10-K 1 avdl201710k.htm 10-K Document


UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K

ý ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017           

Commission file number: 000-28508


AVADEL PHARMACEUTICALS PLC
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Ireland
 
98-1341933
State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization
 
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
 
 
Block 10-1, Blanchardstown Corporate Park
Ballycoolin
Dublin 15, Ireland
 
Not Applicable
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
(Zip Code)
 
 
 
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: +011-1-485-1200
 
 
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
American Depositary Shares*
Ordinary Shares**
 
NASDAQ Stock Market LLC
(NASDAQ Global Market)
Title of each class
 
Name of exchange on which registered
 
 
 
 
*
American Depositary Shares may be evidenced by American Depository Receipts. Each American Depositary Share represents one (1) Ordinary Share.
 
**
Nominal value $0.01 per share. Not for trading, but only in connection with the listing of American Depositary Shares.
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes   ¨     No   ý

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.   Yes   ¨     No   ý

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes   ý     No   ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Website, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes   ý     No   ¨
 
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer”, “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company”, and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
 
Large accelerated filer ¨     Accelerated filer ý
Non-accelerated filer ¨     Smaller reporting company ¨
Emerging growth company ¨
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes   ¨     No   ý
 
The aggregate market value of voting stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter was $434,848,871 based on the closing sale price of the registrant’s American Depositary Shares as reported by the Nasdaq Global Market on June 30, 2017. Such market value excludes 659,963 ordinary shares, $0.01 per share nominal value, held by each officer and director and by shareholders that the registrant concluded were affiliates of the registrant on that date. Exclusion of such shares should not be construed to indicate that any such person possesses the power, direct or indirect, to direct or cause the direction of the management or policies of the registrant or that such person is controlled by or under common control with the registrant.

The number of the registrant’s ordinary shares, $0.01 per share nominal value, outstanding as of March 9, 2018 was 37,952,119.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of either (a) a definitive proxy statement involving the election of directors or (b) an amendment to this Form 10-K, either of which will be filed within 120 days after December 31, 2017, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 
Page #
 
 
 
 
 
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
 
 
 
 
 
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
 
 
 
 
 
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
 
 
 
 
 
Item 15.
 
 
 



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Cautionary Disclosure Regarding Forward-Looking Statements 
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements. We may make additional written or oral forward-looking statements from time to time in filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission or otherwise. The words “will,” “may,” “believe,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “project” and similar expressions, and the negatives thereof, identify forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date the statement is made. Such forward-looking statements are within the meaning of that term in Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 (the “Securities Act”) and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the “Exchange Act”). Although we believe that our forward-looking statements are based on reasonable assumptions within the bounds of our knowledge of our business and operations, our business is subject to significant risks and there can be no assurance that actual results of our research, development and commercialization activities and our results of operations will not differ materially from our expectations. Factors that could cause actual results to differ from expectations in our forward-looking statements include, among others, those specified in “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including: 
Risks relating to our license agreement with Serenity Pharmaceuticals, LLC (“Serenity”) including:
consumer purchases of Noctiva are subject to risks related to reimbursement from government agencies and other third parties;
our internal analyses may overstate the market opportunity in the United States for the drug desmopressin acetate (the “Drug”) or we may not effectively exploit such market opportunity;
significant safety or drug interaction problems could arise with respect to the Drug;
we may not successfully increase awareness of nocturia and the potential benefits of the Drug;
patents and proprietary rights associated with the Drug may not provide adequate protection;
patents licensed to us under our license agreement with Serenity that cover the Drug are subject to litigation and if Serenity is unsuccessful in defending this litigation, we may lose its exclusive rights to such patents; and
the need for our management to focus attention on the development and commercialization of the Drug could cause our ongoing business operations to suffer.
we depend on a small number of products and customers for the majority of our revenues and the loss of any one of these products or customers could reduce our revenues significantly.
we may depend on partnership arrangements or strategic alliances for the commercialization of some of our products, and the failure of any third party to fulfill its duties under such an arrangement or alliance could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operation.
our products may not reach the commercial market for a number of reasons, which would adversely affect our future revenues.
we must invest substantial sums in research and development (“R&D”) in order to remain competitive, and we may not fully recover these investments.
we depend upon a limited number of third parties to manufacture our products and to deliver certain raw materials used in our products and the failure of any such third party to efficiently manufacture such products or to timely deliver sufficient quantities of raw materials, as applicable, could have a material adverse effect on our business.
if our competitors develop and market technologies or products that are more effective or safer than ours, or obtain regulatory approval for and market such technologies or products before we do, our commercial opportunity will be diminished or eliminated.
if we cannot keep pace with the rapid technological change in our industry, we may lose business, and our products could become obsolete or noncompetitive.
if we cannot adequately protect our intellectual property and proprietary information, we may be unable to sustain a competitive advantage.
our effective tax rate could be highly volatile and could adversely affect our operating results.
we depend on key personnel to execute our business plan and the loss of any one or more of these key personnel may limit our ability to effectively pursue our business plan.
Forward-looking statements are subject to inherent risks and uncertainties, some of which cannot be predicted or quantified. Future events and actual results could differ materially from those set forth in, contemplated by or underlying the forward-looking statements. We undertake no obligation to update these forward-looking statements as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. You should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements.

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PART I 
Item 1.        Business. 
(Dollar amounts in thousands, except per-share amounts and as otherwise noted)
General Overview
Avadel Pharmaceuticals plc (“Avadel,” the “Company,” “we,” “our,” or “us”) is a branded specialty pharmaceutical company. Avadel’s current revenues are primarily derived from products we market based on first-to-file New Drug Applications (“NDAs”) for pharmaceutical products previously sold in the U.S. without Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) approval (“Unapproved Marketed Products” or “UMDs”). In addition, through the acquisition of patient-focused, innovative products or businesses in the commercial- and or late-stage of development, Avadel seeks to provide solutions for overlooked and unmet medical needs, including our urology product, Noctiva™, which we in-licensed in 2017 and will begin marketing in 2018. Avadel also seeks to develop products that utilize our Micropump® drug delivery technology, such as our narcolepsy product which is in clinical trials.
Avadel’s current commercial portfolio consists of three sterile injectable products, which were previously UMDs, used in the hospital setting, and Noctiva™, a urology product, which is the first and only FDA approved product for the treatment of nocturia due to nocturnal polyuria in adults. Avadel believes that nocturia, the condition of waking two or more times per night to void, represents a large unmet medical need affecting approximately 40 million Americans.
 
Avadel is actively developing a fourth sterile, injectable UMD product for which it expects to file an NDA and seek FDA approval. In addition, Avadel is currently enrolling patients in our REST-ON Phase III clinical trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of FT 218, a once-nightly formulation of sodium oxybate using Micropump®, for the treatment of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and cataplexy in patients suffering from narcolepsy. Narcolepsy is a rare sleep disorder with few approved treatment options. Avadel will continue to strategically evaluate potential UMDs and Micropump® based product candidates for development and approval, and will also look for synergistic acquisition targets to grow our company.

Corporate Information 
The Company was incorporated on December 1, 2015 as an Irish private limited company, and re-registered as an Irish public limited company, or plc, on November 21, 2016. Our principal place of business is located at Block 10-1, Blanchardstown Corporate Park, Ballycoolin, Dublin 15, Ireland. Avadel’s phone number is 011-353-1-485-1200. Our website is www.avadel.com, where we make available free of charge our reports (and any amendments thereto) on Forms 10-K, 10-Q and 8-K as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed with or furnished to the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). These filings are also available to the public at www.sec.gov.
The Company is the successor to Flamel Technologies S.A., a French société anonyme (“Flamel”), as the result of the merger of Flamel with and into the Company which was completed at 11:59:59 p.m., Central Europe Time, on December 31, 2016 (the “Merger”) pursuant to the agreement between Flamel and Avadel entitled Common Draft Terms of Cross-Border Merger dated as of June 29, 2016 (the “Merger Agreement”). Immediately prior to the Merger, the Company was a wholly owned subsidiary of Flamel. In accordance with the Merger Agreement, as a result of the Merger:
Flamel ceased to exist as a separate entity and the Company continued as the surviving entity and assumed all of the assets and liabilities of Flamel.
our authorized share capital is $5,500 divided into 500,000,000 ordinary shares with a nominal value of $0.01 each and 50,000,000 preferred shares with a nominal value of $0.01 each
all outstanding ordinary shares of Flamel, €0.122 nominal value per share, were canceled and exchanged on a one-for-one basis for newly issued ordinary shares of the Company, $0.01 nominal value per share. This change in nominal value of our outstanding shares resulted in our reclassifying $5,937 on our balance sheet from ordinary shares to additional paid-in capital
our Board of Directors is authorized to issue preferred shares on a non-pre-emptive basis, for a maximum period of five years, at which point such an authorization may be renewed by shareholders. The Board of Directors has discretion to dictate terms attached to the preferred shares, including voting, dividend, conversion rights, and priority relative to other classes of shares with respect to dividends and upon a liquidation. 
all outstanding American Depositary Shares (ADSs) representing ordinary shares of Flamel were canceled and exchanged on a one-for-one basis for ADSs representing ordinary shares of the Company.

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Thus, the Merger changed the jurisdiction of our incorporation from France to Ireland, and an ordinary share of the Company held (either directly or represented by an ADS) immediately after the Merger continued to represent the same proportional interest in our equity owned by the holder of a share of Flamel immediately prior to the Merger.
References in this Annual Report on Form 10-K to “Avadel,” the “Company,” “we,” “our,” “us,” and similar terms shall be deemed to be references to Flamel prior to the completion of the Merger, unless the context otherwise requires.
Prior to completion of the Merger, the Flamel ADSs were listed on the Nasdaq Global Market (“Nasdaq”) under the trading symbol “FLML”; and immediately after the Merger the Company’s ADSs were listed for and began trading on Nasdaq on January 3, 2017 under the trading symbol “AVDL.”
Further details about the reincorporation, the Merger and the Merger Agreement are contained in our definitive proxy statement filed with the SEC on July 5, 2016, and elsewhere in this Item 1 under the caption “- The Flamel Merger.”
Under Irish law, the Company can only pay dividends and repurchase shares out of distributable reserves, as discussed further in the Company’s proxy statement filed with the SEC as of July 5, 2016. Upon completion of the Merger, the Company did not have any distributable reserves. On February 15, 2017, the Company filed a petition with the High Court of Ireland seeking the court’s confirmation of a reduction of the Company’s share premium so that it can be treated as distributable reserves for the purposes of Irish law. On March 6, 2017, the High Court issued its order approving the reduction of the Company’s share premium by $317,254 which can be treated as distributable reserves.
The Company currently has five direct wholly owned subsidiaries: Avadel US Holdings, Inc., Flamel Ireland Limited, which conducts business under the name Avadel Ireland, Avadel Investment Company Limited, Avadel Finance Ireland Designated Activity Company and Avadel France Holding SAS. Avadel US Holdings, Inc. is a Delaware corporation, and is the holding entity of Avadel Specialty Pharmaceuticals, LLC, Avadel Legacy Pharmaceuticals, LLC, Avadel Management Corporation, FSC Holding Company and Avadel Operations Company, Inc. Avadel Finance Ireland Designated Activity Company is the holding entity of Avadel Finance Cayman Limited. Flamel Ireland Limited (operating under the trade name Avadel Ireland) is a corporation organized under the laws of Ireland and is where all intellectual property was relocated on December 16, 2014. Avadel France Holding SAS is a société par actions simplifiée, organized under the laws of France and is the holding entity of Avadel Research SAS where Avadel’s R&D activities take place. A complete list of the Company’s subsidiaries can be found in Exhibit 21.1 to this Annual Report on Form 10-K. 
Recent Developments
FT 218 Orphan Drug Designation. In January 2018 Avadel announced that the FDA granted Orphan Drug Designation to our proposed product, FT 218. FT 218, which is currently in a Phase III clinical trial, is intended for the treatment of EDS and cataplexy in patients suffering from narcolepsy. The designation has been granted on the plausible hypothesis that FT 218 may be clinically superior to the only other approved sodium oxybate product. FT 218 is a once-nightly formulation of sodium oxybate using Avadel’s Micropump® technology. Orphan Drug Designation is intended to advance drug development for rare diseases. The FDA provides Orphan Drug Designation to drugs and biologics that demonstrate promise or improvements for the diagnosis and/or treatment of rare diseases or conditions that affect fewer than 200,000 people in the U.S. Following the completion of the clinical trial, if FT 218 is able to adequately demonstrate clinical superiority over the current approved product, Orphan Drug Designation may provide development and commercial incentives for FT 218, including eligibility for a seven-year period of market exclusivity in the U.S., and an exemption from FDA user fees. Additional information regarding FT 218 is set forth elsewhere in this “Business of Avadel” under the caption “– Micropump® Based Products – FT 218.”

Asset Purchase Agreement with Cerecor. On February 12, 2018, Avadel Pharmaceuticals plc (the “Company”), together with its subsidiaries Avadel Pharmaceuticals (USA), Inc., Avadel Pediatrics, Inc., FSC Therapeutics, LLC (“FSC Therapeutics”), and Avadel US Holdings, Inc. (“Holdings”), as the “Sellers,” entered into an asset purchase agreement (the “Purchase Agreement”) with Cerecor, Inc. (“Cerecor”). At the closing under the Purchase Agreement, on February 16, 2018, Cerecor purchased from the Sellers four pediatric commercial stage assets – Karbinal™ ER, Cefaclor, Flexichamber™ and AcipHex® Sprinkle™, together with certain associated business assets – which were held by FSC Therapeutics and FSC Laboratories, Inc., which is also a subsidiary of the Company (collectively “FSC”).  The Company acquired FSC in February 2016 from Deerfield CSF, LLC (“Deerfield CSF”) and certain of its affiliates. Pursuant to the Purchase Agreement, Cerecor assumed the Company’s  remaining payment obligations to Deerfield CSF under the Membership Interest Purchase Agreement, dated as of February 5, 2016, between Holdings, Flamel Technologies SA (the predecessor of the Company) and Deerfield CSF and certain of its affiliates, which payment obligations consist of the following (collectively, the “Assumed Obligations”): (i) a quarterly payment of $263 beginning in July 2018 and ending in October 2020, amounting to an aggregate payment obligation of $2,625; (ii) a payment in January 2021 of $15,263; and (iii) a quarterly royalty payment of 15% on net sales of the FSC products through February 5, 2026 (“FSC Product Royalties”), in an aggregate amount of up to approximately $10,300.  Cerecor also assumed certain contracts and other obligations related to

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the acquired assets, and in that connection Holdings agreed to pay Cerecor certain make-whole payments associated with obligations Cerecor is assuming related to a certain supply contract related to Karbinal™ ER.

License and Development Agreement
 
Also in connection with the closing under the Purchase Agreement, Flamel Ireland Limited, an Irish limited company operating under the trade name of Avadel Ireland (“Avadel Ireland”) and a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company, and Cerecor entered into a license and development agreement (the “License and Development Agreement”) pursuant to which, among other things:

Avadel Ireland will provide Cerecor with four product formulations utilizing Avadel Ireland’s LiquiTime™ technology, and will complete pilot bioequivalence studies for such product formulations within 18 months;
Cerecor will reimburse Avadel Ireland for development costs of the four LiquiTime™ products in excess of $1,000 in the aggregate;
Upon transfer of the four product formulations, Cerecor will assume all remaining development costs and responsibilities for the product development, clinical studies, NDA applications and associated filing fees; and
Upon regulatory approval and commercial launch of any LiquiTime™ products, Cerecor will pay Avadel Ireland quarterly royalties based on a percentage of net sales of any such products in the mid-single. 

Deerfield Guarantee
 
In connection with the closing under the Purchase Agreement, the Company and Holdings provided their guarantee (the “Deerfield Guarantee”) in favor of Deerfield CSF, LLC and certain of its affiliates (“Deerfield”). Under the Deerfield Guarantee, the Company and Holdings guaranteed to Deerfield the payment by Cerecor of the obligations of the Company and certain of its subsidiaries (the “Assumed Obligations”) under the Membership Interest Purchase Agreement between the Company and Deerfield dated February 5, 2016. The Assumed Obligations include (i) a quarterly payment of $263 beginning in July 2018 and ending in October 2020, amounting to an aggregate payment obligation of $2,625; (ii) a payment in January 2021 of $15,263; and (iii) a quarterly royalty payment of 15% on net sales of the FSC products through February 6, 2026 (“FSC Product Royalties”), in an aggregate amount of up to approximately $10,300. In addition, under the Deerfield Guarantee, the Company and Holdings guaranteed that Deerfield would receive certain minimum annual FSC Product Royalties through February 6, 2026 (the “Minimum Royalties”).

Armistice Guarantee
 
In connection with the closing under the Purchase Agreement, Armistice Capital Master Fund, Ltd., the majority shareholder of Cerecor, guaranteed to Holdings the payment by Cerecor of the Assumed Obligations, including the Minimum Royalties.

Issuance of Exchangeable Notes. On February 14, 2018 we announced that our wholly-owned subsidiary, Avadel Finance Cayman Limited (the “Issuer”), priced a $125,000 aggregate principal amount of 4.50% exchangeable senior notes due 2023 (the “Notes”) in a private placement (the “Offering”) to qualified institutional buyers pursuant to Rule 144A under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”). The sale of the Notes closed on February 16, 2018. In connection with the Offering, the Issuer granted the initial purchasers of the Notes a 30-day option to purchase up to an additional $18,750 aggregate principal amount of the Notes, which was fully exercised on February 16, 2018.
Net proceeds from the Notes were $137,719 after deducting the initial purchasers’ discount and estimated offering expenses. We expect to use the net proceeds of the Offering for working capital and general corporate purposes.  We also used cash on-hand to purchase approximately 2.0 million ADSs for $18,000 concurrently with the pricing of the Offering in privately negotiated transactions effected with or through a representative of the initial purchasers or an affiliate of such representative.  The Issuer agreed to purchase such ADSs at a purchase price per ADS equal to the $8.99 per ADS closing price on The Nasdaq Global Market on February 13, 2018.
The Notes are general, unsecured obligations of the Issuer, and are fully and unconditionally guaranteed by Avadel on a senior unsecured basis.  Interest on the Notes will be payable semi-annually in cash in arrears on February 1 and August 1 of each year, beginning on August 1, 2018. The Notes will mature on February 1, 2023, unless earlier exchanged, repurchased or redeemed in accordance with their terms. The Notes will be issued in minimum denominations of $200 and integral multiples of $1 in excess thereof.
Subject to certain conditions and during certain periods, the Notes will be exchangeable at the option of the holders at an initial exchange rate of 92.6956 ADSs per $1 principal amount of Notes, which is equivalent to an initial exchange price of approximately $10.79 per ADS. Such initial exchange price represents a premium of approximately 20% to the $8.99 per ADS closing price on The Nasdaq Global Market on February 13, 2018.  Upon the exchange of any Notes, the Issuer will pay or cause to be delivered, as the case may be, cash, ADSs or a combination of cash and ADSs, at the Issuer’s election.

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Our Business Model 
Avadel executes three primary strategies that allow us to develop and/or license or acquire differentiated branded products for FDA approval and commercialization, principally in the United States.

Business Strengths and Strategies
Our business strengths and strategies include:
Unapproved Marketed Drug (“UMD”) Products
 
In 2006 the FDA announced its Marketed Unapproved Drugs – Compliance Policy Guide with the intention to incentivize pharmaceutical companies to pursue approvals for pharmaceutical products, many of which pre-date the establishment of the FDA. Although these products are not protected by patents or similar intellectual property, the FDA’s Compliance Policy Guide dictates that should NDA approval be granted for any such products via a 505(b)(2) process, the FDA will remove competing unapproved manufacturers until a generic application is approved. Avadel believes that over a thousand unapproved drugs are marketed in the United States today and, while many of these products are outdated therapies, we strategically evaluate those UMD products that are more commonly used as candidates for possible future FDA approval and marketing under our UMD program.

Additional UMD Products. Avadel intends to develop and seek approval for our fourth NDA for a UMD, and intends to develop and seek approval for select other UMD products with large existing markets and limited competition.
 
Avadel believes our strategy to create opportunities to commercialize UMD products in markets with a limited number of competitors may have a limited number of opportunities given the lack of patent protection from competition. Avadel believes this shorter-term strategy may provide us with near term revenue growth and provide cash flows that can be used to fund R&D and inorganic initiatives.
 
To date, Avadel has received FDA approvals for three UMD products which we currently market under the brand names Bloxiverz® (neostigmine methylsulfate injection), Vazculep® (phenylephrine hydrochloride injection) and Akovaz® (ephedrine sulfate injection), each as more particularly described below.
 
Bloxiverz® (neostigmine methylsulfate injection), Bloxiverz’s NDA was filed on July 31, 2012. Bloxiverz was approved by the FDA on May 31, 2013 and was launched in July 2013. Bloxiverz is a drug used intravenously in the operating room for the reversal of the effects of non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents after surgery. Bloxiverz was the first FDA-approved version of neostigmine methylsulfate. Today, neostigmine is one of the two the most frequently used products for the reversal of the effects of other agents used for neuromuscular blocks. There are approximately 2.5 million vials sold annually in the U.S. In the future, sales of Bloxiverz are dependent upon the competitive market dynamics between Avadel and four other competitors in addition to any subsequent ANDA approvals that may occur.
 
Vazculep® (phenylephrine hydrochloride injection) On June 28, 2013, Avadel filed an NDA for Vazculep (phenylephrine hydrochloride injection). The product was approved by the FDA on June 27, 2014 and is indicated for the treatment of clinically important hypotension occurring in the setting of anesthesia. Avadel started shipping Vazculep (in 1mL single use vials, and 5mL and 10mL pharmacy bulk package vials) to wholesalers in October 2014. There are approximately 7 million vials sold annually in the U.S. Vazculep is the only FDA-approved version of phenylephrine hydrochloride to be available in all three vial sizes. Avadel competes against one other manufacturer who commercializes the 1mL single-dose vial. The volume of sales of Vazculep is dependent upon the competitive landscape in the marketplace, and potential for new competitors that may receive generic approvals in the future.
 
Akovaz® (ephedrine sulfate injection). On June 30, 2015, Avadel announced that our third NDA was accepted by the FDA, and was granted approval for Akovaz on April 29, 2016. On August 12, 2016, Avadel launched Akovaz, into a market of approximately 7.5 million vials annually in the U.S. Avadel was the first approved formulation of ephedrine sulfate, an alpha- and beta- adrenergic agonist and a norepinephrine-releasing agent that is indicated for the treatment of clinically important hypotension occurring in the setting of anesthesia. Avadel began shipping the product to wholesalers in August 2016 in cartons of twenty-five 50 mg/mL 1mL single use vials. During 2016 Akovaz was the only FDA approved version of ephedrine sulfate being commercially sold in the U.S. To date, there are three other approved manufacturers of ephedrine sulfate with whom Avadel competes. The volume of sales of Akovaz is dependent upon the competitive landscape in the marketplace, and potential for new competitors that may receive generic approvals in the future.


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Inorganic Growth Through Acquisitions, Licensing, Partnerships and/or Divestitures
 
Avadel currently has a strong balance sheet and intends to explore and pursue appropriate inorganic growth opportunities that may enhance profitability and cash flow and would complement our urology and hospital products, or our sleep-focused product candidate, FT 218. Avadel in-licensed Noctiva™ in September 2017 from Serenity, and in February 2018 Avadel divested four pediatric products to, and entered into a LiquiTime® development agreement with, Cerecor. Avadel also has an ongoing LiquiTime® development partnership with Elan Pharma International Limited (“Elan Pharmaceuticals”) since 2015, described further in this Item 1under the caption “– Other Products Under Development.” Avadel also owns two proprietary drug delivery technologies, Medusa™ and Trigger Lock™, which it has determined are no longer strategically viable for internal development due to the high cost of development and lengthy approval timelines. Avadel will continue to look for opportunities to out-license or divest our Medusa™ and Trigger Lock™ technologies.

Avadel’s most recent in-licensed product, Noctiva™, is urology focused. An outline of the licensing terms can be found in this Item 1 under the caption “– Noctiva™ (desmopressin acetate)” immediately below, and additional information regarding Noctiva may be found elsewhere in this Item 1 under the caption “– Competition and Market Opportunities.”
 
Noctiva™ (desmopressin acetate). On March 3, 2017, Noctiva™ was granted FDA approval and is the first and only product indicated for treatment of nocturia due to nocturnal polyuria (overproduction of urine during the night) in adults who awaken at least two times per night to void. Noctiva™ is an emulsified low-dose vasopressin analog administered through a preservative-free nasal spray 30 minutes before bedtime. Noctiva is approved in two dosage strengths of 0.83 mcg and 1.66 mcg.
 
On September 1, 2017, Avadel’s indirect wholly-owned subsidiary, Avadel Specialty Pharmaceuticals, LLC (the “Avadel Licensee”), entered into an Exclusive License and Assignment Agreement (the “Serenity License Agreement”) with Serenity. Under the terms of the Serenity License Agreement, Serenity granted to the Avadel Licensee an exclusive license, under certain rights of Serenity in and to certain intellectual property owned by Serenity (the “Serenity IP Rights”), to develop and commercialize the drug desmopressin acetate (the “Drug”) in the United States for the treatment of certain medical conditions characterized by abnormalities or disorders in voiding and other urinary functions of a subject to control urination (the “Field”). Such license includes a sublicense to certain intellectual property owned by CPEX Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (“CPEX”) and Reprise Biopharmaceutics, LLC. (“Reprise”). More specifically, (i) pursuant to a license agreement, effective as of May 28, 2017, Reprise granted Serenity a license to certain intellectual property held by Reprise relating to the Drug, including U.S. Patent Nos. 7,799,761, 7,579,321, and 7,405,203 (each of which is listed in the FDA publication Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations (commonly known as the Orange Book) for Noctiva™) as well as Canadian Patent No. 2,545,194 and (ii) pursuant to a Development and License Agreement, dated February 4, 2008 and as amended March 31, 2010, CPEX granted Serenity a license to certain intellectual property rights relating to the Drug. Accordingly, the Avadel Licensee’s sublicense to such intellectual property is subject to the foregoing agreements. In addition, under the Serenity License Agreement, Serenity granted to the Avadel Licensee certain rights of Serenity in the New Drug Application for the Drug approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (the “NDA”), and certain supply agreements relating to the Drug.
 
The Serenity License Agreement further provides that:
 
The Avadel Licensee may sublicense the licensed rights in the U.S. beginning two years after the effective date of the license, subject to Serenity’s prior written consent which may not be unreasonably withheld, conditioned, or delayed.
 
The Avadel Licensee will use its commercially reasonable efforts to commercialize the rights licensed to it under the License Agreement. The Avadel Licensee is responsible for the costs associated with all regulatory activities, including development activities undertaken to support obtaining or maintaining regulatory approvals. Within 120 days following the effective date of the License Agreement, the Avadel Licensee was required to provide Serenity with a plan with respect to the commercialization of the Drug in the Field in the United States and Canada (“Territory”).
 
Within 180 days following the effective date of the License Agreement, the Avadel Licensee will notify Serenity of our decision to undertake development of the Drug for the “Nocturia Indication” (i.e., adult night-time non-incontinent urination) in Canada and the “PNE Indication” (i.e., bed-wetting) in the United States and/or Canada, each of which would require additional separate negotiated agreements with Serenity. Serenity will have the right to develop and commercialize the Drug for the Nocturia Indication in Canada and the PNE Indication in the Territory if the Avadel Licensee decides not to undertake such development.
 
The Avadel Licensee paid Serenity an up-front payment of $50 million upon the effective date of the License Agreement. The Avadel Licensee will also pay Serenity $20 million when the Drug first becomes available for commercial sale.
 

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Serenity is eligible to receive milestone payments as follows: up to $40 million (the “Cumulative Sales Milestone Payments”) in the aggregate based on achievement of cumulative sales milestones of $50 million to $200 million and up to $180 million in the aggregate based on achievement of 12-month sales milestones of $300 million to $1.5 billion. Upon a change in control, Serenity will be eligible to receive a payment in the low to mid-double digit millions, reduced by portions of any Cumulative Sales Milestone Payments previously paid. In addition, Serenity is eligible to receive royalties of twenty-eight percent (28%) of annual net sales of up $500 million, thirty percent (30%) of annual net sales greater than $500 million up to $1 billion, and thirty-three percent (33%) of annual net sales over $1 billion, subject to adjustment in certain circumstances.
 
Serenity has the sole discretion and responsibility to prosecute and maintain the patent applications and patents licensed to the Avadel Licensee under the Serenity License Agreement, however, Serenity may not abandon rights to such patent applications and patents without Serenity first giving the Avadel Licensee an opportunity to assume full responsibility for the continued prosecution and maintenance thereof. The Avadel Licensee is required to reimburse Serenity for all costs incurred by Serenity after the effective date of the Serenity License Agreement in the preparation, filing, prosecution, and maintenance of certain patents up to $700,000.

The Avadel Licensee has the first right to enforce against third party infringement of intellectual property rights licensed to it under the Serenity License Agreement, however, if it elects to not do so, Serenity may step in and enforce against any such infringement. The Avadel Licensee has the first right to defend against claims by third parties that the Drug infringes any third party intellectual property rights, including the right to settle such claims unless they are indemnifiable by Serenity, in which case the Avadel Licensee must obtain Serenity’s prior written consent to enter into any such settlement. However, if the Avadel Licensee elects to not defend any such infringement claim, Serenity has the right to step in and do so.
 
Except with respect to pending litigation involving Ferring B.V., Ferring International Center S.A. and Ferring Pharmaceuticals Inc. (collectively, “Ferring”), the Avadel Licensee has the first right to defend against challenges to intellectual property licensed to it under the Serenity License Agreement, however, if the Avadel Licensee elects to not do so, Serenity may step in and defend against such challenges. With respect to pending litigation involving Ferring, Serenity has full control over such litigation at its own expense and may not settle such litigation in a manner that restricts the scope, or adversely affects the enforceability of the intellectual property rights licensed to the Avadel Licensee under the Serenity License Agreement without the Avadel Licensee’s consent, which may not be unreasonably withheld, delayed or conditioned. For more information regarding the pending litigation involving Ferring, please see the information set forth under the caption “– Risks Related to Avadel’s Exclusive License Agreement for Noctiva™” in the “Risk Factors” included in Part I, Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
 
The Serenity License Agreement remains in effect until it is terminated as specifically provided in the agreement. Both the Avadel Licensee and Serenity may terminate the agreement upon uncured, material breach of the agreement by or an insolvency-related event of the other party.

Development of Micropump®-Based Products
 
Avadel’s versatile Micropump® based technology allows us to select unique product development opportunities, representing either “life cycle” opportunities, whereby additional intellectual property can be added to a pharmaceutical to extend the commercial viability of a currently marketed product, or innovative formulation opportunities for new chemical entities (“NCEs”). Several products formulated using Avadel’s proprietary drug delivery technologies are currently under various stages of development. These products will be commercialized either by Avadel and/or by partners via licensing/distribution agreements. Additional information on products in development and detailed information regarding Avadel’s Micropump® based technologies is provided in this Item 1 under the caption “– Other Products Under Development” and the caption “– Avadel’s Drug Delivery Technologies.”
 
Because R&D costs for reformulating a drug are typically substantially lower than for developing NCEs, “reformulation approvals” provide an opportunity to extend the exclusivity period of already marketed drugs or create new market exclusivity for an off-patent drug. The Micropump® platform has successfully transitioned to commercial stage with Coreg CR® (a GlaxoSmithKline marketed product).
 
FT 218 (Micropump® sodium oxybate): Avadel is developing a product which uses our Micropump® drug-delivery technology for the treatment of EDS and cataplexy in patients suffering from narcolepsy. Avadel currently refers to this product as FT 218. FT 218 is a Micropump®-based formulation of sodium oxybate. Sodium oxybate is the sodium salt of gamma hydroxybutyrate, an endogenous compound and metabolite of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid. Sodium oxybate has been described as a therapeutic agent with high medical value. Sodium oxybate is approved in Europe and the United States as a twice nightly formulation indicated for the treatment of EDS and cataplexy in patients with narcolepsy.


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In preparation for a clinical trial of FT 218, Avadel reached an agreement with the FDA for the design and planned analysis of our study through a Special Protocol Assessment (“SPA”). An SPA is an acknowledgement by the FDA that the design and planned analysis of a pivotal clinical trial adequately addresses the objectives necessary to support a regulatory submission. Pursuant to the SPA, in December 2016, Avadel initiated patient enrollment and dosing for a Phase III clinical trial to assess the safety and efficacy of a once-nightly formulation of FT 218 for the treatment of EDS and cataplexy in patients suffering from narcolepsy. The study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study of 264 patients being conducted in 50 to 60 clinical sites in the U.S., Canada and western Europe. In January 2018, Avadel announced that the FDA granted Orphan Drug Designation to FT 218. Avadel believes this study could demonstrate improved efficacy, safety and patient satisfaction over the current primary product serving this market, which is a twice nightly sodium oxybate formulation, for which the marketer estimates will generate revenues of between $1.18 billion and $1.2 billion in 2017.

Other Products Under Development
 
Avadel entered into an Exclusive License Agreement on September 30, 2015, with Elan, a subsidiary of Perrigo Company plc, for the right to use our LiquiTime® drug delivery technology for the U.S. (OTC) drug market. Under the multi-product license agreement, Avadel received an upfront payment of $6 million and will be eligible for at least an additional $50 million in approval and launch milestones. In addition, once commercialized Avadel will receive mid-single digit royalties on net sales of the products.

Proprietary Product Pipeline 
The status of Avadel’s proprietary product pipelines is detailed in the followings table:
Proprietary Product Pipeline
Platform / Strategy
 
Drug/Product
 
Indication
 
Stage
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Micropump®
 
Sodium oxybate
 
EDS / Cataplexy
 
Phase III trial ongoing
UMD #4
 
Sterile Injectable - Drug Undisclosed
 
Undisclosed
 
Development ongoing
LiquiTime®
 
Guaifenesin
 
Cough / Cold
 
Pivotal pharmacokinetics studies pending registration batches
LiquiTime®
 
Undisclosed
 
Pediatric
 
Proof of concept
Micropump®
 
Undisclosed
 
Pediatric
 
Proof of concept
LiquiTime®
 
Undisclosed
 
Pediatric
 
Proof of concept
Competition and Market Opportunities 
Competition 
Competition in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry is intense and is expected to increase. Avadel competes with academic laboratories, research institutions, universities, joint ventures, and other pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, including other companies developing brand or generic specialty pharmaceutical products or drug delivery platforms. Some of these competitors may also be Avadel’s business partners. There can be no assurance that Avadel’s competitors will not obtain patent protection or other intellectual property rights that would make it difficult or impossible for us to compete with their products. Furthermore, major technological changes can happen quickly in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. Such rapid technological change, or the development by Avadel’s competitors of technologically improved or differentiated products, could render our products, including our drug delivery technologies, obsolete or noncompetitive.
 
The pharmaceutical industry has dramatically changed in recent years, largely as a function of the growing importance of generic drugs. The growth of generics (typically small molecules) and of large molecules (biosimilars) has been accelerated by the demand for less expensive pharmaceutical products. As a result, the pricing power of pharmaceutical companies will be more tightly controlled in the future.

In addition, the overall landscape of the Pharma/Biotech industry has changed, as consolidation has reduced Avadel’s pool of potential partners and acquisition opportunities within the specialty pharmaceutical space.
 
Avadel’s business model competes with a number of companies based upon our current marketed products and those in development. Examples of companies with whom Avadel or future partners would compete, given our current products and pipeline, include Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Endo Pharmaceuticals, Tris Pharma, Ferring, Astellas and others.
 

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Potential competition for FT 218

If FT 218 receives FDA approval, it will compete with the current approved twice-nightly sodium oxybate formulation, as well as a number of daytime stimulants including lisdexamfetamine, modafinil, armodafinil, which are widely prescribed, or prescribed concomitantly with sodium oxybate. Sodium oxybate is currently the only product approved for both EDS and cataplexy. In addition, Avadel anticipates that our FT 218 product may face competition from manufacturers of generic twice-nightly sodium oxybate formulations, who have reached settlement agreements with the current marketer for entry by 2023.
 
Noctiva™ Competition 

While there are no other approved treatment options for nocturia due to nocturnal polyuria, Avadel anticipates that Noctiva™ will compete with products that have been historically used off-label to treat nocturia, primarily medications indicated for overactive bladder and benign prostatic hyperplasia, and older forms of desmopressin.

Market Opportunities 
Because the pharmaceutical industry is highly competitive, participants seek ways to increase profitability by reducing competition through patent protection. Avadel, resulting from the combination of our existing proprietary drug delivery technologies with the established commercial capability of our unapproved to approved product strategy and with the acquisition of Noctiva™ has evolved into a Specialty Pharma company focusing on re-formulations and requiring shorter product development cycles by using an abbreviated NDA mechanism (505(b)(2)). Avadel’s commercial capabilities also differentiate it from some competitors.
 
In particular, in today’s environment, a drug has to demonstrate significant therapeutic improvements over the current standard of care in order to obtain third party payer coverage. Alternatively, changes in the delivery of a drug must create a demonstrable reduction in costs. Dosing convenience, by itself, is no longer sufficient to gain reimbursement acceptance. Specialty pharmaceutical companies must now demonstrate, through costly Phase 3 trials, therapeutic efficacy of their new formulations. The FDA has encouraged drug companies developing enhanced formulations to use an abbreviated regulatory pathway: the 505(b)(2) NDA. Many specialty pharmaceutical companies today are using this approach or the supplemental NDA pathway (“sNDA”). An NDA or sNDA is necessary to market an already approved drug for a new indication, or in a different dosage form or formulation. However, the sNDA approach requires cross-referencing the originator’s drug dossier, and eventually an alliance with the originator for commercialization.
 
The market opportunities for Noctiva and the proprietary pipeline products that Avadel intends to pursue independently are estimated by Avadel to be worth at least several hundred million dollars each.

Noctiva™
 
Avadel believes that nocturia, the condition of waking two or more times per night to urinate, represents a substantial unmet medical need affecting approximately 40 million adults in the United States. Through claims analysis, it is estimated that only 27 percent, or approximately 11 million, of patients are diagnosed with the condition and only 3 million are on active pharmacological treatment. Noctiva™ is the first and only FDA approved product indicated to treat nocturia due to nocturnal polyuria, or the overproduction of urine at night, which is present in approximately 88 percent of patients with nocturia. With no approved or proven treatment options for nocturia due to nocturnal polyuria, Avadel believes that Noctiva™ may have the potential to address a very prevalent unmet need within a large patient population. Avadel further believes that Noctiva™ has the potential to provide Avadel with substantial revenue growth should we successfully execute our commercialization strategy, which will consist of condition-state awareness to prime the urology market with a full-scale product launch to follow in the second quarter of 2018. For a discussion of risks associated with Avadel’s Noctiva™, please see the information set forth under the caption “– Risks Related to Avadel’s Exclusive License Agreement for Noctiva™” in the “Risk Factors” included in Part I, Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

FT 218
 
Narcolepsy is an orphan disease affecting approximately 200,000 people in the U.S. With low prevalence and an even lower diagnosis rate, an estimated 50,000 patients diagnosed and on treatment, many patients’ needs are not being met and there are limited proven treatment options, particularly for those suffering from cataplexy. Currently, the only approved treatment option to treat both EDS and cataplexy is a liquid formulation of sodium oxybate dosed twice per night. This treatment requires patients to wake up in the middle of the night to take a second dose of medication, interrupting sleep and potentially causing a number of other issues related to their quality of life.
 

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Avadel believes that our once nightly formulation of sodium oxybate in FT 218 may have the potential to provide an uninterrupted night’s sleep to patients, may have an improved safety profile, fewer potential side effects due to a lower Cmax of FT 218 compared to the current approved product, and may provide other additional benefits related to quality of life. 2017 revenue estimates of the marketed twice-nightly sodium oxybate range from $1.18 billion to $1.2 billion and the number of patients actively on treatment as of November 2017 was approximately 13,000. Following the completion of Avadel’s REST-ON clinical trial, if FT 218 is able to adequately demonstrate an improved safety profile over the current approved product, the potential to receive Orphan Drug Designation may provide development and commercial incentives for FT 218, including eligibility for a seven-year period of market exclusivity in the U.S. as the only once-nightly formulation.

Avadel’s Drug Delivery Technologies 
Avadel owns and develops drug delivery technologies that address key formulation challenges, leading to the development of differentiated drug products for administration in various forms (e.g., capsules, tablets, sachets or liquid suspensions for oral use; or injectables for subcutaneous administration) and that can be applied to a broad range of drugs (novel, already-marketed, or off-patent).
 
Avadel believes that our Micropump® technology permits the development of differentiated product profiles (modified/controlled release formulations) under various dosage forms including capsules, tablets, sachets and liquid suspensions (LiquiTime®) for oral use. In addition, with Trigger Lock™ potentially addressing the issue of narcotic/opioid analgesics abuse, Avadel believes that we have broad and versatile presentations to serve most markets from pediatric to geriatric. A brief discussion of each of Avadel’s drug delivery technologies is set forth below.
 
Micropump® Technology. Micropump® is a microparticulate system that allows the development and marketing of modified and/or controlled release solid, oral dosage formulations of drugs. Micropump®-carvedilol and Micropump®-aspirin formulations have been approved in the U.S. Avadel’s Micropump® technology permits either extended or delayed delivery of small molecule drugs via the oral route. Micropump® consists of a multiple-particulate system containing 5,000 to 10,000 microparticles/nanoparticles per capsule or tablet. The 200-500 microns diameter-sized microparticles are released in the stomach and pass into the small intestine, where each microparticle, operating as a miniature delivery system, releases the drug at an adjustable rate and over an extended period of time. The design of the Micropump® microparticles allows an extended release in the Gastro-Intestinal (“GI”) tract allowing mean plasma residence times to be extended for up to 24 hours. The microparticles’ design can be adapted to each drug’s specific characteristics by modifying the coating composition and thickness as well as the composition of the excipients encapsulated with the drug. The resultant formulations can potentially offer improved efficacy (by extending therapeutic coverage), reduced toxicity and/or side effects (by reducing Cmax or peak drug concentration in the plasma, or by reducing intra- and inter-patient variability), and improved patient compliance (by reducing frequency of administration). The platform is applicable to poorly soluble (< 0.01mg/L) as well as highly soluble (> 500g/L) and to low dose (e.g., 4 mg) or high dose (e.g., 1,000 mg) drugs, while providing excellent mouth feel and taste masking properties. Micropump® allows the achievement of extremely precise pharmacokinetic profiles extended (and/or delayed) release of single or combination of drugs, in a variety of formats (such as tablets, capsules, sachet, or liquids (LiquiTime®), while preserving the targeted release rate over the shelf-life of the product.

LiquiTime®. LiquiTime® allows development of modified/controlled release oral products in a liquid suspension formulation particularly suited to children or for patients having issues swallowing tablets or capsules. Avadel’s LiquiTime® technology uses Micropump’s competitive advantages to allow the development of products with modified/controlled release (e.g., zero-order kinetics) in liquid suspension formulations. The LiquiTime® products are particularly suitable for dosing to children and for use by patients having issues swallowing tablets or capsules. LiquiTime® does not have the limitation of having to work solely with ionic drugs and therefore has applicability to a much broader range of drug molecules. As with Micropump®, LiquiTime® can be applied to the development of combination products. Avadel believes that LiquiTime®, designed to provide a controlled, extended release of oral liquids principally for pediatric and geriatric patients, will enable Avadel to develop improved, patent protected prescription products to serve an unmet medical need in these patient populations. Avadel believes that the increasing number of geriatric patients and the demand for convenient drug delivery options for children offer opportunities for the development of LiquiTime®-based formulations.
 
Elan Pharmaceuticals has licensed the LiquiTime® technology in the U.S. for OTC products and Avadel is currently working on an extended release suspension formulation for guaifenesin (see “– Product Pipeline”). Avadel has maintained the prescription rights to LiquiTime®, as we view prescription products as higher-value opportunities. Avadel is currently conducting feasibility studies on two potential prescription products utilizing our LiquiTime® technology.
 
Trigger Lock™. Trigger Lock™ allows development of abuse-resistant modified/controlled release formulations of narcotic/opioid analgesics and other drugs susceptible to abuse.

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MedusaMedusa™ allows the development of extended/modified release of injectable dosage formulations of drugs (e.g., peptides, polypeptides, proteins, and small molecules).

Proprietary Intellectual Property 
Avadel’s commercial success with respect to the development and commercialization of Noctiva is dependent on Avadel’s and our licensor’s ability to obtain and maintain patent protection for Noctiva. In addition, parts of Avadel’s product pipeline and strategic alliances utilize our drug delivery platforms and related products of which certain features are the subject of patents or patent applications. As a matter of policy, Avadel seeks patent protection of our inventions and also relies upon trade secrets, know-how, continuing technological innovations and licensing opportunities to maintain and develop competitive positions.
 
Licensed Noctiva Patents. Avadel’s licensed patent portfolio relating to Noctiva™ consists of four U.S. patents, one or more of which generally disclose pharmaceutical compositions that include desmopressin and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, methods for using those compositions, and/or intranasal spray devices for consistently achieving low desmopressin blood concentrations. The U.S. patents are expected to expire beginning in 2023 and ending in 2030. Avadel does not own any patents or patent applications relating to Noctiva™.
 
Drug Delivery Technology Patents. Avadel’s drug delivery technologies are the subject of certain patents, including: (i) for Micropump®, patents relating to an efficacious coating formulation for providing delayed and sustained release of an active ingredient with absorption limited to the upper part of intestinal tract (expiring in 2025 in the U.S. and 2022 in foreign jurisdictions); (ii) for LiquiTime®, patents relating to film-coated microcapsules and a method comprising orally administering such microcapsules to a patient (expiring in 2023); (iii) for Trigger Lock™, patents relating to a solid oral drug form with at least part of the active ingredient contained in microparticles with anticrushing characteristics to prevent misuse (expiring in 2027); and (iv) for Medusa™, patents relating to an aqueous colloidal suspension of low viscosity based on submicronic particles of water-soluble biodegradable polymer PO (polyolefin) carrying hydrophobic groups (expiring in 2023).
 
The patent positions of biopharmaceutical companies like Avadel are generally uncertain and involve complex legal, scientific and factual questions. In addition, the coverage claimed in a patent application can be significantly reduced before the patent is issued, and patent scope can be reinterpreted by the courts after issuance. Moreover, many jurisdictions permit third parties to challenge issued patents in administrative proceedings, which may result in further narrowing or even cancellation of patent claims. Avadel cannot predict whether the patent applications we are currently pursuing will issue as patents in any particular jurisdiction or whether the claims of any of Avadel’s licensed or owned patents will provide sufficient protection from competitors. Any of Avadel’s licensed or owned patents may be challenged, circumvented, or invalidated by third parties. For more information, please see the information set forth under the caption “– Risks Related to Avadel’s Business and Industry – If Avadel cannot adequately protect our intellectual property and proprietary information, Avadel may be unable to sustain a competitive advantage” in the “Risk Factors” included in Part I, Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Supplies and Manufacturing 
Avadel attempts to maintain multiple suppliers in order to mitigate the risk of shortfall and inability to supply market demand. Nevertheless, for most of our products Avadel relies on a limited number of suppliers, and in certain cases only one supplier, for sourcing active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs).
 
The manufacture of the UMDs marketed by Avadel in the U.S. is outsourced to cGMP-compliant and FDA-audited contract manufacturing organization (“CMOs”) pursuant to supply agreements. Avadel will continue to outsource to third-party CMOs, and has no present plans to acquire manufacturing facilities. Avadel believes this outsourcing policy is beneficial to us for products to be marketed in the United States.
 
Noctiva™ is manufactured pursuant to a manufacturing agreement between Serenity and a third party CMO, which was assigned to Avadel in connection with the Serenity License Agreement. The CMO manufactures Noctiva™ in a sterile one-of-a-kind manufacturing facility located in Lakewood, New Jersey that is in compliance with cGMP guidance and directives applicable to the manufacture of Noctiva™. This manufacturing facility was built expressly for the manufacture of Noctiva™, and allows for the product to be the only preservative free nasal spray for this prescription.
 
In 2014, Avadel sold a manufacturing facility located in Pessac, France (near Bordeaux). Under the contract of sale, Avadel continues to use this facility to manufacture products using Avadel’s Micropump® and LiquiTime® drug delivery technologies. To date, this facility has not been used to manufacture products commercialized directly by Avadel.


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Government Regulation 
The design, testing, manufacturing and marketing of certain new or substantially modified drugs, biological products or medical devices must be approved, cleared or certified by regulatory agencies, regulatory authorities and notified bodies under applicable laws and regulations, the requirements of which may vary from country to country. This regulatory process is lengthy, expensive and uncertain. In the United States, the FDA regulates such products under various federal statutes, including the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (“FDCA”) and the Public Health Service Act.
 
New Drug Product Development and Approval Process
 
Regulation by governmental authorities in the United States and other countries has a significant impact on the development, manufacture, and marketing of drug products and on ongoing research and product development activities. The products of all of Avadel’s pharmaceutical partners as well as its own products will require regulatory approval by governmental agencies and regulatory authorities prior to commercialization. In particular, these products are subject to manufacturing according to stringent requirements known as current good manufacturing practices (“cGMP”) which are promulgated by the FDA in the United States and by other authorities in other jurisdictions, and rigorous, pre-clinical and clinical testing and other pre-market approval requirements by the FDA, the European Commission and regulatory authorities in other countries. In the United States and the European Union, various statutes and regulations also govern or influence the manufacturing, safety, labeling, storage, record keeping and marketing of pharmaceutical products. The lengthy process of seeking these approvals, and the subsequent compliance with applicable statutes and regulations, require the expenditure of substantial resources.
 
Regulatory approval, when and if obtained, may be limited in scope. In particular, regulatory approvals will restrict the marketing of a product to specific uses. Approved drugs, as well as their manufacturers, are subject to ongoing review (including requirements and restrictions related to record keeping and reporting, FDA, European Commission and EU Member States competent authorities’ approval of certain changes in manufacturing processes or product labeling, product promotion and advertising, and pharmacovigilance, which includes monitoring and reporting adverse reactions, maintaining safety measures, and conducting dossier reviews for marketing authorization renewal). Discovery of previously unknown problems with these products may result in restrictions on their manufacture, sale or use, or in their withdrawal from the market. Failure to comply with regulatory requirements may result in criminal prosecution, civil penalties, recall or seizure of products, total or partial suspension of production or injunction, as well as other actions affecting Avadel’s potential products and commercial prospects or the potential products and commercial prospects of Avadel’s pharmaceutical partners who may utilize Avadel’s technologies. Any failure by Avadel or our pharmaceutical partners to comply with current or new and changing regulatory obligations, and any failure to obtain and maintain, or any delay in obtaining, regulatory approvals, could materially adversely affect our business.

The process for new drug product development and approval has many steps, including:
 
Chemical and Formulation Development. Pharmaceutical formulation taking into account the chemistry and physical characteristics of the drug or biological substance is the beginning of a new product. If initial laboratory experiments reveal that the concept for a new drug product looks promising, then a variety of further development steps and tests complying with internationally recognized guidance documents will have to be continued, in order to provide for a product ready for testing in animals and, after sufficient animal test results, also in humans.
 
Concurrent with pre-clinical studies and clinical trials, companies must continue to develop information about the properties of the drug product and finalize a process for manufacturing the product in accordance with cGMP. The manufacturing process must be capable of consistently producing quality batches of the product, and the manufacturer must develop and validate methods for testing the quality, purity and potency of the final products. Additionally, appropriate packaging must be selected and tested, and stability studies must be conducted to demonstrate that the product does not undergo unacceptable deterioration over its shelf-life.
 
Pre-Clinical Testing. Once a drug candidate is identified for development, the candidate enters the pre-clinical testing stage. This includes laboratory evaluation of product chemistry and formulation, as well as animal studies of pharmacology (mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics) and toxicology which may have to be conducted over lengthy periods of time, to assess the potential safety and efficacy of the product as formulated. Pre-clinical tests must be conducted in compliance with good laboratory practice regulations, the Animal Welfare Act and its regulations in the U.S. and the Clinical Trials Directive and related national laws and guidelines in the EU Member States. Violations of these laws and regulations can, in some cases, lead to invalidation of the studies, then requiring such studies to be replicated. In some cases, long-term pre-clinical studies are conducted while clinical studies are ongoing.
 

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Investigational New Drug Application.
 
U.S. The entire body of chemical or biochemical, pharmaceutical and pre-clinical development work necessary to administer investigational drugs to human volunteers or patients is summarized in an Investigational New Drug (“IND”) application to the FDA. The IND becomes effective if not rejected by the FDA within thirty (30) days after filing. There is no assurance that the submission of an IND will eventually allow a company to commence clinical trials. All clinical trials must be conducted under the supervision of a qualified investigator in accordance with good clinical practice regulations to ensure the quality and integrity of clinical trial results and data. These regulations include the requirement that, with limited exceptions, all subjects provide informed consent. In addition, an institutional review board (“IRB”), composed primarily of physicians and other qualified experts at the hospital or clinic where the proposed studies will be conducted, must review and approve each human study. The IRB also continues to monitor the study and must be kept aware of the study’s progress, particularly as to adverse events and changes in the research. Progress reports detailing the results of the clinical trials must be submitted at least annually to the FDA and more frequently if adverse events occur. Failure to adhere to good clinical practices and the protocols, and failure to obtain IRB approval and informed consent, may result in FDA rejection of clinical trial results and data, and may delay or prevent the FDA from approving the drug for commercial use.

European Union. The European equivalent to the IND is the Investigational Medicinal Product Dossier (“IMPD”) which likewise must contain pharmaceutical, pre-clinical and, if existing, previous clinical information on the drug substance and product. An overall risk-benefit assessment critically analyzing the non-clinical and clinical data in relation to the potential risks and benefits of the proposed trial must also be included. The intended clinical trial must be submitted for authorization by the regulatory authority(ies) of each EU Member States in which the trial is intended to be conducted prior to its commencement. The trial must be conducted on the basis of the protocol as approved by an Ethics Committee(s) in each EU Member State (EU equivalent to IRBs) before the trial commences. Before submitting an application to the competent authority, the sponsor must register the trial in the EudraCT database where it will be provided with a unique EudraCT number.

Clinical Trials. Typically, clinical testing involves the administration of the drug product first to healthy human volunteers and then to patients with conditions needing treatment under the supervision of a qualified principal investigator, usually a physician, pursuant to a ‘protocol’ or clinical plan reviewed by the FDA and the competent authorities of the EU Member States along with the IRB or Ethics Committee (via the IND or IMPD submission). The protocol details matter such as a description of the condition to be treated, the objectives of the study, a description of the patient population eligible for the study and the parameters to be used to monitor safety and efficacy.
 
Clinical trials are time-consuming and costly, and typically are conducted in three sequential phases, which sometimes may overlap. Phase I trials consist of testing the product in a small number of patients or normal volunteers, primarily for safety, in one or more dosages, as well as characterization of a drug’s pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic profile. In Phase II, in addition to safety, the product is studied in a patient population to evaluate the product’s efficacy for the specific, targeted indications and to determine dosage tolerance and optimal dosage. Phase III trials typically involve additional testing for safety and clinical efficacy in an expanded patient population at geographically dispersed sites. With limited exceptions, all patients involved in a clinical trial must provide informed consent prior to their participation. Meeting clinical endpoints in early stage clinical trials does not assure success in later stage clinical trials. Phase I, II, and III testing may not be completed successfully within any specified time period, if at all.
 
The FDA and the competent authorities of EU Member States monitor the progress of each clinical trial phase conducted under an IND or IMPD and may, at their discretion, reevaluate, alter, suspend or terminate clinical trials at any point in this process for various reasons, including a finding that patients are being exposed to an unacceptable health risk or a determination that it is unethical to continue the study. The FDA, the European Commission and the competent authorities of EU Member States can also request that additional clinical trials be conducted as a condition to product approval. The IRB, the Ethics Committee, and sponsor also may order the temporary or permanent discontinuance of a clinical trial at any time for a variety of reasons, particularly if safety concerns arise. Such holds can cause substantial delay and in some cases, may require abandonment of product development. These clinical studies must be conducted in conformance with the FDA’s bioresearch monitoring regulations, the Clinical Trials Directive and/or internationally recognized guidance such as the International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (“ICH”).
 
New Drug Application. After the completion of the clinical trial phases of development, if the sponsor concludes that there is substantial evidence that the drug candidate is effective and that the drug is safe for its intended use, an NDA may be submitted to the FDA. The application must contain all of the information on the drug candidate gathered to that date, including data from the pre-clinical and clinical trials, information pertaining to the preparation of the drug, analytical methods, product formulation, details on the manufacture of finished products, proposed product packaging, labeling and stability (shelf-life). NDAs are often over 100,000 pages in length. If FDA determines that a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (“REMS”) is necessary to ensure

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that the benefits of the drug outweigh the risks, a sponsor may be required to include as part of the application a proposed REMS, including a package insert directed to patients, a plan for communication with healthcare providers, restrictions on a drug’s distribution, or a medication guide to provide better information to consumers about the drug’s risks and benefits. Submission of an NDA does not assure FDA approval for marketing.
 
The FDA reviews all submitted NDAs before it accepts them for filing (the U.S. prerequisite for dossier review). It may refuse to file the application and request additional information rather than accepting an application for filing. In this event, the application must be resubmitted with the additional information. The resubmitted application is also subject to review before the FDA accepts it for filing. Once the submission is accepted for filing, the FDA begins an in-depth review of the NDA to determine, among other things, whether a product is safe and effective for its intended use. As part of this review, the FDA may refer the application to an appropriate advisory committee, typically a panel of clinicians, for review, evaluation and a recommendation. There is a strong presumption for advisory committee review for any drug containing an active ingredient not previously approved. The FDA is not bound by the recommendation of an advisory committee. Under the Prescription Drug User Fee Act (“PDUFA”), submission of an NDA with clinical data requires payment of a fee. In return, the FDA assigns an action date of 10 months from acceptance of the application to return of a first ‘complete response,’ in which the FDA may approve the product or request additional information. (Although PDUFA also provides for a six-month “priority review” process, Avadel does not anticipate it applying to any of its products or its partners’ products.) There can be no assurance that an application will be approved within the performance goal timeframe established under PDUFA, if at all. If the FDA’s evaluation of the NDA is not favorable, the FDA usually will outline the deficiencies in the submission and request additional testing or information. Notwithstanding the submission of any requested additional information, or even in lieu of asking for additional information, the FDA may decide that the marketing application does not satisfy the regulatory criteria for approval and issue a complete response letter, communicating the agency’s decision not to approve the application.

FDA approval of an NDA will be based, among other factors, on the agency’s review of the pre-clinical and clinical data submitted, a risk/benefit analysis of the product, and an evaluation of the manufacturing processes and facilities. Data obtained from clinical activities are not always conclusive and may be susceptible to varying interpretations, which could delay, limit or prevent regulatory approval. The FDA has substantial discretion in the approval process and may disagree with an applicant’s interpretation of the data submitted in its NDA. For instance, FDA may require Avadel to provide data from additional preclinical studies or clinical trials to support approval of certain development. Among the conditions for NDA approval is the requirement that each prospective manufacturer’s quality control and manufacturing procedures conform to cGMP standards and requirements. Manufacturing establishments often are subject to Pre-Approval Inspections prior to NDA approval to assure compliance with cGMP manufacturing commitments made in the relevant marketing application.
 
Patent Restoration and Exclusivity. The Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984, or the Hatch-Waxman Act, establishes two abbreviated approval pathways for drug products that are in some way follow-on versions of already approved products.
 
Generic Drugs. A generic version of an approved drug is approved by means of an Abbreviated New Drug Application, or ANDA, by which the sponsor demonstrates that the proposed product is the same as the approved, brand-name drug, which is referred to as the “Reference Listed Drug,” or “RLD”. Generally, an ANDA must contain data and information showing that the proposed generic product and RLD (1) have the same active ingredient, in the same strength and dosage form, to be delivered via the same route of administration, (2) are intended for the same uses, and (3) are bioequivalent. This is instead of independently demonstrating the proposed product’s safety and effectiveness, which are inferred from the fact that the product is the same as the RLD, which the FDA previously found to be safe and effective.
 
505(b)(2) NDAs. If a product is similar, but not identical, to an already approved product, it may be submitted for approval via an NDA under Section 505(b)(2) of the Act. Unlike an ANDA, this does not excuse the sponsor from demonstrating the proposed product’s safety and effectiveness. Rather, the sponsor is permitted to rely to some degree on published scientific literature and the FDA’s finding that the RLD is safe and effective, and must submit its own data of safety and effectiveness to an extent necessary because of the differences between the products. With regard to certain UMD products, Avadel intends to submit 505(b)(2) NDAs, relying solely on published scientific literature. Avadel does not plan to conduct additional preclinical studies or clinical trials for these 505(b)(2) NDAs; and, if it were required to do so, would review the continued value of the product.
 
RLD Patents. An NDA sponsor must advise the FDA about patents that claim the drug substance or drug product or a method of using the drug. When the drug is approved, those patents are among the information about the product that is listed in the FDA publication, Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations, which is referred to as the Orange Book. The sponsor of an ANDA or 505(b)(2) application seeking to rely on an approved product as the RLD must make one of several certifications regarding each listed patent. A “Paragraph III” certification is the sponsor’s statement that it will wait for the patent to expire before obtaining approval for its product. A “Paragraph IV” certification is a challenge to the patent; it is an assertion

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that the patent does not block approval of the later product, either because the patent is invalid or unenforceable or because the patent, even if valid, is not infringed by the new product.

Once the FDA accepts for filing an ANDA or 505(b)(2) application containing a Paragraph IV certification, the applicant must within 20 days provide notice to the RLD NDA holder and patent owner that the application with patent challenge has been submitted, and provide the factual and legal basis for the applicant’s assertion that the patent is invalid or not infringed. If the NDA holder or patent owner file suit against the ANDA or 505(b)(2) applicant for patent infringement within 45 days of receiving the Paragraph IV notice, FDA is prohibited from approving the ANDA or 505(b)(2) application for a period of 30 months from the date of receipt of the notice. If the RLD has NCE exclusivity and the notice is given and suit filed during the fifth year of exclusivity, the 30-month stay does not begin until five years after the RLD approval. The FDA may approve the proposed product before the expiration of the 30-month stay if a court finds the patent invalid or not infringed or if the court shortens the period because the parties have failed to cooperate in expediting the litigation.
 
Regulatory Exclusivities. The Hatch-Waxman Act may provide periods of regulatory exclusivity for products that would serve as RLDs. If a product is a “new chemical entity,” or NCE, - generally meaning that the active moiety has never before been approved in any drug - there may be a period of five years from the product’s approval during which the FDA may not accept for filing any ANDA or 505(b)(2) application for a drug with the same active moiety. An ANDA or 505(b)(2) application may be submitted after four years, however, if the sponsor makes a Paragraph IV certification challenging a listed patent.
 
A product that is not an NCE may qualify for a three-year period of exclusivity, if the NDA contains clinical data that were necessary for approval. In that instance, the exclusivity period does not preclude filing or review of the ANDA or 505(b)(2) application; rather, the FDA is precluded from granting final approval to the ANDA or 505(b)(2) application until three years after approval of the RLD. Additionally, the exclusivity applies only to the conditions of approval that required submission of the clinical data. For example, if an NDA is submitted for a product that is not an NCE, but that seeks approval for a new indication, and clinical data were required to demonstrate the safety or effectiveness of the product for that use, the FDA could not approve an ANDA or 505(b)(2) application for another product with that active moiety for that use. For example, Coreg CR received three-year exclusivity for the clinical trials that demonstrated the safety and efficacy of the new, controlled-release dosage form; that exclusivity, which has expired, blocked other controlled-release products.
 
For a brief discussion of potential marketing exclusivity that could be available under certain conditions with respect to Avadel’s product candidate FT 218, please see the information set forth under the caption “– Risks Related to Regulatory and Legal Matters – If FT 218 is approved by the FDA, we may not obtain orphan drug marketing exclusivity” in the “Risk Factors” included in Part I, Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
 
Patent Term Restoration. Under the Hatch-Waxman Act, a portion of the patent term lost during product development and FDA review of an NDA or 505(b)(2) application is restored if approval of the application is the first permitted commercial marketing of a drug containing the active ingredient. The patent term restoration period is generally one-half the time between the effective date of the IND and the date of submission of the NDA, plus the time between the date of submission of the NDA and the date of FDA approval of the product. The maximum period of restoration is five years, and the patent cannot be extended to more than 14 years from the date of FDA approval of the product. Only one patent claiming each approved product is eligible for restoration and the patent holder must apply for restoration within 60 days of approval. The United States Patent and Trademark Office, or PTO, in consultation with the FDA, reviews and approves the application for patent term restoration. In the event that Avadel applies for patent term extensions on patents covering Avadel’s products, the FDA and the USPTO may not agree with Avadel’s assessment of whether such extensions are available, and may refuse to grant extensions to Avadel’s patents, or may grant more limited extensions than Avadel requests. Moreover, Avadel may not receive an extension because of, for example, failing to apply within applicable deadlines, failing to apply prior to expiration of relevant patents or otherwise failing to satisfy applicable requirements.
 
Regulation of Combination Drugs. Medical products containing a combination of drugs, biologic, or device products may be regulated as ‘combination products’ in the United States. A combination product generally is defined as a product comprising components from two or more regulatory categories (e.g., drug/device, device/biologic, drug/biologic). Each component of a combination product is subject to the requirements established by the FDA for that type of component, whether a drug, biologic or device.

To determine which FDA center or centers will review a combination product submission, companies may submit a request for assignment to the FDA. Those requests may be handled formally or informally. In some cases, jurisdiction may be determined informally based on FDA experience with similar products. However, informal jurisdictional determinations are not binding on the FDA. Companies also may submit a formal Request for Designation to the FDA Office of Combination Products. The Office

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of Combination Products will review the request and make its jurisdictional determination within 60 days of receiving a Request for Designation.
 
In order to facilitate pre-market review of combination products, the FDA designates one of its centers to have primary jurisdiction for the pre-market review and regulation of both components. The determination whether a product is a combination product or two separate products is made by the FDA on a case-by-case basis. It is possible that Avadel’s delivery platforms, when coupled with a drug or medical device component, could be considered and regulated by the FDA as a combination product.
 
If the primary mode of action is determined to be a drug, the product will be reviewed by the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (“CDER”) either in consultation with another center or independently. If the primary mode of action is determined to be a medical device, the product would be reviewed by Center for Devices and Radiological Health (“CDRH”) either in consultation with another center, such as CDER, or independently. In addition, FDA could determine that the product is a biologic and subject to the jurisdiction of the Center for Biologic Evaluation and Research (“CBER”), although it is also possible that a biological product will be regulated by CDER.
 
Marketing Approval and Reporting Requirements. If the FDA approves an NDA, the product becomes available for physicians to prescribe. The FDA may require post-marketing studies, also known as Phase IV studies, as a condition of approval to develop additional information regarding the safety of a product. These studies may involve continued testing of a product and development of data, including clinical data, about the product’s effects in various populations and any side effects associated with long-term use. After approval, the FDA may require post-marketing studies or clinical trials, as well as periodic status reports, if new safety information develops. These post-marketing studies may include clinical trials to investigate known serious risks or signals of serious risks or identify unexpected serious risks. Failure to conduct these studies in a timely manner may result in substantial civil fines and can result in withdrawal of approval. Avadel has several Phase IV obligations with its current approvals.
 
In addition, the FDA may require distribution to patients of a medication guide such as a REMS for prescription products that the agency determines pose a serious and significant health concern in order to provide information necessary to patients’ safe and effective use of such products.
 
In the European Union, the marketing authorization of a medicinal product may be made conditional on the conduct of Phase IV post-marketing studies. Failure to conduct these studies in relation to centrally authorized products can lead to the imposition of substantial fines. Moreover, Phase IV studies are often conducted by companies in order to obtain further information on product efficacy and positioning on the market in view of competitors and to assist in application for pricing and reimbursement.
 
Other Post-Marketing Obligations. Any products manufactured and/or distributed pursuant to FDA approvals are subject to continuing regulation by the FDA, including recordkeeping requirements, reporting of adverse experiences with the product, submitting other periodic reports, drug sampling and distribution requirements, notifying the FDA and gaining its approval of certain manufacturing or labeling changes, complying with certain electronic records and signature requirements, submitting periodic reports to the FDA, maintaining and providing updated safety and efficacy information to the FDA, and complying with FDA promotion and advertising requirements. For example, the FDA has required Avadel to conduct post-marketing clinical and non-clinical studies for several of its products to be completed between 2016 and 2019.
 
Drug manufacturers and their subcontractors are required to register their establishments with the FDA and certain state agencies, and to list their products with the FDA. The FDA periodically inspects manufacturing facilities in the United States and abroad in order to assure compliance with the applicable cGMP regulations and other requirements. Facilities also are subject to inspections by other federal, foreign, state or local agencies. In complying with the cGMP regulations, manufacturers must continue to expend time, money and effort in recordkeeping and quality control to assure that the product meets applicable specifications and other post-marketing requirements. Failure of Avadel or its licensees to comply with FDA’s cGMP regulations or other requirements could have a significant adverse effect on Avadel’s business, financial condition and results of operations.

Also, newly discovered or developed safety or efficacy data may require changes to a product’s approved labeling, including the addition of new warnings and contraindications, additional pre-clinical or clinical studies, or even in some instances, revocation or withdrawal of the approval. Violations of regulatory requirements at any stage, including after approval, may result in various adverse consequences, including the FDA’s delay in approving or refusal to approve a product, withdrawal or recall of an approved product from the market, other voluntary or FDA-initiated action that could delay or restrict further marketing, and the imposition of civil fines and criminal penalties against the manufacturer and NDA holder. In addition, later discovery of previously unknown problems may result in restrictions on the product, manufacturer or NDA holder, including withdrawal of the product from the market. Furthermore, new government requirements may be established that could delay or prevent regulatory approval of Avadel’s products under development, or affect the conditions under which approved products are marketed.
 

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The Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 provides the FDA with expanded authority over drug products after approval. This legislation enhances the FDA’s authority with respect to post-marketing safety surveillance, including, among other things, the authority to require additional post-marketing studies or clinical trials, labeling changes as a result of safety findings, registering clinical trials, and making clinical trial results publicly available.
 
In the European Union, stringent pharmacovigilance regulations oblige companies to appoint a suitably qualified and experienced Qualified Person resident in the European Economic Area, to prepare and submit to the competent authorities adverse event reports within specific time lines, prepare Periodic Safety Update Reports (PSURs) and provide other supplementary information, report to authorities at regular intervals and take adequate safety measures agreed with regulatory agencies as necessary. Failure to undertake these obligations can lead to the imposition of substantial fines.
 
Other Regulation
 
Controlled Substances Act. Narcotics and other APIs, such as sodium oxybate and ephedrine sulfate are “controlled substances” under the Controlled Substances Act. The federal “Controlled Substances Act” (“CSA”), Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970, regulates the manufacture and distribution of narcotics and other controlled substances, including stimulants, depressants and hallucinogens. The CSA is administered by the “Drug Enforcement Administration” (“DEA”), a division of the U.S. Department of Justice, and is intended to prevent the abuse or diversion of controlled substances into illicit channels of commerce. Avadel has several products marketed under this Act and has at least one product under development.
 
Any person or firm that manufactures, distributes, dispenses, imports, or exports any controlled substance (or proposes to do so) must register with the DEA. The applicant must register for a specific business activity related to controlled substances, including manufacturing or distributing, and may engage in only the activity or activities for which it is registered. The DEA conducts periodic inspections of registered establishments that handle controlled substances and allots quotas of controlled drugs to manufacturers and marketers’ failure to comply with relevant DEA regulations, particularly as manifested in the loss or diversion of controlled substances, can result in regulatory action including civil penalties, refusal to renew necessary registrations, or proceedings to revoke those registrations. In certain circumstances, violations can lead to criminal prosecution. In addition to these federal statutory and regulatory obligations, there may be state and local laws and regulations relevant to the handling of controlled substances or listed chemicals.
 
cGMP. Current Good Manufacturing Practices rules apply to the manufacturing of drugs and medical devices. In addition to regulations enforced by the FDA, Avadel is also subject to French, U.S. and other countries’ rules and regulations governing permissible laboratory activities, waste disposal, handling of toxic, dangerous or radioactive materials and other matters. Avadel’s R&D involves the controlled use of hazardous materials, chemicals, viruses and various radioactive compounds. Although Avadel believes that its safety procedures for handling and disposing of such materials comply with the standards prescribed by French, EU, U.S. and other foreign rules and regulations, the risk of accidental contamination or injury from these materials cannot be completely eliminated.

Health Care Fraud and Abuse. Avadel is subject to a number of federal and state laws pertaining to health care “fraud and abuse,” such as anti-kickback and false claims laws. Under anti-kickback laws, it is illegal for a prescription drug manufacturer to solicit, offer, receive, or pay any remuneration in exchange for, or to induce, the referral of business, including the purchase or prescription of a particular drug. Due to the breadth of the statutory provisions and the absence of guidance via regulations and that there are few court decisions addressing industry practices, it is possible that Avadel’s practices might be challenged under anti-kickback or similar laws. False claims laws prohibit anyone from knowingly and willingly presenting, or causing to be presented for payment to third-party payors (such as the Medicare and Medicaid programs) claims for reimbursed drugs or services that are false or fraudulent, claims for items or services not provided as claimed, or claims for medically unnecessary items or services. Avadel’s sales and marketing activities relating to its products could be subject to scrutiny under these laws. Violations of fraud and abuse laws may be punishable by criminal and/or civil sanctions, including fines and civil monetary penalties, the possibility of exclusion from federal health care programs (including Medicare and Medicaid) and corporate integrity agreements, which impose, among other things, rigorous operational and monitoring requirements on companies. In addition, similar sanctions and penalties can be imposed upon executive officers and employees, including criminal sanctions against executive officers. As a result of the potential penalties that can be imposed on companies and individuals if convicted, allegations of such violations often result in settlements even if the company or individual being investigated admits no wrongdoing. Settlements often include significant civil sanctions, including fines and civil monetary penalties, and corporate integrity agreements. If the government were to allege or convict Avadel or its executive officers of violating these laws, Avadel’s business could be harmed. In addition, private individuals have the ability to bring similar actions. In addition to the reasons noted above, Avadel’s activities could be subject to challenge due to the broad scope of these laws and the increasing attention being given to them by law enforcement authorities. There also are an increasing number of federal and state laws that require manufacturers to make reports to states on pricing, marketing information, and payments and other transfers of value to healthcare providers. Many of these laws contain ambiguities as to what is required to

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comply with the laws. Given the lack of clarity in laws and their implementation, Avadel’s reporting actions could be subject to the penalty provisions of the pertinent authorities.
 
Healthcare Privacy and Security Laws. Avadel may be subject to, or its marketing activities may be limited by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (“HIPAA”), as amended by the Health Information Technology and Clinical Health Act and their respective implementing regulations, which established uniform standards for certain “covered entities” (healthcare providers, health plans and healthcare clearinghouses) governing the conduct of certain electronic healthcare transactions and protecting the security and privacy of protected health information. Among other things, HIPAA’s privacy and security standards are directly applicable to “business associates” – independent contractors or agents of covered entities that create, receive, maintain or transmit protected health information in connection with providing a service for or on behalf of a covered entity. In addition to possible civil and criminal penalties for violations, state attorney generals are authorized to file civil actions for damages or injunctions in federal courts to enforce HIPAA and seek attorney’s fees and costs associated with pursuing federal civil actions. In addition, state laws govern the privacy and security of health information in certain circumstances, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and may not have the same effect, thus complicating compliance efforts. In the EU/EEA, Directive 95/46/EEC (as amended) or its successor applies to identified or identifiable personal data processed by automated means (e.g., a computer database of customers) and data contained in, or intended to be part of, non-automated filing systems (traditional paper files) as well as transfer of such data to a country outside of the EU/EEA.
 
“Sunshine” and Marketing Disclosure Laws. There are an increasing number of federal and state “sunshine” laws that require pharmaceutical manufacturers to make reports to states on pricing and marketing information. Several states have enacted legislation requiring pharmaceutical companies to, among other things, establish marketing compliance programs, file periodic reports with the state, and make periodic public disclosures on sales and marketing activities, and prohibiting certain other sales and marketing practices. In addition, a similar recently implemented federal requirement requires manufacturers, including pharmaceutical manufacturers, to track and report to the federal government certain payments and other transfers of value made to physicians and other healthcare professionals and teaching hospitals and ownership or investment interests held by physicians and their immediate family members. The federal government began disclosing the reported information on a publicly available website in 2014. These laws may adversely affect Avadel’s sales, marketing, and other activities with respect to its medicines in the United States by imposing administrative and compliance burdens on us. If Avadel fails to track and report as required by these laws or otherwise comply with these laws, it could be subject to the penalty provisions of the pertinent state and federal authorities.

Government Price Reporting. For those marketed medicines which are covered in the United States by the Medicaid programs, Avadel has various obligations, including government price reporting and rebate requirements, which generally require medicines be offered at substantial rebates/discounts to Medicaid and certain purchasers (including “covered entities” purchasing under the 340B Drug Discount Program). Avadel is also required to discount such medicines to authorized users of the Federal Supply Schedule of the General Services Administration, under which additional laws and requirements apply. These programs require submission of pricing data and calculation of discounts and rebates pursuant to complex statutory formulas, as well as the entry into government procurement contracts governed by the Federal Acquisition Regulations, and the guidance governing such calculations is not always clear. Compliance with such requirements can require significant investment in personnel, systems and resources, but failure to properly calculate Avadel’s prices, or offer required discounts or rebates could subject it to substantial penalties. One component of the rebate and discount calculations under the Medicaid and 340B programs, respectively, is the “additional rebate”, a complex calculation which is based, in part, on the rate at which a branded drug price increases over time more than the rate of inflation (based on the CPI-U). This comparison is based on the baseline pricing data for the first full quarter of sales associated with a branded drug’s NDA, and baseline data cannot generally be reset, even on transfer of the NDA to another manufacturer. This “additional rebate” calculation can, in some cases where price increases have been relatively high versus the first quarter of sales of the NDA, result in Medicaid rebates up to 100 percent of a drug’s “average manufacturer price” and 340B prices of one penny.
 
Healthcare Reimbursement
 
In both U.S. and foreign markets, sales of Avadel’s potential products as well as products of pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies that incorporate Avadel’s technology into their products, if any, will depend in part on the availability of reimbursement by third-party payers, such as government health administration authorities, private health insurers and other organizations. The U.S. market for pharmaceutical products is increasingly being shaped by managed care organizations, pharmacy benefit managers, cooperative buying organizations and large drugstore chains. Third-party payers are challenging the price and cost effectiveness of medical products and services. Uncertainty particularly exists as to the reimbursement status of newly approved healthcare products. There can be no assurance reimbursement will be available to enable Avadel to maintain price levels sufficient to realize an appropriate return on our product development investment. Legislation and regulations affecting the pricing of pharmaceuticals may change before Avadel’s proposed products are approved for marketing and any such changes could further limit reimbursement for medical products and services.

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Employees
As of December 31, 2017, we had approximately 180 employees, of which approximately 169 were full-time.  None of the Company’s employees are subject to a union or other collective bargaining agreement.  Employees at our French subsidiaries (approximately 52 employees) are represented by a works’ council in which employee representatives have the right to be consulted as to certain matters affecting the French entities.  The Company believes that our relations with our employees are satisfactory.


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Item 1A.    Risk Factors. 
An investment in Avadel involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks described below, as well as the other information included or incorporated by reference in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, before making an investment decision. Avadel’s business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be materially adversely affected by any of these risks. The market or trading price of Avadel’s securities could decline due to any of these risks. In addition, please read “Cautionary Disclosure Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, where we describe additional uncertainties associated with Avadel’s business and the forward-looking statements included or incorporated by reference in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Please note that additional risks not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also impair Avadel’s business and operations. Certain risks related specifically to the development and commercialization of Noctiva™ are included below under the subheading “- Risks Related to Avadel’s Exclusive License Agreement for Noctiva™.”
Risks Relating to Our Business and Industry 
We depend on a small number of products and customers for the majority of our revenues and the loss of any one of these products or customers could reduce Avadel’s revenues significantly. 
We derive a majority of our revenues from sales of three products, Bloxiverz®, Vazculep® and Akovaz®. Additionally, we depend on a small number of customers for the majority of our revenues from these products. Four customers, accounted for approximately 93% of total revenues from sales of these products in 2017. These customers comprise a significant portion of the distribution network for pharmaceutical products in the U.S. Increased competition for any one of these products could result in significant downward pricing pressure and loss of market share by the Company resulting in lower revenues or loss of business. This distribution network is also continuing to undergo consolidation marked by mergers and acquisitions among wholesale distributors and retail drug store chains. As a result, a small number of large wholesale distributors and large chain drug stores control a significant share of the market. We expect that continuing consolidation may cause competitive pressures on pharmaceutical companies. The loss of any one of these products or the termination of our relationship with any of these customers or our failure to broaden our customer base could cause our revenues to decrease significantly and result in losses from our operations. Further, we may be unable to negotiate favorable business terms with customers that represent a significant portion of our revenues, and any such inability could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects. 
We expect to rely on collaborations with third parties to commercialize certain of our products in development, in particular products using our drug delivery technologies, and such strategy involves risks that could impair our prospects for realizing profits from such products.

The Company expects that the commercialization of some of our products in development which utilize our drug delivery technologies will involve third-party collaboration partners for strategic alliances, licenses, product divestitures or other arrangements to commercialize these products, as we did with respect to the license to Elan for the OTC rights for LiquiTime® (see the discussion under the caption “Products in Development with Partners” in the “Business of Avadel” included in Part I, Item 1 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K). We may not be successful in entering into such collaborations on favorable terms, if at all, or our collaboration partners may not adequately perform under such arrangements, and as a result our ability to commercialize these products will be negatively affected and our prospects will be impaired.

Our products may not gain market acceptance. 
Our products and technologies may not gain market acceptance among physicians, patients, healthcare payor and medical communities. The degree of market acceptance of any product or technology will depend on a number of factors, including, but not limited to:
the scope of regulatory approvals, including limitations or warnings in a product’s regulatory-approved labeling;
in the case of any new “unapproved-marketed-drug” product we may successfully pursue, whether and the extent to which the FDA removes competing products from the market;
demonstration of the clinical safety and efficacy of the product or technology;
the absence of evidence of undesirable side effects of the product or technology that delay or extend trials;
the lack of regulatory delays or other regulatory actions;
its cost-effectiveness and related access to payor coverage;
its potential advantage over alternative treatment methods;
the availability of third-party reimbursement; and
the marketing and distribution support it receives.

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If any of our products or technologies fails to achieve market acceptance, our ability to generate additional revenue will be limited, which would have a material adverse effect on our business.
Our products may not reach the commercial market for a number of reasons. 
Drug development is an inherently uncertain process with a high risk of failure at every stage of development. Successful R&D of pharmaceutical products is difficult, expensive and time consuming. Many product candidates fail to reach the market. Our success will depend on the development and the successful commercialization of additional previously Unapproved Marketed Drug (“UMD”) products, development of products that utilize our drug delivery technologies. If any of our additional UMD products or products incorporating our drug delivery technologies fails to reach the commercial market, our future revenues would be adversely affected. 
Even if our products and current drug delivery technologies appear promising during development, there may not be successful commercial applications developed for them for a number of reasons, including:
the FDA, the European Medicines Agency (“EMA”), the competent authority of an EU Member State or an Institutional Review Board (“IRB”), or an Ethics Committee (EU equivalent to IRB), or our partners may delay or halt applicable clinical trials;
we or our partners may face slower than expected rate of patient recruitment and enrollment in clinical trials, or may devote insufficient funding to the clinical trials;
our drug delivery technologies and drug products may be found to be ineffective or cause harmful side effects, or may fail during any stage of pre-clinical testing or clinical trials;
we or our partners may find certain products cannot be manufactured on a commercial scale and, therefore, may not be economical or feasible to produce; or
our products could fail to obtain regulatory approval or, if approved, fail to achieve market acceptance, fail to be included within the pricing and reimbursement schemes of the U.S. or EU Member States, or be precluded from commercialization by proprietary rights of third parties. 
We must invest substantial sums in R&D in order to remain competitive, and we may not fully recover these investments. 
To be successful in the highly competitive pharmaceutical industry, we must commit substantial resources each year to R&D in order to develop new products and enhance our technologies. In 2017, we spent $33,418 on R&D. Our ongoing investments in R&D for future products could result in higher costs without a proportionate increase, or any increase, in revenues. The R&D process is lengthy and carries a substantial risk of failure. If our R&D does not yield sufficient products that achieve commercial success, our future operating results will be adversely affected.
The development of several of our drug delivery technologies and products depend on the services of a single provider and any interruption of operations of such provider could significantly delay or have a material adverse effect on our product pipeline. 
Currently, Avadel uses a single source provider for the development, supply of clinical materials and potentially the supply of commercial batches for several of our products incorporating our drug delivery technologies. For details see the discussion in the “Business - Information on the Company” in this Part I, Item 1 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Any disruption in the operations of this provider or if this provider fails to supply acceptable quantity and quality materials or services to us for any reason, such disruption or failure could delay our product development and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In case of a disruption, we may need to establish alternative manufacturing sources for our drug delivery products, and this would likely lead to substantial production delays as we build or locate replacement facilities and seek to satisfy necessary regulatory requirements. 
We depend on a limited number of suppliers for the manufacturing of our products and certain raw materials used in our products and any failure of such suppliers to deliver sufficient quantities of supplies of product or these raw materials could have a material adverse effect on our business. 
Currently, we depend on a limited number of CMOs for three products, Bloxiverz®, Vazculep® and Akovaz®, from which we derive a majority of our revenues and a single contract manufacturer for Noctiva. Additionally, we purchase certain raw materials used in our products from a limited number of suppliers, including a single supplier for certain key ingredients. If the supplies of these products or materials were interrupted for any reason, our manufacturing and marketing of certain products could be delayed. These delays could be extensive and expensive, especially in situations where a substitution was not readily available or required variations of existing regulatory approvals and certifications or additional regulatory approval. For example, an alternative supplier may be required to pass an inspection by the FDA, EMA or the competent authorities of EU Member States for compliance with

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current Good Manufacturing Practices (“cGMP”) requirements before supplying us with product or before we may incorporate that supplier’s ingredients into the manufacturing of our products by our contract, development, and manufacturing organizations (“CDMOs”). Failure to obtain adequate supplies in a timely manner could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. 
If our competitors develop and market technologies or products that are safer or more effective than ours, or obtain regulatory approval and market such technologies or products before we do, our commercial opportunity will be diminished or eliminated. 
Competition in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry is intense and is expected to increase. We compete with academic laboratories, research institutions, universities, joint ventures and other pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, including other companies developing drug delivery technologies or niche brand or generic specialty pharmaceutical products. Some of these competitors may also be our business partners. 
Our drug delivery technologies compete with technologies provided by several other companies (for details, see the discussion in the “Business of Avadel” under “Competition and Market Opportunities - Competition and Market Opportunities” in Part I, Item 1 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K). In particular, New Biological Entities (“NCEs”) could be developed that, if successful, could compete against our drug delivery technologies or products. Among the many experimental therapies being tested in the U.S. and in the EU, there may be some that we do not now know of that may compete with our drug delivery technologies or products in the future. These new biological or chemical products may be safer or may work better than our products. 
With respect to our UMD drug products, the FDA could approve generic versions or previously filed NDAs of our marketed products.
Many of our competitors have substantially greater financial, technological, manufacturing, marketing, managerial and R&D resources and experience than we do. Furthermore, acquisitions of competing drug delivery companies by large pharmaceutical companies could enhance our competitors’ resources. Accordingly, our competitors may succeed in developing competing technologies and products, obtaining regulatory approval and gaining market share for their products more rapidly than we do. 
Our revenues may be negatively affected by healthcare reforms and increasing pricing pressures.

Future prices for our pharmaceutical products and medical devices will be substantially affected by reimbursement policies of third-party payors such as government healthcare programs, private insurance plans and managed care organizations; by our contracts with the drug wholesalers who distribute our products; and by competitive market forces generally. In recent years, third-party payors have been exerting downward pressure on prices at which products will be reimbursed, and the drug wholesale industry has been undergoing consolidation which gives greater market power to the remaining, larger drug wholesalers. In the U.S., the new administration has made public and social media statements causing uncertainty as to future federal U.S. government policies regulating drug prices. And the trend toward increased availability of generic products has contributed to overall pricing pressures in the pharmaceutical industry. Any future changes in laws, regulations, practices or policies, in the drug wholesale industry, or in the prevalence of generic products may adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

If we cannot keep pace with the rapid technological change in our industry, we may lose business, and our products and technologies could become obsolete or noncompetitive. 
Our success also depends, in part, on maintaining a competitive position in the development of products and technologies in a rapidly evolving field. Major technological changes can happen quickly in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries. If we cannot maintain competitive products and technologies, our competitors may succeed in developing competing technologies or obtaining regulatory approval for products before us, and the products of our competitors may gain market acceptance more rapidly than our products. Such rapid technological change, or the development by our competitors of technologically improved or different products, could render our products or technologies obsolete or noncompetitive. 
We may fail to effectively execute our business strategy. 
Our business strategy is to commercially launch Noctiva during 2018, continue our UMD program, including by obtaining FDA approval for, and commercialize our fourth UMD product candidate as well as potentially additional future UMD product candidates, continue to seek FDA approval for FT 218 which is in Phase III clinical trial, continue to seek to develop and commercialize products using our drug delivery technologies, and develop and identify and acquire additional businesses or new product opportunities. There can be no assurance that we will be successful in any of these objectives; and a failure in any of these objectives could negatively impact our business and operating results. 
In particular, we may be unable to successfully identify attractive acquisition candidates or complete any acquisitions, successfully integrate any acquired business, product or technology or retain any key employees of acquired businesses. Integrating any business,

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product or technology we acquire could be expensive and time consuming, and could disrupt our ongoing business and distract our management. If we fail to complete these acquisitions or successfully integrate any acquired businesses, products or technologies, our business will suffer. In addition, any amortization or charges resulting from the costs of acquisitions could negatively impact our operating results. 
If we cannot adequately protect our intellectual property and proprietary information, we may be unable to sustain a competitive advantage. 
Our success depends, in part, on our ability to obtain and enforce patents and other intellectual property rights for our products and technology, including our drug delivery platforms, and to preserve our trade secrets and other proprietary information. If we cannot do so, our competitors may exploit our technologies and deprive us of the ability to realize revenues and profits from our products and technologies. 
To the extent any of Avadel’s products may benefit from protections afforded by patents, Avadel faces the risk that patent law relating to the scope of claims in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology fields is continually evolving and can be the subject of uncertainty and may change in a way that would limit protection. Our patents may not be exclusive, valid or enforceable. For example, our patents may not protect us against challenges by companies that submit drug marketing applications to the FDA, or the competent authorities of EU Member States or other jurisdictions in which we may attempt to compete, in particular where such applications rely, at least in part, on safety and efficacy data from our products or our business partners’ products. In addition, competitors may obtain patents that may have an adverse effect on our ability to conduct business, or they may discover ways to circumvent our patents. The scope of any patent protection may not be sufficiently broad to cover our products or to exclude competing products. Any patent applications that we have made to may make relating to our potential products or technologies may not result in patents being issued. Further, patent protection once obtained is limited in time, after which competitors may use the covered product or technology without obtaining a license from us. Because of the time required to obtain regulatory marketing approval, the period of effective patent protection for a marketed product is frequently substantially shorter than the duration of the patent.

Our partnerships with third parties expose us to risks that they will claim intellectual property rights on our inventions or fail to keep our unpatented products or technology confidential. We also rely on trademarks, copyrights, trade secrets and know-how to develop, maintain and strengthen our competitive position.

To protect our products, trade secrets and proprietary technologies, we rely, in part, on confidentiality agreements with our employees, consultants, advisors and partners. These agreements may not provide adequate protection for our trade secrets and other proprietary information in the event of any unauthorized use or disclosure, or if others lawfully develop the information. If these agreements are breached, we cannot be certain that we will have adequate remedies. Further, we cannot guaranty that third parties will not know, discover or independently develop equivalent proprietary information or technologies, or that they will not gain access to our trade secrets or disclose our trade secrets to the public. Therefore, we cannot guaranty that we can maintain and protect unpatented proprietary information and trade secrets. Misappropriation or other loss of our intellectual property would adversely affect our competitive position and may cause us to incur substantial litigation or other costs. 
The implementation of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act of 2011 may adversely affect our business. 
The Leahy-Smith America Invents Act of 2011 (“AIA”) changes the current U.S. “first-to-invent” system to a system that awards a patent to the “first-inventor-to-file” for an application for a patentable invention. This change alters the pool of available materials that can be used to challenge patents in the U.S. and eliminates the ability to rely on prior research to lay claim to patent rights. Disputes will be resolved through new derivation proceedings and the AIA creates mechanisms to allow challenges to issued patents in reexamination, inter partes review and post grant proceedings. New bases and procedures may make it easier for competitors to challenge our patents, which could result in increased competition and have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations. The AIA may also make it harder to challenge third-party patents and place greater importance on being the first inventor to file a patent application on an invention. The AIA amendments to patent filing and litigation procedures in the U.S. may result in litigation being more complex and expensive and divert the efforts of our technical and management personnel. 
Third parties may claim that our products infringe their rights, and we may incur significant costs resolving these claims. 
Third parties may claim, that the manufacture, use, import, offer for sale or sale of our drug delivery technologies or our other products infringes on their patent rights and other intellectual property rights. For example, in connection with us seeking regulatory approval for FT 218, companies that produce any branded pharmaceutical versions of such products may allege that FT 218 infringes their patents or other intellectual property rights and file suit against us to prevent it from commercializing FT 218. In response to any claim of infringement, we may have to seek licenses, defend infringement actions or challenge the validity or enforceability of those patent rights in court. If we cannot obtain required licenses, are found liable for infringement or are not

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able to have such patent rights declared invalid or unenforceable. We may be liable for significant monetary damages, encounter significant delays in bringing products to market or be precluded from the manufacture, use, import, offer for sale or sale of products or methods of drug delivery covered by the patents of others. We may not have identified, or be able to identify in the future, U.S. or foreign patents that pose a risk of potential infringement claims. 
Any claims, with or without merit, that our products or drug delivery technologies infringe proprietary rights of third parties could be time-consuming, result in costly litigation or divert the efforts of our technical and management personnel, any of which could disrupt our relationships with our partners and could significantly harm our operating results. 
If we or our partners are required to obtain licenses from third parties, our revenues and royalties on any commercialized products could be reduced. 
The development of certain products based on our drug delivery technologies may require the use of raw materials (e.g., proprietary excipient), active ingredients, drugs (e.g., proprietary proteins) or technologies developed by third parties. The extent to which efforts by other researchers have resulted or will result in patents and the extent to which we or our partners are forced to obtain licenses from others, if available, on commercially reasonable terms is currently unknown. If we or our partners must obtain licenses from third parties, fees must be paid for such licenses, which could reduce the net revenues and royalties we may receive on commercialized products that incorporate our drug delivery technologies.
Security breaches and other disruptions could compromise confidential information and expose us to liability and cause our business and reputation to suffer. 
In the ordinary course of our business, we collect and store proprietary data, including intellectual property, as well as our proprietary business information and that of our customers, suppliers and business partners, on our networks. The secure maintenance and transmission of this information is critical to our operations and business strategy. Despite our security measures, our information systems and infrastructure may be vulnerable to attacks by hackers or breached due to employee error, malfeasance or other disruptions. Any such breach could compromise our networks and the information stored there could be accessed, publicly disclosed, lost or stolen. Any such access, disclosure or other loss of information could result in legal claims or proceedings, investigations by regulatory authorities in the U.S. and EU Member States, disruption to our operations and damage to our reputation, any of which could adversely affect our business. 
Failure to comply with domestic and international privacy and security laws could result in the imposition of significant civil and criminal penalties. 
The costs of compliance with privacy and security laws, including protecting electronically stored information from cyber-attacks, and potential liability associated with failure to do so could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. We are subject to various domestic and international privacy and security regulations, including but not limited to HIPAA. Additionally, we will be required to comply with the General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”) (Regulation EU 2016/679) by May 25, 2018. HIPAA mandates, among other things, the adoption of uniform standards for the electronic exchange of information in common healthcare transactions, as well as standards relating to the privacy and security of individually identifiable health information, which require the adoption of administrative, physical and technical safeguards to protect such information. In addition, many states have enacted comparable laws addressing the privacy and security of health information, some of which are more stringent than HIPAA. GDPR will require Avadel to ensure that personal data Avadel collects is gathered legally and under strict conditions and protect such personal data from misuse and exploitation. If Avadel fails to comply with GDPR, we will face significant fines and penalties that could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our effective tax rate could be highly volatile and could adversely affect our operating results. 
our future effective tax rate may be adversely affected by a number of factors, many of which are outside of our control, including:
the jurisdictions in which profits are determined to be earned and taxed;
increases in expenses not deductible for tax purposes, including increases in the fair value of related party payables, write-offs of acquired in-process R&D and impairment of goodwill in connection with acquisitions;
changes in domestic or international tax laws or the interpretation of such tax laws;
adjustments to estimated taxes upon finalization of various tax returns;
changes in available tax credits;
changes in share-based compensation expense;
changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets and liabilities;

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the resolution of issues arising from tax audits with various tax authorities; and
the tax effects of purchase accounting for acquisitions that may cause fluctuations between reporting periods.
Any significant increase in our future effective tax rates could impact our results of operations for future periods adversely. 
We outsource important activities to consultants, advisors and outside contractors. 
We outsource many key functions of our business and therefore rely on a substantial number of consultants, advisors and outside contractors. If we are unable to effectively manage our outsourced activities or if the quality or accuracy of the services provided by such third parties is compromised for any reason, our development activities may be extended, delayed or terminated which would have an adverse effect on our development program and our business. 
We depend on key personnel to execute our business plan. If we cannot attract and retain key personnel, we may not be able to successfully implement our business plan. 
Our success depends in large part upon our ability to attract and retain highly qualified personnel. During our operating history, we have assigned many key responsibilities within our Company to a relatively small number of individuals, each of whom has played key roles in executing various important components of our business. We do not maintain material key person life insurance for any of our key personnel. If we lose the services of Mr. Anderson, our Chief Executive Officer, or other members of our senior executive team, we may have difficulty executing our business plan in the manner we currently anticipate. Further, because each of our key personnel is involved in numerous roles in various components of our business, the loss of any one or more of such individuals could have an adverse effect on our business.
Risks Related to Our Exclusive License Agreement for Noctiva 
Consumer purchases of Noctiva are subject risks related to reimbursement from government agencies and other third parties.
 
We anticipate that a substantial majority of Avadel’s Noctiva sales will be reimbursed by third-party payors such as the Medicare Part D program in the U.S. and private health insurance companies. The commercial success of Noctiva will therefore depend substantially on the availability and levels of reimbursements by these payors. Government authorities and private health insurance companies decide which drugs they will cover and establish payment levels, and we cannot guaranty the availability or levels of any such reimbursements for Noctiva. We do not anticipate that it will have material Medicare Part D reimbursement coverage until 2019. Patients in the Medicare Part D program make up at least 50% of the target patient population for Noctiva. The opportunity to target this patient population will therefore not be fully achievable until material Medicare Part D reimbursement coverage is achieved. If reimbursement for Noctiva is unavailable or limited by governmental or private insurance programs, our Noctiva business and its results of operations will suffer a material adverse effect.
 
Obtaining coverage and reimbursement approval of a product from a government or other third-party payor is a time-consuming and costly process that could require us to provide to the payor supporting scientific, clinical and cost-effectiveness data for Noctiva.
 
In recent years, government health programs such as Medicare and other third-party payors in the United States have increased their efforts to:

limit the price of covered drugs, including by challenging the prices charged by manufacturers, or by seeking other cost saving measures such as mandatory discounts or rebates, stricter requirements for initial reimbursement approvals and other similar measures such as price increase restrictions;

limit the use of covered drugs, including by shifting additional cost burden to patients, typically by requiring a co-payment or co-insurance percentage that increases significantly when the medicine is not covered or is not preferred; and

limit the use of covered drugs by mandating treatment protocols that require additional healthcare administrative actions (in the form of a prior authorization for reimbursement) and or step edit therapy (requiring a patient to fail another therapy before getting access to the desired therapy).

Governmental agencies in the United States have enacted or adopted, are considering, and may in the future enact and adopt, various legislative and regulatory proposals to change the healthcare system, often with a particular focus on the pharmaceutical industry; and any changes resulting from such proposals may affect our ability to sell Noctiva profitably.


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Any significant changes in the healthcare system in the United States would likely have a substantial impact on the manner in which we conduct our Noctiva business and could have a material adverse effect on our commercialization efforts for Noctiva.

We may have overestimated the market opportunity for Noctiva or we may not effectively exploit such market opportunity.
 
Our internal analyses may overstate the market opportunity in the United States for the drug desmopressin acetate, which we have licensed from Serenity and which we intend to market under the brand name “Noctiva”. If one or more of the assumptions underlying our internal analyses are incorrect, the benefits we anticipate from the Serenity License Agreement for Noctiva may not be realized or may be smaller than expected. We may also fail to effectively exploit the market opportunity for Noctiva, and such failure could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, operating results and liquidity.
 
Significant safety or drug interaction problems could arise with respect to Noctiva.
 
Data supporting the marketing approvals and forming the basis for the safety warnings in the product labels were derived from controlled clinical trials of limited duration in limited patient populations with Noctiva and from existing scientific knowledge and previous clinical assessments of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (desmopressin Acetate). Specifically, Noctiva’s prescribing information includes a black box warning stating that it can cause hyponatremia. As Noctiva is used over longer periods of time and by more patients, some of whom may have underlying health problems or may be taking other medicines, new issues relating to safety, tolerability, resistance or drug-interaction could arise, which may require Avadel to provide additional warnings or contraindications on product labels, or otherwise narrow approved indications for Noctiva. Further, additional information from ongoing research or clinical trials of Noctiva may raise doubts or concerns about its efficacy. If serious safety, tolerability, resistance, drug-interaction, efficacy, or any other such concerns or issues arise with respect to Noctiva, sales of Noctiva could be impaired, limited or abandoned.
 
Patents covering NoctivaTM that we license from Serenity under the Serenity License Agreement are subject to litigation and if Serenity is unsuccessful in defending this litigation, we may lose our exclusive rights to such patents or be required to obtain licenses from third parties to continue to develop and commercialize NoctivaTM, which would have a material adverse effect on our business.
 
Patents covering NoctivaTM that we have in-licensed from Serenity and which are listed in the Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations database published by the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (commonly known as the “Orange Book”) are subject to two pending litigation proceedings. In the first proceeding, which was initiated in April 2012 in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York, Ferring B.V., Ferring International Center S.A., and Ferring Pharmaceuticals Inc., which we collectively refer to as Ferring, filed suit against Serenity Pharmaceuticals Corporation, Serenity Pharmaceuticals, LLC, Reprise Biopharmaceutics, LLC, Allergan, Inc., Allergan USA, Inc., Allergan Sales, LLC, Seymour H. Fein and Ronald V. Nardi, alleging a number of claims relating to U.S. Patent Nos. 7,799,761 (which is expected to expire in 2024), 7,579,321 (which is expected to expire in 2023), and 7,405,203 (which is expected to expire in 2023) (the “Patents-in-Suit”). In particular, Ferring has alleged that certain Ferring employees should be the sole named inventors of these patents or co-inventors with the current named inventors. In addition, Ferring has asserted related claims against the defendants for breach of common law duties, aiding and abetting breach of common law duties, breach of contract, intentional interference with contractual relations, trade secret misappropriation, unfair competition, conversion, fraudulent concealment and unjust enrichment. In March 2013, the district court dismissed all of Ferring’s allegations except for Ferring’s inventorship allegations. In April 2014, certain defendants filed certain counterclaims against Ferring. In September 2015, the district court granted the defendants’ motion for summary judgment on Ferring’s inventorship allegations, finding that Ferring was equitably estopped from asserting such allegations. Ferring may appeal the decisions dismissing its allegations. In the second proceeding, which was initiated in April 2017 in the United States District Court for the District of Delaware, Ferring filed suit against Serenity Pharmaceuticals, LLC, Reprise Biopharmaceutics, LLC and Allergan, Inc., seeking a declaratory judgment that the Patents-in-Suit are invalid and unenforceable and that Ferring’s Nocdurna product does not infringe the Patents-in-Suit. No trial date has been set.
 
If Serenity is ultimately unsuccessful in defending Ferring’s allegations in these litigation proceedings, we may lose valuable patent rights covering NoctivaTM. For example, if a court were to ultimately require that Ferring employees replace the current named inventors as the sole named inventors of the Patents-in-Suit or otherwise award ownership of the Patents-in-Suit to Ferring, then we would no longer have any rights to such patents and we would be required to obtain a license from Ferring to such patents to continue to develop and commercialize NoctivaTM. Such a license may not be available on commercially reasonable terms or at all. If we were unable to obtain any license to any of the Patents-In-Suit, we may be required to cease our development and commercialization of NoctivaTM. We could also be liable for damages to Ferring, which may be significant. Even if we were able to obtain such a license, we may only be non-exclusive and in such case we would not be able to enforce any of the Patents-in-

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Suit against competitors or other third parties, which may materially impair our ability to prevent competitors and other third parties from developing and commercializing products that are the same as or similar to NoctivaTM.
If a court were to ultimately find that Ferring employees should be added as named inventors to the Patents-in-Suit alongside the current named inventors or otherwise award Ferring co-ownership of the Patents-In-Suit, then we would no longer have exclusive rights to such patents. In such case, if we were unable to obtain an exclusive license to Ferring’s co-ownership interest in the Patents-In-Suit, Ferring would be able to exploit such patents itself or license such rights to our competitors or other third parties. Moreover, we and Serenity would need the cooperation of Ferring as a co-owner of the Patents-In-Suit in order to enforce such patents against third parties, and such cooperation may not be provided.
If Ferring were ultimately successful in its challenges to the validity and enforceability of the Patents-In-Suit such that a court declares the Patents-in-Suit invalid or unenforceable, we would lose our ability to enforce such patents against third parties, which may materially impair our ability to prevent competitors and other third parties from developing and commercializing products that are the same as or similar to NoctivaTM. In addition, if Ferring were ultimately successful in its request for a declaration that its Nocdurna product does not infringe the Patents-in-Suit, then we would not be able to enforce the Patents-In-Suit to prevent the development and commercialization of Ferring’s Nocdurna product.

Any of the foregoing could result in a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, liquidity or prospects.

We may not successfully increase awareness of nocturia and or the potential benefits of Noctiva.

Our ability to establish effective marketing and advertising campaigns for Noctiva will be key to our success in commercializing the drug. If we are unable to increase awareness of nocturia (i.e., adult night-time non-incontinent urination, which Noctiva is intended to reduce), the establishment of nocturnal polyuria as the critical etiology that must be treated despite any other co-morbidities and the potential benefits of Noctiva, our effort to build a substantial customer base for the drug may not be successful. In addition, our overall marketing activities or pricing strategies may not be successful in promoting or selling Noctiva. If our marketing and advertising programs are not adequate to support future growth of Noctiva sales, its expected results may experience a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
We depend on a third-party supplier to manufacture Noctiva and any failure of such supplier to deliver sufficient quantities of Noctiva would have a material adverse effect on our business.
 
We will depend on a single CMO, Renaissance Lakewood, LLC, for the manufacturing and supply of Noctiva. If the supplies of Noctiva are interrupted for any reason, our manufacturing and marketing of Noctiva could be delayed. These delays could be extensive and expensive, especially in situations where a substitute is not readily available, or where additional regulatory approval is required. Failure to obtain adequate supplies in a timely manner could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
Our cost to commercialize Noctiva could exceed our estimates or such costs may not provide the intended results.
 
Our past and future internal budgets, plans and projections may underestimate the costs it will incur to develop and commercialize Noctiva, including transaction and integration costs and the costs of other financial, business and strategic initiatives related to the Serenity License Agreement. Even if we adequately control such costs, our expenditures in developing and commercializing Noctiva may not yield the desired results. Further, we may incur higher than expected operating costs, and we may encounter general economic and business conditions that adversely affect it relating to the Serenity License Agreement.
 
The development and commercialization of Noctiva will likely require significant management attention, which could disrupt our business and adversely affect our financial results.
 
We anticipate that our management will devote substantial time and attention to develop and commercialize Noctiva. By diverting management’s attention away from our other products, our ongoing operations could suffer, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects.


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Risks Related to Regulatory and Legal Matters 
Our products will generally be subject to regulatory approval. If we or our pharmaceutical and biotechnology company partners do not obtain such approvals, or if such approvals are delayed, our revenues may be adversely affected. 
Although Noctiva has FDA approval (as described in the “Business of Avadel” included in Part I, Item 1 of this Annual Report), our fourth UMD product and our FT 218 product, as well as products that we may wish to market in the future may not gain regulatory approval and reach the commercial market for a variety of reasons. 
In the U.S., federal, state and local government agencies, primarily the FDA, regulate all pharmaceutical products, including existing products and those under development. Neither we nor our pharmaceutical and biotechnology partners can control whether we obtain regulatory approval for any of these products or, if obtained, the timing thereof. There may be significant delays in expected product releases while attempting to obtain regulatory approval for products incorporating our technologies. If we or our partners are not successful in timely obtaining such approvals, our revenues and profitability may decline. 
Applicants for FDA approval often must submit to the FDA extensive clinical and pre-clinical data, as well as information about product manufacturing processes and facilities and other supporting information. Varying interpretations of the data obtained from pre-clinical and clinical testing could delay, limit or prevent regulatory approval of a drug product. The FDA also may require us, or our partners to conduct additional pre-clinical studies or clinical trials.
Similarly, although we anticipate submitting applications for approval for our development products that rely on existing data to demonstrate safety and effectiveness, the FDA may determine that additional studies particular to our products are necessary. If the FDA requires such additional data, it would impact development plans for those products. 
Changes in FDA approval policy during the development period, or changes in regulatory review for each submitted new product application, also may delay an approval or result in rejection of an application. For instance, under the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 (“FDAAA”), we or our partners may be required to develop Risk Evaluations and Mitigation Strategies (“REMS”), to ensure the safe use of product candidates. If the FDA disagrees with such REMS proposals, it may be more difficult and costly to obtain regulatory approval for our product candidates. Similarly, FDAAA provisions may make it more likely that the FDA will refer a marketing application for a new product to an advisory committee for review, evaluation and recommendation as to whether the application should be approved. This review may add to the time for approval, and, although the FDA is not bound by the recommendation of an advisory committee, objections or concerns expressed by an advisory committee may cause the FDA to delay or deny approval. 
The FDA has substantial discretion in the approval process and may disagree with our or our partners’ interpretations of data and information submitted in an application, which also could cause delays of an approval or rejection of an application. Even if the FDA approves a product, the approval may limit the uses or indications for which the product may be marketed, restrict distribution of the product or require further studies.
The FDA may also withdraw product clearances and approvals for failure to comply with regulatory requirements or if problems follow initial marketing. In the same way, medicinal products for supply on the EU market are subject to marketing authorization by either the European Commission, following an opinion by the EMA, or by the competent authorities of EU Member States. Applicants for marketing authorization must submit extensive technical and clinical data essentially in the form of the ICH Common Technical Document. The data is subject to extensive review by the competent authorities, and after such review the data may be considered inappropriate or insufficient. If applications for marketing authorization by pharmaceutical and biotechnology company partners are delayed or rejected, if the therapeutic indications for which the product is approved are limited, or if conditional marketing authorization imposing post-marketing clinical trials or surveillance is imposed, our revenues, operating results and liquidity may decline and earnings may be negatively impacted. 
Our products are subject to continuing regulation, and we on our own, and in conjunction with our pharmaceutical partners, may be subject to adverse consequences if we or they fail to comply with applicable regulations. 
We on our own and in conjunction with our pharmaceutical partners will be subject to extensive regulatory requirements for our and the co-developed products and product candidates, even if the products receive regulatory approval. These regulations are wide-ranging and govern, among other things:
adverse drug experiences and other reporting requirements;
product promotion and marketing;
APIs and/or product manufacturing, including cGMP compliance;
record keeping;

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distribution of drug samples;
required clinical trials and/or post-marketing studies;
authorization renewal procedures;
authorization variation procedures;
compliance with any required REMS;
updating safety and efficacy information;
processing of personal data;
use of electronic records and signatures; and
changes to product manufacturing or labeling. 
Clinical development of drugs is costly and time-consuming, and the outcomes are uncertain. A failure to prove that our product candidates are safe and effective in clinical trials, or to generate data in clinical trials to support expansion of the therapeutic uses for our existing products, could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
We have made significant investments in our REST-ON Phase III clinical trial. Clinical trials are expensive and can take many years to complete, and the outcome is uncertain. Failure can occur at any time during the clinical trial process. The results of preclinical studies and early clinical trials of potential medicine candidates may not be predictive of the results of later-stage clinical trials. Drug candidates in later stages of clinical trials may fail to show the desired safety and efficacy traits despite having progressed through preclinical studies and initial clinical testing. Any failure or delay in completing our REST-ON Phase III clinical trial would prevent or delay the commercialization of our sodium oxybate product, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
In addition to issues relating to the results generated in clinical trials, clinical trials can be delayed or halted for a variety of reasons, including:
obtaining regulatory approval to commence a trial;
reaching agreement on acceptable terms with prospective contract research organizations (“CROs”) and clinical trial sites, the terms of which can be subject to extensive negotiation and may vary significantly among different CROs and trial sites;
obtaining institutional review board or ethics committee approval at each site;
recruiting suitable patients to participate in a trial;
having patients complete a trial or return for post-treatment follow-up;
clinical sites dropping out of a trial;
adding new sites; or
manufacturing sufficient quantities of medicine candidates for use in clinical trials.

Patient enrollment, a significant factor in the timing of clinical trials, is affected by many factors including the size and nature of the patient population, the proximity of patients to clinical sites, the eligibility criteria for the trial, the design of the clinical trial, competing clinical trials and clinicians’ and patients’ perceptions as to the potential advantages of the medicine candidate being studied in relation to other available therapies, including any new drugs or biologics that may be approved for the indications we are investigating. Furthermore, we rely and expect to rely on CROs and clinical trial sites to ensure the proper and timely conduct of our future clinical trials and while we have and intend to have agreements governing their committed activities, we will have limited influence over their actual performance.
We rely on third parties to conduct our clinical trials, and if they do not properly and successfully perform their contractual, legal and regulatory duties, we may not be able to obtain regulatory approvals for or commercialize our drug product candidates.
We rely on CROs and other third parties to assist us in designing, managing, monitoring and otherwise carrying out our clinical trials, including with respect to site selection, contract negotiation and data management. We do not control these third parties and, as a result, they may not treat our clinical studies as a high priority, which could result in delays. We are responsible for confirming that each of our clinical trials is conducted in accordance with its general investigational plan and protocol, as well as the FDA’s and non-U.S. regulatory agencies’ requirements, commonly referred to as good clinical practices, for conducting, recording and reporting the results of clinical trials to ensure that the data and results are credible and accurate and that the trial participants are adequately protected. The FDA and non-U.S. regulatory agencies enforce good clinical practices through periodic inspections of trial sponsors, principal investigators and trial sites. If we, CROs or other third parties assisting us or our study sites

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fail to comply with applicable good clinical practices, the clinical data generated in our clinical trials may be deemed unreliable and the FDA or its non-U.S. counterparts may require us to perform additional clinical trials before approving our marketing applications. We cannot assure you that, upon inspection, the FDA or non-U.S. regulatory agencies will determine that any of our clinical trials comply with good clinical practices. In addition, our clinical trials must be conducted with product produced under the FDA’s cGMP regulations and similar regulations outside of the U.S. Our failure, or the failure of our product suppliers, to comply with these regulations may require us to repeat or redesign clinical trials, which would delay the regulatory approval process.
If third parties do not successfully carry out their duties under their agreements with us, if the quality or accuracy of the data they obtain is compromised due to failure to adhere to our clinical protocols, including dosing requirements, or regulatory requirements, or if they otherwise fail to comply with clinical trial protocols or meet expected deadlines, our clinical trials may not meet regulatory requirements. If our clinical trials do not meet regulatory requirements or if these third parties need to be replaced, our clinical trials may be extended, delayed, suspended or terminated. If any of these events occur, we may not be able to obtain regulatory approval of our product candidates or succeed in our efforts to create approved line extensions for certain of our existing products or generate additional useful clinical data in support of these products.
If we or our partners, including any CDMOs that we use, fail to comply with these laws and regulations, the FDA, the European Commission, competent authorities of EU Member States, or other regulatory organizations, may take actions that could significantly restrict or prohibit commercial distribution of our products and products that incorporate our technologies. If the FDA, the European Commission or competent authorities of EU Member States determine that we are not in compliance with these laws and regulations, they could, among other things:

issue warning letters;
impose fines;
seize products or request or order recalls;
issue injunctions to stop future sales of products;
refuse to permit products to be imported into, or exported out of, the U.S. or the E.U.;
suspend or limit our production;
withdraw or vary approval of marketing applications;
order the competent authorities of EU Member States to withdraw or vary national authorization; and
initiate criminal prosecutions. 
If FT 218 is approved by the FDA, we may not obtain orphan drug marketing exclusivity.
 
Orphan drug status may be granted by the FDA to certain products intended to treat diseases and conditions that affect fewer than 200,000 individuals in the United States or, if they affect more than 200,000 individuals in the United States, there is no reasonable expectation of recovering the cost of developing and making the product available in the United States for the applicable disease or condition.
 
Our proposed product FT 218 obtained orphan drug designation from the FDA in January 2018. A product with orphan drug designation that subsequently receives the first FDA approval for the disease or condition for which it has such designation will be entitled to certain U.S. marketing exclusivity for a period of seven years. FT 218 would not be the first product with such FDA approval. However, in limited circumstances, including if the FDA concludes that FT 218 is safer, more effective or makes a major contribution to patient care, the FDA could award FT 218 with such marketing exclusivity. The orphan drug designation for FT 218 does not guaranty that the FDA would ultimately award this product with orphan drug status for purposes of marketing exclusivity. Among other factors, the FDA will consider the results of our FT 218 Phase III clinical trial with respect to the efficacy and safety of the product. Thus, there can be no assurance that the FDA will ultimately grant orphan drug status, or marketing exclusivity, for FT 218. In addition, even if such orphan drug marketing exclusivity rights were granted by the FDA, such rights may be lost if the FDA later determines that our request for such designation was materially defective or if the manufacturer is unable to assure sufficient quantity of the drug to meet the needs of patients with the rare disease or condition to be treated with the product.

We are subject to U.S. federal and state and international laws and regulations prohibiting “kickbacks” and false claims that, if violated, could subject us to substantial penalties, and any challenges to or investigation into our practices under these laws could cause adverse publicity and be costly to respond to, and thus could harm our business. 
We are subject to extensive and complex U.S. federal and state and international laws and regulations, including but not limited to, health-care “fraud and abuse” laws, such as anti-kickback and false claims laws and regulations pertaining to government

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benefit program reimbursement, price reporting and regulations, and sales and marketing practices. These laws and regulations are broad in scope and subject to evolving interpretations, which could require us to incur substantial costs associated with compliance or to alter one or more of our sales or marketing practices. In addition, violations of these laws, or allegations of such violations, could disrupt our business and result in a material adverse effect on our revenues, profitability, and financial condition. In the current environment, there appears to be a greater risk of investigations of possible violations of these laws and regulations. This increased risk is reflected by recent enforcement activity and pronouncements by the US Office of Inspector General of the Department of Health and Human Services that it intends to continue to vigorously pursue fraud and abuse violations by pharmaceutical companies, including through the potential to impose criminal penalties on pharmaceutical company executives. If any such actions are instituted against us, and we are not successful in defending ourselves or asserting our rights, those actions could have a significant impact on our business, including the imposition of significant fines or other sanctions. 
Healthcare reform and restrictions on reimbursements may limit our financial returns. 
Our ability to successfully commercialize our products and technologies may depend on the extent to which the government health administration authorities, the health insurance funds in the EU Member States, private health insurers and other third-party payor in the U.S. will reimburse consumers for the cost of these products, which would affect the volume of drug products sold by pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies that incorporate our technology into their products. Third party payor are increasingly challenging both the need for, and the price of, novel therapeutic drugs and uncertainty exists as to the reimbursement status of newly approved therapeutics. The commercial success of our products depends in part on the conditions under which products incorporating our technology are reimbursed. Adequate third-party reimbursement may not be available for such drug products to enable us to maintain price levels sufficient to realize an appropriate return on our investments in research and product development, which could materially and adversely affect our business. We cannot predict the effect that changes in the healthcare system, especially cost containment efforts, may have on our business. In particular, it is difficult to predict the effect of health care reform legislation enacted in the U.S. in 2010, certain provisions of which are still subject to regulatory implementation, further legislative change and ongoing judicial review. Any such changes or changes due to future legislation governing the pricing and reimbursement of healthcare products in the EU Member States may adversely affect our business. 
Regulatory reforms may adversely affect our ability to sell our products profitably. 
From time to time, the U.S. Congress, the Council of the European Union and the European Parliament, as well as the legislators of the EU Member States, adopt changes to the statutes that the FDA, the European Commission and the competent authorities of the EU Member States enforce in ways that could significantly affect our business. In addition, the FDA, the European Commission and the competent authorities of the EU Member States often issue new regulations or guidance, or revise or reinterpret their current regulations and guidance in ways that may significantly affect our business and our products. It is impossible to predict whether legislative changes will be enacted or FDA, EU or EU Member State’s regulations, guidance or interpretations changed, and what the impact of any such changes may be. Any such changes could have a significant impact on the path to approval of our proposed products or of competing products, and on our obligations and those of our pharmaceutical industry partners. 
We and companies to which we have licensed, or will license our products or drug delivery technologies and subcontractors we engage for services related to the development and manufacturing of our products are subject to extensive regulation by the FDA and other regulatory authorities. Our and their failure to meet strict regulatory requirements could adversely affect our business. 
We, and companies to which we license our products or drug delivery technologies, as well as companies acting as subcontractors for our product developments, including but not limited to non-clinical, pre-clinical and clinical studies, and manufacturing, are subject to extensive regulation by the FDA, other domestic regulatory authorities and equivalent foreign regulatory authorities, particularly the European Commission and the competent authorities of EU Member States. Those regulatory authorities may conduct periodic audits or inspections of the applicable facilities to monitor compliance with regulatory standards and we remain responsible for the compliance of our subcontractors. If the FDA or another regulatory authority finds failure to comply with applicable regulations, the authority may institute a wide variety of enforcement actions, including:
warning letters or untitled letters;
fines and civil penalties;
delays in clearing or approving, or refusal to clear or approve, products;
withdrawal, suspension or variation of approval of products; product recall or seizure;
orders to the competent authorities of EU Member States to withdraw or vary national authorization;
orders for physician notification or device repair, replacement or refund;
interruption of production;

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operating restrictions;
injunctions; and
criminal prosecution.
Any adverse action by a competent regulatory agency could lead to unanticipated expenditures to address or defend such action and may impair our ability to produce and market applicable products, which could significantly impact our revenues and royalties that we receive from our customers. 
We may face product liability claims related to clinical trials for our products or their misuse. 
The testing, including through clinical trials, manufacturing and marketing, and the use of our products may expose us to potential product liability and other claims. If any such claims against us are successful, we may be required to make significant compensation payments. Any indemnification that we have obtained, or may obtain, from CROs or pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies or hospitals conducting human clinical trials on our behalf may not protect us from product liability claims or from the costs of related litigation. Insurance coverage is expensive and difficult to obtain, and we may be unable to obtain coverage in the future on acceptable terms, if at all. We currently maintain general liability insurance and product liability and recall insurance. We cannot be certain that the coverage limits of our insurance policies or those of our strategic partners will be adequate. If we are unable to obtain sufficient insurance at an acceptable cost, a product liability claim or recall could adversely affect our financial condition. Similarly, any indemnification we have obtained, or may obtain, from pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies with whom we are developing, or will develop, our products may not protect us from product liability claims from the consumers of those products or from the costs of related litigation. 
If we use hazardous biological and/or chemical materials in a manner that causes injury, we may be liable for significant damages. 
Our R&D activities involve the controlled use of potentially harmful biological and/or chemical materials, and are subject to U.S., state, EU, national and local laws and regulations governing the use, storage, handling and disposal of those materials and specified waste products. We cannot completely eliminate the risk of accidental contamination or injury from the use, storage, handling or disposal of these materials, including fires and/or explosions, storage tank leaks and ruptures and discharges or releases of toxic or hazardous substances. These operating risks can cause personal injury, property damage and environmental contamination, and may result in the shutdown of affected facilities and the imposition of civil or criminal penalties. The occurrence of any of these events may significantly reduce the productivity and profitability of a particular manufacturing facility and adversely affect our operating results.   
We currently maintain property, business interruption and casualty insurance with limits that we believe to be commercially reasonable, but may be inadequate to cover any actual liability or damages. 
Risks Related to Ownership of Our Securities 
Our share price has been volatile and may continue to be volatile. 
The trading price of our shares has been, and is likely to continue to be, highly volatile. The market value of an investment in our shares may fall sharply at any time due to this volatility. During the year ended December 31, 2017, the closing sale price of our ADSs as reported on the Nasdaq Global ranged from $8.03 to $11.57. During the year ended December 31, 2016, the closing sale price of our ADSs as reported on the NASDAQ National Market ranged from $7.85 to $14.89. The market prices for securities of drug delivery, specialty pharma, biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies historically have been highly volatile. Factors that could adversely affect our share price include, among others:
fluctuations in our operating results;
announcements of technological partnerships, innovations or new products by us or our competitors;
actions with respect to the acquisition of new or complementary businesses;
governmental regulations;
developments in patent or other proprietary rights owned by us or others;
public concern as to the safety of drug delivery technologies developed by us or drugs developed by others using our platform;
the results of pre-clinical testing and clinical studies or trials by us or our competitors;
adverse events related to our products or products developed by pharmaceutical and biotechnology company partners that use our drug delivery technologies;
lack of efficacy of our products;

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litigation;
decisions by our pharmaceutical and biotechnology company partners relating to the products incorporating our technologies;
the perception by the market of specialty pharma, biotechnology, and high technology companies generally;
general market conditions, including the impact of the current financial environment; and
the dilutive impact of any new equity securities we may issue.
If we are not able to sustain profitability in the future, the value of our shares may fall. 
We reported net income of $68.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2017 and net loss of $41.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. We cannot predict if we will be able to sustain profitability. If we are unable to maintain a profit in future periods, the market price of our shares may fall. Our ability to operate profitably depends upon a number of factors, many of which are beyond our direct control. These factors include:
the demand for our drug delivery technologies and products;
the level of product and price competition;
our ability to develop new partnerships and additional commercial applications for our products;
our ability to control our costs;
our ability to broaden our customer base;
the effectiveness of our marketing strategy;
Our effective tax rate;
the launch costs of Noctiva;
the effectiveness of our partners’ marketing strategy for products that use our technology; and
general economic conditions. 
We may require additional financing, which may not be available on favorable terms or at all, and which may result in dilution of the equity interest of the holders of our ADSs. 
We may require additional financing to fund the development and possible acquisition of new products and businesses. We may consume available resources more rapidly than currently anticipated, resulting in the need for additional funding. If we cannot obtain financing when needed, or obtain it on favorable terms, we may be required to curtail our plans to continue to develop drug delivery technologies, develop new products, or acquire additional products and businesses. Other factors that will affect future capital requirements and may require us to seek additional financing include:
the development and acquisition of new products and drug delivery technologies;
the progress of our research and product development programs; and
the timing of, and amounts received from, future product sales, product development fees and licensing revenue and royalties. 
If adequate funds are not available, we may be required to significantly reduce or refocus our product development efforts, resulting in loss of sales, increased costs and reduced revenues. Alternatively, to obtain needed funds for acquisitions or operations, we may choose to issue additional ADSs representing our ordinary shares, or issue equity-linked debt, or we may choose to issue preferred shares, in either case through public or private financings. Additional funds may not be available on terms that are favorable to us and, in the case of such equity financings, may result in dilution to the holders of our ADSs. 
We have broad discretion in the use of our cash and may not use it effectively.
Our management has broad discretion in the use of our cash, and may not apply our cash in ways that ultimately increase the value of any investment in our securities. We currently intend to use our cash to fund marketing activities for our commercialized products, to fund certain clinical trials for product candidates, to fund R&D activities for potential new product candidates, to acquire assets or businesses that we may identify as potentially beneficial to our business strategies, and for working capital, capital expenditures and general corporate purposes. As in the past we expect to invest our cash in available-for-sale marketable securities, including corporate bonds, U.S. government securities, other fixed income securities and equities; and these investments may not yield a favorable return. If we do not invest or apply our cash effectively, our financial position and the price of our ADSs may decline.


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We currently do not intend to pay dividends and cannot assure the holders of our ADSs that we will make dividend payments in the future. 

We have never declared or paid a cash dividend on any of our ordinary shares or ADSs and do not anticipate declaring cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Declaration of dividends will depend upon, among other things, future earnings, if any, the operating and financial condition of our business, our capital requirements, general business conditions and such other factors as our Board of Directors deems relevant. 

Provisions of our articles of association could delay or prevent a third-party’s effort to acquire us.
Our articles of association could delay, defer or prevent a third-party from acquiring us, even where such a transaction would be beneficial to the holders of our ADSs, or could otherwise adversely affect the price of our ADSs. For example, certain provisions of our articles of association:
permit our board of directors to issue preferred shares with such rights and preferences as they may designate, subject to applicable law;

impose advance notice requirements for shareholder proposals and director nominations to be considered at annual shareholder meetings; and

require the approval of a supermajority of the voting power of the shares of our share capital entitled to vote generally at a meeting of shareholders to amend or repeal certain provisions of our articles of association.

We believe these provisions may provide some protection to holders of our ADSs from coercive or otherwise unfair takeover tactics. These provisions are not intended to make us immune from takeovers. However, these provisions will apply even if some holders of our ADSs consider an offer to be beneficial and could delay or prevent an acquisition that our Board of Directors determines is in the best interest of the holders of our ADSs. These provisions may also prevent or discourage attempts to remove and replace incumbent directors.

In addition, several mandatory provisions of Irish law could prevent or delay our acquisition by a third party. For example, Irish law does not permit shareholders of an Irish public limited company to take action by written consent with less than unanimous consent. In addition, an effort to acquire us may be subject to various provisions of Irish law relating to mandatory bids, voluntary bids, requirements to make a cash offer and minimum price requirements, as well as substantial acquisition rules and rules requiring the disclosure of interests in our ADSs in certain circumstances.
These provisions may discourage potential takeover attempts, discourage bids for our ordinary shares at a premium over the market price or adversely affect the market price of, and the voting and other rights of the holders of, our ADSs. These provisions could also discourage proxy contests and make it more difficult for holders of our ADSs to elect directors other than the candidates nominated by our board of directors, and could depress the market price of our ADSs.
 Irish law differs from the laws in effect in the United States and might afford less protection to the holders of our ADSs.
Holders of our ADSs could have more difficulty protecting their interests than would the shareholders of a U.S. corporation.  As an Irish company, we are governed by the Irish Companies Act 2014, which differs in some significant, and possibly material, respects from provisions set forth in various U.S. state laws applicable to U.S. corporations and their shareholders, including provisions relating to interested directors, mergers and acquisitions, takeovers, shareholder lawsuits and indemnification of directors.
The duties of directors and officers of an Irish company are generally owed to the company only. Therefore, under Irish law shareholders of Irish companies do not generally have a right to commence a legal action against directors or officers, and may only do so in limited circumstances. Directors of an Irish company must act with due care and skill, honestly and in good faith with a view to the best interests of the company. Directors must not put themselves in a position in which their duties to the company and their personal interests conflict and must disclose any personal interest in any contract or arrangement with the company or any of our subsidiaries. A director or officer can be held personally liable to the company in respect of a breach of duty to the company.

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Judgments of United States courts, including those predicated on the civil liability provisions of the federal securities laws of the United States, may not be enforceable in Irish courts. 
An investor in the U.S. may find it difficult to:
effect service of process within the U.S. against us and our non-U.S. resident directors and officers;
enforce United States court judgments based upon the civil liability provisions of the United States federal securities laws against us and our non-U.S. resident directors and officers in Ireland; or
bring an original action in an Irish court to enforce liabilities based upon the U.S. federal securities laws against us and our non-U.S. resident directors and officers.
Judgments of United States courts, including those predicated on the civil liability provisions of the federal securities laws of the United States, may not be enforceable in Cayman Islands courts.
 
We have been advised by our Cayman Islands legal counsel, Maples and Calder, that the courts of the Cayman Islands are unlikely (i) to recognize or enforce against us or Avadel judgments of courts of the United States predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the United States or any State; and (ii) in original actions brought in the Cayman Islands, to impose liabilities against us or Avadel predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the United States or any State, so far as the liabilities imposed by those provisions are penal in nature. In those circumstances, although there is no statutory enforcement in the Cayman Islands of judgments obtained in the United States, the courts of the Cayman Islands will recognize and enforce a foreign money judgment of a foreign court of competent jurisdiction without retrial on the merits based on the principle that a judgment of a competent foreign court imposes upon the judgment debtor an obligation to pay the sum for which judgment has been given provided certain conditions are met. For a foreign judgment to be enforced in the Cayman Islands, such judgment must be final and conclusive and for a liquidated sum, and must not be in respect of taxes or a fine or penalty, inconsistent with a Cayman Islands judgment in respect of the same matter, impeachable on the grounds of fraud or obtained in a manner, and or be of a kind the enforcement of which is, contrary to natural justice or the public policy of the Cayman Islands (awards of punitive or multiple damages may well be held to be contrary to public policy). A Cayman Islands Court may stay enforcement proceedings if concurrent proceedings are being brought elsewhere.

Holders of ADSs have fewer rights than shareholders and have to act through the Depositary to exercise those rights. 
Holders of ADSs do not have the same rights as shareholders and, accordingly, cannot exercise rights of shareholders against us. The Bank of New York Mellon, as depositary, or the “Depositary”, is the registered shareholder of the deposited shares underlying the ADSs. Therefore, holders of ADSs will generally have to exercise the rights attached to those shares through the Depositary. We will use reasonable efforts to request that the Depositary notify the holders of ADSs of upcoming votes and ask for voting instructions from them. If a holder fails to return a voting instruction card to the Depositary by the date established by the Depositary for receipt of such voting instructions, or if the Depositary receives an improperly completed or blank voting instruction card, or if the voting instructions included in the voting instruction card are illegible or unclear, then such holder will be deemed to have instructed the Depositary to vote its shares, and the Depositary shall vote such shares in favor of any resolution proposed or approved by our Board of Directors and against any resolution not so proposed or approved. 
Our largest shareholders own a significant percentage of the share capital and voting rights of the Company. 
As of February 16, 2017, Deerfield Capital and certain of its affiliates beneficially owned approximately 9.98% of Avadel’s outstanding shares (in the form of ADRs). As of February 6, 2018, Brandes Investment Partners, L.P. and certain of its affiliates beneficially owned 7.99% of Avadel’s outstanding shares (in the form of ADRs). As of February 13, 2018, Broadfin Capital and certain of its affiliates beneficially owned approximately 6.59% of our outstanding shares (in the form of ADRs). As of November 1, 2017, Perceptive Advisors LLC and certain of its affiliates beneficially owned 5.4% of our outstanding shares (in the form of ADRs). To the extent these shareholders continue to hold a large percentage of our share capital and voting rights, they will remain in a position to exert heightened influence in the election of the directors of the Company and in other corporate actions that require shareholder approval, including change of control transactions.

Risks Related to the Notes

The conditional exchange feature of the Notes, if triggered, may adversely affect our financial condition and operating results.
In the event the conditional exchange feature of the Notes is triggered, holders of Notes will be entitled to exchange the Notes at any time during specified periods at their option (see the discussion under the caption “Recent Developments -- Issuance of Exchangeable Notes” in Item 1 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K). If one or more holders elect to exchange their Notes, unless we elect to satisfy our exchange obligation by causing to be delivered solely ADSs (other than paying cash in lieu of any fractional

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ADS), we would be required to settle a portion or all of our exchange obligation through the payment of cash, which could adversely affect our liquidity. In addition, even if holders do not elect to exchange their Notes, we could be required under applicable accounting rules to reclassify all or a portion of the outstanding principal of the Notes as a current rather than long-term liability, which would result in a material reduction of our net working capital.
The accounting method for convertible and exchangeable debt securities that may be settled in cash, such as the Notes, could have a material effect on Avadel’s reported financial results.
Under Accounting Standards Codification 470-20, Debt with Conversion and Other Options, which we refer to as ASC 470-20, an entity must separately account for the liability and equity components of the convertible or exchangeable debt instruments (such as the Notes) that may be settled entirely or partially in cash upon conversion or exchange in a manner that reflects the issuer’s economic interest cost. However, entities must first consider the guidance in ASC 815-15, Embedded Derivatives (“ASC 815-15”), to determine if an instrument contains an embedded feature that should be separately accounted for as a derivative. ASC 815 provides for an exception to this rule when convertible notes, as host instruments, are deemed to be conventional, as defined by ASC 815-40. Should this exception apply, the effect of ASC 470-20 on the accounting for the Notes is that the equity component would be required to be included in the additional paid-in capital section of stockholders’ equity on Avadel’s consolidated balance sheet, and the value of the equity component would be treated as original issue discount for purposes of accounting for the debt component of the Notes. As a result, Avadel would be required to record a greater amount of non-cash interest expense in current periods presented as a result of the amortization of the discounted carrying value of the Notes to their face amount over the term of the Notes. Avadel would report lower net income in its financial results because ASC 470-20 would require interest to include both the current period’s amortization of the debt discount and the instrument’s coupon interest, which could adversely affect Avadel’s reported or future financial results, the trading price of the ADSs and the trading price of the Notes.
In addition, under certain circumstances, convertible or exchangeable debt instruments (such as the Notes) that may be settled entirely or partly in cash are currently accounted for utilizing the treasury stock method, the effect of which is that the ADSs deliverable upon exchange of the Notes are not included in the calculation of diluted earnings per share except to the extent that the exchange value of the Notes exceeds their principal amount. Under the treasury stock method, for diluted earnings per share purposes, the transaction is accounted for as if the number of ADSs that would be necessary to settle such excess, if we elected to settle such excess in ADSs, are issued. Neither we nor Avadel can be sure that the accounting standards in the future will continue to permit the use of the treasury stock method. If Avadel is unable to use the treasury stock method in accounting for the ADSs deliverable upon exchange of the Notes, then Avadel’s diluted earnings per share would be adversely affected.
Exchanges of the Notes will dilute the ownership interest of Avadel’s existing shareholders and holders of the ADSs, including holders who had previously exchanged their Notes and received ADSs upon exchange, to the extent our exchange obligation includes ADSs.
The exchange of some or all of the Notes will dilute the ownership interests of Avadel’s existing shareholders and holders of the ADSs to the extent our exchange obligation includes ADSs. Any sales in the public market of the ADSs issuable upon such exchange of the Notes could adversely affect prevailing market prices of the ADSs and, in turn, the price of the Notes. In addition, the existence of the Notes may encourage short selling by market participants because the exchange of the Notes could depress the price of the ADS.
The fundamental change repurchase feature of the Notes may delay or prevent an otherwise beneficial takeover attempt of Avadel.
The indenture governing the Notes will require us to repurchase the Notes for cash upon the occurrence of a fundamental change and, in certain circumstances, to increase the exchange rate for a holder that exchanges its Notes in connection with a make-whole fundamental change. A takeover of Avadel may trigger the requirement that we repurchase the Notes and/or increase the exchange rate, which could make it more costly for a potential acquirer to engage in a combinatory transaction with us or Avadel. Such additional costs may have the effect of delaying or preventing a takeover of Avadel that would otherwise be beneficial to investors.
Dividends paid by the Parent may be subject to Irish dividend withholding tax
In certain circumstances, as an Irish tax resident company, Avadel will be required to deduct Irish dividend withholding tax (currently at the rate of 20%) from dividends paid to its shareholders. Shareholders that are resident in the U.S., EU countries (other than Ireland) or other countries with which Ireland has signed a tax treaty (whether the treaty has been ratified or not) generally should not be subject to Irish withholding tax so long as the shareholder has provided its broker, for onward transmission to Avadel’s qualifying intermediary or other designated agent (in the case of shares held beneficially), or Avadel or its transfer agent (in the case of shares held directly), with all the necessary documentation by the appropriate due date prior to payment of

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the dividend. However, some shareholders may be subject to withholding tax, which could adversely affect the price of ordinary shares and the value of their Notes.
Risks Related to Recent Tax Legislation
 
The effect of comprehensive U.S. tax reform legislation on us, whether adverse or favorable, is uncertain.
 
On December 22, 2017, President Trump signed into law the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (H.R. 1) (the “Tax Act”). Among a number of significant changes to the U.S. federal income tax rules, the Tax Act reduces the marginal U.S. corporate income tax rate from 35% to 21%, limits the deduction for net interest expense, shifts the United States toward a more territorial tax system, and imposes new rules to combat erosion of the U.S. federal income tax base. While our analysis of the Tax Act’s impact on our cash tax liability and financial condition has not identified any overall material adverse effect, we are still evaluating the effects of the Tax Act on us and there are a number of uncertainties and ambiguities as to the interpretation and application of many of the provisions in the Tax Act. In the absence of guidance on these issues, we will use what it believes are reasonable interpretations and assumptions in interpreting and applying the Tax Act for purposes of determining our cash tax liabilities and results of operations, which may change as we receive additional clarification and implementation guidance and as the interpretation of the Tax Act evolves over time. It is possible that the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) could issue subsequent guidance or take positions on audit that differ from the interpretations and assumptions that we have previously made, which could have a material adverse effect on our cash tax liabilities, results of operations and financial condition.

Item 1B.    Unresolved Staff Comments. 
Not applicable.

Item 2.        Properties.
(Amounts in thousands, except per square foot amounts)
Avadel Research SAS, our research center, is located in Venissieux, France (a suburb of Lyon) in three adjacent leased facilities totaling approximately 51,600 square feet.  One building of approximately 12,800 square feet houses administrative offices and analytical research laboratories.  The lease on this facility expires in March 2019.  A second facility comprising approximately 12,800 square feet houses equipment dedicated to our Micropump, LiquiTime and Trigger Lock platforms has a lease which expires in March 2019.  The third facility of approximately 26,000 square feet houses research and biochemistry (Medusa) laboratories and quality/regulatory affairs and the lease may be terminated by the end of 2018. 
We have commercial and administrative activities located in Chesterfield, Missouri. Our current office space consists of 22,229 square feet, and the lease expires in 2023. We still maintain the lease on our former office space which expires in 2018. Additionally, we still maintain the lease on the former headquarters of FSC Laboratories, Inc. located in Charlotte, North Carolina. This office space consists of 6,300 square feet, and the lease expires in 2020.
We have intellectual property, clinical, quality, regulatory, and supply chain activities located in Dublin, Ireland. The office space consists of 5,059 square feet and the lease expires in 2025. 
See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in Part II, Item 7 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for more information regarding our investment activities and principal capital expenditures over the last three years.
Item 3.        Legal Proceedings.
With respect to pending litigation involving patents covering Noctiva, please see the information set forth under the caption “— Risks Related to Avadel’s Exclusive License Agreement for Noctiva” in the “Risk Factors” included in Part I, Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. While we may be engaged in various other claims and legal proceedings in the ordinary course of business, we are not involved (whether as a defendant or otherwise) in, and, we have no knowledge of any threat of, any other litigation, arbitration or administrative or other proceeding that management believes would, if determined adversely, have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or liquidity.

Item 4.        Mine Safety Disclosures. 
Not applicable.

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PART II

Item 5.
Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.
 
Issuance of Company Securities in Cross-Border Merger on December 31, 2016

As described in Item 1. of this Annual Report on Form 10-K under the caption “Business - General Overview,” the Company is an Irish public limited company, or plc, and is the successor to Flamel Technologies S.A., a French société anonyme (“Flamel”), as the result of the merger of Flamel with and into the Company which was completed at 11:59:59 p.m., Central Europe Time, on December 31, 2016 (the “Merger”) pursuant to the agreement between Flamel and the Company entitled Common Draft Terms of Cross-Border Merger dated as of June 29, 2016 (the “Merger Agreement”). Immediately prior to the Merger, the Company was a wholly owned subsidiary of Flamel. In accordance with the Merger Agreement, as a result of the Merger Flamel ceased to exist as a separate entity and the Company continued as the surviving entity and assumed all of the assets and liabilities of Flamel.
In addition, pursuant to the Merger, all outstanding ordinary shares of Flamel were canceled and exchanged on a one-for-one basis for newly issued ordinary shares of the Company, $0.01 nominal value per share; and all outstanding American Depositary Shares (ADSs) representing ordinary shares of Flamel were canceled and exchanged on a one-for-one basis for ADSs representing ordinary shares of the Company. These exchanges resulted in the issuance of approximately 41,370,804 ordinary shares of the Company, of which approximately 40,426,656 of such ordinary shares were issued to the Depositary under the Company’s ADS program. Such 40,426,656 ordinary shares issued to the Depositary were thereupon represented by ADSs and issued to the former holders of Flamel ADSs. The issuances of these securities in connection with the Merger were sanctioned by the High Court of Ireland pursuant to an order issued on November 25, 2016 after a hearing upon the fairness of the terms and conditions of such issuances at which all holders of Flamel ordinary shares had a right to appear and of which notice had been given. The foregoing issuances of ordinary shares of the Company and ADSs representing such ordinary shares of the Company were exempt from the registration requirements of the Securities Act by virtue of the exemption provided under Section 3(a)(10) thereof.
Common Stock Data (per share):
 
The principal trading market for the Company’s securities in ADSs is the NASDAQ Global Market. There is no foreign trading market for the Company’s ordinary shares, ADSs or any other equity security issued by the Company. Each ADS represents one ordinary share, nominal value $0.01. Each ADS is evidenced by an ADR. The Bank of New York Mellon is the Depositary for the ADRs.
 
As of March 9, 2018, there were 37,693,988 ADS outstanding, and the closing stock price of the Company was $7.29 per share.
 
The following table reports the high and low trading prices of the ADSs on the NASDAQ Market for the periods indicated: 
 
2017 Price Range
 
2016 Price Range
 
High
 
Low
 
High
 
Low
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First quarter  
$
12.30

 
$
8.87

 
$
12.92

 
$
7.85

Second quarter
11.72

 
8.75

 
13.32

 
8.83

Third quarter  
11.18

 
8.14

 
14.89

 
11.01

Fourth quarter
11.53

 
7.52

 
13.16

 
9.26

 

Holders

As of March 9, 2018, there were 87 holders of record of our ordinary shares and 19 accounts registered with The Bank of New York Mellon, the depositary of our ADS program, as holders of ADSs, one of which ADS accounts is registered to the Depositary Trust Corporation (DTC). Because our ADSs are generally held of record by brokers, nominees and other institutions as participants in DTC on behalf of the beneficial owners of such ADSs, we are unable to estimate the total number of beneficial owners of the ADSs held by these record holders.

Dividends
The Company has never declared or paid a cash dividend on any of our capital stock and does not anticipate declaring cash dividends in the foreseeable future.

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Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

The following table summarizes the repurchase activity of our ordinary shares during the three months ended December 31, 2017. The repurchase activity presented below includes market repurchases of shares.

In March 2017, the Board of Directors approved an authorization to repurchase up to $25,000 of Avadel ordinary shares represented by ADSs. Under this authorization, which has an indefinite duration, share repurchases may be made in the open market, in block transactions on or off the exchange, in privately negotiated transactions, or through other means as determined by the Board of Directors and in accordance with the regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission. The timing and amount of repurchases, if any, will depend on a variety of factors, including the price of our shares, cash resources, alternative investment opportunities, corporate and regulatory requirements and market conditions. This share repurchase program may be modified, suspended or discontinued at any time without prior notice. We may also from time to time establish a trading plan under Rule 10b5-1 of the Securities and Exchange Act of 1934 to facilitate purchases of our shares under this program.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Fourth Quarter 2017
(in thousands, except per share data)
Period
 
Total Number of Shares Purchased
 
Average Price Paid per Share
 
Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs
 
Approximate Dollar Value of Shares that May Yet Be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs
October 1 - October 31, 2017
 
444

 
$
10.82

 
444

 
$
2,639

November 1, 2017 - November 30, 2017
 

 

 

 
2,639

December 1, 2017 - December 31, 2017
 

 

 

 
2,639

Total
 
444

 
$
10.82

 
444

 
2,639



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Stock Performance Graph
 
The following graph compares the cumulative 5-year return provided to shareholders of Avadel’s ADSs relative to the cumulative total returns of the NASDAQ Composite Index and the NASDAQ Biotechnology Index. We believe these indices are the most appropriate indices against which the total shareholder return of Avadel should be measured. The NASDAQ Biotechnology Index has been selected because it is an index of U.S. quoted biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies. An investment of $100 (with reinvestment of all dividends) is assumed to have been made in our ADSs and in each of the indexes on January 1, 2013 and our relative performance is tracked through December 31, 2017. The comparisons shown in the graph are based upon historical data and we caution that the stock price performance shown in the graph is not indicative of, or intended to forecast, the potential future performance of our stock.

stock.jpg 
This performance graph shall not be deemed “filed” for purposes of Section 18 of the Exchange Act. Notwithstanding any statement to the contrary set forth in any of our filings under the Securities Act of 1933 or the Exchange Act that might incorporate future filings, including this Annual Report on Form 10-K, in whole or in part, this performance graph shall not be incorporated by reference into any such filings except as may be expressly set forth by specific reference in any such filing.



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Item 6.        Selected Financial Data (in thousands, except per share amounts).
 
Annual Financial Data:

The following selected financial data should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related notes appearing in Item 8 “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” and Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The Company’s historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected in any future period.
Statement of Income (Loss) Data:
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Total revenue
 
$
173,245

 
$
150,246

 
$
173,009

 
$
14,975

 
$
4,179

Gross profit (a)
 
156,944

 
136,998

 
161,599

 
11,592

 
3,617

Operating income (loss)
 
89,505

 
(4,965
)
 
70,758

 
(93,657
)
 
(53,700
)
Net income (loss) from continuing operations
 
68,271

 
(41,276
)
 
41,798

 
(89,487
)
 
(46,176
)
Net income from discontinued operations
 

 

 

 
4,018

 
3,584

Net income (loss)
 
68,271

 
(41,276
)
 
41,798

 
(85,469
)
 
(42,592
)
Net income (loss) per share - basic:
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Continuing operations
 
1.69

 
(1.00
)
 
1.03

 
(2.47
)
 
(1.81
)
Discontinued operations
 

 

 

 
0.11

 
0.14

Net income (loss) per share - basic
 
1.69

 
(1.00
)
 
1.03

 
(2.36
)
 
(1.67
)
Net income (loss) per share - diluted:
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Continuing operations
 
1.63

 
(1.00
)
 
0.96

 
(2.47
)
 
(1.81
)
Discontinued operations
 

 

 

 
0.11

 
0.14

Net income (loss) per share - diluted
 
1.63

 
(1.00
)
 
0.96

 
(2.36
)
 
(1.67
)
 
Balance Sheet Data:
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Cash and cash equivalents
 
$
16,564

 
$
39,215

 
$
65,064

 
$
39,760

 
$
6,636

Marketable securities
 
77,511

 
114,980

 
79,738

 
53,074

 
401

Goodwill
 
18,491

 
18,491

 
18,491

 
18,491

 
18,491

Intangible assets, net
 
92,289

 
22,837

 
15,825

 
28,389

 
40,139

Total assets
 
253,277

 
245,482

 
215,081

 
174,382

 
116,252

Long-term debt (incl. current portion)
 
267

 
815

 
1,118

 
3,717

 
30,249

Long-term related party payable (incl. current portion)
 
98,925

 
169,347

 
122,693

 
114,750

 
55,265


(a) Gross profit is computed by subtracting cost of products and services sold from total revenues.
 


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Quarterly Financial Data (Unaudited):
 
The following tables present certain unaudited consolidated quarterly financial information for each quarter of 2017 and 2016. Year-to-date net income (loss) per share amounts may be different than the sum of the applicable quarters due to differences in weighted average shares outstanding for the respective periods. 
2017:
March 31
 
June 30
 
September 30
 
December 31
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Revenues
$
52,507

 
$
46,311

 
$
39,675

 
$
34,752

Gross profit (a)
48,605

 
41,750

 
35,885

 
30,704

Operating income (loss)
33,341

 
34,126

 
26,118

 
(4,080
)
Net income (loss)
25,910

 
28,927

 
21,679

 
(8,245
)
Net income (loss) per share - basic
0.63

 
0.70

 
0.54

 
(0.21
)
Net income (loss) per share - diluted
0.61

 
0.68

 
0.52

 
(0.21
)
2016:
March 31
 
June 30
 
September 30
 
December 31
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Revenues
$
36,216

 
$
38,858

 
$
32,087

 
$
43,085

Gross profit (a)
32,310

 
34,951

 
29,243

 
40,494

Operating income (loss)
5,704

 
(11,543
)
 
(16,190
)
 
17,064

Net income (loss)
(6,058
)
 
(19,958
)
 
(19,994
)
 
4,734

Net income (loss) per share - basic
(0.15
)
 
(0.48
)
 
(0.48
)
 
0.11

Net income (loss) per share - diluted
(0.15
)
 
(0.48
)
 
(0.48
)
 
0.11

  
(a) Gross profit is computed by subtracting cost of products and services sold from total revenues.


 


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Item 7.        Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
(In thousands, except per share data) 
You should read the discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations set forth in this Item 7 together with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes appearing elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Some of the information contained in this discussion and analysis or set forth elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including information with respect to our plans and strategy for our business and related financing, includes forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties, and reference is made to the “Cautionary Disclosure Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” set forth immediately following the Table of Content of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information on the forward looking statements herein. In addition, you should read the “Risk Factors” section of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for a discussion of important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from the results described in or implied by the forward-looking statements contained in the following discussion and analysis and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Overview 
Nature of Operations
Avadel Pharmaceuticals plc (“Avadel,” the “Company,” “we,” “our,” or “us”) is a branded specialty pharmaceutical company. Avadel’s current revenues are primarily derived from products we market based on first-to-file New Drug Applications (“NDAs”) for pharmaceutical products previously sold in the U.S. without Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) approval (“Unapproved Marketed Products” or “UMDs”). In addition, through the acquisition of patient-focused, innovative products or businesses in the commercial- and or late-stage of development, Avadel seeks to provide solutions for overlooked and unmet medical needs, including our urology product, Noctiva™, which we in-licensed in 2017 and will begin marketing in 2018. Avadel also seeks to develop products that utilize our Micropump® drug delivery technology, such as our narcolepsy product which is in clinical trials.
Avadel’s current commercial portfolio consists of three sterile injectable products, which were previously UMDs, used in the hospital setting, and Noctiva™, a urology product, which is the first and only FDA approved product for the treatment of nocturia due to nocturnal polyuria in adults. Avadel believes that nocturia, the condition of waking two or more times per night to void, represents a large unmet medical need affecting approximately 40 million Americans.
Avadel is actively developing a fourth sterile, injectable UMD product for which it expects to file an NDA and seek FDA approval. In addition, Avadel is currently enrolling patients in our REST-ON Phase III clinical trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of FT 218, a once-nightly formulation of sodium oxybate using Micropump®, for the treatment of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and cataplexy in patients suffering from narcolepsy. Narcolepsy is a rare sleep disorder with few approved treatment options. Avadel will continue to strategically evaluate potential UMDs and Micropump® based product candidates for development and approval, and will also look for synergistic acquisition targets to grow our company.

The Company was incorporated in Ireland on December 1, 2015 as a private limited company, and re-registered as an Irish public limited company on November 21, 2016. Our headquarters are in Dublin, Ireland and we have operations in St. Louis, Missouri, United States, and Lyon, France.
The Company is an Irish public limited company, or plc, and is the successor to Flamel Technologies S.A., a French société anonyme (“Flamel”), as the result of the merger of Flamel with and into the Company which was completed at 11:59:59 p.m., Central Europe Time, on December 31, 2016 (the “Merger”) pursuant to the agreement between Flamel and Avadel entitled Common Draft Terms of Cross-Border Merger dated as of June 29, 2016 (the “Merger Agreement”). Immediately prior to the Merger, the Company was a wholly owned subsidiary of Flamel. As a result of the Merger Agreement:
Flamel ceased to exist as a separate entity and the Company continued as the surviving entity and assumed all of the assets and liabilities of Flamel.
our authorized share capital is $5,500 divided into 500,000 ordinary shares with a nominal value of $0.01 each and 50,000 preferred shares with a nominal value of $0.01 each
all outstanding ordinary shares of Flamel, €0.122 nominal value per share, were canceled and exchanged on a one-for-one basis for newly issued ordinary shares of the Company, $0.01 nominal value per share. This change

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in nominal value of our outstanding shares resulted in our reclassifying $5,937 on our balance sheet from ordinary shares to additional paid-in capital
our Board of Directors is authorized to issue preferred shares on a non-pre-emptive basis, for a maximum period of five years, at which point such an authorization may be renewed by shareholders. The Board of Directors has discretion to dictate terms attached to the preferred shares, including voting, dividend, conversion rights, and priority relative to other classes of shares with respect to dividends and upon a liquidation. 
all outstanding American Depositary Shares (ADSs) representing ordinary shares of Flamel were canceled and exchanged on a one-for-one basis for ADSs representing ordinary shares of the Company.
Thus, the Merger changed the jurisdiction of our incorporation from France to Ireland, and an ordinary share of the Company held (either directly or represented by an ADS) immediately after the Merger continued to represent the same proportional interest in our equity owned by the holder of a share of Flamel immediately prior to the Merger.
References in these consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto to “Avadel,” the “Company,” “we,” “our,” “us,” and similar terms shall be deemed to be references to Flamel prior to the completion of the Merger, unless the context otherwise requires.
Prior to completion of the Merger, the Flamel ADSs were listed on the Nasdaq Global Market (“Nasdaq”) under the trading symbol “FLML”; and immediately after the Merger the Company’s ADSs were listed for and began trading on Nasdaq on January 3, 2017 under the trading symbol “AVDL.”
Further details about the reincorporation, the Merger and the Merger Agreement are contained in our definitive proxy statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on May 1, 2017.
Under Irish law, the Company can only pay dividends and repurchase shares out of distributable reserves, as discussed further in the Company’s proxy statement filed with the SEC as of July 5, 2016. Upon completion of the Merger, the Company did not have any distributable reserves. On February 15, 2017, the Company filed a petition with the High Court of Ireland seeking the court’s confirmation of a reduction of the Company’s share premium so that it can be treated as distributable reserves for the purposes of Irish law. On March 6, 2017, the High Court issued its order approving the reduction of the Company’s share premium by $317,254 which can be treated as distributable reserves.
Our Business Model
Avadel executes three primary strategies that allow us to develop and/or license or acquire differentiated branded products for FDA approval and commercialization, principally in the United States.
Unapproved Marketed Drug (“UMD”) Products
In 2006 the FDA announced its Marketed Unapproved Drugs - Compliance Policy Guide with the intention to incentivize pharmaceutical companies to pursue approvals for pharmaceutical products, many of which pre-date the establishment of the FDA. Although these products are not protected by patents or similar intellectual property, the FDA’s Compliance Policy Guide dictates that should NDA approval be granted for any such products via a 505(b)(2) process, the FDA will remove competing unapproved manufacturers until a generic application is approved. We believe that over a thousand unapproved drugs are marketed in the United States today and, while many of these products are outdated therapies, we strategically evaluate those UMD products that are more commonly used as candidates for possible future FDA approval and marketing under our UMD program.
To date, we have received FDA approvals for three UMD products which we currently market under the brand names Bloxiverz® (neostigmine methylsulfate injection), Vazculep® (phenylephrine hydrochloride injection) and Akovaz® (ephedrine sulfate injection).
Inorganic Growth Through Acquisitions, Licensing, Divestitures and/or Partnerships
We currently have a strong balance sheet and intend to explore and pursue appropriate inorganic growth opportunities that may enhance profitability and cash flow and would complement our urology and hospital products, or our sleep-focused product candidate, FT 218. We in-licensed Noctiva™ in September 2017 from Serenity Pharmaceuticals, and in February 2018 we divested four pediatric products to, and entered into a LiquiTime development agreement with, Cerecor.


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Development of Micropump®-Based Products
Our versatile Micropump-based technology allows us to select unique product development opportunities, representing either “life cycle” opportunities, whereby additional intellectual property can be added to a pharmaceutical to extend the commercial viability of a currently marketed product, or innovative formulation opportunities for new chemical entities (“NCE”). Several products formulated using our proprietary drug delivery technologies are currently under various stages of development. These products will be commercialized either by Avadel and/or by partners via licensing/distribution agreements. We are developing a product which uses our Micropump drug-delivery technology for the treatment of EDS and cataplexy in patients suffering from narcolepsy. We currently refer to this product as FT 218. FT 218 is a Micropump-based formulation of sodium oxybate. Sodium oxybate is the sodium salt of gamma hydroxybutyrate, an endogenous compound and metabolite of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid. Sodium oxybate has been described as a therapeutic agent with high medical value. Sodium oxybate is approved in Europe and the United States as a twice nightly formulation indicated for the treatment of EDS and cataplexy in patients with narcolepsy.
Key Business Trends and Highlights 
In operating our business and monitoring our performance, we consider a number of performance measures, as well as trends affecting our industry as a whole, which include the following: 
Healthcare and Regulatory Reform: Various health care reform laws in the U.S. may impact our ability to successfully commercialize our products and technologies. The success of our commercialization efforts may depend on the extent to which the government health administration authorities, the health insurance funds in the E.U. Member States, private health insurers and other third-party payers in the U.S. will reimburse consumers for the cost of healthcare products and services.
Competition and Technological Change: Competition in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry continues to be intense and is expected to increase. We compete with academic laboratories, research institutions, universities, joint ventures, and other pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, including other companies developing niche branded or generic specialty pharmaceutical products or drug delivery platforms. Furthermore, major technological changes can happen quickly in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. Such rapid technological change, or the development by our competitors of technologically improved or differentiated products, could render our drug delivery platforms obsolete or noncompetitive.
Pricing Environment for Pharmaceuticals: The pricing environment continues to be in the political spotlight in the U.S. As a result, the need to obtain and maintain appropriate pricing and reimbursement for our products may become more challenging due to, among other things, the attention being paid to healthcare cost containment and other austerity measures in the U.S. and worldwide.
Generics Playing a Larger Role in Healthcare: Generic pharmaceutical products will continue to play a large role in the U.S. healthcare system. Specifically, we have seen, or likely will see, additional generic competition to our current and future products and we continue to expect generic competition in the future.
Access to and Cost of Capital: The process of raising capital and associated cost of such capital for a company of our financial profile can be difficult and potentially expensive. If the need were to arise to raise additional capital, access to that capital may be difficult and/or expensive and, as a result, could create liquidity challenges for the Company.
Recent Developments
Asset Purchase Agreement with Cerecor.
On February 12, 2018, Avadel Pharmaceuticals plc (the “Company”), together with its subsidiaries Avadel Pharmaceuticals (USA), Inc., Avadel Pediatrics, Inc., FSC Therapeutics, LLC (“FSC Therapeutics”), and Avadel US Holdings, Inc. (“Holdings”), as the “Sellers,” entered into an asset purchase agreement (the “Purchase Agreement”) with Cerecor, Inc. (“Cerecor”). At the closing under the Purchase Agreement, on February 16, 2018, Cerecor purchased from the Sellers four pediatric commercial stage assets – Karbinal™ ER, Cefaclor, Flexichamber™ and AcipHex® Sprinkle™, together with certain associated business assets – which were held by FSC Therapeutics and FSC Laboratories, Inc., which is also a subsidiary of the Company (collectively “FSC”).  The Company acquired FSC in February 2016 from Deerfield CSF, LLC (“Deerfield CSF”) and certain of its affiliates. Pursuant to the Purchase Agreement, Cerecor assumed the Company’s  remaining payment obligations to Deerfield CSF under the Membership Interest Purchase Agreement, dated as of February 5, 2016, between Holdings, Flamel Technologies SA (the predecessor of the Company) and Deerfield CSF and certain of its affiliates, which payment obligations consist of the following (collectively, the “Assumed Obligations”): (i) a quarterly payment of $263 beginning in July 2018 and ending in October 2020, amounting to an

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aggregate payment obligation of $2,625; (ii) a payment in January 2021 of $15,263; and (iii) a quarterly royalty payment of 15% on net sales of the FSC products through February 5, 2026 (“FSC Product Royalties”), in an aggregate amount of up to approximately $10,300.  Cerecor also assumed certain contracts and other obligations related to the acquired assets, and in that connection Holdings agreed to pay Cerecor certain make-whole payments associated with obligations Cerecor is assuming related to a certain supply contract related to Karbinal™ ER.

License and Development Agreement

Also in connection with the closing under the Purchase Agreement, Flamel Ireland Limited, an Irish limited company operating under the trade name of Avadel Ireland (“Avadel Ireland”) and a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company, and Cerecor entered into a license and development agreement (the “License and Development Agreement”) pursuant to which, among other things:

Avadel Ireland will provide Cerecor with four product formulations utilizing Avadel Ireland’s LiquiTime™ technology, and will complete pilot bioequivalence studies for such product formulations within 18 months;
Cerecor will reimburse Avadel Ireland for development costs of the four LiquiTime™ products in excess of $1,000 in the aggregate;
Upon transfer of the four product formulations, Cerecor will assume all remaining development costs and responsibilities for the product development, clinical studies, NDA applications and associated filing fees; and
Upon regulatory approval and commercial launch of any LiquiTime™ products, Cerecor will pay Avadel Ireland quarterly royalties based on a percentage of net sales of any such products in the mid-single. 

Deerfield Guarantee

In connection with the closing under the Purchase Agreement, the Company and Holdings provided their guarantee (the “Deerfield Guarantee”) in favor of Deerfield CSF, LLC and certain of its affiliates (“Deerfield”). Under the Deerfield Guarantee, the Company and Holdings guaranteed to Deerfield the payment by Cerecor of the obligations of the Company and certain of its subsidiaries (the “Assumed Obligations”) under the Membership Interest Purchase Agreement between the Company and Deerfield dated February 5, 2016. The Assumed Obligations include (i) a quarterly payment of $263 beginning in July 2018 and ending in October 2020, amounting to an aggregate payment obligation of $2,625; (ii) a payment in January 2021 of $15,263; and (iii) a quarterly royalty payment of 15% on net sales of the FSC products through February 6, 2026 (“FSC Product Royalties”), in an aggregate amount of up to approximately $10,300. In addition, under the Deerfield Guarantee, the Company and Holdings guaranteed that Deerfield would receive certain minimum annual FSC Product Royalties through February 6, 2026 (the “Minimum Royalties”).

Armistice Guarantee

In connection with the closing under the Purchase Agreement, Armistice Capital Master Fund, Ltd., the majority shareholder of Cerecor, guaranteed to Holdings the payment by Cerecor of the Assumed Obligations, including the Minimum Royalties.

Issuance of Exchangeable Notes
On February 14, 2018 we announced that our wholly-owned subsidiary, Avadel Finance Cayman Limited (the “Issuer”), priced a $125,000 aggregate principal amount of 4.50% exchangeable senior notes due 2023 (the “Notes”) in a private placement (the “Offering”) to qualified institutional buyers pursuant to Rule 144A under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”). The sale of the Notes closed on February 16, 2018. In connection with the Offering, the Issuer granted the initial purchasers of the Notes a 30-day option to purchase up to an additional $18,750 aggregate principal amount of the Notes, which was fully exercised on February 16, 2018.
Net proceeds from the Notes were $137,719 after deducting the initial purchasers’ discount and estimated offering expenses. We expect to use the net proceeds of the Offering for working capital and general corporate purposes.  We also used cash on-hand to purchase approximately 2.0 million ADSs for $18,000 concurrently with the pricing of the Offering in privately negotiated transactions effected with or through a representative of the initial purchasers or an affiliate of such representative.  The Issuer agreed to purchase such ADSs at a purchase price per ADS equal to the $8.99 per ADS closing price on The Nasdaq Global Market on February 13, 2018.
The Notes are general, unsecured obligations of the Issuer, and are fully and unconditionally guaranteed by Avadel on a senior unsecured basis.  Interest on the Notes will be payable semi-annually in cash in arrears on February 1 and August 1 of each year, beginning on August 1, 2018. The Notes will mature on February 1, 2023, unless earlier exchanged, repurchased or redeemed in accordance with their terms. The Notes will be issued in minimum denominations of $200 and integral multiples of $1 in excess thereof.

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Subject to certain conditions and during certain periods, the Notes will be exchangeable at the option of the holders at an initial exchange rate of 92.6956 ADSs per $1 principal amount of Notes, which is equivalent to an initial exchange price of approximately $10.79 per ADS. Such initial exchange price represents a premium of approximately 20% to the $8.99 per ADS closing price on The Nasdaq Global Market on February 13, 2018.  Upon the exchange of any Notes, the Issuer will pay or cause to be delivered, as the case may be, cash, ADSs or a combination of cash and ADSs, at the Issuer’s election. 

Financial Highlights

Highlights of our consolidated results for the year ended December 31, 2017 are as follows: 
Revenue was $173,245 for the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to $150,246 in the same period last year. This increase was primarily the result of having a full year’s worth of Akovaz revenue in 2017, compared to the prior year which had revenue only from August 2016, the date Akovaz was launched. This increase was partially offset by declines in Bloxiverz unit volumes and net selling price as a result of additional competition.
Operating income was $89,505 for the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to operating loss of $4,965 for the year ended December 31, 2016. The primary reasons for the increase in operating income were due to changes in the fair value of related party contingent considerations of $80,325 (i.e., the Company recognized a $31,040 gain resulting from the changes in fair value of related party contingent consideration for the year ended December 31, 2017, compared to a loss of $49,285 in the same period last year), as well as increased gross margin of $19,946 driven by higher revenue as described above and a decrease in intangible asset amortization expense of $10,229. Higher SG&A of $14,681 partially offset these increases.
Net income was $68,271 for the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to net loss of $41,276 in the same period last year.
Diluted net income per share was $1.63 for the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to net loss per share of $1.00 in the same period last year.
Cash and marketable securities decreased $60,120 to $94,075 at December 31, 2017 from $154,195 at December 31, 2016.

Critical Accounting Estimates
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to use judgment in making estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the periods presented. Actual results could differ from those estimates under different assumptions or conditions. 
The following accounting policies are based on, among other things, judgments and assumptions made by management that include inherent risks and uncertainties. Management’s estimates are based on the relevant information available at the end of each period.
Revenue. Revenue includes sales of pharmaceutical products, amortization of licensing fees, and, if any, milestone payments for R&D achievements.
Product Sales and Services  
Revenue is generally realized or realizable and earned when persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, delivery has occurred or services have been rendered, the seller’s price to the buyer is fixed or determinable, and collectability is reasonably assured. The Company records revenue from product sales when title and risk of ownership have been transferred to the customer, which is typically upon delivery to the customer and when the selling price is determinable. As is customary in the pharmaceutical industry, the Company’s gross product sales are subject to a variety of deductions in arriving at reported net product sales. These adjustments include estimates for product returns, chargebacks, payment discounts, rebates, and other sales allowances and are estimated based on analysis of historical data for the product or comparable products, as well as future expectations for such products.  
For generic products and branded products where the ultimate net selling price to customer is estimable, the Company recognizes revenues upon delivery to the wholesaler. For new product launches the Company recognizes revenue if sufficient data is available to determine product acceptance in the marketplace such that product returns may be estimated based on historical or analog product data and there is probable evidence of reorders and consideration is made of wholesaler inventory levels. As part of the

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third quarter 2016 launch of Akovaz, the Company determined that sufficient data was available to determine the ultimate net selling price to the customer and therefore recognized revenue upon delivery to our wholesaler customers.  
Prior to the second quarter 2016, the Company did not have sufficient historical or analog product data to estimate certain revenue deductions. As such, we could not accurately estimate the ultimate net selling price of our hospital portfolio of products and as a result delayed revenue recognition until the wholesaler sold the product through to end customers.  
During the second quarter of 2016, it was determined that we now had sufficient evidence, history, data and internal controls to estimate the ultimate selling price of our products upon shipment from our warehouse to our customers, the wholesalers.  Accordingly, we discontinued the sell-through revenue approach and now recognize revenue once the product is delivered to the wholesaler. As a result of this change in accounting estimate, we recognized $5,981 in additional revenue, or $0.05 per diluted share, for the twelve months ended December 31, 2016 that previously would have been deferred until sold by the wholesalers to the hospitals.   
License and Research Revenue  
Our license and research revenues consist of fees and/or milestone payments. Non-refundable fees where we have continuing performance obligations are deferred and are recognized ratably over our projected performance period. We recognize milestone payments, which are typically related to regulatory, commercial or other achievements by us or our licensees and distributors, as revenues when the milestone is accomplished and collection is reasonably assured. To the extent that the expected timelines for such milestone payments are changed from initial estimates, the Company will record cumulative adjustments to reflect the revised timeline. For the year ended December 31, 2017, we recognized $404 of revenue from license agreements.    
Research and Development (“R&D”). R&D expenses consist primarily of costs related to clinical studies and outside services, personnel expenses, and other R&D expenses. Clinical studies and outside services costs relate primarily to services performed by clinical research organizations and related clinical or development manufacturing costs, materials and supplies, filing fees, regulatory support, and other third-party fees. Personnel expenses relate primarily to salaries, benefits and stock-based compensation. Other R&D expenses primarily include overhead allocations consisting of various support and facilities-related costs. R&D expenditures are charged to operations as incurred.
The Company recognizes R&D tax credits received from the French government for spending on innovative R&D as an offset of R&D expenses.  
Stock-based Compensation. The Company accounts for stock-based compensation based on grant-date fair value estimated in accordance with ASC 718. The fair value of stock options and warrants is estimated using Black-Scholes option-pricing valuation models (“Black-Scholes model”). As required by the Black-Sholes model, estimates are made of the underlying volatility of AVDL stock, a risk-free rate and an expected term of the option or warrant. We estimated the expected term using a simplified method, as we do not have enough historical exercise data for a majority of such options and warrants upon which to estimate an expected term. The Company recognizes compensation cost, net of an estimated forfeiture rate, using the accelerated method over the requisite service period of the award.
Income Taxes. Our income tax expense (benefit), deferred tax assets and liabilities, and liabilities for unrecognized tax benefits reflect management’s best estimate of current and future taxes to be paid. We are subject to income taxes in Ireland, France and the United States. Significant judgments and estimates are required in the determination of the consolidated income tax expense (benefit).
Deferred income taxes arise from temporary differences between the tax basis of assets and liabilities and their reported amounts in the financial statements, which will result in taxable or deductible amounts in the future. In evaluating our ability to recover our deferred tax assets in the jurisdiction from which they arise, we consider all available positive and negative evidence, including scheduled reversals of deferred tax liabilities, projected future taxable income or loss, tax-planning strategies, and results of recent operations. The assumptions about future taxable income or loss require the use of significant judgment and are consistent with the plans and estimates we are using to manage the underlying businesses.
The calculation of our tax liabilities involves dealing with uncertainties in the application of complex tax laws and regulations in a multitude of jurisdictions across our global operations. ASC 740 states that a tax benefit from an uncertain tax position may be recognized when it is more likely than not that the position will be sustained upon examination, including resolutions of any related appeals or litigation processes, on the basis of the technical merits.
We (1) record unrecognized tax benefits as liabilities in accordance with ASC 740 and (2) adjust these liabilities when our judgment changes as a result of the evaluation of new information not previously available. Because of the complexity of some of these uncertainties, the ultimate resolution may result in a payment that is materially different from our current estimate of the

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unrecognized tax benefit liabilities. These differences will be reflected as increases or decreases to income tax expense in the period in which new information is available.
We have not recorded a deferred tax liability for any income or withholding taxes that may arise as the result of the distribution of unremitted earnings within our Company. At December 31, 2017, the Company has unremitted earnings of $3,038 outside of Ireland as measured on a US GAAP basis. Based on our estimates that future domestic cash generation will be sufficient to meet future domestic cash needs along with our specific plans for reinvestment, we have not recorded a deferred tax liability for any income or withholding taxes that may arise from a distribution that would qualify as a dividend for tax purposes. It is not practicable to estimate the amount of deferred tax liability on such remittances, if any.
Goodwill. Goodwill represents the excess of the acquisition consideration over the fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed. The Company has determined that we operate in a single segment and has a single reporting unit associated with the development and commercialization of pharmaceutical products. The annual test for goodwill impairment is a two-step process. The first step is a comparison of the fair value of the reporting unit with its carrying amount, including goodwill. If this step indicates impairment, then, in the second step, the loss is measured as the excess of recorded goodwill over the implied fair value of the goodwill. Implied fair value of goodwill is the excess of the fair value of the reporting unit as a whole over the fair value of all separately identified assets and liabilities within the reporting unit. The Company tests goodwill for impairment annually and when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable. During the fourth quarter of 2017, we performed our required annual impairment test of goodwill and have determined that no impairment of goodwill existed at December 31, 2017 or 2016.  
Long-Lived Assets. Long-lived assets include fixed assets and intangible assets. Intangible assets consist primarily of purchased licenses and intangible assets recognized as part of the Éclat and FSC acquisitions. Acquired IPR&D has an indefinite life and is not amortized until completion and development of the project, at which time the IPR&D becomes an amortizable asset, for which amortization of such intangible assets is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful life of the assets.  
Long-lived assets are reviewed for impairment whenever conditions indicate that the carrying value of the assets may not be fully recoverable. Such impairment tests are based on a comparison of the pretax undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated by the asset to the recorded value of the asset or other market based value approaches. If impairment is indicated, the asset value is written down to its market value if readily determinable or its estimated fair value based on discounted cash flows. Any significant changes in business or market conditions that vary from current expectations could have an impact on the fair value of these assets and any potential associated impairment. The Company has determined that no impairment existed at December 31, 2017 or 2016.
Acquisition-related Contingent Consideration. The acquisition-related contingent consideration payables arising from the acquisition of Éclat Pharmaceuticals (i.e., our hospital products) and FSC (our pediatrics products) are accounted for at fair-value (see Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data and Note 10: Long-Term Related Party Payable). The fair value of the warrants issued in connection with the Éclat acquisition are estimated using a Black-Scholes option pricing model. The fair value of acquisition-related contingent consideration payable is estimated using a discounted cash flow model based on the long-term sales or gross profit forecasts of the specified hospital or pediatric products using an appropriate discount rate. There are a number of estimates used when determining the fair value of these earn-out payments. These estimates include, but are not limited to, the long-term pricing environment, market size, market share the related products are forecast to achieve, the cost of goods related to such products and an appropriate discount rate to use when present valuing the related cash flows. These estimates can and often do change based on changes in current market conditions, competition, management judgment and other factors. Changes to these estimates can have and have had a material impact on our consolidated statements of income (loss) and balance sheets. Changes in fair value of these liabilities are recorded in the consolidated statements of income (loss) within operating expenses as changes in fair value of related party contingent consideration.
Financing-related Royalty Agreements. We also entered into two royalty agreements with related parties in connection with certain financing arrangements. We elected the fair value option for the measurement of the financing-related contingent consideration payable associated with the royalty agreements with certain Deerfield and Broadfin entities, both of whom are related parties (see Note 10: Long-Term Related Party Payable). The fair value of financing-related royalty agreements is estimated using the same components used to determine the fair value of the acquisition-related contingent consideration noted above, with the exception of cost of products sold. Changes to these components can also have a material impact on our consolidated statements of income (loss) and balance sheets. Changes in the fair value of this liability are recorded in the consolidated statements of income (loss) as other income (expense) - changes in fair value of related party payable.

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Results of Operations
The following is a summary of our financial results (in thousands, except per share amounts): 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Increase / (Decrease)
 
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
2017 vs. 2016
 
2016 vs. 2015
Comparative Statements of Income (Loss):
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
$
 
%
 
$
 
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Product sales and services
 
$
172,841

 
$
147,222

 
$
172,288

 
$
25,619

 
17.4
 %
 
$
(25,066
)
 
(14.5
)%
License and research revenue
 
404

 
3,024

 
721

 
(2,620
)
 
(86.6
)%
 
2,303

 
319.4
 %
Total revenue
 
173,245

 
150,246

 
173,009

 
22,999

 
15.3
 %
 
(22,763
)
 
(13.2
)%
Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cost of products and services sold
 
16,301

 
13,248

 
11,410

 
3,053

 
23.0
 %
 
1,838

 
16.1
 %
Research and development expenses
 
33,418

 
34,611

 
25,608

 
(1,193
)
 
(3.4
)%
 
9,003

 
35.2
 %
Selling, general and administrative expenses
 
58,860

 
44,179

 
21,712

 
14,681

 
33.2
 %
 
22,467

 
103.5
 %
Intangible asset amortization
 
3,659

 
13,888

 
12,564

 
(10,229
)
 
(73.7
)%
 
1,324

 
10.5
 %
(Gain) loss - changes in fair value of related party contingent consideration
 
(31,040
)
 
49,285

 
30,957

 
(80,325
)
 
(163.0
)%
 
18,328

 
59.2
 %
Restructuring costs
 
2,542

 

 

 
2,542

 
n/a

 

 
n/a

Total operating expenses
 
83,740

 
155,211

 
102,251

 
(71,471
)
 
(46.0
)%
 
52,960

 
51.8
 %
Operating income (loss)
 
89,505


(4,965
)

70,758

 
94,470

 
1,902.7
 %
 
(75,723
)
 
(107.0
)%
Investment income, net
 
2,850

 
1,635

 
1,236

 
1,215

 
74.3
 %
 
399

 
32.3
 %
Interest expense, net
 
(1,052
)
 
(963
)
 

 
89

 
9.2
 %
 
963

 
n/a

Other income (expense) - changes in fair value of related party payable
 
2,071

 
(6,548
)
 
(4,883
)
 
(8,619
)
 
(131.6
)%
 
1,665

 
34.1
 %
Foreign exchange (loss) gain
 
(714
)
 
1,123

 
10,594

 
(1,837
)
 
(163.6
)%
 
(9,471
)
 
(89.4
)%
Income (loss) before income taxes
 
92,660

 
(9,718
)
 
77,705

 
102,378

 
1,053.5
 %
 
(87,423
)
 
(112.5
)%
Income tax provision
 
24,389

 
31,558

 
35,907

 
(7,169
)
 
(22.7
)%
 
(4,349
)
 
(12.1
)%
Net income (loss)
 
$
68,271

 
$
(41,276
)
 
$
41,798

 
$
109,547

 
265.4
 %
 
$
(83,074
)
 
(198.8
)%
Net income (loss) per share - diluted
 
$
1.63

 
$
(1.00
)
 
$
0.96

 
$
2.63

 
263.0
 %
 
$
(1.96
)
 
(204.2
)%
The revenues for each of the Company’s significant products were as follows:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Increase / (Decrease)
 
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
2017 vs. 2016
 
2016 vs. 2015
Revenues
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
$
 
%
 
$
 
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Bloxiverz
 
$
45,596

 
$
82,896

 
$
150,083

 
$
(37,300
)
 
(45.0
)%
 
$
(67,187
)
 
(44.8
)%
Vazculep
 
38,187

 
39,796

 
20,151

 
(1,609
)
 
(4.0
)%
 
19,645

 
97.5
 %
Akovaz
 
80,617

 
16,831

 

 
63,786

 
379.0
 %
 
16,831

 
n/a

Other
 
8,441

 
7,699

 
2,054

 
742

 
9.6
 %
 
5,645

 
274.8
 %
Total product sales and services
 
172,841

 
147,222

 
172,288

 
25,619

 
17.4
 %
 
(25,066
)
 
(14.5
)%
License and research revenue
 
404

 
3,024

 
721

 
(2,620
)
 
(86.6
)%
 
2,303

 
319.4
 %
Total revenue
 
$
173,245

 
$
150,246

 
$
173,009

 
$
22,999

 
15.3
 %
 
$
(22,763
)
 
(13.2
)%
 
2017 Compared to 2016
Product sales and services revenues were $172,841 for the year ended December 31, 2017, compared to $147,222 for the same prior year period. Revenues for the year ended December 31, 2016 include $5,981 in additional non-recurring revenue as a result of our change in accounting estimate previously described in our Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016. Bloxiverz’s revenue declined $37,300 when compared to the same period last year, primarily due to a loss of market share and decrease in net selling price driven largely by two factors: a) lost business as a result of three new competitors in the neostigmine market who entered the market in the first quarter of 2016, the second and fourth quarters of 2017 and b) a new molecule approved by the FDA in late 2015 and launched in 2016 with a similar indicated use as Bloxiverz. Additionally, the decline in Bloxiverz’s revenue was partially offset by an increase of $4,597 related to the change in revenue estimate noted above. Vazculep’s revenue declined

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slightly by $1,609 driven by the effect of the non-recurring revenue estimate change of $1,384 which did not repeat in 2017. Revenue from Akovaz, which was launched in August 2016, contributed $80,617 to product sales for the year ended December 31, 2017. Other revenues, which includes our pediatric products, were up $742 in the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to the same prior year period. Revenues from our pediatric products, which were acquired in February 2016 were $8,044 for the year ended December 31, 2017, compared to $5,985 in the same prior year period.
License and research revenue was $404 for the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to $3,024 in the same period last year. During 2017, the Company made a determination that the performance period associated with a specific license will be longer than previously estimated and, accordingly, reduced license revenue by approximately $2,155 to reflect the Company’s current expected performance period. The longer than expected performance period is the result of a reassessment of the time it will take for the Company to complete certain contractual requirements mandated by the license.
2016 Compared to 2015 
Product sales and services revenues were $147,222 for the year ended December 31, 2016, compared to $172,288 for the same prior year period. Revenues for the year ended December 31, 2016 include $5,981 in additional revenue as a result of our change in accounting estimate previously described in our Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016. Bloxiverz’s revenue declined $67,187 when compared to the same period last year, primarily due to a $72,726 loss of market share and net selling price driven largely by two factors: a) lost business as a result of a new competitor in the neostigmine market who entered the market in the first quarter of 2016 and b) a new molecule approved by the FDA in late 2015 and launched in 2016 with a similar indicated use as Bloxiverz. The decline in Bloxiverz revenue was partially offset by an increase of $4,597 related to the change in the revenue estimate noted above. Vazculep’s revenue increased $19,645 when compared to the same period last year due primarily to higher market share and a full year run rate in 2016 when compared to 2015 resulting from its launch in late 2014. Vazculep’s sales were further increased by $1,384 related to the change in revenue estimate noted above. The launch of Akovaz in August 2016 contributed $16,831 to product sales for the year ended December 31, 2016. The increase in sales in Other was primarily driven from the February 2016 acquisition of FSC which contributed $5,985 in revenues.
License and research revenues increased $2,303 during the year ended December 31, 2016 compared to the same prior year period, driven primarily by a full year’s accretion of the license payment we received from our entrance into an exclusive licensing agreement of the LiquiTime drug delivery platform for the U.S. OTC drug market during the third quarter of 2015.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Increase / (Decrease)
 
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
2017 vs. 2016
 
2016 vs. 2015
Cost of Products and Services Sold
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
$
 
%
 
$
 
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cost of products and services sold
 
$
16,301

 
$
13,248

 
$
11,410

 
$
3,053

 
23.0
%
 
$
1,838

 
16.1
%
Percentage of sales
 
9.4
%
 
8.8
%
 
6.6
%
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
Cost of products and services sold increased $3,053, or 23.0% during the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to the same period in 2016. As a percentage of sales, cost of products sold was up slightly to 9.4% compared to 8.8% as a result of product mix changes and lower net selling prices.
Cost of products and services sold increased $1,838 during the year ended December 31, 2016 as compared to the same period in 2015 primarily due to the consolidation of FSC which added $2,929 in cost of products sold, offset partially by lower cost of products sold due to lower product sales in our Éclat portfolio of products. As a percentage of sales, cost of products sold increased to 8.8% in 2016 compared to 6.6% in 2015 due primarily to unfavorable product mix, largely related to the acquisition of FSC and lower net selling prices of Bloxiverz. 

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Increase / (Decrease)
 
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
2017 vs. 2016
 
2016 vs. 2015
Research and Development Expenses
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
$
 
%
 
$
 
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Research and development expenses
 
$
33,418

 
$
34,611

 
$
25,608

 
$
(1,193
)
 
(3.4
)%
 
$
9,003

 
35.2
%
Percentage of sales
 
19.3
%
 
23.0
%
 
14.8
%
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
R&D expenses were largely unchanged when compared to the same period last year. The Company continues to spend a substantial portion of our R&D spending on our FT 218 Phase 3 sodium oxybate clinical study.
R&D expenses increased $9,003 or 35.2% and increased as a percentage of sales to 23.0% during the year ended December 31, 2016 as compared to the same period in 2015. These increases were primarily due to higher payroll and outside service costs related to feasibility studies and clinical program costs primarily associated with the sodium oxybate clinical trial. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Increase / (Decrease)
 
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
2017 vs. 2016
 
2016 vs. 2015
Selling, General and Administrative Expenses
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
$
 
%
 
$
 
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Selling, general and administrative expenses
 
$
58,860

 
$
44,179

 
$
21,712

 
$
14,681

 
33.2
%
 
$
22,467

 
103.5
%
Percentage of sales
 
34.0
%
 
29.4
%
 
12.5
%
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
Selling, general and administrative expenses increased $14,681 or 33.2% and increased as a percentage to sales to 34.0% during the year ended December 31, 2017 as compared to the prior year. This increase was primarily due to approximately $14,000 of costs associated with the anticipated 2018 launch of Noctiva.
Selling, general and administrative expenses increased $22,467 or 103.5% and increased as a percentage to sales to 29.4% during the year ended December 31, 2016 as compared to the same prior year period primarily due to increases resulting from the acquisition of FSC which added approximately $9,700, increases in stock-based compensation of approximately $5,000, increases in payroll and benefit costs to reinforce the Company’s management team of approximately $3,600, and higher professional fees, including legal, tax and audit of approximately $3,500.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Increase / (Decrease)
 
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
2017 vs. 2016
 
2016 vs. 2015
Intangibles Asset Amortization
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
$
 
%
 
$
 
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Intangible asset amortization
 
$
3,659

 
$
13,888

 
$
12,564

 
$
(10,229
)
 
(73.7
)%
 
$
1,324

 
10.5
%
Percentage of sales
 
2.1
%
 
9.2
%
 
7.3
%
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
Intangible asset amortization expense decreased $10,229 or 73.7% during the year ended December 31, 2017 as compared to the same prior year period primarily driven by the Bloxiverz in process R&D asset being fully amortized as of December 31, 2016.
Intangible asset amortization expense increased $1,324 or 10.5% during the year ended December 31, 2016 as compared to the same prior year period, resulting from the commencement of amortization related to the acquired intangible assets of FSC.  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Increase / (Decrease)
 
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
2017 vs. 2016
 
2016 vs. 2015
Changes in Fair Value of Related Party Contingent Consideration
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
$
 
%
 
$
 
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(Gain) loss - changes in fair value of related party contingent consideration
 
$
(31,040
)
 
$
49,285

 
$
30,957

 
$
(80,325
)
 
(163.0
)%
 
$
18,328

 
59.2
%
Percentage of sales
 
(17.9
)%
 
32.8
%
 
17.9
%
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
We compute the fair value of the related party contingent consideration using several significant assumptions and when these assumptions change, due to underlying market conditions the fair value of these liabilities change as well.


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As a result, changes in the estimates of the underlying assumptions used to determine the fair values of a) our acquisition-related contingent consideration earn-out payments - Éclat, b) acquisition related warrants and c) acquisition related FSC royalty liabilities we recorded a gain of $31,040 to reduce the fair value of these liabilities for the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to an expense of $49,285 to increase the fair value of these liabilities for the year ended December 31, 2016. As noted in our critical accounting estimates, there are numerous estimates we use when determining the fair value of the acquisition-related earn-out payments - Éclat. These estimates include the long-term pricing environment, market size, the market share the related products are forecast to achieve, the cost of goods related to such products and an appropriate discount rate to use when present valuing the related cash flows.

For the year ended December 31, 2017, as a result of changes to these estimates when compared to the same estimates at December 31, 2016, we recognized a gain of $21,997 to lower the fair value of acquisition related liabilities for the Éclat products primarily as a result of a weaker long-term sales and gross profit outlook for Bloxiverz and Akovaz due to more competition. Additionally, we decreased the fair value of the acquisition related warrants which resulted in a gain of $8,738, primarily due to changes in the AVDL stock price at December 31, 2017 compared to December 31, 2016, changes in the volatility of AVDL stock and a shorter remaining term of the warrants.

For the year ended December 31, 2016, as a result of changes to these estimates when compared to the same estimates at December 31, 2015, we incurred a charge of $57,609 to increase the fair value of acquisition related liabilities for Éclat primarily as a result of changes in market assumptions around our Akovaz product and a slightly better long-term sales and gross profit outlook for Bloxiverz. Additionally, we reduced the fair value of the acquisition related warrants which resulted in a gain of $9,400, primarily due to a lower AVDL stock price at December 31, 2016 compared to December 31, 2015, changes in the volatility of AVDL stock during 2016 and a shorter remaining term. Further, we incurred a charge of $1,076 to increase the fair value of acquisition related FSC royalty liabilities.

Each of the underlying assumptions used to determine the fair values of these contingent liabilities can, and often do, change based on adjustments in current market conditions, competition and other factors. These changes can have a material impact on our consolidated statements of income (loss), balance sheet and cash flows.  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Increase / (Decrease)
 
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
2017 vs. 2016
 
2016 vs. 2015
Restructuring Costs
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
$
 
%
 
$
 
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Restructuring costs
 
$
2,542

 
$

 
$

 
$
2,542

 
n/a
 
$

 
n/a
Percentage of sales
 
1.5
%
 
%
 
%
 
 

 
 
 
 

 
 
Restructuring charges of $2,542 were recognized during the year ended December 31, 2017. During the first quarter of 2017, we announced a plan to reduce our workforce at our Lyon, France site by approximately 50%.  This reduction is an effort to align the Company’s cost structure with our ongoing and future planned projects. In July 2017, the Company completed negotiations with the works council and received approval from the French Labor Commission to implement the plan. The reduction was substantially complete at the end of the year. The Company recorded a curtailment gain of $717 during the year ended December 31, 2017 associated with the reduction of certain defined benefit retirement plan liabilities due to the reduction in force.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Increase / (Decrease)
 
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
2017 vs. 2016
 
2016 vs. 2015
Investment Income, net
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
$
 
%
 
$
 
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Investment income, net
 
$
2,850

 
$
1,635

 
$
1,236

 
$
1,215

 
74.3
%
 
$
399

 
32.3
%
Percentage of sales