20-F 1 a2018q420-f.htm 20-F Document


UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 20-F
o
REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
or
ý
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018
or
o
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 For the transition period from              to             
or
o
SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Date of event requiring this shell company report
Commission File Number 001-38332
 _____________________________________________
QIAGEN N.V.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
n/a
(Translation of Registrant’s name in English)
The Netherlands
(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
Hulsterweg 82
5912 PL Venlo
The Netherlands
011-31-77-355-6600
(Address of principal executive offices)
_____________________________________________
Roland Sackers, Tel: 011-31-77-355-6600, Fax: 011-31-77-355-6658
QIAGEN N.V., Hulsterweg 82, 5912 PL Venlo, The Netherlands
(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)
_____________________________________________
 Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of class:
Common Shares, par value EUR 0.01 per share
 
Name of each exchange on which registered:
New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act:
None
 _____________________________________________
The number of outstanding Common Shares as of December 31, 2018 was 225,509,286.
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    ý  Yes    o  No
If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.    o  Yes    ý  No
Note—Checking the box above will not relieve any registrant required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 from their obligations under those Sections.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    ý  Yes    o  No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate website, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    ý  Yes    o  No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, or a non-accelerated filer. See definition of accelerated filer and large accelerated filer in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large accelerated filer  ý            Accelerated filer  o            Non-accelerated filer  o  Emerging Growth Company  o

If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards* provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
* The term "new or revised financial accounting standard" refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.
Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:
ý
U.S. GAAP
o
International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board
o
Other
If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow:
o
Item 17
o
Item 18
If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    o  Yes    ý  No
 



Unless the context otherwise requires, references herein to “we,” “us,” “our,” the “Company” or to “QIAGEN” are to QIAGEN N.V. and its consolidated subsidiaries.
_____________________________________________
EXCHANGE RATES
QIAGEN publishes its financial statements in U.S. dollars. In this Annual Report on Form 20-F, references to “dollars” or “$” are to U.S. dollars, and references to “EUR” or the “euro” are to the European Monetary Union euro. Except as otherwise stated herein, all monetary amounts in this Annual Report on Form 20-F have been presented in U.S. dollars.
The exchange rate used for the euro was obtained from the European Central Bank and is based on a regular daily concentration procedure between central banks across Europe and worldwide, which normally takes place at 2:15 P.M. Central European Time. This rate at March 1, 2019, was $1.1383 per €1.
For information regarding the effects of currency fluctuations on our results, see Item 5 “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects.”



TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
 
 
 
Page
Item 1.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Item 4A.
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Item 13.
Item 14.
Item 15.
Item 16A.
Item 16B.
Item 16C.
Item 16D.
Item 16E.
Item 16F.
Item 16G.
Item 16H.
 
 
 
 
 
Item 17.
Item 18.
Item 19.
 


3


PART I
 
Item 1.
Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisors
Not applicable.

Item 2.
Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable
Not applicable.

Item 3.
Key Information
QIAGEN N.V. is registered under its commercial and legal name with the trade register (kamer van koophandel) of the Dutch region Limburg Noord under file number 12036979. QIAGEN N.V. is incorporated under Dutch law as a public limited liability company (naamloze vennootschap) and is organized as a holding company.
The selected consolidated financial data below should be read in conjunction with “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” and the Consolidated Financial Statements, including the notes and other financial information included in this Annual Report on Form 20-F. The selected financial data below is derived from the consolidated statements of income for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016 and the consolidated balance sheets at December 31, 2018 and 2017 of QIAGEN that have been audited by an independent registered public accounting firm, and are included in this Annual Report. The selected data from the consolidated statements of income presented for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, and the consolidated balance sheets as of December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014, is derived from audited consolidated financial statements not included in this Annual Report. Certain prior year amounts related to restructuring costs have been reclassified to conform to the current year presentation as further discussed within Note 1 "Corporate Information and Basis of Presentation".

4


Selected Financial Data
The information below should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements (and accompanying notes) and "Operating and Financial Review and Prospects."
 
Years ended December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Consolidated Statements of Income Data:
(amounts in thousands, except per share data)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net sales
$
1,501,848

 
$
1,417,536

 
$
1,337,991

 
$
1,280,986

 
$
1,344,777

Cost of sales
500,888

 
494,975

 
493,338

 
454,328

 
479,570

Gross profit
1,000,960

 
922,561

 
844,653

 
826,658

 
865,207

Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Research and development
161,852

 
154,084

 
149,841

 
146,830

 
163,666

Sales and marketing
392,281

 
375,562

 
376,321

 
359,598

 
376,141

General and administrative, restructuring, integration and other
141,214

 
200,098

 
180,573

 
102,066

 
126,637

Acquisition-related intangible amortization
39,032

 
39,398

 
39,091

 
38,666

 
37,070

Total operating expenses
734,379

 
769,142

 
745,826

 
647,160


703,514

Income from operations
266,581

 
153,419

 
98,827

 
179,498


161,693

Other expense
(40,844
)
 
(39,044
)
 
(41,919
)
 
(43,195
)
 
(42,304
)
Income before income taxes
225,737

 
114,375

 
56,908

 
136,303


119,389

Income taxes
35,357

 
73,981

 
(23,395
)
 
6,401

 
2,456

Net income
$
190,380

 
$
40,394

 
$
80,303

 
$
129,902


$
116,933

Net (loss) income attributable to noncontrolling interest

 

 
(101
)
 
(246
)
 
568

Net income attributable to QIAGEN N.V.
$
190,380

 
$
40,394

 
$
80,404

 
$
130,148


$
116,365

Basic net income per common share attributable to the owners of QIAGEN N.V. (1)
$
0.84

 
$
0.18

 
$
0.34

 
$
0.56

 
$
0.50

Diluted net income per common share attributable to the owners of QIAGEN N.V. (1)
$
0.82

 
$
0.17

 
$
0.34

 
$
0.55

 
$
0.48

Weighted-average common shares outstanding
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
226,640

 
228,074

 
234,800

 
233,483

 
232,644

Diluted
233,456

 
233,009

 
238,993

 
238,647

 
242,806

 ____________________
(1)
See Note 18 "Earnings per Common Share" of the “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” for the computation of the weighted average number of Common Shares.
 
As of December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:
(amounts in thousands)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
1,159,079

 
$
657,714

 
$
439,180

 
$
290,011

 
$
392,667

Working capital (1)
$
1,182,871

 
$
1,323,181

 
$
729,140

 
$
693,043

 
$
717,124

Total assets
$
5,748,332

 
$
5,038,516

 
$
4,308,194

 
$
4,179,117

 
$
4,454,372

Total long-term liabilities, including current portion of long-term debt
$
2,644,373

 
$
2,174,087

 
$
1,393,668

 
$
1,343,616

 
$
1,490,114

Total equity
$
2,634,970

 
$
2,540,996

 
$
2,607,096

 
$
2,568,070

 
$
2,664,876

Common shares, par value
$
2,702

 
$
2,702

 
$
2,812

 
$
2,812

 
$
2,812

Common shares issued
230,829

 
230,829

 
239,707

 
239,707

 
239,707

Common shares outstanding
225,509

 
226,557

 
234,561

 
233,006

 
232,023

_________________
(1)
Working capital is current assets less current liabilities.

5



Risk Factors
Risk Management:
Our risk management approach embodies the key elements of a sound risk management system including (1) active Supervisory Board and senior management involvement; (2) adequate policies and procedures; (3) adequate risk management; monitoring and information systems; and (4) comprehensive internal controls.
QIAGEN is managed by a Managing Board and an independent Supervisory Board appointed by the General Meeting of Shareholders. One of the Managing Board's responsibilities is the oversight of the risk management system. The Managing Board has developed and implemented strategies, controls and mitigation measures to identify current and developing risks as part of the risk management system. Risk management policies and procedures are embodied in our corporate governance, code of ethics and financial reporting controls and procedures. A variety of functional experts evaluate these business risks, attempting to mitigate and manage these risks on an ongoing basis.
Identified risks are subdivided into three types:
A base business risk that is specific to us or our industry and threatens our existing business;
A business growth risk that is specific to us or our industry and threatens our future business growth; and
An underlying business risk that is not specific to us or our industry, but applies to a larger number of public companies.
All identified risks are evaluated based on their likelihood of occurring and their potential impact (estimated in monetary terms) in disrupting our progress in achieving our business objectives. The overall risk management goal is to identify risks that could significantly threaten our success and to allow management on a timely basis the opportunity to successfully implement mitigation actions. The results of the risk assessment, and any updates, are reported to the Audit Committee of the Supervisory Board on a regular basis. A detailed risk reporting update is provided each quarter to the Audit Committee for specific risks that have been newly identified or have changed since the previous assessment. At least once on an annual basis, the Supervisory Board discusses the corporate strategy and business risks as well as the results of an assessment by the Managing Board and the Audit Committee of the structure and operations of the internal risk management and control systems, including any significant changes.
Our corporate governance structure is based on a strong framework that outlines the responsibilities of our Managing and Supervisory Boards (discussed in more detail in Item 10 of this Annual Report) and the function of the Audit Committee of the Supervisory Board (discussed in more detail in Item 6 of this Annual Report). We maintain adequate internal controls over financial reporting to ensure the integrity of financial reporting, which is described further in Item 15 of this Annual Report. Additionally, we have a Compliance Committee that consists of senior executives from various functional areas who are responsible for ensuring compliance with legal and regulatory requirements, as well as overseeing the communication of corporate policies, including our Code of Ethics as described further in Item 16B of this Annual Report.

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Risk Types
Base Business Risk
  Identification and monitoring of competitive business threats
  Monitoring complexity of product portfolio
  Monitoring dependence on key customers for single product groups
  Reviewing dependence on individual production sites or suppliers
  Evaluating purchasing initiatives, price controls and changes to reimbursements
  Monitoring production risks, including contamination prevention, high-quality product assurance
• Ensuring ability to defend against intellectual property infringements and maintain competitive advantage after expiration
Business Growth Risk
  Managing development and success of key R&D projects
• Managing successful integration of acquisitions to achieve anticipated benefits
Underlying Business Risk
  Evaluating financial risks, including economic risks and currency rate fluctuations
  Monitoring financial reporting risks, including multi-jurisdiction tax compliance
  Reviewing possible asset impairment events
  Assessing compliance and legal risks, including safety in operations and environmental hazard risks, compliance with various regulatory bodies and pending product approvals
• Monitoring risks of FCPA (Foreign Corrupt Practices Act) or antitrust concerns arising from a network of subsidiaries and distributors in foreign countries
The risks described below are listed in the order of our current view of their expected significance. Describing the risk factors in order of significance does not imply that a lower listed risk factor may not have a material adverse impact on our results of operations, liquidity or capital resources.
Our continued growth is dependent on the development and success of new products.
Rapid technological change and frequent new product introductions are typical in the markets we serve. Our success will depend in part on continuous, timely development and introduction of new products that address evolving market requirements. We believe successful new product introductions provide a significant competitive advantage because customers make an investment of time in selecting and learning to use a new product and are reluctant to switch thereafter. To the extent that we fail to introduce new and innovative products, or such products suffer significant delays in development or are not accepted in the market, we may lose market share to our competitors, which will be difficult or impossible to regain. An inability to successfully develop and introduce new products, for technological or other reasons, could reduce our growth rate or otherwise have an adverse effect on our business. In the past, we have experienced delays in the development and introduction of products, including regulatory approvals, and we may experience delays in the future.
As a result, we cannot assure you that we will keep pace with the rapid rate of change in our markets or that our new products will adequately meet the requirements of the marketplace, achieve market acceptance or regulatory approval, or compete successfully with competitive technologies. Some of the factors affecting market acceptance of new products include:
availability, quality and price relative to competitive products;
the timing of introduction of the new product relative to competitive products;
opinions of the new product’s utility;
citation of the new product in published research;
regulatory trends and approvals; and
general trends in life sciences research, applied markets and molecular diagnostics.
In the development of new products we may make significant investments in intellectual property and software. These investments increase our fixed costs, resulting in higher operational costs in the short term that will negatively impact our gross profit and operating income until products reach a minimum level of market acceptance. The expenses or losses associated with unsuccessful product development activities or lack of market acceptance of our new products could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our continued growth depends significantly on the success of new products in the molecular testing markets we serve. Important new product programs underway include our modular medium-throughput QIAsymphony automation platform, GeneReader NGS System for next-generation sequencing (NGS), QIAstat-Dx system for one-step, fully integrated molecular analysis of hard-to-diagnose syndromes, the high-throughput NeuMoDx 288 and mid-throughput NeuMoDx 96 fully integrated automation systems for higher-throughput PCR testing, sample and assay technologies designed either for QIAGEN

7


instruments or for "universal" use on other platforms, and bioinformatics solutions to analyze and interpret genomic data. In addition, we are now developing next-generation systems for digital PCR, an emerging analytical technique in the life sciences, targeting a 2020 launch with fully-integrated solutions that simplify workflows and offer other advantages.
The speed and level of adoption of our new automation platforms will affect sales not only of instrumentation but also of consumables, sample and assay kits, designed to run on the systems. The rollouts of new automation platforms are intended to drive the dissemination and increasing sales of consumables for these systems. We are developing or co-developing new kits for each of these platforms and seeking regulatory approvals for a number of these new products. In turn, the availability and regulatory approval of more tests to run on QIAsymphony, GeneReader NGS System, QIAstat-Dx and NeuMoDx systems, as well as the planned digital PCR systems, especially molecular assays for specific diseases or companion diagnostics paired with new drugs, will influence the value of the instruments to prospective buyers. Slower adoption of QIAsymphony, including the complete QIAsymphony RGQ system, the GeneReader NGS System, the QIAstat-Dx and NeuMoDx systems, and the planned digital PCR workflows, could significantly affect sales of products designed to run on these platforms.
Our strategic initiative in NGS, including rollout of the GeneReader NGS System and related consumables, aims to drive the adoption of this technology in clinical research and diagnostics. This involves development and commercialization of universal pre-analytic and bioinformatics products for NGS, as well as commercialization of our proprietary GeneReader NGS workflow and related consumables. The market for next-generation sequencing instruments is very competitive, and the speed and level of adoption of our universal solutions and the GeneReader workflow will affect sales of our Sample to Insight solutions.
An inability to manage our growth, manage the expansion of our operations, or successfully integrate acquired businesses could adversely affect our business.
Our business has grown, with total net sales increasing to $1.50 billion in 2018 from $1.34 billion in 2014. We have made a series of acquisitions in recent years, including the acquisitions of STAT-Dx Life, S.L. in 2018, OmicSoft Corporation in 2017, Exiqon A/S in 2016, MO BIO Laboratories in 2015, and Enzymatics and BIOBASE in 2014. We intend to identify and acquire other businesses in the future, including the acquisition of N-of-One announced in January 2019, that support our strategy to build on our global leadership position in Sample to Insight solutions. The successful integration of acquired businesses requires a significant effort and expense across all operational areas.
We continue to make investments to expand our business operations. These projects increase our fixed costs, resulting in higher operational costs in the short term that will negatively impact our gross profit and operating income until we more fully utilize the additional capacity of these facilities. In addition, we have invested in establishing and expanding shared service centers in Poland and the Philippines, opening new commercial operations in emerging markets to expand our geographic footprint, and implementing digitization of business processes to increase efficiency and improve customer experiences. The expansion of our business and the addition of new personnel may place a strain on our management and operational systems. As we continue to upgrade our operating and financial systems and expand the geographic presence of our operations, we intend to continue to assess the need for reallocation of existing resources or the hiring of new employees as well as increased responsibilities for both existing and new management personnel.
Our future operating results will depend on our ability to continue to implement and improve our research, product development, manufacturing, sales and marketing and customer support programs, enhance our operational and financial control systems, expand, train and manage our employee base, integrate acquired businesses, and effectively address new issues related to our growth as they arise. There can be no assurance that we will be able to manage our recent or any future expansion or acquisitions successfully, and any inability to do so could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
Our acquisitions expose us to new risks, and we may not achieve the anticipated benefits of acquisitions of technologies and businesses.
During the past several years, we have acquired and integrated a number of companies through which we have gained access to new technologies, products and businesses that complement our internally developed product lines. In the future, we expect to acquire additional technologies, products or businesses to expand our operations. Acquisitions expose us to new operating and other risks, including risks associated with the:
assimilation of new products, technologies, operations, sites and personnel;
integration and retention of fundamental personnel and technical expertise;
application for and achievement of regulatory approvals or other clearances;
diversion of resources from our existing products, business and technologies;
generation of sales;
implementation and maintenance of uniform standards and effective controls and procedures;
maintenance of relationships with employees, customers and suppliers, and integration of new management personnel;

8


issuance of dilutive equity securities;
incurrence or assumption of debt and contingent liabilities;
amortization or impairment of acquired intangible assets or potential businesses; and
exposure to liabilities of and claims against acquired entities or personnel.
Our failure to address the above risks successfully in the future may prevent us from achieving the anticipated benefits from any acquisition in a reasonable time frame, or at all.
Global economic conditions could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Our results of operations could be materially affected by adverse general conditions in the global economy and financial markets. Potentially adverse changes that may come from the United Kingdom's exit from the European Union ("Brexit") are not well understood as the actual impact from Brexit will depend on many factors including the ability of both the United Kingdom and European Union authorities to provide a path forward with minimal disruption. In the near term we anticipate the largest potential exposures to be on supply chain with our United Kingdom based suppliers and the local operations for our domestic United Kingdom business and pharma development activities. There also is risk of loss of revenue, penalties due to delayed deliveries and currency losses, or other unforeseen costs which would negatively impact margins.
During challenging economic times, access to financing in the global financial markets has also been adversely affected for many businesses. The uncertainty surrounding the resolution of the economic and sovereign debt crisis in Europe continues to have a negative impact on financial markets and economic conditions more generally. Our customers may face internal financing pressures that adversely impact spending decisions or the ability to purchase our products, or that lead to a delay in collection of receivables and thus negatively impact our cash flow. A severe or prolonged economic downturn could result in a variety of risks to our business that would adversely impact our results of operations, including the reduction or delay in planned improvements to healthcare systems in various countries, the reduction of funding for life sciences research, and intensified efforts by governments and healthcare payors regarding cost-containment efforts.
Our results of operations could also be negatively impacted by any governmental actions or inaction resulting in automatic government spending cuts (sequestration) that may take effect. These conditions may add uncertainty to the timing and budget for investment decisions by our customers, particularly researchers, universities, government laboratories and private foundations whose funding is dependent upon grants from government agencies, such as the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) and similar bodies.
As is the case for many businesses, we face the following risks in regard to financial markets:
severely limited access to financing over an extended period of time, which may affect our ability to fund our growth strategy and could result in delays to capital expenditures, acquisitions or research and development projects;
failures of currently solvent financial institutions, which may cause losses from our short-term cash investments or our hedging transactions due to a counterparty’s inability to fulfill its payment obligations;
inability to refinance existing debt at competitive rates, reasonable terms or sufficient amounts; and
increased volatility or adverse movements in foreign currency exchange rates.
We may encounter delays in receipt, or limits in the amount, of reimbursement approvals and public health funding, which will impact our ability to grow revenues in the healthcare market or may negatively impact our profitability.
Changes in the availability or reimbursement of our diagnostic testing products by insurance providers and health maintenance organizations could also have a significant adverse impact on our results of operations. Third-party payors are often reluctant to reimburse healthcare providers for the use of medical tests that involve new technologies or provide novel diagnostic information. In addition, third-party payors are increasingly limiting reimbursement coverage for medical diagnostic products and, in many instances, are exerting pressure on suppliers to reduce their prices. Since each third-party payor often makes reimbursement decisions on an individual patient basis, obtaining such approvals is a time-consuming and costly process that requires us to provide scientific and clinical data supporting the clinical benefits of each of our products. As a result, there can be no assurance that reimbursement approvals will be obtained, and the process can delay the broad market introduction of new products. If third-party reimbursement is not consistent or financially adequate to cover the cost of our products, this could limit our ability to sell our products or cause us to reduce prices, which would adversely affect our results of operations.
Further, the ability of many of our customers to successfully market their products depends in part on the extent to which reimbursement for the costs of these products is available from governmental health administrations, private health insurers and other organizations. Governmental and other third-party payors are increasingly seeking to contain healthcare costs and to reduce the price of medical products and services. For example, in 2010, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, or ACA, was enacted with the goal of expanding coverage, increasing quality of care and reducing costs through payment

9


innovation, among other things. With evolving political realities in the United States, including divergent efforts by the Trump Administration and members of Congress, certain sections of the ACA have not been fully implemented and the direction of healthcare policy is unpredictable. Uncertainty around the future of the ACA, and in particular the impact to reimbursement levels, may lead to uncertainty or delay in the purchasing decisions of our customers, which may in turn negatively impact our product sales. As of January 1, 2018, in accordance with the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014 (PAMA), the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services began calculating Medicare reimbursement rates for certain clinical diagnostic tests using weighted median private payor rates, which are based on rate information reported by applicable laboratories. This new rate methodology means the lower reimbursement rates previously experienced in the field of molecular pathology testing now extends to additional diagnostic testing codes on the Clinical Laboratory Fee Schedule. If there are not adequate reimbursement levels, our business and results of operations could be adversely affected.
Reduction in research and development budgets and government funding may result in reduced sales.
Our customers include researchers at pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, academic institutions, and government and private laboratories. Fluctuations in the research and development budgets of these organizations could have a significant adverse effect on demand for our products. Research and development budgets are affected by changes in available resources, the mergers of pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, changes in spending priorities and institutional budgetary policies. Our results of operations could be adversely affected by any significant decrease in expenditures for life sciences research and development by pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, academic institutions, and government and private laboratories. In addition, short-term changes in administrative, regulatory or purchasing-related procedures can create uncertainties or other impediments that can have an adverse impact on our results of operations.
In recent years, the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries have undergone substantial restructuring and consolidation. Additional mergers or consolidation within the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries could cause us to lose existing customers and potential future customers, which could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations.
Approximately 23% of our sales are generated from demand for our products used in the Academia customer class by researchers at universities, government laboratories and private foundations, and whose funding is dependent upon grants from government agencies, such as the NIH. Although the level of research funding has been increasing in recent years, we cannot assure you that this trend will continue given federal and state budget constraints. Government funding of research and development is subject to the political process, which is inherently unpredictable. Future sales may be adversely affected if our customers delay purchases as a result of uncertainties regarding the approval of government or industrial budget proposals. Also, government proposals to reduce or eliminate budgetary deficits have sometimes included reduced allocations to the NIH and government agencies in other countries that fund life sciences research and development activities. A reduction in government funding for the NIH or government research agencies in other countries could have a serious adverse impact on our results of operations.
Competition could reduce our sales.
The markets for most of our pre-analytical solutions and other products are very competitive. Competitors may have significant advantages in financial, operational, sales and marketing resources as well as experience in research and development. These competitors may have developed, or could develop in the future, new technologies that compete with our products or even render our products obsolete. Some competitors may obtain regulatory approval from the FDA or similar non-U.S. authorities and market approved products. Our competitors’ development of alternative products offering superior technology, greater cost-effectiveness or regulatory approval could have a material adverse effect on our sales and results of operations.
The growth of our business depends in part on the continued conversion of users from competitive products to our sample and assay technologies and other solutions. Lack of conversion could have a material adverse effect on our sales and results of operations.
It can be difficult for users of sample and assay technologies to switch from their current supplier of a particular product, primarily due to the time and expense required to properly integrate new products into their operations. As a result, if we are unable to be the first to develop and supply new products, our competitive position may suffer, resulting in a material adverse effect on our sales and results of operations.
For our commercial clinical assays, we often compete with solutions developed by our laboratory customers, and driving conversion from such laboratory-developed tests to commercial diagnostics assays can be challenging.
The time and expense needed to obtain regulatory approval and respond to changes in regulatory requirements could adversely affect our ability to commercially distribute our products and generate sales.
We and our customers operate in a highly regulated environment characterized by frequent changes in the governing regulatory framework. Genetic research activities and products commonly referred to as “genetically engineered” (such as

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certain food and therapeutic products) are subject to extensive governmental regulation in most developed countries, especially in the major markets for pharmaceutical and diagnostic products such as the European Union, the U.S., China and Japan. In recent years, several highly publicized scientific events (notably in genomic research, gene editing and cloning) have prompted intense public debates on the ethical, philosophical and religious implications of an unlimited expansion in genetic research and the use of products emerging from this research. As a result of this debate, some key countries may increase or establish regulatory barriers, which could adversely affect demand for our products and prevent us from fulfilling our growth expectations. Furthermore, there can be no assurance that any future changes in applicable regulations will not require further expenditures or an alteration, suspension or liquidation of our operations in certain areas, or even in their entirety.
Changes in the existing regulations or adoption of new requirements or policies could adversely affect our ability to sell our approved or cleared products or to seek approvals for new products in other countries around the world. Sales of certain products now in development may be dependent upon us successfully conducting pre-clinical studies, clinical trials and other tasks required to gain regulatory approvals and meet other requirements from the FDA in the U.S., and regulatory agencies in other countries. If we are not able to meet the applicable requirements, we will not be able to commercialize our products and tests, which will have a material adverse effect on our business.
Several of our key products and programs are medical devices that are subject to extensive regulation by the FDA under the U.S. Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. We plan to apply for FDA clearance or approval of additional products in the future. Regulatory agencies in other countries also have medical device and IVD approval requirements that are becoming more extensive. These regulations govern most commercial activities associated with medical devices, including indications for the use of these products as well as other aspects that include product development, testing, manufacturing, labeling, storage, record-keeping, advertising and promotion. Compliance with these regulations is expensive and time-consuming.
Our cleared or approved devices, including diagnostic tests and related equipment, are subject to numerous post-approval requirements. We are subject to inspection and marketing surveillance by the FDA to determine our compliance with regulatory requirements. If the FDA determines that we have failed to comply, it can institute a wide variety of enforcement actions, ranging from warning letters to more severe sanctions such as fines, injunctions and civil penalties, recalls or seizures of our products, operating restrictions, partial suspension or total shutdown of production, denial of our requests for 510(k) clearance or pre-market approval of product candidates, withdrawal of 510(k) clearance or pre-market approval already granted and civil or criminal prosecution. Any enforcement action by the FDA may affect our ability to commercially distribute these products in the U.S.
Some of our products are sold for research purposes in the U.S. We do not promote these products for clinical diagnostic use, and they are labeled “For Research Use Only” (RUO) or “for molecular biology applications.” If the FDA were to disagree with our designation of a product as an RUO product, we could be forced to stop selling it until appropriate regulatory clearance or approval has been obtained.
Changes in tax laws or their application or the termination or reduction of certain government tax incentives, could adversely impact our overall effective tax rate, results of operations or financial flexibility.
Our effective tax rate reflects the benefit of some income being partially exempt from income taxes due to various intercompany operating and financing activities. The benefit also derives from our global operations, where certain income or loss is taxed at rates higher or lower than The Netherlands’ statutory rate of 25%. Changes in tax laws or their application with respect to matters such as changes in tax rates, transfer pricing and income allocation, utilization of tax loss carryforwards, intercompany dividends, controlled corporations, and limitations on the deductibility of interest and foreign related-party expenses, and changes to tax credit mechanisms, could increase our effective tax rate and adversely affect our results of operations and limit our ability to repurchase our Common Shares without experiencing adverse tax consequences. The increased tax burden as a result of changes in law may adversely affect our results of operations. Additionally, if our tax positions are challenged by tax authorities or other governmental bodies, such as the European Commission, we could incur additional tax liabilities, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations or financial flexibility.
We are subject to risks associated with patent litigation.
The biotechnology industry has been characterized by extensive litigation regarding patents and other intellectual property rights, particularly since industry competitors gravitate around common technology platforms. We are aware that patents have been applied for and/or issued to third parties claiming technologies for sample and assay technologies that are closely related to those we use. From time to time, we receive inquiries requesting confirmation that we do not infringe patents of third parties. We endeavor to follow developments in this field, and we do not believe that our technologies or products infringe any proprietary rights of third parties. However, there can be no assurance that third parties will not challenge our activities or, if so challenged, that we will prevail. In addition, the patent and proprietary rights of others could require that we alter our products or processes, pay licensing fees or cease certain activities, and there can be no assurance that we will be able to license any technologies that we may require on acceptable terms. In addition, litigation, including proceedings that may be declared by the

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U.S. Patent and Trademark Office or the International Trade Commission, may be necessary to respond to any assertions of infringement, enforce our patent rights and/or determine the scope and validity of our proprietary rights or those of third parties. Litigation, or threatened litigation, could involve substantial cost, and there can be no assurance that we would prevail in any proceedings.
We rely on collaborative commercial relationships to develop and/or market some of our products.
Our long-term business strategy involves entering into strategic alliances as well as marketing and distribution arrangements with academic, corporate and other partners relating to the development, commercialization, marketing and distribution of certain of our existing and potential products. In 2017, we entered a new joint venture with Sichuan Maccura Biotechnology Co., Ltd. (Maccura) for the distribution of our GeneReader NGS System in China and entered a new partnership with a Chinese company in 2018 that took over the commercial distribution and infrastructure of the HPV test franchise in China. We may be unable to continue to negotiate these collaborative arrangements on acceptable terms, and these relationships also may not be scientifically or commercially successful. In addition, we may be unable to maintain these relationships, and our collaborative partners may pursue or develop competing products or technologies, either on their own or in collaboration with others.
Our Precision Medicine business includes projects with pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies to co-develop companion diagnostics paired with drugs that those companies either market currently or are developing for future use. The success of these co-development programs, including regulatory approvals for the companion diagnostics, depends upon the continued commitment of our partners to development of their drugs, the outcome of clinical trials for the drugs and diagnostics, and regulatory approvals of the tests and drugs. In addition, the future level of sales for companion diagnostics depends to a high degree on the commercial success of the related medicines for which the tests have been designed. More companion diagnostics would be sold in combination with a widely prescribed drug than one with limited use.
The successful marketing of QIAGEN products, in some cases, depends on commercial relationships such as joint ventures or distributorships, particularly in emerging markets where we partner with local companies to augment our less-established commercial relationships and infrastructure. The continued commitment of our partners to these ventures, as well as the management of the commercial efforts, will influence QIAGEN's sales and profitability in these markets.
We have made investments in and are expanding our business into emerging markets, which exposes us to risks.
Our top seven emerging markets are Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Korea, Mexico and Turkey, which together accounted for approximately 16% of total sales in 2018, and we expect to continue to focus on expanding our business in these or other fast-growing markets, including those in the Middle East and Asia. In addition to the currency and operating risks described above, our international operations are subject to a variety of risks that include those arising out of the economy, political outlook, language and cultural barriers in countries where we have operations or do business. In many of these emerging markets, we may be faced with several risks that are more significant than in other countries in which we have a history of doing business. These risks include economies that may be dependent on only a few products and are therefore subject to significant fluctuations, weak legal systems which may affect our ability to enforce contractual rights, exchange controls, unstable governments, and privatization or other government actions affecting the flow of goods and currency. In conducting our business, we move products from one country to another and may provide services in one country from a subsidiary located in another country. Accordingly, we are vulnerable to abrupt changes in customs and tax regimes that could have significant negative impacts on our results of operations.
Some of our customers are requiring us to change our sales arrangements to lower their costs, and this may limit our pricing flexibility and harm our business.
Some of our customers have developed purchasing initiatives to reduce the number of vendors from which they purchase products to lower their supply costs. In some cases, these customers have established agreements with large distributors, which include discounts and direct involvement in the distributor’s purchasing process. These activities may force us to supply large distributors with our products at discounts in order to continue providing products to some customers. For similar reasons, many larger customers, including the U.S. government, have requested, and may request in the future, special pricing arrangements, which can include blanket purchase agreements. These agreements may limit our pricing flexibility, which could harm our business and affect our results of operations. For a limited number of customers, and at the customers' request, we have conducted sales transactions through distribution and other value-added partners. If sales grow through these intermediaries, it could have an adverse impact on our results of operations, particularly a negative impact on our gross profit.
We are subject to privacy and data security laws and rely on secure communication and information systems which, in the event of a breach or failure, expose us to risks.
We rely heavily on communications and information systems to conduct our business. In the ordinary course of business, we collect and store sensitive data, including our intellectual property and other proprietary business information and that of our customers, suppliers and business partners, and personally identifiable information of our customers and employees, in our data centers and on our networks. Our operations rely on the secure processing, storage and transmission of confidential and other

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information on our computer systems and networks. We are transforming to a digital, cloud-leveraging organization, which places our assets, customer data, and personally identifiable data at a higher risk than in previous years. We have made significant investments to ensure our employees are aware of cybersecurity risks facing our company and how to prevent data breaches, including but not limited to, mandatory yearly trainings that are continually updated. We have modernized our cyber security tools, and are continually modernizing our cybersecurity processes, in an attempt to keep pace with evolving cybersecurity risks. In spite of our efforts, we are unable to completely eliminate these risks and occasionally experience minor cybersecurity incidents. External phishing emails (occurring outside of our computer services) are a growing threat that our customers are facing. These emails could lead to the disclosing of intellectual property or personally identifiable information, which could lead to financial harm or reputational damage. While our cybersecurity team works diligently with our customers to mitigate these threats by helping to identify and analyze phishing emails, we cannot guarantee that sensitive data will not be lost or stolen.
A breach in cybersecurity due to unauthorized access to our computer systems or misuse could include the misappropriation of assets or sensitive information, the corruption data or other operational disruption. Failures to our computer systems and networks could be caused by internal or external events, such as incursions by intruders or hackers, computer viruses, failures in hardware or software, or cyberterrorists. If we do experience a breach or failure of our systems, we could experience operational delays resulting from the disruption of systems, loss due to theft or misappropriation of assets or data, or negative impacts from the loss of confidential data or intellectual property. We may face significant liability in the event any of the personal information we maintain is lost or otherwise subject to misuse or other wrongful use, access or disclosure. Further, we could experience negative publicity resulting in reputation or brand damage with customers or partners.
Additionally, we are subject to privacy and data security laws across multiple jurisdictions, including those relating to the storage of health information, which are complex, overlapping and rapidly evolving. For example, the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018, set to take effect on January 1, 2020, imposes expansive new requirements and protections upon the processing of personal data, aimed at giving California consumers more visibility and control over their personal information There are also non-U.S. privacy laws, such as the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) of the European Union, that impose restrictions on the transfer, access, use, and disclosure of health and other personal information. We implemented the requirements set forth by the European Union General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which took effect on May 25, 2018. As our activities continue to evolve and expand, we may be subject to additional laws which impose further restrictions on the transfer, access, use, and disclosure of health and other personal information which may impact our business either directly or indirectly. A failure to comply with applicable privacy or security laws or significant changes in these laws could significantly impact our business and future business plans. For example, we may be subject to regulatory action or lawsuits in the event we fail to comply with applicable privacy laws.
Exchange rate fluctuations may adversely affect our business and operating results.
Because we currently market our products throughout the world, a significant portion of our business is conducted in currencies other than the U.S. dollar, our reporting currency. As a result, fluctuations in value relative to the U.S. dollar of the currencies in which we conduct our business have caused and will continue to cause foreign currency transaction gains and losses. Foreign currency transaction gains and losses arising from normal business operations are charged against earnings in the period when incurred. Due to the number of currencies involved, the variability of currency exposures and the potential volatility of currency exchange rates, we cannot predict the effects of future exchange rate fluctuations. While we may engage in foreign exchange hedging transactions to manage our foreign currency exposure, there can be no assurance that our hedging strategy will adequately protect our operating results from the effects of future exchange rate fluctuations.
Our global operations may be affected by actions of governments, global or regional economic developments, weather or transportation delays, natural disasters or other force majeure events (collectively, unforeseen events) which may negatively impact our suppliers, our customers or us.
Our business involves operations around the world. Our consumable manufacturing facilities are located in Germany, the U.S. and China. We have established sales subsidiaries in numerous countries and our products are sold through independent distributors serving more than 40 additional countries. Our facilities may be harmed by unforeseen events, and in the event that we or our customers are affected by a disaster, we may experience delays or reductions in sales or production, increased costs, or may be required to identify alternate suppliers and/or rely on third-party manufacturers.
To the extent that our suppliers are impacted by a natural disaster or other disruption, we may experience periods of reduced production. Any unexpected interruptions in our production capabilities may lead to delayed or lost sales and may adversely affect our results of operations for the affected period.
In addition, to the extent we temporarily shut down any facility following such an unforeseen event, we may experience disruptions in our ability to manufacture or ship products to customers or otherwise operate our business. Many of our products are manufactured in a single location and we may experience adverse effects to the extent these manufacturing operations are

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disrupted. While our global operations give us the ability to ship product from alternative sites, we may not be able to do so because our customers’ facilities are shut down or the local logistics infrastructure is not functioning, and our sales will suffer.
Damage to our property due to unforeseen events and the disruption of our business from casualties may be covered by insurance, but this insurance may not be sufficient to cover all of our potential losses, and such insurance may not continue to be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all. In addition, we may incur incremental costs following an unforeseen event, which will reduce profits and adversely affect our results of operations.
We depend on suppliers for materials used to manufacture our products, and if shipments from these suppliers are delayed or interrupted, we may be unable to manufacture our products.
We buy materials to create our products from a number of suppliers and are not dependent on any one supplier or group of suppliers for our business as a whole. However, key components of certain products, including certain instrumentation and chemicals, are available only from a single source. If supplies from these vendors are delayed or interrupted for any reason, we may not be able to obtain these materials timely or in sufficient quantities or qualities to produce certain products, and this could have an adverse impact on our results of operations.
We heavily rely on air cargo carriers and other overnight logistics services, and shipping delays or interruptions could harm our business.
Our customers in the scientific research markets typically keep only a modest inventory of our products on hand, and consequently require overnight delivery of purchases. As a result, we heavily rely on air cargo carriers and logistic suppliers. If overnight services are suspended or delayed, and other delivery carriers and logistic suppliers cannot provide satisfactory services, customers may suspend a significant amount of their work. The lack of adequate delivery alternatives would have a serious adverse impact on our results of operations.
Our success depends on the continued employment of qualified personnel, any of whom we may lose at any time.
Although we have not experienced any difficulties attracting or retaining management and scientific staff, our ability to recruit and retain qualified, skilled employees will continue to be critical to our success. Given the intense competition for experienced scientists and managers among pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, as well as academic and other research institutions, there can be no assurance that we will be able to attract and retain employees critical to our success on acceptable terms. Initiatives to expand QIAGEN will also require additional employees, including management with expertise in areas such as research and development, manufacturing, digitization, sales and marketing, and the development of existing managers to lead a growing organization. The failure to recruit and retain qualified employees, or develop existing employees, could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations.
Our ability to accurately forecast our results during each quarter may be negatively impacted by the fact that a substantial percentage of our sales may be recorded in the final weeks or days of the quarter.
The markets we serve are typically characterized by a high percentage of purchase orders being received in the final few weeks or days of each quarter. Although this varies from quarter to quarter, many customers make a large portion of their purchase decisions late in each quarter, in particular because they receive new information during this period on their budgets and requirements. Additionally, volatility in the timing of milestones from companion diagnostic partnerships can be difficult to predict. As a result, even late in each quarter, we cannot predict with certainty whether our sales forecasts for the quarter will be achieved.  
Historically, we have been able to rely on the overall pattern of customer purchase orders during prior periods to project with reasonable accuracy our anticipated sales for the current or coming quarters. However, if customer purchasing trends during a quarter vary from historical patterns as may occur with changes in market conditions, our quarterly financial results could deviate significantly from our projections. As a result, our sales forecasts for any given quarter may prove not to have been accurate. We also may not have sufficient, timely information to confirm or revise our sales projections for a specific quarter. If we fail to achieve our forecasted sales for a particular quarter, the value of our Common Shares could be adversely affected.
We have a significant amount of debt that may adversely affect our financial condition and flexibility.
We have a significant amount of debt and debt service obligations as well as restrictive covenants imposed by our lenders. A high level of indebtedness increases the risk that we may default on our debt obligations and restrictive covenants may prevent us from borrowing additional funds. There is no assurance that we will be able to generate sufficient cash flow to pay the interest on our debt and comply with our debt covenants or that future working capital, borrowings or equity financing will be available to repay or refinance our debt. If we are unable to generate sufficient cash flow to pay the interest on our debt and comply with our debt covenants, we may have to delay or curtail our research and development programs. The level of our indebtedness could, among other things:
make it difficult for us to make required payments on our debt;

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make it difficult for us to obtain financing in the future necessary for working capital, capital expenditures, debt service requirements or other purposes;
limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and the industry in which we compete; and
make us more vulnerable in the event of a downturn in our business.
The Financial Conduct Authority of the United Kingdom plans to phase out the London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR) by the end of 2021. Presently, we do hold debt and derivative instruments which use LIBOR. While certain of these agreements do contain language for the determination of interest rates in the event the LIBOR rate is not available, changes to these agreements may be required and we could be negatively impacted by any newly determined alternative benchmark.
Our business may require substantial additional capital, which we may not be able to obtain on terms acceptable to us, if at all.
Our future capital requirements and level of expenses will depend upon numerous factors, including the costs associated with:
marketing, sales and customer support efforts;
research and development activities;
expansion of our facilities;
consummation of possible future acquisitions of technologies, products or businesses;
demand for our products and services;
repayment or refinancing of debt; and
payments in connection with our hedging activities and/or taxes.
We currently anticipate that our short-term capital requirements will be satisfied by cash flow from our operations and/or cash on hand. As of December 31, 2018, we had outstanding long-term debt of approximately $2.2 billion, of which $503.1 million was current. Furthermore, as of December 31, 2018, we had capital lease obligations, including the current portion, of $0.1 million, that expire in various years through 2020. We may need to refinance all or part of these liabilities before or at their contractual maturities.
If at some point in time our existing resources should be insufficient to fund our activities, we may need to raise funds through public or private debt or equity financings. The funds for the refinancing of existing liabilities or for the ongoing funding of our business may not be available or, if available, not on terms acceptable to us. If adequate funds are not available, we may be required to reduce or delay expenditures for research and development, production, marketing, capital expenditures and/or acquisitions, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations. To the extent that additional capital is raised through the sale of equity or convertible securities, the issuance of any securities could result in dilution to our shareholders.
The accounting for the cash convertible notes we have issued will result in recognition of interest expense significantly greater than the stated interest rate of the notes and may result in volatility to our Consolidated Statements of Income.
We will settle any conversions of the Cash Convertible Notes described under the heading “Other Factors Affecting Liquidity and Capital Resources” elsewhere in this report, entirely in cash. Accordingly, the conversion option that is part of the Cash Convertible Notes will be accounted for as a derivative pursuant to accounting standards relating to derivative instruments and hedging activities. Refer to Note 13 "Derivatives and Hedging" and Note 15 "Lines of Credit and Debt", of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements. In general, this resulted in an initial valuation of the conversion option separate from the debt component of the Cash Convertible Notes, resulting in an original issue discount. The original issue discount will be accreted to interest expense over the term of the Cash Convertible Notes, which will result in an effective interest rate reported in our financial statements significantly in excess of the stated coupon rates of the Cash Convertible Notes. This accounting treatment will reduce our earnings. For each financial statement period after the issuance of the Cash Convertible Notes, a gain (or loss) will be reported in our financial statements to the extent the valuation of the conversion option changes from the previous period. The Call Options issued in connection with the Cash Convertible Notes will also be accounted for as derivative instruments, substantially offsetting the gain (or loss) associated with changes to the valuation of the conversion option. This may result in increased volatility to our results of operations.
The cash convertible note hedge and warrant transactions we entered into in connection with the issuance of our Cash Convertible Notes may not provide the benefits we anticipate, and may have a dilutive effect on our common stock.
Concurrently with the issuance of the Cash Convertible Notes, we entered into Call Options and issued Warrants. We entered into the Call Options with the expectation that they would offset potential cash payments by us in excess of the principal amount of the Cash Convertible Notes upon conversion of the Cash Convertible Notes. In the event that the hedge counterparties fail to deliver potential cash payments to us, as required under the Call Options, we would not receive the benefit

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of such transaction. Separately, we also issued Warrants. The Warrants could separately have a dilutive effect to the extent that the market price per share of our common stock, as measured under the terms of the Warrants, exceeds the strike price of the Warrants.
An impairment of goodwill and intangible assets could reduce our earnings.
At December 31, 2018, our consolidated balance sheet reflected approximately $2.1 billion of goodwill and approximately $475.0 million of intangible assets. Goodwill is recorded when the purchase price of a business exceeds the fair value of the tangible and separately measurable intangible net assets. U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (U.S. GAAP) require us to test goodwill for impairment on an annual basis or when events or circumstances occur indicating that goodwill might be impaired. Long-lived assets, such as intangible assets with finite useful lives, are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. The impairment review often cannot be done at the level of the individual asset and it must instead be applied to a group of assets. For the purpose of our annual goodwill impairment testing based on the current circumstances of how we manage our business, this group of assets is the Company as a whole. If we determine that any of our goodwill or intangible assets were impaired, we will be required to take an immediate charge to earnings and our results of operations could be adversely affected.
Our strategic equity investments may result in losses.
We have made, and may continue to make, strategic investments in businesses as opportunities arise. We periodically review the carrying value of these investments for impairment, considering factors that include the most recent stock transactions, book values from the most recent financial statements, and forecasts and expectations of the investee. The results of these valuations may fluctuate due to market conditions and other conditions over which we have no control.
Estimating the fair value of non-marketable equity investments in life science companies is inherently subjective. If actual events differ from our assumptions and unfavorable fluctuations in the valuations of the investments are indicated, we could be required to write down the investment. This could result in future charges on our earnings that could materially adversely affect our results of operations. It is uncertain whether or not we will realize any long-term benefits from these strategic investments.
Doing business internationally creates certain risks.
Our business involves operations in several countries outside of the U.S. Our consumable manufacturing facilities are located in Germany, China and the U.S. We source raw materials and subcomponents to manufacture our products from different countries. We have established sales subsidiaries in many countries. In addition, our products are sold through independent distributors serving more than 40 other countries. Conducting and launching operations on an international scale requires close coordination of activities across multiple jurisdictions and time zones and consumes significant management resources. We have invested heavily in computerized information systems in order to manage more efficiently the widely dispersed components of our operations. If we fail to coordinate and manage these activities effectively, our business and results of operations will be adversely affected.
Our operations are subject to other risks inherent in international business activities, such as general economic conditions in the countries in which we operate, trade restrictions and changes in tariffs, longer accounts receivable payment cycles in certain countries, overlap of different tax structures, unexpected changes in regulatory requirements, and compliance with a variety of foreign laws and regulations. Other risks associated with international operations include import and export licensing requirements, exchange controls and changes in freight rates, as may occur as a result of rising energy costs. As a result of these conditions, an inability to successfully manage our international operations could have a material adverse impact on our business and results of operations.
Unethical behavior and non-compliance with laws by our sales agents, consultants, distributors or employees could seriously harm our business.
Our business in countries with a history of corruption and transactions with foreign governments increases the risks associated with our international activities. Based on our international operations, we are subject to the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA), the U.K. Bribery Act and other laws that prohibit improper payments or offers of payments to foreign governments and their officials and political parties by business entities for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. We have operations, agreements with third parties and sales in countries known to experience corruption. Further international expansion may involve increased exposure to such practices. Our activities in these countries and others create risks of unauthorized payments or offers of payments, non-compliance with laws, or other unethical behavior by any of our employees, consultants, sales agents or distributors, that could be in violation of various laws, including the FCPA, even though these parties are not always subject to our control. Our policy is to implement safeguards to discourage these or other unethical practices by our employees and distributors including online and in-person employee trainings, periodic internal audits and standard reviews of our distributors. However, our existing safeguards and any future improvements may not prove to be effective, and our employees, consultants, sales agents or distributors may engage in conduct for which we might be held responsible. Violations

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of the FCPA and other laws may result in criminal or civil sanctions, which could be severe, and we may be subject to other liabilities, which could negatively affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We depend on patents and proprietary rights that may fail to protect our business.
Our success depends to a large extent on our ability to develop proprietary products and technologies and to establish and protect our patent and trademark rights in these products and technologies. As of December 31, 2018, we owned 340 issued patents in the United States, 277 issued patents in Germany and 1,786 issued patents in other major industrialized countries. In addition, at December 31, 2018, we had 576 pending patent applications, and we intend to file applications for additional patents as our products and technologies are developed. The patent positions of technology-based companies involve complex legal and factual questions and may be uncertain, and the laws governing the scope of patent coverage and the periods of enforceability of patent protection are subject to change. In addition, patent applications in the United States are maintained in secrecy until patents issue, and publication of discoveries in the scientific or patent literature tends to lag behind actual discoveries by several months. Therefore, no assurance can be given that patents will issue from any patent applications that we own or license, or if patents do issue, that the claims allowed will be sufficiently broad to protect our technology. In addition, no assurance can be given that any issued patents that we own or license will not be challenged, invalidated or circumvented, or that the rights granted thereunder will provide us competitive advantages. Further, as issued patents expire, we may lose some competitive advantage as others develop competing products and as a result, we may lose revenue.
Certain of our products incorporate patents and technologies that are licensed from third parties and for certain products, these in-licensed patents together with other patents provide us with a competitive advantage. These licenses impose various commercialization, sublicensing and other obligations on us. Our failure to comply with these requirements could result in the conversion of the applicable license from being exclusive to non-exclusive or, in some cases, termination of the license, and as a result, we may lose some competitive advantage and experience a loss of revenue.
We also rely on trade secrets and proprietary know-how, which we seek to protect through confidentiality agreements with our employees and consultants. There can be no assurance that any confidentiality agreements that we have with our employees, consultants, outside scientific collaborators and sponsored researchers and other advisors will provide meaningful protection for our trade secrets or adequate remedies in the event of unauthorized use or disclosure of such information. There also can be no assurance that our trade secrets will not otherwise become known or be independently developed by competitors.
We currently engage in, and may continue to engage in, collaborations with academic researchers and institutions. There can be no assurance that under the terms of such collaborations, third parties will not acquire rights in certain inventions developed during the course of these collaborations.
Our business exposes us to potential product liability.
The marketing and sale of our products and services for certain applications entail a potential risk of product liability. Although we are not currently subject to any material product liability claims, product liability claims may be brought against us in the future. Further, there can be no assurance that our products will not be included in unethical, illegal or inappropriate research or applications, which may in turn put us at risk of litigation. We carry product liability insurance coverage, which is limited in scope and amount. There can be no assurance that we will be able to maintain this insurance at a reasonable cost and on reasonable terms, or that this insurance will be adequate to protect us against any or all potential claims or losses.
We are subject to various laws and regulations generally applicable to businesses in the different jurisdictions in which we operate, including laws and regulations applicable to the handling and disposal of hazardous substances. The risk of accidental contamination or injury from these materials cannot be completely eliminated. In the event of such an accident, we could be held liable for any damages that result, and any such liability could have a material adverse impact on us.
Our operating results may vary significantly from period to period and this may affect the market price of our Common Shares.
Our operating results may vary significantly from quarter to quarter, and also year to year, since they are dependent upon a broad range of factors that include demand for our products, the level and timing of customer research budgets and commercialization efforts, the timing of government funding budgets of our customers, the timing of our research and development activities and related regulatory approvals, the impact of sales and marketing expenses, restructuring activities, introduction of new products by us or our competitors, competitive market conditions, exchange rate fluctuations and general economic conditions. Our expense levels are based in part on our expectations as to future sales trends. As a result, sales and earnings may vary significantly from quarter to quarter or from year to year, and actual sales and earnings results in any one period will not necessarily be indicative of results to be anticipated in subsequent periods. Our results may also fail to meet or exceed the expectations of securities analysts or investors, which could cause a decline in the market price of our Common Shares.
Our holding company structure makes us dependent on the operations of our subsidiaries.

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QIAGEN N.V. is incorporated under Dutch law as a public limited liability company (naamloze vennootschap), and is organized as a holding company. Currently, the material assets are the outstanding shares of the QIAGEN subsidiaries, intercompany receivables and other financial assets such as cash, short-term investments and derivative instruments. As a result, QIAGEN N.V. is dependent upon payments, dividends and distributions from the subsidiaries for funds to pay operating and other expenses as well as to pay future cash dividends or distributions, if any, to holders of our Common Shares. Dividends or distributions by subsidiaries in a currency other than the U.S. dollar may result in a loss upon a subsequent conversion into U.S. dollars.
Our Common Shares may have a volatile public trading price.
The market price of our Common Shares since our initial public offering in September 1996 has increased significantly and been highly volatile. In the last two years, the price of our Common Shares has ranged from a high of $39.45 to a low of $27.40 on NASDAQ to January 9, 2018 and the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) from January 10, 2018, and a high of €34.05 to a low of €25.22 on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange. In addition to overall stock market fluctuations, factors that may have a significant impact on the price of our Common Shares include:
announcements of technological innovations or the introduction of new products by us or our competitors;
developments in our relationships with collaborative partners;
quarterly variations in our operating results or those of our peer companies;
changes in government regulations, tax laws or patent laws;
developments in patent or other intellectual property rights;
developments in government spending budgets for life sciences-related research;
general market conditions relating to the diagnostics, applied testing, pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries; and
impact from foreign exchange rates.
The stock market has from time to time experienced extreme price and trading volume fluctuations that have particularly affected the market for technology-based companies. These fluctuations have not necessarily been related to the operating performance of these companies. These broad market fluctuations may adversely affect the market price of our Common Shares.
Holders of our Common Shares should not expect to receive dividend income.
In January 2017 we completed a synthetic share repurchase that combined a direct capital repayment with a reverse stock split, and in early 2018 we announced plans to return up to an additional $200.0 million through open-market purchases. We do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our Common Shares for the foreseeable future, and until the January 2017 distribution in connection with a synthetic share repurchase, we have not paid cash dividends since our inception. Although we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on a regular basis, the distribution of any cash dividends in a currency other than the U.S. dollar will be subject to the risk of foreign currency transaction losses. Investors should not invest in our Common Shares if they are seeking dividend income; the only return that may be realized through investing in our Common Shares would be through an appreciation in the share price.
Holders of our Common Shares may not benefit from continued stock repurchase programs.
In January 2017, we completed a synthetic share repurchase that combined a direct capital repayment with a reverse stock split. The transaction was announced in August 2016 and involved an approach used by various large, multinational Dutch companies to provide returns to all shareholders in a faster and more efficient manner than traditional open-market purchases. $243.9 million was returned to shareholders through the transaction, which reduced the total number of issued common shares by approximately 3.7% or 8.9 million shares as of January 31, 2017.
The purpose of our share repurchases has been to hold the shares in treasury in order to satisfy obligations from exchangeable debt instruments, warrants and/or employee share-based remuneration plans and thus to reduce dilution to existing holders of our Common Shares. We may decide not to continue such programs in the future, our covenants with lenders may limit our ability to use available cash to do so, or the market price of our Common Shares may make such repurchases less desirable. In any of these cases, holders of our Common Shares may suffer dilution from conversion of our indebtedness or issuance of shares pursuant to employee remuneration plans that would otherwise be at least partially offset by repurchased shares.
Future sales and issuances of our Common Shares could adversely affect our stock price.
Any future sale or issuance of a substantial number of our Common Shares in the public market, or any perception that a sale may occur, could adversely affect the market price of our Common Shares. Under Dutch law, a company can issue shares up to its authorized share capital provided for in its Articles of Association. Pursuant to our Articles of Association, our authorized

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share capital amounts to EUR 9.0 million, which is divided into 410.0 million common shares, 40.0 million financing preference shares and 450.0 million preference shares, with all shares having a EUR 0.01 par value. As of December 31, 2018, a total of approximately 225.5 million Common Shares were outstanding along with approximately 9.2 million additional shares reserved for issuance upon exercise or release of outstanding stock options and awards, of which 0.9 million were vested. A total of approximately 19.9 million Common Shares are reserved and available for issuances under our stock plans as of December 31, 2018, including the shares subject to outstanding stock options and awards. The majority of our outstanding Common Shares may be sold without restriction, except shares held by our affiliates, which are subject to certain limitations on resale. Additionally, the Warrants issued in connection with the Cash Convertible Notes Call Spread Overlays cover an aggregate of 46.3 million shares of our common stock (subject to customary adjustments under certain circumstances).
Shareholders who are United States residents could be subject to unfavorable tax treatment.
We may be classified as a “passive foreign investment company,” or a PFIC, for U.S. federal income tax purposes if certain tests are met. Our treatment as a PFIC could result in a reduction in the after-tax return to holders of Common Shares and would likely cause a reduction in the value of these shares. If we were determined to be a PFIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes, highly complex rules would apply to our U.S. shareholders. We would be considered a PFIC with respect to a U.S. shareholder if for any taxable year in which the U.S. shareholder held the Common Shares, either (i) 75% or more of our gross income for the taxable year is passive income; or (ii) the average value of our assets (during the taxable year) which produce or are held for the production of passive income is at least 50% of the average value of all assets for such year. Based on our income, assets and activities, we do not believe that we were a PFIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes for our taxable year ended December 31, 2018, and do not expect to be a PFIC for the current taxable year or any future taxable year. No assurances can be made, however, that the Internal Revenue Service will not challenge this position or that we will not subsequently become a PFIC.
Provisions of our Articles of Association and Dutch law and an option we have granted may make it difficult to replace or remove management and may inhibit or delay a takeover.
Our Articles of Association (Articles) provide that our shareholders may only suspend or dismiss our Managing Directors and Supervisory Directors against their wishes with a vote of two-thirds of the votes cast if such votes represent more than 50% of our issued share capital. If the proposal was made by the joint meeting of the Supervisory Board and the Managing Board, a simple majority is sufficient. The Articles also provide that if the members of our Supervisory Board and our Managing Board have been nominated by the joint meeting of the Supervisory Board and Managing Board, shareholders may only overrule this nomination with a vote of two-thirds of the votes cast if such votes represent more than 50% of our issued share capital.
Certain other provisions of our Articles allow us, under certain circumstances, to prevent a third party from obtaining a majority of the voting control of our Common Shares through the issuance of Preference Shares. Pursuant to our Articles and the resolution adopted by our General Meeting of Shareholders, our Supervisory Board is entitled to issue Preference Shares in case of an intended takeover of our company by (i) any person who alone or with one or more other persons, directly or indirectly, have acquired or given notice of an intent to acquire (beneficial) ownership of an equity stake which in aggregate equals 20% or more of our share capital then outstanding or (ii) an “adverse person” as determined by the Supervisory Board. If the Supervisory Board opposes an intended takeover and authorizes the issuance of Preference Shares, the bidder may withdraw its bid or enter into negotiations with the Managing Board and/or Supervisory Board and agree on a higher bid price for our Shares.
In 2004, we granted an option to the Stichting Preferente Aandelen QIAGEN, or the Foundation (Stichting), subject to the conditions described in the paragraph above, which allows the Foundation to acquire Preference Shares from us. The option enables the Foundation to acquire such number of Preference Shares as equals the number of our outstanding Common Shares at the time of the relevant exercise of the option, less one Preference Share. When exercising the option and exercising its voting rights on these Preference Shares, the Foundation must act in our interest and the interests of our stakeholders. The purpose of the Foundation option is to prevent or delay a change of control that would not be in the best interests of our stakeholders. An important restriction on the Foundation’s ability to prevent or delay a change of control is that a public offer must be announced by a third party before it can issue (preference or other) protective shares that would enable the Foundation to exercise rights to 30% or more of the voting rights without an obligation to make a mandatory offer for all shares held by the remaining shareholders. In addition, the holding period for these shares by the Foundation is restricted to two years, and this protective stake must fall below the 30% voting rights threshold before the two-year period ends.

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Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements and Risk Factors
Our future operating results may be affected by various risk factors, many of which are beyond our control. Certain statements included in this Annual Report and the documents incorporated herein by reference may be forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the U.S. Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the U.S. Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, including statements regarding potential future net sales, gross profit, net income and liquidity. These statements can be identified by the use of forward-looking terminology such as “believe,” “hope,” “plan,” “intend,” “seek,” “may,” “will,” “could,” “should,” “would,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “continue” or other similar words. Reference is made in particular to the description of our plans and objectives for future operations, assumptions underlying such plans and objectives, and other forward-looking statements. Such statements are based on management’s current expectations and are subject to a number of factors and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those described in the forward-looking statements. We caution investors that there can be no assurance that actual results or business conditions will not differ materially from those projected or suggested in such forward-looking statements as a result of various factors. Factors which could cause such results to differ materially from those described in the forward-looking statements include those set forth in the risk factors below. As a result, our future success involves a high degree of risk. When considering forward-looking statements, you should keep in mind that the risk factors could cause our actual results to differ significantly from those contained in any forward-looking statement.

Item 4.
Information on the Company
Description of our business
Company overview
QIAGEN is a global leader in Sample to Insight solutions that transform biological samples into valuable molecular insights. Our mission is to enable our customers in four broad classes - Molecular Diagnostics, Applied Testing, Pharma and Academia - to achieve outstanding success and breakthroughs, all in keeping with our goal of making improvements in life possible.
QIAGEN's solutions integrate sample and assay technologies, bioinformatics and automation systems into workflows that support more than 500,000 customers worldwide in generating insights into the molecular building blocks of life. Our proven solutions and content are providing answers in hospitals and laboratories worldwide, helping make sense of the increasing volumes and complexity of biological information.
As we move deeper into “the Century of Biology,” knowledge of the molecular basis of life has been growing exponentially, along with greater understanding of diseases and biological mechanisms. Dramatic acceleration in the speed of analyzing DNA - and reduction in cost - is generating new discoveries and vast quantities of genomic data. This revolution in the life sciences is transforming healthcare and influencing other areas of everyday life. QIAGEN’s innovative technologies enable and accelerate this ongoing wave of discovery and its wide-ranging applications.
QIAGEN began operations in 1986 as a pioneer in the emerging biotechnology sector, introducing a novel method that standardized and accelerated extraction and purification of nucleic acids from biological samples. As molecular biology has grown to influence many areas of life, QIAGEN has expanded to serve the full spectrum of market needs. We believe our sample technologies are unmatched in quality for isolating and preparing DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), RNA (ribonucleic acid) and proteins from blood or other liquids, tissue, plants or other materials. Our assay technologies amplify, enrich and make these biomolecules accessible for analysis, such as identifying the genetic information of a pathogen or a gene mutation in a tumor. QIAGEN’s industry-leading bioinformatics solutions allows users to analyze and interpret data to provide relevant, actionable insights. Our automation systems for polymerase chain reaction (PCR), next-generation sequencing (NGS) and other technologies tie these together in seamless and cost-effective molecular testing workflows - from Sample to Insight.
Net sales of $1.50 billion in 2018 consisted of consumable kits and other revenues (88% of sales) and automation systems and instruments (12% of sales). Approximately 49% of net sales in 2018 were in Molecular Diagnostics, and 51% in Life Sciences customer classes in the Academia, Pharma and Applied Testing markets.
QIAGEN has grown by developing new platforms, consumables and bioinformatics to meet growing needs in the market, partnering with researchers and Pharma companies, and acquiring companies or technologies to complement our portfolio. We believe the addressable global market for QIAGEN's portfolio of molecular testing products for customers across the continuum of life science research and molecular diagnostics totals more than $8 billion.
We have funded our growth through internally generated funds, debt offerings, and private and public sales of equity securities. QIAGEN has global shares that are listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol “QGEN” and on the Frankfurt Prime Standard as “QIA.”
The company is registered under its commercial and legal name QIAGEN N.V. with the trade register (kamer van koophandel) of the Dutch region Limburg Noord under file number 12036979. QIAGEN N.V. is a public limited liability company

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(naamloze vennootschap) under Dutch law as a holding company. Our principal executive office is located at Hulsterweg 82, 5912 PL Venlo, The Netherlands, and our telephone number is +31-77-355-6600.
As a holding company, QIAGEN conducts business through subsidiaries located throughout the world. Further information about QIAGEN can be found at www.qiagen.com. By referring to our website, we do not incorporate the website or any portion of the website by reference into this Annual Report.
Recent Developments
QIAGEN has recently achieved a number of milestones by continuing to focus on strategic growth initiatives:
Driving the rapid growth of our QuantiFERON-TB franchise:
QIAGEN’s QuantiFERON-TB tests play an increasingly central role in the global fight against tuberculosis (TB), a contagious bacterial infection that strikes more than 10 million new patients and kills about 1.7 million annually. As many as one out of three people worldwide have latent TB infection, in which the bacterium infects the body but produces no symptoms. About 5-10% of those individuals, if untreated, will progress to active TB disease, so screening high-risk individuals and treating the infected ones to prevent active disease is critical to TB control.
Sales of the QuantiFERON-TB franchise, including the fourth-generation QuantiFERON-TB Gold Plus (QFT-Plus) and third-generation QuantiFERON-TB Gold (QFT), grew 21% in 2018 to $223 million. QIAGEN continues to innovate, and the franchise is on track toward a target of $300 million in sales by 2020.
QuantiFERON-TB Gold Plus, now adopted in more than 75 countries, continues to ramp up after launching in the United States in October 2017 and Japan in February 2018. The fourth-generation test adds clinical insights by measuring cell-mediated immune response to TB infection from both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, a feature cited by experts for its potential to identify adults at greater risk of progressing to active TB.
In October 2018, QIAGEN and DiaSorin introduced a state-of-the-art automation option for QuantiFERON-TB Gold Plus customers, embedding QFT-Plus in DiaSorin's broad assay menu for LIAISON-family analyzers. More than 7,000 LIAISON analyzers are in use worldwide. Laboratories in Europe and other markets can now use this CE-marked solution to process QFT-Plus tests with DiaSorin’s flexible, efficient automation. Availability is planned for the United States in 2019 and China in 2020.
QIAGEN also partnered with Hamilton Robotics beginning in July 2018 to improve the automation of sample processing for QFT-Plus with Hamilton's best-in-class liquid handling technology.
In January 2019, QIAGEN announced plans to develop QuantiFERON-TB Access, a simplified, low-cost test tailored to the needs of low-resource regions with a high burden of tuberculosis, including parts of Asia, Africa and South America. The new product will advance global TB control efforts with ultrasensitive digital detection in a workflow designed for cost-efficiency and ease of use in areas lacking laboratory infrastructure. QIAGEN is developing QuantiFERON-TB Access in a new partnership with Ellume, an Australian developer of high-performance digitally-enabled diagnostics. Clinical trials are planned to start in 2019, and commercialization is expected to begin in 2020.
Support is growing for latent TB testing and treatment of high-risk individuals as a preventive component of global TB control programs. In 2018, world leaders at the first-ever high-level United Nations meeting on tuberculosis agreed to provide $13 billion a year by 2022 for preventive testing and treatment, targeting 30 million people. New guidelines from the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended scale-up of latent TB testing in countries with a high disease burden, as well as low-burden countries. Also in 2018 the UN International Organization for Migration adopted QFT-Plus for use in screening immigrants, and the International Panel Physicians Association endorsed QFT-Plus over skin tests. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control required use of FDA-approved blood tests such as ours for testing immigrants, and guidelines from the American Academy of Pediatrics also supported the tests.
In addition to tuberculosis control, QIAGEN continues to expand its immune-monitoring pipeline for the future, developing new applications and content for QuantiFERON technology and other emerging platforms.
Extending QIAGEN's reach in next-generation sequencing:
QIAGEN continues to expand our global presence in the fast-growing market for next-generation sequencing (NGS). We are a leader in "universal" technologies for preparing samples, analyzing genomic variations and interpreting data with any NGS system. The GeneReader NGS System, the world’s first Sample to Insight NGS solution enabling any laboratory to deliver actionable sequencing results, is growing in placements and establishing a broad content menu. Our diversified NGS franchise produced more than $140 million in sales in 2018.
In 2018, QIAGEN continued to partner with customers to add universal solutions to deliver faster, better NGS insights. In immuno-oncology, the new QIAseq TMB Panel offers in-depth analysis of biomarkers such as tumor mutational burden,

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with potential to predict responses to immunotherapy in advanced cancers. In the growing RNA sequencing field, the new QIAseq FastSelect RNA Removal Kit addresses a major bottleneck for researchers. Our industry-leading solutions for preparation of liquid biopsy samples, along with a diverse offering of off-the-shelf and customized QIAseq panels, continued to expand to new applications across research fields.
Adding value to the GeneReader system, we continue to expand the Sample to Insight content menu. In June 2018, we launched customizable QIAact panels for research in hereditary diseases, including inherited cancers, cystic fibrosis, inherited cardiovascular diseases, universal carrier screening and other conditions. In October 2018, we introduced the GeneRead QIAact Actionable Insights Tumor DNA UMI panel, targeting 30 genes influencing the most widespread cancers including lung, melanoma, prostate and other solid tumors, and the GeneRead QIAact BRCA Advanced UMI panel, for deep-dive analysis in breast, ovarian and other cancers. In December 2018, we launched the QIAact Myeloid DNA UMI Panel covering 25 highly relevant genes for onco-hematology research. The panels run with the GeneReader system and integrate seamlessly with our QCI software for analysis and interpretation.
We have actively incorporated the GeneReader NGS System into collaborations with pharmaceutical companies for co-development of companion diagnostics, aiming to build a pipeline of future content for the platform.
In March 2018, QIAGEN launched a partnership with Natera Inc., a leader in cell-free DNA genetic testing, to develop NGS assays for non-invasive prenatal testing for use on our GeneReader NGS System, which will expand the future offering beyond the current focus on oncology.
QIAGEN solutions, including both platform-agnostic technologies and integrated solutions for the GeneReader, featured in numerous studies presented at scientific meetings in 2018, including the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR), American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG), Association for Molecular Pathology (AMP) and American Society for Hematology (ASH). QIAGEN executives and customer-focused teams meet with many customers at these meetings, including academic researchers, pharmaceutical R&D experts and clinicians, to build relationships and demonstrate our Sample to Insight offering of NGS solutions.
Reaping the value of genomic insights for Precision Medicine:
In 2018, QIAGEN continued to build its leading position in Precision Medicine (formerly referred to as Personalized Healthcare), collaborating with more than 25 pharmaceutical and biotech companies to develop companion and complementary diagnostics to guide clinical decision-making. These partnerships feed a deep pipeline of molecular tests for use in clinical trials and, following regulatory approval, in patient care. QIAGEN offers a full range of Sample to Insight technologies in these programs, including our PCR and NGS platforms and universal solutions. We employ established and newly discovered biomarkers in our Pharma partnerships and have robust relationships in emerging therapeutic approaches such as immuno-oncology.
QIAGEN received the second and third FDA approvals in 2018 for our therascreen EGFR RGQ PCR Kit in lung cancer, for use as a companion diagnostic to guide selection of patients for targeted therapies being launched by Pfizer and Boehringer Ingelheim. The test is registered in more than 40 countries globally.
In February 2018 we launched the CE-IVD marked therascreen PITX2 RGQ PCR Kit as the first clinically validated DNA methylation assay to help predict the response of high-risk breast cancer patients to anthracycline-based chemotherapy. The assay is QIAGEN's first epigenetic test in breast cancer.
Our ipsogen JAK2 RGQ PCR Kit also received FDA clearance in early 2018 for two additional uses. The test now covers the diagnosis of all myeloproliferative neoplasms, a group of cancers in which immature blood cells in the bone marrow do not mature and become healthy blood cells.
In 2018, we created a Day-One Lab Readiness initiative, a network of collaborations with CLIA-certified laboratories to ensure immediate patient access to QIAGEN companion diagnostics upon regulatory approval of new oncology drugs. Based on the FDA’s modernized approach to advanced diagnostics, we are partnering with labs to allow pre-approval validation and setup of tests. An agreement with NeoGenomics, a leading U.S. provider of cancer-related genetic testing, will ensure immediate availability of QIAGEN companion diagnostics upon FDA approval of drugs and tests. A collaboration with SRL, Inc., Japan’s largest clinical testing company, will enable rapid availability there. The initiative will support synchronized launches with Pharma partners and benefit patients in need of new therapies.
A collaboration with Novartis, announced in December 2018, aims to bring to market a QIAGEN companion diagnostic to guide the use of the Novartis compound BYL719 (alpelisib) as a combination therapy for certain patients with PIK3CA-mutated, hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 negative (HR+/HER2-) advanced or metastatic breast cancer. The drug candidate is in late-stage development, and QIAGEN expects to provide its PIK3CA test to partners who will be ready to offer immediate access to the test upon potential regulatory approvals of BYL719 and QIAGEN’s test.

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As one of the world’s leading independent developers of molecular tests, with a diverse portfolio of platforms and solutions, QIAGEN is a preferred partner for creating and commercializing diagnostics in Precision Medicine.
Expanding QIAGEN automation solutions to serve growing market needs:
QIAGEN has strategically expanded our offering of automation solutions to enter emerging segments of the life science and molecular diagnostics markets, as well as to meet rapidly evolving needs of customers in a variety of applications. Diversifying the automation portfolio offers opportunities for QIAGEN to leverage our molecular content on multiple platforms in growing markets.
The flagship QIAsymphony automation solution, a cost-effective modular system that integrates PCR molecular testing workflows from initial sample processing to final insights, surpassed QIAGEN’s 2018 goal of 2,300 cumulative placements. The platform’s rapid dissemination and growing content menu fueled solid single-digit growth in consumables for QIAsymphony. The system serves laboratories around the world, with the broadest test menu of any platform in its category in Europe and other markets, plus the unique ability to handle laboratory-developed tests. Nearly 30 diagnostic tests in infectious disease, oncology and transplant care are marketed for use on the Rotor-Gene Q, a component of the modular QIAsymphony workflow. In the United States, eight FDA-approved diagnostic tests, including three companion diagnostics to guide treatment decisions in cancer, are marketed for this detection platform. The sample processing module, QIAsymphony SP, is a market-leading "front end" solution for reliable automated handling of samples, including liquid biopsies, for molecular testing such as next-generation sequencing.
The GeneReader NGS System, initially launched in 2015, continued to gain acceptance worldwide in 2018. QIAGEN again expanded the content menu of commercial and customized DNA panels to meet changing needs in clinical research and fields such as forensics. (See section on next-generation sequencing.)
In April 2018, QIAGEN entered the rapidly growing syndromic testing market by launching QIAstat-Dx for one-step, fully integrated molecular analysis of hard-to-diagnose syndromes. The European launch followed acquisition of STAT-Dx, developer of the unique cartridge-based PCR technology for multiplex molecular testing. QIAstat-Dx enables fast, cost-effective and easy-to-use syndromic testing with novel Sample to Insight solutions. QIAGEN expects a U.S. launch for QIAstat-Dx, following regulatory approvals, in 2019. QIAstat-Dx was launched initially with two CE-IVD marked syndromic tests, enabling clinicians to differentiate among pathogens that cause respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. In 2019, QIAGEN is launching CE-marked panels for hepatitis B and hepatitis C. The pipeline of planned assays for QIAstat-Dx spans infectious diseases, oncology, companion diagnostics and other areas.
In September 2018, QIAGEN partnered with NeuMoDx Molecular, Inc. to commercialize two new fully integrated automation systems for higher-throughput PCR testing in clinical laboratories that are processing increasing molecular test volumes. In late 2018 QIAGEN began distributing the high-throughput NeuMoDx 288 and mid-throughput NeuMoDx 96 in Europe and other major non-U.S. markets. NeuMoDx will distribute these instruments within the United States. An initial assay menu offers CE-IVD marked assays for Group B Streptococcus (GBS) and Chlamydia trachomatis/Neisseria gonorrhoeae (CT/NG) infections. Additional diagnostic tests are under development, and the NeuMoDx platforms also offer the ability to efficiently process laboratory-developed tests. The companies also entered into an agreement under which QIAGEN can acquire all NeuMoDx shares not currently owned at a predetermined price (see Item 5).
In January 2019, we announced plans to develop next-generation systems for digital PCR, combining QIAGEN technologies with assets acquired from Formulatrix, Inc. QIAGEN expects to leverage our worldwide presence in labs using our quantitative PCR solutions to enter the emerging market for digital PCR. We are targeting a 2020 launch with fully-integrated solutions that simplify workflows compared to current digital PCR systems, offer higher throughput and multiplexing, and provide customers with favorable costs for instruments and consumables. We are developing a broad content menu of QIAGEN assays for use in digital PCR.
Using bioinformatics to transform raw data into valuable insights:
QIAGEN’s broad offering of content-enabled bioinformatics continues to drive growth, turning vast amounts of genomic data into actionable insights for customers. Our bioinformatics, marketed both as standalone products and integrated into Sample to Insight QIAGEN workflows, address critical bottlenecks in next-generation sequencing, especially for clinical research and diagnostics.
We continually seek opportunities to upgrade QIAGEN solutions for analysis and interpretation, and we pursue collaborations across the genomics and bioinformatics community to offer customers the richest possible insights for research and diagnostics in support of Precision Medicine. We launched major enhancements to QIAGEN Clinical Insight (QCI) in October 2018 to deliver expanded Sample to Insight workflows for clinical NGS. QIAGEN introduced QCI Analyze Universal for full end-to-end workflow support of all major clinical sequencing platforms and assay types, along with expanded QCI capabilities for interpretation of biomarkers in immuno-oncology.

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In February 2019, we announced an agreement with Ares Genetics to develop innovative bioinformatics and assay solutions to accelerate research targeting the global health challenges posed by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. QIAGEN acquired an exclusive license to leverage the industry-leading ARESdb antimicrobial resistance database, as well as Ares bioinformatics tools and workflows, in QIAGEN bioinformatics products and services. QIAGEN also obtained a non-exclusive worldwide license to develop and commercialize NGS and PCR assays using the Ares content.
In January 2019, QIAGEN acquired N-of-One, Inc., a pioneer in molecular oncology decision support services, to strengthen our leadership in clinical NGS interpretation. N-of-One’s services and proprietary database will be integrated into QCI, adding medical interpretation and real-world evidence insights and offering robust decision support. N-of-One’s somatic cancer database, with more than 125,000 anonymized patient samples, will expand our already industry-leading genomics knowledge base.
In November 2018, we introduced a new QCI Interpret solution for blood cancers, to provide actionable information for sub-classification and prognostic assessment of hematological malignancies such as leukemia, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma and multiple myeloma. QCI Interpret is a web-based decision support platform that draws on the industry-leading QIAGEN Knowledge Base to evaluate genomic variants in the context of published biomedical literature, professional guidelines, publicly and privately available databases, drug labels and clinical trials.
Also in November 2018, QIAGEN launched new CLC Genomics Workbench software to serve more customers, reinforcing a strategic push to expand the utility of QIAGEN’s analysis tools beyond the current core market of bioinformaticians. The new tool combines the best of two previous products, CLC Biomedical Genomics Workbench and CLC Genomics Workbench. Improvements include a streamlined, easy-to-use interface useful for scientists with any bioinformatics skill level, a dramatically reduced data footprint to accommodate computing resources in virtually any lab, and in-depth reference tools to get users started quickly for many species and genomic panels.
Pioneering liquid biopsy solutions and other differentiated sample technologies:
As a world leader in sample technologies enabling laboratories to obtain highest-quality DNA and RNA for molecular testing, QIAGEN’s differentiated solutions for front-end challenges continued to drive growth in 2018. QIAGEN technologies process an estimated 50,000 biological samples a day. Our strategic focus is on rapidly growing applications in research and clinical diagnostics, such as "liquid biopsies" for efficient, and less-invasive diagnosis and soil, liquid and plant samples for analyzing microbiomes.
In January 2019, QIAGEN launched QIAcube Connect, a next-generation solution for automated sample processing. Building on over 8,000 placements of the first-generation QIAcube instrument, QIAcube Connect delivers a new level of digitization and ease of use to process samples with thousands of protocols, while assuring full standardization and freeing researchers from repetitive manual processing.
Innovative liquid biopsy technologies increasingly enable QIAGEN customers to unlock molecular insights from blood or other fluids as alternatives to surgical biopsies and tissue samples. In April 2018 we launched two novel liquid biopsy panels to evaluate circulating tumor cells (CTCs): The AdnaTest ProstateCancerPanel AR-V7 Kit and the AdnaTest LungCancer Kit both deliver unique insights for the growing field of research into molecular mechanisms. QIAGEN solutions based on several different technologies for isolation and stabilization of nucleic acids are used in an estimated 80% of liquid biopsy testing.
As a pioneer in sample technologies, QIAGEN partners with leading microbiome researchers to provide cutting-edge tools for the study of microbial communities in the body and the environment. In 2018, QIAGEN launched the new DNeasy PowerSoil Pro Kit and DNeasy Plant Pro Kit as innovative tools for extracting fungal and bacterial DNA from a variety of soil and plant samples. We also introduced QIAseq 16S/ITS Panels and UCP Multiplex PCR Kit for next-generation sequencing to enable the most accurate microbial community profiling from complex samples. QIAGEN supports research initiatives worldwide, and our solutions are used and recommended by international consortia like the Human Microbiome Project, the Earth Microbiome Project and the MetaSUB Consortium.
In Applied Testing, QIAGEN’s efficient, highly accurate sample and assay technologies for forensics and human identification helped drive our growth again in 2018. QIAGEN partners with public agencies and international organizations in a variety of initiatives for investigation of crimes, identification of missing persons and forensic research. For example, QIAGEN won a tender in 2018 from one government to manage creation of a national DNA database, scaling up over three years to process and load 500,000 DNA samples, and to provide Sample to Insight forensic capabilities to aid in law enforcement, disaster relief and other public safety applications.
QIAGEN’s Custom Solutions business, started in 2017, serves life science and molecular diagnostics customers with the tools and expertise to quickly build and commercialize products that meet unique workflow requirements. The unit offers

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custom and OEM sample technologies, oligo and enzyme product options for PCR, qPCR and NGS product development, as well as a range of other platform technologies.
Our Products
QIAGEN's leadership in Sample to Insight solutions for molecular testing leverages our position across a wide range of applications and customer classes. We provide more than 500 core consumable products (sample and assay “kits”), as well as instruments and automation systems. Our bioinformatics solutions connect laboratory workflows and process genomic data, reporting relevant insights to enable scientists or clinicians to decide on further action.
These diverse revenue streams can be seen in two main categories: consumables and related revenue, and automation platforms and instruments.
Consumables and related revenues
Consumable products, accounting for approximately 78-80% of net sales, typically include sample technologies to extract and purify molecules of interest from biological samples and assay technologies that make information from these samples available for analysis and interpretation. To maximize customer convenience and reduce user error, these kits contain all necessary reagents and a manual of protocols and background information. Reliability, standardization, ease of use and cost-effectiveness are keys to the success of molecular testing products.
QIAGEN’s sample technologies ensure that each biological sample is processed in a highly reproducible, standardized method with the highest quality. A broad range of kits support applications such as plasmid DNA purification, RNA purification and stabilization, genomic and viral nucleic acid purification, DNA cleanup after PCR and sequencing, target enrichment, and library preparation for sequencing. We continue to expand our portfolio for applications such as preparing DNA and RNA from minimally-invasive liquid biopsies for cancer and processing difficult samples for research into the microbiome and metagenomics.
Our assay technologies contain all the needed reagents to enable customers to target molecules of interest for detection on platforms supporting PCR, NGS or multimodal analysis. Each assay kit is sufficient to support a number of applications, varying from a single application to kits containing more than 1,000 applications each. Applications include open, general-purpose PCR reagents, as well as kits and panels for detection of viral or bacterial pathogens and parasites, pharmacogenomic testing and genotyping. In PCR, examples are our therascreen family of companion diagnostics, artus line for profiling infectious diseases, and investigator assays for forensics and human identification. A growing portfolio of Digital NGS panels enable sequencing to target DNA or RNA variants for clinical research in cancer or other diseases.
Related revenues, accounting for approximately 7-9% of our net sales, include bioinformatics solutions, sold as freestanding software or cloud-based solutions and also integrated into many QIAGEN consumables and instruments for seamless Sample to Insight workflows.
Related revenues also include royalties, milestone payments from co-development agreements with pharmaceutical companies, payments from technology licenses and patent sales, and custom services, such as whole genome amplification services, DNA sequencing, and non-cGMP DNA production on a contract basis.
Automation platforms and instruments
Our instrumentation systems, contributing approximately 12-13% of net sales together with related services and contracts, automate the use of consumables into efficient workflows for a broad range of laboratory needs. QIAGEN platforms are designed to carry our customers from Sample to Insight - handling and preparation of biological samples, analysis using sequencing technologies, and interpretation that delivers valuable insights. These instruments enable laboratories to perform reliable and reproducible processes, including nucleic acid sample preparation, assay setup, target detection, and interpretation of genomic information. Often several of these instruments are integrated into end-to-end workflows.
Among the automation platforms that contribute to QIAGEN’s business:
QIAsymphony is a user-friendly automation system that drives integrated workflows for molecular testing, making laboratories more efficient and helping disseminate standardized, clinically proven molecular diagnostics. The platform includes three modules - QIAsymphony SP for sample preparation, QIAsymphony AS for assay setup, and Rotor-Gene Q, our rotary real-time PCR cycler system, which makes sequences of DNA and RNA visible through amplification and quantifiable. The fully integrated system with all three modules is QIAsymphony RGQ. In 2018, our installed base surpassed 2,300 QIAsymphony systems in a wide variety of applications and laboratories worldwide. The platform enhances workflows through continuous loading, random access and the ability to process an almost unlimited range of sample types. QIAsymphony has the broadest content menu in its category in Europe and other markets, and QIAGEN is developing more regulator-approved assays to add value for customers.

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GeneReader NGS System, introduced in late 2015, continues to gain acceptance as the first complete Sample to Insight next-generation sequencing (NGS) solution designed for any laboratory to deliver actionable results. This end-to-end platform provides a simpler, more cost-effective way for basic and translational research to take advantage of NGS technology for improved outcomes. The benchtop GeneReader workflow offers the flexibility of scalable batch sizes and continuous loading of multiple flow cells, and customers can achieve relevant insights using QIAGEN's proven gene panels and bioinformatics. In 2018, we continued to add new content, including QIAact panels covering the most widespread cancers and deep-dive panels for myeloid malignancies and breast and ovarian cancers, as well as customizable panels for research in inherited diseases. GeneReader's digital sequencing integrates seamlessly with QIAGEN bioinformatics solutions for interpretation.
QIAstat-Dx enables fast, cost-effective and easy-to-use syndromic testing with novel Sample to Insight solutions. Launched in Europe in April 2018, QIAstat-Dx provides a one-step, fully integrated molecular analysis of common syndromes with a small laboratory footprint. The first two tests differentiate hard-to-diagnose respiratory and gastrointestinal infections, and QIAGEN is developing an extensive pipeline of additional content. QIAGEN expects a 2019 U.S. launch of QIAstat-Dx following regulatory approvals.
NeuMoDx 288 and NeuMoDx 96 are fully integrated systems for automation of higher-throughput PCR testing in clinical laboratories with increasing molecular test volumes. QIAGEN began distributing the systems in Europe and other major non-U.S. markets in late 2018, with an initial test menu in infectious diseases and a broad pipeline under development. The platforms’ developer, NeuMoDx Molecular, Inc., is distributing these instruments within the United States. Under a merger agreement, QIAGEN can acquire all NeuMoDx shares not currently owned at a predetermined price.
QIAcube workstations provide highly versatile solutions for automated sample processing, and we are now launching the next-generation QIAcube Connect with advanced digital capabilities and full connectivity. These solutions assure standardization of sample preparation and save laboratory staff time by eliminating repetitive manual procedures.
Customers
With a growing portfolio of innovative products for molecular testing, QIAGEN has built deep customer relationships across the entire value chain of the life sciences. Discoveries often surface in universities and research institutes and are published, then are licensed for development by pharmaceutical and biotech companies, and finally move into widespread commercial use in healthcare and other areas of life. We serve the needs of four major customer classes:
Molecular Diagnostics - healthcare providers engaged in patient care including hospitals, public health organizations, reference laboratories and physician practices
Applied Testing - government or industry customers using molecular technologies in non-healthcare fields such as forensics and human identification
Pharma - pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies using molecular testing to support drug discovery, translational medicine and clinical development efforts
Academia - researchers exploring the secrets of life such as disease mechanisms and pathways, in some cases translating findings into drug targets or other products
Molecular Diagnostics
The ability of advanced diagnostic technologies to unlock molecular information for patients is changing the practice of medicine, creating a large and growing market for sample preparation, assay kits and bioinformatics in clinical care. Dissemination of PCR and other amplification technologies has brought molecular diagnostics into routine use in healthcare around the world, and next-generation sequencing is disseminating rapidly to further transform healthcare. Technologies for molecular diagnostics enable clinicians and labs to identify and profile microorganisms, cancer cells, bacteria and viruses by detecting specific nucleic acid sequences or characterizing newly discovered genomic sequences related to diseases. Commercial applications are multiplying as researchers identify new biological markers for disease and develop novel technologies to decipher these diagnostic clues.
The molecular diagnostics market generates total sales estimated by industry experts at approximately $7 billion in 2018, including about $4-5 billion potentially addressable with QIAGEN's product portfolio. Molecular diagnostics is the most dynamic segment of the global in vitro diagnostics market and is growing at a compound annual rate estimated in the high single-digits or low double-digits. Given the advantages of precise genetic information over traditional tests, QIAGEN expects the healthcare market to continue to provide significant growth opportunities.
In QIAGEN’s robustly growing Molecular Diagnostics business we focus on three priorities for fighting disease:

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Oncology - accurately diagnosing cancer, enabling prevention or early detection, and guiding selection of therapies with individualized molecular insights. QIAGEN offers a broad portfolio of companion diagnostic kits and panels to detect mutations of genes such as KRAS, EGFR, BRAF, BRCA1/2 and others that influence the development of cancers and the efficacy and safety of medicines. We also provide industry-leading tests to screen for human papillomavirus (HPV) and protect women from cervical cancer.
Infectious diseases - detecting and differentiating a broad range of viral and bacterial infections, including diseases such as HIV, hepatitis, influenza and healthcare-associated infections, as well as common respiratory and gastrointestinal syndromes. Use of molecular testing to differentiate among pathogens can be useful in guiding treatment, such as selection of antibiotic or antiviral therapies.
Immune monitoring - using advanced technologies that detect immune-system markers as a preventive strategy, such as screening patients for latent TB infection to guard against active TB disease, as well as for monitoring immune function, such as in transplantation patients.
QIAGEN offers one of the broadest portfolios of molecular technologies for healthcare. Success in Molecular Diagnostics depends on the ability to accurately analyze purified nucleic acid samples from sources such as blood, tissue, body fluids and stool, on automated systems that process these samples reliably and efficiently, often handling hundreds of samples concurrently. Other success factors are the range of assays for diseases and biomarkers, convenience and ease of laboratory workflow, and reliability and standardization of lab procedures.
The immune monitoring portfolio, using sensitive QuantiFERON technology, accurately detects infection and measures immune response in patients. Our lead products in this field, QuantiFERON-TB Gold and QuantiFERON-TB Gold Plus, are used in tuberculosis (TB) control efforts worldwide to detect latent TB infection (LTBI) by screening vulnerable populations, such as close contacts of patients with active TB disease, immunocompromised persons or patients on immunosuppressive drugs. Individuals with LTBI can then be treated, preventing the infection from becoming active and contagious. As modern blood tests analyzed in a laboratory, the QuantiFERON-TB assays are faster, less labor-intensive and more accurate than the century-old tuberculin skin test. The potential global market for latent TB infection testing is estimated at up to $1 billion.
QIAGEN's oncology test portfolio includes a broad range of technologies and biomarkers for Precision Medicine, including regulator-approved companion diagnostics for oncogenes such as KRAS, EGFR and JAK2, as well as comprehensive gene panels for research applications in next-generation sequencing. In 2018, we broadened the use of our therascreen EGFR RGQ PCR Kit with its second and third FDA approvals as a companion diagnostic in lung cancer, launched the therascreen PITX2 RGQ PCR Kit as the first clinically validated DNA methylation assay to help predict the response of high-risk breast cancer patients to chemotherapy, and added two new FDA-cleared uses for our ipsogen JAK2 RGQ PCR Kit. We have a deep pipeline of oncology tests for PCR and NGS analysis under development. In addition to our broad portfolio of molecular technologies and automation systems, QIAGEN offers Pharma partners a full infrastructure for co-development programs, intellectual property on platforms and content, regulatory experience, global marketing reach, and independence as a company focusing exclusively on these types of technologies.
QIAGEN also offers an extensive range of kits for diagnosing infectious diseases, including a broad menu of reliable tests on the QIAsymphony platform, plus the new QIAstat-Dx panels for respiratory and gastrointestinal syndromes. We are expanding this portfolio by seeking regulatory approvals of new tests in additional markets.
QIAGEN is one of the global leaders in screening technologies for HPV, a viral infection that is the primary cause of cervical cancer, which kills about 270,000 women a year. Our “gold standard” digene HC2 HPV Test and our careHPV Test for use in low-resource regions lead the market in HPV screening around the world. In the United States, QIAGEN vigorous price competition has reduced that business to about 1% of total sales.
Applied Testing
Use of molecular technologies is expanding in more areas of life as industry and government organizations apply standardized Sample to Insight solutions to diverse needs. Applied Testing is our term for applications outside of human healthcare and research. The value of genetic “fingerprinting” has been shown for criminal investigations or clarification of paternity or ancestry, as well as for food safety and veterinary diagnostics. In 2018, we took steps to streamline QIAGEN’s Applied Testing business by divesting our portfolio of veterinary assays to a new animal health company funded by a private capital firm.
QIAGEN’s forensics franchise delivered solid growth in 2018. We are a leader in standardizing solutions for reliable forensic testing, and we have built strong relationships with law enforcement and other organizations engaged in human identification. QIAGEN also provides industry-leading solutions for studies of microbiomes and their effect on health and the environment.
Pharma

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QIAGEN has deep relationships with pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies. Drug discovery and translational research efforts increasingly employ genomic information, both to guide research in diseases and to differentiate patient populations most likely to respond to particular therapies. We estimate that about half of QIAGEN sales in this customer class support research, while the other half supports clinical development, including stratification of patient populations based on genetic information. QIAGEN's bioinformatics solutions also are widely used to guide pharmaceutical research.
We have built a position as the preferred partner for pharmaceutical and biotech companies to co-develop companion diagnostics paired with targeted drugs. A wave of newly discovered biomarkers and molecular tests indicating the likely efficacy and safety of associated drugs is now transforming the treatment of cancer and other diseases. Our more than 25 master collaboration agreements with Pharma, some with multiple co-development projects, have created a rich pipeline of molecular tests that can move, along with the drugs, through clinical trials and regulatory approvals for marketing to healthcare providers. Several new companion diagnostics are currently in the registration process.
Academia
QIAGEN provides Sample to Insight solutions to leading research institutions around the world. While many academic laboratories continue to use manual, labor-intensive methods or create their own in-house technologies, QIAGEN has focused on enabling labs to replace time-consuming traditional methods and internal development efforts with reliable, fast, highly reproducible, and high-quality technologies. QIAGEN often partners with leading institutions in research projects and develops customized solutions such as NGS panels for digital sequencing of multiple gene targets needed for a researcher's study.
As academic institutions increasingly embrace translational research, bridging from discoveries to practical applications in medicine, our relationships in Academia also support our presence in the Molecular Diagnostics, Pharma and Applied Testing customer classes. Research in university settings often helps in development of technologies for targeted biomolecules, and academic research also can result in scientific publications that validate the usefulness of QIAGEN solutions.
Global Presence by Category of Activity and Geographic Market
Product Category Information
Net sales for the product categories are attributed based on those revenues related to sample and assay products and similarly related revenues including bioinformatics solutions, and revenues derived from instrumentation sales.
(in thousands)
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Net Sales
 
 
 
 
 
Consumables and related revenues
$
1,315,459

 
$
1,242,715

 
$
1,166,131

Instrumentation
186,389

 
174,821

 
171,860

Total
$
1,501,848

 
$
1,417,536

 
$
1,337,991

Geographical Information
QIAGEN currently markets products in more than 130 countries. The following table shows total revenue by geographic market for the past three years (net sales are attributed to countries based on the location of the customer, as certain subsidiaries have international distribution): 
(in thousands)
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Net Sales
 
 
 
 
 
Americas:
 
 
 
 
 
United States
$
632,660

 
$
579,906

 
$
555,676

Other Americas
60,359

 
73,478

 
71,797

Total Americas
693,019

 
653,384

 
627,473

Europe, Middle East and Africa
490,301

 
462,980

 
428,055

Asia Pacific and Rest of World
318,528

 
301,172

 
282,463

Total
$
1,501,848

 
$
1,417,536

 
$
1,337,991

QIAGEN has built an increasing presence in key emerging markets as a growth strategy. In 2018, the top seven emerging markets - Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Korea, Mexico and Turkey - contributed approximately 16% of net sales.
Research and Development
We are committed to expanding our global leadership in Sample to Insight solutions for molecular testing in healthcare and the

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life sciences. Our strategy for managing innovation focuses on addressing the most significant unmet medical and scientific needs. We target our resources to develop promising technologies for use by our customers in Molecular Diagnostics, Applied Testing, Pharma and Academia - and to meet the needs of clinicians and scientists in key geographic markets.
Innovation at QIAGEN follows parallel paths:
Creating new systems for automation of workflows - platforms for laboratories, hospitals and other users of these novel molecular technologies.
Expanding our broad portfolio of novel “content” - including assays to detect and measure biomarkers for disease or genetic identification.
Integrating bioinformatics with the testing process - software and cloud-based resources to interpret and transform raw molecular data into useful insights.
As a percentage of sales, our research and development investments are among the highest in our industry. Almost 1,100 employees in research and development work in QIAGEN centers of excellence on three continents.
Strengthening our leadership in automation is a key to driving dissemination of molecular testing in healthcare and other laboratories, as well as generating increased demand for our consumable products. We continue to expand the applications of all of our automation systems. QIAGEN is developing and commercializing a deep pipeline of assays for preventive screening and diagnostic profiling of diseases, detection of biomarkers to guide Precision Medicine in cancer and other diseases, and other molecular targets. Our assay development program aims to commercialize tests that will add value to our QIAsymphony, QIAstat-Dx, NeuMoDx and GeneReader NGS automation systems in the coming years. In 2018, we launched novel diagnostic tests running on the QIAsymphony platform for lung, breast and blood cancers, as well as Trichomonas vaginalis and human papillomavirus. In early 2019, we added tests for hepatitis B and hepatitis C to the menu of diagnostics for QIAstat-Dx.
Our bioinformatics teams are also developing new software solutions and adding proprietary cloud-based content to support the latest research and clinical trends in molecular testing, especially the interpretation of large volumes of data from next-generation sequencing. In addition, we are integrating these digital technologies with instruments and molecular content to provide our customers seamless Sample to Insight workflows.
Sales and Marketing
We market our products in more than 130 countries, mainly through subsidiaries in markets that we believe have the greatest sales potential in the Americas, Europe, Australia and Asia. Experienced marketing and sales staff, many of them scientists with academic degrees in molecular biology or related areas, sell our products and provide direct support to customers. Key accounts are overseen by business managers to ensure that we serve customers’ commercial needs, such as procurement processes, financing, data on costs and value of our systems, and collaborative relationships. In many markets, we have specialized independent distributors and importers.
Our marketing strategy focuses on providing differentiated, high-quality products across the value chain from Sample to Insight, integrating components into end-to-end solutions when possible, and enhancing relationships with commitment to technical excellence and customer service. Our “omni-channel” approach seeks to engage customers through their preferred channels - online, by phone, in person, etc. – and to optimize investment in different customer types.
QIAGEN has initiated actions to drive the growth of our digital marketing channels - including our website (www.qiagen.com), product-specific sites and social media. Our eCommerce team works with clients to provide automated processes supporting a variety of electronic transactions and all major eProcurement systems. Information contained on our website, or accessed through it, is not part of this Annual Report.
Our GeneGlobe web portal (www.geneglobe.com) is a valuable outreach to scientists in Pharma and Academia, enabling researchers to search and order from approximately 25 million pre-designed and custom PCR assay kits, NGS assay panels and other products. We have integrated GeneGlobe with our bioinformatics solutions, linking biological interpretation with ordering of relevant assays to accelerate research.
QIAGEN uses a range of tools to provide customers with direct access to technical support, inform them of new product offerings, and enhance our reputation for technical excellence, high-quality products and commitment to service. For example, our technical service hotline allows existing or potential customers to discuss a wide range of questions about our products and molecular biology procedures, online or via phone, with Ph.D. and M.Sc. scientists at QIAGEN. Frequent communication with customers enables us to identify market needs, learn of new developments and opportunities, and respond with new products.
We also distribute publications, including our catalog, to existing and potential customers worldwide, providing new product information, updates, and articles about existing and new applications. In addition, we hold numerous scientific seminars at clinical, academic and industrial research institutes worldwide and at major scientific and clinical meetings. We conduct direct

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marketing campaigns to announce new products and special promotions, and we offer personalized electronic newsletters highlighting molecular biology applications.
For laboratories that frequently rely on our consumables, the QIAstock program maintains inventory on-site to keep up with their requirements. QIAGEN representatives make regular visits to replenish the stock and help with other needs, and we are automating this process with digital technologies. Easy-to-use online ordering, inventory monitoring and customer-driven changes make QIAstock an efficient system for providing ready access to our products for the hundreds of customers worldwide who use this program.
Seasonality
Our business does not experience significant, predictable seasonality. Historically, a significant portion of our sales have been to researchers, universities, government laboratories and private foundations whose funding is dependent upon grants from government agencies, such as the National Institutes of Health and similar bodies. To the extent that our customers experience increases, decreases or delays in funding arrangements and budget approvals, and to the extent that any of our customers' activities are slowed, such as during times of higher unemployment, vacation periods or delays in the approval of government budgets, we may experience fluctuations in sales volumes during the year or delays from one period to the next in the recognition of sales.
Intellectual Property, Proprietary Rights and Licenses
We have made and expect to continue to make investments in intellectual property. In 2018, our purchases of intangible assets totaled $41.0 million. While we do not depend solely on any individual patent or technology, we are significantly dependent in the aggregate on technology that we own or license. Therefore, we consider protection of proprietary technologies and products one of the major keys to our business success. We rely on a combination of patents, licenses and trademarks to establish and protect proprietary rights. As of December 31, 2018, we owned 340 issued patents in the United States, 277 issued patents in Germany and 1,786 issued patents in other major industrialized countries. We had 576 pending patent applications. Our policy is to file patent applications in Western Europe, the United States and Japan. U.S. patents have a term of 17 years from the date of issue (for patents issued from applications submitted prior to June 8, 1995), or 20 years from the date of filing (in the case of patents issued from applications submitted on or after June 8, 1995). Patents in most other countries have a term of 20 years from the date of filing the patent application. We intend to aggressively prosecute and enforce patents and to otherwise protect our proprietary technologies. We also rely on trade secrets, know-how, continuing technological innovation and licensing opportunities to develop and maintain our competitive position.
Our practice is to require employees, consultants, outside scientific collaborators, sponsored researchers and other advisers to execute confidentiality agreements upon commencement of their relationships with us. These agreements provide that all confidential information developed by or made known to the individual during the course of the relationship is to be kept confidential and not disclosed to third parties, subject to a right to publish certain information in scientific literature in certain circumstances and to other specific exceptions. In the case of our employees, the agreements provide that all inventions conceived by individuals in the course of their employment will be our exclusive property.
See “Risk Factors” included in Item 3 above for details regarding risks related to our reliance on patents and proprietary rights.
Competition
In the Academic and Pharma markets, we believe our primary competition in sample technology products involves traditional separation and purification methods, such as phenol extraction, cesium chloride density gradient centrifugation, and precipitation. These methods utilize widely available reagents and other chemicals supplied by companies in these markets. We compete with these methods through innovative technologies and products, offering a comprehensive solution for nucleic acid collection, pre-treatment, separation and purification needs and providing significant advantages in speed, reliability, convenience, reproducibility and ease of use.
We also experience competition in various markets from other companies providing sample preparation products in kit form and assay solutions. These competitors include, but are not limited to, companies with a focus on nucleic acid separation and purification, assay solutions and for transfection reagents and protein fractionation products. We believe our proprietary technologies and products offer significant advantages over competitors' products with regard to purity, speed, reliability and ease-of-use.
Some of our other products within our molecular diagnostics customer class, such as tests for Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, hepatitis B virus, herpes simplex virus and CMV, compete against existing screening, monitoring and diagnostic technologies, including tissue culture and antigen-based diagnostic methodologies. We believe the primary competitive factors in the market for gene-based probe diagnostics and other screening devices are clinical validation, performance and reliability, ease of use, standardization, cost, proprietary position, competitors' market shares, access to distribution channels, regulatory approvals and reimbursement.

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We do not believe our competitors typically have the same comprehensive approach to sample to insight solutions as we do or the ability to provide the broad range of technologies and depth of products and services that we offer. With our complete range of manual and fully automated solutions, we believe we offer the value of standardization of procedures and, therefore, more reliable results. We also believe our integrated strategic approach gives us a competitive advantage. The quality of sample technologies-an area in which we have a unique market and leadership position-is a key prerequisite for reliable molecular assay solutions, which increasingly are being applied in emerging markets such as Molecular Diagnostics and Applied Testing.
Current and potential competitors may be in the process of seeking FDA or foreign regulatory approvals for their respective products. Our continued future success will depend in large part on our ability to maintain our technological advantage over competing products, expand our market presence and preserve customer loyalty. There can be no assurance that we will be able to compete effectively in the future or that development by others will not render our technologies or products non-competitive.
Suppliers
As part of our supplier assessment procedures, we evaluate on a monthly basis the performance of our raw material and component suppliers, potential new alternative sources of such materials and components, and the risks and benefits of reliance on our existing suppliers. We buy materials for our products from many suppliers, and are not dependent on any one supplier or group of suppliers for our business as a whole. Raw materials generally include chemicals, raw separation media, biologics, plastics, electronics and packaging. Raw materials are generally readily available at competitive, stable prices from a number of suppliers. Certain raw materials are produced under our specifications, so we closely monitor stock levels to maintain adequate supplies. We believe we maintain inventories at a sufficient level to ensure reasonable customer service levels and to guard against normal volatility in availability.
Government Regulations
We are subject to a variety of laws and regulations in the European Union, the United States and other countries. The level and scope of the regulation varies depending on the country or defined economic region, but may include, among other things, the research, development, testing, clinical trials, manufacture, storage, recordkeeping, approval, labeling, promotion and commercial sales and distribution, of many of our products.
European Union Regulations
In the European Union, in vitro diagnostic medical devices (IVDs) have been regulated under EU-Directive 98/79/EC (IVD Directive) and corresponding national provisions, however, this Directive will be replaced by the In Vitro Diagnostic Device Regulation (IVDR) in May 2022. The IVD Directive requires that medical devices meet the essential requirements set out in an annex of the directive. These requirements include the safety and efficacy of the devices. According to the IVD Directive, the Member States presume compliance with these essential requirements in respect of devices which are in conformity with the relevant national standards transposing the harmonized standards of which the reference numbers have been published in the Official Journal of the European Communities. These harmonized standards include ISO 13485:2003, the quality standard for medical device manufacturers.
IVD medical devices, other than devices for performance evaluation, must bear the CE marking of conformity when they are placed on the market. The CE mark is a declaration by the manufacturer that the product meets all the appropriate provisions of the relevant legislation implementing the relevant European Directive. As a general rule, the manufacturer must follow the procedure of the EC Declaration of conformity to obtain this CE marking.
Each European country must adopt its own laws, regulations and administrative provisions necessary to comply with the IVD Directive. Member States may not create any obstacle to the placing on the market or the putting into service within their territory of devices bearing the CE marking according to the conformity assessment procedures.
Under the IVDR, which was enacted by the European Commission (EC) on May 25, 2017, in vitro diagnostics will be subject to additional legal regulatory requirements after the IVDR comes into full effect on May 26, 2022. Once implemented, the entire EU IVD industry will have to comply with these new requirements, which will bring the EU regulatory landscape on par with other highly regulated markets such as the US. Many Guidance Documents and other regulatory mechanisms will need to be established during this transition period and it is anticipated that it will be late in 2019 before the infrastructure is established to begin the new approvals process.
U.S. Regulations
In the United States, in vitro diagnostic products are subject to regulation by the FDA as medical devices to the extent that they are intended for use in the diagnosis, treatment, mitigation or prevention of disease or other conditions. They are subject to premarket review and postmarket controls which will differ depending on how the FDA classifies a specific IVD. Certain types of tests like some that we manufacture and sell for research use only in the United States have not been subject to FDA’s premarket review and controls because we do not promote these tests for clinical diagnostic use, and they are labeled “For

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Research Use Only,” or RUO, as required by the FDA. Other tests, known as laboratory developed tests (LDTs) which are in vitro diagnostic tests that are designed, manufactured and used within a single laboratory, have been subject to enforcement discretion, which means that FDA generally has not enforced premarket review and other applicable FDA requirements. However, as LDTs have increased in complexity, the FDA has begun to take a risk-based approach to their regulation. Failure to comply with applicable U.S. requirements may subject a company to a variety of administrative or judicial sanctions, such as FDA refusal to approve pending PMAs, warning letters, product recalls, product seizures, total or partial suspension of production or distribution, injunctions, fines, civil penalties and criminal prosecution.
In Vitro Diagnostics
The FDA regulates the sale or distribution of medical devices, including in vitro diagnostic test kits and some LDTs. The information that must be submitted to the FDA in order to obtain clearance or approval to market a new medical device varies depending on how the medical device is classified by the FDA. Medical devices are classified into one of three classes on the basis of the controls deemed by the FDA to be necessary to reasonably ensure their safety and effectiveness. Class I devices are subject to general controls, including labeling, pre-market notification and adherence to the FDA’s quality system regulations, which are device-specific good manufacturing practices. Class II devices are subject to premarket notification, general controls and sometimes special controls, including performance standards and post-market surveillance. Class III devices are subject to most of the previously identified requirements as well as to pre-market approval. All Class I devices are exempt from premarket review; most Class II devices require 510(k) clearance, and all Class III devices must receive premarket approval before they can be sold in the United States. The payment of a fee, that is typically adjusted annually, to the FDA is usually required when a 510(k) notice or premarket approval application is submitted.
510(k) Premarket Notification. A 510(k) notification requires the sponsor to demonstrate that a medical device is substantially equivalent to another marketed device, termed a “predicate device”, that is legally marketed in the United States and for which a premarket approval application (PMA) was not required. A device is substantially equivalent to a predicate device if it has the same intended use and technological characteristics as the predicate; or has the same intended use but different technological characteristics, where the information submitted to the FDA does not raise new questions of safety and effectiveness and demonstrates that the device is at least as safe and effective as the legally marketed device.
The FDA generally issues a decision letter within 90 days of receipt of the 510(k) if it has no additional questions or sends a first action letter requesting additional information within 75 days. Most 510(k)s do not require clinical data for clearance, but a minority will. Requests for additional data, including clinical data, will increase the time necessary to review the notice. If the FDA believes that the device is not substantially equivalent to a predicate device, it will issue a “Not Substantially Equivalent” letter and designate the device as a Class III device, which will require the submission and approval of a PMA before the new device may be marketed. Under certain circumstances, the sponsor may request the FDA to make a risk-based determination of the new device and reclassify the new device as a Class I or Class II device. The FDA continues to reevaluate the 510(k) pathway and process and the de novo process, and has taken what it describes as a risk-based approach to develop innovative regulatory policy to propose a more "contemporary" approach. We cannot predict what if any changes will occur or how they will affect our current or future products.
Premarket Approval. The PMA process is more complex, costly and time consuming than the 510(k) process. A PMA must be supported by more detailed and comprehensive scientific evidence, including clinical data, to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of the medical device for its intended purpose. If the device is determined to present a “significant risk,” the sponsor may not begin a clinical trial until it submits an investigational device exemption (IDE) to the FDA and obtains approval to begin the trial.
After the PMA is submitted, the FDA has 45 days to make a threshold determination that the PMA is sufficiently complete to permit a substantive review. If the PMA is complete, the FDA will file the PMA. The FDA is subject to a performance goal review time for a PMA that is 180 days from the date of filing, although in practice this review time is longer. Questions from the FDA, requests for additional data and referrals to advisory committees may delay the process considerably. The total process may take several years and there is no guarantee that the PMA will ever be approved. Even if approved, the FDA may limit the indications for which the device may be marketed. The FDA may also request additional clinical data as a condition of approval or after the PMA is approved. Any changes to the medical device may require a supplemental PMA to be submitted and approved before changed medical device may be marketed.
Any products sold by us pursuant to FDA clearances or approvals will be subject to pervasive and continuing regulation by the FDA, including record keeping requirements, reporting of adverse experiences with the use of the device and restrictions on the advertising and promotion of our products. Device manufacturers are required to register their establishments and list their devices with the FDA and are subject to periodic inspections by the FDA and certain state agencies. Noncompliance with applicable FDA requirements can result in, among other things, warning letters, fines, injunctions, civil penalties, recalls or seizures of products, total or partial suspension of production, refusal of the FDA to grant 510(k) clearance or PMA approval for new devices, withdrawal of 510(k) clearances and/or PMA approvals and criminal prosecution.

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Regulation of Companion Diagnostic Devices
If a sponsor or the FDA believes that a diagnostic test is essential for the safe and effective use of a corresponding therapeutic product, the sponsor of the therapeutic product will typically work with a collaborator to develop an in vitro companion diagnostic device, or IVD. IVDs are regulated by the FDA as medical devices. The FDA issued a final guidance document in 2014, entitled “In Vitro Companion Diagnostic Devices” that is intended to assist companies developing in vitro companion diagnostic devices and companies developing therapeutic products that depend on the use of a specific in vitro companion diagnostic for the safe and effective use of the product. The FDA defined an IVD companion diagnostic device as a device that provides information that is essential for the safe and effective use of a corresponding therapeutic product. The FDA expects that the therapeutic sponsor will address the need for an approved or cleared IVD companion diagnostic device in its therapeutic product development plan and that, in most cases, the therapeutic product and its corresponding IVD companion diagnostic will be developed contemporaneously.
It also issued a draft guidance on July 15, 2016, entitled, “Principles for Codevelopment of an In Vitro Companion Diagnostic Device with a Therapeutic Product” to serve as a practical guide to assist therapeutic product sponsors and IVD sponsors in developing a therapeutic product and an accompanying IVD companion diagnostic.
The FDA indicated that it will apply a risk-based approach to determine the regulatory pathway for IVD companion diagnostic devices, as it does with all medical devices. This means that the regulatory pathway will depend on the level of risk to patients, based on the intended use of the IVD companion diagnostic device and the controls necessary to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness. The two primary types of marketing pathways for medical devices are clearance of a premarket notification under Section 510(k) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, or 510(k), and approval of a premarket approval application, or PMA. We expect that any IVD companion diagnostic device developed for use with our drug candidates will utilize the PMA pathway and that a clinical trial performed under an investigational device exemption, or IDE, will have to be completed before the PMA may be submitted.
The FDA expects that the therapeutic sponsor will address the need for an IVD companion diagnostic device in its therapeutic product development plan and that, in most cases, the therapeutic product and its corresponding IVD companion diagnostic device will be developed contemporaneously. If the companion diagnostic test will be used to make critical treatment decisions such as patient selection, treatment assignment, or treatment arm, it will likely be considered a significant risk device for which a clinical trial will be required.
The sponsor of the IVD companion diagnostic device will be required to comply with the FDA’s IDE requirements that apply to clinical trials of significant risk devices. If the diagnostic test and the therapeutic drug are studied together to support their respective approvals, the clinical trial must meet both the IDE and IND requirements.
PMAs must be supported by valid scientific evidence, which typically requires extensive data, including technical, preclinical, clinical and manufacturing data, to demonstrate to the FDA’s satisfaction the safety and effectiveness of the device. For diagnostic tests, a PMA typically includes data regarding analytical and clinical validation studies. As part of its review of the PMA, the FDA will conduct a pre-approval inspection of the manufacturing facility or facilities to ensure compliance with the Quality System Regulation, or QSR, which requires manufacturers to follow design, testing, control, documentation and other quality assurance procedures. FDA review of an initial PMA may require several years to complete.
If the FDA evaluations of both the PMA and the manufacturing facilities are favorable, the FDA will either issue an approval order or an approvable letter, which usually contains a number of conditions that must be met in order to secure the final approval of the PMA. If the FDA’s evaluation of the PMA or manufacturing facilities is not favorable, the FDA will send the applicant a not approvable letter or an order denying approval. A not approvable letter will outline the deficiencies in the application and, where practical, will identify what is necessary to make the PMA approvable. The FDA may also determine that additional clinical trials are necessary, in which case the PMA approval may be delayed for several months or years while the trials are conducted and then the data submitted in an amendment to the PMA. Once granted, PMA approval may be withdrawn by the FDA if compliance with post approval requirements, conditions of approval or other regulatory standards is not maintained or problems are identified following initial marketing.
After approval, the use of an IVD companion diagnostic device with a therapeutic product will be stipulated in the instructions for use in the labeling of both the diagnostic device and the corresponding therapeutic product. In addition, a diagnostic test that was approved through the PMA process or one that was cleared through the 510(k) process and placed on the market will be subject to many of the same regulatory requirements that apply to approved drugs. The FDA has approved a number of drug/diagnostic device companions in accordance with the Guidance.
Unique Device Identifier Requirements
In September 2013, the FDA issued its final rule on the Unique Device Identifier. This rule now requires an additional registered identifier, including a special barcode, on all FDA regulated medical devices. The rule is implemented in phases with

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the first deadline of September 24, 2014 being established for all Class III medical devices. For QIAGEN, this impacted the HC2, QuantiFERON, artus, and therascreen products. We established a task force to ensure that the deadline was met but there is additional administrative and regulatory burden on us related to the annual reporting of compliance of these products to the new regulation. Class II and Class I products were required to have this same labeling as of September 24, 2016 and 2018, respectively. QIAGEN was fully compliant with the new rule by September 2018. The new rule will also require additional compliance oversight now that it has been implemented. The requirements are now confirmed as part of our annual reporting and PMA submissions. They are also assessed during site inspections by the U.S. FDA.
Regulation of Research Use Only Products
Some of our products are sold for research purposes in the U.S., and labeled “For Research Use Only” (RUO) or “for molecular biology applications.” In November 2013, the FDA issued a final Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff entitled, “Distribution of In Vitro Diagnostic Products Labeled for Research Use Only or Investigational Use Only.” In the Guidance, RUO refers to devices that are in the laboratory phase of development, and investigational use only, or IUO, refers to devices that are in the product testing phase of development. These types of devices are exempt from most regulatory controls. Because we do not promote our RUOs for clinical diagnostic use or provide technical assistance to clinical laboratories with respect to these tests, we believe that these tests are exempt from FDA’s premarket review and other requirements. If the FDA were to disagree with our designation of any of these products, we could be forced to stop selling the product until we obtain appropriate regulatory clearance or approval. Further, it is possible that some of our RUOs may be used by some customers without our knowledge in their LDTs, which they develop, validate and promote for clinical use. However, as previously noted, we do not promote these products for use in LDTs or assist in the development of the LDTs for clinical diagnostic use.
The 21st Century Cures Act (Cures Act) was enacted into law on December 13, 2016, after a bipartisan, multi-year effort. The Cures Act primarily affects activities of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and its agencies, including the Food and Drug Administration (FDA or the Agency). On June 6, 2017, Scott Gottlieb, M.D., Commissioner of Food and Drugs, reported to Congress as required by the Cures Act. This report included the Food & Drug Administration Work Plan and Proposed Funding Allocations of FDA Innovation Account (Required by Section 1002 of the 21st Century Cures Act (Public Law 114-255). This is now being implemented with a broad spectrum of initiatives within the FDA with the goal to support patients with improved and timely access to safe and efficacious medical products. For industry, it is anticipated that some processes will become less burdensome with more rapid approval/clearance cycles while others will continue to require significant investment.
HIPAA and Other Privacy and Security Laws
Numerous privacy and data security laws apply to personal information, including health information. These laws vary in their application. For example, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act, and their implementing regulations (collectively, HIPAA), regulate the uses, disclosures and security of identifiable health information (protected health information or PHI) in the hands of certain health care providers, health plans or health care clearing houses (covered entities). HIPAA regulates and limits covered entities’ uses and disclosures of PHI and requires the implementation of administrative, physical and technical safeguards to keep PHI secure. HIPAA also applies to organizations that create, receive, maintain or transmit PHI to provide services to or for or on behalf of covered entities (business associates). Business associates and certain of their subcontractors are required to comply with certain privacy and all of the security standards of HIPAA. Business associates and covered entities must also comply with breach notification standards established by HIPAA. The HIPAA breach notification standards require covered entities to notify affected individuals, the government, and in some cases, local and national media in the event of a breach of PHI that has not been secured in accordance with HIPAA standards, such as by encryption. The breach notification standards require business associates to notify covered entity customers of their own breaches of unsecured PHI so that the relevant covered entity may make required notifications. In the ordinary course, HIPAA does not apply to us directly, but if we were to act as a HIPAA covered entity or business associate, we would be subject to these obligations. Most of our institutional and physician customers are covered entities under HIPAA and must obtain proper authorization, de-identify information or take some other step so that we may provide services involving PHI. When PHI is de-identified in accordance with HIPAA or when the disclosure of PHI is authorized by a patient, HIPAA does not impose any compliance obligations on the recipient, but our use and disclosure of the information may be limited by contract or the terms of the authorization.
All 50 states have adopted data breach notification laws relating to the “personal information” of their residents. Personal information typically includes an individual’s name or initials coupled with social security, financial account, debit, credit or state-issued identification number or other information that could lead to identity theft. An increasing number of states are broadly including "health information" as personal information protected under the law. There is significant variability under these laws, but most require notification to affected individuals and to the government in the event of breach. Other laws of some states require that that we comply with data security obligations. These laws may apply to us when we receive or maintain personal information regarding individuals, including our employees.

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We are subject to enforcement by state attorneys general who have authority to enforce state data privacy or security laws. Accordingly, we maintain an active privacy and data security program designed to address applicable regulatory compliance requirements.
The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008, also referred to as GINA, is a federal law that protects individuals from discrimination in the health insurance and employment contexts because of DNA characteristics that may affect their health. GINA prohibits covered employers from requesting, obtaining, or using employees’ genetic information (subject to limited exceptions), and prohibits covered health insurers from requesting genetic information or using any such information they may already have for purposes of making eligibility, premium, or coverage-related decisions.
Many states have also adopted genetic testing and privacy laws. These laws typically require a specific, written consent for genetic testing as well as consent for the disclosure of genetic test results and otherwise limit uses and disclosures of genetic testing results. A few states have adopted laws that give their residents property rights in their genetic information. 
Privacy and data security laws, including those relating to health information, are complex, overlapping and rapidly evolving. As our activities evolve and expand, additional laws may be implicated. For example, the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018, set to take effect on January 1, 2020, imposes expansive new requirements and protections upon the processing of personal data, aimed at giving California consumers more visibility and control over their personal information. There are also non-U.S. privacy laws, such as the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) of the European Union, that impose restrictions on the transfer, access, use, and disclosure of health and other personal information. We have implemented the requirements set forth by the GDPR, which took effect on May 25, 2018. All of these laws impact our business either directly or indirectly. Our failure to comply with applicable privacy or security laws or significant changes in these laws could significantly impact our business and future business plans. For example, we may be subject to regulatory action or lawsuits in the event we fail to comply with applicable privacy laws. We may face significant liability in the event any of the personal information we maintain is lost or otherwise subject to misuse or other wrongful use, access or disclosure.
Compliance with Fraud and Abuse Laws
We have to comply with various U.S. federal and state laws, rules and regulations pertaining to healthcare fraud and abuse, including anti-kickback laws and physician self-referral laws, rules and regulations. Violations of the fraud and abuse laws are punishable by criminal and civil sanctions, including, in some instances, exclusion from participation in federal and state healthcare programs, including Medicare and Medicaid.
Anti-Kickback Statute
The federal Anti-Kickback Statute prohibits persons from knowingly or willfully soliciting, receiving, offering or paying remuneration, directly or indirectly, in exchange for or to induce:
The referral of an individual for a service or product for which payment may be made by Medicare, Medicaid or other government-sponsored healthcare program; or
purchasing, ordering, arranging for, or recommending the ordering of, any service or product for which payment may be made by a government-sponsored healthcare program.
The definition of “remuneration” has been broadly interpreted to include anything of value, including such items as gifts, certain discounts, waiver of payments, and providing anything at less than its fair market value. In addition, several courts have interpreted the law to mean that if “one purpose” of an arrangement is intended to induce referrals, the statute is violated.
The Anti-Kickback Statue is broad and prohibits many arrangements and practices that are lawful in businesses outside of the healthcare industry. Recognizing that the Anti-Kickback Statute is broad and may technically prohibit many innocuous or beneficial arrangements, the Office of Inspector General of the Department of Health and Human Services (OIG) has issued regulations, commonly known as "safe harbors." These safe harbors set forth certain requirements that, if fully met, will insulate healthcare providers, medical device manufacturers, and others, from prosecution under the Anti-Kickback Statute. Although full compliance with these safe harbor provisions ensures against prosecution under the Anti-Kickback Statute, full compliance is often difficult and the failure of a transaction or arrangement to fit within a specific safe harbor does not necessarily mean that the transaction or arrangement is illegal or that prosecution under the Anti-Kickback Statute will be pursued. However, conduct and business arrangements that do not fully satisfy each applicable safe harbor may result in increased scrutiny by government enforcement authorities such as the OIG. The statutory penalties for violating the Anti-Kickback Statute include imprisonment for up to five years and criminal fines of up to $25,000 per violation. In addition, through application of other laws, conduct that violates the Anti-Kickback Statute can also give rise to False Claims Act lawsuits, civil monetary penalties and possible exclusion from Medicare and Medicaid and other federal healthcare programs. In addition to the Federal Anti-Kickback Statute, many states have their own kickback laws. Often, these laws closely follow the language of the federal law, although they do not always have the same scope, exceptions, safe harbors or sanctions. In some states, these anti-kickback laws apply not only to payment made by a government health care program but also with

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respect to other payors, including commercial insurance companies.
We have and may in the future, enter into various agreements with health care providers who perform services for us, including some who make clinical decisions to use our products. All such arrangements have been structured with the intention of complying with all applicable fraud and abuse laws, including the Anti-Kickback Statute.
Other Fraud and Abuse Laws
The federal False Claims Act (FCA) prohibits any person from knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, a false claim or knowingly making, or causing to be made, a false statement to obtain payment from the federal government. Those found in violation of the FCA can be subject to fines and penalties of three times the damages sustained by the government, plus mandatory civil penalties of between $5,500 and $11,000 for each separate false claim. Actions filed under the FCA can be brought by any individual on behalf of the government, a "qui tam" action, and such individual, known as a "relator" or, more commonly, as a "whistleblower," who may share in any amounts paid by the entity to the government in damages and penalties or by way of settlement. In addition, certain states have enacted laws modeled after the FCA, and this legislative activity is expected to increase. Qui tam actions have increased significantly in recent years, causing greater numbers of healthcare companies, including medical device manufacturers, to defend false claim actions, pay damages and penalties or be excluded from Medicare, Medicaid or other federal or state healthcare programs as a result of investigations arising out of such actions.
The federal ban on physician self-referrals, commonly known as the Stark Law, prohibits, subject to certain exceptions, physician referrals of Medicare and Medicaid patients to an entity providing certain “designated health services” if the physician or an immediate family member of the physician has any financial relationship with the entity. Penalties for violating the Stark Law include fines, civil monetary penalties and possible exclusion from federal healthcare programs. In addition to the Stark Law, many states have their own self-referral laws. Often, these laws closely follow the language of the federal law, although they do not always have the same scope, exceptions or safe harbors.
The anti-inducement law (Section 1128A(a)(5) of the Social Security Act), prohibits providers from offering anything of value to a Medicare or Medicaid beneficiary to induce the beneficiary to use items or services covered by either program. Additionally, the Civil Monetary Penalties Law (Section 1128A of the Social Security Act), authorizes the United States Department of Health and Human Services to impose civil penalties administratively for various fraudulent or abusive acts.
The OIG also has authority to bring administrative actions against entities for alleged violations of a number of prohibitions, including the Anti-Kickback Statute and the Stark Law. The OIG may seek to impose civil monetary penalties or exclusion from the Medicare, Medicaid and other federal healthcare programs. Civil monetary penalties can range from $2,000 to $50,000 for each violation or failure plus, in certain circumstances, three times the amounts claimed in reimbursement or illegal remuneration. Typically, exclusions last for five years.
In addition, we must comply with a variety of other laws, such as laws prohibiting false claims for reimbursement under Medicare and Medicaid, all of which can also be triggered by violations of federal anti-kickback laws; the Health Insurance Portability and Accounting Act of 1996, which makes it a federal crime to commit healthcare fraud and make false statements; and the Federal Trade Commission Act and similar laws regulating advertisement and consumer protections.
There are also an increasing number of state “sunshine” laws that require manufacturers to provide reports to state governments on pricing and marketing information. Several states have enacted legislation requiring manufacturers, including medical device companies to, among other things, establish marketing compliance programs, file periodic reports with the state, make periodic public disclosures on sales and marketing activities, and to prohibit or limit certain other sales and marketing practices. In addition, a federal law known as the Physician Payments Sunshine Act, requires manufacturers, including medical device manufacturers, to track and report to the federal government certain payments and other transfers of value made to physicians and teaching hospitals and ownership or investment interests held by physicians and their immediate family members. The federal government discloses the reported information on a publicly available website. If we fail to track and report as required by these laws or to otherwise comply with these laws, we could be subject to the penalty provisions of the pertinent state and federal authorities.
Despite extensive procedures to ensure compliance, we may also be exposed to liabilities under the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, or FCPA, which generally prohibits companies and their intermediaries from making corrupt payments to foreign officials for the purpose of obtaining or maintaining business or otherwise obtaining favorable treatment, and requires companies to maintain adequate record-keeping and internal accounting practices to accurately reflect the transactions of the company. We are also subject to a number of other laws and regulations relating to money laundering, international money transfers and electronic fund transfers. These laws apply to companies, individual directors, officers, employees and agents.
Environment, Health and Safety
We are subject to laws and regulations related to the protection of the environment, the health and safety of employees and the handling, transportation and disposal of medical specimens, infectious and hazardous waste and radioactive materials. For

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example, the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has established extensive requirements relating specifically to workplace safety for healthcare employers in the U.S. This includes requirements to develop and implement multi-faceted programs to protect workers from exposure to blood-borne pathogens, such as HIV and hepatitis B and C, including preventing or minimizing any exposure through needle stick injuries. For purposes of transportation, some biological materials and laboratory supplies are classified as hazardous materials and are subject to regulation by one or more of the following agencies: the U.S. Department of Transportation, the U.S. Public Health Service, the United States Postal Service and the International Air Transport Association.
Other Country Specific Requirements
In many countries outside of the United States and the EU, coverage, pricing and reimbursement approvals are also required. Additionally, many of the major markets are adopting regulations and requirements similar to U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) which require additional submission activities and management of country specific regulatory requirements. This is being led by the International Medical Device Regulators Forum (IMDRF). This Forum consists of regulators from around the world that have signed governmental agreements to align global regulations, especially around submissions and approvals. In the long term this holds the promise of reducing volatility and complexity in the regulatory landscape.
Reimbursement
United States
In the United States, payments for diagnostic tests come from several sources, including third party payors such as health maintenance organizations and preferred provider organizations; government health programs such as Medicare and Medicaid; and, in certain circumstances, hospitals, referring laboratories or the patients themselves. For many years, federal and state governments in the United States have pursued methods to reduce the cost of these programs. For example, in 2010, the United States enacted major healthcare reform legislation known as the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). Such changes have had, and are expected to continue to have, an impact on our business. At present, Medicare payment rates are affected by across-the-board federal budget cuts commonly referred to as “sequestration.” Under sequestration, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), the federal agency responsible for administering Medicare and Medicaid, reduced Medicare payments to providers by 2% annually beginning in 2013 and through 2023.
We frequently identify value propositions on our products and communicate them to payors, providers, and patient stakeholders and attempt to positively impact coverage, coding and payment pathways. However, we have no direct control over payor decisions with respect to coverage and payment levels for our products. The manner and level of reimbursement may depend on the site of care, the procedure(s) performed, the final patient diagnosis, the device(s) and/or drug(s) utilized, the available budget, or a combination of these factors, and coverage and payment levels are determined at each payor’s discretion. Changes in reimbursement levels or methods may positively or negatively affect sales of our products in any given country for any given product. At QIAGEN, we work with several specialized reimbursement consulting companies and maintain regular contact with payers.
As government programs seek to expand healthcare coverage for their citizens, they have at the same time sought to control costs by limiting the amount of reimbursement they will pay for particular procedures, products or services. Many third-party payors have developed payment and delivery mechanisms to support cost control efforts and to focus on paying for quality. Such mechanisms include payment reductions, pay for performance metrics, quality-based performance payments, restrictive coverage policies, studies to compare effectiveness and patient outcomes, and technology assessments. These changes have increased emphasis on the delivery of more cost-effective and quality-driven healthcare.
Code Assignment. In the United States, a third-party payor's decisions regarding coverage and payment are impacted, in large part, by the specific Current Procedural Terminology, or CPT, code used to identify a test. The American Medical Association, or AMA, publishes the CPT, which is a listing of descriptive terms and identifying codes for reporting medical services and procedures. The purpose of the CPT is to provide a uniform language that accurately describes medical, surgical, and diagnostic services and therefore to ensure reliable nationwide communication among healthcare providers, patients, and third-party payors. CMS uses its own HCPCS codes for medical billing and reimbursement purposes. Level I HCPCS codes reflect current CPT codes, while Level II codes primarily represent non-physician services and Level III codes are local codes developed by Medicaid agencies, Medicare contractors and private insurers.
A manufacturer of in vitro diagnostic kits or a provider of laboratory services may request establishment of a Category I CPT code for a new product. Assignment of a specific CPT code ensures routine processing and payment for a diagnostic test by both private and government third-party payors.

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The AMA has specific procedures for establishing a new CPT code and, if appropriate, for modifying existing nomenclature to incorporate a new test into an existing code. If the AMA concludes that a new code or modification of nomenclature is unnecessary, the AMA will inform the requestor how to use one or more existing codes to report the test.
While the AMA's decision is pending, billing and collection may be sought under an existing, non-specific CPT code. A manufacturer or provider may decide not to request assignment of a CPT code and instead use an existing, non-specific code for reimbursement purposes. However, use of such codes may result in more frequent denials and/or requests for supporting clinical documentation from the third-party payor and in lower reimbursement rates, which may vary based on geographical location.
CMS reimbursement rates for clinical diagnostic tests are defined by HCPS code in the Clinical Laboratory Fee Schedule (CLFS). In 2012, the AMA added 127 new CPT codes for molecular pathology services that became effective on January 1, 2013. These new CPT codes are biomarker specific and were designed to replace the previous methodology of billing for molecular pathology testing, which involved “stacking” a series of non-biomarker specific CPT codes together to describe the testing performed. CMS issued final national reimbursement prices for the new CPT codes in November 2013. These federal reimbursement amounts are widely acknowledged to be lower than the reimbursement obtained by the now outdated “stacking” method, but commercial payors and Medicare contractors are still in the process of solidifying their coverage and reimbursement policies for the testing described by these new CPT codes. As of January 1, 2018, in accordance with the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014 (PAMA), CMS began calculating Medicare reimbursement rates for certain clinical diagnostic tests using weighted median private payor rates, which are based on rate information reported by applicable laboratories. This new rate methodology means the lower reimbursement rates previously experienced in the field of molecular pathology testing now extends to additional diagnostic testing codes on the CLFS.
Coverage Decisions. When deciding whether to cover a particular diagnostic test, private and government third-party payors generally consider whether the test is a contractual benefit and, if so, whether it is reasonable and necessary for the diagnosis or treatment of an illness or injury. However, most third-party payors do not cover experimental services. Coverage determinations are often influenced by current standards of practice and clinical data, particularly at the local level. CMS, the government agency responsible for overseeing the Medicare program, has the authority to make coverage determinations on a national basis, but most Medicare coverage decisions are made at the local level by contractors that administer the Medicare program in specified geographic areas. Private and government third-party payors have separate processes for making coverage determinations, and private third-party payors may or may not follow Medicare's coverage decisions. If a third-party payor has a coverage determination in place for a particular diagnostic test, billing for that test must comply with the established policy. Otherwise, the third-party payor makes reimbursement decisions on a case-by-case basis.
Payment. Payment for covered diagnostic tests is determined based on various methodologies, including prospective payment systems and fee schedules. In addition, private third-party payors may negotiate contractual rates with participating providers or set rates as a percentage of the billed charge. Diagnostic tests furnished to Medicare inpatients generally are included in the bundled payment made to the hospital under Medicare's Inpatient Prospective Payment System, utilizing Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs) depending on the patient’s condition. Payment for diagnostic tests furnished to Medicare beneficiaries in outpatient settings is based on the CLF, under which a payment amount is assigned to each covered CPT code, or through the Outpatient Prospective Payment System (OPPS), which is the outpatient equivalent of the DRG model. The law technically requires fee schedule amounts to be adjusted annually by the percentage increase in the consumer price index (CPI) for the prior year, but Congress has frozen payment rates in certain years. Medicaid programs generally pay for diagnostic tests based on a fee schedule, but reimbursement varies by state.
European Union
In the European Union, the reimbursement mechanisms used by private and public health insurers vary by country. For the public systems, reimbursement is determined by guidelines established by the legislator or responsible national authority. As elsewhere, inclusion in reimbursement catalogues focuses on the medical usefulness, need, quality and economic benefits to patients and the healthcare system. Acceptance for reimbursement comes with cost, use, and often volume restrictions, which again can vary by country.
Conflict Minerals
U.S. legislation has been enacted to improve transparency and accountability concerning the sourcing of conflict minerals from mines located in the conflict zones of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and its adjoining countries. The term conflict minerals currently encompasses tantalum, tin, tungsten (or their ores) and gold. Certain of our instrumentation product components which we purchase from third party suppliers contain gold. This U.S. legislation requires manufacturers, such as us, to investigate our supply chain and disclose if there is any use of conflict minerals originating in the DRC or adjoining countries. We conduct due diligence measures annually to determine the presence of conflict minerals in our products and the source of any such conflict minerals. Because we do not purchase conflict minerals directly from smelters or refineries, we rely

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on our suppliers to specify to us their Conflict Minerals sources and declare their conflict minerals status. We disclosed our most recent Conflict Minerals findings to the Securities Exchange Commission for the calendar year ending December 31, 2017 on Form SD on May 17, 2018 and will provide updated disclosure to the Securities Exchange Commission as required.
Organizational Structure
QIAGEN N.V. is the holding company for more than 50 consolidated subsidiaries, many of which have the primary function of distributing our products and services on a regional basis. Certain subsidiaries also have research and development or production activities. A listing of our significant subsidiaries and their jurisdictions of incorporation is included in Exhibit 8.1 to this Annual Report.  
Description of Property
Our production and manufacturing facilities for consumable products are located in Germany, the United States and China. Our facilities for software development are located in the United States, Germany, Poland, Denmark and Romania. In recent years, we have made investments in automated and interchangeable production equipment to increase our production capacity and improve efficiency. Our production and manufacturing operations are highly integrated and benefit from sophisticated inventory control. Production management personnel are highly qualified, and many have advanced degrees in engineering, business and science. We also have installed and continue to expand production-planning systems that are included in our integrated information and control system based on the SAP R/3 business software package from SAP AG. Worldwide, we use SAP software to integrate most of our operating subsidiaries. Capital expenditures for property, plant and equipment totaled $109.8 million, $90.1 million and $74.5 million for 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively.
We have an established quality system, including standard manufacturing and documentation procedures, intended to ensure that products are produced and tested in accordance with the FDA's Quality System Regulations, which impose current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) requirements. For cGMP production, special areas were built in our facilities in Hilden, Germany, Germantown, Maryland and Shenzhen, China. These facilities operate in accordance with cGMP requirements.
The consumable products manufactured at QIAGEN GmbH in Germany, and QIAGEN Sciences LLC in Maryland, are produced under ISO 9001: 2008, ISO 13485:2012, ISO 13485:2003 CMDCAS. Our certifications form part of our ongoing commitment to provide our customers with high-quality, state-of-the-art sample and assay technologies under our Total Quality Management system.
Our facilities in Hilden, Germany, currently occupy a total of approximately 786,000 square feet. Our most recent expansion to these facilities was in 2018 and included approximately 6,400 square feet of clean room space for Stat-DX integration. Our production capacity is increased through our manufacturing and research facilities in the United States. QIAGEN Sciences, LLC owns a 24-acre site in Germantown, Maryland. The 285,000 square foot Germantown facility consists of several buildings in a campus-like arrangement and can accommodate over 500 employees. There is room for future expansion of up to 300,000 square feet of facility space. In 2015, we completed expansion of our research and production facilities in Hilden, Germany and renovations of administrative facilities in Germantown, Maryland.
We lease a facility in Frederick, Maryland comprising 42,000 square feet for manufacturing, warehousing, distribution and research operations. We also lease facilities in Massachusetts with 24,860 square feet in Waltham for NGS system development and 44,000 square feet in Beverly for enzyme manufacturing. Additionally, we have leased facilities in Redwood City, California with 12,700 square feet and Cary, North Carolina with 10,900 square feet focused on bioinformatics and 19,000 square feet in Minden, Nevada for Service Solutions. We have shared service centers which lease facilities in Wroclaw, Poland (42,100 square feet) and Manila, Philippines (20,200 square feet). Additionally, we lease facilities in Shenzhen, China and Manchester, United Kingdom for research operations. Other subsidiaries throughout the world lease smaller amounts of space. Our corporate headquarters are located in leased office space in Venlo, The Netherlands.
 We believe our existing production and distribution facilities can support anticipated production needs for the next 36 months. Our production and manufacturing operations are subject to various federal, state, and local laws and regulations including environmental regulations. We do not believe we have any material issues relating to these laws and regulations.
 
Item 4A.
Unresolved Staff Comments
Not applicable.

Item 5.
Operating and Financial Review and Prospects
This section contains a number of forward-looking statements. These statements are based on current management expectations, and actual results may differ materially. Among the factors that could cause actual results to differ from

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management’s expectations are those described in “Risk Factors” and “Forward-looking and Cautionary Statements” in Item 3 of this Annual Report.
Results of Operations
Overview
We are a leading global provider of Sample to Insight solutions to transform biological materials into valuable molecular insights. QIAGEN sample technologies isolate and process DNA, RNA and proteins from any biological sample, such as blood or tissue. Assay technologies make these biomolecules visible and ready for analysis, such as identifying the DNA of a virus or a mutation of a gene. Bioinformatics solutions integrate software and cloud-based resources to interpret increasing volumes of biological data and report relevant, actionable insights. Our automation solutions tie these together in seamless and cost-effective molecular testing workflows.
We sell our products - consumables, automated instrumentation systems using those technologies, and bioinformatics to analyze and interpret the data - to four major customer classes:
Molecular Diagnostics - healthcare providers engaged in many aspects of patient care requiring accurate diagnosis and insights to guide treatment decisions in oncology, infectious diseases and immune monitoring
Applied Testing - government or industry customers using molecular technologies in non-healthcare fields, such as forensics and human identification
Pharma - pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies using molecular testing to support drug discovery, translational medicine and clinical development efforts
Academia - researchers exploring the secrets of life such as the mechanisms and pathways of diseases, and in some cases translating that research into drug targets or commercial applications
We market products in more than 130 countries, mainly through subsidiaries in markets we believe have the greatest sales potential in Europe, Asia, the Americas and Australia. We also work with specialized independent distributors and importers. As of December 31, 2018, we employed approximately 5,000 people in more than 35 locations worldwide.
Recent Acquisitions
We have made a number of strategic acquisitions and implemented other strategic transactions since 2016, aiming to achieve market-leading positions with innovative technologies in high-growth areas of molecular diagnostics and research. These transactions have enhanced our product offerings and technology platforms, as well as our geographic footprint. They include:
In April 2018, QIAGEN acquired STAT-Dx, a privately held company with a next-generation multiplex PCR system that enables fast, cost-effective and flexible syndromic testing. Following the acquisition, we launched the novel Sample to Insight system, known as QIAstat-Dx, in Europe, delivering one-step, fully integrated molecular analysis of widespread syndromes based on QIAGEN chemistries. The first two CE-IVD marked assays provide differential diagnosis of serious respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. FDA submission was completed in late 2018, and U.S. launch is expected in 2019. A broad menu of tests is under development for syndromes in infectious disease, oncology and other areas. QIAGEN acquired STAT-Dx for approximately $149 million in cash and additional future payments of up to about $44 million based on the achievement of regulatory and commercial milestones.
In September 2018, QIAGEN announced a strategic partnership with NeuMoDx Molecular, Inc. to commercialize two next-generation, fully integrated automation systems for PCR testing. The NeuMoDx 288 (high-throughput version) and NeuMoDx 96 (mid-throughput version) systems help clinical laboratories process increasing molecular test volumes and deliver more rapid diagnostic insights. QIAGEN is initially distributing the systems and related consumables in Europe and other major markets outside the United States, while NeuMoDx is currently distributing these instruments within the United States. The two companies entered into a merger agreement under which QIAGEN can acquire all NeuMoDx shares that it does not currently own at a price of approximately $234 million (QIAGEN currently owns 19.9% of NeuMoDx), subject to regulatory and operational milestones. The systems offer a growing menu of in vitro diagnostic tests and the ability to flexibly and efficiently process both commercial and laboratory-developed tests.
In January 2019, QIAGEN announced plans to develop next-generation systems for digital PCR, one of the fastest-growing molecular testing applications in the life sciences industry, and acquired the digital PCR assets of Formulatrix, Inc., a developer of laboratory automation solutions. Combining the Formulatrix assets with QIAGEN technologies and automation, we expect to bring to market a fully integrated digital PCR solution with a targeted launch in 2020. The system will offer highly automated workflows, quicker time-to-result, and higher multiplexing and throughput flexibility than current digital PCR platforms. QIAGEN paid Formulatrix $125 million in cash upon closing and agreed to future milestone payments of approximately $136 million in 2020.

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Also in January 2019, QIAGEN acquired N-of-One, Inc., a pioneer in molecular oncology decision support services, to strengthen our bioinformatics leadership in clinical NGS interpretation. The acquisition enables us to offer a broader range of software, content and service-based solutions. N-of-One’s services and proprietary database will be integrated into QIAGEN Clinical Insight (QCI), adding medical interpretation and real-world evidence insights and offering robust decision support in oncology. N-of-One’s somatic cancer database with more than 125,000 anonymized patient samples will further increase QIAGEN’s lead as provider of the industry’s largest genomics knowledge base.
In April 2018, QIAGEN took steps to streamline our presence in veterinary testing through a strategic partnership with Fidelio Capital, a Swedish firm with significant investments in animal health. QIAGEN transferred our portfolio of veterinary assays and the Leipzig site to INDICAL BIOSCIENCE GmbH, a new company created by Fidelio. Under the agreement, QIAGEN manufactures and supplies sample processing solutions for INDICAL.
QIAGEN entered into a joint venture in May 2017 with Sichuan Maccura Biotechnology Co., Ltd., a leading in vitro diagnostics company in China, to accelerate the growth of QIAGEN’s GeneReader NGS System. Known as MAQGEN China and based in Chengdu, Sichuan Province, the venture will develop local adaptations, pursue regulatory paths for the GeneReader and leverage Maccura’s broad customer network to expand the system’s adoption in laboratories across China. Maccura owns 60% of the joint venture and QIAGEN owns 40%. QIAGEN’s own operations in China continue as a stand-alone company, focusing on our other products and services for customers such as QuantiFERON-TB and the Life Sciences portfolio.
QIAGEN took steps in late 2017 to streamline its product portfolio in China and focus on growth areas by discontinuing commercialization of some non-core PCR tests and externalizing the HPV test franchise for cervical cancer screening in China to a third-party company. In January 2018, a partnership became effective with a Chinese company that has taken over R&D, commercial distribution, and the related QIAGEN employees and infrastructure of the HPV test franchise in China. QIAGEN is a minority shareholder of this company.
In January 2017, QIAGEN acquired OmicSoft Corporation, a privately held company based in the Research Triangle area of North Carolina, to expand our industry-leading bioinformatics offering with complementary solutions enabling scientists to visualize and mine large institutional and publicly available “omics” datasets. The OmicSoft software solutions meet a growing need in discovery and translational research to access and manage huge amounts of data on DNA, RNA and other biological variables generated by next-generation sequencing studies.
In 2016, QIAGEN acquired Exiqon A/S, a publicly traded company based in Vedbaek, Denmark, expanding our leadership position in Sample to Insight solutions for RNA analysis. Exiqon’s RNA analysis solutions, with proprietary Locked Nucleic Acid (LNA) technology, are used by academic, biotech and pharmaceutical researchers worldwide to explore correlations between gene activity and the development of cancer and other diseases. In two steps during 2016, we paid a total of $100.7 million for 100% of the shares of Exiqon. In 2017, Exiqon’s product offering was fully integrated into QIAGEN, providing customers of both companies ready access to the combined portfolio of solutions.
Our financial results include the contributions of recent acquisitions and divestitures from their effective dates, as well as costs related to the transactions and integration of the acquired companies, such as the relocation and closure of certain facilities.
We determined that we operate as one business segment in accordance with ASC Topic 280, Segment Reporting. Our chief operating decision maker (CODM) makes decisions on business operations and resource allocation based on evaluations of the QIAGEN Group as a whole. Considering the acquisitions made during 2018, we determined that we still operate as one business segment. We provide certain revenue information by customer class to allow better insight into our operations. This information is estimated using certain assumptions to allocate revenue among the customer classes.
Year Ended December 31, 2018, Compared to 2017
Net Sales
In 2018, net sales grew 6% to $1.50 billion compared to $1.42 billion in 2017 reflecting our organic business expansion in both consumables and related revenues and instruments as well as growth due to the April 2018 acquisition of STAT-Dx Life, S.L. (STAT-Dx), a privately-held company developing the next generation of multiplex diagnostics for one-step, fully integrated molecular analysis of common syndromes using a novel system based on real-time PCR technology and proven QIAGEN chemistries. We experienced good volume gains across the consumables and related revenues portfolio (+6% / 88% of sales), while instrument sales (+7% / 12% of sales) were supported by solid placements of the QIAsymphony automation system.
Customer classes: An overview of performance in QIAGEN's four customer classes:
Net sales by product category and customer class

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Full-year 2018
 
 
Sales
(In $ m)
 
%
change
 
% of
sales
Consumables and related revenues
 
$1,315
 
+6%
 
88%
Instruments
 
$186
 
+7%
 
12%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Molecular Diagnostics(1)
 
$732
 
+7%
 
49%
Applied Testing
 
$137
 
—%
 
9%
Pharma
 
$291
 
+6%
 
19%
Academia
 
$342
 
+6%
 
23%
(1) Includes companion diagnostic co-development revenues ($58 million, +36%) and U.S. HPV sales ($19 million, -33%, 1% of sales).
 
Molecular Diagnostics grew at a 7% rate due, in part, to the QuantiFERON-TB test delivering 21% growth and a record year in Precision Medicine supported by the expansion in revenues from companion diagnostic co-development projects. This more than offset the decline in U.S. HPV sales ($19 million in 2018 as compared to $28 million in 2017), the divestment of the HPV test franchise in China to a third party in January 2018, and the accelerated reduction of low-margin, third-party instrument service contracts during the final months of 2018 to ensure service capacity for several new instrument launches.
Applied Testing was impacted by the April 2018 divestment of the veterinary assays portfolio in addition to changes made during the later portion of 2018 to a third-party research and development project linked to this divestment. Excluding the impact of this divestment, Applied Testing grew due to expansion of the forensics portfolio in the Americas.
Pharma experienced 6% sales growth 2018 as a result of solid gains in both instruments and consumables during the course of the year with gains in the Americas and Europe, Middle East and Africa regions.
Academia was led by a strong performance in the Asia Pacific / Japan region during 2018 with overall robust growth in instrument revenues along with more modest growth for consumables.
Net sales by geographic region
 
 
Full-year 2018
 
 
Sales
(In $ m)
 
%
change
 
% of
sales
Americas
 
$693
 
+6%
 
46%
Europe / Middle East / Africa
 
$490
 
+6%
 
33%
Asia-Pacific / Japan
 
$315
 
+6%
 
21%
Top 7 emerging markets: Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Korea, Mexico and Turkey ($246 million, +5%, 16% of sales)
Rest of world represented less than 1% of net sales.

Geographic regions: All geographic regions grew at solid single-digit rates in 2018. The Europe / Middle East / Africa region experienced improving trends in Italy, Switzerland and Turkey during the year in addition to benefits from the geographic expansion in the Middle East. The Asia-Pacific / Japan advanced due partially to improving performance in Japan and China during the second half of 2018 despite a weaker performance in South Korea in part due to a 2017 QuantiFERON-TB tender in the country. The Americas advanced at a 6% rate due to gains in Latin America and Canada and the strong underlying U.S. performance after considering the decline in instrument service revenues in the Molecular Diagnostics customer class.
Gross Profit
Gross profit was $1.0 billion, or 67% of net sales, in 2018, compared with $922.6 million, or 65% of net sales, in 2017. Generally, our consumables and related products have a higher gross margin than our instrumentation products and service arrangements. Fluctuations in the sales levels of these products and services can result in changes in gross margin between periods. The 2018 growth in consumables contributed to the higher margin in 2018. Further, gross profit in 2018 was impacted by $1.6 million in restructuring charges while 2017 was impacted by restructuring charges of $4.4 million.
Amortization expense related to developed technology and patent and license rights, which have been acquired in business combinations, is included in cost of sales. The amortization expense on acquisition-related intangibles within cost of sales decreased to $56.7 million in 2018 from $72.7 million in 2017 reflecting the end of the amortization period of intangibles acquired in 2007. Acquisition-related intangible amortization may increase in the future should we make further acquisitions.

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Research and Development
Research and development expenses increased by 5% to $161.9 million (11% of net sales) in 2018, compared to $154.1 million (11% of net sales) in 2017. The increase in research and development costs in 2018 reflects our ongoing investments in NGS and our life sciences portfolio, together with regulatory activity in support of new products. Research and development costs during 2018 also reflect incremental costs due to the acquisition of STAT-Dx in January 2018. Lower expense in 2017 includes a $0.7 million reduction in costs as a result of forfeitures of share-based compensation. As we continue to discover, develop and acquire new products and technologies, we expect to incur additional expenses related to facilities, licenses and employees engaged in research and development. Overall, research and development costs are expected to increase as a result of seeking regulatory approvals, including U.S. FDA Pre-Market Approval (PMA), U.S. FDA 510(k) clearance and EU CE approval of certain assays or instruments. Further, business combinations, along with the acquisition of new technologies, may increase our research and development costs in the future. We have a strong commitment to innovation and expect to continue to make investments in our research and development efforts.
Sales and Marketing
Sales and marketing expenses increased by 4% to $392.3 million (26% of net sales) in 2018 compared to $375.6 million (26% of net sales) in 2017. Sales and marketing expenses were primarily associated with personnel, commissions, advertising, trade shows, publications, freight and logistics expenses, and other promotional expense. We experienced efficiencies due to a lower cost base following the realignment of marketing activities as part of restructuring projects which were offset by higher personnel costs, including the expansion into China and external services, as well as initiatives for new product launches. Sales and marketing expenses are primarily associated with personnel, commissions, advertising, trade shows, publications, freight and logistics expenses, and other promotional expenses. We anticipate that absolute sales and marketing costs will increase along with new product introductions and growth in sales of our products, but decrease as a percentage of sales.
General and Administrative, Restructuring, Integration and Other
General and administrative, restructuring, integration and other costs decreased by 29% to $141.2 million (9% of net sales) in 2018 from $200.1 million (14% of net sales) in 2017. The decrease in 2018 reflects lower litigation related charges which totaled $10.5 million in 2018 as compared to $45.3 million in 2017. Additionally, 2018 includes a $4.8 million revaluation gain of a minority interest investment in connection with the acquisition as discussed in Note 5 "Acquisitions and Divestitures", and overall lower acquisition and integration costs which were partially offset higher compensation costs. As we further integrate the acquired companies and pursue other opportunities to gain efficiencies, we expect to continue to incur additional restructuring and business integration costs in 2019. Over time, we believe the restructuring and integration activities will reduce expenses as we improve efficiency in operations.
Acquisition-Related Intangible Amortization
Amortization expense related to developed technology and patent and license rights acquired in a business combination is included in cost of sales. Amortization of trademarks and customer base acquired in a business combination is recorded in operating expense under the caption “acquisition-related intangible amortization.” Amortization expenses of intangible assets not acquired in a business combination are recorded within cost of sales, research and development, or sales and marketing line items based on the use of the asset.
During 2018, amortization expense on acquisition-related intangibles within operating expense decreased to $39.0 million, compared to $39.4 million in 2017. We expect acquisition-related intangible amortization will increase as a result of our future acquisitions.
Other Income (Expense)
Total other expense, net was $40.8 million in 2018, compared to $39.0 million in 2017. Total other expense, net is primarily the result of interest expense and other expense, partially offset by interest income.
For the year ended December 31, 2018, interest income increased to $20.9 million from $10.6 million in 2017. Interest income includes interest earned on cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments, income related to certain interest rate derivatives as discussed in Note 13 "Derivatives and Hedging" in the accompanying consolidated financial statements and other components including the interest portion of operating lease transactions.
Interest expense increased to $67.3 million in 2018, compared to $49.7 million in 2017. Interest costs primarily relate to debt, discussed in Note 15 "Lines of Credit and Debt" in the accompanying consolidated financial statements.
Other income, net was $5.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2018. Other income includes $13.1 million of upward adjustments resulting from observable price changes for non-marketable investments not accounted for under the equity method, a $5.1 million gain from the sale of our interest in a non-publicly traded company and $2.6 million in income from equity-method investments, all as discussed further in Note 10 "Investments". Additionally in 2018, we recorded a divestiture

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gain of $8.0 million as discussed in Note 5 "Acquisitions and Divestitures". This income was partially offset by impairments, including $6.1 million of impairments in non-marketable investments accounted for under the equity method as discussed further in Note 10, and net losses on foreign currency of $12.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2018.
Other expense, net for the year ended December 31, 2017 includes a $3.5 million gain in connection with the sale of our interest in a non-marketable investment accounted for under the equity method as well as $3.2 million in income from equity-method investments offset by a $5.1 million loss recognized in connection with the impairments of non-marketable investments not accounted for under the equity method and net losses on foreign currency in 2017 of $3.3 million.
Provision for Income Taxes
Our effective tax rates differ from The Netherlands statutory tax rate of 25% due in part to our operating subsidiaries being exposed to effective tax rates ranging from zero to more than 40%. In 2018 and 2017, our effective tax rates were 15.7% and 64.7%, respectively. The comparison is impacted by pre-tax book income which was higher in 2018 at $225.7 million compared to $114.4 million in 2017. Fluctuations in the distribution of pre-tax (loss) income among our operating subsidiaries can lead to fluctuations of the effective tax rate in the consolidated financial statements. In 2018 and 2017, tax expense on foreign operations was favorably impacted by lower income tax rates and partial tax exemptions on foreign income primarily derived from operations in Germany, Singapore, Luxembourg, Ireland and Switzerland. These foreign tax benefits are due to a combination of favorable tax laws, rules, rulings, and exemptions in these jurisdictions. In particular, we have pre-tax income in Germany which is statutorily exempt from trade tax on intercompany foreign royalty income. Further, we have intercompany financing arrangements through Luxembourg and Ireland in which the intercompany income is partially exempt.
During 2017, the 64.7% reflects the impacts of the U.S. tax reform. Because of the tax reform, we revalued our U.S. deferred tax assets and liabilities to reflect the corporate income tax rate change from 35% to 21% and provided for a valuation allowance of $60.8 million which was recorded against deferred tax assets related to U.S. interest carry forwards. We also recorded full valuation allowances against other deferred tax assets on tax losses due to unlikely future profits in other jurisdictions. During 2017, we increased accruals for tax contingencies by $22.1 million, primarily related to ongoing income tax audits. 
See Note 16 "Income Taxes" to the consolidated financial statements for a full reconciliation of the effective tax rate to The Netherlands statutory rate.
In future periods, our effective tax rate may fluctuate from similar or other factors as discussed in “Changes in tax laws or their application could adversely affect our results of operations or financial flexibility” in Item 3 Risk Factors.
Year Ended December 31, 2017, Compared to 2016
Net Sales
In 2017, net sales grew 6% to $1.42 billion compared to $1.34 billion in 2016 with organic business expansion contributing four percentage points to total sales growth with two percentage points of additional growth from the June 2016 acquisition of Exiqon A/S, a leader in RNA analysis technologies, and the January 2017 acquisition of OmicSoft Corporation, a software provider unlocking valuable insights from large “omics” datasets. Sales growth of 6% includes an adverse impact of one percentage point related to growth of non-core PCR tests and the China HPV franchise, which beginning in January 2018 have either been discontinued or externalized through a partnership with a Chinese company which has taken over the commercial distribution of the HPV test franchise in China. All regions and customer classes supported higher sales of consumables and related revenues (+7% / 88% of sales) and instruments (+2% / 12% of sales).
Net sales by geographic region
 
 
Full-year 2017
 
 
Sales
(In $ m)
 
%
change
 
% of
sales
Americas
 
$653
 
+4%
 
46%
Europe / Middle East / Africa
 
$463
 
+8%
 
33%
Asia-Pacific / Japan
 
$299
 
+7%
 
21%
Top 7 emerging markets: Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Korea, Mexico and Turkey ($234 million, +12%, 16% of sales)
FY 2017: Rest of world represented less than 1% of net sales.

Geographic regions: Europe / Middle East / Africa led the geographic performance with 8% growth in 2017, including adverse currency movements of one percentage point of sales growth, and benefited from gains in Germany, Italy and Turkey. The Asia-Pacific / Japan region advanced 7%, due partially to strong performance in South Korea and India, which more than offset

44


lower sales in Japan. Excluding the business portfolio change in China, the Asia-Pacific / Japan region experienced 13% growth, including one percentage point of favorable currency movements. The Americas advanced at a 5% pace, excluding U.S. HPV test sales, on higher sales of QuantiFERON-TB tests and improved conditions among Life Science customers. Excluding adverse currency movements of one percentage point, the top seven emerging markets expanded 12%, with key contributions from Turkey, South Korea, India and Brazil.
Customer classes: An overview of performance in QIAGEN's four customer classes:
Net sales by product category and customer class
 
 
Full-year 2017
 
 
Sales
(In $ m)
 
%
change
 
% of
sales
Consumables and related revenues
 
$1,243
 
+7%
 
88%
Instruments
 
$175
 
+2%
 
12%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Molecular Diagnostics(1)
 
$683
 
+5%
 
48%
Applied Testing
 
$137
 
+14%
 
10%
Pharma
 
$275
 
+7%
 
19%
Academia
 
$323
 
+4%
 
23%
(1) Includes companion diagnostic co-development revenues ($43 million, +32%) and U.S. HPV sales ($28 million, -16%, 2% of sales).
 
Molecular Diagnostics, which contributed approximately 48% of net sales, expanded 5% in 2017, after being reduced by adverse currency movements of one percentage point. The core portfolio delivered approximately 7% growth before adverse currency movements and the ongoing decline in sales of U.S. HPV test products (-16% / 2% of sales). Sales of consumables used on the QIAsymphony automation platform also grew at a solid pace for the full year, as QIAGEN exceeded its goal for new QIAsymphony placements in 2017. Sales growth of 5% includes an adverse impact of 1% related to the China HPV franchise, which beginning in January 2018 has been externalized through a partnership with a Chinese company.
Applied Testing represented approximately 10% of net sales and grew 14% in 2017 compared to 2016, with negligible favorable currency movements. Applied Testing advanced for instruments as well as consumables and related revenues, in part due to gains in the human identification / forensics portfolio.
Pharma experienced 7% sales growth in 2017 compared to 2016 and provided 19% of net sales, with negligible adverse currency movements. Pharma grew in consumables and related revenues that more than offset weaker instruments growth during the course of the year.
Academia represented approximately 23% of net sales and rose 4% in 2017 compared to 2016, with modestly favorable currency movements. Academia advanced on consumables and related revenues, while the EMEA and Asia Pacific / Japan regions showed growth during 2017.
Gross Profit
Gross profit was $922.6 million, or 65% of net sales, in 2017, compared with $844.7 million, or 63% of net sales, in 2016. Generally, our consumables and related products have a higher gross margin than our instrumentation products and service arrangements. Fluctuations in the sales levels of these products and services can result in changes in gross margin between periods. Further, gross profit in 2017 was impacted by $4.4 million in restructuring charges while 2016 was impacted by restructuring charges of $12.0 million. Additionally, during 2016, we incurred incremental costs in connection with the relocation and centralization of the manufacturing of certain products to our European production site in Hilden, Germany and also in connection with the in-sourcing of the manufacturing of our QuantiFERON product to our U.S. site in Germantown, Maryland.
Amortization expense related to developed technology and patent and license rights, which have been acquired in business combinations, is included in cost of sales. The amortization expense on acquisition-related intangibles within cost of sales decreased to $72.7 million in 2017 from $80.1 million in 2016 reflecting the end of the amortization period of intangibles acquired in 2007.
Research and Development
Research and development expenses increased 3% to $154.1 million (11% of net sales) in 2017, compared to $149.8 million (11% of net sales) in 2016. The increase in research and development costs during 2017 reflects our ongoing investments in

45


NGS and our life sciences portfolio, as well as our acquisitions of Exiqon in 2016 and OmicSoft in 2017 together with regulatory activity in support of new products. As we continue to discover, develop and acquire new products and technologies, we expect to incur additional expenses related to facilities, licenses and employees engaged in research and development. Additionally, research and development costs are expected to increase as a result of seeking regulatory approvals, including U.S. FDA Pre-Market Approval (PMA), U.S. FDA 510(k) clearance and EU CE approval of certain assays or instruments.
Sales and Marketing
Sales and marketing expenses were largely unchanged at $375.6 million (26% of net sales) in 2017 compared to $376.3 million (28% of net sales) in 2016. Sales and marketing expenses were primarily associated with personnel, commissions, advertising, trade shows, publications, freight and logistics expenses, and other promotional expenses. We experienced efficiencies due to a lower cost base following the realignment of marketing activities as part of the 2016 restructuring project. These incremental savings were slightly offset by higher compensation costs including share-based compensation expense when compared to the prior period due to reassessment of stock units with performance criteria.
General and Administrative, Restructuring, Integration and Other
General and administrative, restructuring, integration and other costs increased by 11% to $200.1 million (14% of net sales) in 2017 from $180.6 million (13% of net sales) in 2016. The increase in 2017 reflects an increase in acquisition and integration costs which totaled $68.9 million in 2017, which included $45.3 million in costs from acquisition related legal settlements partially offset by $3.3 million gains recorded from the reduction in the fair value of contingent consideration following unmet milestones, as compared to $31.1 million in 2016, of which $6.3 million related to the transaction costs incurred in connection with the acquisition of Exiqon A/S. Acquisition and integration related costs in 2016 are net of $5.0 million of the total $6.5 million gains recorded in general and administrative costs from the reduction in the fair value of contingent consideration following unmet milestones. 2016 also includes the impact of lower share-based compensation costs following a reassessment of stock units with performance criteria. Restructuring costs of $29.1 million were lower in 2017 compared to $56.2 million in 2016 related to internal activities, including severance and retention costs as discussed fully in Note 6 "Restructuring".
Acquisition-Related Intangible Amortization
Amortization expense related to developed technology and patent and license rights acquired in a business combination is included in cost of sales. Amortization of trademarks and customer base acquired in a business combination is recorded in operating expense under the caption “acquisition-related intangible amortization.” Amortization expenses of intangible assets not acquired in a business combination are recorded within cost of sales, research and development, or sales and marketing line items based on the use of the asset.
During 2017, amortization expense on acquisition-related intangibles within operating expense increased to $39.4 million, compared to $39.1 million in 2016.
Other Income (Expense)
Total other expense, net was $39.0 million in 2017, compared to $41.9 million in 2016. Total other expense, net is primarily the result of interest expense and other expense, partially offset by interest income.
For the year ended December 31, 2017, interest income increased to $10.6 million from $6.8 million in 2016. Interest income includes interest earned on cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments, income related to certain interest rate derivatives as discussed in Note 13 "Derivatives and Hedging" in the accompanying consolidated financial statements and other components including the interest portion of operating lease transactions.
Interest expense increased to $49.7 million in 2017, compared to $39.0 million in 2016. Interest costs primarily relate to debt, discussed in Note 15 "Lines of Credit and Debt" in the accompanying consolidated financial statements.
Other expense, net for the year ended December 31, 2017 includes a $3.5 million gain in connection with the sale of our interest in an equity-method investment as well as $3.2 million in income from equity-method investments offset by a $5.1 million loss recognized in connection with the impairments of cost-method investment and net losses on foreign currency in 2017. Included in $9.7 million other expense, net in 2016 is a $8.3 million loss recognized in connection with the impairment of an equity-method investment and a $2.6 million charge for the disposal of goodwill following the transfer of the research and development activities of our instrumentation business as part of the restructuring program initiated late in 2016. For the year ended December 31, 2017, we recorded net losses on foreign currency of $3.3 million compared to less than $0.1 million in 2016 due to foreign currency rate fluctuations.
Provision for Income Taxes
Our effective tax rates differ from The Netherlands statutory tax rate of 25% due in part to our operating subsidiaries being exposed to effective tax rates ranging from zero to more than 40%. In 2017 and 2016, our effective tax rates were 64.7% and

46


(41.1)%, respectively. The comparison is impacted by pre-tax book income which was higher in 2017 at $114.4 million compared to $56.9 million in 2016. Pretax book income was lower in 2016 primarily due to charges incurred in connection with the restructuring program initiated in the fourth quarter of 2016.
During 2017, the 64.7% reflects the impacts of the U.S. tax reform. Because of the tax reform, we revalued of our U.S. deferred tax assets and liabilities to reflect the corporate income tax rate change from 35% to 21% and provided for a full valuation allowance of $60.8 million which was recorded against deferred tax assets related to U.S. interest carry forwards. Based on the debt level in the U.S., along with the new restrictive interest limitation enacted with the new U.S. tax reform, it is highly unlikely that the historic U.S. interest carry forward will ever be utilized. We also recorded full valuation allowances against other deferred tax assets on tax losses due to unlikely future profits in other jurisdictions. Following the adoption of ASU 2016-09 Compensation - Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting, $5.2 million of excess tax benefit was recognized directly to the tax provision for the year ended December 31, 2017 and during 2017, we increased accruals for tax contingencies by $22.1 million, primarily related to ongoing income tax audits. In 2016, tax expense on foreign operations was favorably impacted by lower income tax rates and partial tax exemptions on foreign income primarily derived from operations in Germany, Singapore, Luxembourg, Ireland and Switzerland. These foreign tax benefits are due to a combination of favorable tax laws, regulations, rulings, and exemptions in these jurisdictions. In particular, we have pre-tax income in Germany which is statutorily exempt from trade tax on intercompany foreign royalty income. Further, we have intercompany financing arrangements through Luxembourg and Ireland in which the intercompany income is partially exempt. See Note 16 "Income Taxes" to the consolidated financial statements for a full reconciliation of the effective tax rate to The Netherlands statutory rate.
In future periods, our effective tax rate may fluctuate from similar or other factors as discussed in “Changes in tax laws or their application could adversely affect our results of operations or financial flexibility” in Item 3 Risk Factors.
Foreign Currencies
QIAGEN N.V.’s reporting currency is the U.S. dollar, and most of our subsidiaries’ functional currencies are the local currencies of the countries in which they are headquartered. All amounts in the financial statements of entities whose functional currency is not the U.S. dollar are translated into U.S. dollar equivalents at exchange rates as follows: (1) assets and liabilities at period-end rates, (2) income statement accounts at average exchange rates for the period, and (3) components of shareholders’ equity at historical rates. Translation gains or losses are recorded in shareholders’ equity, and transaction gains and losses are reflected in net income. The net loss on foreign currency transactions is included in other expense, net, and in 2018 and 2017 was $12.3 million and $3.3 million, respectively, and in 2016 was less than $0.1 million.
Derivatives and Hedging. In the ordinary course of business, we use derivative instruments, including swaps, forwards and/or options, to manage potential losses from foreign currency exposures and variable rate debt. The principal objective of such derivative instruments is to minimize the risks and/or costs associated with global financial and operating activities. We do not utilize derivative or other financial instruments for trading or speculative purposes. We recognize all derivatives as either assets or liabilities on the balance sheet, measure those instruments at fair value and recognize the change in fair value in earnings in the period of change, unless the derivative qualifies as an effective hedge that offsets certain exposures. In determining fair value, we consider both the counterparty credit risk and our own creditworthiness, to the extent that the derivatives are not covered by collateral agreements with the respective counterparties. To determine our own credit risk, we estimated our own credit rating by benchmarking the price of our outstanding debt to publicly-available comparable data from rated companies. Using the estimated rating, we quantify our credit risk by reference to publicly-traded debt with a corresponding rating.
Foreign Currency Derivatives. As a globally active enterprise, we are subject to risks associated with fluctuations in foreign currencies in our ordinary operations. This includes foreign currency-denominated receivables, payables, debt, and other balance sheet positions including intercompany items. We manage our balance sheet exposure on a group-wide basis using foreign exchange forwards, options and cross-currency swaps.
Interest Rate Derivatives. We use interest rate derivative contracts on certain borrowing transactions to hedge interest rate exposures. We have entered into interest rate swaps in which we agree to exchange, at specified intervals, the difference between fixed and floating interest amounts calculated by reference to an agreed-upon notional principal amount.
We also make use of economic hedges. Further details of our derivative and hedging activities can be found in Note 13 "Derivatives and Hedging" to the accompanying consolidated financial statements.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
To date, we have funded our business primarily through internally generated funds, debt, and private and public sales of equity. Our primary use of cash has been to support continuing operations and our investing activities including capital expenditure requirements and acquisitions. As of December 31, 2018 and 2017, we had cash and cash equivalents of $1.16 billion and

47


$657.7 million, respectively. We also had short-term investments of $234.6 million at December 31, 2018. Cash and cash equivalents are primarily held in U.S. dollars and euros, other than those cash balances maintained in the local currency of subsidiaries to meet local working capital needs. At December 31, 2018, cash and cash equivalents had increased by $501.4 million from December 31, 2017, primarily as a result of cash provided by operating activities of $359.5 million and cash provided by financing activities of $360.4 million, partially offset by cash used in investing activities of $211.4 million. Working capital as of December 31, 2018 decreased to $1.18 billion as compared to $1.32 billion as of December 31, 2017, reflecting current portion of long-term debt as of December 31, 2018 of $503.1 million in addition to the cash provided by the operating and financing activities in 2018 as described below
Operating Activities. For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, we generated net cash from operating activities of $359.5 million and $286.8 million, respectively. While net income was $190.4 million in 2018, non-cash components in income included $206.4 million of depreciation and amortization and $17.0 million of non-cash impairments due to the impairment of cost-method investments as further discussed in Note 10 "Investments" and impairments of internal-use software as discussed in Note 9 "Property, Plant and Equipment".
Operating cash flows include a net decrease in working capital of $80.8 million excluding changes in fair value of derivative instruments. The current period change in working capital is primarily due to increased inventories and accounts receivable and decreased accrued and other current liabilities and taxes payable. Because we rely heavily on cash generated from operating activities to fund our business, a decrease in demand for our products, longer collection cycles or significant technological advances of competitors would have a negative impact on our liquidity.
Investing Activities. Approximately $211.4 million of cash was used in investing activities during 2018, compared to $464.3 million during 2017. Investing activities during 2018 consisted principally of $568.0 million for purchases of short-term investments, $172.8 million in cash paid for acquisitions, net of cash acquired as discussed in Note 5 "Acquisitions and Divestitures", $109.8 million in cash paid for purchases of property and equipment, as well as $41.0 million paid for intangible assets and $9.4 million paid for strategic investments in privately and publicly held companies as discussed in Note 10 "Investments", partially offset by $691.8 million from the sale of short-term investments. Investing activities during 2017 consisted principally of $450.6 million for purchases of short-term investments, partially offset by $189.0 million from the sale of short-term investments. Additionally, during 2017 cash paid for acquisitions, net of cash acquired, totaled $50.5 million.
Financing Activities. For the year ended December 31, 2018, cash provided by financing activities was $360.4 million compared to cash provided by financing activities of $387.2 million in 2017. Financing activities during 2018 consisted primarily of $494.9 million net cash proceeds from the 2018 cash convertible offering. We used $97.3 million of the proceeds from the from the cash convertible offering to pay the premium for a call option related to the cash convertible notes, and simultaneously received $72.4 million from the sale of Warrants, for a net cash outlay of $24.9 million for the call spread overlay. Cash provided in 2018 was further offset by the repurchase of QIAGEN shares totaling $104.7 million.
In 2017, cash provided from financing activities included $329.9 million net cash proceeds from the German private placement and $394.4 million net cash proceeds from the 2017 cash convertible offering. We used $73.7 million of the proceeds from the from the cash convertible offering to pay the premium for a call option related to the cash convertible notes, and simultaneously received $45.3 million from the sale of Warrants, for a net cash outlay of $28.3 million for the call spread overlay. Cash provided in 2017 was further offset by the capital repayment of $243.9 million made to shareholders in connection with the January 2017 synthetic share buyback discussed in Note 17 "Equity" and repurchased QIAGEN shares of $61.0 million.
Cash used in other financing activities during the year ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 consisted primarily of $5.5 million and $4.4 million paid for contingent consideration, respectively, together with $2.0 million and $4.1 million paid in connection with derivative collateral arrangements, respectively.
Other Factors Affecting Liquidity and Capital Resources
In November 2018, we issued $500.0 million aggregate principal amount of Cash Convertible Senior Notes which is due in 2024 (2024 Notes). The net proceeds of the 2024 Notes were $470.0 million, after payment of the net cost of the Call Spread Overlay and transaction costs paid through December 31, 2018 as described more fully in Note 15 "Lines of Credit and Debt". Interest on the 2024 Notes is payable semiannually in arrears at a rate of 1.000% per annum. The 2024 Notes will mature on November 13, 2024 unless repurchased or converted in accordance with their terms prior to such date.
In September 2017, we issued $400.0 million aggregate principal amount of Cash Convertible Senior Notes which are due in 2023 (2023 Notes), which are discussed fully in Note 15 "Lines of Credit and Debt". Interest on the 2023 Notes is payable semiannually in arrears at a rate of 0.500% per annum. The 2023 Notes will mature on September 13, 2023 unless repurchased or converted in accordance with their terms prior to such date.

48


Additionally in 2017, we completed a German private placement of $329.9 million, net of issuance costs, consisting of several tranches denominated in either U.S. dollars or Euro at either floating or fixed rates and due at various dates through June 2027 as described in Note 15 "Lines of Credit and Debt".
In October 2016, we extended the maturity of our €400 million syndicated revolving credit facility, which now has a contractual lifetime until December 2021 of which no amounts were utilized at December 31, 2018. The facility can be utilized in Euro, British pounds sterling, Swiss franc or U.S. dollar and bears interest of 0.40% to 1.20% above three months EURIBOR, or LIBOR in relation to any loan not in euro, and is offered with interest periods of one, two, three or six months. We have additional credit lines totaling €26.6 million with no expiration date, none of which were utilized as of December 31, 2018. We also have capital lease obligations, including interest, in the aggregate amount of $0.1 million, and carry $2.2 billion of long-term debt, of which no amounts are current as of December 31, 2018.
In March 2014, we issued $730.0 million aggregate principal amount of Cash Convertible Senior Notes of which $430.0 million is due in 2019 (2019 Notes) and $300.0 million is due in 2021 (2021 Notes). Interest on the 2019 and 2021 Notes is payable semiannually in arrears on March 19 and September 19 of each year, at rates of 0.375% and 0.875% per annum for the 2019 Notes and 2021 Notes, respectively, commencing on September 19, 2014. The 2019 Notes will mature on March 19, 2019 and the 2021 Notes will mature on March 19, 2021, unless repurchased or converted in accordance with their terms prior to such date.
In October 2012, we completed a U.S. private placement through the issuance of new senior unsecured notes at a total amount of $400 million with a weighted average interest rate of 3.66% (settled on October 16, 2012). The notes were issued in three series: (1) $73 million 7-year term due in 2019 (3.19%); (2) $300 million 10-year term due in 2022 (3.75%); and (3) $27 million 12-year term due in 2024 (3.90%).
We also have capital lease obligations, including interest, in the aggregate amount of $0.1 million, and carry $2.2 billion of long-term debt, of which no amounts are current as of December 31, 2018.
In connection with certain acquisitions, we could be required to make additional contingent cash payments totaling up to $57.3 million based on the achievement of certain revenue and operating results milestones as further discussed in Note 19 "Commitments and Contingencies".
In January 2018, we announced our fifth share repurchase program of up to $200 million of our common shares. During 2018, we repurchased 2.9 million QIAGEN shares for $104.7 million (including transaction costs). In April 2016, we announced the launch of our fourth $100 million share repurchase program. During 2017, 1.9 million QIAGEN shares were repurchased for $61.0 million (including transaction costs). Repurchased shares will be held in treasury in order to satisfy various obligations, which include employee share-based remuneration plans.
In January 2017, we completed a synthetic share repurchase that combined a direct capital repayment with a consolidation of shares. The transaction was announced in August 2016 and involved an approach used by various large, multinational Dutch companies to provide returns to shareholders in a faster and more efficient manner than traditional open-market purchases. $243.9 million was repaid to shareholders through the transaction and the outstanding number of common shares was reduced by 8.9 million, or 3.7%. As discussed further in Note 17 "Equity", the capital repayment program was completed in January 2017.
We expect that cash from financing activities will continue to be impacted by issuances of our common shares in connection with our equity compensation plans and that the market performance of our stock will impact the timing and volume of the issuances. Additionally, we may make future acquisitions or investments requiring cash payments, the issuance of additional equity or debt financing.
We believe that funds from operations, existing cash and cash equivalents, together with the proceeds from our public and private sales of equity, and availability of financing facilities, will be sufficient to fund our planned operations and expansion during the coming year. However, any global economic downturn may have a greater impact on our business than currently expected, and we may experience a decrease in the sales of our products, which could impact our ability to generate cash. If our future cash flows from operations and other capital resources are not adequate to fund our liquidity needs, we may be required to obtain additional debt or equity financing or to reduce or delay our capital expenditures, acquisitions or research and development projects. If we could not obtain financing on a timely basis or at satisfactory terms, or implement timely reductions in our expenditures, our business could be adversely affected.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
Other than our former arrangements with QIAGEN Finance as discussed in Note 15 "Lines of Credit and Debt" to the consolidated financial statements, we did not use special purpose entities and do not have off-balance sheet financing arrangements as of and during the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016.

49


Contractual Obligations
As of December 31, 2018, our future contractual cash obligations are as follows:
Contractual Obligations
(in thousands)
Payments Due by Period
Total
 
2019
 
2020
 
2021
 
2022
 
2023
 
Thereafter
Long-term debt (1)
$
2,288,726

 
$
531,197

 
$
25,884

 
$
339,446

 
$
490,402

 
$
344,550

 
$
557,247

Purchase obligations
128,281

 
93,214

 
20,804

 
8,883

 
2,690

 
2,690

 

Operating leases
60,666

 
20,235

 
14,845

 
10,745

 
6,839

 
3,854

 
4,148

License and royalty payments (2)
48,631

 
11,973

 
11,613

 
9,167

 
6,731

 
4,704

 
4,443

Capital lease obligations (3)
86

 
63

 
23

 

 

 

 

Total contractual cash obligations
$
2,526,390

 
$
656,682

 
$
73,169

 
$
368,241

 
$
506,662

 
$
355,798

 
$
565,838

  ____________________
(1) Amounts include required principal, stated at the current carrying values, and interest payments.
(2) As of December 31, 2018, $10.5 million and $24.3 million are included in accrued and other current liabilities and other long-term liabilities, respectively.
(3) Includes future cash payments, including interest, due under capital lease arrangements.
On January 31, 2019, QIAGEN acquired all assets related to the digital PCR program of Formulatrix, Inc., for $125 million in cash with future milestone payments of approximately $136 million due in 2020.
In addition to the above and pursuant to purchase agreements for several of our recent acquisitions, we could be required to make additional contingent cash payments totaling up to $57.3 million based on the achievement of certain revenue and operating results milestones as follows: $23.7 million in 2019, $22.7 million in 2020, $5.9 million in 2022 and $5.0 million, payable in any 12-month period from now until 2028 based on the accomplishment of certain revenue or other milestones, regulatory approvals or clearances. Of the $57.3 million total contingent obligation, we have assessed the fair value at December 31, 2018 to be $49.0 million of which $27.5 million is included in accrued and other current liabilities and $21.5 million is included in other long-term liabilities in the accompanying consolidated balance sheet.
Liabilities associated with uncertain tax positions, including interest and penalties, are currently estimated at $59.9 million as of December 31, 2018 and are not included in the table above, as we cannot reasonably estimate when, if ever, an amount would be paid to a government agency. Ultimate settlement of these liabilities is dependent on factors outside of our control, such as examinations by each agency and expiration of statutes of limitation for assessment of additional taxes.
Critical Accounting Policies, Judgments and Estimates
The preparation of our financial statements in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States requires management to make assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities and disclosure of contingencies as of the date of the financial statements, as well as the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Critical accounting policies are those that require the most complex or subjective judgments often as a result of the need to make estimates about the effects of matters that are inherently uncertain. Thus, to the extent that actual events differ from management’s estimates and assumptions, there could be a material impact to the financial statements. In applying our critical accounting policies, at times we used accounting estimates that either required us to make assumptions about matters that were highly uncertain at the time the estimate was made or it is reasonably likely that changes in the accounting estimate may occur from period to period that would have a material impact on the presentation of our results of operations, financial position or cash flows. Our critical accounting policies are those related to revenue recognition, income taxes, investments, goodwill and other intangible assets, acquisitions and fair value measurements. We reviewed the development, selection, and disclosure of our critical accounting policies and estimates with the Audit Committee of our Supervisory Board.
Revenue Recognition. We recognize revenue when control of promised goods or services is transferred to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration that is expected to be received for those goods or services. Identifying performance obligations in a contract, estimating the amount of variable consideration to include in the transaction price and allocating the transaction price to each separate performance obligation requires management’s judgments and estimates. Sales arrangements which require a measure of progress toward completion by measuring actual hours incurred to date as a proportion of the total budgeted hours of the project also involves management's judgments and estimates. While the majority of our sales agreements

50


contain standard terms and conditions, we do enter into agreements that contain multiple products or services or non-standard terms and conditions. Sometimes it is difficult to determine whether there is more than one performance obligation under a sales agreement and if so, how and when revenue should be recognized is subject to certain estimates or assumptions. Should our judgments and estimates not be correct, revenue recognized for any reporting period could be adversely affected.
Income Taxes. Calculation of our tax provision is complex due to our international operations and the multiple taxing jurisdictions in which we operate. Some of our deferred tax assets relate to net operating losses (NOL). The utilization of NOLs is not assured and is dependent on generating sufficient taxable income in the future. Although management believes it is more likely than not that we will generate sufficient taxable income to utilize substantially all NOL carryforwards, evaluating the NOLs related to our newer subsidiaries requires us to make estimates that we believe are reasonable, but may also be highly uncertain given that we do not have direct experience with these subsidiaries or their products. Thus the estimates may be subject to significant changes from period to period as we gain that experience. To the extent that our estimates of future taxable income are insufficient to utilize all available NOLs, a valuation allowance will be recorded in the provision for income taxes in the period the determination is made, and the deferred tax assets will be reduced by this amount, which could be material. In the event that actual circumstances differ from management’s estimates, or to the extent that these estimates are adjusted in the future, any changes to the valuation allowance could materially impact our financial position and results of operations.
The calculation of our tax liabilities involves dealing with uncertainties in the application of complex tax laws and regulations in many jurisdictions across our global operations. ASC 740 states that a tax benefit from an uncertain tax position may be recognized when it is more likely than not that the position will be sustained upon examination, including resolutions of any related appeals or litigation processes on the basis of technical merits. We record unrecognized tax positions in accordance with ASC 740 and adjust these liabilities when our judgment changes as a result of the evaluation of new information not previously available. Because of the complexity of some of these uncertainties, the ultimate resolution may result in a payment that is materially different from our current estimate of the unrecognized tax liabilities. These difference will be reflected as increases or decreases to income tax expense in the period in which the new information is available.
Investments. Generally accepted accounting principles require different methods of accounting for an investment depending on the level of influence that we exert. Assessing the level of influence involves subjective judgments. If management’s assumptions with respect to its level of influence differ in future periods and we therefore have to account for these investments under a method other than the cost method, it could have a material impact to our financial statements.
We have equity investments accounted for under the measurement alternative as these equity securities do not have readily determinable fair values and are not accounted for under the equity method. This measurement alternative requires these investments to be measured at cost, less any impairment, plus or minus changes resulting from observable price changes in orderly transactions for the identical or a similar investment of the same issuer. At each reporting date, we review each investment for impairment, considering factors such as book values from the most recent financial statements, and forecasts and expectations of the investee, and also for any observable price changes from stock transactions of the issuer. If an impairment is determined to have occurred, estimation of the fair value of these nonmarketable equity investments is inherently subjective. Therefore, in the case of an impairment or an observable price change occurs, it could require a write-down or write-up of the investment that could materially impact our financial position and results of operations.
Additionally, we have made strategic investments in certain companies as more fully described in Note 10 "Investments" to the Consolidated Financial Statements, some of which are variable interest entities. FASB ASC Topic 810 requires a company to consolidate a variable interest entity in which it holds a variable interest if it is designated as the primary beneficiary of that entity even if the company does not have a majority of voting interests. A variable interest entity is generally defined as an entity with insufficient equity to finance its activities or where the owners of the entity lack the risk and rewards of ownership. Assessing the requirements of ASC Topic 810 involves subjective judgments. If management’s assumptions with respect to the criteria differ in future periods, and we therefore have to account for these investments under a different method, it could have a material impact on our financial statements.
Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets. We assess goodwill and other intangible assets for impairment at least annually in the absence of an indicator of possible impairment and immediately upon an indicator of possible impairment. Intangibles are assessed for recoverability considering the contract life, where applicable, and the period of time over which the intangible will contribute to future cash flow. The unamortized cost of intangible assets, where cash flows are independent and identifiable from other assets, is evaluated periodically and adjusted, if necessary, if events and circumstances indicate that a decline in value below the carrying amount has occurred. Goodwill is subject to impairment tests annually or earlier if indicators of potential impairment exist, using a fair-value-based approach. We have elected to perform our annual test for indications of impairment as of October 1st of each year. Goodwill is deemed to be impaired if we determine that the carrying value of our reporting unit is more than the fair value. Due to the numerous variables associated with our judgments and assumptions relating to the valuation of reporting units and the effects of changes in circumstances affecting these valuations, both the

51


precision and reliability of the resulting estimates are subject to uncertainty. As additional information becomes known, we may change our estimates.
Acquisitions. We frequently enter into business combinations and must determine whether an acquired entity is considered to be a business or an asset or group of assets under ASU 2017-01, Business Combinations: Clarifying the Definition of a Business. A portion of the purchase price can only be allocated to goodwill in a business combination and transaction costs are expensed in a business combination yet capitalized in an asset acquisition. Contingent payments and in-process research and development costs are also handled differently. A set of assets is not a business if substantially all of the fair value of the acquired gross assets is concentrated in a single asset or group of similar identifiable assets. In determining whether an acquired entity is considered to be a business or a set of assets, application of the "substantially all" threshold requires judgment.
The purchase price allocation for acquisitions of a business requires extensive use of accounting estimates and judgments to allocate the purchase price to the identifiable tangible and intangible assets acquired, including in-process research and development, and liabilities assumed based on their respective fair values. An acquisition may include contingent consideration as part of the purchase price. Contingent consideration is accounted for at fair value at the acquisition date with subsequent changes to the fair value being recognized in earnings.
We have made several acquisitions of businesses in recent years. The purchase prices for the acquisitions were allocated to tangible and intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed based on their estimated fair values at the acquisition dates. We engaged an independent third-party valuation firm to assist us in determining the estimated fair values of in-process research and development and identifiable intangible assets. Such a valuation requires significant estimates and assumptions, including but not limited to determining the timing and estimated costs to complete the in-process projects, projecting regulatory approvals, estimating future cash flows, and developing appropriate discount rates. We believe the estimated fair values of contingent consideration and assets acquired and liabilities assumed are based on reasonable assumptions. However, the fair value estimates for the purchase price allocations may change during the allowable allocation period, which is up to one year from the acquisition dates, if additional information becomes available.
Fair Value Measurements. We have categorized our assets and liabilities that are measured at fair value, based on the priority of the inputs to the valuation techniques, in a three-level fair value hierarchy: Level 1 - using quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities; Level 2 - using observable inputs other than quoted prices; and Level 3 – using unobservable inputs. We primarily apply the market approach for recurring fair value measurements, maximize our use of observable inputs and minimize our use of unobservable inputs. We utilize the mid-point price between bid and ask prices for valuing the majority of our assets and liabilities measured and reported at fair value. In addition to using market data, we make assumptions in valuing assets and liabilities, including assumptions about risk and the risks inherent in the inputs to the valuation technique.
Certain of our derivative instruments, which are classified in Level 2 of the fair value hierarchy, are valued using industry-standard models that consider various inputs, including time value, volatility factors, and current market and contractual prices for the underlying instruments, as well as other relevant economic measures. Substantially all of these inputs are observable in the marketplace throughout the full term of the instrument, can be derived from observable data or are supported by observable prices at which transactions are executed in the marketplace.
Certain of our acquisitions involve contingent consideration, the payment of which is contingent on the occurrence of future events. Contingent consideration is classified in Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy and is initially recognized at fair value as a cost of the acquisition. After the acquisition, the contingent consideration liability is remeasured each reporting period. The fair value of contingent consideration is measured predominantly on unobservable inputs such as assumptions about the likelihood of achieving specified milestone criteria, projections of future financial performance, assumed discount rates and assumed weightings applied to potential scenarios in deriving a probability weighted fair value. Significant judgment is used in developing these estimates and assumptions both at the acquisition date and in subsequent periods. If actual events differ from management's estimates, or to the extent these estimates are adjusted in the future, our financial condition or results of operations could be affected in the period of any change.
Additionally, our Level 3 instruments include non-marketable equity security investments for which we estimate the value based on valuation methods using the observable transaction price at the transaction date and other unobservable inputs. These investments are carried at fair value or under the measurement alternative. Under the measurement alternative, the carrying value is measured at cost, less any impairment, plus or minus changes resulting from observable price changes in orderly transactions for identical or similar investments of the same issuer. Adjustments are determined primarily based on a market approach as of the transaction date.
For other fair value measurements, we generally use an income approach to measure fair value when there is not a market observable price for an identical or similar asset or liability. This approach utilizes management’s best assumptions regarding expectations of projected cash flows, and discounts the expected cash flows using a commensurate risk-adjusted discount rate. 

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The above listing is not intended to be a comprehensive list of all our accounting policies. In many cases, the accounting treatment of a particular transaction is specifically dictated by generally accepted accounting principles in the United States, with limited or no need for management’s judgment. There are also areas in which management’s judgment in selecting available alternatives may or may not produce a materially different result. See our audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto in Item 18 of this Annual Report, containing a description of accounting policies and other disclosures required by generally accepted accounting principles in the United States.
Recent Authoritative Pronouncements
For information on recent accounting pronouncements impacting our business see Note 2 "Effects of New Accounting Pronouncements" of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 18.

Item 6.
Directors, Senior Management and Employees
Managing Directors and Supervisory Directors are appointed annually for the period beginning on the date following the Annual General Meeting of our shareholders up to and including the date of the Annual General Meeting held in the following year.
Our Supervisory Directors and Managing Directors for the year ended December 31, 2018 and their ages as of January 31, 2019, are as follows:
Managing Directors:
Name
Age
Position
Peer M. Schatz
53
Managing Director, Chief Executive Officer
Roland Sackers
50
Managing Director, Chief Financial Officer
Supervisory Directors:
Name (1)
Age
Position
Stéphane Bancel
46
Supervisory Director, Member of the Compensation Committee, Audit Committee and Science and Technology Committee
Dr. Håkan Björklund
62
Chairman of the Supervisory Board, Member of the Compensation Committee and Selection and Appointment Committee
Dr. Metin Colpan
64
Supervisory Director, Chairman of the Science and Technology Committee and Member of the Selection and Appointment Committee
Dr. Ross L. Levine
47
Supervisory Director and Member of the Science and Technology Committee
Dr. Elaine Mardis
56
Supervisory Director and Member of the Science and Technology Committee
Lawrence A. Rosen
61
Supervisory Director and Chairman of the Audit Committee
Elizabeth E. Tallett
69
Supervisory Director, Chairwoman of the Compensation Committee, Member of the Audit Committee and Member of the Selection and Appointment Committee
(1)
Prof. Dr. Manfred Karobath was a member of the Supervisory Board since 2000 and did not stand for re-election at the Company’s Annual General Meeting in June 2018.
The following is a brief summary of the background of each of the Supervisory Directors and Managing Directors. References to “QIAGEN” and the “Company” in relation to periods prior to April 29, 1996 mean QIAGEN GmbH and its consolidated subsidiaries:
Managing Directors
Peer M. Schatz, 53, joined QIAGEN in 1993, when the Company had just 30 employees and revenues of approximately $2 million, and has been Chief Executive Officer since January 1, 2004. He was Chief Financial Officer between 1993 and 2003 and became a member of the Managing Board in 1998. Mr. Schatz was previously a partner in a private management buyout group in Switzerland, worked in finance and systems positions in Sandoz, Ltd. and Computerland AG, and participated in the founding of start-up companies in the computer and software trading industry in Europe and the United States. Mr. Schatz graduated from the University of St. Gallen, Switzerland, with a Master's degree in Finance in 1989 and obtained an M.B.A. in Finance from the University of Chicago Graduate School of Business in 1991. Mr. Schatz served as a member of the German Corporate Governance Commission from 2002 to 2012. He is Managing Director of PS Capital Management GmbH. He is a board member of AdvaMedDx, an advocacy dedicated to issues facing the in vitro diagnostics industry in the United States and

53


Europe, and ALDA (the Analytical, Life Science and Diagnostics Association), a trade association of developers and suppliers in these fields.
Roland Sackers, 50, joined the Company in 1999 as Vice President Finance and has been Chief Financial Officer since 2004. In 2006, Mr. Sackers became a member of the Managing Board. Between 1995 and 1999, he served as an auditor with Arthur Andersen Wirtschaftsprüfungsgesellschaft Steuerberatungsgesellschaft. Mr. Sackers earned his Diplom-Kaufmann from University of Münster, Germany. He is a former member of the Supervisory Board and Audit Committee of IBS AG and a former member of the board of directors of Operon Biotechnologies, Inc. Mr. Sackers is a board member of the industry association BIO Deutschland. He was previously a non-executive director and chair of the audit committee from 2011 to 2018 of Immunodiagnostic Systems Holding PLC (IDS), a leading producer of immunological tests for research and diagnostic applications publicly listed in the United Kingdom.
Supervisory Directors
Stéphane Bancel, 46, joined the Company's Supervisory Board as well as the Compensation Committee in 2013 and joined the Audit Committee and Science and Technology Committee in 2014. He is Chief Executive Officer of Moderna Therapeutics, Inc., a clinical-stage biotechnology company based in Cambridge, Massachusetts, which is advancing multiple drug development programs involving messenger RNA therapeutics. Before joining Moderna, Mr. Bancel served for five years as Chief Executive Officer of the French diagnostics company bioMérieux SA. Prior to bioMérieux, he was Managing Director of Eli Lilly in Belgium and Executive Director of Global Manufacturing Strategy and Supply Chain at Eli Lilly in Indianapolis, Indiana, after having started at Lilly in Great Britain. Before joining Eli Lilly, Mr. Bancel served as Asia-Pacific Sales and Marketing Director for bioMérieux while based in Tokyo, Japan. He holds a Master of Engineering degree from École Centrale Paris (ECP), a Master of Science in Chemical Engineering from the University of Minnesota and an M.B.A. from Harvard Business School.
Dr. Håkan Björklund, 62, was appointed as a new Supervisory Board Member in March 2017 and as Chairman of the Supervisory Board in June 2018. He is a member of the Compensation Committee and the Selection and Appointment Committee. Dr. Björklund brings an extensive international background in the life science industry to QIAGEN, in particular through his current role as Operating Executive at Avista Capital Partners, as well as through previous roles as CEO of the global pharmaceutical company Nycomed, Regional Director at Astra (now AstraZeneca) and President of Astra Draco. Under Mr. Björklund’s leadership, Nycomed grew from a predominantly Scandinavian business into a global pharmaceutical company. In addition to QIAGEN, he currently serves as Chairman of the Board of Directors at Acino International AG, Swedish Orphan Biovitrum AB (Sobi), BONESUPPORT AB and Trimb Healthcare AB. Dr. Björklund earlier served as Chairman of the Board of Directors of Lundbeck A/S, and was also a Member of the Board of Directors of several international life science companies, including Alere, Atos, Coloplast and Danisco. Dr. Björklund has a Ph.D. in Neuroscience from Karolinska Institutet in Sweden. 
Dr. Metin Colpan, 64, is a co-founder of QIAGEN and was the Company's Chief Executive Officer and a Managing Director from 1985 through 2003. Dr. Colpan has been a member of the Supervisory Board since 2004 and has served as Chairman of the Science and Technology Committee since 2014. He has been a member of the Selection and Appointment Committee since 2015. Dr. Colpan obtained his Ph.D. and M.S. in Organic Chemistry and Chemical Engineering from the Darmstadt Institute of Technology in 1983. Prior to founding QIAGEN, Dr. Colpan was an Assistant Investigator at the Institute for Biophysics at the University of Düsseldorf. Dr. Colpan has had wide experience in separation techniques and in the separation and purification of nucleic acids in particular, and has filed many patents in the field. Dr. Colpan also serves as a Supervisory Board member of Qalovis Farmer Automatic Energy GmbH, Laer, Germany. Dr. Colpan previously served as a Supervisory Board member of Ingenium Pharmaceuticals AG, GenPat77 Pharmacogenetics AG, GPC Biotech AG and Morphosys AG, each in Munich, Germany.
Dr. Ross L. Levine, 47, joined the Supervisory Board and its Science and Technology Committee in 2016. He is a physician-scientist focused on researching and treating blood and bone marrow cancers as the Laurence Joseph Dineen Chair in Leukemia Research, the Director of the Center for Hematologic Malignancies, and an Attending Physician at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, as well as Professor of Medicine at Weill Cornell Medical College. He leads a research lab investigating genetics and targeted therapies in myeloid malignancies and is interested in application of next-generation sequencing technology in the practice of medicine in hematologic cancers. He trained in internal medicine at Massachusetts General Hospital and in hematology-oncology at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, earning board certification in these specialties. He received his M.D. from the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and his A.B. degree from Harvard College.
Dr. Elaine Mardis, 56, joined the Company’s Supervisory Board and its Science and Technology Committee in 2014. Dr. Mardis is the Co-Executive Director of the Institute for Genomic Medicine at Nationwide Children’s Hospital in Columbus, OH. She also is Professor of Pediatrics at the Ohio State University College of Medicine. Dr. Mardis has research interests in the application of genomic technologies to improve our understanding of human disease, and toward improving the precision of medical diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. Dr. Mardis is the former Robert E. and Louise F. Dunn Distinguished Professor of

54


Medicine at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, MO, where she was on the faculty for 22 years. As Co-Director of the McDonnell Genome Institute, she devised methods and automation that contributed to the Human Genome Project and has since played key roles in the 1000 Genomes Project, The Cancer Genome Atlas, and the Pediatric Cancer Genome Project. Prior to joining the Washington University faculty, she was a senior research scientist at BioRad Laboratories in Hercules, CA. Dr. Mardis is a board member of the American Association for Cancer Research, and has scientific advisory roles at the Regeneron Genomics Center, PACT Pharma LLC, and Interpreta LLC. She also serves the U.S. government as a scientific advisor to the Veteran’s Administration for the Million Veterans Program. Dr. Mardis received her Bachelor of Science degree in Zoology in 1984 and her Ph.D. in Chemistry and Biochemistry in 1989, both from the University of Oklahoma.
Lawrence A. Rosen, 61, joined the Company's Supervisory Board as well as the Audit Committee in 2013 and has served as the committee's chairman since 2014. Mr. Rosen was a member of the Board of Management and Chief Financial Officer of Deutsche Post DHL until September 2016. Holding this position since 2009, Mr. Rosen was in charge of controlling, corporate accounting and reporting, investor relations, corporate finance, corporate internal audit and security, taxes, as well as the group’s global business services. Prior to joining Deutsche Post DHL, Mr. Rosen served as Chief Financial Officer of Fresenius Medical Care AG & Co. KGaA in Germany from 2003 to 2009. Prior to that, he was Senior Vice President and Treasurer for Aventis SA in Strasbourg, France. Between 1984 and 2000, Mr. Rosen held different positions at the Aventis predecessor companies Hoechst AG and American Hoechst/Hoechst Celanese Inc. Since 2015, Mr. Rosen has served as a member of the board of Lanxess AG and previously served on the board of Postbank AG from 2009 until 2015. Mr. Rosen, who is a U.S. citizen, holds a Bachelor's degree in Economics from the State University of New York and an M.B.A. from the University of Michigan.
Elizabeth E. Tallett, 69, joined the Company's Supervisory Board as well as the Audit Committee and Compensation Committee in 2011 and since 2016 has served as Chairwoman of the Compensation Committee. She is a member of the Selection and Appointment Committee. Ms. Tallett was a Principal of Hunter Partners, LLC, a management company for early to mid-stage pharmaceutical, biotechnology and medical device companies, from 2002 until February 2015. Ms. Tallett continues to consult with early stage health care companies. Her senior management experience includes President and CEO of Transcell Technologies Inc., President of Centocor Pharmaceuticals, member of the Parke-Davis Executive Committee, and Director of Worldwide Strategic Planning for Warner-Lambert Company. Ms. Tallett graduated from Nottingham University, England with dual Bachelor's degrees with honors in mathematics and economics. She is a member of the board of directors of Principal Financial Group, Inc. (where she is currently the Lead Director), Meredith Corp and is chairwoman of the board of Anthem, Inc. She is a former director of Coventry Health Care, Inc. Ms. Tallett was a founding board member of the Biotechnology Council of New Jersey and is a Trustee of Solebury School in Pennsylvania.
Professor Dr. Manfred Karobath, 78, had been a member of the Supervisory Board since 2000 and joined the Compensation Committee in 2005. In 2016, Prof. Karobath was appointed as Chairman of the Supervisory Board. He joined the Science and Technology Committee in 2014 and the Compensation Committee in 2016. He was also the Chairman of the Selection and Appointment Committee. Prof. Dr. Karobath studied medicine, and from 1967 to 1980 he worked first in the Dept. of Biochemistry of the University of Vienna and, after a stage as postdoctoral fellow, he joined the Dept. of Psychiatry where he became Professor of Biological Psychiatry. In 1980, he joined Sandoz Pharma in Basel, first in drug discovery, and later becoming Senior Vice President and head of R&D. In 1992, Prof. Dr. Karobath joined Rhone Poulenc Rorer (RPR) as President of R&D and Executive Vice President, and later, he became a member of the boards of directors of RPR, Pasteur Mérieux Connought, Centeon and Rhone Poulenc Pharma. He has received several scientific awards and has published 92 scientific papers. Prof. Dr. Karobath did not stand for re-election at the Company’s Annual General Meeting in June 2018.
Compensation of Managing Board Members and Supervisory Directors
Remuneration policy
The objective of our remuneration policy is to attract and retain the talented, highly qualified international leaders and skilled individuals, who enable QIAGEN to achieve its short and long-term strategic initiatives and operational excellence. Our remuneration policy aligns remuneration with individual performance, corporate performance and fosters sustainable growth and long-term value creation in the context of QIAGEN’s social responsibility and stakeholders’ interest.
The remuneration policy and overall remuneration levels are benchmarked regularly, against a selected group of companies and key markets in which QIAGEN operates, to ensure overall competitiveness. QIAGEN participates in various compensation benchmarking surveys that provide information on the level, as well as the structure, of compensation awarded by various companies and industries for a broad range of positions around the world. The companies in the peer group are selected on the basis of market capitalization, competitors for talent, similar complexity and international spread, operating in similar industries.
The performance of the Managing Board members is measured annually against a written set of goals. The remuneration of the Managing Board members is linked to the achievement of QIAGEN’s strategic and financial goals. To ensure that remuneration

55


is linked to performance, a significant proportion of the remuneration package is variable and contingent on performance of the individual and the company. These goals are set at ambitious levels each year to motivate and drive performance, with a focus on achieving both long-term strategic initiatives and short-term objectives based on the annual operative planning. Performance metrics used for these goals include the achievement of financial and non-financial targets.
The remuneration package of the Managing Board members consists of a combination of base salary, short term variable cash award and several elements of long term incentives (together, ‘total direct compensation’). In addition, the members of the Managing Board receive a pension arrangement and other benefits that are standard in our industry, such as a company car.
The total target remuneration package of the Managing Board members is appropriately set against a variety of factors which includes external and internal equity, experience, complexity of the position, scope and responsibilities. We aim to provide the members of the Managing Board a total direct compensation at market median level.
The structure of the remuneration package for the Managing Board is designed to balance short-term operational excellence with long-term sustainable value creation while taking into account the interests of its stakeholders. As such a significant part of the total remuneration of the Managing Board members consist of variable remuneration which can differ substantially from year to year depending on our corporate results and individual performance and may include equity-based compensation which may be subject to vesting conditions over a period of up to 10 years.
The remuneration policies for the Managing Board and for other senior management members of QIAGEN are generally aligned and consistent.
Managing Board compensation
The compensation granted to the members of the Managing Board in 2018 consisted of a fixed salary and variable components, with the significant majority of compensation awarded in the form of QIAGEN stock units that are restricted for a long multi-year period to align management with the interests of shareholders and other stakeholders. Variable compensation included long-term equity incentives that were awarded based on individual performance as well as equity awards in lieu of the value of the annual cash bonus.
In 2014, the General Meeting of Shareholders approved a new remuneration policy for the Managing Board which provides that future annual regular equity-based compensation grants to members of the Managing Board will primarily consist of performance stock units. Grants of stock options and restricted stock units which are based on time vesting only shall no longer be granted on a regular basis and shall be reserved for use as special equity incentive rewards in certain situations.
Stock options, if granted, to the Managing Board members must have an exercise price that is higher than the market price at the time of grant. Restricted Stock Units granted to the Managing Board members, vest over a 10-year period. Performance Stock Units are subject to long-term vesting periods and contingent upon the achievement of several financial goals over a multi-year period.
In 2018, a grant of Performance Stock Units with mandatory minimum holding levels of QIAGEN shares was made under the Commitment Program linked to achievement of a three-year plan covering 2019 and 2021 including quantitative goals for net sales, earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT), QIAGEN Value Added (QVA), a steering metric that measures the ability of QIAGEN to generate returns and exceed its cost of capital and share price development as compared to peer companies. Under the Commitment Program, the financial targets for vesting are based on three-year goals as defined within QIAGEN’s five-year business plan covering the period from 2019 until the end of 2023. The targets for vesting were set and approved by the Supervisory Board.
For the year ended December 31, 2018, the Managing Board members received the following compensation:
 
Annual Compensation
 
Long-Term Compensation
Name
Fixed Salary
 
Variable Cash
Bonus (1)
 
Other (3)
 
Total
 
Defined
Contribution
Benefit Plan
 
Performance
Stock Units Granted (2)
Managing Board
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Peer M. Schatz
$
1,281,000

 

 
5,000

 
$
1,286,000

 
$
78,000

 
661,315

Roland Sackers
$
575,000

 

 
37,000

 
$
612,000

 
$
80,000

 
197,000

  ____________________
(1)
The Variable Cash Bonus does not include values which were converted to equity-based compensation for each Managing Board member at his election in lieu of the value of the cash bonus earned by such Managing Board member in 2018. In 2019, Mr. Schatz will receive a grant of 60,982 performance stock units and Mr. Sackers will receive a grant of 21,131

56


performance stock units. The performance stock units will vest 40% over three years and 60% over five years from the date of grant, with the final performance measurement aligned to achievement of 2019 performance goals.
(2)
The Performance Stock Units Granted amount includes the number of performance stock units granted to each Managing Board member under the Company's Commitment Program. In 2018, Mr. Schatz received a grant of 307,000 performance stock units and Mr. Sackers received a grant of 97,000 performance stock units.
(3)
Amounts include, among others, car lease and reimbursed personal expenses such as tax consulting. We also occasionally reimburse our Managing Directors' personal expenses related to attending out-of-town meetings but not directly related to their attendance. Amounts do not include the reimbursement of certain expenses relating to travel incurred at the request of QIAGEN, other reimbursements or payments that in total did not exceed $10,000 or tax amounts paid by the Company to tax authorities in order to avoid double-taxation under multi-tax jurisdiction employment agreements.
Supervisory Board compensation
The Supervisory Board remuneration is aligned to the applicable market standards, considering peer companies of similar size and complexity in similar industries, including biotechnology, life science supplies, diagnostics and pharmaceuticals, to reflect our nexus to the European Markets as a Dutch company as well as our U.S. focus as a NYSE listed company subject to U.S. regulations and the fact that several of the Supervisory Board members are residing in the United States.
The Supervisory Board compensation for 2018 consists of fixed retainer compensation and additional retainer amounts for Chairman and Vice Chairman. Annual remuneration of the Supervisory Board members is as follows:
Fee payable to the Chairman of the Supervisory Board
$150,000
Fee payable to the Vice Chairman of the Supervisory Board
$90,000
Fee payable to each member of the Supervisory Board
$57,500
Additional compensation payable to members holding the following positions:
 
Chairman of the Audit Committee
$25,000
Chairman of the Compensation Committee
$18,000
Chairman of the Selection and Appointment Committee and other board committees
$12,000
Fee payable to each member of the Audit Committee
$15,000
Fee payable to each member of the Compensation Committee
$11,000
Fee payable to each member of the Selection and Appointment Committee and other board committees
$6,000
Further, the Supervisory Board members will be reimbursed for tax consulting costs incurred in connection with the preparation of their tax returns up to an amount of €5,000 per person per fiscal year.
Supervisory board members also receive a variable component, in the form of share-based compensation. We did not pay any agency or advisory service fees to members of the Supervisory Board.
For the year ended December 31, 2018, the Supervisory Board members received the following compensation:
Name
Fixed
Remuneration
 
Committee Chairman/
Chairwoman
 
Committee
Membership
 
 
Total(2)
 
Restricted
Stock Units
Supervisory Board
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Stéphane Bancel
$
57,500

 

 
32,000

 
 
$
89,500

 
9,866

Dr. Håkan Björklund
$
103,750

 
6,000

 
14,000

 
 
$
123,750

 
9,866

Dr. Metin Colpan
$
57,500

 
12,000

 
6,000

 
 
$
75,500

 
9,866

Prof. Dr. Manfred Karobath(1)
$
75,000

 
6,000

 
8,500

 
 
$
89,500

 
9,866

Dr. Ross L. Levine
$
57,500

 

 
6,000

 
 
$
63,500

 
9,866

Dr. Elaine Mardis
$
57,500

 

 
6,000

 
 
$
63,500

 
9,866

Lawrence A. Rosen
$
57,500

 
25,000

 

 
 
$
82,500

 
9,866

Elizabeth E. Tallett
$
57,500

 
18,000

 
21,000

 
 
$
96,500

 
9,866

 ____________________

57


(1) Prof. Dr. Manfred Karobath was a member of the Supervisory Board since 2000 and did not stand for re-election at the Company’s Annual General Meeting in June 2018.
(2) Supervisory Directors are reimbursed for travel costs and for any value-added tax to be paid on their remuneration. These reimbursements are excluded from the amounts presented herein.
Committees of the Supervisory Board
The Supervisory Board has established an Audit Committee, a Compensation Committee, a Selection and Appointment Committee and a Science and Technology Committee from among its members and can establish other committees as deemed beneficial. The Supervisory Board has approved charters under which each of the committees operates. These charters are published on our website www.qiagen.com. The committees are comprised of the following members: 
Name of Supervisory Director(1)
 
Member of Audit
Committee
 
Member of
Compensation Committee
 
Member of Selection 
and Appointment 
Committee
 
Member of Science
and Technology Committee
Stéphane Bancel
 
l
 
l
 
 
 
l
Dr. Håkan Björklund
 
 
 
l
 
l
(Chairman)
 
 
Dr. Metin Colpan
 
 
 
 
 
l
 
l
(Chairman)
Dr. Ross L. Levine
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
l
Dr. Elaine Mardis
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
l
Lawrence A. Rosen
 
l
(Chairman)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Elizabeth E. Tallett
 
l
 
l
(Chairwoman)
 
l
 
 
___________________
(1) Prof. Dr. Manfred Karobath served as a member of the Compensation Committee, as a member of the Science and Technology Committee and as the Chairman of the Selection and Appointment Committee until June 2018.
We believe that all of our Supervisory Directors meet the independence requirements set forth in the Dutch Corporate Governance Code (the Dutch Code). We further believe that all Supervisory Board Directors qualify as independent under the independence standards set forth in the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) Listed Company Manual. Pursuant to the NYSE rules, a majority of the Supervisory Directors must qualify as independent, as defined in the Rules.
Audit Committee
The Audit Committee currently consists of three members, Mr. Rosen (Chairman), Ms. Tallett and Mr. Bancel, and meets at least quarterly. The Audit Committee members are appointed by the Supervisory Board and serve for a term of one year. We believe that all members of our Audit Committee meet the independence requirements as set forth in Rule 10A-3 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the New York Stock Exchange Listed Company Manual. The Board has designated Mr. Rosen as an “audit committee financial expert” as that term is defined in the United States Securities and Exchange Commission rules adopted pursuant to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and as defined in provisions III.3.2 and III.5.7 of the Dutch Code. The Audit Committee performs a self-evaluation of its activities on an annual basis.
The Audit Committee's primary duties and responsibilities include, among other things, to serve as an independent and objective party to monitor QIAGEN's accounting and financial reporting process and internal risk management, control and compliance systems. The Audit Committee also is directly responsible for proposing the external auditor to the Supervisory Board, which then proposes the appointment of the external auditor to the General Meeting. Further, the Audit Committee is responsible for the compensation and oversight of QIAGEN’s external auditor and for providing an open avenue of communication among the external auditor as well as the Management Board and the Supervisory Board. Our Internal Audit department operates under the direct responsibility of the Audit Committee. Further, the Audit Committee is responsible to establish procedures to allow for the confidential and or anonymous submission by employees of concerns. Additionally, this includes the receipt, retention and treatment of submissions received regarding accounting, internal accounting controls, or auditing matters. The Audit Committee discusses our financial accounting and reporting principles and policies and the adequacy of our internal accounting, financial and operating controls and procedures with the external auditor and management; considers and approves any recommendations regarding changes to our accounting policies and processes; reviews with management and the external auditor our quarterly earnings reports prior to their release to the press; and reviews the quarterly and annual reports (reported on Forms 6-K and 20-F) to be furnished to or filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission

58


and the Deutsche Boerse. The Audit Committee met seven times in 2018 and met with the external auditor excluding members of the Managing Board in July 2018. The Audit Committee reviews major financial risk exposures, pre-approves related-party transactions between the Company and Supervisory Board or Managing Board, and reviews any legal matter including compliance topics that could have a significant impact on the financial statements.
Compensation Committee
The Compensation Committee’s primary duties and responsibilities include, among other things, the preparation of a proposal for the Supervisory Board concerning the Remuneration Policy for the Managing Board to be adopted by the General Meeting, the preparation of a proposal concerning the individual compensation of Managing Board members to be adopted by the Supervisory Board and the preparation of the Remuneration Report on compensation policies for the Managing Board to be adopted by the Supervisory Board. The Compensation Committee reviews and approves all equity-based compensation, reviews and approves the annual salaries, bonuses and other benefits of executive officers, and reviews general policies relating to employee compensation and benefits. The Remuneration Report reviews the implementation of the Remuneration Policy in the most recent year and provides an outline of the Remuneration Policy for the future. The Compensation Committee engages external consultants to ensure that the overall remuneration levels are benchmarked regularly, against a selected group of companies and key markets in which QIAGEN operates. The Compensation Committee currently consists of three members, Ms. Tallett (Chairwoman), Mr. Bancel and Dr. Björklund. Members are appointed by the Supervisory Board and serve for a term of one year. The Compensation Committee met five times in 2018.
Selection and Appointment Committee
The Selection and Appointment (Nomination) Committee is primarily responsible for the preparation of selection criteria and appointment procedures for members of the Supervisory Board and Managing Board as well as the periodic evaluation of the scope and composition of the Managing Board and the Supervisory Board, including the profile of the Supervisory Board. Additionally, the Selection and Appointment Committee periodically evaluates the functioning of individual members of the Managing Board and Supervisory Board, reporting these results to our Supervisory Board. It also proposes the (re-)appointments of members of our Managing Board and Supervisory Board and supervises the policy of our Managing Board in relation to selection and appointment criteria for senior management. Current members of the Selection and Appointment Committee are Dr. Björklund (Chairman), Dr. Colpan, and Ms. Tallett. Members are appointed by the Supervisory Board and serve for a one-year term. The Selection and Appointment Committee did not meet in 2018.
Science and Technology Committee
The Science and Technology Committee is primarily responsible for reviewing and monitoring research and development projects, programs, budgets, infrastructure management and overseeing the management risks related to the Company's portfolio and information technology platforms. The Science and Technology Committee provides understanding, clarification and validation of the fundamental technical basis of the Company's businesses in order to enable the Supervisory Board to make informed, strategic business decisions and vote on related matters, and to guide the Managing Board to ensure that powerful, global, world-class science is developed, practiced and leveraged throughout the Company to create shareholder value. The current members of the Science and Technology Committee are Dr. Colpan (Chairman), Dr. Levine, Mr. Bancel and Dr. Mardis. Members are appointed by the Supervisory Board and serve for a term of one year. The Science and Technology Committee met four times in 2018.

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Share Ownership
The following table sets forth certain information as of January 31, 2019 concerning the ownership of Common Shares by our directors and officers. In preparing the following table, we have relied on information furnished by such persons.
 
Shares Beneficially Owned (1)
Name and Country of Residence
 Number (2)
 
Percent Ownership
Peer M. Schatz, Germany
2,732,805

(3)
1.21
%
Roland Sackers, Germany
40,000

(4)
*

Stéphane Bancel, United States
4,429

(5)
*

Dr. Håkan Björklund, Sweden

 

Dr. Metin Colpan, Germany
3,539,784

(6)
1.57
%
Dr. Ross L. Levine, United States

 

Dr. Elaine Mardis, United States

(7)

Lawrence A. Rosen, United States

(8)

Elizabeth Tallett, United States
16,103

(9)
*

 ____________________
 * Indicates that the person beneficially owns less than 0.5% of the Common Shares issued and outstanding as of January 31, 2019.
(1)
The number of Common Shares outstanding as of January 31, 2019 was 225,512,336. The persons and entities named in the table have sole voting and investment power with respect to all shares shown as beneficially owned by them and have the same voting rights as shareholders with respect to Common Shares.
(2)
Does not include Common Shares subject to options or awards held by such persons at January 31, 2019. See footnotes below for information regarding options now exercisable or that could become exercisable within 60 days of the date of this table.
(3)
Does not include 505,524 shares issuable upon the exercise of options now exercisable having exercise prices ranging from $15.59 to $22.25 per share. Options expire in increments during the period between February 2020 and February 2023. Does not include 386,571 shares issuable upon the release of unvested stock awards that could become releasable within 60 days from the date of this table. Includes 1,477,171 shares held by PS Capital Management, of which Mr. Schatz is the sole stockholder. 350,000 of the shares beneficially owned by Mr. Schatz have been pledged by him as security for an obligation.
(4)
Does not include 135,739 shares issuable upon the exercise of options now exercisable having exercise prices ranging from $15.59 to $22.25 per share. Options expire in increments during the period between February 2020 and February 2023. Does not include 125,688 shares issuable upon the release of unvested stock awards that could become releasable within 60 days from the date of this table.
(5)
Does not include 10,296 shares issuable upon the release of unvested stock awards that could become releasable within 60 days from the date of this table.
(6)
Does not include 7,893 shares issuable upon the exercise of options now exercisable having exercise prices ranging from $15.59 to $22.43 per share. Options expire in increments during the period between February 2019 and February 2022. Includes 2,741,579 shares held by CC Verwaltungs GmbH, of which Dr. Colpan is the sole stockholder and 770,370 shares held by Colpan GbR. Does not include 10,833 shares issuable upon the release of unvested stock awards that could become releasable within 60 days from the date of this table.
(7)
Does not include 4,296 shares issuable upon the release of unvested stock awards that could become releasable within 60 days from the date of this table.
(8)
Does not include 10,296 shares issuable upon the release of unvested stock awards that could become releasable within 60 days from the date of this table.
(9)
Does not include 1,563 shares issuable upon the exercise of options now exercisable having exercise prices of $15.59 per share. Options expire on February 2022. Does not include 10,296 shares issuable upon the release of unvested stock awards that could become releasable within 60 days from the date of this table.

60


The following table sets forth the options of our officers and directors as of January 31, 2019:
Name
Total Vested
Options
 
Expiration Dates
 
Exercise Prices
Peer M. Schatz
505,524

 
2/26/2020 to 2/28/2023
 
$15.59 to $22.25
Roland Sackers
135,739

 
2/26/2020 to 2/28/2023
 
$15.59 to $22.25
Dr. Metin Colpan
7,893

 
2/27/2019 to 2/28/2022
 
$15.59 to $22.43
Elizabeth E. Tallett
1,563

 
2/28/2022
 
$15.59
Employees
As of December 31, 2018, we employed 4,952 individuals, of which 21% worked in research and development, 40% in sales, 22% in production/logistics, 6% in marketing and 11% in administration. 
Region
Research &
Development
 
Sales
 
Production
 
Marketing
 
Administration
 
Total
Americas
231

 
559

 
277

 
77

 
86

 
1,230

Europe, Middle East & Africa
775

 
762

 
656

 
155

 
322

 
2,670

Asia Pacific & Rest of World
50

 
669

 
134

 
76

 
123

 
1,052

December 31, 2018
1,056

 
1,990

 
1,067

 
308

 
531

 
4,952

At December 31, 2017 and 2016, we employed 4,688 and 4,684 individuals, respectively. Management believes that its relations with regional labor unions and employees are good.
Stock Plans
We adopted the QIAGEN N.V. Amended and Restated 2005 Stock Plan (the 2005 Plan) which was approved by our shareholders on June 14, 2005. The 2005 Plan expired by its terms in April 2015 and no further awards will be granted under the 2005 Plan. On June 25, 2014, our shareholders approved the QIAGEN N.V. 2014 Stock Plan (the 2014 Plan), which replaced the 2005 Plan in April 2015. An aggregate of 16.7 million Common Shares were reserved for issuance pursuant to the 2014 Plan, subject to certain antidilution adjustments. We issue Treasury Shares to satisfy option exercises and award releases and had approximately 19.9 million Common Shares reserved and available for issuance under the 2005 and 2014 Plans at December 31, 2018.
Pursuant to the 2014 Plan, stock rights, which include options to purchase our Common Shares, stock grants and stock-based awards, may be granted to employees and consultants of QIAGEN and its subsidiaries and to Supervisory Directors. Options granted pursuant to the 2014 Plan may either be incentive stock options within the meaning of Section 422 of the United States Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the Code), or non-qualified stock options. Options granted to members of the Supervisory Board and the Managing Board must have an exercise price that is higher than the market price at the time of grant. Generally, the stock rights and incentive stock options, as well as non-qualified options, stock grants and stock-based awards have terms of up to five or ten years, subject to earlier termination in the event of death, disability or other termination of employment. The vesting and exercisability of certain stock rights will be accelerated in the event of a Change of Control, as defined in the agreements under the 2014 Plan.
The Plan is administered by the Compensation Committee of the Supervisory Board, which selects participants from among eligible employees, consultants and directors and determines the number of shares subject to the stock-based award, the length of time the award will remain outstanding, the manner and time of the award's vesting, the price per share subject to the award and other terms and conditions of the award consistent with the Plan. The Compensation Committee's decisions are subject to the approval of the Supervisory Board.
The Compensation Committee has the power, subject to Supervisory Board approval, to interpret the plans and to adopt such rules and regulations (including the adoption of “sub plans” applicable to participants in specified jurisdictions) as it may deem necessary or appropriate. The Compensation Committee or the Supervisory Board may at any time amend the plans in any respect, subject to Supervisory Board approval, and except that (i) no amendment that would adversely affect the rights of any participant under any option previously granted may be made without such participant's consent and (ii) no amendment shall be effective prior to shareholder approval to the extent such approval is required to ensure favorable tax treatment for incentive

61


stock options or to ensure compliance with Rule 16b-3 under the United States Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the Exchange Act) at such times as any participants are subject to Section 16 of the Exchange Act.
As of January 31, 2019, there were 0.9 million options outstanding with exercise prices ranging between $14.91 and $23.16 and expiring between February 27, 2019 and October 31, 2023. The exercise price of the options is the fair market value of the Common Shares as of the date of grant or a premium above fair market value. Additionally, there were 8.3 million stock unit awards outstanding as of January 31, 2019. These awards will be released between February 15, 2019 and May 31, 2028. As of January 31, 2019, options to purchase 0.7 million Common Shares and 3.8 million stock unit awards were held by the officers and directors of QIAGEN, as a group.

Item 7.
Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions
The following table sets forth certain information as of December 31, 2018, concerning the ownership of Common Shares of each holder of greater than 5% ownership. None of these holders have any different voting rights than other holders of our Common Shares.
 
Shares Beneficially Owned
Name and Country of Residence
Number
 
Percent Ownership (1)
BlackRock, Inc., United States
21,835,286

(2)
9.68
%
PRIMECAP Management Company, United States
15,905,399

(3)
7.05
%
Massachusetts Financial Services Company, United States
13,110,410

(4)
5.81
%
 ____________________
(1)
The percentage ownership was calculated based on 225,509,286 Common Shares outstanding as of December 31, 2018.
(2)
Of the 21,835,286 shares attributed to BlackRock, Inc., it has sole voting power over 20,049,694 and sole dispositive power over all 21,835,286 shares. This information is based solely on the Schedule 13G filed by BlackRock, Inc. with the Securities and Exchange Commission on February 6, 2019, which reported ownership as of December 31, 2018.
(3)
Of the 15,905,399 shares attributed to PRIMECAP Management Company, it has sole voting power over 7,478,790 and sole dispositive power over all 15,905,399 shares. This information is based solely on the Schedule 13G filed by PRIMECAP Management Company with the Securities and Exchange Commission on February 8, 2019, which reported ownership as of December 31, 2018.
(4)
Of the 13,110,410 shares attributed to Massachusetts Financial Services Company, it has sole voting power over 10,185,707 and sole dispositive power over all 13,110,410 shares. This information is based solely on the Schedule 13G filed by Massachusetts Financial Services Company with the Securities and Exchange Commission on February 13, 2019, which reported ownership as of December 31, 2018.
Our common stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange in the United States and on the Prime Standard Segment of the Frankfurt Stock Exchange in Germany. A significant portion of our shares are held electronically in the account of a stockbroker, therefore we generally have no way of determining who our shareholders are, their geographical location or how many shares a particular shareholder owns. As of January 31, 2019, there were 119 shareholders of record of our Common Shares.
Control of Registrant
To our knowledge, we are not directly or indirectly owned or controlled by another corporation, by any foreign government, or by any other natural or legal person. As of January 31, 2019, the officers and directors of QIAGEN as a group beneficially owned 6.3 million Common Shares, or 2.81% of the then outstanding Common Shares.
Related Party Transactions
For information on related party transactions, see Note 23 "Related Party Transactions" of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

Item 8.
Financial Information
See Item 18.
Legal Proceedings

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For information on legal proceedings, see Note 19 "Commitments and Contingencies" of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
While no assurances can be given regarding the outcome of proceedings described in Note 19, based on information currently available, we believe that the resolution of these matters is unlikely to have a material adverse effect on our financial position or results of future operations for QIAGEN N.V. as a whole. However, because of the nature and inherent uncertainties of litigation, should the outcomes be unfavorable, certain aspects of our business, financial condition, and results of operations and cash flows could be materially adversely affected.
Statement of Policy on Dividend Distribution
We have not paid any dividends on our Common Shares since our inception and do not intend to pay any dividends on our Common Shares in the foreseeable future. We intend to retain our earnings, if any, for the development of our business.
Disclosure pursuant to Section 219 of the Iran Threat Reduction & Syria Human Rights Act (ITRA)
We conduct limited business with certain Iranian entities which contributed $2.7 million or approximately 0.2% of our consolidated net sales in 2018. Although these activities are compliant with applicable law and not financially material, the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012 (the "Act") requires us to include the following disclosures in this report. Sales consisted of our consumables and instrumentation products. U.S. affiliates, or foreign affiliates controlled by U.S. affiliates, are not involved in these sales activities and we have not knowingly conducted a transaction or dealt with a person or entity designated in U.S. Executive Orders No. 13224 and 13382. No business has been transacted with the Government of Iran as defined in the Act. We do not believe any of our activities are sanctionable under the Iran Sanctions Act or the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act of 2010. In light of the nature of the products concerned, we do not currently intend to cease our commercial operations with Iranian entities.

Item 9.
The Offer and Listing
Effective January 10, 2018, our Common Shares began trading on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) under the symbol QGEN. Prior to that, from July 3, 2006 until January 9, 2018, our Common Shares were traded on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol QGEN. Previously, since February 15, 2005, our Common Shares had been quoted on the NASDAQ National Market under the symbol QGEN. Prior to that, since June 27, 1996, our Common Shares had been quoted on the NASDAQ National Market under the symbol QGENF. The following tables set forth the annual high and low sale prices for the last five years, the quarterly high and low sale prices for the last two years, and the monthly high and low sale prices for the last six months of our Common Shares on the NYSE and NASDAQ Global Select, as applicable.
 
High ($)
 
Low ($)
Annual:
 
 
 
2014
25.32

 
19.46

2015
28.53

 
22.11

2016
28.84

 
19.94

2017
36.34

 
27.40

2018
39.45

 
30.78


63


 
 
High ($)
 
Low ($)
Quarterly 2017:
 
 
 
First Quarter
30.25

 
27.40

Second Quarter
35.26

 
27.74

Third Quarter
34.76

 
31.02

Fourth Quarter
36.34

 
30.20

Quarterly 2018:
 
 
 
First Quarter
34.79

 
30.78

Second Quarter
37.61

 
31.10

Third Quarter
39.45

 
35.57

Fourth Quarter
38.27

 
32.33

Quarterly 2019:
 
 
 
First Quarter (through February 28, 2019)
39.15

 
33.52

 
 
 
 
 
High ($)
 
Low ($)
Monthly:
 
 
 
September 2018
38.57

 
37.14

October 2018
38.27

 
33.02

November 2018
37.44

 
33.45

December 2018
36.55

 
32.33

January 2019
37.59

 
33.52

February 2019
39.15

 
35.72

From September 25, 1997, to December 31, 2002, our Common Shares were traded on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange Neuer Markt under the symbol QIA and with the security code number 901626. As of January 1, 2003, the trading of our Common Shares was transferred to the Prime Standard Segment of the Frankfurt Stock Exchange, where QIAGEN is a member of the TecDAX, an index of the 30 leading technology companies in Germany not included in the benchmark DAX index. In addition with the listing in TecDAX, QIAGEN is also a member of MDAX effective September 24, 2018, due to reorganization of German stock market indices. MDAX is an index of the 60 largest companies in Germany after the 30 largest companies included in DAX. The following table sets forth the annual high and low sale prices for the last five years, the quarterly high and low sale prices for the last two years, and the monthly high and low sale prices for the last six months of our Common Shares on the Prime Standard.
 
High (EUR)
 
Low (EUR)
Annual:
 
 
 
2014
19.64

 
14.38

2015
26.05

 
18.72

2016
27.26

 
17.76

2017
31.52

 
25.41

2018
34.05

 
25.22


64


 
High (EUR)
 
Low (EUR)
Quarterly 2017:
 
 
 
First Quarter
28.50

 
25.41

Second Quarter
31.52

 
26.03

Third Quarter
30.02

 
25.89

Fourth Quarter
30.08

 
25.78

Quarterly 2018:
 
 
 
First Quarter
28.33

 
25.42

Second Quarter
32.36

 
25.22

Third Quarter
34.05

 
30.64

Fourth Quarter
33.05

 
29.01

Quarterly 2019:
 
 
 
First Quarter (through February 28, 2019)
34.53

 
29.19

 
 
High (EUR)
 
Low (EUR)
Monthly:
 
 
 
September 2018
33.62

 
31.54

October 2018
33.05

 
29.22

November 2018
32.84

 
29.30

December 2018
32.32

 
29.01

January 2019
33.01

 
29.19

February 2019
34.53

 
31.31


Item 10.
Additional Information
Memorandum and Articles of Association
We are a public company with limited liability (naamloze vennootschap) incorporated under Dutch law and registered with the Dutch Trade Register under file number 12036979. Set forth below is a summary of certain provisions of our full Articles of Association, as lastly amended on January 24, 2017 (the Articles), and Dutch law, where appropriate. The Dutch Corporate Governance Code, (the Dutch Code), contains principles of good corporate governance and best practice provisions that regulate relations between the Managing Board, the Supervisory Board and the Shareholders. The principles and provisions are aimed at defining responsibilities for long-term value creation, risk control, effective management and supervision, remuneration and the relationship with Shareholders, including the General Meeting and stakeholders. The Dutch Code was lastly amended in 2016. This amended Dutch Code is applicable as from January 1, 2017 and replaces the 2008 Code. A listed company should either comply with, or if not, explain in its annual report why and to what extent it does not comply, with the principles of the Dutch Code. The Dutch Code has been taken into account in the summary below.
This summary does not purport to be complete and is qualified in its entirety by reference to the Articles, Dutch Law and the Dutch Code.
Corporate Purpose
Our objectives include, without limitation, the performance of activities in the biotechnology industry, as well as incorporating, acquiring, participating in, financing, managing and having any other interest in companies or enterprises of any nature, raising and lending funds and such other acts as may be conducive to our business.
Managing Directors
QIAGEN shall be managed by a Managing Board consisting of one or more Managing Directors under the supervision of the Supervisory Board. The Managing Board is responsible for our continuity and our affiliated enterprise. The Managing Board focuses on our long-term value creation and our affiliated enterprise, and takes into account our stakeholders' interests that are relevant in this context, which includes but is not limited to our shareholders. Managing Directors shall be appointed by the General Meeting upon the joint meeting of the Supervisory Board and the Managing Board (Joint Meeting), having made a binding nomination for each vacancy. However, the General Meeting may at all times overrule the binding nature of such a

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nomination by a resolution adopted by at least a two-thirds majority of the votes cast, if such majority represents more than half the issued share capital. This is different from the provisions of many American corporate statutes, including the Delaware General Corporation Law, which give the directors of a corporation greater authority in choosing the executive officers of a corporation. Under our Articles, the General Meeting may suspend or dismiss a managing director at any time. The Supervisory Board shall also at all times be entitled to suspend (but not to dismiss) a Managing Director. The Articles provide that the Supervisory Board may adopt management rules governing the internal organization of the Managing Board.
Furthermore, the Supervisory Board shall determine the salary, the bonus, if any, and the other compensation terms and conditions of employment of the Managing Directors within the scope of the remuneration policy. The remuneration policy of the Managing Board has been adopted in our Annual General Meeting on June 25, 2014.
Resolutions of the Managing Board shall be validly adopted, if adopted by simple majority of votes, at least one of whom voting in favour of the proposal must be the Chairman. Each Managing Director has the right to cast one vote.
Under Dutch law, in the event that there is a conflict of interest between a Managing Director and us and our business on a certain matter, that Managing Director shall not participate in the discussions and voting on that matter. If all our Managing Directors have a conflict of interest, such resolution shall be adopted by the Supervisory Board. If all Supervisory Directors have a conflict of interest as well, the General Meeting will be authorized to resolve on such matter. According to the Dutch Code, any conflict of interest or apparent conflict of interest between the company and Managing Directors should be prevented. To avoid conflicts of interest, adequate measures should be taken. Under the Dutch Code, the Supervisory Board is responsible for the decision-making on dealing with conflicts of interest regarding Managing Directors, Supervisory Directors and majority shareholders in relation to us. A Managing Director should report any potential conflict of interest in a transaction that is of material significance to the Company and/or to such Managing Director to the Chairman of the Supervisory Board and to the other members of the Managing Board without delay. The Supervisory Board should decide, outside the presence of the Managing director, whether there is a conflict of interest.
Supervisory Directors
The Supervisory Board shall be responsible for supervising the policy pursued by the Managing Board and our general course of affairs. Under our Articles, the Supervisory Directors are required to serve our interests and our business and the interest of all stakeholders (which includes but is not limited to our shareholders) in fulfilling their duties. The Supervisory Board shall consist of such number of members as the Joint Meeting may from time to time determine, with a minimum of three members. The Supervisory Directors shall be appointed by the General Meeting upon the Joint Meeting having made a binding nomination for each vacancy. If during a financial year a vacancy occurs in the Supervisory Board, the Supervisory Board may appoint a Supervisory Director who will cease to hold office at the next Annual General Meeting. Under Dutch law, in the event that there is a conflict of interest between a Supervisory Director and us and our business on a certain matter, that Supervisory Director shall not participate in the discussions and voting on that matter. Under the Dutch Code, a Supervisory Director should report any conflict of interest or potential conflict of interest in a transaction that is of material significance to the Company and/or to such Supervisory Director to the Chairman of the Supervisory Board without delay. The Supervisory Board should decide, outside the presence of the Supervisory Director concerned, whether there is a conflict of interest. If all Supervisory Directors have a conflict of interest, the relevant resolution shall be adopted by the General Meeting. Decisions to enter into transactions under which a Supervisory Director would have a conflict of interest that are of material significance to QIAGEN and/or to the Supervisory Director concerned, require the approval of the Supervisory Board.
Under our Articles, the General Meeting determines the compensation of the Supervisory Directors upon the proposal of the Compensation Committee. Under the Dutch Code, any shares held by a Supervisory Director in the Company on whose board he sits should be long-term investments.
Under our Articles, the General Meeting may suspend or dismiss a Supervisory Director at any time. This is different from the provisions of many American corporate statutes, including the Delaware General Corporation Law, which provides that directors may vote to fill vacancies on the board of directors of a corporation.
Liability of Managing Directors and Supervisory Directors
Under Dutch law, as a general rule, Managing Directors and Supervisory Directors are not liable for obligations we incur. Under certain circumstances, however, they may become liable, either towards QIAGEN (internal liability) or to others (external liability), although some exceptions are described below.
Liability towards QIAGEN
Failure of a Managing or Supervisory Director to perform his or her duties does not automatically lead to liability. Liability is only incurred in the case of a clear, indisputable shortcoming about which no reasonably judging business-person would have any doubt. In addition, the Managing or Supervisory Director must be deemed to have been grossly negligent. Managing Directors are jointly and severally liable for failure of the Managing Board as a whole, but an individual Managing Director

66


will not be held liable if he or she is determined not to have been responsible for the mismanagement and has not been negligent in preventing its consequences. Supervisory Directors are jointly and severally liable for failure of the Supervisory Board as a whole, but an individual Supervisory Director will not be held liable if he or she is determined not to have been responsible for the mismanagement and has not been negligent in preventing its consequences.
Liability for Misrepresentation in Annual Accounts
Managing and Supervisory Directors are also jointly and severally liable to any third party for damages suffered as a result of misrepresentation in the annual accounts, management commentary or interim statements of QIAGEN, although a Managing or Supervisory Director will not be held liable if found not to be personally responsible for the misrepresentation. Moreover, a Managing or Supervisory Director may be found to be criminally liable if he or she deliberately publishes false annual accounts or deliberately allows the publication of such false annual accounts.
Tort Liability
Under Dutch law, there can be liability if one has committed a tort (onrechtmatige daad) against another person. Although there is no clear definition of “tort” under Dutch law, breach of a duty of care towards a third party is generally considered to be a tort. Therefore, a Dutch corporation may be held liable by any third party under the general rule of Dutch laws regarding tort claims. In exceptional cases, Managing Directors and Supervisory Directors have been found liable on the basis of tort under Dutch common law, but it is generally difficult to hold a Managing or Supervisory Director personally liable for a tort claim. Shareholders cannot base a tort claim on any losses which derive from and coincide with losses we suffered. In such cases, only we can sue the Managing or Supervisory Directors.
Criminal Liability
Under Dutch law, if a legal entity has committed a criminal offence, criminal proceedings may be instituted against the legal entity itself as well as against those who gave order to or were in charge of the forbidden act. As a general rule, it is held that a Managing Director is only criminally liable if he or she played a reasonably active role in the criminal act.
Indemnification
Article 27 of our Articles provides that we shall indemnify every person who is or was a Managing Director or Supervisory Director against all expenses (including attorneys’ fees) judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement with respect to any threatened pending or completed action, suit or proceeding as well as against expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred in connection with the defense or settlement of an action or proceeding, if such person acted in good faith and in a manner he reasonably could believe to be in or not opposed to our best interests. An exception is made in respect of any claim, issue or matter as to which such person shall have been adjudged to be liable for gross negligence or willful misconduct in the performance of his or her duty to us.
Classes of Shares
The authorized classes of our shares consist of Common Shares, Financing Preference Shares and Preference Shares. No Financing Preference Shares or Preference Shares have been issued.
Common Shares
Common Shares are issued in registered form only. Until January 24, 2017, Common Shares were available either without issue of a share certificate, or Type I shares, or with issue of a share certificate, or Type II shares, in either case in the form of an entry in the share register. At the discretion of the Supervisory Board, Type I shares may be issued and the holders of such Type I shares will be registered in either our shareholders register with American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, or New York Transfer Agent, our transfer agent and registrar in New York, or our shareholder register with TMF FundServices B.V., Westblaak 89, NL-3012 KG Rotterdam, The Netherlands. The Type II shares were registered with our New York Transfer Agent.
The transfer of registered shares requires that we issue a written instrument of transfer and the written acknowledgment of such transfer by us or the New York Transfer Agent (in our name). Until January 24, 2017 the corresponding share certificates of Type II Shares had to be delivered to us or to the New York Transfer Agent (in our name). Acknowledgement of the transfer of Type II shares took place by us or the New York Transfer Agent (in our name) by endorsement on the share certificate or by issuance of a new share certificate to the transferee, at the discretion of the Managing Board.