10-K 1 knl-20131231x10k.htm 10-K KNL-2013.12.31 - 10K
 

UNITED STATES
Draft 3/03/14
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K

 
 
 
ý
 
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2013
OR
o
 
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                to              
Commission File No. 001-12907
KNOLL, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
 
 
Delaware
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
13-3873847
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
1235 Water Street
East Greenville, PA 18041
(215) 679-7991
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number including area code of principal executive offices)
SECURITIES REGISTERED PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OF THE ACT:
 
 
 
Title of each class
 
Name of exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share
 
New York Stock Exchange
SECURITIES REGISTERED PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(g) OF THE ACT: NONE
Indicate by check mark if the issuer is a well-known seasoned issuer (as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.) Yes ý    No o
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act. Yes o    No ý
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ý    No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Website, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes ý    No o
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. ý
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer" and "smaller reporting company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer ý
 
Accelerated filer o
 
Non-accelerated filer o
 (Do not check if a
smaller reporting company)
 
Smaller reporting company o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.) Yes o    No ý
As of June 30, 2013, the aggregate market value of the registrant's common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately $650,424,000 based on the closing sale price as reported on the New York Stock Exchange.
As of February 28, 2014 there were 48,382,398 shares (including 1,157,070 shares of non-voting restricted shares) of the Registrant's common stock, par value $0.01 per share, outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the Registrant's definitive Proxy Statement for its 2014 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated by reference into Part III of this report on Form 10-K to the extent stated therein.
 



TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Item
 
Page
 
 
 
PART I
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
PART II
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
PART III
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
PART IV
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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PART I
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
General
We are a leading designer and manufacturer of furnishings, textiles and fine leathers for the workplace and home. For over a decade now we have been building a diversified design-driven product portfolio and flexible business model that can perform in various business cycles. Our commitment to innovation and modern design has yielded a comprehensive portfolio of products designed to provide enduring value and help clients shape their workplaces and homes with imagination and vision. Our products are recognized for high quality and a sophisticated image and are targeted at the middle to upper end of the market. We sell our products primarily through a direct sales force and a broad network of independent dealers.
Knoll marked its 75th anniversary in 2013 with our Modern always™ campaign celebrating iconic design for the home and office since the company’s founding in 1938. This campaign, over the course of the year, brought the story of modern design to life through a multi-media launch that included social media; a comprehensive print ad campaign; the redesign of our website and opening of our first e-commerce destination; and the opening of our flagship showroom and first retail location in midtown Manhattan. Knoll also debuted two new collections - the “Tools for Life” collection, designed by world-class architecture studio, OMA, and presented at Solone Internazionale del Mobile in Milan, and The Washington CollectionTM by prominent architect, David Adjaye.
Since our founding, we have been recognized worldwide as a design leader within our industry. Our products are exhibited in major art museums worldwide, including more than 50 pieces in the permanent Design Collection of The Museum of Modern Art in New York. This legacy continues to flourish today and is embodied in an ambitious series of new products that reflect forward-thinking ideas about design and workplace performance, among them: the Generation by Knoll® family of innovative task and multipurpose seating; Reff® Profiles, furnishings for the contemporary private office; and Antenna® Workspaces, a new approach for individual and group work spaces. In 2011, we were honored to receive the Smithsonian Museum's Cooper-Hewitt National Design Award for Corporate and Institutional Achievement, celebrating our design legacy.
Our design excellence is complemented by a management philosophy that fosters a strong collaborative culture, client-driven processes and a lean, agile operating structure. Our employees are performance-driven and motivated by a variable incentive compensation system and broad-based equity ownership in the company.
Our management evaluates the company as three reporting segments: (i) Office; (ii) Studio; (iii) and Coverings. The Office segment includes systems, seating, storage, tables, desks and KnollExtra® ergonomic accessories as well as the international sales of our North American Office products. The Studio segment includes our KnollStudio® division, the Company's European subsidiaries which primarily sell KnollStudio products, Richard Schultz® Design and, as of February 3, 2014, Holly Hunt Enterprises, Inc. The KnollStudio portfolio includes a range of lounge seating, side, café and dining chairs, barstools, and conference, dining and occasional tables. Richard Schultz® Design provides high-quality outdoor furniture. The Coverings segment includes KnollTextiles®, Spinneybeck® (including Filzfelt®), and Edelman® Leather. These businesses serve a wide range of customers offering high-quality textiles, felt, and leather. When we refer to our "specialty" products or businesses in this report, we are referring to our Studio and Coverings segments. See below for a further discussion of the individual businesses within each segment.
For further information regarding our segments, see Note 19 in the accompanying financial statements.
All trademarks used in this annual report on Form 10-K that are not owned by us or our affiliates are the property of their respective owners.
Products
We offer a comprehensive and expanding portfolio of high-quality furniture, textiles and leathers across five product categories: (i) office systems, which are typically modular and movable workspaces with functionally integrated panels or table desks, worksurfaces, pedestals and other storage units, power and data systems and lighting; (ii) office seating; (iii) files and storage; (iv) desks, casegoods and tables; and (v) specialty products, including high image side chairs, sofas, desks and tables for the office and home, textiles, accessories, leathers and related products;. Historically, we have derived most of our revenues from office systems and from specialty products including our KnollStudio collection of signature design classics furnishings, KnollTextiles fabrics, Spinneybeck leathers, and Edelman leathers. However, in recent years, we have significantly expanded our product offerings in seating, files and storage, casegoods and tables and have reduced our dependence on office systems by further growing our specialty businesses.

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Office Segment:
Systems Furniture
We believe that office systems purchases are divided primarily between (i) architect and designer-oriented products and (ii) entry-level products with technology, ergonomic and functional support. Our office systems furniture reflects the breadth of these sectors with a variety of planning models and a corresponding depth of product features. Our systems furniture can define or adapt to virtually any office environment, from collaborative spaces for team interaction to private executive offices.
Systems furniture consists principally of functionally integrated panels or table desks, worksurfaces, pedestal and other storage units, power and data systems and lighting. These components are combined to create flexible, space-efficient work environments that can be moved, re-configured and re-used. Clients, often working with architects and designers, have the opportunity to select from a wide selection of laminates, paints, veneers and textiles to design workspaces appropriate to their organization's personality. Our systems furniture product development strategy aims to insure that product line enhancements can be added to clients' existing installations and integrate with other Knoll product lines, maximizing the value of the clients' investments in Knoll systems products over the long-term.
Our principal systems furniture product lines include the following panel and desk-based planning models:
Antenna® Workspaces
Introduced in 2010, Antenna Workspaces by Masamichi Udagawa and Sigi Moeslinger, principals of Antenna Design, is a new approach to workplace design that reflects the freedom and mobility people seek in today's office. Antenna Workspaces considers the growing variety of settings where work takes place and blends desks, tables, storage units and screens to create intuitive solutions for individuals and groups. In the process, Antenna Workspaces suggests connections and boundaries between diverse work areas and establishes a new way to shape space, simplifying transitions between individual and group work. Antenna Workspaces has received recognition for its novel approach to office planning, including in 2010, at NeoCon®, our national industry tradeshow, a Best of NeoCon® innovation award. During 2011 and 2012, product additions expanded the reach of the system to accommodate activity spaces - workplaces that provide multiple opportunities for engagement among individuals and groups over a broad spectrum of formality, flexibility, privacy and scale.
Reff® Profiles
In 2010, Reff Profiles debuted, building on the Reff flagship wood systems platform. Throughout its history, Reff has combined the high performance capabilities of panel-based systems furniture with the refined elegance of wood casegoods, showcasing sophisticated all-wood construction and precisely crafted detail. Reff Profiles extends those capabilities, with new aesthetic options, enhanced storage for materials and technology, and simple user access to power and data needs. Reff Profiles is available in an extensive range of veneers, laminates, glass, and metal options that can be used interchangeably in private offices and as freestanding or panel-based furnishings for the open office. During 2012, the Reff Profiles line expanded with a series of tables, credenzas and bookcases for meeting spaces and in 2013 the line expanded again with new components designed to facilitate collaboration as well as support the open-office environment including a media enclave capable of supporting multiple technology platforms/needs; locker, bookcase and credenza storage; and several new table and desk options.
AutoStrada®
Introduced in 2004, AutoStrada is one of the most comprehensive office concepts that we have developed. AutoStrada provides aesthetic and functional alternatives to traditional panel-based and desk-based systems furniture with four planning models that combine high-performance furniture with the look of custom millwork. The AutoStrada spine-based, storage-based, wall-based and collaborative/open table planning models leverage a consistent design aesthetic to create a distinctively modern aesthetic in both open plan and private office environments. Whether an office requires a high performance open plan system, architectural casegoods, progressive private office furniture or a collaborative "big table" concept, AutoStrada provides a solution. In 2004, AutoStrada received a silver Best of NeoCon® award.

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Dividends Horizon®
Dividends Horizon, introduced in 2007, extends the Dividends portfolio of workplace solutions introduced in 1998 with new planning opportunities for the individual workstation, focusing on new materials and furniture that evolve the office landscape with a layered approach to furniture design. Focusing on exceptionally light and transparent materials and practical, personalized storage solutions, Dividends Horizon creates rich spatial environments for the contemporary workspace. Dividends Horizon received a silver 2007 Best of NeoCon® award. The system's enduring success is based on a straightforward, versatile frame-and-tile construction, featuring a universal panel frame. Removable panel inserts, which can be ordered in fabric, steel, glass or as marker boards, meet a range of clients' design and budgetary needs. The Dividends Horizon panel frame enables clients to utilize either monolithic, tiled or beltway panel type for applications throughout the workplace, and power and data access may be located virtually anywhere on the panel.
Morrison™
Our Morrison furniture system was introduced in 1986 and continues to be one of our most proven product offerings. Morrison meets essential power and data requirements for panel and desk-based planning and private offices, and offers one of the broadest ranges of systems performance in the industry. Morrison has been upgraded periodically with interchangeable enhancements from its Morrison Network, Morrison Access and Morrison Options lines. In addition, Morrison integrates with Currents® (described below) to provide advanced wire management capabilities, as well as with our Calibre® and Series 2 desks, pedestals, lateral files, overhead storage cabinets and architectural towers to provide compatible, cost-effective panel and desk-based solutions.
Currents®
Our award-winning and innovative Currents system provides advanced power and data capabilities to organizations that require maximum space-planning freedom, advanced technology support and the mobility of freestanding furniture. The groundbreaking Currents service wall divides space and manages technology. A related product, Fence, provides comparable performance for low horizon settings. Currents and Fence may be used in tandem with existing Knoll systems furniture, removing the constraints imposed by conventional panel system. Currents and Fence may also be used with competitors' systems and freestanding furniture.
Equity®
The distinguishing feature of our Equity product is its unique centerline modularity, which maximizes the efficient use of space for high-density workplaces with a minimal inventory of parts. Equity incorporates power and data capabilities, including desktop features, and integrates with Currents (described below) to provide advanced wire management capabilities. Equity components also create modular freestanding desks, and Equity 120-degree planning enables clients to create sleek, hexagonal configurations that are well-suited for call and data centers. For both 90- and 120-degree Equity planning, a variety of components, including add-on screens, bi-fold doors and side-door components, accommodate clients' needs for privacy and storage.
Seating
We continuously research and assess the general landscape of the office seating market, and tailor work chair product development initiatives to enhance our competitive position for ergonomics, aesthetics, comfort and value. We believe that the result of these efforts is an increasingly innovative, versatile seating collection consistent with the Knoll brand.
Key client criteria in work chair selection include superior ergonomics, aesthetics, comfort, quality and affordability, all of which are consistent with our strengths and reputation. We believe that we offer an excellent and fully competitive line-up of chairs at a range of price points and performance levels and constructed from varying materials, including mesh, polymers, and upholstery. In 2013, we introduced Toboggan®, a playful, yet practical solution for focused, shared or team work in an increasingly social and mobile workplace. A sled based chair desk for collaborative and learning environments, Toboggan makes clever use of shape and scale to allow users to shift 360 degrees in the seat, with the back serving as backrest, armrest or impromptu tablet worksurface.

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Our principal seating product lines include:
Generation by Knoll®, our flagship task chair, reflects Knoll's commitment to materials innovation and forward-thinking ergonomic research that has found there is no one right way to sit. Generation offers a new standard of unrestrained movement, supporting the range of postures and work styles typical of today's workplace through elastic design, where the chair rearranges itself in response to the user. Generation has received a series of accolades from the national press, including The Wall Street Journal, Business Week, Time, Fast Company and CBS Sunday Morning. Additionally, the chair has been honored with many awards, including Interior Design magazine's 2009 Best of Year Product Award in the contact/task seating category, the Chicago Athenaeum GOOD DESIGN Award, and a Best of NeoCon Gold Award for office seating.
ReGeneration by Knoll®, a general purpose task chair, extends the themes of Generation by Knoll®, to support the user simply and efficiently. Doing more with less, ReGeneration provides continuous support and comfort throughout the day. The chair's efficient structure required re-examining every detail and innovating in the use of sustainable material. As a result, the chair is lightweight, visually and physically, and achieves the highest level of environmental certifications. The chair has been lauded in Cool Hunting, Wired.com, TreeHugger, and other design, technology, and environmental blogs.
LIFE®, introduced in 2002, has become an industry benchmark for ergonomic and sustainable design. Recognized for its overall lightness and agility, LIFE features intuitive adjustments that bring comfort and effortless control to a new performance level with an extensive range of supportive sitting options and responsive lumbar support.
RPM®, recognized for outstanding comfort, extraordinary performance and exceptional value, is offered with distinctive fabrics that reflect its stylish design. Engineered for durability, RPM delivers comfort and support, especially for 24-hour work environments.
Chadwick™, introduced in 2005, is an innovative hybrid seating design that accommodates the changing needs of today's workplace and home office.
The family of Essentials Work Chairs, introduced in 2005-07, offers the ergonomic comfort and appeal of fully upholstered task chairs at a significant value. Essentials Work Chairs' Pro™, Tech™, and Sport™ models offer a comprehensive range of four task and two side chairs suitable to any office style from the traditional to the progressive.
Files and Storage
Our files and storage products, featuring the Template®, Calibre® and Series 2™ product lines, are designed with unique features to maximize storage capabilities throughout the workplace. Our core files and storage products consist of lateral files, mobile pedestals and other storage units, bookcases and overhead storage cabinets. Additionally, Knoll launched AnchorTM in 2013, a streamlined collection of user-friendly storage that addresses the user’s organizational needs in the changing workplace.
The range of files and storage completes our product offering, allowing clients to address all of their furniture needs with us, especially in competitive bid situations where Knoll office systems, seating, tables and desks have been specified. The breadth of the product line also enables our dealers to offer files and storage as stand-alone products to businesses with smaller requirements.
Files and storage are available in an extensive array of sizes, configurations and colors, which can be integrated with other manufacturers' stand-alone furniture, thereby increasing our penetration in competitor accounts. In addition, certain elements of the product line can be configured as freestanding furniture in private offices or open-plan environments.
Our principal storage product lines include:
AnchorTM 
     
Offered in a variety of configurations including all-open, all-closed with drawers/doors, or a blended solution of open and drawer configurations, Anchor provides a balance of accessible and secure storage. The collection is an ideal individual storage solution for focused, shared and team settings, or for storage needs in group settings outside of primary workspaces.
Template®
In 2009, we introduced the Template Storage System, offering an economical approach to workplace planning, using vertical storage units to divide and define workspaces. In doing so, the product's compact 15 inch deep footprint consolidates storage while reducing the overall size of an individual workspace, saving clients both money and space. Template can be combined with Dividends Horizon, Antenna Workspaces, and other Knoll systems to expand its planning capabilities.

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Calibre®
Calibre storage, comprised of lateral files, pedestals, hybrid cabinets, wardrobes and personal storage towers, offers clients a broad array of metal storage solutions to support virtually any office environment. Personalization is encouraged and valuable space is maximized with 1.5' planning advantage and Build-Your-Own design possibilities, offering more drawer heights and configurations than industry standards. Calibre storage can stand alone or blend with Dividends Horizon, Morrison, and other Knoll systems to complement focused, shared and team workspaces.
Series 2™
With a focused storage offering in a range of aesthetics, Series 2 storage provides ideal solutions for value-conscious customers. Overhead storage, pedestals and personal storage towers are offered in numerous front designs, both metal and veneer, which perfectly coordinate with Knoll Dividends Horizon, Reff, Morrison and Template systems.
Desks, Casegoods, and Tables
We offer collections of adjustable tables as well as meeting, conference, training, dining, and café tables for large-scale projects and stand-alone desks and table desks. These items are also sold as stand-alone products through our Knoll dealers to businesses with smaller requirements.
Our principal desk product line, the Graham Collection® is detailed to meet the needs of the contemporary office while offering traditional wood casegoods construction synonymous with the Knoll standard of quality.
Our Interaction™ and Upstart® product lines include adjustable, work, meeting, conference and training tables. These product lines range from independent tables to tables suitable for workstations that support individual preferences for computer and writing heights to plannable desks that can be linked together to build and reshape larger work areas. During 2013, the Company made enhancements to its universal height adjustable table, designed to be compatible with the Dividends Horizons, Antenna, and Reff Profiles office systems. Also in the same year, the Company expanded the Reff Profiles line to expand upon its series of meeting tables and introduced the signature LSM Conference Table Collection for KnollStudio.
KnollExtra®
KnollExtra offers accessories that complement Knoll office furniture products, including technology support accessories, desktop organizational tools, lighting and storage. KnollExtra integrates technology comfortably into the workplace, meeting the increased demand for flat panel monitor supports and central processing unit holders, which deliver adjustability and space savings. During 2009, KnollExtra introduced the Sapper Monitor Arm Collection, designed by renowned industrial designer Richard Sapper. The collection provides a clean, modern solution to technology challenges in the modern workplace and has been accepted into the permanent collection of New York's Museum of Modern Art. During 2012, KnollExtra expanded its portfolio to include a line of markerboards, free-standing and mounted LED lighting (awarded 2013 Best of NeoCon Silver) and several products that provide technology support for the changing workplace.
The Office segment accounted for approximately 69.5% of our sales in 2013, 71.4% of our sales in 2012, and 72.0% of our sales in 2011.
Studio Segment:
KnollStudio, well-known for the Barcelona®, Saarinen, and Bertoia collections, is a renowned source for classic modern furniture and spirited new designs of unparalleled quality for the workplace, home, hotels, restaurants and government and educational institutions. The KnollStudio portfolio includes a range of lounge seating; side, café and dining chairs; barstools; and conference, dining and occasional tables.
KnollStudio has a long history of working with celebrated architects and designers from around the world, including Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Marcel Breuer, Eero Saarinen, Isamu Noguchi, Warren Platner, Frank Gehry, Maya Lin, Jens Risom, Kazuhide Takahama, and Ross Lovegrove. In addition, KnollStudio manufactures a collection of original furniture designs by Florence Knoll.
In 2013, KnollStudio introduced‘Tools for Life,' designed by the Office of Metropolitan Architecture (OMA) and Pritzker Prize award winning architect, Rem Koolhaas. Tools for Life is born from Knoll’s desire to cultivate design that can live both in the background and foreground of our lives. As a result, OMA has created furniture that can exist in and in between the office and domestic environments: equipment for living - tools for life.

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Also, in 2013, The Washington Collection for KnollTM by David Adjaye was debuted. The Washington Collection for Knoll transforms Adjaye’s architectural and sculptural vision into accessible objects for the home and office. The collection consists of two cantilevered side chairs, a club chair, an ottoman, a side table and a monumental bronze coffee table.
In 2004, KnollStudio established Knoll Space as a formalized sales program for the retail market, making it easier for consumers to bring the best of Knoll furnishings into their home and home office. The program consists of independent specialty retailers and e-tailers nationwide that sell our iconic modern classics and selected contemporary designs as well as selected products with crossover home office appeal. Through this program, we sell our KnollStudio and other selected Knoll products through approximately 65 retailers, with an aggregate of over 100 locations in the United States and Canada.
Our Studio segment includes the Knoll Europe businesses. Knoll Europe provides products and services primarily to our European clients, whose aesthetics and styles can be different from our North America clients. A majority of Knoll Europe's business is Knoll Studio products, but Knoll Europe also offers a product profile that enables our customers to purchase a complete office environment. In addition, we offer certain products designed specifically for the European market. In 2006, we introduced the Wa™ desking system. Wa™ reinvents desks and storage through its design and construction in a linear and well proportioned modern vernacular. Our presence in the European market provides strategic positioning with clients that have international offices where they would like to maintain their Knoll facility standard. In addition to working with North American clients' international offices, we also have a local European client base.
In Europe, the core product categories include: (i) KnollStudio; (ii) desk systems, including the Wa™ desking system, the KnollScope®, and the PL1™ system; (iii) seating, including a comprehensive range of chairs; and (iv) storage units, which are designed to complement Knoll desk products.
The Studio segment also includes our Richard Schultz product line of outdoor furniture for the residential, hospitality, and contract office furniture markets, and as of February 2014, it will also include the Holly Hunt business, which we recently acquired.
The Studio segment accounted for approximately 17.9% of our sales in 2013 and 16.6% of our sales in 2012 and 2011.
Coverings Segment:
Our Coverings segment consists of (i) KnollTextiles, (ii) Spinneybeck Leather (including Filzfelt products), and (iii) Edelman Leather.
KnollTextiles was established in 1947 to create high-quality textiles for Knoll furniture. KnollTextiles offers upholstery, panel fabrics, wallcoverings and drapery that harmonize color, pattern and texture and offers products for corporate, hospitality, healthcare and residential interiors. KnollTextiles products are used in the manufacture of Knoll furniture and are sold to clients for use in other manufacturers' products. In 2008, KnollTextiles introduced Knoll Luxe®, a new brand of fashion forward textiles created by KnollTextiles creative director Dorothy Cosonas. For each of the past eleven years, KnollTextiles has received Best of NeoCon® gold awards. In 2013, KnollTextiles made the following product introductions: Alejandro Cardenas’ first collection of interior fabrics as part of The Chelsea Collection; The Elements Collection by Dorothy Cosonas featuring three upholstery patterns; The Stripes Collection by Irma Boom based on two of her book designs featuring striped patterns; the SUNO Collection for Knoll Luxe - by New York-based fashion label, SUNO, consisting of seven upholstery and two drapery textiles translated from recent runway collections (awarded two 2013 Best of NeoCon Silver, 2013 GOOD DESIGNTM Award from the Chicago Athenaeum); and the Midtown Collection - designed in honor of Knoll’s move to Midtown Manhattan and comprised of three fabrics from the KT Collection, five new upholsteries and two new wallcoverings.
KnollTextiles continues to extend its distribution to reach new customers, notably through a KnollTextiles showroom in New York City's D&D building and e-commerce through the knolltextiles.com website. Additionally, KnollTextiles opened, in 2013, two Knoll Luxe showrooms in Chicago and Los Angeles. In 2011, KnollTextiles was honored with a retrospective of its work exhibited at the Bard Graduate Center for Decorative Arts (BGC) in New York City, and a companion book, KnollTextiles, 1945-2010, published by Yale University Press. Today, more than 100 fabrics from KnollTextiles are in the permanent collection of the Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum in New York City.

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Spinneybeck Enterprises, Inc., or Spinneybeck, our wholly owned subsidiary, offers leathers and related products, including leather rugs and wall panels. Spinneybeck supplies high-quality upholstery leather for use on Knoll furniture and for sale directly to clients, including other office furniture manufacturers, hospitality, upholsterers, aviation, custom coach and boating manufacturers.
In 2013, Spinneybeck introduced a decorative micro perforated foil inlay to its popular Lucente leather; Wave - the first pattern in a collection of shaped wall panels; architectural screen options; and a leather wrapped top option for a range of sizes in the classic Saarinen table.
Filzfelt, a division of Spinneybeck, distributes German-milled 100% wool design felt in 58 colors and five thicknesses and offers a wide range of felt products and full custom capabilities. A biodegradable and renewable material, wool felt is naturally moisture resistant, self-extinguishing, non-directional, available in lightfast and water resistant colors, and provides thermal and acoustic insulation. We acquired the Filzfelt business on December 30, 2011.
Edelman Leather LLC, or Edelman, our wholly owned subsidiary, supplies fine leathers to residential, hospitality, aviation and contract office furniture markets. Edelman, offers a broad residential showroom network where designers and retail consumers can sample our products.
The Coverings segment accounted for approximately 12.6% of our sales in 2013, 12.0% of our sales in 2012, and 11.4% of our sales in 2011.
Product Design and Development
Our design philosophy reflects an historical commitment to partnering with preeminent industrial designers and architects to commercialize products that meet evolving workplace and residential needs. By combining designers' creative vision with our commitment to innovative materials and technologically advanced processes, we continue to generate strong demand while cultivating brand loyalty among target clients. Our enviable history of nurturing design partner relationships attracts the world's leading designers. In addition, these collaborations are consistent with our commitment to a lean organization and incentive-based compensation, by utilizing a variable royalty-based fee as opposed to the fixed costs typically associated with a larger in-house design staff.
Our Office and Studio segments product development relies upon a New Product Commercialization Process to ensure quality and consistency of our methodology, reducing product development cycle time without sacrificing quality objectives. We use Pro/ENGINEER® solids modeling tools and rapid prototyping technology to compress development cycles and to improve responsiveness to special requests for customized solutions. Working closely with the designers during the early phases of development provides critical focus to yield the most viable products, balancing innovative modern design with practical function. Cross-functional teams are employed for all major development efforts with dedicated leaders who facilitate a seamless flow into manufacturing while aggressively managing cost and schedule opportunities. Increasingly, total environmental impact is factored into product material and manufacturing process decisions.
Research and development expenses, which are expensed as incurred, were $17.8 million for 2013, $15.3 million for 2012, and $15.4 million for 2011.
Sales and Distribution
We generate sales with our direct sales force and a network of independent dealers (primarily in the Office segment), who jointly market and sell our products. We generally rely on these independent dealers to also provide a variety of important specification, installation and after-market services to our clients. Our dealers generally operate under one-year, non-exclusive agreements. Our Studio and Coverings segments market and sell products with their own internal sales people, who often work closely with our Office sales force. We also sell our Studio products through a network of independent retailers.
Our clients are typically Fortune 1000 companies, governmental agencies and other medium to large sized organizations in a variety of industries including financial, legal, accounting, education, healthcare and hospitality. Our Coverings segment also markets and sells products to private aviation, marine and luxury coach industries. Our direct sales force and independent dealers in North America work in close partnership with clients and design professionals to specify distinctive work environments. Our direct sales representatives, in conjunction with the independent dealers, sell to and call directly on key clients. Our independent dealers also call on many other medium and small sized clients to provide seamless sales support and client service. We have an over $10.5 billion installed base of office systems, which provides a strong platform for recurring and add-on sales. "Installed base" refers to the amount of office systems product we have sold in North America during the previous fifteen years.

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Our products and knowledgeable sales force have generated strong brand recognition and loyalty among architects, designers and corporate facility managers, all of whom are key decision makers in the furniture purchasing process. Our strong relationships with architects and design professionals help us stay abreast of key workplace trends and position us to better meet the changing needs of clients. For example, we have invested in training all of our architect and designer specialists as Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design ("LEED®") accredited professionals to help clients better address environmental issues that arise in the design of the workplace.
We have aligned our sales force to target strategic areas of opportunity. For example, our healthcare division was created to target healthcare related businesses. We have also placed sales representatives and technical specialists into certain dealerships to support programs such as Knoll Essentials, which is described below.
In addition to coordinating sales efforts with the sales representatives, our dealers generally handle project management, installation and maintenance for client accounts after the initial product selection and sale. Although many of these dealerships also carry products of other manufacturers, they have agreed not to act as dealers for our principal direct competitors. We have not experienced significant dealer turnover. Our dealers' substantial commitment to understanding our product lines, and their strong relationships with us, serve to discourage dealers from changing vendor affiliations. We are not significantly dependent on any one dealer, the largest of which accounted for approximately 6.0%, 6.7%, and 5.2% of our North American sales in 2013, 2012, and 2011, respectively.
We provide product training for our sales force and dealer sales representatives, who make sales calls primarily to small to medium sized businesses. As part of our commitment to building relationships with our dealer sales representatives, we introduced the Knoll Essentials program in January 2004. Knoll Essentials is a catalog program developed in response to dealer requests for a consolidated, user-friendly selling tool for day-to-day systems, seating, storage, and accessory products. The Knoll Essentials program includes dealer incentives to sell our products. We also employ a dedicated team of dealer sales representatives to work with our dealerships.
Excluding sales to governmental agencies, no single end-user customer represented more than 1.8% of our North American sales during 2013. Sales to U.S., state and local government agencies aggregated approximately 13.0% of our consolidated sales in 2013, with no single U.S. government agency accounting for more than 0.5% of consolidated sales. The U.S. government typically can terminate or modify any of its contracts with us either for its convenience or if we default by failing to perform under the terms of the applicable contract.
Manufacturing and Operations
We operate manufacturing sites in North America including plants located in East Greenville, Pennsylvania, Grand Rapids, Michigan, Muskegon, Michigan, and Toronto, Canada. In addition, we operate two plants in Italy: one in Foligno and one in Graffignana. We manufacture and assemble products to specific customer order and operate all facilities under a philosophy of continuous improvement, lean manufacturing and efficient asset utilization. All plants are registered under ISO 9000, an internationally developed set of quality criteria for manufacturing companies. Additionally, the North American plants are ISO 14001 certified, which reflects our commitment to environmentally responsible practices.
In 2010, we initiated a plan to better utilize our North American manufacturing capacity, eliminate duplication of capabilities, and reduce associated costs. We continue to look for ways to ensure that our manufacturing capabilities match our supply chain strategy providing the most value for Knoll. In 2013, our supply chain team continued its lean journey by launching a comprehensive three-year transformation strategy designed to make our supply chain operations more efficient, flexible and competitive.
In 2009, our East Greenville location recertified its "Star" rating under the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Voluntary Protection Program (VPP). A Star rating is the highest rating a company can obtain in OSHA's premier partnership program. To achieve this rating, our East Greenville site had to demonstrate a comprehensive safety and health process with strong management leadership, include all employees as active participants, and ensure an injury rate substantially below the average for the industry. The Star rating allows us to join an elite and exclusive group of less than 2,500 companies nationwide that have demonstrated the dedication and commitment to safety. Our Knoll manufacturing facilities, as a whole, have an accident rate below the industry average.
In 2012, Knoll North American Office completed certification of certain products to the level™ Sustainable Certification. All of the products certified received level 3 certification, the highest certification available. The "level™ standard" is a voluntary product standard developed by, our industry trade association, BIFMA, the Business and Institutional Furniture Manufacturers Association, to support safe, healthy, and sustainable workplace environments.

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The root of our continuous improvement efforts lies in the philosophy of lean manufacturing that drives operations. As part of this philosophy, we partner with suppliers who can supply our facilities efficiently, often with just-in-time deliveries, thus allowing us to reduce our raw materials inventory. We also utilize "Kaizen" work groups in the plants to develop best practices to minimize scrap, time and material waste at all stages of the manufacturing process. The involvement of employees at all levels ensures an organizational commitment to lean and efficient manufacturing operations.
The operations for our two leather businesses, Spinneybeck and Edelman, are located in Getzville, New York and New Milford, Connecticut, respectively. Principal operations for KnollTextiles are in East Greenville, Pennsylvania.
Raw Materials and Suppliers
In addition to the continued focus on enhancing the efficiency of the manufacturing operations, we also seek to reduce costs through our global sourcing effort. We have capitalized on raw material and component cost savings available through lower cost global suppliers. This broader view of potential sources of supply has enhanced our leverage with domestic supply sources, and we have been able to reduce cycle times by extracting improvements from all levels throughout the supply chain.
The purchasing function in North America is centralized at the East Greenville facility. This centralization, and the close relationships with our primary suppliers, has enhanced our ability to realize purchasing economies of scale and implement "just-in-time" inventory practices. Steel, lumber, paper, paint, plastics, laminates, particleboard, veneers, glass, fabrics, leathers, upholstery filling material, aluminum extrusions and castings are used in our manufacturing process. Both domestic and overseas suppliers of these materials are selected based upon a variety of factors, with the price and quality of the materials and the supplier's ability to meet delivery requirements being primary factors in such selection. We do not generally enter into long-term supply contracts and, as a result, we can be vulnerable to fluctuations in the prices for these materials. No supplier is the only available source for a particular component or raw material. However, because of the specialization involved with some of our components, it can take a significant amount of time, money and effort to move to an alternate source.
Competition
The markets, in which we compete, are highly competitive. We compete on the basis of (i) product design, including performance, ergonomic and aesthetic features, (ii) product quality and durability, (iii) relationships with clients, architects and designers, (iv) strength of dealer and distributor network, (v) on-time delivery and service performance, (vi) commitment to environmental standards by offering products that help clients achieve LEED® certified facilities and minimize environmental impact, and (vii) price. We estimate that we had an approximate 8% market share in the U.S. office furniture market in 2013.
Some of our competitors, especially those in North America, are larger and have significantly greater financial, marketing, manufacturing and technical resources than us. Our most significant competitors in primary markets are Herman Miller, Inc., Steelcase, Inc., Haworth, Inc. and, to a lesser extent, Allsteel, Inc., an operating unit of HNI Corporation, and Teknion Corporation. These competitors have a substantial volume of furniture installed at businesses throughout North America, providing a continual source of demand for further products and enhancements. Moreover, the products of these competitors have strong acceptance in the marketplace. Although we believe that we have been able to compete successfully in the markets to date, there can be no assurance that we will be able to continue to do so in the future.
Competition in the Coverings segment is much more fragmented than in the Office segment. Both Spinneybeck and Edelman serve the mid to high end of the market, but compete against many companies, none of which has a dominant market share.

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Patents and Trademarks
We consider securing and protecting our intellectual property rights to be important to the business. We own approximately 58 active U.S. utility patents on various components used in our products and systems and approximately 75 active U.S. design patents. We also own approximately 263 patents in various foreign countries. The scope and duration of our patent protection varies throughout the world by jurisdiction and by individual product. In particular, patents for individual products extend for varying periods of time according to the date a patent application is filed, the date a patent is granted and the term of patent protection available in the jurisdiction granting the patent (generally twenty years from the date of filing in the U.S., for example). We believe that the duration of the applicable patents we are granted is adequate relative to the expected lives of our products. We own approximately 78 trademark registrations in the U.S., including registrations to the following trademarks, as well as related stylized depictions of the Knoll word mark: Knoll®, KnollExtra®, Knoll Luxe®, KnollStudio®, KnollTextiles®, Good Design Is Good Business®, Antenna®, Autostrada®, Calibre®, Currents®, Dividends®, Edelman® Leather, Equity®, Modern Always®, Propeller®, Reff®, RPM®, Sapper XYZ®, Spinneybeck® Leather, Toboggan®, Generation by Knoll®, Regeneration by Knoll® and MultiGeneration by Knoll®. We also own approximately 226 trademarks registered in foreign countries. The scope and duration of our trademark protection varies throughout the world, with some countries protecting trademarks only as long as the mark is used, and others requiring registration of the mark and the payment of registration (generally ten years from the date of filing in the U.S., for example). In order to protect the indefinite duration, we make filings to continue registration of our trademarks.
In October 2004, we received registered trademark protection in the United States for five iconic furniture designs by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe-the Barcelona Chair, the Barcelona Stool, the Barcelona Couch, the Barcelona Table and the Flat Bar Brno Chair. This protection recognizes the renown of these designs and reflects our commitment to ensuring that when architects, furniture retailers, businesses and individuals purchase a Ludwig Mies van der Rohe design, they are acquiring the authentic product, manufactured in accordance with the designer's historic specifications. Barcelona® is a registered trademark in the U.S., Canada and European Community owned by Knoll, Inc.
Backlog
Sales backlog represents orders we have accepted but which have not yet shipped. Our sales backlog was $155.5 million at December 31, 2013, $143.6 million at December 31, 2012, and $181.2 million at December 31, 2011. We manufacture substantially all of our products to order and expect to fill substantially all outstanding unfilled orders within the next twelve months. As such, backlog is not a significant factor used to predict our long-term business prospects.
Foreign and Domestic Operations
Our principal manufacturing operations and markets are in North America, and we also have manufacturing operations and markets in Europe. Our sales to clients and net property, plant and equipment are summarized by geographic areas below. Sales to clients are attributed to the geographic areas based on the origin of sale.
 
United States
 
Canada
 
Europe
 
Consolidated
 
(in thousands)
2013
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sales to clients
$
752,347

 
$
36,240

 
$
74,081

 
$
862,668

Property, plant, and equipment, net
94,896

 
27,938

 
15,059

 
137,893

2012
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sales to clients
$
774,654

 
$
40,669

 
$
72,176

 
$
887,499

Property, plant, and equipment, net
80,953

 
29,064

 
14,821

 
124,838

2011
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sales to clients
$
797,834

 
$
44,225

 
$
80,141

 
$
922,200

Property, plant, and equipment, net
77,230

 
29,110

 
15,452

 
121,792


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Environmental Matters
We believe that we are substantially in compliance with all applicable laws and regulations for the protection of the environment and the health and safety of our employees based upon existing facts presently known to us. Compliance with federal, state, local and foreign environmental laws and regulations relating to the discharge of substances into the environment, the disposal of hazardous wastes and other related activities has had and will continue to have an impact on our operations, but has, since 1990, been accomplished without having a material adverse effect on our operations. There can be no assurance that such laws and regulations will not change in the future or that we will not incur significant costs as a result of such laws and regulations. We have trained staff responsible for monitoring compliance with environmental, health and safety requirements. Our goal is to reduce and, wherever possible, eliminate the creation of hazardous waste in our manufacturing processes. While it is difficult to estimate the timing and ultimate costs to be incurred due to uncertainties about the status of laws, regulations and technology, based on information currently known to management, we do not expect environmental costs or contingencies to have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position, results of operations, competitive position, or cash flows. The operation of manufacturing plants entails risks in these areas, however, and we cannot be certain that we will not incur material costs or liabilities in the future which could adversely affect our operations.
We have been identified as a potentially responsible party pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act, or "CERCLA," for remediation costs associated with waste disposal sites previously used by us. CERCLA can impose liability for costs to investigate and remediate contamination without regard to fault or the legality of disposal and, under certain circumstances, liability may be joint and several resulting in one responsible party being held responsible for the entire obligation. Liability may also include damages for harm to natural resources.
The remediation costs and our allocated share at some of these CERCLA sites are unknown. We may also be subject to claims for personal injury or contribution relating to CERCLA sites. We reserve amounts for such matters when expenditures are probable and reasonably estimable.
Employees
As of December 31, 2013, we employed a total of 3,167 people, consisting of 1,848 hourly and 1,319 salaried employees. The Grand Rapids, Michigan plant is the only unionized plant within North America and has an agreement with the Carpenters Union, Local 1615, of the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America, Affiliate of the Carpenters Industrial Council (the "Union"), covering approximately 191 hourly employees. The Collective Bargaining Agreement was entered into on August 27, 2011 and expires April 30, 2015. From time to time, there have been unsuccessful efforts to unionize at our other North American locations. We believe that relations with our employees are good. Nonetheless, it is possible that our employees may continue attempts to unionize. Certain workers in the facilities in Italy are also represented by unions. We have experienced brief work stoppages from time to time at our plants in Italy. Work stoppages are relatively common occurrences at many Italian manufacturing plants and are usually related to national or local issues, not necessarily related specifically to Knoll. We had one such work stoppage in 2013, with a duration of 12 hours in total. This work stoppage was not unique to us, and the work stoppage did not materially affect our performance.
Available Information
Our annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and all amendments to those reports are made available free of charge through the "Investor Relations" section of our website at www.knoll.com, as soon as practicable after such material is electronically filed with or furnished to the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.


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ITEM 1A.    RISK FACTORS
RISK FACTORS
Risks Related to our Business
Our product sales are tied to corporate spending and service-sector employment, which are outside of our control. Our sales and/or growth in sales would be adversely affected by a recessionary economy characterized by decreased corporate spending and service-sector employment.
Our sales are significantly impacted by the level of corporate spending primarily in North America, which, in turn, is a function of the general economic environment. In a recessionary economy like we have experienced in recent history, business confidence, service-sector employment, corporate cash flows and non-residential commercial construction decrease, which typically leads to a decrease in demand for office furniture. In addition, a recessionary economy may also result in saturation of the market by "just new" used office systems, leading to a decrease in demand. Sales of office systems, which have historically accounted for almost half of our revenues, represent longer term and higher cost investments for our clients. As a result, sales of office systems are more severely impacted by decreases in corporate spending than sales of coverings, studio products, seating, files and storage and casegoods, and demand for office systems typically takes longer to respond to an economic recovery.
Geopolitical uncertainties, terrorist attacks, acts of war, natural disasters, increases in energy and other costs or combinations of such and other factors that are outside of our control could at any time have a significant effect on the North American economy, and, therefore, our business. The occurrence of any of these or similar events in the future could result in downward pressure on the economy, which we would expect to cause demand for our products to decline and competitive pricing pressures to increase.
Weakness in the economy or uncertainty in the financial markets may adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition, as well as the financial soundness of our customers and suppliers.
In recent history, the global capital and credit markets have experienced a period of unprecedented turmoil and upheaval, characterized by the bankruptcy, failure, collapse or sale of various financial institutions. Our ability to access capital may be restricted at a time when we would like, or need, to access financial markets. In addition, interest rate fluctuations, financial market volatility or credit market disruptions may negatively affect our customers' and our suppliers' ability to obtain credit to finance their businesses on acceptable terms. As a result, our customers' needs and ability to purchase our products or services may decrease, and our suppliers may increase their prices, reduce their output or change their terms of sale. If our customers' or suppliers' operating and financial performance deteriorates, or if they are unable to make scheduled payments or obtain credit, our customers may not be able to pay, or may delay payment of, accounts receivable owed to us, and our suppliers may restrict credit or impose different payment terms on us. Any inability of customers to pay us for our products and services, or any demands by suppliers for different payment terms, may adversely affect our earnings and cash flow.
We may have difficulty increasing or maintaining our prices as a result of price competition, which could lower our profit margins. Our competitors may develop new product designs that give them an advantage over us in making future sales.
We compete with our competitors on the basis of, among other things, price and product design. Since our competitors offer products that are similar to ours, we face significant price competition from our competitors, particularly in the Office segment. This price competition impacts our ability to implement price increases or, in some cases, maintain prices, which could lower our profit margins.
Additionally, our competitors may develop new product designs that achieve a high level of customer acceptance, which could give them a competitive advantage over us in making future sales.

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Our efforts to introduce new products that meet customer and workplace requirements may not be successful, which could limit our sales growth or cause our sales to decline.
To keep pace with workplace trends, such as changes in workplace design and increases in the use of technology, and with evolving regulatory and industry requirements, including environmental, health, safety and similar standards for the workplace and for product performance, we must periodically introduce new products. The introduction of new products requires the coordination of the design, manufacturing and marketing of such products, which may be affected by factors beyond our control. The design and engineering of certain of our new products can take up to a year or more and further time may be required to achieve client acceptance. In addition, we may face difficulties in introducing new products if we cannot successfully align ourselves with independent architects and designers who are able to design, in a timely manner, high-quality products consistent with our image. Accordingly, the launch of any particular product may be later or less successful than originally anticipated by us. Difficulties or delays in introducing new products or lack of customer acceptance of new products could limit our sales growth or cause our sales to decline.
We may not be able to manage our business effectively if we are unable to retain our experienced management team or recruit other key personnel.
The success of our operations is highly dependent upon our ability to attract and retain qualified employees and upon the ability of our senior management and other key employees to implement our business strategy. We believe there are only a limited number of qualified executives in the industry in which we compete. We rely substantially upon the services of Andrew B. Cogan, our Chief Executive Officer. The loss of the services of Mr. Cogan or other key members of our management team could seriously harm our efforts to successfully implement our business strategy.
While we currently maintain a key person life insurance policy with respect to Mr. Cogan, this insurance may not be sufficient to compensate us for any harm to our business resulting from loss of his services. The inability to attract and retain other talented personnel could also affect our ability to successfully implement our business strategy.
We are dependent on the pricing and availability of raw materials and components, and price increases and unavailability of raw materials and components could lower sales, increase our cost of goods sold and reduce our profits and margins.
We require substantial amounts of raw materials, which we purchase from outside sources. Steel, plastics, wood-related materials, and leather are the main raw materials used in our products. The prices and availability of raw materials are subject to change or curtailment due to, among other things, the supply of, and demand for, such raw materials, changes in laws or regulations, including duties and tariffs, suppliers' allocations to other purchasers, interruptions in production by raw materials or component parts suppliers, changes in currency exchange rates and worldwide price levels. We can be significantly impacted by price increases in these raw materials.
Although no supplier is the only available source for a particular component or raw material, some of our products and components are extremely specialized and, therefore, it can take a significant amount of time and money to move from one supply source to another. Any failure to obtain raw materials and components on a timely basis, or any significant delays or interruptions in the supply of raw materials or components, could prevent us from being able to produce products ordered by our clients in a timely fashion, which could have a negative impact on our reputation and our dealership network, and could cause our sales to decline.
We are affected by the cost of energy and increases in energy prices could reduce our margins and profits.
The profitability of our operations is sensitive to the cost of energy through our transportation costs, the cost of petroleum-based materials, like plastics, and the cost of operating our manufacturing facilities. Energy costs have been volatile in recent years due to changes in global supply and demand. Although we have been successful in countering energy price increases, primarily through our global sourcing initiatives and continuous improvement programs, we have not been able to offset these costs entirely.

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We rely upon independent furniture dealers, and a loss of a significant number of dealers could affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We rely on a network of independent dealers for the joint marketing of our products to small and mid-sized accounts, and to assist us in the marketing of our products to large accounts, particularly in the Office segment. We also rely upon these dealers to provide a variety of important specification, installation and after-market services to our clients. Our dealers operate, generally, under one-year, non-exclusive agreements. There is nothing to prevent our dealers from terminating their relationships with us. In addition, individual dealers may not continue to be viable and profitable and may suffer from the lack of available credit. While we are not significantly dependent on any single dealer, our largest dealer accounted for 6.0% of our North American sales in 2013. If dealers go out of business or are restructured, we may suffer losses because they may not be able to pay us for products previously delivered to them. The loss of a dealer relationship could also negatively affect our ability to maintain market share in the affected geographic market and to compete for and service clients in that market until a new dealer relationship is established. Establishing a viable dealer in a market can take a significant amount of time and resources. The loss or termination of a significant dealer or a significant number of dealer relationships could cause significant difficulties for us in marketing and distributing our products, resulting in a decline in our sales.
Currently, one of our largest clients is the U.S. government, a relationship that is subject to uncertain future funding levels and federal procurement laws and requires restrictive contract terms; any of these factors could curtail current or future business.
For the year ended December 31, 2013, we derived approximately 8.0% of our revenue from sales to various agencies and departments within the U.S. government. Our ability to compete successfully for and retain business with the U.S. government is highly dependent on cost-effective performance and compliance with complex procurement laws. Until recently, federal procurement laws required government agencies to purchase furniture products from Federal Prison Industries, Incorporated. If these or similar laws would be re-instituted, it would make it more difficult for us to sell our furniture to agencies and departments of the U.S. government.
In addition, the U.S. government typically can terminate or modify its contracts with us either for its convenience or if we default by failing to perform under the terms of the applicable contract. A termination arising out of our default could expose us to liability and impede our ability to compete in the future for contracts and orders. Furthermore, if we were found to have committed fraud or certain criminal offenses, we could be suspended or debarred from all further government contracting.
Given the significance of our governmental business, we are sensitive to decreases in governmental spending. Federal, state and local government budgets have experienced deficits recently and are under significant pressure to reduce spending. These spending pressures have resulted in, and may continue to result in, decreased furniture spending, which has negatively impacted (and may continue to negatively impact) our governmental sales.
Our efforts to diversify our sources of revenue may not be effective and may expose us to new risks.
Historically, the majority of our revenues were derived from the sales of office systems in North America. We have pursued a strategy to diversify our sources of revenue and reduce our dependence on North American office system sales by, for example, growing our seating, international, and specialty businesses. While we believe that this strategy enables us to better maintain and grow our sales and profitability during cyclical ups and downs in the industry, there can be no assurance that this diversification strategy will be effective in achieving these goals. Our diversification strategy involves the continued expansion of our specialty businesses, and business growth internationally, which may expose us to business risks that we have not experienced. We also may incur significant costs in pursuing our diversification strategy, and those costs may not be fully offset by increased revenues associated with new business lines.
We operate with leverage, and a significant amount of cash will be required to service our indebtedness. Restrictions imposed by the terms of our indebtedness may limit our operating and financial flexibility.
As of December 31, 2013, we had total consolidated outstanding debt of approximately $173.0 million under our revolving credit facility.

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On February 3, 2012, we amended and restated our existing credit facility, dated June 29, 2007, with a $450.0 million revolving credit facility maturing on February 3, 2017. We are permitted to expand our revolving credit facility by an additional $200.0 million, subject to certain limitations and satisfaction of certain conditions, including compliance with certain financial covenants.
At December 31, 2013, if we were to borrow the maximum available to us under our credit facility and those of our foreign subsidiaries, we would have total consolidated outstanding debt of approximately $462.0 million. In February 2014, we increased our outstanding debt by approximately $95.0 million in order to complete the acquisition of Holly Hunt Enterprises, Inc. and its related businesses. The high level of our indebtedness could have important consequences to holders of our common stock, given that:
a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations must be dedicated to fund scheduled payments of principal and debt service and will not be available for other purposes;
our ability to obtain additional debt financing in the future for working capital, capital expenditures, research and development or acquisitions may be limited by the terms of our credit facility; and
the terms of our credit facility also impose other operating and financial restrictions on us, which could limit our flexibility in reacting to changes in our industry or in economic conditions generally.
Our revolving credit facility prevents us and our subsidiaries from incurring any additional indebtedness other than (i) borrowings under our existing revolving credit facility; (ii) certain types of indebtedness that may be incurred subject to aggregate dollar limitations identified in the credit facility, including, without limitation, purchase money indebtedness and capital lease obligations, indebtedness incurred in connection with a permitted acquisition, and loans obtained through an expansion of the facility, all of which cannot exceed $250.0 million at any time, and (iii) other types of indebtedness that are not limited to specific dollar limitations, such as indebtedness incurred in the ordinary course of business and unsecured, subordinated indebtedness. The aggregate amount of indebtedness that we may incur pursuant to these exceptions is further limited by the financial covenants in our revolving credit facility and, therefore, will depend on our future results of operations and cannot be determined at this time. Furthermore, although we may incur unlimited amounts of certain types of indebtedness, subject to compliance with these financial covenants, the amount of indebtedness that we may actually be able to incur will depend on the terms on which such types of debt financing are available to us, if available at all.
As a result of the foregoing, we may be prevented from engaging in transactions that might further our growth strategy or otherwise be considered beneficial to us. A breach of any of the covenants in our revolving credit facility could result in a default thereunder. If payments to the lenders under our revolving credit facility were to be accelerated, our assets could be insufficient to repay in full the indebtedness under our credit facility and our other liabilities. Any such acceleration could also result in a foreclosure on all or substantially all of our subsidiaries' assets, which would have a negative impact on the value of our common stock and jeopardize our ability to continue as a going concern.
We may require additional capital in the future, which may not be available or may be available only on unfavorable terms.
Our capital requirements depend on many factors, including capital improvements, tooling, information technology upgrades and new product development. To the extent that our existing capital is insufficient to meet these requirements and cover any losses, we may need to raise additional funds through financings or curtail our growth and reduce our assets. Any equity or debt financing, if available at all, may be on terms that are not favorable to us. Equity financings could result in dilution to our stockholders, and the securities may have rights, preferences and privileges that are senior to those of our common stock. If our need for capital arises because of significant losses, the occurrence of these losses may make it more difficult for us to raise the necessary capital.

17


An inability to protect our intellectual property could have a significant impact on our business.
We attempt to protect our intellectual property rights, both in the United States and in foreign countries, through a combination of patent, trademark, copyright and trade secret laws, as well as licensing agreements and third-party nondisclosure and assignment agreements. Because of the differences in foreign trademark, patent and other laws concerning proprietary rights, our intellectual property rights do not generally receive the same degree of protection in foreign countries as they do in the United States. In some parts of the world, we have limited protections, if any, for our intellectual property. Our ability to compete effectively with our competitors depends, to a significant extent, on our ability to maintain the proprietary nature of our intellectual property. The degree of protection offered by the claims of the various patents, trademarks and service marks may not be broad enough to provide significant proprietary protection or competitive advantages to us, and patents, trademarks or service marks may not be issued on our pending or contemplated applications. In addition, not all of our products are covered by patents. It is also possible that our patents, trademarks and service marks may be challenged, invalidated, canceled, narrowed or circumvented.
In the past, certain of our products have been copied and sold by others. We try to enforce our intellectual property rights, but we have to make choices about where and how we pursue enforcement and where we seek and maintain patent protection. In many cases, the cost of enforcing our rights is substantial, and we may determine that the costs of enforcement outweigh the potential benefits. If we are unable to maintain the proprietary nature of our intellectual property with respect to our significant current or proposed products, our competitors may be able to sell copies of our products, which could adversely affect our ability to sell our original products and could also result in competitive pricing pressures, which may negatively affect our profitability.
If third parties claim that we infringe upon their intellectual property rights, we may incur liabilities and costs and may have to redesign or discontinue an infringing product.
We face the risk of claims that we have infringed third parties' intellectual property rights. Companies operating in our industry routinely seek patent protection for their product designs, and many of our principal competitors have large patent portfolios. Prior to launching major new products in our key markets, we normally evaluate existing intellectual property rights. However, our competitors may have filed for patent protection which is not, at the time of our evaluation, a matter of public knowledge. Our efforts to identify and avoid infringing third parties' intellectual property rights may not be successful. Any claims of patent or other intellectual property infringement, even those without merit, could (i) be expensive and time consuming to defend; (ii) cause us to cease making, licensing or using products that incorporate the challenged intellectual property; (iii) require us to redesign, reengineer, or rebrand our products or packaging, if feasible; or (iv) require us to enter into royalty or licensing agreements in order to obtain the right to use a third party's intellectual property.
We could be required to incur substantial costs to comply with environmental requirements. Violations of, and liabilities under, environmental laws and regulations may increase our costs or require us to change our business practices.
Our past and present ownership and operation of manufacturing plants are subject to extensive and changing federal, state, local and foreign environmental laws and regulations, including those relating to discharges to air, water and land, the handling and disposal of solid and hazardous waste and the cleanup of properties affected by hazardous substances. As a result, we are involved from time to time in administrative and judicial proceedings and inquiries relating to environmental matters and could become subject to fines or penalties related thereto. We cannot predict what environmental legislation or regulations will be enacted in the future, how existing or future laws or regulations will be administered or interpreted or what environmental conditions may be found to exist. Compliance with more stringent laws or regulations, or stricter interpretation of existing laws, may require additional expenditures by us, some of which may be material. We have been identified as a potentially responsible party pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980, or CERCLA, for remediation costs associated with waste disposal sites previously used by us. In general, CERCLA can impose liability for costs to investigate and remediate contamination without regard to fault or the legality of disposal and, under certain circumstances, liability may be joint and several, resulting in one party being held responsible for the entire obligation. Liability may also include damages for harm to natural resources. The remediation costs and our allocated share at some of these CERCLA sites are unknown. We may also be subject to claims for personal injury or contribution relating to CERCLA sites. We reserve amounts for such matters when expenditures are probable and reasonably estimable.

18


We are subject to potential labor disruptions, which could have a significant impact on our business.
Certain of our employees located in Grand Rapids, Michigan and Italy are represented by unions. The collective bargaining agreement for our Grand Rapids location expires April 30, 2015. We have also had attempts to unionize our other North American manufacturing locations, which to date have been unsuccessful. We have experienced a number of brief work stoppages at our facilities in Italy as a result of national and local issues. While we believe that we have good relations with our workforce, we may experience work stoppages or other labor problems in the future, and further unionization efforts may be successful. Any prolonged work stoppage could have an adverse effect on our reputation, our vendor relations and our dealership network. Moreover, because substantially all of our products are manufactured to order, we do not carry finished goods inventory that could mitigate the effects of a prolonged work stoppage.
Product defects could adversely affect our results of operations.
Our customers may encounter product defects that could potentially arise in the course of our development of new products or due to manufacturing problems. If product defects do arise, we could incur product warranty costs, product liability costs and costs associated with recalling and repairing defective products. While we maintain a reserve for our product warranty costs based on estimates of the costs that may be incurred under the warranties on all of our products, our actual warranty costs may exceed this reserve, resulting in a need to increase the amounts accrued for warranty costs. We also maintain product liability and other insurance coverage that we believe to be generally in accordance with industry practices, but our insurance coverage does not extend to field visits to repair, retrofit or replace defective products, or to product recalls. As a result, our insurance coverage may not be adequate to protect us fully against substantial claims and costs that may arise from product defects, particularly if we have a large number of defective products that we must repair, retrofit, replace or recall. Sales of our products could be adversely affected by excessive warranty claims, product recalls and adverse perceptions of product quality. As a result of these factors, product defects could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
We may be vulnerable to the effects of currency exchange rate fluctuations, which could increase our expenses.
We primarily sell our products and report our financial results in U.S. dollars, but we generate some of our revenues and pay some of our expenses in other currencies. Paying our expenses in other currencies can result in a significant increase or decrease in the amount of those expenses in U.S. dollar terms, which affects our profits.
In the future, any foreign currency appreciation relative to the U.S. dollar would increase our expenses that are denominated in that currency. Additionally, as we report currency in the U.S. dollar, our financial position is affected by the strength of the currencies in countries where we have operations relative to the strength of the U.S. dollar. The principal foreign currencies in which we conduct business are the Canadian dollar and the Euro. Approximately 12.8% of our revenues in 2013 and 33.2% of our cost of goods sold in 2013 were denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. From time to time, we review our foreign currency exposure and evaluate whether we should hedge our exposure.
Pension costs or funding requirements could increase at a higher-than-anticipated rate.
We administer two defined benefit pension plans, which hold significant amounts of equity securities. Changes in interest rates or other plan assumptions or in the market value of plan assets could affect the funded status of our pension plans. This could cause volatility in our benefits costs which could increase future funding requirements of our pension plans and have a negative impact on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. Our future funding obligations also are affected by the Pension Protection Act of 2006 ("PPA"), which established certain required funding targets. Volatility in the economic environment and/or a decline in the equity markets could cause the value of investment assets held by our pension plans to decline. As a result, we may be required to increase the amount of our cash contributions to our pension plans in order to meet the funding level requirements of the PPA.
We are in the process of implementing a new enterprise resource planning system, and problems with the design or implementation of this system could interfere with our business and operations.
We are engaged in a multi-year implementation of a new global enterprise resource planning system (ERP). The ERP is designed to accurately maintain the company's books and records and provide information to the company's management team important to the operation of the business. The company's ERP has required, and will continue to require, the investment of significant human and financial resources. We may not be able to successfully implement the ERP without experiencing delays, increased costs and other difficulties. If we are unable to successfully design and implement the new ERP system as planned, our financial positions, results of operations and cash flows could be negatively impacted.

19


We may not be able to successfully integrate acquired businesses, which may result in an inability to realize the anticipated benefits of our acquisitions.
One of our key operating strategies is to selectively pursue acquisitions. We have made a number of acquisitions in the past and we expect that a portion of our future growth may come from such transactions. We evaluate potential acquisitions on an ongoing basis. However, we may not be able to identify suitable acquisition candidates at prices we consider attractive. Further, our ability to successfully integrate acquired businesses could be negatively impaired because of difficulties, costs and delays that may include:
Negative impacts on employee morale and performance as a result of job changes and reassignments;
Unforeseen difficulties, costs or complications in integrating the companies' operations, which could lead to us not achieving the synergies we anticipate;
Unanticipated incompatibility of systems and operating methods;
Resolving possible inconsistencies in standards, controls, procedures and policies, business cultures and compensation structures;
The diversion of management's attention from ongoing business concerns and other strategic opportunities;
Unforeseen difficulties in operating acquired business in parallel with similar businesses that we operated previously;
Unforeseen difficulties in operating businesses we have not operated before;
Unanticipated difficulty of integrating multiple acquired businesses simultaneously;
The retention of key employees and management of acquired businesses;
The coordination of geographically separate organizations;
The coordination and consolidation of ongoing and future research and development efforts; and
Possible tax costs or inefficiencies associated with integrating the operations of a combined company.
In connection with any acquisition that we make, there may be liabilities that we fail to discover or that we inadequately assess. Acquired entities may not operate profitably or result in improved operating performance. Additionally, we may not realize anticipated synergies. If our acquisitions perform poorly, our business and financial results could be adversely affected.
In the beginning of 2013, we announced a program of strategic investments and multi-year initiatives. If we experience delays or complications in implementing these programs, or if these programs are not as successful as we expect, it could negatively impact our financial position and results of operations.
In the beginning of 2013, we announced the implementation of an aggressive program of strategic investments and multi-year initiatives intended to enable us to achieve our operating goals of over $1.0 billion in annual revenues and over 12% operating profit margins. These initiatives required the company to make significant investments in 2013 and will carry over into 2014, in an effort to drive our longer-term revenue and profitability goals. We may not be successful in the implementation of these initiatives and we may experience delays, increased costs and other difficulties and never achieve our revenue growth or profit goals, or achieve them later than currently planned. Any delays or failures in the implementation or success of these initiatives will have a negative impact on our financial position and results of operations.
Risks Related to Our Common Stock
Our corporate documents and Delaware law contain provisions that could discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our company.
Provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and bylaws may discourage, delay or prevent a merger or acquisition involving us that our stockholders may consider favorable. For example, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation authorizes our board of directors to issue up to 10,000,000 shares of "blank check" preferred stock. Without stockholder approval, the board of directors has the authority to attach special rights, including voting and dividend rights, to this preferred stock. With these rights, preferred stockholders could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire us. In addition, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides for a staggered board of directors, whereby directors serve for three-year terms, with approximately one-third of the directors coming up for reelection each year. Having a staggered board will make it more difficult for a third party to obtain control of our board of directors through a proxy contest, which may be a necessary step in an acquisition of us that is not favored by our board of directors.

20


We are also subject to the anti-takeover provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law. Under these provisions, if anyone becomes an "interested stockholder," we may not enter into a "business combination" with that person for three years without special approval, which could discourage a third party from making a takeover offer and could delay or prevent a change of control. For purposes of Section 203, "interested stockholder" means, generally, someone owning 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock or an affiliate of ours that owned 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock during the past three years, subject to certain exceptions as described in Section 203. Upon any change in control, the lenders under our revolving credit facility would have the right to require us to repay all of our outstanding obligations under the facility.
Our stock price may be volatile, and your investment in our common stock could suffer a decline in value.
There has been significant volatility in the market price and trading volume of equity securities, which may be unrelated to the financial performance of the companies issuing the securities. These broad market fluctuations may negatively affect the market price of our common stock. You may not be able to resell your shares at or above the price at which you purchased them due to fluctuations in the market price of our common stock caused by changes in our operating performance or prospects and other factors. Some specific factors that may have a significant effect on our common stock market price include:
actual or anticipated fluctuations in our operating results or future prospects, including actual or perceived fluctuations in the demand for our products;
our announcements or our competitors' announcements of new products;
the public's reaction to our press releases, our other public announcements and our filings with the SEC;
strategic actions by us or our competitors, such as acquisitions, joint ventures, strategic investments, or restructurings;
new laws or regulations or new interpretations of existing laws or regulations applicable to our business;
changes in accounting standards, policies, guidance, interpretations or principles;
changes in our growth rates or our competitors' growth rates;
our inability to raise additional capital;
conditions of the office furniture industry as a result of changes in financial markets or general economic conditions, including those resulting from war, incidents of terrorism and responses to such events;
sales of common stock by us or members of our management team; and
changes in stock market analyst recommendations or earnings estimates regarding our common stock, other comparable companies or the office furniture industry generally.


21


ITEM 1B.    UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None
ITEM 2.    PROPERTIES
We operate over 4,046,000 square feet of facilities, including manufacturing plants, warehouses and sales offices. Of these facilities, we own approximately 2,424,000 square feet and lease approximately 1,622,000 square feet. Our manufacturing plants are located in East Greenville, Pennsylvania, Grand Rapids and Muskegon, Michigan, Toronto, Canada, and Foligno and Graffignana, Italy. The location, square footage, and use of the facilities as of December 31, 2013 are shown below.
Owned Locations
Square
Footage
 
 
 
Use
Operating Segment
East Greenville, Pennsylvania
735,000
 
(1)
 
Corporate Headquarters, Manufacturing, Warehouses, and Administration
Office, Studio and Coverings
Grand Rapids, Michigan
545,000
 
(1)
 
Manufacturing, Distribution, and Administration
Office
Muskegon, Michigan
368,000
 
(1)
 
Manufacturing and Administration
Office
Toronto, Canada
408,000
 
 
 
Manufacturing, Distribution, Warehouses, and Administration
Office
Foligno, Italy
258,000
 
 
 
Manufacturing, Distribution, Warehouses, and Administration
Studio
Graffignana, Italy
110,000
 
 
 
Manufacturing, Distribution, Warehouses, and Administration
Studio
Leased Locations
Square
Footage
 
 
 
Use
Operating Segment
East Greenville, Pennsylvania
227,000

 
(2)
 
Warehouses, Distribution
Office and Studio
Allentown, Pennsylvania
290,000

 
 
 
Warehouse, Distribution
Office and Studio
Bedford Park, Illinois
135,000

 
 
 
Warehouse, Distribution (Holly Hunt Enterprises)
Studio
Muskegon, Michigan
105,000

 
 
 
Manufacturing
Office
Toronto, Canada
170,000

 
 
 
Manufacturing, Warehouses, Distribution and Administration
Office
Knoll, Europe—various locations
46,000

 
 
 
Sales Offices, Administration, and Warehouses
Studio
New Milford, Connecticut
55,000

 
 
 
Manufacturing and Administration (Edelman Leather)
Coverings
Getzville, New York
31,000

 
 
 
Manufacturing and Administration (Spinneybeck)
Coverings
Chicago, Illinois
23,000

 
 
 
Administration (Holly Hunt Enterprises)
Studio
Miscellaneous Showrooms
540,000

 
 
 
Sales Offices
Office, Studio, and Coverings
_______________________________________________________________________________
(1)
Facilities are encumbered by mortgages securing indebtedness under our revolving credit facility.
(2)
Included in this number is 142,000 square feet related to three warehouses that have been subleased to a third-party logistics provider and serve as our northeast distribution center.
We believe that our plants and other facilities are sufficient for our needs for the foreseeable future.

22


ITEM 3.    LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
From time to time, we are subject to litigation or other legal proceedings arising in the ordinary course of business. Based upon information currently known to us, we believe the outcome of such proceedings will not have, individually or in the aggregate, a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
ITEM 4.    MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.

23


PART II
ITEM 5.    MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Market Information and Dividend Policy
Our common stock has been listed on the New York Stock Exchange ("NYSE") since December 14, 2004, the date of our initial public offering, under the symbol "KNL." As of February 28, 2014, there were approximately 113 stockholders of record of our common stock.
The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, high and low sales prices for the common stock as reported by the NYSE.
 
High
 
Low
Fiscal year ended December 31, 2013
 
 
 
First quarter
$
18.69

 
$
14.73

Second quarter
$
18.26

 
$
13.46

Third quarter
$
17.37

 
$
14.12

Fourth quarter
$
18.36

 
$
15.62

 
High
 
Low
Fiscal year ended December 31, 2012
 
 
 
First quarter
$
17.52

 
$
13.98

Second quarter
$
16.69

 
$
11.96

Third quarter
$
16.37

 
$
12.86

Fourth quarter
$
15.50

 
$
12.99

We declared and paid cash dividends of $0.48 per share and $0.44 per share during the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively. On February 4, 2014, our board of directors declared a cash dividend of $0.12 per share on our common stock payable on March 31, 2014 to shareholders of record on March 14, 2014. The declaration and payment of future dividends is subject to the discretion of our board of directors and depends on various factors, including our net income, financial condition, cash requirements and future prospects and other factors deemed relevant by our board of directors. Our revolving credit facility imposes restrictions on our ability to pay dividends, and thus our ability to pay dividends on our common stock will depend upon, among other things, our level of indebtedness at the time of the proposed dividend and whether we are in default under any of our debt obligations. Our ability to pay dividends will also depend on the requirements of any future financing agreements to which we may be a party. Our board of directors intends to evaluate our dividend policy quarterly in reference to these factors.

24


Performance Graph
The following line graph compares the cumulative total stockholder return on our common stock with the cumulative total return of the Standard & Poor's 500 Stock Index and with the cumulative total return on a peer group of companies selected by us for the period commencing on December 31, 2008 and ending on December 31, 2013. Our share price at the beginning of the measurement period is $9.02 per share. The graph and table assume that $100 was invested on December 31, 2008 in each of our common stock, the stock of our peer group, and the S&P 500 Index, and that all dividends were reinvested. Cumulative total stockholder returns for our common stock, the S&P 500 Index, and the stock of our peer group are based on our fiscal year. Our peer group is made up of two publicly-held manufacturers of office furniture, Herman Miller, Inc. and Steelcase, Inc. The stock performance on the graph below does not necessarily indicate future price performance.
COMPARISON OF 5-YEAR CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURN*
Among Knoll, Inc., the S&P 500 Index, and a Peer Group
$100 invested on 12/31/08 in stock or index, including reinvestment of dividends. Fiscal year ending December 31.


 
12/08
 
12/09
 
12/10
 
12/11
 
12/12
 
12/13
Knoll, Inc. 
100.00

 
117.40

 
191.72

 
174.18

 
185.74

 
228.13

S&P 500
100.00

 
126.46

 
145.51

 
148.59

 
172.37

 
228.19

Peer Group
100.00

 
121.60

 
197.90

 
144.39

 
202.36

 
272.05

_______________________________________________________________________________

*
The performance graph and the related chart should not be deemed filed for purposes of Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 or incorporated by reference into any of our filings under the Securities Act of 1933 or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, unless we specifically incorporate the performance graph by reference therein.

25


Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
The following is a summary of share repurchase activity during the three months ended December 31, 2013.
On August 17, 2005, our board of directors approved a stock repurchase program (the "Options Proceeds Program"), whereby they authorized us to purchase shares of our common stock in the open market using the cash proceeds received by us upon exercise of outstanding options.
On February 2, 2006, our board of directors approved an additional stock repurchase program, pursuant to which we are authorized to purchase up to $50.0 million of our common stock in the open market, through privately negotiated transactions, or otherwise. On February 4, 2008, our board of directors expanded this previously authorized $50.0 million stock repurchase program by an additional $50.0 million.
Period
Total
Number of
Shares
Purchased
 
 
 
Average
Price Paid
Per Share
 
Total Number of Shares
Purchased as Part of
Publicly Announced
Plans or Programs
 
Maximum Dollar Value
of Shares that may yet
be Purchased Under the
Plans or Programs(1)
October 1, 2013 - October 31, 2013
138,680

 
(2
)
 
$
17.24

 
55,534

 
32,352,413

November 1, 2013 - November 30, 2013
28,812

 
(3
)
 
$
16.54

 
28,812

 
32,352,413

December 1, 2013 - December 31, 2013
2,401

 
(3
)
 
$
17.02

 
2,401

 
32,352,413

Total
169,893

 
 
 
 

 
86,747

 
 

_______________________________________________________________________________

(1)
There is no limit on the number or value of shares that may be purchased by us under the Options Proceeds Program. Under our $50.0 million stock repurchase program, which was expanded by an additional $50.0 million in February of 2008, we are only authorized to spend an aggregate of $100.0 million on stock repurchases. Amounts in this column represent the amounts that remain available under the $100.0 million stock repurchase program as of the end of the period indicated. There is no scheduled expiration date for the Option Proceeds Program or the $100.0 million stock repurchase program, but our board of directors may terminate either program in the future.
(2)
On October 21, 2013, 152,500 shares of outstanding restricted stock vested. Concurrently with the vesting, 76,246 shares were forfeited by the holders of the vested restricted shares to cover applicable taxes paid on the holders' behalf by the Company. On October 22, 2013, 15,000 restricted stock units vested. Concurrently with the vesting, 6,900 units were forfeited by the holder of the vested restricted stock units to cover applicable taxes paid on the holder's behalf by the Company. The remaining 55,534 shares were purchased under the Option Proceeds Program.
(3)
These shares were purchased under the Options Proceeds Program.


26


ITEM 6.    SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
The following selected consolidated financial data should be read in conjunction with "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and our audited consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this Form 10-K. The selected consolidated financial data for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2012 and 2013 and as of December 31, 2012 and 2013 are derived from our audited financial statements included elsewhere in this Form 10-K. The selected consolidated financial data for the years ended December 31, 2009 and 2010 and as of December 31, 2009, 2010 and 2011 are derived from our audited financial statements not included in this Form 10-K.
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
(dollars in thousands, except per share data)
 
2009
 
2010
 
2011
 
2012
 
2013
Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sales
$
780,033

 
$
809,467

 
$
922,200

 
$
887,499

 
$
862,668

Cost of sales
510,590

 
545,118

 
627,803

 
593,149

 
582,393

Gross profit
269,443

 
264,349

 
294,397

 
294,350

 
280,275

Selling, general and administrative expenses
195,058

 
192,460

 
202,075

 
206,449

 
224,619

Restructuring and other charges
11,959

 
7,565

 
696

 

 
5,696

Intangible asset impairment charge

 

 

 

 
8,900

Curtailment benefit
1,063

 
338

 
5,445

 

 

Operating profit
63,489

 
64,662

 
97,071

 
87,901

 
41,060

Interest expense
13,862

 
17,436

 
9,753

 
6,350

 
5,941

Other (income) expense, net
5,832

 
6,379

 
(1,508
)
 
3,215

 
(3,430
)
Income before income tax expense
43,795

 
40,847

 
88,826

 
78,336

 
38,549

Income tax expense
16,442

 
12,823

 
30,815

 
28,335

 
15,403

Net income
$
27,353

 
$
28,024

 
$
58,011

 
$
50,001

 
$
23,146

Per Share Data:
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Earnings per share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
$
0.60

 
$
0.61

 
$
1.25

 
$
1.07

 
$
0.49

Diluted
$
0.60

 
$
0.61

 
$
1.24

 
$
1.06

 
$
0.49

Cash dividends declared per share:
$
0.18

 
$
0.12

 
$
0.36

 
$
0.44

 
$
0.48

Weighted-average shares of common stock outstanding:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
45,403,401

 
45,600,043

 
46,249,571

 
46,634,834

 
46,916,845

Diluted
45,413,770

 
45,970,680

 
46,835,712

 
47,059,186

 
47,659,418



27


 
As of December 31,
 
2009
 
2010
 
2011
 
2012
 
2013
 
(in thousands)
Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Working capital
$
60,613

 
$
69,242

 
$
81,765

 
$
82,577

 
$
67,896

Total assets
655,620

 
687,432

 
688,091

 
695,053

 
677,334

Total long-term debt, including current portion
295,305

 
245,135

 
212,000

 
193,000

 
173,000

Total liabilities
566,058

 
561,046

 
522,668

 
506,953

 
448,892

Total stockholders' equity
89,562

 
126,386

 
165,423

 
188,100

 
228,442


28


ITEM 7.    MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
        Management's discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations provides an account of our financial performance and financial condition that should be read in conjunction with the accompanying audited consolidated financial statements.
Forward-looking Statements
This annual report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements, principally in the sections entitled "Business," "Risk Factors," "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations," and "Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk." Statements and financial discussion and analysis contained in this Form 10-K that are not historical facts are forward-looking statements. These statements discuss goals, intentions and expectations as to future trends, plans, events, results of operations or financial condition, or state other information relating to us, based on our current beliefs as well as assumptions made by us and information currently available to us. Forward-looking statements generally will be accompanied by words such as "anticipate," "believe," "could," "estimate," "expect," "forecast," "intend," "may," "possible," "potential," "predict," "project," or other similar words, phrases or expressions. This includes, without limitation, our statements and expectations regarding any current or future recovery in our industry and publicly announced plans for increased capital and investment spending to achieve our long-term revenue and profitability growth goals, and our expectations with respect to leverage. Although we believe these forward-looking statements are reasonable, they are based upon a number of assumptions concerning future conditions, any or all of which may ultimately prove to be inaccurate. Important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from the forward-looking statements include, without limitation: the risks described in Item 1A and in Item 7A of this annual report on Form 10-K; changes in the financial stability of our clients or the overall economic environment, resulting in decreased corporate spending and service sector employment; changes in relationships with clients; the mix of products sold and of clients purchasing our products; the success of new technology initiatives; changes in business strategies and decisions; competition from our competitors; our ability to recruit and retain an experienced management team; changes in raw material prices and availability; restrictions on government spending resulting in fewer sales to the U.S. government, one of our largest customers; our debt restrictions on spending; our ability to protect our patents, copyrights and trademarks; our reliance on furniture dealers to produce sales; lawsuits arising from patents, copyrights and trademark infringements; violations of environmental laws and regulations; potential labor disruptions; adequacy of our insurance policies; the availability of future capital and the cost of borrowing; the overall strength and stability of our dealers, suppliers, and customers; access to necessary capital; our ability to successfully integrate acquired businesses; the success of our design and implementation of a new enterprise resource planning system; and currency rate fluctuations. The factors identified above are believed to be important factors (but not necessarily all of the important factors) that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed in any forward-looking statement. Unpredictable or unknown factors could also have material adverse effects on us. All forward-looking statements included in this Form 10-K are expressly qualified in their entirety by the foregoing cautionary statements. Except as required under the Federal securities laws and the rules and regulations of the SEC, we undertake no obligation to update, amend, or clarify forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events, or otherwise.
Overview
We design, manufacture, market and sell furnishings and accessories, textiles, fine leathers, and felt, for the workplace and home. Our commitment to innovation and modern design has yielded a comprehensive portfolio of products and a brand recognized for high quality and a sophisticated image. Our products are targeted at the middle to upper end of the market and are sold primarily in North America and Europe through a direct sales force and a broad network of independent dealers and retailers.
We operate under a management philosophy that incorporates a collaborative culture, client-driven processes and a lean, agile operating structure. Our employees are performance-driven and motivated by a variable incentive compensation system and broad-based equity ownership in the company.
In 2013, according to our industry trade association, The Business and Institutional Furniture Manufacturer's Association, or BIFMA, industry sales and orders grew modestly 0.9% and 1.9%, respectively, when compared with 2012. During 2013, we believe continued uncertainty over the economy and modest job growth led to mediocre improvement in the overall office furniture industry.
During 2013, our sales decreased 2.8% when compared with the prior year. The decline in sales for 2013 can be mainly attributed to decreased purchases from the federal government as our sales to commercial clients grew during 2013.

29


During 2013, we generated operating profit of $41.1 million, or 4.8% of net sales, compared to operating profit of $87.9 million, or 9.9% of net sales, during 2012. Operating profit for 2013 includes restructuring charges of $5.7 million and an $8.9 million intangible asset impairment charge. During the fourth quarter of 2013, we announced a plan to reduce headcount in the Office segment, as part of our supply transformation activities, as well as headcount reductions in the Studio Segment in Europe, which were associated with factory overhead consolidations. For further information regarding these restructuring charges see Note 21 of the consolidated financial statements in this annual report on Form 10-K. In addition, during 2013, our annual impairment testing procedures indicated a decline in the fair value of the Edelman tradename intangible asset below its respective carrying value. This resulted in the Edelman tradename being written down $8.9 million. For further information regarding this write-down see Note 8 of the consolidated financial statements in this annual report on Form 10-K.
Including the above noted charges, during 2013, we generated net income of $23.1 million, or $0.49 diluted earnings per share, compared to $50.0 million, or $1.06 diluted earnings per share, in 2012.
We continued to aggressively manage our balance sheet during 2013. As of December 31, 2013, our outstanding debt was $173.0 million. This represents an additional $20.0 million reduction in our debt outstanding since December 31, 2012. Since the end of 2007, we have reduced our outstanding debt by $195.4 million and we remain in compliance with all of our bank covenants. At December 31, 2013, we had $12.0 million of cash on hand. As mentioned in Note 24, we acquired Holly Hunt, Enterprises, Inc. on February 3, 2014. As part of the acquisition, we increased our debt by approximately $95 million.
During 2013, we used free cash to pay dividends to our shareholders totaling $22.5 million or $0.48 per share. During 2013, we also spent $29.1 million on capital expenditures. This represents an increase of $12.6 million when compared with $16.5 million in 2012. The increases in capital spending can be mainly attributed to our newly relocated New York showroom at 1330 Avenue of the Americas, increased spending associated with our technology infrastructure upgrades with the implementation of a new enterprise resource planning system, and costs associated with our previously announced program of strategic investments and initiatives to meet our longer-term profitability goals.
We expect sales to increase gradually as we move through 2014. BIFMA is currently forecasting 4.3% and 3.2% growth, respectively, in sales and orders for 2014. We expect the Office segment will begin to grow in 2014 as we are now significantly less exposed to decreases in government spending. Our recently announced acquisition of Holly Hunt Enterprises in the beginning of 2014 will also positively impact Studio segment sales. This acquisition furthers our broader strategic plan and desire to position Knoll as the go to resource for high-design workplaces and homes including the commercial contract, decorator to the trade and direct to consumer markets. This acquisition complements our existing businesses and increases the mix of revenue that we get from higher margin higher design residential and specialty sales. See Note 24 of the consolidated financial statements in this annual report on Form 10-K for further information regarding this acquisition. In addition, during 2014, we expect to realize some of the benefits from our previously announced program of strategic investments and initiatives.
Segment Reporting
Our three reporting segments consist of: (1) Office, which includes our systems, seating, storage, tables, desks and KnollExtra® ergonomic accessories as well as the international sales of our North American Office products; (2) Studio, which includes KnollStudio®, Knoll Europe (where over half our sales consist of KnollStudio® products), Richard Schultz® Design and, prospectively, Holly Hunt Enterprises, Inc.; and (3) Coverings, which includes KnollTextiles®, Edelman® Leather, and Spinneybeck® Leather (including Filzfelt®). We sometimes refer to our Studio and Coverings segments collectively as our specialty businesses. These businesses generally provide our most profitable sales and we will continue our efforts to grow these segments. See Note 19 of our consolidated financial statements contained in this annual report on Form 10-K for further information regarding the business segments.

30


Results of Operations
Years ended December 31, 2012 and 2013

 
Three Months Ended
Twelve
Months Ended
 
Three Months Ended
Twelve
Months Ended
 
 
March 31,
2012
June 30,
2012
September 30,
2012
December 31,
2012
December 31,
2012
 
March 31,
2013
June 30,
2013
September 30,
2013
December 31,
2013
December 31,
2013
 
 
(in thousands, except statistical data)
(unaudited)
 
Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income Data:
 
 
 
 
 
Sales
$
196,662

$
221,018

$
219,794

$
250,026

$
887,499

(1
)
$
200,586

$
214,312

$
216,898

$
230,872

$
862,668


Gross profit
63,053

74,407

74,216

82,675

294,350

(1
)
63,627

69,881

72,339

74,429

280,275

(1
)
Operating profit
15,452

20,803

23,522

28,126

87,901

(1
)
10,294

12,408

17,051

1,308

41,060

(1
)
Interest expense
1,506

1,637

1,635

1,572

6,350

 
1,495

1,517

1,484

1,445

5,941

 
Other (income) expense, net
2,200

(1,262
)
2,786

(509
)
3,215

(1
)
(1,291
)
(2,206
)
2,224

(2,157
)
(3,430
)
 
Income tax expense
4,489

7,373

6,904

9,570

28,335

 
4,016

5,209

4,793

1,386

15,403

(1
)
Net income
$
7,257

$
13,055

$
12,197

$
17,493

$
50,001

(1
)
$
6,074

$
7,888

$
8,550

$
634

$
23,146


Statistical and Other Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sales growth from comparable prior year
(11.0
)%
(7.4
)%
(8.2
)%
12.0
%
(3.8
)%
 
2.0
%
(3.0
)%
(1.3
)%
(7.7
)%
(2.8
)%
 
Gross profit %
32.1
 %
33.7
 %
33.8
 %
33.1
%
33.2
 %
 
31.7
%
32.6
 %
33.4
 %
32.2
 %
32.5
 %
 


_______________________________________________________________________________

(1)
Results do not add due to rounding
Sales
Sales for 2013 were $862.7 million, a decrease of $24.8 million, or 2.8%, from sales of $887.5 million for 2012. In 2013, systems continued to represent the largest percentage of our overall sales. However, this percentage continues to decline year-over-year as our high-margin specialty businesses are representing a larger portion of our overall sales. Geographically, sales in Europe increased modestly during 2013 while sales in North America decreased modestly.
Sales to governmental entities and agencies continued to represent a large portion of our overall sales in 2013. However, these sales declined on a year-over-year basis during 2013. This decline was a significant factor in our overall lower sales for 2013. Approximately 13.0% of our 2013 sales were to federal, state and local governmental entities and related agencies as compared to 16.2% in 2012.
Gross Profit and Operating Profit
Gross profit for 2013 was $280.3 million, a decrease of $14.1 million, or 4.8%, from gross profit of $294.4 million in 2012. Operating profit for 2013 was $41.1 million, a decrease of $46.8 million, or 53.3%, from operating profit of $87.9 million for 2012.
As a percentage of sales, gross profit decreased from 33.2% for 2012 to 32.5% for 2013. The decrease in gross profit as a percent of sales during the year was mainly the result of price erosion in the Office segment as well as lower absorption of our fixed costs as a result of our lower sales. Operating profit as a percentage of sales decreased from 9.9% in 2012 to 4.8% in 2013. Operating profit for 2013 includes $5.7 million of restructuring charges and an $8.9 million intangible asset impairment charge related to the write-down of the Edelman tradename.
Selling, general, and administrative expenses for 2013 were $224.6 million, or 26.0% of sales, compared to $206.4 million, or 23.3% of sales, for 2012. The increase in operating expenses during 2013 was in large part due to increased spending associated with our announced programs of strategic investments and initiatives to achieve our longer-term revenue and margin objectives, which were partially offset by lower incentive compensation.

31


Interest Expense
Interest expense for 2013 was $5.9 million, a decrease of $0.5 million from interest expense of $6.4 million for 2012. The decrease in interest expense for the periods noted above is mainly due to our lower outstanding debt. The annualized weighted-average interest rate for 2013 and 2012 was 2.6% and 2.4%, respectively.
Other (Income) Expense, net
Other (income) expense in 2013 consisted of income related to $3.5 million of foreign exchange gains offset by $0.1 million of miscellaneous expense. Other (income) expense in 2012 consisted of expense related to $2.8 million of foreign exchange losses, expense of $0.5 million related to the write-off of deferred financing fees in conjunction with our new senior credit facility completed in February 2012, offset by $0.1 million of miscellaneous income.
Income Tax Expense
The mix of pretax income and the varying effective tax rates in the countries in which we operate directly affects our consolidated effective tax rate. The effective tax rate was 40.0% for 2013 compared to 36.2% for 2012. Our effective tax rate for 2012 was lower as a result of a reduction in our unrecognized tax benefits.
Business Segment Analysis

 
2013
 
2012
SALES
 
 
 
Office
$
599,131

 
$
633,321

Studio
154,499

 
147,550

Coverings
109,038

 
106,628

Knoll, Inc. 
$
862,668

 
$
887,499

OPERATING PROFIT
 
 
Office
$
16,110

 
$
48,639

Studio
18,550

 
21,786

Coverings
20,996

 
17,476

Subtotal
55,656

 
87,901

Restructuring Charges - Office
2,721

 

Restructuring Charges - Studio
2,975

 

Intangible Asset Impairment Charge - Coverings
8,900

 

Knoll, Inc.(1)
$
41,060

 
$
87,901

_______________________________________________________________________________

(1)
The Company does not allocate interest expense or other (income) expense, net to the reportable segments.
Net sales for the Office segment in 2013 were $599.1 million, a decrease of $34.2 million, or 5.4%, when compared with 2012. This decrease in the Office Segment for the year was mainly the result of lower sales to government agencies. Sales to commercial clients grew during 2013; however, this growth was not enough to offset the decline in sales to government agencies. Office segment sales in 2013 were negatively impacted by $1.1 million due to changes in foreign exchange rates when compared to 2012. Excluding the impact of $2.7 million of restructuring charges, operating profit for the Office segment was $16.1 million in 2013, a decrease of $32.5 million, or 66.9%, when compared with 2012. As a percent of net sales, excluding restructuring charges, the Office segment operating profit was 2.7% for the year ended December 31, 2013 and 7.7% for the year ended December 31, 2012.
Net sales for the Studio segment in 2013 were $154.5 million, an increase of $6.9 million, or 4.7%, when compared with 2012. Sales growth in North America outpaced Europe within the Studio segment during 2013. Studio segment sales in 2013 were positively impacted by $0.8 million due to changes in foreign exchange rates when compared to 2012. Excluding the impact of $3.0 million of restructuring charges, operating profit for the Studio segment was $18.6 million, a decrease of $3.2 million, or 14.9%, when compared with 2012. As a percentage of net sales, excluding restructuring charges, the Studio segment operating profit was 12.0% for the year ended December 31, 2013 and 14.8% for the year ended December 31, 2012.


32


Net sales for the Coverings segment in 2013 were $109.0 million, an increase of $2.4 million, or 2.3%, when compared with 2012. Increased sales of our Textiles products was the main cause of this increase. Coverings segment sales in 2013 were positively impacted by $0.1 million due to changes in foreign exchange rates when compared to 2012. Excluding the $8.9 million intangible asset impairment charge, operating profit for the Coverings segment was $21.0 million, an increase of $3.5 million, or 20.1%, when compared to 2012. As a percentage of net sales, excluding the impairment charge, the Coverings segment operating profit was 19.3% for the year ended December 31, 2013 and 16.4% for the year ended December 31, 2012.
Years ended December 31, 2011 and 2012

 
Three Months Ended
Twelve
Months Ended
 
Three Months Ended
Twelve
Months Ended
 
 
March 31,
2011
June 30,
2011
September 30,
2011
December 31,
2011
December 31,
2011
 
March 31,
2012
June 30,
2012
September 30,
2012
December 31,
2012
December 31,
2012
 
 
(in thousands, except statistical data)
(unaudited)
 
Consolidated Statement of Operations Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sales
$
220,858

$
238,650

$
239,543

$
223,148

$
922,200

(1
)
$
196,662

$
221,018

$
219,794

$
250,026

$
887,499

(1
)
Gross profit
68,401

76,493

78,851

70,650

294,397

(1
)
63,053

74,407

74,216

82,675

294,350

(1
)
Operating income
20,914

23,325

25,015

27,814

97,071

(1
)
15,452

20,803

23,522

28,126

87,901

(1
)
Interest expense
4,017

3,372

1,226

1,138

9,753

 

1,506

1,637

1,635

1,572

6,350

 
Other (income) expense, net
2,328

275

(4,077
)
(35
)
(1,508
)
(1
)
2,200

(1,262
)
2,786

(509
)
3,215


Income tax expense
5,367

6,703

9,477

9,268

30,815

 

4,489

7,373

6,904

9,570

28,335

(1
)
Net income
$
9,202

$
12,975

$
18,389

$
17,443

$
58,011

(1
)
$
7,257

$
13,055

$
12,197

$
17,493

$
50,001

(1
)
Statistical and Other Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sales growth from comparable prior year
26.0
%
24.1
%
18.5
%
(6.9
)%
13.9
%
 
(11.0
)%
(7.4
)%
(8.2
)%
12.0
%
(3.8
)%
 
Gross profit margin
31.0
%
32.1
%
32.9
%
31.7
 %
31.9
%
 
32.1
 %
33.7
 %
33.8
 %
33.1
%
33.2
 %
 
_______________________________________________________________________________

(1)
Results do not add due to rounding
Sales
Sales for 2012 were $887.5 million, a decrease of $34.7 million, or 3.8%, from sales of $922.2 million for 2011. In 2012, systems continued to represent the largest percentage of our overall sales. Geographically, our European sales declined 9.9% compared to North America which declined 3.2%. The decline in European sales was driven primarily by the overall poor economic conditions in Europe. From a product perspective, we experienced our largest percentage sales decline in seating during 2012. We believe these sales declines were driven primarily by a reduction in government spending and reduced purchases by financial services clients in 2012. Despite the reduced seating sales, our Generation family of products grew in 2012 and continued to gain market share.
        
Sales to governmental entities and agencies continued to represent a large portion of our overall sales in 2012. However, these sales declined on a year-over-year basis during 2012. This decline was a significant factor in our overall lower sales for 2012. Approximately 16.2% of our 2012 sales were to federal, state and local governmental entities and related agencies as compared to 19.5% in 2011.
Gross Profit and Operating Profit
Gross profit for 2012 and 2011 was $294.4 million. Operating profit for 2012 was $87.9 million, a decrease of $9.2 million, or 9.5%, from operating profit of $97.1 million for 2011. Operating profit during the fourth quarter of 2011 includes a $5.4 million curtailment benefit primarily associated with the modification of the Company's post-retirement medical benefits.

33


As a percentage of sales, gross profit increased from 31.9% for 2011 to 33.2% for 2012. The largest contributors to this increase were a more profitable mix in our business, as we saw government shipments, which are generally contracted at higher discount rates, make up a smaller portion of our overall sales, and continuous improvement projects in our factories. Operating profit as a percentage of sales decreased from 10.5% in 2011 to 9.9% in 2012. Operating profit for 2011 includes a $5.4 million curtailment benefit primarily associated with the modification of the Company's post-retirement medical benefits.
Selling, general, and administrative expenses for 2012 were $206.4 million, or 23.3% of sales, compared to $202.1 million, or 21.9% of sales, for 2011. The increase in operating expenses during 2012 was in large part due to increased spending on growth initiative programs in our Studio and Coverings segments as well as technology infrastructure upgrades primarily associated with the design and implementation of a new enterprise resource planning system.
Interest Expense
Interest expense for 2012 was $6.4 million, a decrease of $3.4 million from interest expense of $9.8 million for 2011. The decrease in interest expense for the periods noted above is mainly due to our lower outstanding debt and the expiration of two interest rate swap agreements that expired on June 9, 2011. See Note 13 of the consolidated financial statements included in this annual report on Form 10-K for further information regarding the interest rate swaps. The annualized weighted-average interest rate for 2012 was 2.4%. Taking into account payments on our interest rate swap agreements, the annualized weighted-average interest rate for 2011 was 3.6%.
Other (Income) Expense, net
  Other (income) expense in 2012 consisted of expense related to $2.8 million of foreign exchange losses, expense of $0.5 million related to the write-off of deferred financing fees in conjunction with our new senior credit facility completed in February of 2012, offset by $0.1 million of miscellaneous income. Other (income) expense in 2011 consisted of income of $2.7 million of foreign exchange gains, $0.4 million of miscellaneous income, offset by $1.6 million of miscellaneous expense related to a negative judicial ruling.
Income Tax Expense
The mix of pretax income and the varying effective tax rates in the countries in which we operate directly affects our consolidated effective tax rate. The effective tax rate was 36.2% for 2012 compared to 34.7% for 2011. Our effective tax rate is dependent upon the mix of pretax income in the countries in which we operate.
Results of Operations
Business Segment Analysis
 
 
2012
 
2011
SALES
 
 
 
 
Office
 
$
633,321

 
$
664,132

Studio
 
147,550

 
152,724

Coverings
 
106,628

 
105,344

Knoll, Inc. 
 
$
887,499

 
$
922,200

OPERATING PROFIT
 
 
Office
 
$
48,639

 
$
46,614

Studio
 
21,786

 
23,022

Coverings
 
17,476

 
22,686

Subtotal
 
87,901

 
92,322

Restructuring and other charges primarily Office
 

 
696

Curtailment benefit primarily Office
 

 
5,445

Knoll, Inc.(1)
 
$
87,901

 
$
97,071

_______________________________________________________________________________

(1)
The Company does not allocate interest expense or other (income) expense, net to the reportable segments.

34


Net sales for the Office segment in 2012 were $633.3 million, a decrease of $30.8 million, or 4.6%, when compared with 2011. This decrease in the Office Segment for the year was the result of lower sales to government and financial services clients. Sales to commercial clients grew during 2012; however, this growth was not enough to offset the decline in government and financial services clients. Office segment sales in 2012 were also negatively impacted by $0.6 million due to changes in foreign exchange rates associated with the Canadian dollar compared to 2011. Operating profit for the Office segment was $48.6 million in 2012, an increase of $2.0 million, or 4.3%, when compared with 2011. As a percent of net sales, the Office segment operating profit was 7.7% for the year ended December 31, 2012 and 7.0% for the year ended December 31, 2011.
Net sales for the Studio segment in 2012 were $147.6 million, a decrease of $5.1 million, or 3.3%, when compared with 2011. Lower sales resulting primarily from the poor economic conditions in Europe more than offset the growth of Studio sales in North America for the year. European sales declined 9.5% in 2012 when compared to 2011. Studio segment sales in 2012 were negatively impacted by $4.0 million due to changes in foreign exchange rates associated with the Euro and the British pound compared to 2011. Operating profit for the Studio segment was $21.8 million, a decrease of $1.2 million, or 5.2%, when compared with 2011. As a percentage of net sales, the Studio segment operating profit was 14.8% for the year ended December 31, 2012 and 15.1% for the year ended December 31, 2011.
Net sales for the Coverings segment in 2012 were $106.6 million, an increase of $1.2 million, or 1.1%, when compared with 2011. The modest increase in sales in the Coverings segment can be mainly attributed to increased sales as a result of the acquisition of Filzfelt. The increase in the Covering segment sales in 2012 was offset by a negative impact of $0.4 million due to changes in foreign exchange rates compared to 2011. Operating profit for the Coverings segment was $17.5 million, a decrease of $5.2 million, or 22.9%, when compared to 2011. As a percentage of net sales, the Coverings segment operating profit was 16.4% for the year ended December 31, 2012 and 21.5% for the year ended December 31, 2011. Increased spending associated with growth initiatives in the Coverings segment, together with a $2.9 million one-time charge for inventory costs that were not being properly transferred to cost of goods sold, drove this decrease in year-over-year operating profit margin.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
The following table highlights certain key cash flows and capital information pertinent to the discussion that follows:

 
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
 
 
(in thousands)
Cash provided by operating activities
 
$
54,614

 
$
70,568

 
$
66,921

Capital expenditures, net
 
29,064

 
16,545

 
15,175

Cash used in investing activities
 
29,379

 
23,001

 
16,332

Purchase of common stock for treasury
 
5,638

 
4,676

 
15,026

Proceeds from revolving credit facilities
 
281,000

 
562,000

 
334,000

Repayment of revolving credit facilities
 
301,000

 
581,000

 
367,000

Payment of dividends
 
22,529

 
20,537

 
16,658

Proceeds from issuance of common stock
 
4,029

 
1,091

 
13,238

Cash used in financing activities
 
43,508

 
45,791

 
49,913

Historically, we have carried significant amounts of debt, and cash generated by operating activities has been used to fund working capital, capital expenditures, repurchase shares, pay quarterly dividends and make payments of principal and interest on our indebtedness. Our capital expenditures are typically for new product tooling and manufacturing equipment. These capital expenditures support new products and continuous improvements in our manufacturing processes. In addition, our previously announced plan of strategic investments and initiatives, continued expenditures related to our technology infrastructure upgrades with the implementation of a new enterprise resource planning system, and costs associated with opening our newly relocated showroom in New York City increased capital spending in 2013. At December 31, 2013, cash held outside of the United States was $9.3 million.
In February 2013, we announced a three-year plan of strategic investments and initiatives intended to enable us to achieve our longer-term revenue and profitability goals. This plan increased capital expenditures in 2013 and will continue to increase these expenses in 2014.

35


Cash provided by operating activities was $54.6 million in 2013, $70.6 million in 2012, and $66.9 million in 2011. For the year ended December 31, 2013, cash provided by operating activities consisted of $58.0 million from net income, plus various non-cash charges which included $10.4 million of stock compensation expense, and $3.4 million million of unfavorable changes in assets and liabilities. For the year ended December 31, 2012, cash provided by operating activities consisted of $82.7 million from net income, plus various non-cash charges which included $10.4 million of stock compensation expense, $0.5 million write-off of deferred financing fees, and $12.1 million of unfavorable changes in assets and liabilities.
For the year ended December 31, 2013, we used available cash, including $54.6 million of cash from operating activities to repay $20.0 million of debt, fund $29.1 million in capital expenditures, fund dividend payments to shareholders totaling $22.5 million, and to fund working capital. For the year ended December 31, 2012, we used available cash, including the $70.6 million of cash from operating activities to repay $19.0 million of debt, fund $16.5 million in capital expenditures, fund dividend payments to shareholders totaling $20.5 million, and to fund working capital.
We use our revolving credit facility in the ordinary course of business to fund our working capital needs and, at times, make significant borrowings and repayments under the facility depending on our cash needs and availability at such time. As of December 31, 2013, there was approximately $173.0 million outstanding under the facility, compared to $193.0 million outstanding under the facility as of December 31, 2012. During February 2014, we borrowed approximately $95.0 million under the revolving credit facility in order to fund the acquisition of Holly Hunt Enterprises, Inc. See Note 24 of the consolidated financial statements included in this Form 10-K for further information regarding this acquisition. Borrowings under the revolving credit facility may be repaid at any time, but no later than February 2017. See Note 10 of the consolidated financial statements included in this Form 10-K for further information regarding this facility.
Our revolving credit facility requires that we comply with two financial covenants: our consolidated leverage ratio, defined as the ratio of total indebtedness to consolidated EBITDA (as defined in our credit agreement) for a period of four fiscal quarters, cannot exceed 4 to 1, and our consolidated interest coverage ratio, defined as the ratio of our consolidated EBITDA (as defined in our credit agreement) for a period of four fiscal quarters to our consolidated interest expense, must be a minimum of 3 to 1. We are also required to comply with various other affirmative and negative covenants, including without limitation, covenants that prevent or restrict our ability to pay dividends, engage in certain mergers or acquisitions, make certain investments or loans, incur future indebtedness, engage in sale-leaseback transactions, alter our capital structure or line of business, prepay subordinated indebtedness, engage in certain transactions with affiliates and sell stock or assets.
We are currently in compliance with all of the covenants and conditions under our credit facility. We believe that existing cash balances and internally generated cash flows, together with borrowings available under our revolving credit facility, will be sufficient to fund normal working capital needs, capital spending requirements, debt service requirements and dividend payments for at least the next twelve months. However, because of the financial covenants mentioned above, our capacity under our revolving credit facility could be reduced if our trailing consolidated EBITDA (as defined by our credit agreement) would decline due to deteriorating market conditions or poor performance. Future debt payments may be paid out of cash flows from operations, from future refinancing of our debt or from equity issuances. However, our ability to make scheduled payments of principal, to pay interest on or to refinance our indebtedness, to satisfy our other debt obligations and to pay dividends to stockholders will depend upon our future operating performance, which will be affected by general economic, financial, competitive, legislative, regulatory, business and other factors beyond our control.

36


Contractual Obligations
The following table summarizes our contractual cash obligations as of December 31, 2013 (in thousands):

 
 
Payments due by period
 
 
Less than
1 year
 
1 to 3
years
 
3 to 5
years
 
More than
5 years
 
Total
Long-term debt
 
$
3,322

 
$
6,652

 
$
173,309

 
$

 
$
183,283

Operating leases
 
14,266

 
29,737

 
23,407

 
35,906

 
103,316

Purchase commitments
 
11,231

 
316

 

 

 
11,547

Pension plan contributions(a)
 
12,260

 

 

 

 
12,260

Postretirement benefit plan obligations(a)
 
1,155

 

 

 

 
1,155

Total
 
$
42,234

 
$
36,705

 
$
196,716

 
$
35,906

 
$
311,561

_______________________________________________________________________________

(a)
Due to the uncertainty of future cash outflows, contributions to the pension and other post-retirement benefit plans subsequent to 2014 have been excluded from the table above.
(*) Due to the uncertainty of future cash outflows, uncertain tax positions have been excluded from the table above.
Contractual obligations for long-term debt include principal and interest payments. Interest has been included at the variable rate in effect as of December 31, 2013, as applicable.
Environmental Matters
Our past and present business operations and the past and present ownership and operation of manufacturing plants on real property are subject to extensive and changing federal, state, local and foreign environmental laws and regulations, including those relating to discharges to air, water and land, the handling and disposal of solid and hazardous waste and the cleanup of properties affected by hazardous substances. As a result, we are involved from time-to-time in administrative and judicial proceedings and inquiries relating to environmental matters and could become subject to fines or penalties related thereto. We cannot predict what environmental legislation or regulations will be enacted in the future, how existing or future laws or regulations will be administered or interpreted or what environmental conditions may be found to exist. Compliance with more stringent laws or regulations, or stricter interpretation of existing laws, may require additional expenditures by us, some of which may be material. We have been identified as a potentially responsible party pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 ("CERCLA") for remediation costs associated with waste disposal sites that we previously used. The remediation costs and our allocated share at some of these CERCLA sites are unknown. We may also be subject to claims for personal injury or contribution relating to CERCLA sites. We reserve amounts for such matters when expenditures are probable and reasonably estimable.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
We do not currently have any relationships with unconsolidated entities or financial partnerships, such as entities often referred to as structured finance or special-purpose entities, which would have been established for the purpose of facilitating off-balance sheet arrangements or other contractually narrow or limited purposes. In addition, we do not engage in trading activities involving non-exchange-traded contracts. As a result, we are not materially exposed to any financing, liquidity, market or credit risk that could arise if we had engaged in these relationships.
Critical Accounting Policies
The preparation of our consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the U.S. ("GAAP") requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. Actual results may differ from such estimates. We believe that the critical accounting policies that follow are those policies that require the most judgment, estimation and assumption in preparing our consolidated financial statements.
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
We maintain allowances for doubtful accounts for estimated losses resulting from the inability of our clients and dealers to make required payments. The allowance is determined through an analysis of the aging of accounts receivable and assessments of risk that are based on historical trends and an evaluation of the impact of current and projected economic conditions. We evaluate the past-due status of our trade receivables based on contractual terms of sale. If the financial condition of our clients and dealers were to deteriorate, additional allowances may be required. Accounts receivable are charged off against the allowance for doubtful accounts when we determine that recovery is unlikely. Losses have been consistent with our expectations.

37


Inventory
Inventories are valued at the lower of cost or market. Cost is determined using the first-in, first-out method. We reserve inventory that, in our judgment, is impaired or obsolete. Obsolescence may be caused by the discontinuance of a product line, changes in product material specifications, replacement products in the marketplace and other competitive influences.
Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets
We record the excess of purchase price over the fair value of the tangible and identifiable intangible assets acquired as goodwill. Goodwill and indefinite-lived trademarks are tested for impairment at least annually and whenever events or circumstances occur indicating that a possible impairment may have been incurred. Goodwill is tested for impairment by determining the fair value of our reporting units using an income approach which discounts future net cash flows to their present value at a rate that reflects our cost of capital, otherwise known as the discounted cash flow method. These estimated fair values are based on financial projections and certain cash flow measures. The indefinite-lived trademarks are tested for impairment by comparing the carrying value to the fair value based on current revenue projections of the related operations, under the relief from royalty method. Any excess carrying value over the amount of fair value is recognized as an impairment. Any impairment would be recognized in the reporting period in which it has been identified.
Finite-lived assets such as customer relationships, non-compete agreements, and licenses are amortized over their estimated useful lives. We review the carrying values of these assets for possible impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of an asset may not be recoverable based on undiscounted estimated cash flows expected to result from its use and eventual disposition. We continually evaluate the reasonableness of the useful lives of these assets.
Deferred Financing Fees
Deferred financing fees that are incurred by the Company in connection with the issuance of debt are deferred and amortized to interest expense over the life of the underlying indebtedness.
Business Combinations
The purchase price of an acquired company is allocated between tangible and intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed from the acquired business based on their estimated fair values, with the residual of the purchase price recorded as goodwill. The results of operations of the acquired businesses are included in our operating results from the dates of acquisition.
Product Warranty
We provide for the estimated cost of product warranties at the time revenue is recognized. While we engage in product quality programs and processes, our warranty obligation is affected by product failure rates and by material usage and service costs incurred in correcting a product failure. Cost estimates are based on historical product failure rates and identified onetime fixes for each specific product category. Warranty cost generally varies in direct relation to sales volume, as such costs tend to be a consistent percentage of revenue. Should actual costs differ from original estimates, the estimated warranty liability would be revised.
Employee Benefits
We are partially self-insured for our employee health benefits. We accrue for employee health benefit obligations based on an actuarial valuation. The actuarial valuation is based upon historical claims as well as a number of assumptions, including rates of inflation for medical costs, and benefit plan changes. Actual results could be materially different from the estimates used.
Pension and Other Postretirement Benefits
We sponsor two defined benefit pension plans and two other postretirement benefit plans. Several statistical and other factors, which attempt to anticipate future events, are used in calculating the expense and liability related to the plans. Key factors include assumptions about the expected rates of return on plan assets, discount rates, and health care cost trend rates, as determined by us, within certain guidelines. We consider market conditions, including changes in investment returns and interest rates, in making these assumptions.
Both the pension plans and the other postretirement benefit plans were modified during the year ended December 31, 2011. Participants who had 70 or greater points (age plus completed years of service) could elect to stay in the pension and accrue additional benefits or receive the Company's 401K match which was reinstated as of January 1, 2012. Those with less than 70 points were removed from the pension plan and will not accrue any additional benefits. The Company's other postretirement benefit plans are in the process of being phased out. As a result of this modification, the Company recorded a $5.4 million curtailment benefit during the year ended December 31, 2011.

38


We determine the expected long-term rate of return on plan assets based on aggregating the expected rates of return for each component of the plan's asset mix. We use historic plan asset returns combined with current market conditions to estimate the rate of return. The expected rate of return on plan assets is a long-term assumption and generally does not change annually. The discount rate reflects the market rate for high-quality fixed income debt instruments as of our annual measurement date and is subject to change each year. Holding all other assumptions constant, a one-percentage-point increase or decrease in the assumed rate of return on plan assets would decrease or increase 2013 net periodic pension expense by approximately $2.0 million. Likewise, a one-percentage-point increase or decrease in the discount rate would decrease or increase 2013 net periodic pension expense by approximately $6.4 million or $5.9 million, respectively.
Unrecognized actuarial gains and losses are recognized over the expected remaining service life of the employee group. Unrecognized actuarial gains and losses arise from several factors, including experience and assumption changes with respect to the obligations and from the difference between expected returns and actual returns on plan assets. These unrecognized gains and losses are systematically recognized as a change in future net periodic pension expense in accordance with the appropriate accounting guidance relating to defined benefit pension and other postretirement plans.
Key assumptions we use in determining the amount of the obligation and expense recorded for postretirement benefits other than pensions ("OPEB"), under the appropriate accounting guidance, include the assumed discount rate and the assumed rate of increases in future health care costs. In estimating the health care cost trend rate, we consider actual health care cost experience, future benefit structures, industry trends and advice from our actuaries. We assume that the relative increase in health care costs will generally trend downward over the next several years, reflecting assumed increases in efficiency and cost-containment initiatives in the health care system. At December 31, 2013, the expected rate of increase in future health care costs was 8.00% to 8.50% and 7.25% in determining the benefit obligation for 2013 and 8.00% in determining the net periodic benefit cost in 2013 for medical and prescription drug, respectively. The rate was then assumed to decrease to an ultimate rate of 5% for 2022 for the medical plan and prescription drug plan and thereafter for the benefit obligation. Increasing the assumed health care cost trend by one-percentage-point in each year would increase the benefit obligation as of December 31, 2013 by $0.3 million and increase the aggregate of the service and interest cost components of net periodic benefit cost for 2013 by a minimal amount. Decreasing the assumed health care cost trend rate by one percentage point in each year would decrease the benefit obligation as of December 31, 2013 by approximately $0.3 million and decrease the aggregate of the service and interest cost components of net periodic benefit cost for 2013 by a minimal amount.
In accordance with the appropriate accounting guidance, we recognize in our consolidated balance sheet the funded status (i.e., the difference between the fair value of plan assets and the projected benefit obligation) of our defined benefit pension and postretirement benefit plans. To record the unfunded status of our plans, we recorded an additional liability and an adjustment to accumulated other comprehensive income, net of tax.
The actuarial assumptions we use in determining our pension and OPEB retirement benefits may differ materially from actual results due to changing market and economic conditions, higher or lower withdrawal rates, or longer or shorter life spans of participants. While we believe that the assumptions used are appropriate, differences in actual experience or changes in assumptions may materially affect our financial position or results of operations.
Commitments and Contingencies
We establish reserves for the estimated cost of environmental and legal contingencies when such expenditures are probable and reasonably estimable. A significant amount of judgment and use of estimates is required to quantify our ultimate exposure in these matters. We engage outside experts as deemed necessary or appropriate to assist in the evaluation of exposure. From time to time, as information becomes available regarding changes in circumstances for ongoing issues as well as information regarding emerging issues, our potential liability is reassessed and reserve balances are adjusted as necessary. Revisions to our estimates of potential liability, and actual expenditures related to environmental and legal contingencies, could have a material impact on our results of operations or financial position.
Taxes
We account for income taxes in accordance with the appropriate accounting guidance relating to income taxes, which requires that deferred tax assets and liabilities be recognized using enacted tax rates for the effect of temporary differences between book and tax bases of recorded assets and liabilities. The appropriate accounting guidance also requires that deferred tax assets be reduced by a valuation allowance if it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be recognized.
At December 31, 2013, our deferred tax liabilities of $99.1 million exceeded deferred tax assets of $34.8 million by $64.3 million. At December 31, 2012, deferred tax liabilities of $95.7 million exceeded deferred tax assets of $57.4 million by $38.3 million. Our deferred tax assets at December 31, 2013 and 2012 of $34.8 million and $57.4 million, respectively, are net of valuation allowances of $9.0 million and $7.8 million, respectively. We have recorded the valuation allowance primarily for net operating loss carryforwards in foreign tax jurisdictions where we have incurred historical tax losses from operations or acquired tax losses through acquisition, and have determined that it is more likely than not that these deferred tax assets will not be realized.

39


We evaluate on an ongoing basis the realizability of our deferred tax assets and adjust the amount of the allowance, if necessary. The factors used to assess the likelihood of realization include our forecast of future taxable income and our assessment of available tax planning strategies that could be implemented to realize the net deferred tax assets.
We account for uncertain tax positions in accordance with the applicable accounting guidance relating to uncertainty in income taxes. Accordingly, we report a liability for unrecognized tax benefits resulting from uncertain tax positions taken, or expected to be taken, in an income tax return. We recognize interest and penalties, if any, related to unrecognized tax benefits in income tax expense.
Derivative Financial Instruments
We occasionally utilize derivative instruments to mitigate volatility related to interest rates and foreign currency exposures. We do not hold or issue derivative financial instruments for trading or speculative purposes. We recognize derivatives as either assets or liabilities in the accompanying balance sheet and measure those instruments at fair value. Changes in the fair value of those instruments are reported in accumulated other comprehensive income if they qualify for hedge accounting or in earnings if they do not qualify for hedge accounting. Derivatives qualify for hedge accounting if they are designated as hedge instruments and if the hedge is highly effective in achieving offsetting changes in the fair value or cash flows of the asset or liability hedged. Accordingly, gains and losses from changes in derivative fair value of effective hedges are deferred and reported in accumulated other comprehensive income until the underlying transaction affects earnings.
Stock-Based Compensation
The Company measures the cost of employee services received in exchange for an award of equity instruments based on the grant-date fair value of the award. This expense is recognized over the applicable vesting period. Forfeitures are estimated based on historical experience.
Stock Options
The fair value for stock options is estimated at the date of grant using an option pricing model, which requires management to make certain assumptions. The risk-free interest rate is based on the U.S. Treasury spot rate with a remaining term equal to the expected life assumed at the date of grant. Expected volatility is estimated based on the historical volatility of the Company's stock price. The model takes into consideration the historical dividends paid on common stock. The weighted-average expected life is based on the contractual term of the stock option and expected employee exercise dates, which is based on the historical exercise behavior of the Company's employees.
Restricted Stock and Restricted Stock Units
The fair value of restricted stock and restricted stock units is based on the closing market price of the Company's common stock on the date of grant. The Company recognizes compensation expense relating to restricted stock and restricted stock units ratably over the vesting period.


40


ITEM 7A.    QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
During the normal course of business, we are routinely subjected to market risk associated with interest rate movements and foreign currency exchange rate movements. Interest rate risk arises from our debt obligations. Foreign currency exchange rate risk arises from our non-U.S. operations and purchases of inventory from foreign suppliers.
We also have risk in our exposure to certain materials and transportation costs. Steel, leather, wood products and plastics are all used in our products. For the year ended December 31, 2013, we estimated that materials inflation was approximately $1.3 million and transportation inflation was minimal. During 2012, we estimated materials inflation was approximately $3.5 million and transportation inflation was minimal. We continue to work to offset price increases in raw materials and transportation through our global sourcing initiatives, cost improvements and price increases to our products.
Interest Rate Risk
We have variable rate debt obligations that are denominated in U.S. dollars. A change in interest rates impacts the interest incurred and cash paid on the variable-rate debt.
In the past, we have used interest rate swap agreements for other-than-trading purposes in order to manage our exposure to fluctuations in interest rates on our variable-rate debt. In May of 2008, we entered into four interest rate swap agreements in order to manage our interest rate risk. Each agreement hedged a notional amount of $150.0 million. Two of the agreements were effective from June 9, 2009 through June 9, 2010 and the other two were effective June 9, 2010 and expired June 9, 2011. Fluctuations in LIBOR affect both our net financial instrument position and the amount of cash to be paid or received by us, if any, under these agreements. There were no interest rate hedge agreements outstanding as of December 31, 2013 or December 31, 2012. See Note 13 of the consolidated financial statements included in this annual report for further information regarding the interest rate swap agreements.
Our weighted-average interest rate for 2013 was 2.6%. Taking into account payments on the above-noted interest rate swap agreements, the weighted-average rate for the same period of 2012 was 2.4%.
The following table summarizes our market risks associated with our debt obligations as of December 31, 2013. For debt obligations, the table presents principal cash flows and related weighted-average interest rates by year of maturity. Variable interest rates presented for variable-rate debt represent the weighted-average interest rates on our credit facility borrowings as of December 31, 2013.

 
 
2014
 
2015
 
2016
 
2017
 
2018
 
Thereafter
 
Total
 
Fair Value
 
(in thousands)
 
Rate-Sensitive Liabilities
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Long-term Debt:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Variable Rate
 
$

 
$

 
$

 
$
173,000

 
$

 
$

 
$
173,000

 
$
173,000

Variable Interest Rate
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
1.92
%
 
 
 
 

 
 

 
 

An increase in our effective interest rate of 1% would increase annual interest expense by approximately $1.7 million. We will continue to review our exposure to interest rate fluctuations and evaluate whether we should manage such exposures through derivative transactions.

41


Foreign Currency Exchange Rate Risk
We manufacture our products in the United States, Canada and Italy, and sell our products primarily in those markets as well as in other European countries. Our foreign sales and certain expenses are transacted in foreign currencies. Our production costs, profit margins and competitive position are affected by the strength of the currencies in countries where we manufacture or purchase goods relative to the strength of the currencies in countries where our products are sold. Additionally, as our reporting currency is the U.S. dollar, our financial position is affected by the strength of the currencies in countries where we have operations relative to the strength of the U.S. dollar. The principal foreign currencies in which we conduct business are the Canadian dollar and the Euro. Approximately 12.8% and 12.7% of our revenues in 2013 and 2012, respectively, and 33.2% and 33.8% of our cost of goods sold in 2013 and 2012, respectively, were denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. Foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations resulted in a $3.5 million translation gain in 2013 and a $2.8 million translation loss in 2012.
From time to time, we enter into foreign currency forward exchange contracts and foreign currency option contracts for other-than-trading purposes in order to manage our exposure to foreign exchange rates associated with short-term operating receivables of a Canadian subsidiary that are payable by our U.S. operations. The terms of these contracts are generally less than a year. Changes in the fair value of such contracts are reported in earnings in the period the value of the contract changes. The net gain or loss upon settlement and the change in fair value of outstanding contracts is recorded as a component of other (income) expense. During 2013, the Company entered into two foreign currency contracts. No amount was paid or received as a result of these contracts. During 2012, the Company did not enter into any foreign currency contracts. As of December 31, 2013, the Company had no outstanding foreign currency contracts.


42


ITEM 8.    FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

The Board of Directors and Stockholders of Knoll, Inc.

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Knoll, Inc. as of December 31, 2013 and 2012, and the related consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income, stockholders’ equity and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2013. Our audits also included the financial statement schedule listed in the Index at Item 15(a). These financial statements and schedule are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these financial statements and schedule based on our audits.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement. An audit includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. An audit also includes assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

In our opinion, the financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the consolidated financial position of Knoll, Inc. at December 31, 2013 and 2012, and the consolidated results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2013, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. Also, in our opinion, the related financial statement schedule, when considered in relation to the basic financial statements taken as a whole, presents fairly in all material respects the information set forth therein.

We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), Knoll, Inc.’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2013, based on criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (1992 framework) and our report dated March 3, 2014 expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.

/s/ Ernst & Young LLP

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
March 3, 2014


43


KNOLL, INC. 
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
DECEMBER 31, 2013 AND 2012

(dollars in thousands, except per share data)
 
 
December 31,
2013
 
December 31,
2012
ASSETS
 

 
 

Current assets:
 

 
 

Cash and cash equivalents
$
12,026

 
$
29,956

Customer receivables, net
104,171

 
105,877

Inventories
96,449

 
98,195

Deferred income taxes
11,408

 
13,061

Prepaid and other current assets
12,145

 
11,433

Total current assets
236,199

 
258,522

Property, plant, and equipment, net
137,893

 
124,838

Goodwill
79,951

 
80,332

Intangible assets, net
214,695

 
222,498

Other non-trade receivables
4,250

 
3,700

Other noncurrent assets
4,346

 
5,163

Total Assets
$
677,334

 
$
695,053

LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
 

 
 

Current liabilities:
 

 
 

Accounts payable
$
91,378

 
$
83,600

Income taxes payable
249

 
6,327

Other current liabilities
76,676

 
86,018

Total current liabilities
168,303

 
175,945

Long-term debt
173,000

 
193,000

Deferred income taxes
75,670

 
51,382

Postretirement benefits other than pensions
8,908

 
10,005

Pension liability
5,615

 
64,836

Other noncurrent liabilities
17,396

 
11,785

Total liabilities
448,892

 
506,953

Commitments and contingent liabilities


 


Stockholders’ equity:
 

 
 

Common stock, $0.01 par value; 200,000,000 shares authorized; 61,826,778 shares issued and 47,059,458 shares outstanding (net of 14,767,320 treasury shares) at December 31, 2013 and 62,266,755 shares issued and 47,840,562 shares outstanding (net of 14,426,193 treasury shares) at December 31, 2012
483

 
479

Additional paid-in capital
37,258

 
27,751

Retained earnings
184,799

 
184,750

Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)
5,902

 
(24,880
)
Total stockholders’ equity
228,442

 
188,100

Total Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity
$
677,334

 
$
695,053

 
See accompanying notes to the consolidated financial statements.


44


KNOLL, INC. 
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS AND COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
YEARS ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2013, 2012, AND 2011

(dollars in thousands, except per share data)
 
 

 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
Sales
$
862,668

 
$
887,499

 
$
922,200

Cost of sales
582,393

 
593,149

 
627,803

Gross profit
280,275

 
294,350

 
294,397

Selling, general, and administrative expenses
224,619

 
206,449

 
202,075

Restructuring and other charges
5,696

 

 
696

Intangible asset impairment charge
8,900

 

 

Curtailment gain

 

 
5,445

Operating profit
41,060

 
87,901

 
97,071

Interest expense
5,941

 
6,350

 
9,753

Other (income) expense, net
(3,430
)
 
3,215

 
(1,508
)
Income before income tax expense
38,549

 
78,336

 
88,826

Income tax expense
15,403

 
28,335

 
30,815

Net income
$
23,146

 
$
50,001

 
$
58,011

Earnings per share:
 

 
 

 
 

Basic
$
0.49

 
$
1.07

 
$
1.25

Diluted
$
0.49

 
$
1.06

 
$
1.24

Weighted-average number of common shares outstanding:
 

 
 

 
 

Basic
46,916,845

 
46,634,834

 
46,249,571

Diluted
47,659,418

 
47,059,186

 
46,835,712

Net income
$
23,146

 
$
50,001

 
$
58,011

Other comprehensive income (loss)
 

 
 

 
 

Pension and other postretirement liability adjustment, net of tax
36,729

 
(12,358
)
 
(11,439
)
Foreign currency translation adjustment
(5,947
)
 
1,981

 
(2,525
)
Change in fair value of interest rate swap contracts, net of tax

 

 
2,622

Total other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax
30,782

 
(10,377
)
 
(11,342
)
Total comprehensive income
$
53,928

 
$
39,624

 
$
46,669

 
See accompanying notes to the consolidated financial statements.

45


KNOLL, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY
YEARS ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2013, 2012, AND 2011
(dollars in thousands, except per share data)
 
 
Common
Stock
 
Additional
Paid-In
Capital
 
Retained
Earnings
 
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Income (Loss)
 
Total
Stockholders'
Equity
Balance at December 31, 2010
 
$
470

 
$
14,087

 
$
114,990

 
$
(3,161
)
 
$
126,386

Net income
 

 

 
58,011

 

 
58,011

Other comprehensive loss
 

 

 

 
(11,342
)
 
(11,342
)
Shares issued for consideration:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Exercise of stock options (878,658 shares)
 
15

 
13,136

 

 

 
13,151

Income tax effect from the exercise of stock options and vesting of restricted stock
 

 
1,668

 


 

 
1,668

Shares issued under stock incentive plan (762,004 shares)
 

 

 

 

 

Shares issued under employee stock purchase plan (2,567 shares)
 

 
37

 

 

 
37

Shares issued to Board of Directors in lieu of cash (2,739 shares)
 

 
50

 

 

 
50

Stock-based compensation
 

 
9,671

 

 

 
9,671

Cash dividend ($.36 per share)
 

 

 
(17,183
)
 

 
(17,183
)
Purchase of common stock (768,780 shares)
 
(8
)
 
(15,018
)
 

 

 
(15,026
)
Balance at December 31, 2011
 
$
477

 
$
23,631

 
$
155,818

 
$
(14,503
)
 
$
165,423

Net income
 

 

 
50,001

 

 
50,001

Other comprehensive loss
 

 

 

 
(10,377
)
 
(10,377
)
Shares issued for consideration:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Exercise of stock options (93,839 shares)
 
2

 
1,039

 

 

 
1,041

Income tax effect from the exercise of stock options and vesting of restricted stock
 

 
(2,652
)
 

 

 
(2,652
)
Shares issued under stock incentive plan (315,030 shares)
 
3

 

 

 

 
3

Shares issued to Board of Directors in lieu of cash (3,391 shares)
 

 
50

 

 

 
50

Stock-based compensation
 

 
10,356

 

 

 
10,356

Cash dividend ($.44 per share)
 

 

 
(21,069
)
 

 
(21,069
)
Purchase of common stock (310,252 shares)
 
(3
)
 
(4,673
)
 

 

 
(4,676
)
Balance at December 31, 2012
 
$
479

 
$
27,751

 
$
184,750

 
$
(24,880
)
 
$
188,100

Net income
 

 

 
23,146

 

 
23,146

Other comprehensive income
 

 

 

 
30,782

 
30,782

Shares issued for consideration:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Exercise of stock options (330,895 shares)