denominated in local currencies. Foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations (including their impact on supplier prices) may negatively affect demand for our products and our reported profits, as well as our operating margins. The majority of our commercial aerospace sales are in U.S. Dollars, while the majority of their non-U.S. operating costs are incurred in the applicable local currency. Pratt & Whitney Canada is especially susceptible to fluctuations in exchange rates for this reason. In addition, because our financial statements are denominated in U.S. Dollars, currency fluctuations may cause translation gains or losses for non-U.S. operating unit financial statements.
Our international sales and operations are also subject to risks associated with local government laws, regulations, and policies, including with respect to investments, taxation, exchange controls, capital controls, employment regulations, and repatriation of earnings. Differing legal systems, customs, and contract laws and regulations pose additional risk. International transactions may include contractual terms that differ from those of similar contracts in the U.S. or that may be interpreted differently in foreign countries. In addition, in certain foreign countries, we engage foreign non-employee representatives and consultants for international sales and teaming with international subcontractors, partners, and suppliers for international programs. While we have robust policies and controls in place, these engagements expose us to various challenges including risks associated with the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) and local antibribery laws and regulations. From time to time, we have disputes with such representatives regarding claimed commissions and other matters which can result in litigation or arbitration. In addition, we face risks related to the unintended or unauthorized use of our products.
Our international business faces substantial competition from both U.S. companies and foreign companies. In some instances, foreign companies may be owned by foreign governments or may receive loans, marketing subsidies, and other assistance from their governments that may not be available to U.S. companies or our foreign subsidiaries. In addition, foreign companies may be subject to fewer restrictions on technology transfer than U.S. companies.
Our international contracts, particularly for sales of defense products and services, may include offset or industrial cooperation obligations requiring specific local purchases, manufacturing agreements, technology transfer agreements, financial support obligations, or other local investments, sometimes in the form of in-country industrial participation (ICIP) agreements. Approvals of offset or ICIP thresholds and requirements may be subjective and time-consuming and may delay contract awards. Certain customers’ demands are increasing for greater offset or ICIP commitment levels, higher-value content, including the transfer of technologies and capabilities, and local production and economic development. In addition, our ability to satisfy customer demands relating to the transfer of technologies and capabilities under ICIP arrangements and other international contracts may be limited by U.S. government export controls.
As a result of the above factors, we could experience financial penalties and award and funding delays on international programs, our profitability on these programs could be negatively affected, and we could incur losses on these programs that could negatively impact our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity.
Geopolitical factors and changes in policies and regulations could adversely affect our business. Our international sales and operations are sensitive to changes in foreign national priorities, foreign government budgets, and regional and local political and economic factors, including wars and armed conflicts, political or civil unrest, volatility in energy prices or supply, inflation, interest rates, changes in threat environments and political relations, geopolitical uncertainties, and changes in U.S. foreign policy. Our international sales and operations are also sensitive to changes in U.S. or foreign government laws, regulations, and policies, including those related to tariffs, sanctions, embargoes, export and import controls, other trade restrictions, and trade agreements. Events such as increased trade restrictions, retaliatory trade policies, or regime change can affect demand for our products and services, the competitive position of our products, our supply chain, and our ability to manufacture or sell products in certain countries. Further, operations in emerging market countries are subject to additional risks, including volatility in rates of economic growth, government instability, cultural differences (such as employment and business practices), the imposition of exchange and capital controls, and risks associated with exporting components manufactured in those countries for incorporation into finished products completed in other countries. While these factors and their impact are difficult to predict, any one or more of them could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, results of operations, financial condition, or liquidity.
In addition, given the role of our defense businesses in the support of the national security interests of the U. S. and its allies, we are subject to risks and uncertainties relating to policies of the U.S. and its allies, as well as other countries, including those that are or become regarded as potential adversaries or threats. We engage in both direct commercial sales, which generally require U.S. government licenses and approvals, as well as foreign military sales, which are government-to-government transactions
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initiated by, and carried out at the direction of, the U.S. government. Changes in budgets and spending levels, policies, or priorities, which are subject to geopolitical risks and threats, may impact our defense businesses, including the timing of and delays in U.S. government licenses and approvals for sales, the risk of sanctions or other restrictions, as well as potential human rights issues associated with the use of our defense products. These risks and uncertainties may directly or indirectly impact our commercial businesses as well.
Of note, in February 2023, China announced sanctions against Raytheon Missiles & Defense (RMD) (a former RTX Corporation (RTX) business segment, which became part of Raytheon as a result of the July 1, 2023 RTX segment realignment), and previously announced it may take measures against RTX, in connection with certain foreign military sales to Taiwan. The Chinese sanctions against RMD included a fine equal to twice the value of the arms that RMD sold to Taiwan since September 2020. In addition, in September 2022, China indicated that it decided to sanction our Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Gregory Hayes, in connection with another foreign military sale to Taiwan involving RTX products and services. If China were to enforce sanctions, impose additional sanctions, or take other regulatory action against RTX, our suppliers, affiliates, or partners, it could potentially disrupt our business operations. The impact of the announced sanctions or other potential sanctions, or other actions by China is uncertain. Our businesses have sold, and are expected to sell in the future, additional defense products to Taiwan from time to time in alignment with our U.S. government policy, and we are unable to determine the potential impact, if any, of any future sanctions or other actions by China in response to these sales. Moreover, the Chinese government has generally expanded its ability to restrict China-related import, export and investment activities, which may have an adverse impact on our ability to conduct business or sell our commercial aerospace products in China. In addition, in response to Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, the U.S. government and the governments of various jurisdictions in which we operate, have imposed broad economic sanctions and export controls targeting specific industries, entities, and individuals in Russia. The Russian government has implemented similar counter-sanctions and export controls targeting specific industries, entities, and individuals in the U.S. and other jurisdictions in which we operate, including certain members of the Company’s management team and Board of Directors. These government measures, among other limitations, restrict transactions involving various Russian banks and financial institutions and impose enhanced export controls limiting transfers of various goods, software, and technologies to and from Russia, including broadened export controls specifically targeting the aerospace sector. These measures have adversely affected and could continue to adversely affect the Company and/or our supply chain, business partners, or customers.
We continue to closely monitor developments in the war between Israel and Hamas that began on October 7, 2023, including potential impacts to RTX’s business, customers, suppliers, employees, and operations in Israel, the Middle East, and elsewhere. At this time, impacts to RTX are minimal. RTX’s commercial manufacturing facilities in Israel remain open and operational and have continued exporting products and importing critical items and raw materials. The war has also not impacted our defense programs’ ability to receive components from Israel. For some products, there could be future delivery delays because of the ongoing war. The potential impacts to RTX are subject to change given the volatile nature of the situation.
Our financial performance is dependent on the condition of the aerospace industry. Our commercial aerospace businesses constitute a substantial portion of our financial results, and the performance of those businesses is directly tied to economic conditions in the commercial aerospace industry, which is cyclical in nature. Capital spending and demand for aircraft engines, aerospace products, and component aftermarket parts and services is limited to commercial airlines, lessors, other aircraft operators and aircraft manufacturers that are influenced by a wide variety of factors, including current and predicted traffic levels, load factors, aircraft fuel prices, labor issues, airline consolidation, bankruptcies and restructuring activities, competition, the retirement of older aircraft, corporate profitability and financial health, cost reduction efforts, tightening of credit in financial markets and the availability of aircraft leasing and financing alternatives, remaining performance obligations levels, the satisfaction of certification or other regulatory requirements for aircraft in various jurisdictions, regulatory changes, terrorism and related safety concerns, and general economic conditions. Any of these factors affecting the industry could reduce the sales and margins of our aerospace businesses. In addition, because we have significant business with Airbus and Boeing, our aerospace businesses could be adversely affected by challenges faced by these or other individual customers. Other factors, including future terrorist actions, aviation safety concerns, pandemic health issues, or major natural disasters, could also dramatically reduce the demand for commercial air travel, which could negatively impact the sales and margins of our aerospace businesses. Additionally, because a substantial portion of product deliveries to commercial aerospace customers are scheduled for delivery in the future, changes in economic conditions may cause customers to request that firm orders be rescheduled or canceled. At times, our aerospace businesses also enter into firm fixed-price or cost-share development contracts with customers, which may require us to bear cost overruns related to unforeseen technical and design challenges that arise during the development and early production stages of the program. Spare parts sales and aftermarket services, particularly under long-term aftermarket contracts are also affected by similar factors, including usage, pricing, technological improvements, regulatory changes, and the retirement of older aircraft. Furthermore, because of the lengthy research and development cycle involved in bringing products in these business segments to market, we cannot predict the economic conditions that will exist when any new product is ready to enter into service. A reduction in spending in the commercial
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aviation industry could have a significant effect on the demand for our products, which could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, results of operations, financial condition, or liquidity.
We design, manufacture, and service products that incorporate advanced technologies; the introduction of new products and technologies involves risks, and we may not realize the degree or timing of benefits initially anticipated. The design, development, production, sale, and support of innovative commercial aerospace and defense systems and products involves advanced technologies. We invest substantial amounts in research and development efforts to pursue advancements in a wide range of technologies, products, and services aimed at meeting the ever-evolving product, program, and service needs of our customers. Our ability to realize the anticipated benefits of our investments depends on a variety of factors, including meeting development, production, certification, and regulatory approval schedules; receiving regulatory approvals; execution of internal and external performance plans; achieving cost and production efficiencies; availability and quality of supplier- and internally-produced parts and materials; availability of supplier and internal facility capacity to perform maintenance, repair, and overhaul services; availability of test equipment; development of complex software; hiring and training of qualified personnel; identification of emerging technological trends for our target end-customers; the level of customer interest in new technologies and products; customer acceptance of our products and technologies; and the level of competition as described below. For example we are investing in artificial intelligence, among other advanced technologies, and we may be unable to successfully integrate the technology into our products and services or keep pace with this rapidly changing technology. In addition, our customers manufacture or acquire end products and systems that incorporate certain of our products. These end products and systems may also incorporate additional technologies manufactured by third parties and involve additional risks and uncertainties. As a result, the performance and industry acceptance of these larger systems and end products could affect the level of customer interest in, and acceptance of, our products in the marketplace. In addition, many of our products must adhere to strict regulatory and market-driven safety and performance standards in a variety of jurisdictions. The evolving nature of these standards, along with the long duration of development, production, and aftermarket support programs, creates uncertainty regarding program profitability, particularly with our aircraft engine products. Development efforts divert resources from other potential investments in our businesses, and these efforts may not lead to the development of new technologies or products on a timely basis or meet the needs of our customers as fully as competitive offerings. In addition, the industries for our products or products that incorporate our technologies may not develop or grow as we anticipate. We, or our customers, suppliers, or subcontractors, may encounter difficulties in developing and producing new products and services, and may not realize the degree or timing of benefits initially anticipated or may otherwise suffer significant adverse financial consequences. Due to the design complexity of our products, or those of our customers or third party manufacturers that incorporate our products into theirs or our customers’ products, we may experience delays in completing the development and introduction of new products, or we may experience the suspension of production after these products enter into service due to safety concerns. Delays and/or suspension of production could result in increased development costs or deflect resources from other projects. Any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, results of operations, financial condition, or liquidity.
In particular, Pratt & Whitney’s Geared Turbofan family of engines incorporates advanced technologies. The level of orders received for the Geared Turbofan family of engines, coupled with a requirement to achieve mature production levels in a very short time frame, require significant manufacturing and supply chain capacity. In addition, in July 2023 Pratt & Whitney determined that a rare condition in powder metal used to manufacture certain engine parts requires accelerated inspection of the PW1100G-JM (PW1100) Geared Turbofan (GTF) fleet, which powers the A320neo family of aircraft, resulting in increased engine removals and inspections, shop visits, aircraft on ground levels, costs to the Company, and other negative impacts described in more detail below. If any of our production or maintenance, repair, and overhaul ramp-up efforts are delayed, if suppliers cannot timely deliver or perform to our standards, if any other engine models are found to be materially impacted by the powder metal issue, and/or if we identify or experience other issues with in-service engines in the Geared Turbofan family of engines (or other engines), whether for manufacturing reasons or otherwise, we may not meet customer requirements, which could result in material additional costs, including liquidated damages or other liabilities.
Competition may reduce our revenues and limit our future opportunities. We operate in highly competitive industries and our competitors may have more extensive or more specialized engineering, manufacturing, marketing, and servicing capabilities than we do. Our contracts are typically awarded on a competitive basis. Our bids are based in part upon the cost to provide the products and services. If we fail to accurately estimate these costs, the profitability of our contracts may be adversely affected. In addition, we may face customer-directed cost reduction targets that could have a material adverse effect on the profitability of our contracts if these targets are not achieved when required. We have also experienced highly competitive pricing, in which a bidder may anticipate making a substantial investment in a program in order to win the work. Moreover, bid protests from unsuccessful bidders on new program awards are frequent with respect to DoD awards in particular. Generally, a bid protest will delay the start of contract activities, delay earnings, and could result in the award decision being overturned and require a re-bid of the contract. Highly competitive activity within the commercial aerospace industry has included substantial discounts and other financial incentives, performance and operating cost guarantees, and participation in financing arrangements, in order
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to secure both new engine business and the aftermarket revenues associated with these products. Further, our competitors, including our customers, may develop competing technologies which gain industry acceptance in advance of, or instead of, our products, or meet particular in-demand technological needs before us or with technology that is superior to our existing or new technologies. This competition could cause our existing technologies and offerings to become obsolete or otherwise decrease demand for our offerings. In addition, the possibility exists that competitors or customers will develop aftermarket services and parts for our products that attract customers and adversely impact our return on investment on new products. We also anticipate companies continuing to enhance their competitive position against our defense businesses as a result of continued domestic and cross-border defense industry consolidation and the expansion of competitors’ capabilities throughout the supply chain through vertical integration. We are also facing heightened competition domestically and internationally from foreign and multinational firms. Additionally, some customers, including the DoD, are increasingly turning to commercial contractors, rather than traditional defense contractors, for space-related technologies and for information technology and other support work. Moreover, we are seeing increased government, particularly foreign, sponsorship of competitors on defense development programs. If we are unable to continue to compete successfully against our current or future competitors in our core businesses, we may experience declines in revenues and industry segment share which could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, results of operations, financial condition, or liquidity.
OPERATIONAL RISKS
Our business and financial performance may be adversely affected by cyber-attacks on information technology infrastructure and products, as well as changes in cybersecurity regulations. Our business may be impacted by disruptions to our own or third-party information technology (IT) infrastructure, which could result from, among other causes, cyberattacks on or failures of such infrastructure or compromises to its physical security. The products and services that we provide our customers are also at risk of being adversely affected by cyber-attacks, including attempts to infiltrate them or sabotage or disable their use. Like other companies, we regularly experience cyber-based attacks. Cybersecurity threats are continuously evolving and include, but are not limited to, both attacks on our IT infrastructure and attacks on the IT infrastructure of our customers, suppliers, subcontractors and other third parties with whom we do business routinely, both on premises and in the cloud, attempting to gain unauthorized access to our confidential, proprietary, or otherwise protected information, classified information, or information relating to our employees, customers and other third parties, or to disrupt our systems or the systems of third parties. Cybersecurity threats also include attacks targeting the security, confidentiality, integrity and/or availability of the hardware, software and information installed, stored or transmitted in our products, including after the purchase of those products and when they are incorporated into third-party products, facilities or infrastructure. We are also exposed to the risk of insider threat attacks. Any such attacks could disrupt our systems or those of third parties (including mission critical systems), impact business operations, result in unauthorized release of confidential, proprietary, or otherwise protected information, and corrupt our data or that of third parties. The threats we face are continuous and evolving, and vary in degree of severity and sophistication. These threats include advanced persistent threats from highly organized adversaries, including but not limited to cyber criminals, nation states and so-called hacktivists, particularly those adverse to the security interests of the U.S. and its allies, which target us and other defense contractors. These types of threats are related to the geopolitical environment and have, therefore, grown in number due to recent geopolitical conflicts. In addition, as a result of the rapid pace of technological change, we and our customers, suppliers, subcontractors and other third parties with whom we conduct business continue to rely on legacy systems and software, which can be more vulnerable to cyber threats and attacks. Moreover, we, like other companies, are seeing an unprecedented number of previously unknown vulnerabilities, for which there are no known mitigations, being revealed by new attacks. Further, the sophistication, availability and use of artificial intelligence by threat actors present an increased level of risk. Due to the evolving threat landscape, we have experienced and expect to continue to experience more frequent and increasingly advanced cyber-attacks. In addition, changes in domestic and international cybersecurity-related laws and regulations have expanded cybersecurity-related compliance requirements, and cybersecurity regulatory enforcement activity has grown. We expect the regulatory environment to continue to evolve, and staying apace with these regulatory changes could increase our operational and compliance expenditures and those of our suppliers, and lead to new or additional information technology and product development expenses. We also face reputational, litigation and financial risks in relation to potential required disclosures and increased risk of enforcement. We continue to make investments and adopt measures designed to enhance our protection, detection, response, and recovery capabilities, and to mitigate potential risks to our technology, products, services and operations from potential cybersecurity threats, as well as to comply with evolving regulations. However, given the unpredictability, nature and scope of cyber-attacks, it is possible that we are unable to defend against all cyber-attacks, that potential vulnerabilities could go undetected and persist in the environment for an extended period, or that we may otherwise be unable to mitigate customer losses and other potential consequences of these attacks. In addition, some products and services that we provide to customers, particularly those related to public security, may raise potential liabilities related to privacy and intellectual property. In some cases, we must rely on the safeguards put in place by our customers, suppliers, subcontractors and other third parties to protect against and report cyber threats and attacks. We could potentially be subject to production downtimes, operational delays, other detrimental impacts on our operations or
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ability to provide products and services to our customers, the compromise of confidential information, intellectual property or otherwise protected information, misappropriation, destruction or corruption of data, security breaches, other manipulation or improper use of our or third-party systems, networks or products, financial losses from remedial actions, loss of business, or potential liability, penalties, fines and/or damage to our reputation. Any of these could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, results of operations, financial condition or liquidity. Due to the evolving nature of such risks, the impact of any potential incident cannot be predicted. Further, our insurance coverage, which may exclude losses from war or cyber operations, may not be adequate to cover all related costs and we may not otherwise be fully indemnified for them.
We are dependent on a global supply chain and subject to risks related to the availability of materials and the performance of our suppliers; in recent years we have experienced supply chain disruptions that resulted in delays and increased costs and adversely affected our performance. Our performance requires a variety of raw materials, supplier-provided parts, components, sub-systems, and contract manufacturing services, and we rely on U.S. and non-U.S. suppliers (including third-party manufacturing suppliers, subcontractors, and service providers) and commodity markets for these materials and services. In some instances, we depend upon a single source of supply, manufacturing, services support, or assembly, or participate in commodity markets that may be subject to allocations of limited supplies by suppliers. Emerging laws and increasing regulatory requirements aimed at global supply chains may impact our ability to access certain materials and components, and otherwise adversely affect our business, and we may not only be held responsible for our compliance, but for that of our suppliers. In addition, our defense businesses are subject to specific procurement requirements that limit the types of materials they use. Our defense businesses also must require suppliers to comply with various DoD requirements, any of which requirements may further limit the suppliers and subcontractors they may utilize. Identifying and qualifying second- or third- source suppliers can be difficult, time-consuming, and may result in increased costs.
In 2023, global supply chain disruptions impacted our ability to procure raw materials, microelectronics, and certain commodities. These disruptions were driven by supply chain market constraints and macroeconomic conditions, including inflation and labor market shortages. Current geopolitical conditions, including conflicts and other causes of strained intercountry relations, as well as sanctions and other trade restrictive activities, are contributing to these issues. In addition, current high inflation levels have increased material and component prices, labor rates, and supplier costs, and put pressure on our margins. Credit market conditions, including higher interest rates and the availability of credit, have impacted some of our suppliers and subcontractors as well. As a result of these procurement issues, the production flow in our factories has been negatively impacted, which has, in turn, hindered our ability to perform on our commitments to customers and negatively affected our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity. Our supply costs have increased due to the above factors. In addition, we are largely dependent upon foreign sources for certain raw materials, such as cobalt, tantalum, chromium, rhenium, nickel, and titanium, and we rely on foreign suppliers as single-source suppliers of some components. Some raw materials and components have been in the past sourced from areas now under sanctions, such as Russia, or are currently sourced from areas which are at risk of sanctions or other trade restrictive actions, such as China.
The timing of the impacts of these supply chain risks and issues and our ability to mitigate them are uncertain and difficult to predict. However, we expect the current supply chain, inflation, and price issues, and their negative impacts on our business, to continue into 2024. In particular, we expect to experience prolonged delays for certain critical component parts and sub-systems. Furthermore, the existing supply chain issues could be compounded by other events, such as an economic downturn; supplier capacity constraints for other reasons; supplier quality issues (for example, defects or fraudulent parts); supplier closing, bankruptcy, or financial difficulties; price increases for various reasons; and worsening shortages of raw materials or commodities, including as a result of war or other geopolitical actions, natural disaster (including the effects of climate change), health pandemic or other business continuity events, or transport and distribution issues, any of which could further negatively impact our ability to meet our commitments to customers or increase our operating costs and therefore incrementally affect our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity.
Due to the nature of our products and services, a product safety failure, quality issue or other failure affecting our or our customers’ or suppliers’ products or systems could seriously harm our business. Our products and services are highly sophisticated and specialized, involve complex advanced technologies, are often integrated with third-party products and services, and are utilized for specific purposes that require precision, reliability, and durability. Many of our products and services include both hardware and software that involve industrial machinery and intricate aviation and defense systems, including commercial and military jet engines, power and control systems, and other aircraft parts, air and missile defense systems, and military sensors and command and control systems. Technical, mechanical, quality, electronic, and other failures may occur from time to time, whether as a result of manufacturing or design defect, operational process, or production issue attributable to us, our customers, suppliers, partners, third party integrators, or others. Product design changes and updates could also have associated cost and schedule impacts. In addition, our products could fail as a result of cyber-attacks, such as those that seize control and result in misuse or unintended use of our products, or other intentional acts. The impact of a catastrophic product or system failure or similar event affecting our or our customers’ or suppliers’ products or services could
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be significant, and could result in injuries or death, property damage, loss of strategic capabilities, loss of intellectual property, loss of reputation, and other significant negative effects. A product or system failure, or perceived failure, could lead to negative publicity, a diversion of management attention, and damage to our reputation that could reduce demand for our products and services. It could also result in product recalls and product liability and warranty claims (including claims related to the safety or reliability of our products) and related expenses, other service, repair and maintenance costs, labor and material costs, customer support costs, significant damages, and other costs, including fines and other remedies, and regulatory and environmental liabilities. We may also incur increased costs, delayed payments, reputational harm, or lost equipment or services revenue in connection with a significant issue with a third party’s product with which our products are integrated. Further, our insurance coverage may not be adequate to cover all related costs and we may not otherwise be fully indemnified for them. Any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, results of operations, financial condition, or liquidity.
In particular, as previously disclosed, Pratt & Whitney has determined that a rare condition in powder metal used to manufacture certain engine parts requires accelerated inspection of the PW1100 GTF fleet, which powers the A320neo family of aircraft. This determination and corresponding fleet actions have significantly increased both the incremental number of PW1100 GTF engines that will need to be removed and the incremental number of shop visits necessary to perform the inspections as compared to estimates prior to this determination. Actual and future estimated aircraft on ground levels for the A320neo family of aircraft have therefore increased. As a result, we have and will continue to incur significant customer support and mitigation costs and significant labor, material, and related costs. This matter has caused reputational harm and has negatively impacted, and will continue to impact, our results of operations and financial condition. The financial impact of the powder metal issue is based on historical experience and is subject to various assumptions and judgments, including, without limitation, the number and expected timing of shop visits, inspection results and scope of work to be performed, turnaround time, availability of parts, available capacity at overhaul facilities, and outcomes of negotiations with impacted customers, and these assumptions are subject to variability. Potential changes to these assumptions could have a material effect on the Company’s results of operations for the periods in which it is recognized. In addition, other engine models within Pratt & Whitney’s fleet contain parts manufactured with affected powder metal. The negative impacts to our company arising from the Powder Metal matter could increase if any other engine models are found to be materially impacted by this rare condition.
We depend on the recruitment and retention of qualified personnel, and our failure to attract, train, and retain such personnel could seriously harm our business. Due to the specialized nature of our business, our future performance is highly dependent upon the continued services of our key technical personnel and executive officers, and the hiring, development, and retention of qualified technical, engineering, manufacturing, marketing, sales, and management personnel for our operations. Our defense business in particular requires qualified personnel with security clearances due to our classified programs. Moreover, a significant percentage of our current workforce is nearing or eligible for retirement. To the extent that we lose experienced personnel in the future, it is critical that we develop other employees, hire new qualified personnel, and successfully manage the transfer of knowledge.
We have experienced, and continue to experience, challenges hiring highly qualified personnel including engineers, skilled laborers, and security clearance holders. We expect these difficulties to continue in the future. In addition, the cost of labor remains high. Some candidates and new personnel may have job-related expectations that differ from our current workforce and are inconsistent with our corporate culture. With respect to existing personnel, some may become required to receive various security clearances and substantial training in order to work on certain programs or perform certain tasks. Necessary security clearances may be delayed, which may impact our ability to perform on our U.S. government contracts. We also may not be successful in training or developing qualified personnel with the requisite relevant skills or security clearances. Moreover, some of our employees are covered by collective bargaining agreements. Historically, we have been able to renegotiate expiring agreements without experiencing significant disruptions to business operations. However, the U.S. labor environment has experienced shifts, and if we have additional challenges renegotiating agreements or if our employees pursue new collective representation, then we could experience additional costs and/or be subject to work stoppages. Any of the above factors could seriously harm our business.
Moreover, we believe that a critical element of our ability to successfully attract, train, and retain qualified personnel is our corporate culture, which we believe fosters innovation, collaboration, diversity, equity, and inclusion, and a focus on execution, all in an environment of high ethical standards. Our global operations may present challenges in maintaining these important aspects of our corporate culture, and a failure to maintain our corporate culture could negatively impact us. Further, we rely on our key personnel to lead with integrity and to meet our high ethical standards that promote excellent performance and cultivate diversity, equity, and inclusion. To the extent any of our key personnel were to behave in a way that is inconsistent with our values, including with respect to product safety or quality, legal or regulatory compliance, financial reporting, or people management, we could experience a materially adverse impact to our reputation and our operating results. In addition, failure or
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perceived failure to meet increasing stakeholder expectations on environmental, social, and governance (ESG) matters could harm our reputation and impact demand for our products and services.
Exports and imports of certain of our products are subject to various export control, sanctions, and import regulations and may require authorization from regulatory agencies of the U.S. or other countries. We must comply with various laws and regulations relating to the export and import of products, services, and technology from and into the U.S. and other countries having jurisdiction over our operations. In the U.S., these laws and regulations include, among others, the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) administered by the U.S. Department of Commerce, the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) administered by the U.S. Department of State, embargoes and sanctions regulations administered by the U.S. Department of the Treasury, and import regulations administered by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and the U.S. Department of Justice. Certain of our products, services, and technologies have military or strategic applications and are on the U.S. Munitions List of the ITAR, the Commerce Control List of the EAR, or are otherwise subject to the EAR and/or the U.S. Munitions Import List, and we are required to obtain licenses and authorizations from the appropriate U.S. government agencies before exporting these products out of the U.S. or importing these products into the U.S. U.S. foreign policy or the foreign policy of other licensing jurisdictions may affect the licensing process or otherwise prevent us from engaging in business dealings with certain individuals, entities, or countries. Any failure by us, our customers, or our suppliers to comply with these laws and regulations could result in civil or criminal penalties, fines, seizure of our products, adverse publicity, restrictions on our ability to engage in export or import transactions, or the suspension or debarment from doing business with the U.S. government. Moreover, any changes in export control, sanctions, or import regulations may further restrict the export or import of our products or services, and the possibility of such changes requires constant monitoring to ensure we remain compliant. Our ability to obtain required licenses and authorizations on a timely basis, or at all, is subject to risks and uncertainties, including changing laws, regulations, or foreign policies, delays in Congressional action, or geopolitical and other factors. If we are not successful in obtaining or maintaining the necessary licenses or authorizations in a timely manner, our sales relating to those approvals may be prevented or delayed, and revenue and profit previously recognized may be reversed. Any restrictions on the export or import of our products or product lines could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, results of operations, financial condition, or liquidity.
Our business and financial performance may be adversely affected by threats to our physical security and other events outside our control. We could encounter threats to our physical security, including our facilities and personnel, and threats from workplace violence, civil unrest, terrorism, or similar acts, any of which could disrupt our business. In addition, our business, and the businesses of our suppliers, subcontractors, service providers, and customers, could be disrupted by public health crises, such as pandemics and epidemics (including a resurgence of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic), and governmental, business, and individual actions taken in response, damaging weather or other acts of nature, cyber-attacks on IT infrastructure and products, or other events outside of our control. Any such business disruption could subject us to production downtimes, operational delays, supply chain challenges, other detrimental impacts on our operations or ability to provide products and services to our customers, decreased demand for our products, decreased defense budgets, financial losses from remedial actions, the diversion of management’s attention and resources, or loss of business, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, results of operations, financial condition, or liquidity. The impact of any such business disruption is difficult to predict.
We depend on our intellectual property and have access to certain third party intellectual property; infringement or failure to protect our intellectual property or access to third party intellectual property could adversely affect our future growth and success. We rely on a combination of patents, trademarks, copyrights, trade secrets, nondisclosure agreements, IT security systems, internal controls and compliance systems, and other measures to protect our intellectual property. We also rely on nondisclosure agreements, confidentiality obligations in contracts, IT security systems, and other measures to protect certain customer and supplier information and intellectual property that we have in our possession or to which we have access. The U.S. government and foreign governments have licenses under certain of our intellectual property, including certain patents, which are developed or used in performance of government contracts. Governments may use or authorize others (including our competitors) to use such patents and intellectual property for government and other purposes. Governments may challenge the sufficiency of intellectual property rights we have granted in government contracts and attempt to obtain greater rights, which could reduce our ability to protect our intellectual property rights and to compete. In some instances, we have augmented our technology base by licensing the proprietary intellectual property of others. Intellectual property obtained from third parties is also subject to challenge, invalidation, misappropriation, or circumvention by third parties. In addition, we may not be able to obtain necessary licenses on commercially reasonable terms. In other instances, our ability to procure and perform government contracts requires us to obtain certain rights in the intellectual property of others through government grants. Governments may deny us the right to obtain such rights in the intellectual property of others, which may affect our ability to perform government contracts. Moreover, our efforts to protect intellectual property and proprietary rights may not be sufficient. We cannot be sure that our pending patent applications will result in the issuance of patents to us, that patents issued to or licensed by us in the past or in the future will not be challenged or circumvented by competitors, or that these patents will be found to be valid or
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sufficiently broad to preclude our competitors from introducing technologies similar to those covered by our patents and patent applications. Our ability to protect and enforce our intellectual property rights may be limited in certain countries outside the U.S. In addition, we may be the target of competitor or other third-party patent enforcement actions seeking substantial monetary damages or seeking to prevent our sale and marketing of certain of our products or services. Our competitive position also may be adversely impacted by limitations on our ability to obtain possession of, and ownership of, necessary licenses concerning data important to the development or provision of our products or service offerings, or by limitations on our ability to restrict the use by others of data related to our products or services. We may also be subject to disruptions, losses, and liability resulting from various cybersecurity attacks or information technology failures, as described above. Any of these events or factors could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, subject us to judgments, penalties, and significant litigation costs, or temporarily or permanently disrupt our sales and marketing of the affected products or services. Any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, results of operations, financial condition, or liquidity.
LEGAL, ENVIRONMENTAL, AND REGULATORY RISKS
As a U.S. government contractor, we are subject to risks relating to U.S. government audits, investigations, and disputes. We are subject to U.S. government investigations relating to our U.S. government contracts. Such U.S. government investigations often take years to complete and could result in administrative, civil, or criminal liabilities, including repayments, fines, treble and other damages, forfeitures, restitution, or penalties, or could lead to suspension or debarment of U.S. government contracting or of export privileges. For instance, if we or one of our business units were charged with wrongdoing in connection with a U.S. government investigation (including fraud, or violation of certain environmental, FCPA, and other anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws, or export laws, as further described below), the U.S. government could suspend us from bidding on or receiving awards of new U.S. government contracts pending the completion of legal proceedings. If convicted or found liable, the U.S. government could fine and debar us from new U.S. government contracting for a period generally not to exceed three years, and could void any contracts found to be tainted by fraud. We also could suffer reputational harm if allegations of impropriety were made against us, even if such allegations are later determined to be unsubstantiated. Further, our U.S. government contracts are subject to audit and we have received audit reports recommending the reduction of certain contract prices because, for example, cost or pricing data disclosures or cost accounting practices used to price and negotiate those contracts may not have conformed to government regulations. Some of these audit reports recommend that certain payments be repaid, delayed, or withheld, and may involve substantial amounts, which could, if the audit reports’ theories were to prevail in litigation, also have future impacts such as increasing the costs absorbed by our commercial businesses. We have made voluntary refunds in those cases we believe appropriate, have settled some allegations, and, in some cases, continue to negotiate and/or litigate. We may be, and have been, required to make significant payments into escrow of disputed liabilities while the related litigation is pending. If the litigation is resolved in our favor, any such payments will be returned to us with interest. The Defense Contract Audit Agency (DCAA) and the Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA) also review the adequacy of, and our compliance with, our internal control systems and policies, including our accounting, purchasing, government property, estimating, earned value management, and material management accounting systems. Our final allowable incurred costs for each year are subject to audit and have from time to time resulted in disputes between us and the U.S. government, including DCMA claims to recover payments for alleged noncompliance with cost accounting standards. In some cases, the Department of Justice (DOJ) has conducted investigations or convened grand juries to investigate possible irregularities in our costs. Any costs found to be improperly allocated to a specific contract will not be reimbursed by the U.S. government or must be refunded by us to the U.S. government if already reimbursed. An adverse outcome of any audit or investigation could result in civil and criminal penalties and fines, which could negatively impact our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity. In addition, if allegations of impropriety were made against us, we could suffer serious reputational harm, which could negatively affect our financial position, results of operations, and liquidity.
We are subject to litigation, environmental, anti-corruption, and other legal and compliance risks. We are subject to a variety of litigation and legal compliance risks. These risks relate to, among other things, product safety and reliability, personal injuries, intellectual property rights, contract-related claims, government contracts, taxes, environmental matters, export control, sanctions, employment matters, securities laws, competition laws, and laws governing improper business practices. We or one of our businesses could be charged with wrongdoing as a result of such matters. If convicted or found liable, we could be subject to significant fines, penalties, repayments, or other damages (in certain cases, treble damages). Product recalls and product liability and warranty claims can result in significant damages and costs, including fines, as well as other harm to our business as discussed above. As a global business, we are subject to complex laws and regulations in the U.S. and in other countries in which we operate. Those laws and regulations may be interpreted in different ways. They may also change from time to time, as may related interpretations and other guidance. Changes in laws or regulations could result in higher expenses. Uncertainty relating to laws or regulations may also affect how we conduct our operations and structure our investments and could limit our ability to enforce our rights.
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We use hazardous substances and generate hazardous wastes in certain of our operations. As a result, we are subject to potentially material liabilities related to personal injuries or property damage that may be caused by hazardous substance releases and exposures. Personal injury lawsuits may involve individual and purported class actions alleging that contaminants originating from our current or former products or operating facilities caused or contributed to medical conditions, including cancers or other illnesses incurred by employees, former employees, third-parties’ employees, or residents in the area, and environmental damage or diminution of real estate values. For example, we are investigating and remediating contamination related to past practices at a number of properties and, in some cases, have been named as a defendant in related “toxic tort” claims. We are also subject to laws and regulations that: (1) impose requirements for the proper management, treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous substances and wastes; (2) restrict air and water emissions from our operations (including U.S. government-owned facilities we manage); and (3) require maintenance of a safe workplace. These laws and regulations can lead to substantial fines and criminal sanctions for violations, and may require the installation of costly equipment or operational changes to limit pollution emissions, decrease the likelihood of accidental hazardous substance releases, and/or reduce the risks of injury to people. We incur, and expect to continue to incur, capital and other expenditures to comply with these laws and regulations. A criminal violation of certain U.S. environmental statutes such as the Clean Air Act and Clean Water Act could result in suspension, debarment, or disqualification by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A facility determined to be in violation of the criminal provisions of these statutes can be prohibited from performing any U.S. government contract work until the violation has been corrected and the EPA approves the reinstatement of the facility. Even in litigation where we believe our liability is remote, there is a risk that a negative finding or decision in a matter involving multiple plaintiffs or a purported class action could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, results of operations, financial condition, or liquidity, in particular with respect to environmental claims in regions where we have, or previously had, significant operations. In addition, new laws, regulations, or governmental policies, sudden changes in the interpretation and enforcement of existing laws and regulations, the discovery of previously unknown contamination, or the imposition of new clean-up standards could require us to incur additional costs in the future that would have a negative effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity.
In addition, the FCPA and other anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws generally prohibit companies and their intermediaries from making improper payments to U.S. and non-U.S. officials for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. These laws apply to companies, individual directors, officers, employees, and agents. U.S. companies also may be held liable for actions taken by strategic or local partners or representatives. The FCPA also imposes accounting standards and requirements on publicly traded U.S. corporations and their foreign affiliates, which are intended to prevent the diversion of corporate funds to the payment of bribes and other improper payments. Certain of our customer relationships outside of the U.S. are with governmental entities and are, therefore, subject to the FCPA and other anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws, including the anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws of non-U.S. countries. Our policies mandate compliance with these anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws. Despite meaningful measures that we undertake to ensure lawful conduct, which include training and internal control policies, these measures may not always prevent violations of the FCPA or similar laws. We have been subject to regulatory investigations for alleged violations of anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws, and could be subject to such investigations in the future, which could result in criminal and civil penalties, disgorgement, further changes or enhancements to our procedures, policies and controls, personnel changes, or other remedial actions. Violations of these laws, or allegations of such violations, could disrupt our operations, cause reputational harm, involve significant management attention, and result in a material adverse effect on our competitive position, results of operations, financial condition, or liquidity.
Cybersecurity and data security and protection laws and regulations are evolving and present increasing compliance challenges, which may increase our costs, affect our competitiveness, cause reputational harm, and expose us to substantial fines or other penalties.
Our business and financial performance may be adversely affected by climate change, including regulations, customer demand, technologies, and extreme weather. Our business may be impacted by climate change and governmental and industry actions taken in response, which present short, medium, and long-term risks to our business and financial condition. Current and emerging environmental and climate-related laws, regulations, or other policies, including regulations on greenhouse gas emissions, carbon pricing, energy taxes, product efficiency standards, mandatory disclosure obligations, and U.S. government procurement requirements, could increase our operational and compliance expenditures and those of our suppliers, including increased energy and raw materials costs, and costs associated with manufacturing changes, and lead to new or additional investments in product designs and facility upgrades. In addition, we continue to see ever-increasing demands for offerings focused on addressing climate change, transitioning to lower emission technologies, including low to no carbon products and services, the use of alternative energy sources, and other sustainable aviation technologies, and climate monitoring and adaptation products and services. Customers, shareholders, and institutional investors are focused on ESG, including our environmental sustainability practices and commitments with respect to our operations, products, and suppliers. As a result, we continue to make additional investments in new technologies and capabilities, and devote management and other resources in response to the foregoing. We may not realize, on a timely basis or at all, the anticipated benefits of these investments and
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actions for a variety of reasons, including technological challenges, evolving government and customer requirements, and our ability to anticipate them and develop in-demand technologies on a timely basis, and other risks related to the development of advanced technologies described above. In addition, certain technologies will be dependent upon government action, such as investments in infrastructure, creating appropriate market incentives, and making certain raw materials available for development of certain technologies. Moreover, we rely on our suppliers to timely and effectively adapt and meet our evolving technological supply needs, and they may be unable to fully respond to our requirements in a timely manner or at all. We also face competition risks as our competitors also respond to advancing sustainable technologies. Our competitors may develop these in-demand technologies before we do, their new technologies may be deemed by our customers to be superior to technologies we may develop, and their technologies may otherwise gain industry acceptance in advance of or instead of our products. In addition, as we and our competitors develop increasingly sustainable technologies, demand for our older offerings may decrease or become nonexistent. Our reputation may also be damaged if we or our industry fail, or are perceived to fail, to achieve sustainability goals or commitments or to comply with evolving climate-related regulations. In addition, climate-related litigation and government investigations could be commenced against us, could be costly to defend, and could adversely affect our business. Moreover, our business, the businesses of our suppliers, subcontractors, service providers, distributors, and customers, and the industries in which we operate, could be negatively impacted by increasing frequency and severity of acute extreme weather events caused by climate change, including hurricanes, tornadoes, floods, snow and ice storms, fires, heat waves, and mud slides, and by chronic changes in weather patterns, such as temperature increases, drought, and sea level rise. These events could damage our and our suppliers’ facilities, products, and other assets, and cause disruptions to our business and operations, supply chain, and distribution networks, and the businesses of our customers, and require an increase in expenditures to improve climate resiliency of our operations. Any of the foregoing could materially decrease our revenues and materially increase our costs and expenses.
FINANCIAL, TAX, AND INSURANCE RELATED RISKS
Our debt levels and related debt service obligations could negatively impact our intended capital allocation, and we may be unable to obtain debt at competitive rates, on commercially reasonable terms, or in sufficient amounts. We have outstanding debt and other financial obligations, and we depend, in part, upon the issuance of debt to fund our business requirements. In connection with the accelerated share repurchase (ASR) transactions, we incurred $10 billion of long-term debt. The increased indebtedness of RTX in connection with the ASR transactions may have various negative impacts on our business. These include shifting significant cash flow from operations to debt principal and interest payments and ASR transactions costs, which will reduce funds we have available for other purposes, such as acquisitions, research and development, and other reinvestments in our businesses, and dividends and common stock repurchases. It could also reduce our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and market conditions. It exposes us to interest rate and credit market risk at the time of refinancing outstanding debt, as well as these same risks on our commercial paper obligations, which are issued at variable rates.
In addition, if we require additional funding in order to fund outstanding financing commitments or meet other business requirements, a number of factors could cause us to incur increased borrowing costs and to have greater difficulty accessing public and private markets for debt, any of which may adversely affect our ability to fund our business requirements. These factors include disruptions or declines in the global capital markets and/or a decline in our financial performance, outlook, or credit ratings. As previously disclosed, in August 2023, S&P Global downgraded our credit rating from A-/negative to BBB+/stable, and our credit rating with Moody’s Investors Service remained at Baa1/stable. Subsequently, in October 2023, both S&P Global and Moody’s Investors Service outlook changed from stable to negative when we entered into the ASR transactions. Further downgrades of our credit ratings may result, if we are unable to meet operating expectations and our cash flow expectations, or to the extent that we are unable to reduce our outstanding debt according to planned timeframes.
We use estimates in accounting for many of our programs, and changes in our estimates could adversely affect our future financial results. Accounting for long-term contracts and related assets requires estimates and judgments related to our progress toward completion and the long-term performance on the contract. Significant judgments include potential risks associated with the ability and cost to achieve program schedule, including customer-directed delays or reductions in scheduled deliveries, and technical and other specific contract requirements including customer activity levels and variable consideration based upon that activity. Due to the nature of the work required to be performed on many of our performance obligations, the estimation of total revenues and cost at completion is complex and subject to many variables. Management must make assumptions and estimates regarding contract revenue and cost (such as estimates of variable consideration, including award fees and penalties), including with respect to: (1) labor productivity and availability; (2) the complexity and scope of the work to be performed; (3) the availability and cost of materials; (4) the length of time to complete the performance obligation; (5) execution by our subcontractors; (6) the availability and timing of funding from our customer; (7) overhead cost rates; and (8) current and past service cost and frequency driven by estimated aircraft and engine utilization and estimated useful lives of components, among other variables. Cost estimates may also include the estimated cost of satisfying our industrial cooperation agreements, sometimes in the form of either offset obligations or ICIP agreements, required under certain contracts. In addition,
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as previously disclosed, Pratt & Whitney has determined that a rare condition in powder metal used to manufacture certain engine parts requires accelerated inspection of the PW1100 GTF fleet, which powers the A320neo family of aircraft. This determination and corresponding fleet actions have significantly increased both the incremental number of PW1100 GTF engines that will need to be removed and the incremental number of shop visits necessary to perform the inspections as compared to estimates prior to this determination. Actual and future estimated aircraft on ground levels for the A320neo family of aircraft have therefore increased. The financial impact of the powder metal issue is based on historical experience and is subject to various assumptions and judgments, including, without limitation, the number and expected timing of shop visits, inspection results and scope of work to be performed, turnaround time, availability of parts, available capacity at overhaul facilities, and outcomes of negotiations with impacted customers, and these assumptions are subject to variability. Because of the significance of management’s judgments and estimation processes described above, it is likely that materially different amounts could be recorded if we used different assumptions or if the underlying circumstances were to change. Changes in underlying assumptions, circumstances, or estimates may adversely affect our future results of operations and financial condition.
Significant changes in key estimates and assumptions with respect to our retirement plans, such as discount rate, expected return on plan assets (EROA), and other actuarial factors, could affect our future earnings, equity, and pension contributions. We must determine our pension and other postretirement benefit plans’ expense or income, which involves significant judgment particularly with respect to our discount rate, EROA, and other actuarial assumptions. These assumptions are evaluated annually at December 31 and when significant events require a mid-year remeasurement. They may change significantly due to changes in economic, legislative, regulatory, and/or demographic experience or circumstances. Changes in our assumptions or actual experience that differs from these assumptions, as well as management changes to retirement plans, could impact our pension and postretirement net periodic benefit (income) expense, the plans’ funded status, and/or the required cash contributions to such plans, which could negatively impact our results of operations, financial condition, or liquidity. Our plan assets are invested in accordance with our investment management objectives and are subject to market volatility and other conditions.
Additional tax expense or exposures could affect our future profitability. We are subject to income taxes in the United States and international jurisdictions. Significant judgment is required in determining our worldwide provision for income taxes. In the ordinary course of our business, there are transactions and calculations where the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. Changes in tax laws and regulations, as well as changes and conflicts in related interpretations and other tax guidance, and fluctuations in taxable income could materially impact our tax receivables and liabilities and our deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities, as well as our income tax expense and tax payments. Additionally, in the ordinary course of business, we are subject to examinations by various tax authorities. In addition to ongoing examinations, there could be additional examinations launched in the future by governmental authorities in various jurisdictions, and existing examinations could be expanded. The final determination of tax audits and any related litigation could be materially different from our historical income tax provisions and accruals. Additionally, changes in the geographic mix of our sales could impact our tax liabilities and affect our income tax expense and profitability. The global and diverse nature of our operations means that these risks will continue to exist and additional examinations, proceedings, and contingencies will arise from time to time. Our results of operations, financial condition, or liquidity could be negatively impacted by any of the above factors, the outcome of any one of which cannot be predicted with certainty.
Goodwill and other intangible assets represent a significant portion of our assets, and any impairment of these assets could negatively impact our results of operations and financial condition. A significant portion of our assets consists of goodwill and other intangible assets, primarily recorded as the result of historical acquisitions or investments in businesses. We may subsequently experience unforeseen events that could adversely affect the value of our goodwill or intangible assets. Our goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets are subject to an impairment test annually and are also tested for impairment whenever facts and circumstances indicate that goodwill or indefinite-lived intangible assets may be impaired. In the event of an impairment, any excess of the carrying value of these assets over the fair value must be written off in the period of determination. Finite-lived intangible assets are generally amortized over the useful life of such assets. Future determinations of significant impairments of goodwill or indefinite-lived intangible assets as a result of an impairment test or accelerated amortization of finite-lived intangible assets could have a negative impact on our results of operations and financial condition.
Quarterly cash dividends and share repurchases are subject to uncertainties and may affect our common stock price. Quarterly cash dividends and share repurchases under our share repurchase program generally constitute components of our capital allocation strategy, which we fund through a combination of operating free cash flow, borrowings, and proceeds from divestitures. However, we are not required to declare dividends or make any share repurchases under our share repurchase program, other than with respect to the final settlement pursuant to the ASR transactions. Dividends and share repurchases may be discontinued, accelerated, suspended, or delayed at any time without prior notice. Even if not discontinued, the amount of such dividends and repurchases may be changed, and the amount, timing, and frequency of such dividends and repurchases may
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vary from historical practice or from the company’s stated expectations. Decisions with respect to dividends and share repurchases are subject to the discretion of our Board of Directors and are based on a variety of factors. Important factors that could cause us to discontinue, limit, suspend, increase, or delay our quarterly cash dividends or share repurchases include market conditions, the price of our common stock, the nature and timing of other investment opportunities, changes in our business strategy, the terms of our financing arrangements, our outlook as to the ability to obtain financing at attractive rates, the impact on our credit ratings, the availability of domestic cash, and overall business expectations. The reduction or elimination of our cash dividend, or suspension or elimination of our share repurchase program could adversely affect the market price of our common stock. Additionally, there can be no assurance that any share repurchases will enhance shareowner value because the market price of our common stock may decline below the levels at which we repurchased shares of common stock, and short-term stock price fluctuations could reduce the program’s effectiveness.
See Item 5. “Market for Registrants Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters, and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities” in this Form 10-K for a description of our share repurchase program and past share repurchases, including our ASR transactions.
We face certain significant risk exposures and potential liabilities that may not be adequately covered by indemnity or insurance. A significant portion of our business relates to designing, developing, and manufacturing advanced aerospace, defense, and technology systems and products. New technologies may be untested or unproven. In addition, we may incur significant liabilities that are unique to our products and services. In some, but not all, circumstances, we may be entitled to indemnification from our customers through contractual provisions, and we may obtain limitations of liability and additional defenses for various reasons including the qualification of our products and services by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) under the SAFETY Act provisions of the Homeland Security Act of 2002. The insurance coverage we maintain or indemnification to which we may be contractually or otherwise entitled may not be adequate to cover all claims or liabilities. Accordingly, we may be forced to bear substantial costs resulting from risks and uncertainties of our business, which would negatively impact our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity. Any accident, failure of, or defect in our products and services, even if fully indemnified or insured, could negatively affect our reputation among our customers and the public, and make it more difficult for us to compete effectively. It could also affect the cost and availability of insurance in the future.
STRATEGIC INITIATIVE AND TRANSACTION RISKS
We may be unable to realize expected benefits from strategic initiatives. In order to operate more effectively and efficiently, from time to time we undertake strategic and other operational initiatives. For example, we are undergoing a significant, multi-year digital transformation initiative to improve our business, modernize operations, and reduce costs. Under this initiative, we are leveraging digital capabilities throughout the way in which we conduct our business and provide our products and services to customers, including how we design, build, and maintain our products and services. We also continue to engage our Customer Oriented Results Excellence (CORE) operating system to drive continuing improvement into our processes and facilities. In addition, we continue to invest in structural cost reduction in our facilities, including aligning work to more efficient manufacturing centers, implementing advanced manufacturing capabilities including automation, and closing facilities that are not required to meet future capacity and work needs. Other initiatives include the pursuit of advanced technologies and new business acquisitions and subsequent integrations. For example, we are investing in the integration of artificial intelligence technologies into our processes and business operations. Moreover, effective July 1, 2023, we realigned our current business segment structure from four to three business segments. We also implement restructuring plans from time to time. Restructuring activities include or may result in workforce reductions, global facility reductions, procurement cost reduction activities, legal entity and operational reorganizations, and other cost reduction initiatives. These strategic activities are complex and require the investment of resources including in personnel and systems. If we do not successfully manage our current or future strategic initiatives, expected efficiencies and benefits might be delayed or not realized, and our operations and business could be disrupted. In addition, certain U.S. government contracts and programs have begun to require digital engineering and other digital capabilities, and our inability to achieve these capabilities with respect to these programs timely may result in loss of revenues. Risks associated with workforce management issues include unfavorable political responses to such actions, unforeseen delays in the implementation of anticipated workforce reductions, additional unexpected costs, adverse effects on employee morale, and the failure to meet operational targets due to the loss of employees or work stoppages. Any of the above factors may impair our ability to achieve anticipated benefits, or otherwise harm our business, or have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, results of operations, financial condition, or liquidity.
Failure to successfully manage potential future acquisitions, investments, divestitures, joint ventures, and other transactions, and other risks associated with these activities could adversely affect our future financial results. In pursuing our business strategies, we continually review, evaluate, and consider potential investments, acquisitions, divestitures, joint ventures, and other teaming and collaborative arrangements. We undertake to identify opportunities that will complement our existing products and services or customer base, as well as expand our offerings and business opportunities into new areas that naturally extend from our core capabilities. In evaluating such transactions, we are required to make difficult judgments
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regarding the value of business opportunities, technologies and other assets, and the risks and cost of potential liabilities. Further, these transactions involve certain other risks and uncertainties including: (1) the risks involved with entering new markets; (2) the difficulty in integrating newly-acquired businesses and managing or monitoring other collaborative business arrangements; (3) the complexity of separating a portion of our business to enable a divestiture; (4) challenges and failures in achieving strategic objectives and other expected benefits, which may result in certain liabilities to us for guarantees and other commitments; (5) the risk that regulatory authorities may deny our proposed transactions, or may impose on those transactions conditions that undermine the strategic rationale, reduce the financial benefit of, or jeopardize the consummation of those transactions; (6) unidentified issues not discovered in RTX’s due diligence; (7) the diversion of our attention and resources from our operations and other initiatives; (8) the potential impairment of acquired assets; (9) the performance of underlying products, capabilities, or technologies; and (10) the potential loss of key employees and customers of acquired businesses. In addition, future transactions may impact our deployment of capital, including dividends, stock repurchases, pension contributions, and investments. In particular, if we are unable to complete the pending divestitures of Collins’ actuation and flight controls business and/or Raytheon’s Cybersecurity, Intelligence and Services business within our expected timeframes or at all, we may be unable to reduce our outstanding debt according to planned timeframes.
If either distribution of the stock of Carrier or Otis, together with certain related transactions, were to fail to qualify as a transaction that is generally tax-free, including as a result of subsequent acquisitions of our stock (including pursuant to the Raytheon merger), we could be subject to significant tax liabilities. On April 3, 2020, United Technologies Corporation (UTC) completed the separation of UTC’s business into three independent, publicly traded companies (UTC, Carrier Global Corporation (Carrier) and Otis Worldwide Corporation (Otis)) (the Separation Transactions). UTC distributed all of the outstanding shares of Carrier common stock and all of the outstanding shares of Otis common stock to UTC shareowners who held shares of UTC common stock as of the close of business on March 19, 2020, the record date for the distributions (the Distributions) effective at 12:01 a.m., Eastern Time, on April 3, 2020. We received (1) a private letter ruling from the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) regarding certain U.S. federal income tax matters relating to the Separation Transactions and Distributions and (2) an opinion of outside counsel regarding the qualification of certain elements of the Distributions under Section 355 of the Code. Although we intend for the Distributions generally to be tax-free for U.S. federal income tax purposes, there can be no assurance that they will so qualify. Even if the Distributions were to otherwise qualify as tax-free transactions under Sections 355 and 368(a)(1)(D) of the Code, either Distribution or both Distributions may result in taxable gain to us (but not our stockholders) under Section 355(e) of the Code if such Distribution(s) were deemed to be part of a plan (or series of related transactions) pursuant to which one or more persons acquire, directly or indirectly, shares representing a 50% or greater interest (by vote or value) in shares of Carrier, Otis, or us, as applicable. If the IRS were to determine that any post-Distribution acquisitions of Carrier stock, Otis stock, or our stock, as applicable, pursuant to such a plan (when aggregated with any pre-Distribution acquisitions of Carrier stock, Otis stock, or our stock, as applicable, pursuant to such a plan) would represent a 50% or greater interest in shares of Carrier, Otis, or us, as applicable, such determination could result in significant tax liabilities to us. For purposes of this test, even if the Raytheon merger were treated as part of such plan, it did not result in an acquisition of a 50% or greater interest in us. Any such tax liabilities imposed on us may adversely affect an investment in us. In addition, we obtained tax rulings in certain non-U.S. jurisdictions and/or opinions of external tax advisors, in each case, regarding the tax treatment of certain Separation Transactions. Notwithstanding the receipt of such tax rulings and opinions, there can be no assurance that the relevant taxing authorities will not assert that the tax treatment of the relevant Separation Transactions differs from the conclusions reached therein. In the event the relevant taxing authorities prevail with any challenge in respect of any relevant Separation Transaction, we would be subject to significant tax liabilities, which may adversely affect an investment in us. Further, under a tax matters agreement that we entered into with Carrier and Otis in connection with the Separation Transactions and Distributions, each of Carrier and Otis generally is required to indemnify us for certain taxes we may incur resulting from the Separation Transactions and/or the Distributions failing to qualify for the intended tax treatment. In addition, under the tax matters agreement, each of Carrier and Otis is responsible for (i) a specified portion of any installment payment we are required to make pursuant to Section 965(h)(2) of the Code and (ii) specified taxes that exclusively relate to the Carrier business or the Otis business, as applicable. The amount of any such taxes for which we would be responsible may be significant, and if we were unable to obtain indemnification payments from Carrier or Otis to which we are entitled under the tax matters agreement and/or other agreements entered into in connection with the Separation Transactions and the Distributions, we would incur significant losses.
ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.
ITEM 1C. CYBERSECURITY
As a global aerospace and defense company serving commercial and government customers in the aerospace industry and domestic and international military and government customers as a defense contractor, we are the target of advanced and
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persistent cyber-attacks from a variety of threat actors. Our products and services are highly sophisticated and specialized, involve complex advanced technologies including information technology systems, and process, store, or transmit highly sensitive unclassified and classified information. Moreover, our products and services are often integrated with third-party products and services. Cybersecurity threats include attacks on, or other attempts to infiltrate, our information technology (IT) infrastructure and the IT infrastructure of our customers, suppliers, subcontractors and other third parties, attempting to gain unauthorized access to our confidential or other proprietary information, classified information, or information relating to our employees, customers, and other third parties, or to disrupt our systems or the systems of our customers, suppliers, subcontractors, and other third parties. Cybersecurity threats also include attempts to infiltrate our products or services, including attacks targeting the security, confidentiality, integrity and/or availability of the hardware, software and information installed, stored or transmitted in our products, including after the purchase of those products and when they are incorporated into third-party products, facilities, or infrastructure.
Our Cybersecurity Program
Given the nature of our business and the cybersecurity risks we face, we have a robust cybersecurity program for identifying, assessing, and managing cybersecurity risks, which include material risks from cybersecurity threats, to our internal systems, our products, services and programs for customers, and our supply chain. Our cybersecurity program is made up of two components: our enterprise cybersecurity program and our cybersecurity program for our products and services.
Enterprise Cybersecurity. Our enterprise cybersecurity program aligns with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standards, among others. The program includes processes and controls for the deployment of new IT systems by the Company and controls over new and existing system operation. We monitor and conduct regular testing of these controls and systems, including vulnerability management through active discovery and testing to regularly assess patching and configuration status. In addition, we require our employees and contract workers to complete annual cybersecurity training, and we regularly conduct simulated phishing and cyber-related communications.
Product and Services Cybersecurity. Our product development processes apply development, security and operations principles aligned with applicable government and commercial standards including DO-326 and NIST standards and guideline publications, and include vulnerability scanning and static and dynamic composition analysis. We regularly assess our product development processes, product cyber maturity and the teams providing our secure services in relation to cybersecurity. In addition, we strive to meet all security requirements mandated by government and commercial customers and adhere to regulatory guidance and standards for system security engineering. Many of our products also undergo industry audits and regulatory compliance certifications, and our products delivered to the Department of Defense (DoD) must comply with DoD risk management requirements where required.
Cybersecurity for U.S. Government Authorized Systems. With respect to products and services provided to, and information technology systems used in connection with programs for, the U.S. government, our cybersecurity program aligns with the NIST standard and meets the requirements of 32 CFR Part 117 and other applicable U.S. government guidance. The program includes authorization and assessment of new and existing IT systems by our customer. We monitor use on these systems, including vulnerability management through patching and configuration. In addition, we restrict user access and require authorized users to complete additional user and cybersecurity training.
Incident Response. Our cybersecurity program includes monitoring for potential security threats that may lead to vulnerabilities. We evaluate and assign severity levels to incidents, escalate and engage incident response teams based on severity, and manage and mitigate the related risks. Incidents are reported internally to members of senior management and/or the Board of Directors as appropriate based on severity and incident type and are also analyzed for external reporting requirements. Our incident response process is also designed to coordinate functions to enable continuity of essential business operation in the event of a cyber crisis.
Third Party Service Providers. We engage third party service providers to expand the capabilities and capacity of our cybersecurity program, including for design, monitoring and testing of the program’s risk prevention and protection measures, and process execution including incident detection, investigation, analysis and response, eradication, and recovery.
Management of Third-Party Risks. Our suppliers, subcontractors and third-party service providers are subject to cybersecurity obligations and controls. Prior to engagement, we assess the cybersecurity posture of third-party service providers who store, process, or transmit our information as a service, or connect to our networks. We also require our suppliers, subcontractors and third-party service providers to agree to cybersecurity-related contractual terms and conditions of purchase. Many of these third parties are also subject to regulatory requirements in mandatory government procurement clauses, including those contained in the U.S. Federal Acquisition Regulation and U.S. Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement, which obligate adherence to a generally accepted cybersecurity framework, such as NIST, and occasional
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assessment of their implementation of cybersecurity controls as a condition of contract award or during contract performance. Finally, we require these third parties to notify us of cybersecurity incidents that impact us.
Program Assessment. We continuously evaluate and seek to improve and mature our cybersecurity processes. Our cybersecurity program is regularly assessed through management self-evaluation and ongoing monitoring procedures to evaluate our program effectiveness, including assessments associated with internal controls over financial reporting as well as vulnerability management through active discovery and testing to validate patching and configuration. Additionally, our Internal Audit function regularly assesses our program effectiveness through audits of our entities, systems and processes to help maintain compliance with policies. As cybersecurity threats are continuously evolving, we also periodically engage with third parties to perform maturity assessments of our program to identify potential risk areas and improvement opportunities. This includes assessment of our overall program, policies and processes, compliance with regulatory requirements and an overall assessment of key vulnerabilities. We use these assessments to supplement our own evaluation of the overall health of our program and target improvement areas. Several external organizations also evaluate our enterprise cybersecurity program, including the U.S. Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA) and Cybersecurity Maturity Model Certificate (CMMC) Third Party Assessment Organization. Moreover, some of our products are audited or reviewed for regulatory compliance certification pursuant to the relevant DoD risk management framework.
Board Oversight and Management’s Role
Enterprise Cybersecurity. Our Board of Directors has primary oversight responsibility for enterprise cybersecurity risks. The Special Activities Committee supports the Board in oversight of classified business cybersecurity, including with respect to company internal information and operational technology systems. The Audit Committee also considers enterprise cybersecurity risks in connection with its financial and compliance risk oversight role.
Our global chief information security officer (CISO), under the direction of our chief digital officer, leads our enterprise cybersecurity program and is responsible for assessing and managing enterprise cybersecurity risks. Our CISO regularly updates the Board of Directors on cybersecurity risks as they relate to our information and operational technology systems and our suppliers and partners, in addition to updates on enterprise cybersecurity incidents and key Company defenses and mitigation strategies.
Our CISO is an experienced cybersecurity senior executive with more than 25 years’ experience building and leading cybersecurity, risk management, and information technology teams. In performing his role, he regularly reviews enterprise cybersecurity risks, controls, program policy and processes, including training, oversees policy and program development, implementation and updates, and informs senior leadership on cybersecurity-related issues and activities affecting the organization. Our CISO is regularly apprised of enterprise cybersecurity events, threats and activities, including with respect to incidents, protection vulnerabilities, software update needs and lifecycle status.
Product and Services Cybersecurity. The Special Activities Committee of our Board of Directors has primary oversight responsibility for cybersecurity risks related to our products and services. The full Board of Directors also receives periodic briefings from management on the Company’s product cybersecurity risks and programs. The Audit Committee also considers product and services cybersecurity risks in connection with its financial and compliance risk oversight role.
Our product cybersecurity officer (PCO), under the direction of our chief technology officer, leads our cybersecurity program for our products and services and is responsible for assessing and managing related cybersecurity risks. Our PCO updates the Special Activities Committee on cybersecurity risks as they relate to our products and services, in addition to updates on product and service cybersecurity incidents, defenses and mitigation strategies.
Our PCO is an experienced embedded systems engineer and chief engineer with nearly 20 years’ experience in the development, product assurance, and security of critical and highly regulated embedded and other computer systems in medical, aviation, and military products and services. In performing her role, she regularly reviews cybersecurity risks, controls, program policy and processes, including training, and oversees and advises teams performing policy and program development, implementation and updates. Our PCO is regularly apprised of product and service cybersecurity events, threats and activities including with respect to incidents, protection vulnerabilities, software update needs and lifecycle status.
Enterprise Risk Management
Our cybersecurity risk processes are a key element of our Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) process, which is designed to identify and evaluate the full range of significant risks to RTX Corporation (RTX). As part of our ERM program, RTX’s functional and operations departments identify and manage enterprise risks on an annual cycle. The process consists of structured reviews, discussions, and mitigation planning, and includes risks identified by our Enterprise Cybersecurity and Product Cybersecurity functions as part of the overall review of significant RTX risks. The top ERM risks are compiled
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annually and shared with the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors as well as the full Board of Directors. In addition, Internal Audit incorporates these risks into its continuous risk assessment process and periodically audits specific ERM risks.
For more information on risks related to cybersecurity, see Item IA. “Risk Factors” of this Form 10-K.
ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
We have significant properties in approximately 25 countries, with approximately 500 significant properties comprising approximately 75 million square feet of productive space. Approximately 30% of our square footage related to our significant properties is leased, and 70% is owned. Approximately 70% of our square footage related to our significant properties is located in the United States.
Our fixed assets as of December 31, 2023 include manufacturing facilities and non-manufacturing facilities such as warehouses, laboratories, office space, and a substantial quantity of machinery and equipment, including general purpose machinery and equipment using special jigs, tools, and fixtures and in many instances having automatic control features and special adaptations. The facilities, warehouses, machinery and equipment in use as of December 31, 2023 are in good operating condition and are well-maintained.
ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
We are subject to a number of lawsuits, investigations, and claims (some of which involve substantial amounts). For a discussion of contingencies related to certain legal proceedings, see “Note 17: Commitments and Contingencies” within Item 8 of this Form 10-K. Except as otherwise noted, while we are unable to predict the final outcome, based on information currently available, we do not believe that resolution of any of these matters will have a material adverse effect upon our competitive position, results of operations, financial condition, or liquidity.
A further discussion of government contracts and related investigations, as well as a discussion of our environmental liabilities, can be found under the heading “Other Matters Relating to Our Business” within Item 1. “Business” of this Form 10-K and in Item 1A. “Risk Factors” of this Form 10-K.
737 MAX Aircraft Litigation
Multiple lawsuits have been filed in U.S. courts relating to the October 29, 2018 Lion Air Flight 610 and the March 10, 2019 Ethiopian Airlines Flight 302 accidents. Collins Aerospace (Collins) sold certain aircraft parts and systems to The Boeing Company for the 737 MAX aircraft involved in these accidents. Certain of our Collins businesses have been named, along with other third parties, as parties in many of these lawsuits. We have also fully supported all governmental investigations and inquiries relating to the accidents. We do not expect that the lawsuits or governmental investigations or inquiries will have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, or liquidity.
ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURE
Not applicable.
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PART II
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS, AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
RTX Corporation’s common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol “RTX.” There were 39,627 registered shareowners at December 31, 2023. The information required by Item 5 with respect to securities authorized for issuance under equity compensation plans is contained within Item 12 of this Form 10-K.
Stock Performance Graph
The following graph presents the cumulative total shareowner return for the five years ending December 31, 2023 for our common stock as compared to the Standard & Poor’s 500 Stock Index and the S&P Aerospace & Defense (A&D) Index. These figures assume that all dividends paid over the five-year period were reinvested, and that the starting value of each index and the investment in common stock was $100.00 on December 31, 2018.
Comparison of Cumulative Five Year Total Return
Annual Return Percentage
Years Ending
Company/Index12/31/201912/31/202012/31/202112/31/202212/31/2023
RTX Common Stock43.82 (16.73)23.27 20.01 (14.44)
S&P 500 Index31.49 18.40 28.71 (18.11)26.29 
S&P Aerospace & Defense Index30.33 (16.06)13.22 17.37 6.77 

Indexed Returns
Years Ending
Company/IndexBase Period 12/31/201812/31/201912/31/202012/31/202112/31/202212/31/2023
RTX Common Stock$100.00 $143.82 $119.77 $147.63 $177.18 $151.60 
S&P 500 Index100.00 131.49 155.68 200.37 164.08 207.21 
S&P Aerospace & Defense Index100.00 130.33 109.39 123.86 145.37 155.21 

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Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
The following table provides information about our purchases during the quarter ended December 31, 2023 of equity securities that are registered by us pursuant to Section 12 of the Exchange Act.
2023
Total Number of Shares Purchased
(000’s)
Average Price Paid per Share
Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of a Publicly Announced Program
(000’s)
Approximate Dollar Value of Shares that May Yet Be Purchased Under the Program
(dollars in millions)
October 1 - October 31111,620 $78.22 111,456 $976 
November 1 - November 30149 81.13 — 976 
December 1 - December 31173 82.20 — 976 
Total111,942 $78.23 111,456 
On October 21, 2023, our Board of Directors authorized a share repurchase program for up to $11 billion of our common stock, replacing the previous program announced on December 12, 2022. Under the 2023 program, shares may be purchased on the open market, in privately negotiated transactions, under accelerated share repurchase programs, and under plans complying with Rules 10b5-1 and 10b-18 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.
On October 24, 2023, we entered into accelerated share repurchase (ASR) agreements with certain financial institution counterparties to repurchase shares of our common stock for an aggregate purchase price of $10 billion. Pursuant to the ASR agreements, we made aggregate payments of $10 billion on October 26, 2023, and received initial deliveries of approximately 108.4 million shares of our common stock at a price of $78.38 per share, representing approximately 85% of the shares expected to be repurchased. We funded the payments with borrowings under a bridge credit agreement, which was repaid with the proceeds from term loan facilities, proceeds from issuances of long-term debt in the fourth quarter of 2023 and cash on hand. The final number of shares to be repurchased will be based on the average of the daily volume-weighted average prices of our common stock during the term of the ASR agreements, less a discount and subject to adjustments pursuant to the terms and conditions of the ASR agreements. Upon final settlement of the ASR, under certain circumstances, each of the counterparties may be required to deliver additional shares of common stock, or we may be required to deliver shares of common stock or to make a cash payment to the counterparties, at our election. The final settlement of each transaction under the ASR agreements is scheduled to occur no later than the third quarter of 2024 and in each case may be accelerated at the option of the applicable counterparty.
We may also reacquire shares outside of the program in connection with the surrender of shares to cover taxes on vesting of restricted stock, and as required under our employee savings plan. Our ability to repurchase shares is subject to applicable law. During the quarter ended December 31, 2023, we repurchased 486 thousand shares outside of the program related to our employee savings plan.
ITEM 6.
Reserved.
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ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (MD&A) is intended to provide information to the reader in understanding our consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data of this Form 10-K, the changes in certain key items in those financial statements between select periods, and the primary factors that accounted for those changes. In addition, we discuss certain accounting principles, policies, and critical estimates that affect our financial statements. Our discussion also contains some additional context regarding our business, including industry considerations and the business environment, as well as certain forward-looking statements related to future events and expectations. This MD&A should be read in conjunction with the other sections of this Form 10-K, including Item 1A. “Risk Factors.”
BUSINESS OVERVIEW
We are a global premier systems provider of high technology products and services to the aerospace and defense industries. Effective July 17, 2023, we changed our legal name from Raytheon Technologies Corporation to RTX Corporation. Effective July 1, 2023, we streamlined the structure of our core businesses to three principal business segments: Collins Aerospace (Collins), Pratt & Whitney, and Raytheon. All segment information included in this Form 10-K is reflective of this new structure and prior period information has been recast to conform to our current period presentation. Unless the context otherwise requires, the terms “we,” “our,” “us,” “the Company,” and “RTX” mean RTX Corporation and its subsidiaries.
Industry Considerations
Our worldwide operations can be affected by industrial, economic, and political factors on both a regional and global level. Our operations include original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and extensive related aftermarket parts and services related to our aerospace operations. Our defense business serves both domestic and international customers primarily as a prime contractor or subcontractor on a broad portfolio of defense and related programs for government customers. Our business mix also reflects the combination of shorter cycles in our commercial aerospace spares contracts and certain service contracts in our defense business, and longer cycles in our aerospace OEM and aftermarket maintenance contracts and on our defense contracts to design, develop, manufacture, or modify complex equipment. Our customers are in the public and private sectors, and our businesses reflect an extensive geographic diversification that has evolved with continued globalization.
Government legislation, policies, and regulations can impact our business and operations. Changes in environmental and climate change-related laws or regulations, including regulations on greenhouse gas emissions, carbon pricing, and energy taxes, could lead to new or additional investment in product designs and facility upgrades and could increase our operational and environmental compliance expenditures, including increased energy and raw materials costs and costs associated with manufacturing changes. In addition, government and industry-driven safety and performance regulations, restrictions on aircraft engine noise and emissions, government imposed travel restrictions, and government procurement practices can impact our businesses. Collins and Pratt & Whitney serve both commercial and government aerospace customers. Revenue passenger miles (RPMs), available seat miles, and the general economic health of airline carriers are key barometers for our commercial aerospace operations. Performance in the general aviation sector is closely tied to the overall health of the economy and is positively correlated to corporate profits. Many of our aerospace customers are covered under long-term aftermarket service agreements at both Collins and Pratt & Whitney, which are inclusive of both spare parts and services.
Our defense operations are affected by U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) budget and spending levels, changes in demand, changes in policy positions or priorities, the domestic and global political and economic environment, and the evolving nature of the global and national security threat environment. In addition, our defense businesses engage in both direct commercial sales, which generally require U.S. government licenses and approvals, as well as foreign military sales, which are government-to-government transactions initiated by, and carried out at the direction of, the U.S. government. Changes in these budget and spending levels, policies, or priorities, which are subject to U.S. domestic and foreign geopolitical risks and threats, may impact our defense businesses, including the timing of and delays in U.S. government licenses and approvals for sales, the risk of sanctions, or other restrictions.
Other Matters
Global economic and political conditions, changes in raw material and commodity prices and supply, labor availability and costs, inflation, interest rates, geopolitical conflicts and strained intercountry relations, U.S. and non U.S. tax law changes, foreign currency exchange rates, energy costs and supply, levels of air travel, the financial condition of commercial airlines, and the impact from natural disasters and weather conditions create uncertainties that could impact our businesses.
Pratt & Whitney Powder Metal Matter. As described further in “Note 17: Commitments and Contingencies” within Item 8 of this Form 10-K, Pratt & Whitney has determined that a rare condition in powder metal used to manufacture certain engine parts requires accelerated inspection of the PW1100G-JM (PW1100) Geared Turbofan (GTF) fleet, which powers the A320neo
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family of aircraft (A320neo) (herein referred to as the “Powder Metal Matter”).
Global Supply Chain. We are dependent on a global supply chain and in recent years have experienced supply chain disruptions that resulted in delays and increased costs and adversely affected our performance. These disruptions impacted our ability to procure raw materials, microelectronics, and certain commodities on a timely basis and/or at expected prices, and are driven by supply chain market constraints and macroeconomic conditions, including inflation and labor market shortages. Current geopolitical conditions, including conflicts and other causes of strained intercountry relations, as well as sanctions and other trade restrictive activities, are contributing to these issues. Furthermore, our suppliers and subcontractors have been impacted by these same issues. We have implemented actions and programs to mitigate some of the impacts but anticipate supply chain disruptions to continue into 2024.
Economic Environment. Current high inflation levels have increased material and component prices, labor rates, and supplier costs and have negatively impacted our operating profit and margin, including impact on productivity expectations. Due to the nature of our government and commercial aerospace businesses, and their respective customer and supplier contracts, we are not always able to offset cost increases by increasing our contract value or pricing, in particular on our fixed-price contracts. Increasing material, component, and labor prices could subject us to losses in our fixed price contracts in the event of cost overruns. In addition, higher interest rates have increased the cost of borrowing and tightened the availability of capital. Among other things, these effects can constrain our customers’ purchasing power and decrease orders for our products and services and impact the ability of our customers to make payments and our suppliers to perform. Moreover, volatility in interest rates and financial markets can lead to economic uncertainty, an economic downturn or recession and impact the demand for our products and services as well as our supply chain. We continue to pursue strategic and operational initiatives to help address these macroeconomic pressures, including our digital transformation, operational modernization, cost reduction, and advanced technology programs, and we apply our Customer Oriented Results Excellence (CORE) operating platform to the execution of these initiatives. However, the impact of these pressures and corresponding initiatives is uncertain and subject to a range of factors and future developments.
U.S. Government’s Budget. Since the end of its fiscal year 2023, the U.S. government has been operating under a series of continuing resolutions to keep the government funded while Congress works to enact full year fiscal year 2024 (FY24) appropriation bills. On January 7, 2024, congressional leaders announced an overall funding agreement enabling Congress to complete action on the FY24 appropriations bills. The current continuing resolution, signed on January 19, 2024, funds certain agencies through March 1 and others through March 8. Under a continuing resolution, federal agencies continue to operate generally at the same funding levels as the prior year, but typically new spending initiatives cannot be executed during this period. While we expect Congress to complete the full year FY24 appropriations bills before the current continuing resolution expires and for the FY24 defense appropriations bill to provide increased spending consistent with the overall funding agreement, if Congress is unable to complete the FY24 appropriation bills (or pass another continuing resolution), then the U.S. government would shut down during which federal agencies would cease all non-essential functions.
Geopolitical Matters. In response to Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, the U.S. government and the governments of various jurisdictions in which we operate, have imposed broad economic sanctions and export controls targeting specific industries, entities, and individuals in Russia. The Russian government has implemented similar counter-sanctions and export controls targeting specific industries, entities, and individuals in the U.S. and other jurisdictions in which we operate, including certain members of the Company’s management team and Board of Directors. These government measures, among other limitations, restrict transactions involving various Russian banks and financial institutions and impose enhanced export controls limiting transfers of various goods, software, and technologies to and from Russia, including broadened export controls specifically targeting the aerospace sector. These measures have adversely affected, and could continue to adversely affect, the Company and/or our supply chain, business partners, or customers; however, based on information available to date, we do not currently expect these issues will have a material adverse effect on our financial results. We will continue to monitor future developments, including additional sanctions and other measures, that could adversely affect the Company and/or our supply chain, business partners, or customers.
In February 2023, China announced sanctions against Raytheon Missiles & Defense (RMD) (a former RTX Corporation (RTX) business segment which became part of Raytheon as a result of the July 1, 2023 RTX segment realignment), and previously announced it may take measures against RTX, in connection with certain foreign military sales to Taiwan. The Chinese sanctions against RMD included a fine equal to twice the value of the arms that RMD sold to Taiwan since September 2020. In addition, in September 2022, China indicated that it decided to sanction our Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Gregory Hayes, in connection with another foreign military sale to Taiwan involving RTX products and services. If China were to impose additional sanctions, enforce announced sanctions, or take other regulatory action against RTX, our suppliers, affiliates, or partners, it could potentially disrupt our business operations. Any impact of these or other potential sanctions or other actions by China is uncertain.
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We have direct commercial sales contracts for products and services to certain foreign customers, for which U.S. government review and approval have been pending. The U.S. government’s approval of these sales is subject to a range of factors, including its foreign policies related to these customers, which are subject to continuing review and potential changes. Likewise, regulatory approvals previously granted for prior sales can be paused or revoked if the products and services have not yet been delivered to the customer. In addition, certain programs require approvals by foreign governments, and those approvals may not be obtained on a timely basis or at all or may be revoked. If we ultimately do not receive all of the regulatory approvals, or those approvals are revoked, it could have a material effect on our financial results. In particular, as of December 31, 2023, our Contract liabilities include approximately $405 million of advance payments received from a Middle East customer on contracts for which we no longer believe we will be able to execute on or obtain required regulatory approvals. These advance payments may become refundable to the customer if the contracts are ultimately terminated.
We continue to closely monitor developments in the war between Israel and Hamas that began on October 7, 2023, including potential impacts to RTX’s business, customers, suppliers, employees, and operations in Israel, the Middle East, and elsewhere. At this time, impacts to RTX are minimal. RTX’s commercial manufacturing facilities in Israel remain open and operational and have continued exporting products and importing critical items and raw materials. The war has also not impacted our defense programs’ ability to receive components from Israel. For some products, there could be future delivery delays because of the ongoing war. The potential impacts to RTX are subject to change given the volatile nature of the situation.
See Item 1A. “Risk Factors” within Part I of this Form 10-K for further discussion.
FINANCIAL SUMMARY
We use the following key financial performance measures to manage our business on a consolidated basis and by business segment, and to monitor and assess our results of operations:
Net sales: a growth metric that measures our revenue for the current year;
Operating profit: a measure of our profit for the year, before non-operating expenses, net and income taxes;
Operating profit margin: a measure of our Operating profit as a percentage of Total net sales; and
Operating cash flow from continuing operations: a measure of the amount of cash generated by our business operations.
(dollars in millions)202320222021
Total net sales$68,920 $67,074 $64,388 
Operating profit3,561 5,504 5,136 
Operating profit margins5.2 %8.2 %8.0 %
Operating cash flow from continuing operations$7,883 $7,168 $7,142 
In order to better assess the underlying performance of our business, we also focus on the change in organic net sales on both a consolidated basis and business segment basis, and the change in organic operating profit on a business segment basis, which allows for better year-over-year comparability. See Results of Operations below for our definition of the organic change in Net sales and Operating profit, which are not defined measures under U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) and may be calculated differently by other companies.
We also focus on backlog as a key financial performance measure of our forward-looking sales growth. Total backlog was $196 billion and $175 billion as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. Backlog, which is equivalent to our remaining performance obligations (RPO) for our sales contracts, represents the aggregate dollar value of firm orders for which products have not been provided or service has not been performed and excludes unexercised contract options and potential orders under ordering-type contracts (e.g., indefinite-delivery, indefinite-quantity (IDIQ) type contracts). Backlog generally increases with bookings and/or orders and generally decreases as sales are recognized on these bookings and is affected by changes in foreign exchange rates, as well as contract cancellations and terminations, and cost underruns on cost-type contracts.
In addition, we maintain a strong focus on program execution and the prudent management of capital and investments in order to maximize operating income and cash. We focus on adjusted earnings per share (EPS) and measures to assess our cash generation and the efficiency and effectiveness of our use of capital, such as free cash flow, both of which are not defined measures under U.S. GAAP and may be calculated differently by other companies.
Considered together, we believe these metrics are strong indicators of our overall performance and our ability to create shareowner value. We also use these and other performance metrics for executive compensation purposes.
A discussion of our results of operations and financial condition follows below in Results of Operations, Segment Review, and Liquidity and Financial Condition.
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RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
As described in our “Cautionary Note Concerning Factors That May Affect Future Results” of this Form 10-K, our period-to-period comparisons of our results, particularly at a segment level, may not be indicative of our future operating results. The following discussions of comparative results among periods, including the discussion of segment results, should be viewed in this context.
We provide the organic change in Net sales and Cost of sales for our consolidated results of operations as well as the organic change in Net sales and Operating profit for our segments. We believe that these non-Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (non-GAAP) measures are useful to investors because they provide transparency to the underlying performance of our business, which allows for better year-over-year comparability. The organic change in Net sales, Cost of sales, and Operating profit excludes acquisitions and divestitures, net, the effect of foreign currency exchange rate translation fluctuations, and other significant non-operational items and/or significant operational items that may occur at irregular intervals (Other). Additionally, the organic change in Cost of sales and Operating profit excludes restructuring costs, the FAS/CAS operating adjustment, and costs related to certain acquisition accounting adjustments. Restructuring costs generally arise from severance related to workforce reductions and facility exit costs. We are continuously evaluating our cost structure and have implemented restructuring actions in an effort to keep our cost structure competitive. The FAS/CAS operating adjustment represents the difference between the service cost component of our pension and postretirement benefit (PRB) expense under the Financial Accounting Standards (FAS) requirements of U.S. GAAP and our pension and PRB expense under U.S. government Cost Accounting Standards (CAS), primarily related to our Raytheon segment. Acquisition accounting adjustments include the amortization of acquired intangible assets related to acquisitions, the amortization of the property, plant and equipment fair value adjustment acquired through acquisitions, the amortization of customer contractual obligations related to loss making or below market contracts acquired, and goodwill impairment, if applicable.
Net Sales
(dollars in millions)202320222021
Total net sales$68,920 $67,074 $64,388 
The factors contributing to the total change year-over-year in Total net sales are as follows:
(dollars in millions)20232022
Organic (1)
$7,343 $3,660 
Acquisitions and divestitures, net(143)(676)
Other(5,354)(298)
Total change$1,846 $2,686 
(1)    See “Results of Operations” for definition of organic. A reconciliation of this measure to reported U.S. GAAP amounts is provided in the table above.
Net sales increased $7.3 billion organically in 2023 compared to 2022, primarily due to higher organic sales of $3.2 billion at Collins, $3.1 billion at Pratt & Whitney, and $1.3 billion at Raytheon. The $0.1 billion decrease in net sales related to Acquisitions and divestitures, net in 2023 compared to 2022, was primarily driven by the divestiture of a small non-core naval power business in the fourth quarter of 2022. The decrease in Other net sales of $5.4 billion in 2023 compared to 2022, was primarily driven by the net sales charge of $5.4 billion associated with the Powder Metal Matter recognized in the third quarter of 2023.
Net sales increased $3.7 billion organically in 2022 compared to 2021, primarily due to higher organic sales of $2.5 billion at Pratt & Whitney and $2.1 billion at Collins, partially offset by lower organic sales of $0.7 billion at Raytheon. The $0.7 billion decrease in net sales related to Acquisitions and divestitures, net in 2022 compared to 2021, was primarily driven by the sale of our global training and services business within our Raytheon segment in the fourth quarter of 2021. The decrease in Other net sales of $0.3 billion in 2022 compared to 2021 represents the impact of foreign exchange.
See “Segment Review” below for further information by segment.
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% of Total Net Sales
(dollars in millions)202320222021202320222021
Net sales
Products sales$49,571 $50,773 $49,270 72 %76 %77 %
Services sales19,349 16,301 15,118 28 %24 %23 %
Total net sales$68,920 $67,074 $64,388 100 %100 %100 %
Refer to “Note 20: Segment Financial Data” within Item 8 of this Form 10-K for the composition of external net sales by products and services by segment.
Net products sales decreased $1.2 billion in 2023 compared to 2022, primarily driven by a $3.8 billion decrease at Pratt & Whitney primarily driven by a net sales charge of $5.3 billion associated with the Powder Metal Matter, partially offset by increases of $2.1 billion at Collins and $0.6 billion at Raytheon. Net services sales increased $3.0 billion in 2023 compared to 2022, primarily due to increases in external services sales of $1.7 billion at Pratt & Whitney, $0.8 billion at Collins, and $0.6 billion at Raytheon, partially offset by a net sales charge of $0.1 billion associated with the Powder Metal Matter.
Net products sales increased $1.5 billion in 2022 compared to 2021, primarily due to increases in external products sales of $1.3 billion at Collins and $1.2 billion at Pratt & Whitney, partially offset by decreases in external products sales of $1.0 billion at Raytheon. Net services sales increased $1.2 billion in 2022 compared to 2021 primarily due to increases in external services sales of $1.2 billion at Pratt & Whitney and $0.4 billion at Collins, partially offset by a decrease in external services sales of $0.4 billion at Raytheon, primarily driven by the sale of the global training and services business in the fourth quarter of 2021.
Our sales to major customers were as follows:
% of Total Net Sales
(dollars in millions)202320222021202320222021
Sales to the U.S. government (1)
$31,628 $30,317 $31,177 46 %45 %48 %
Foreign military sales through the U.S. government4,974 5,042 5,546 7 %%%
Foreign government direct commercial sales4,249 4,327 4,993 6 %%%
Commercial aerospace and other commercial sales (2)
28,069 27,388 22,672 41 %41 %35 %
Total net sales$68,920 $67,074 $64,388 100 %100 %100 %
(1)    Excludes foreign military sales through the U.S. government.
(2)    2023 includes the reduction in sales from the Powder Metal Matter.
Cost of Sales
(dollars in millions)202320222021
Total cost of sales$56,831 $53,406 $51,897 
Percentage of net sales82 %80 %81 %
The factors contributing to the change year-over-year in Total cost of sales are as follows:
(dollars in millions)20232022
Organic (1)
$5,721 $2,385 
Acquisitions and divestitures, net(133)(552)
Restructuring107 
FAS/CAS operating adjustment238 217 
Acquisition accounting adjustments107 (348)
Other(2,615)(196)
Total change$3,425 $1,509 
(1)    See “Results of Operations” for definition of organic. A reconciliation of this measure to reported U.S. GAAP amounts is provided in the table above.
The organic increase in Total cost of sales in 2023 compared to 2022 of $5.7 billion was primarily due to the organic sales increases at Pratt & Whitney, Collins, and Raytheon noted above. The $0.1 billion decrease in cost of sales related to Acquisitions and divestitures, net in 2023 compared to 2022, was primarily driven by the divestiture of a small non-core naval power business in the fourth quarter of 2022. The decrease in Other cost of sales of $2.6 billion in 2023 compared to 2022 was
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primarily driven by a net reduction in cost of sales of $2.5 billion primarily reflecting our partners’ share of the Powder Metal Matter.
The organic increase in Total cost of sales in 2022 compared to 2021 of $2.4 billion was primarily due to the organic sales increases at Pratt & Whitney and Collins noted above. The decrease related to Acquisitions and divestitures, net of $0.6 billion in 2022 compared to 2021 was primarily driven by the sale of our global training and services business within our Raytheon segment in the fourth quarter of 2021. The decrease in Other cost of sales of $0.2 billion in 2022 compared to 2021 was primarily driven by the impact of foreign exchange, partially offset by charges recorded during the first quarter of 2022 at Pratt & Whitney and Collins related to impairment of customer financing assets for products under lease, inventory reserves, purchase order obligations, and the impairment of contract fulfillment costs that are no longer recoverable, all due to global sanctions on and export controls with respect to Russia. See “Note 1: Basis of Presentation and Summary of Accounting Principles” within Item 8 of this Form 10-K for additional information.
Restructuring actions relate to ongoing cost reduction efforts including workforce reductions and the consolidation of facilities.
For further discussion on FAS/CAS operating adjustment see the “FAS/CAS operating adjustment” subsection under the “Segment Review” section below. For further discussion on Acquisition accounting adjustments, see the “Acquisition accounting adjustments” subsection under the “Segment Review” section below.
% of Total Net Sales
(dollars in millions)202320222021202320222021
Cost of sales
Products$43,425 $41,927 $41,095 63 %63 %64 %
Services13,406 11,479 10,802 19 %17 %17 %
Total cost of sales$56,831 $53,406 $51,897 82 %80 %81 %
Net products cost of sales increased $1.5 billion in 2023 compared to 2022, primarily due to increases in external products cost of sales at Pratt & Whitney, Collins, and Raytheon, all driven by the products sales changes noted above, partially offset by a net reduction in cost of sales of $2.5 billion primarily reflecting our partners’ share of the Powder Metal Matter. Net services cost of sales increased $1.9 billion in 2023 compared to 2022, primarily due to increases in external services cost of sales at Pratt & Whitney, Collins, and Raytheon, all driven by the services sales changes noted above.
Net products cost of sales increased $0.8 billion in 2022 compared to 2021, primarily due to increases at Collins and Pratt & Whitney, partially offset by decreases at Raytheon and declines in Acquisition Accounting Adjustments. The changes at Collins, Pratt & Whitney, and Raytheon were related to the changes in products sales noted above. Net services cost of sales increased $0.7 billion in 2022 compared to 2021, primarily due to increases in external services cost of sales at Pratt & Whitney and Collins, partially offset by a decrease in external services cost of sales at Raytheon, all driven by the services sales changes noted above.
Research and Development
(dollars in millions)202320222021
Company-funded$2,805 $2,711 $2,732 
Percentage of net sales4.1 %4.0 %4.2 %
Customer-funded (1)
$4,456 $4,376 $4,485 
Percentage of net sales6.5 %6.5 %7.0 %
(1)    Included in Cost of sales in our Consolidated Statement of Operations.
Research and development spending is subject to the variable nature of program development schedules and, therefore, year-over-year fluctuations in spending levels are expected.
The increase in company-funded research and development of $0.1 billion in 2023 compared to 2022, was primarily driven by increased spending on commercial program development at Pratt & Whitney and higher program expenses at Collins, partially offset by decreased spend on other development programs. Company-funded research and development in 2022 was relatively consistent with 2021.
The increase in customer-funded research and development of $0.1 billion in 2023 compared to 2022, was primarily driven by higher expenses on various commercial and military programs at Collins and increased spending at Pratt & Whitney on military programs, partially offset by lower expenses on various programs at Raytheon. The decrease in customer-funded research and
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development of $0.1 billion in 2022 compared to 2021, was primarily driven by lower expenses on various programs at Raytheon, partially offset by an increase in expenses on a missile defense technology program at Raytheon.
Selling, General, and Administrative
(dollars in millions)202320222021
Selling, general, and administrative$5,809 $5,573 $5,046 
Percentage of net sales8.4 %8.3 %7.8 %
Selling, general, and administrative expenses increased $0.2 billion in 2023 compared to 2022, primarily driven by a $0.1 billion charge at Pratt & Whitney related to a customer insolvency in the second quarter of 2023, costs related to our segment realignment and recently announced divestitures in 2023, and increased employee-related costs, partially offset by the absence of $0.1 billion of charges recorded in the first quarter of 2022 related to increased estimates for credit losses due to global sanctions on and export controls with respect to Russia. See “Note 1: Basis of Presentation and Summary of Accounting Principles” within Item 8 of this Form 10-K for additional information on Russia sanctions.
Selling, general, and administrative expenses increased $0.5 billion in 2022 compared to 2021, primarily driven by higher information technology-related costs at Corporate, Collins, and Pratt & Whitney, and higher combined expenses at Collins and Pratt & Whitney, principally driven by higher employee-related costs and $0.1 billion of charges related to increased estimates for credit losses due to global sanctions on and export controls with respect to Russia.
We are continuously evaluating our cost structure and have implemented restructuring actions in an effort to keep our cost structure competitive. Therefore, the amounts reflected above include the beneficial impact of previous restructuring actions on Selling, general, and administrative expenses.
Other Income, Net
(dollars in millions)202320222021
Other income, net$86 $120 $423 
Other income, net includes equity earnings in unconsolidated entities, royalty income, foreign exchange gains and losses, and other ongoing and non-recurring items.
The decrease in Other income, net of $34 million in 2023 compared to 2022 was primarily due to the net unfavorable year-over-year impact of foreign exchange gains and losses of $79 million, which was more than offset by the absence of $111 million of charges associated with the disposition of three businesses in 2022, and a $68 million gain on sale of land during the first quarter of 2023. The remaining decrease was spread across individually less significant items.
The decrease in Other income, net of $303 million in 2022 compared to 2021 was primarily due to the absence of a $269 million gain on sale of Raytheon’s global training and services business recorded in 2021, $111 million of charges associated with the disposition of three businesses in 2022 including two non-core businesses at Collins and a non-core naval power business at Raytheon, and the absence of foreign government wage subsidies related to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) at Pratt & Whitney of $41 million in 2021. The above items were partially offset by an accrual of $147 million in the fourth quarter of 2021 related to the ongoing Department of Justice (DOJ) investigation into contract pricing matters at Raytheon. See “Note 2: Acquisitions and Dispositions” within Item 8 of this Form 10-K for further discussion on business dispositions.
Operating Profit
(dollars in millions)202320222021
Operating profit$3,561$5,504$5,136
Operating profit margin5.2 %8.2 %8.0 %
The decrease in Operating profit of $1.9 billion in 2023 compared to 2022 was primarily driven by a decrease at Pratt & Whitney primarily driven by the $2.9 billion charge associated with the Powder Metal Matter and a decrease in the change in our FAS/CAS operating adjustment, partially offset by an increase in Operating profit at Collins and Raytheon, all of which are described below in “Segment Review.”
The increase in Operating profit of $0.4 billion in 2022 compared to 2021 was primarily driven by a decrease in Acquisition accounting adjustments, the operating performance at our operating segments, and a decrease in Corporate and Eliminations and other, partially offset by the change in our FAS/CAS operating adjustment, all of which are described below in “Segment Review.”
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Non-service Pension Income
(dollars in millions)202320222021
Non-service pension income$(1,780)$(1,889)$(1,944)
The change in Non-service pension income of $0.1 billion in 2023 compared to 2022 was primarily driven by an increase in interest rates during 2022 and prior years’ pension asset returns performing below our expected return on plan assets (EROA) assumption, partially offset by an increase in our 2023 EROA assumption.
The change in Non-service pension income of $0.1 billion in 2022 compared to 2021 was primarily driven by the impact of an increase in interest rates, partially offset by prior years’ pension asset returns exceeding our EROA assumption.
Interest Expense, Net
(dollars in millions)202320222021
Interest expense$1,653 $1,300 $1,330 
Interest income(100)(70)(36)
Other non-operating expense (income)(1)
(48)46 28 
Interest expense, net$1,505 $1,276 $1,322 
Total average interest expense rate - average outstanding borrowings during the year:4.3 %4.0 %4.1 %
Total average interest expense rate - outstanding borrowings as of December 31:4.6 %4.0 %4.0 %
(1)    Primarily consists of the gains or losses on assets associated with certain of our nonqualified deferred compensation and employee benefit plans, as well as the gains or losses on liabilities associated with certain of our nonqualified deferred compensation plans and non-operating dividend income.
Interest expense, net increased $0.2 billion in 2023 compared to 2022. The increase in Interest expense of $0.4 billion was primarily due to the long-term debt issuances in the first and the fourth quarters of 2023, interest and fees on short term loans related to an accelerated share repurchase (ASR), and the increase in commercial paper activity in 2023. For additional discussion of the ASR and associated funding, see “Liquidity and Financial Condition” below. The change in Other non-operating expense (income) of $0.1 billion was primarily driven by a change in the mark-to-market fair value of marketable securities held in trusts associated with certain of our nonqualified deferred compensation and employee benefit plans and an increase in dividend income.
Interest expense, net in 2022 was relatively consistent with 2021.
Income Taxes
202320222021
Effective income tax rate11.9 %12.9 %18.9 %
The lower 2023 effective tax rate compared to 2022 is primarily driven by a favorable impact related to the $2.9 billion charge associated with the Powder Metal Matter driving lower pretax income in 2023 resulting in an approximate 4% benefit to the rate in 2023, and the absence of a 3.4% reduction in the 2022 effective tax rate associated with the $207 million of tax benefits recorded in 2022 related to legal entity and operational reorganizations.
The lower 2022 effective tax rate compared to 2021 is primarily driven by the absence of a net $108 million charge, a 2.2% tax rate increase in 2021, associated with the disposition of the Forcepoint business and the global training and services business, and the absence of a $73 million charge, a 1.5% tax rate increase in 2021, for the revaluation of deferred taxes resulting from the increase in the U.K. corporate tax rate to 25% enacted in 2021. Additionally, the benefits associated with legal entity and operational reorganizations were lower in 2022 at $207 million, a 3.4% tax benefit in 2022, and $244 million, a 4.8% tax benefit, in 2021. The 2021 effective tax rate also includes higher net state income taxes as compared to 2022.
For additional discussion of income taxes and the effective income tax rate, see “Income Taxes” within Critical Accounting Estimates below, and “Note 12: Income Taxes” within Item 8 of this Form 10-K.
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Net Income from Continuing Operations Attributable to Common Shareowners
(dollars in millions, except per share amounts)202320222021
Net income from continuing operations attributable to common shareowners $3,195 $5,216 $3,897 
Diluted earnings per share from continuing operations$2.23 $3.51 $2.58 
Net income from continuing operations attributable to common shareowners for 2023 includes the following:
charge associated with the Powder Metal Matter of $2.2 billion, net of tax and partner share, which had an unfavorable impact on diluted EPS from continuing operations of $1.55;
acquisition accounting adjustments of $1.6 billion, net of tax, which had an unfavorable impact on diluted EPS from continuing operations of $1.09;
restructuring charges of $193 million, net of tax, which had an unfavorable impact on diluted EPS from continuing operations of $0.13; and
charges on our contract assets and customer financing assets related to a customer insolvency of $114 million, net of tax and noncontrolling interest, which had an unfavorable impact on diluted EPS from continuing operations of $0.08.
Net income from continuing operations attributable to common shareowners for 2022 includes the following:
acquisition accounting adjustments of $1.5 billion, net of tax, which had an unfavorable impact on diluted EPS from continuing operations of $0.99;
impairment charges and reserve adjustments related to the global sanctions on and export controls with respect to Russia of $210 million, net of tax, which had an unfavorable impact on diluted EPS from continuing operations of $0.14;
combined charges associated with disposition of businesses at Collins and Raytheon of $102 million, net of tax, which had an unfavorable impact on diluted EPS from continuing operations of $0.07; and
restructuring charges of $91 million, net of tax, which had an unfavorable impact on diluted EPS from continuing operations of $0.06.
Net income from continuing operations attributable to common shareowners for 2021 includes the following:
acquisition accounting adjustments primarily related to the Raytheon merger of $1.7 billion, net of tax, which had an unfavorable impact on diluted EPS from continuing operations of $1.13;
net debt extinguishment costs of $524 million, net of tax, in connection with the early repayment of outstanding principal, which had an unfavorable impact on diluted EPS from continuing operations of $0.35;
tax benefits of $244 million associated with legal entity and operational reorganizations implemented in the third quarter 2021, which had a favorable impact on diluted EPS from continuing operations of $0.16;
tax expense of $148 million related to the sale of our Forcepoint business in the first quarter of 2021, which had an unfavorable impact on diluted EPS from continuing operations of $0.10, and the subsequent revaluation of that tax benefit of $104 million in the fourth quarter of 2021, due to the completion of the divestiture of Raytheon’s global training and services business for a gain, which had a favorable impact on diluted EPS from continuing operations of $0.07;
accrual of $147 million related to the ongoing DOJ investigation into contract pricing matters at Raytheon, which had an unfavorable impact on diluted EPS from continuing operations of $0.10;
restructuring charges of $121 million, net of tax, which had an unfavorable impact on diluted EPS from continuing operations of $0.08; and
gain on the sale of our global training and services business within our Raytheon segment of $126 million, net of tax, which had a favorable impact on diluted EPS from continuing operations of $0.08.
Net Income Attributable to Common Shareowners
(dollars in millions, except per share amounts)202320222021
Net income attributable to common shareowners $3,195 $5,197 $3,864 
Diluted earnings per share from operations$2.23 $3.50 $2.56 
The changes in Net income attributable to common shareowners and diluted EPS from operations for 2023 compared to 2022 and for 2022 compared to 2021 were driven by the changes in continuing operations, as discussed above in Net Income from Continuing Operations Attributable to Common Shareowners.
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SEGMENT REVIEW
As previously announced, effective July 1, 2023, we streamlined the structure of our core businesses to three principal business segments: Collins Aerospace (Collins), Pratt & Whitney, and Raytheon. All segment information is reflective of this new structure and prior period information has been recast to conform to our current period presentation.
For a detailed description of our businesses, see “Business Segments” within Item 1 of this Form 10-K.
Segments are generally based on the management structure of the businesses and the grouping of similar operations, based on capabilities and technologies, where each management organization has general operating autonomy over diversified products and services. Segment Total net sales and Operating profit (loss) include intercompany sales and profit, which are ultimately eliminated within Eliminations and other, which also includes certain smaller non-reportable segments. Segment results exclude certain acquisition accounting adjustments, the FAS/CAS operating adjustment, and certain corporate expenses, as further discussed below.
We present a FAS/CAS operating adjustment outside of segment results, which represents the difference between the service cost component of our pension and postretirement benefit (PRB) expense under the Financial Accounting Standards (FAS) requirements of U.S. GAAP and our pension and PRB expense under U.S. government Cost Accounting Standards (CAS) primarily related to our Raytheon segment. While the ultimate liability for pension and PRB costs under FAS and CAS is similar, the pattern of cost recognition is different. Over time, we generally expect to recover the related Raytheon pension and PRB liabilities through the pricing of our products and services to the U.S. government. Collins and Pratt & Whitney generally record pension and PRB expense on a FAS basis. In connection with the segment realignment, prior period results were recast in order to maintain the segment cost recognition patterns described above.
We provide the organic change in Net sales and Operating profit (loss) for our segments as discussed above in “Results of Operations.” We believe that these non-GAAP measures are useful to investors because they provide transparency to the underlying performance of our business, which allows for better year-over-year comparability. For Pratt & Whitney only, Other also includes the transactional impact of foreign exchange hedging at Pratt & Whitney Canada due to its significance to Pratt & Whitney’s overall operating results.
Given the nature of our business, we believe that Total net sales and Operating profit (loss) (and the related operating profit (loss) margin percentage), which we disclose and discuss at the segment level, are most relevant to an understanding of management’s view of our segment performance, as described below.
Total Net Sales. Total net sales by segment were as follows:
(dollars in millions)202320222021
Collins Aerospace$26,253 $23,052 $21,152 
Pratt & Whitney (1)
18,296 20,530 18,150 
Raytheon26,350 25,176 26,611 
Total segment70,899 68,758 65,913 
Eliminations and other(1,979)(1,684)(1,525)
Consolidated$68,920 $67,074 $64,388 
(1)    2023 includes the reduction in sales from the Powder Metal Matter.
Operating Profit (Loss). Operating profit (loss) by segment was as follows:
(dollars in millions)202320222021
Collins Aerospace$3,825 $2,816 $2,380 
Pratt & Whitney (1)
(1,455)1,075 454 
Raytheon2,379 2,448 3,399 
Total segment4,749 6,339 6,233 
Eliminations and other(42)(23)
Corporate expenses and other unallocated items (2)
(275)(318)(552)
FAS/CAS operating adjustment1,127 1,399 1,654 
Acquisition accounting adjustments(1,998)(1,893)(2,203)
Consolidated$3,561 $5,504 $5,136 
(1)    2023 includes the impacts from the Powder Metal Matter.
(2)    2022 and 2021 included the net expenses related to the U.S. Army’s Lower Tier Air and Missile Defense Sensor (LTAMDS) program. Beginning in 2023, LTAMDS results are included in the Raytheon segment.
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Included in segment Operating profit (loss) are Estimate at Completion (EAC) adjustments, which relate to changes in Operating profit and margin due to revisions to total estimated revenues and costs at completion. These changes may reflect improved or deteriorated operating performance, as well as changes in facts and assumptions related to contract options, contract modifications, incentive and award fees associated with program performance, customer activity levels, and other customer-directed changes. For a full description of our EAC process, refer to “Note 1: Basis of Presentation and Summary of Accounting Principles” within Item 8 of this Form 10-K. Given that we have thousands of individual contracts, and given the types and complexity of the assumptions and estimates we must make on an on-going basis and the nature of the work required to be performed under our contracts, we have both favorable and unfavorable EAC adjustments in the ordinary course.
We had the following aggregate EAC adjustments for the periods presented:
(dollars in millions)202320222021
Gross favorable$1,169 $1,368 $1,286 
Gross unfavorable(1,817)(1,405)(1,176)
Total net EAC adjustments$(648)$(37)$110 
The change in net EAC adjustments of $611 million in 2023 compared 2022 was primarily due to unfavorable changes in net EAC adjustments at Pratt & Whitney and to a lesser extent at Collins and Raytheon. Included in the change at Pratt & Whitney was the unfavorable impact of $133 million recorded in the third quarter of 2023 as a result of increased cost to our aftermarket contracts resulting from the Powder Metal Matter and an unfavorable impact of approximately $60 million recorded in the fourth quarter of 2023 as a result of increased cost on a military program. The change in net EAC adjustments at Pratt & Whitney also includes the absence of a $50 million favorable contract adjustment resulting from a contract modification on a commercial aftermarket program in the second quarter of 2022. The change at Collins was spread across numerous individual programs, with no individual or common significant driver. The change at Raytheon was primarily due to unfavorable changes in net EAC adjustments related to certain fixed price development contracts and $51 million of unfavorable EAC adjustments related to significant contract options exercised in 2023.
The change in net EAC adjustments of $147 million in 2022 compared 2021 was primarily due to unfavorable changes in net EAC adjustments at Raytheon, including the impact of acquisitions and dispositions, spread across numerous individual programs, with no individual or common significant driver, and includes the impact of continued supply chain and labor market constraints. This unfavorable change was partially offset by a favorable change in net EAC adjustments at Collins, spread across numerous individual programs with no individual or common significant driver, and a favorable change in net EAC adjustments at Pratt & Whitney primarily due to a $50 million favorable contract adjustment resulting from a contract modification on a commercial aftermarket program in the second quarter of 2022.
Significant EAC adjustments, when they occur, are discussed in each business segment’s discussion below.
Backlog and Defense Bookings. Total backlog was approximately $196 billion and $175 billion as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. Our backlog by segment, which excludes intercompany backlog, was as follows at December 31:
(dollars in billions)20232022
Collins Aerospace$30 $28 
Pratt & Whitney114 100 
Raytheon52 47 
Total backlog$196 $175 
Included in total backlog is defense backlog of $78 billion and $69 billion as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. Our defense operations consist primarily of our Raytheon business and operations in the defense businesses within our Collins and Pratt & Whitney segments. Defense bookings were approximately $51 billion, $47 billion, and $40 billion for 2023, 2022, and 2021 respectively.
Backlog, which is equivalent to our RPO for our sales contracts, represents the aggregate dollar value of firm orders for which products have not been provided or service has not been performed and excludes unexercised contract options and potential orders under ordering-type contracts (e.g., IDIQ type contracts). Backlog generally increases with bookings and/or orders and
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generally decreases as sales are recognized on these bookings and is affected by changes in foreign exchange rates, as well as contract cancellations and terminations, and cost underruns on cost-type contracts as discussed further below.
We believe defense bookings are an important measure of future performance for our defense operations and are an indicator of potential future changes in these operations’ Total net sales, because we cannot recognize revenues under a new contract without first having a booking in the current or a preceding period. Defense bookings generally represent the dollar value of new external defense contracts awarded to us during the reporting period and include firm orders for which funding has not been appropriated.
Defense bookings exclude unexercised contract options and potential orders under ordering-type contracts (e.g., IDIQ type contracts). We reflect contract cancellations and terminations, as well as the impact of changes in foreign exchange rates, directly as an adjustment to backlog in the period in which the cancellation or termination occurs and the impact is determinable. Contract cancellations and terminations also include contract underruns on cost-type programs.
Collins Aerospace
% Change
(dollars in millions)202320222021
2023 compared with 2022
2022 compared with 2021
Net sales$26,253 $23,052 $21,152 14 %%
Operating profit3,825 2,816 2,380 36 %18 %
Operating profit margins14.6 %12.2 %11.3 %
2023 Compared with 2022
 Factors Contributing to Total Change
(dollars in millions)
Organic(1)
Acquisitions /
Divestitures, net
Restructuring
Costs
OtherTotal Change
Net sales$3,173 $(48)$— $76