0000100885 UNION PACIFIC CORP false --12-31 FY 2022 2.50 2.50 1,400,000,000 1,400,000,000 1,112,623,886 1,112,440,400 612,393,321 638,841,656 205 325 127 3.88 4.29 5.08 1 1 34,011,624 69,867,405 0 3 21 0 92 - 237 10 July 31, 2025 1 3 46 2.2 7.1 February 14, 2072 2.6 6.2 January 2, 2031 3.1 8.0 December 10, 2028 3.3 4.7 January 17, 2023 August 31, 2023 April 15, 2022 April 6, 2021 April 6, 2036 April 6, 2071 June 8, 2023 May 20, 2027 1.25 2.800 February 14, 2032 0.50 3.375 February 14, 2042 1.25 3.500 February 14, 2053 0.5 3.85 February 14, 2072 0.90 4.500 January 20, 2033 0.60 4.950 September 9, 2052 0.40 5.150 January 20, 2063 September 9, 2052 Other assets include accrued receivables, net payables, and pending broker settlements. Net of deferred taxes of ($92) million, ($237) million, and $75 million during 2022, 2021, and 2020, respectively. Amortization of leased assets is reported in depreciation in our Consolidated Statements of Income. Interest on lease liabilities is reported in interest expense in our Consolidated Statements of Income. Includes an incremental 1,847,185 shares received upon final settlement in 2022 and 7,209,156 shares repurchased in 2021 under accelerated share repurchase programs. Other roadway includes grading, bridges and tunnels, signals, buildings, and other road assets. AOCI = Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income/Loss (Note 9) The accumulated other comprehensive income/loss reclassification components are 1) prior service cost/credit and 2) net actuarial loss, which are both included in the computation of net periodic pension benefit/cost. See Note 5 Retirement Plans for additional details. Prior periods have been reclassified to conform to the current period financial statement presentation. Includes 7,012,232 shares repurchased in 2022 under accelerated share repurchase programs. Includes an incremental 1,983,859 shares received upon final settlement in 2021 under accelerated share repurchase programs. Registered investment companies measured at fair value are stock investments. In the period of the final settlement, the average price paid under the accelerated share repurchase programs is calculated based on the total program value less the value assigned to the initial delivery of shares. The average price of the completed 2022 and 2021 accelerated share repurchase programs was $248.32 and $217.56, respectively. Finance lease assets are recorded net of accumulated amortization of $658 million and $687 million as of December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. Operating lease cost is primarily reported in equipment and other rents in our Consolidated Statements of Income. 2022 includes a $79 million gain from a land sale to the Illinois State Toll Highway Authority and a $35 million gain from a sale to the Colorado Department of Transportation. 2021 includes a $50 million gain from a sale to the Colorado Department of Transportation. 2020 includes a $69 million gain from a land and permanent easement sale to the Illinois State Toll Highway Authority. In 2022, Nebraska, Iowa, Arkansas, and Idaho enacted corporate income tax legislation that resulted in a $95 million reduction of our deferred tax expense. In 2021, Nebraska, Oklahoma, Idaho, Louisiana, and Arkansas enacted corporate income tax legislation that resulted in a $32 million reduction of our deferred tax expense. 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Table of Contents






(Mark One)


For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022



For the transition period from __________ to ____________


Commission File Number 1-6075



(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)




(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)


(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)


1400 Douglas Street, Omaha, Nebraska68179
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)


Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (402) 544-5000


Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each Class

Trading Symbol

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock (Par Value $2.50 per share)


 New York Stock Exchange


Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.

Yes   ☐ No

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.

☐Yes   ☑ No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.

Yes   ☐ No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).

Yes   ☐ No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large Accelerated Filer 


Accelerated Filer 

Non-Accelerated Filer 


Smaller Reporting Company 


Emerging Growth Company



If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.


If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).

Yes   ☑ No

As of June 30, 2022, the aggregate market value of the registrant’s Common Stock held by non-affiliates (using the New York Stock Exchange closing price) was $131.5 billion.


The number of shares outstanding of the registrant’s Common Stock as of February 3, 2023, was 611,872,981.


Documents Incorporated by Reference – Portions of the registrant’s definitive Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held on May 18, 2023, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this report. The registrant’s Proxy Statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) within 120 days after the end of the fiscal year that this report relates pursuant to Regulation 14A.






Chairman’s Letter



Directors and Senior Management





Item 1.



Item 1A.

Risk Factors


Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments


Item 2.



Item 3.

Legal Proceedings


Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures



Executive Officers of the Registrant and Principal Executive Officers of Subsidiaries





Item 5.

Market for the Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters, and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities


Item 6. [Reserved] 24

Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations



Critical Accounting Estimates



Cautionary Information


Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk


Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data



Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm


Item 9.

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure


Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures



Management’s Annual Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting



Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm


Item 9B.

Other Information


Item 9C. Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections 75



Item 10.

Directors, Executive Officers, and Corporate Governance


Item 11.

Executive Compensation


Item 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters


Item 13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence


Item 14.

Principal Accountant Fees and Services





Item 15.

Exhibit and Financial Statement Schedules


Item 16.

Form 10-K Summary





  Certifications 82




February 10, 2023


Fellow Shareholders:


2022 was a foundational year for Union Pacific, building and executing on our long-term growth strategy. From numerous customer wins, to preparing for and onboarding a large intermodal customer, to strategic investments in our intermodal network and transload business, we took action to create long-term value. Those successes, however, were met with some significant short-term barriers – continued global supply chain disruptions, an elevated inflationary environment, record fuel prices, challenging labor markets, and an extended labor negotiation. All of those factors had a real impact on our ability to deliver a consistent and reliable service product to our customers in 2022. They also contributed to uneven financial results for the year.


In 2022, we reported record earnings per share of $11.21, a 13% increase versus 2021. Total volumes increased 2% versus 2021, driven by strength in industrial and bulk markets offsetting continued supply chain challenges in our premium markets. Our operating ratio was a 60.1%, a 290-basis point deterioration versus 2021 driven by inflation, operational inefficiency, and higher fuel prices. For the full year, our average fuel price per gallon increased 64%. Also notable, was a $92 million one-time charge recorded in the third quarter for new labor agreements.



Success at Union Pacific begins with safety. In 2022, we made progress on our personal injury safety metrics, improving 18% to a five-year low and lead the industry in employee safety. We will build upon this improvement by enhancing training programs and solidifying our safety culture through ownership and personal accountability on the path to achieving our goal of world-class safety performance. We need to expand our progress from personal injuries to derailments, where we have opportunity for improvement. The ultimate goal remains returning each employee home safely at the end of the day.


In 2021, we rolled out a strategic plan we call, “Serve, Grow, Win – Together.” And over the past two years, we have been executing on that long-term strategy. While our 2022 progress was mixed, we advanced our position towards long-term sustainable growth through targeted capital investments, emissions reduction programs, and by leveraging technology to improve our customer's experience.


Everything we do starts with Serve and delivering customer-centered operational excellence. In 2022, our service product did not meet expectations. Constrained crew bases in critical locations, elevated freight car inventory levels, and continued supply chain disruptions all played a role and impacted our ability to support customers and their needs. In 2022, freight car velocity deteriorated 6% versus 2021, lowering trip plan compliance for intermodal 6 points and manifest/automotive 4 points. Similarly, our efficiency measures were impacted as locomotive productivity declined 6% and workforce productivity and train length were flat. To address constrained crew bases, we hired and trained over 1,300 new transportation employees in 2022 and have almost 600 more in the training pipeline as we enter 2023. We also amplified our customer communications to provide clear expectations and leveraged continuous improvement efforts to address discrete service issues.


A key long-term initiative for Union Pacific is to reduce our carbon footprint for the benefit of all stakeholders. For the fourth consecutive year, we achieved a best-ever fuel consumption rate, improving 1% versus 2021. In addition, we increased our biodiesel blend to over 4.5%, on track toward our 2030 target of 20%. These efforts helped our customers eliminate over 23 million metric tons of greenhouse gas emissions by choosing Union Pacific versus truck.


We continue to make significant investments in our infrastructure to support our service product. In 2022, our capital program of approximately $3.4 billion included completing 24 siding projects, finishing the Twin Cities, MN, intermodal terminal, further expanding the West Colton, CA, intermodal terminal, modernizing over 130 locomotives, and hardening our infrastructure.


These investments support the next tenet of our strategy – Grow. We have the best rail franchise in North America. Our growth is powered by providing products and services that meet our customers’ needs. This includes providing new services for our customers and expanding our reach through new transload facilities and intermodal terminals, which our team translated into new business wins in 2022. And those business development wins will provide a tailwind in 2023 as we navigate an uncertain economy.




Growth is also dependent on a customer experience that constantly improves and evolves. Technology plays a key role. We’re integrating deeper in our customers’ systems and supply chains by being the industry leader in providing application programming interfaces (API), with over 70 services available being called on over 600,000 times a day.


Successful execution of our plans to “Serve” and “Grow” leads to Win. For our shareholders, winning means generating strong cash returns. In 2022, we paid dividends of $3.2 billion, which included a 10% dividend increase in the second quarter. In addition, we repurchased 27 million Union Pacific shares, decreasing our full-year average share count 5%. Combining dividends and share repurchases, Union Pacific returned $9.4 billion to our shareholders in 2022.


“Winning” extends to all UP’s stakeholders, and the value we create for each of them, which is the final piece of our strategy – Together. We continue to evolve our comprehensive approach to Environmental, Social, and Governance issues as laid out in “Building a Sustainable Future 2030”. Ultimately, we demonstrate our commitment to this through actions. In 2022, we announced our plans to purchase battery electric locomotives for use in yard operations, executed a three-year deal to modernize 600 additional locomotives starting in 2023, issued $600 million in green bonds, and became the first U.S. railroad to formally support the Task Force on Climate-related Financial Disclosures (TCFD). Late in the year we were added to the Dow Jones Sustainability Index and included in the JUST Capital 100. Our momentum on sustainability is real and demonstrates our position as the rail leader in the space.


The entire Union Pacific team recognizes that we fell short of expectations in 2022. But, thanks to the hard work of our exceptional workforce, we are entering 2023 positioned for success. While the year ahead has some real challenges – an uncertain economy, higher cost structure, and stakeholder trust to rebuild – the Union Pacific team is again ready to rise to the occasion. Our fundamentals for long-term success have not changed. Powered by our best-in-industry employees and franchise, a strategy built for profitable growth, and a more efficient and reliable service product, Union Pacific is poised to do great things in 2023. We can’t wait to prove it to you.



Chairman, President, and Chief Executive Officer








William J. DeLaney

Former Chief Executive Officer – 

Sysco Corporation

Board Committees: Audit; Compensation and Benefits (Chair)


David B. Dillon

Former Chairman and CEO – 

The Kroger Company

Board Committees: Audit (Chair); Compensation and Benefits


Sheri H. Edison

Former Executive Vice President

and General Counsel – Amcor plc 

Board Committees: Compensation and Benefits; Corporate Governance, Nominating, and Sustainability


Teresa M. Finley

Former Chief Marketing and Business

Services Officer – United Parcel

Service, Inc.

Board Committees: Compensation and Benefits; Finance


Lance M. Fritz

Chairman, President, and 

Chief Executive Officer – 

Union Pacific Corporation and 

Union Pacific Railroad Company


Deborah C. Hopkins

Former Chief Executive Officer – Citi
Ventures and Former Chief Innovation 
Officer – Citi 

Board Committees: Audit; Finance (Chair)


Jane H. Lute

Strategic Advisor – SICPA,

North America

Board Committees: Audit; Corporate Governance, Nominating, and Sustainability


Michael R. McCarthy

Chairman – McCarthy Group, LLC; 

Co-Chairman – Bridges Trust Company

Lead Independent Director

Board Committees: Corporate Governance, Nominating, and Sustainability (Chair); Finance


Jose H. Villarreal

Retired Advisor – Akin, Gump,

Strauss, Hauer, & Feld, LLP

Board Committees: Compensation and Benefits; Corporate Governance, Nominating, and Sustainability


Christopher J. Williams

Chairman – Siebert Williams

Shank & Co.

Board Committees: Audit; Finance




Lance M. Fritz

Chairman, President, and Chief Executive Officer


Prentiss W. Bolin, Jr.

Vice President – External Relations


Bryan L. Clark

Vice President – Tax


Eric J. Gehringer

Executive Vice President – Operations


Jennifer L. Hamann

Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer


Rahul Jalali

Senior Vice President – Information Technologies and Chief Information Officer


Michael V. Miller

Vice President and Treasurer


Scott D. Moore

Senior Vice President – Corporate Relations and Chief Administrative Officer


Clark J. Ponthier

Senior Vice President – Supply Chain and Continuous Improvement


Craig V. Richardson

Executive Vice President, Chief Legal Officer, and Corporate Secretary


Kenny G. Rocker

Executive Vice President – Marketing and Sales


Todd M. Rynaski

Senior Vice President and Chief Accounting, Risk, and Compliance Officer


Elizabeth F. Whited

Executive Vice President – Sustainability and Strategy


*Senior management are elected officers of both Union Pacific Corporation and Union Pacific Railroad Company, except Messrs. Gehringer, Ponthier, and Rocker are elected officers for Union Pacific Railroad Company.






Item 1. Business




Union Pacific Railroad Company is the principal operating company of Union Pacific Corporation. One of America's most recognized companies, Union Pacific Railroad Company connects 23 states in the western two-thirds of the country by rail, providing a critical link in the global supply chain. The Railroad’s diversified business mix includes Bulk, Industrial, and Premium. Union Pacific serves many of the fastest-growing U.S. population centers, operates from all major West Coast and Gulf Coast ports to Eastern gateways, connects with Canada's rail systems, and is the only railroad serving all six major Mexico gateways. Union Pacific provides value to its roughly 10,000 customers by delivering products in a safe, reliable, fuel-efficient, and environmentally responsible manner.


Union Pacific Corporation was incorporated in Utah in 1969 and maintains its principal executive offices at 1400 Douglas Street, Omaha, NE 68179. The telephone number at that address is (402) 544-5000. The common stock of Union Pacific Corporation is listed on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) under the symbol “UNP”.


For purposes of this report, unless the context otherwise requires, all references herein to "Union Pacific", “UPC”, “Corporation”, “Company”, “we”, “us”, and “our” shall mean Union Pacific Corporation and its subsidiaries, including Union Pacific Railroad Company, which we separately refer to as “UPRR” or the “Railroad”.




The Company’s growth strategy focuses on growing customer value through innovative supply chain solutions and aspiring to Serve, Grow, Win – Together.


Serve:  Driving operational excellence to create a safer, more reliable, and efficient service product. Precision scheduled railroading (PSR) is the foundation for delivering customer-centered operational excellence by:



Shifting the focus of operations from moving trains to moving cars.


Minimizing car dwell, car classification events, and locomotive power requirements.


Utilizing general-purpose trains by blending existing train service.


Balancing train movements to improve the utilization of resources.


We aim to move cars faster and reduce the number of times each car is touched, resulting in terminal consolidation opportunities, improved asset utilization, and fewer car classifications, which in turn leads to products getting to the market quicker and more reliably. The result is a better customer experience, which enables us to grow our market share.


Grow:  By harnessing the potential of the best rail franchise in the industry, we expect to generate growth in three ways – increasing profitable carloads that fit our network and transportation plan, providing more products and services to create value for our customers, and increasing the geographic reach of our franchise through innovative supply chain solutions.


Win:  Driving strong financial performance resulting in significant shareholder returns. Execution of our plans to both serve and grow, leads to higher revenues with improved margins and greater cash generation, creating long term enterprise value.


Together:  Engaging our four stakeholder groups – Communities, Customers, Employees, and Shareholders. Our comprehensive approach to Environmental, Social, and Governance issues, “Building a Sustainable Future 2030,” is designed to address the evolving interests of our stakeholders and is built on five areas of concentration – Building Responsible Foundations, Investing in our Workforce, Driving Sustainable Solutions, Championing Environmental Stewardship, and Strengthening our Communities. 


We believe that operational excellence and an engaged workforce with deep market knowledge and strong customer relationships supports best-in-class safety, a customer experience that drives growth, and shareholder returns. 


As we work to transform our railroad into the safest, most reliable, and most efficient in North America, our values continue guiding us. Our passion for performance will help us win; our high ethical standards will lead us to win in a way that supports all of our stakeholders; and our teamwork will make sure we win together.






The Railroad, along with its subsidiaries and rail affiliates, is our one reportable operating segment. Although we provide revenues by commodity group, we analyze the net financial results of the Railroad as one segment due to the integrated nature of our rail network. Additional information regarding our business and operations, including revenues, financial information and data, and other information regarding environmental matters, is presented in Risk Factors, Item 1A; Legal Proceedings, Item 3; Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, Item 7; and the Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Item 8 (which include information regarding revenues, statements of income, and total assets). 


Operations – UPRR is a Class I railroad operating in the U.S. We have 32,534 route miles, connecting Pacific Coast and Gulf Coast ports with the Midwest and Eastern U.S. gateways and providing several corridors to key Mexican gateways. We serve the western two-thirds of the country and maintain coordinated schedules with other rail carriers to move freight to and from the Atlantic Coast, the Pacific Coast, the Southeast, the Southwest, Canada, and Mexico. Export and import traffic moves through Gulf Coast, Pacific Coast, and East Coast ports and across the Mexican and Canadian borders. In 2022, we generated freight revenues totaling $23.2 billion from the following three commodity groups:

2022 Freight Revenues



Bulk – The Company's Bulk shipments consist of grain and grain products, fertilizer, food and refrigerated, and coal and renewables. In 2022, this group generated 33% of our freight revenues. We access most major grain markets, connecting the Midwest and Western U.S. producing areas to export terminals in the Pacific Northwest and Gulf Coast ports as well as Mexico. We also serve significant domestic markets, including grain processors, animal feeders, and ethanol producers in the Midwest and West. Fertilizer movements originate in the Gulf Coast region, Midwest, Western U.S., and Canada (through interline access) for delivery to major agricultural users in those areas as well as abroad. The Railroad’s network supports the transportation of coal shipments to independent and regulated power companies and industrial facilities throughout the U.S. Through interchange gateways and ports, UPRR’s reach extends to Eastern U.S. utilities as well as to Mexico and other international destinations. Coal traffic originating in the Powder River Basin (PRB) area of Wyoming is the largest portion of the Railroad’s coal business. Renewable shipments for customers committed to sustainability consist primarily of biomass exports and wind turbine components.


Industrial – Our extensive network facilitates the movement of numerous commodities between thousands of origin and destination points throughout North America. The Industrial group consists of several categories, including construction, industrial chemicals, plastics, forest products, specialized products (primarily waste, salt, and roofing), metals and ores, petroleum, liquid petroleum gases (LPG), soda ash, and sand. Transportation of these products accounted for 35% of our freight revenues in 2022. Commercial, residential, and governmental infrastructure investments drive shipments of steel, aggregates, cement, and wood products. Industrial and light manufacturing plants receive steel, nonferrous materials, minerals, and other raw materials.


The industrial chemicals market consists of a vast number of chemical compounds that support the manufacturing of more complex chemicals. Plastics shipments support automotive, housing, and the durable and disposable consumer goods markets. Forest product shipments include lumber and paper commodities. Lumber shipments originate primarily in the Pacific Northwest or Western Canada and move throughout the U.S. for use in new home construction and repairs and remodeling. Paper shipments primarily support packaging needs. Oil and gas drilling generates demand for raw steel, finished pipe, stone, and drilling fluid commodities. The Company’s petroleum and LPG shipments are primarily impacted by refinery utilization rates, regional crude pricing differentials, pipeline capacity, and the use of asphalt for road programs. Soda ash originates in southwestern Wyoming and California, destined for chemical and glass producing markets in North America and abroad.




Premium – In 2022, Premium shipments generated 32% of Union Pacific’s total freight revenues. Premium includes finished automobiles, automotive parts, and merchandise in intermodal containers, both domestic and international. International business consists of import and export traffic moving in 20 or 40-foot shipping containers, that mainly pass through West Coast ports, destined for one of the Company's many inland intermodal terminals. Domestic business includes container and trailer traffic picked up and delivered within North America for intermodal marketing companies (primarily shipper agents and logistics companies) as well as truckload carriers.


We are the largest automotive carrier west of the Mississippi River and operate or access 39 vehicle distribution centers. The Railroad’s extensive franchise accesses six vehicle assembly plants and connects to West Coast ports, all six major Mexico gateways, and the Port of Houston to accommodate both import and export shipments. In addition to transporting finished vehicles, the Company provides expedited handling of automotive parts in both boxcars and intermodal containers destined for Mexico, the U.S., and Canada.


Seasonality – Some of the commodities we carry have peak shipping seasons, reflecting either or both the nature of the commodity (such as certain agricultural and food products that have specific growing and harvesting seasons) and the demand cycle for the commodity (such as intermodal traffic that generally peaks during the third quarter to meet back-to-school and holiday-related demand for consumer goods during the fourth quarter). The peak shipping seasons for these commodities can vary considerably each year depending upon various factors, including the strength of domestic and international economies and currencies; consumer demand; the strength of harvests, which can be adversely affected by severe weather; market prices for agricultural products; and supply chain disruptions.


Proud & Engaged Workforce – Our employees are central to our Serve, Grow, Win – Together strategy, and Investing in our Workforce is one of the five areas of concentration in our "Building a Sustainable Future 2030" strategy.


Our People: Our award-winning, multigenerational workforce includes talented people from all walks of life, in many stages of life. Made up of management and craft professionals, we are focused on attracting, retaining, and developing talent across our entire system.


As of December 31, 2022, the Company employed 33,179 employees. Our workforce includes five generations from Traditionalists (born before 1946) to Generation Z (born after 1998). The average age is 46.5 with average tenure of 15.8 years.


Union Pacific works with 13 major rail unions, representing approximately 83% of our workforce. Most craft professionals and more than 45 railroads participate in negotiations on a national multi-employer basis. The National Carriers Conference Committee of the National Railway Labor Conference, consisting of the top labor officers in most Class I railroads, is the bargaining committee for the industry. Railroads are governed by the Railway Labor Act (RLA), a federal statute enacted in 1926 to bring the railroads and unions to agreement without disruptions to rail transportation. The RLA includes numerous safeguards to help overcome bargaining stalemates.


The recent round of labor negotiations related to years 2020-2024 concluded in December 2022. See Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Other Matters – Labor Agreements, Item 7, of this report for information about the conclusion of the 2020-2024 negotiations. The next round of negotiations begins on January 1, 2025, related to years 2025-2029. 


Our Culture: We incorporate our commitment to safety, high ethical standards, passion for performance, and teamwork into our day-to-day operations as we service our customers. 


Safety is central to everything we do at Union Pacific. Together, we are committed to cultivating a safety-focused culture, so our employees return home safely every day. To achieve this, our employees identify risks, initiate action to mitigate those risks, and have the courage to care to keep each other safe.




Our success is measured by our personal injury rate (the number of reportable injuries for every 200,000 employee-hours worked), and our derailment incident rate (the number of reportable derailment incidents per million train miles). Reportable personal injuries are defined as on duty incidents or occupational illnesses that result in employees losing time away from work, modifying or restricting their normal duties, or receiving any medical treatment above and beyond first aid. Reportable derailment incidents are defined as any occurrence where a wheel of a locomotive or rail car falls off the track that causes damage to track, equipment, or structures above the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) reporting threshold, regardless of ownership ($11,300 for 2022 and $11,500 for 2023). The personal injuries and derailment incidents that meet reportable criteria are reported to the FRA.


Our 2022 personal injury rate of 0.80 improved 18% while our derailment incident rate of 2.88 increased 8% versus 2021. (See further discussion in Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, Item 7, of this report.)


Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion: Union Pacific’s commitment to diversity and inclusion is based on our desire to create an environment where people can be their best, personally and professionally. From an employee’s perspective, a diverse culture increases engagement, improves morale, and supports safety. From a business perspective, diversity improves the Company’s decision-making, problem-solving, and strategic thinking, which translates into a competitive advantage with bottom-line results.


Union Pacific’s commitment, today and for the future, is to further improve and strengthen performance through an inclusive workforce that reflects the diverse markets and communities we serve, where everyone is treated fairly, and differences are valued. To that end, Union Pacific established a goal to reach 40% people of color and double our female representation to 11% in our workforce by 2030. As of December 31, 2022, workforce representation of people of color and females was approximately 32.8% and 5.5%, respectively.


The Employee Journey: From recruitment to retirement and milestones in between, we are relentlessly focused on supporting and engaging employees throughout their Union Pacific journey. We view it as imperative to invest in our employees with meaningful benefit offerings, developmental experiences, and career opportunities.


The process begins with recruitment, where we strive to attract the most talented and diverse employees to join our team. Then, we focus on training and development, which includes programs designed to recognize potential and to help our employees grow into new roles so that we can retain our workforce over time.


Providing competitive compensation and meaningful benefits is key to attracting and retaining talented employees. Union Pacific is committed to continuously reviewing its compensation programs and comprehensive benefits programs to promote programs that are fair and competitive. Both are key to enhancing the value of working for Union Pacific and demonstrating the Company’s commitment to the health and wealth of employees during their career. Benefits vary based on the applicable collective bargaining agreement or an employee’s management status. The final stage of the employee journey is a fulfilling retirement, which is enabled during their UP career through our compensation and benefit programs, particularly contributions to 401(k) plans and the employee stock purchase plan (ESPP).


Our Board of Directors evaluates our non-union compensation plans and reviews recommendations from the Compensation and Benefits Committee, while collective bargaining agreements govern compensation for our union employees. The median annual compensation for all employees employed as of December 31, 2022, was $86,778 (excluding the CEO).


Talent is critical – our ability to recruit and retain employees is directly tied to our railroad’s fluidity. Without team members to dispatch or operate trains, our network struggles to provide customers efficient, reliable service.


We accelerated recruitment efforts in 2022, requiring us to evolve our hiring practices and incorporate innovative strategies. From virtual career fairs to pre-recorded video interviews, we implemented robust recruiting tools to meet candidates where they are and provide an efficient, user-friendly experience through every phase of the recruitment process.




We've also been aggressive in how we compete to attract talent in the marketplace. In particularly hard-to-fill jobs and locations, we offered hiring incentives. These incentives are a mix of travel allowances and relocation bonuses, as well as local hiring bonuses to attract applicants already residing in the communities we serve. 


We continue driving inclusivity into our hiring process. We’re removing bias by using software tools to confirm gender-neutral language in job postings, as well as providing video demonstrations and visual cues during physical abilities tests. Pre-recorded video interviews allow applicants to participate at a time that works best for their schedule, accommodating those who may have nontraditional schedules. 


And finally, tapping into those who know us best – employee referrals played an important part in building our team. The “Great People Know Great People” employee referral program offers an incentive for each referral hired. In 2022, we hired more than 1,250 referred employees.


Further discussion can be found in our “We Are One” report available on our website.


Railroad Security – Our security efforts consist of a wide variety of measures, including employee training, engagement with our customers, training of emergency responders, and partnerships with numerous federal, state, and local government agencies. While federal law requires us to protect the confidentiality of our security plans designed to safeguard against terrorism and other security incidents, the following provides a general overview of our security initiatives.


UPRR Security Measures – We maintain a comprehensive security plan designed to both deter and respond to any potential or actual threats as they arise. The plan includes four levels of alert status, each with its own set of countermeasures. We employ our own police force, consisting of commissioned and highly-trained officers. The police are certified state law enforcement officers with investigative and arrest powers. The Union Pacific Police Department has achieved accreditation under the Commission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies, Inc. (CALEA) for complying with the highest law enforcement standards. Our employees undergo recurrent security and preparedness training as well as federally mandated hazardous materials and security training. We regularly review the sufficiency of our employee training programs. We maintain the capability to move critical operations to back-up facilities in different locations.


We operate an emergency response management center 24 hours a day. The center receives reports of emergencies, dangerous or potentially dangerous conditions, and other safety and security issues from our employees, the public, law enforcement, and other government officials. In cooperation with government officials, we monitor both threats and public events, and, as necessary, we may alter rail traffic flow at times of concern to minimize risk to communities and our operations. We comply with the hazardous materials routing rules and other requirements imposed by federal law. We design our operating plan to expedite the movement of hazardous material shipments to minimize the time rail cars remain idle at yards and terminals located in or near major population centers. Additionally, in compliance with Transportation Security Administration (TSA) regulations, we deployed information systems and instructed employees in tracking and documenting the handoff of Rail Security Sensitive Materials with customers and interchange partners.


We established a number of our own innovative safety and security-oriented initiatives ranging from various investments in technology to The Officer on Train program, which provides local law enforcement officers with the opportunity to ride with train crews to enhance their understanding of railroad operations and risks. Our staff of information security professionals continually assess cybersecurity risks and implement mitigation programs that evolve with the changing technology threat environment. To date, we have not experienced any material disruption of our operations due to a cyber threat or attack directed at us.




Cooperation with Federal, State, and Local Government Agencies – We work closely on physical and cybersecurity initiatives with government agencies, including the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT); the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), along with its Cybersecurity & Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) and TSA; as well as local police departments, fire departments, and other first responders. In connection with new guidance from the TSA, effective January 1, 2022, we were required to report cyber incidents to CISA. Additionally, during 2022, as required by the TSA guidance, we performed a cyber vulnerability self-assessment, submitted the results to the TSA, assembled and adopted a cyber incident response plan, and appointed cybersecurity coordinators. During 2023, we are required to comply with the second directive from the TSA, effective October 18, 2022. By February 21, 2023, we are required to develop and implement a cybersecurity implementation plan. Afterwards we need to establish a cybersecurity assessment plan that describes how the Company will proactively and regularly assess the effectiveness of cybersecurity measures as well as identify and resolve device, network, and system vulnerabilities. In conjunction with the Association of American Railroads (AAR), we sponsor Ask Rail, a mobile application that provides first responders with secure links to electronic information, including commodity and emergency response information required by emergency personnel to respond to accidents and other situations. We also participate in the National Joint Terrorism Task Force, a multi-agency effort established by the U.S. Department of Justice and the Federal Bureau of Investigation to combat and prevent terrorism.


We work with the Coast Guard, U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), and the Military Transport Management Command, which monitor shipments entering the UPRR rail network at U.S. border crossings and ports. We were the first railroad in the U.S. to be named a partner in CBP’s Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism, a partnership designed to develop, enhance, and maintain effective security processes throughout the global supply chain.


Cooperation with Customers and Trade Associations – Through TransCAER (Transportation Community Awareness and Emergency Response), we work with the AAR, the American Chemistry Council, the American Petroleum Institute, and other chemical trade groups to provide communities with preparedness tools, including the training of emergency responders. In cooperation with the FRA and other interested groups, we are also working to develop additional improvements to tank car design that will further limit the risk of releases of hazardous materials.


Sustainable Future – Union Pacific believes it is important that we act as environmental stewards, reducing emissions and supporting the transition to a more sustainable future. While we work to further reduce our environmental footprint, it is important to note that railroads already are one of the most fuel-efficient means of transportation. According to the AAR, moving freight by rail instead of truck reduces greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by up to 75%. Building on rail’s relative emissions benefits over other modes of transportation, we are taking additional actions to reduce our emissions. These actions are described in our Climate Action Plan on our website.


Competition – see “We Face Competition from Other Railroads and Other Transportation Providers” in the Risk Factors in Item 1A of this report.


Key Suppliers – see “We Are Dependent on Certain Key Suppliers of Locomotives and Rail” in the Risk Factors in Item 1A of this report.


Available Information – Our Internet website is www.up.com. We make available free of charge on our website (under the “Investors” caption link) our Annual Reports on Form 10-K; our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q; our current reports on Form 8-K; our proxy statements; Forms 3, 4, and 5, filed on behalf of our directors and certain executive officers; and amendments to such reports filed or furnished pursuant to the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the Exchange Act). We provide these reports and statements as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. We also make available on our website previously filed SEC reports and exhibits via a link to EDGAR on the SEC’s Internet site at www.sec.gov. Additionally, our corporate governance materials, including By-Laws, Board Committee charters, governance guidelines and policies, and codes of conduct and ethics for directors, officers, and employees are available on our website. From time to time, the corporate governance materials on our website may be updated as necessary to comply with rules issued by the SEC and the NYSE or as desirable to promote the effective and efficient governance of our Company. Any security holder wishing to receive, without charge, a copy of any of our SEC filings or corporate governance materials should send a written request to: Secretary, Union Pacific Corporation, 1400 Douglas Street, Omaha, NE 68179.




References to our website address, the "We Are One" report, and the Climate Action Plan, in this report, including references in Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, Item 7, are provided as a convenience and do not constitute, and should not be deemed, an incorporation by reference of the information contained on, or available through, the website. Therefore, such information should not be considered part of this report.




Governmental Regulation – Our operations are subject to a variety of federal, state, and local regulations, generally applicable to all businesses. (See also the discussion of certain regulatory proceedings in Legal Proceedings, Item 3.)


The operations of the Railroad are subject to the regulations of the FRA and other federal and state agencies as well as the regulatory jurisdiction of the Surface Transportation Board (STB). The STB has jurisdiction over rates charged on certain regulated rail traffic; common carrier service of regulated traffic; freight car compensation; transfer, extension, or abandonment of rail lines; and acquisition of control of rail common carriers. The STB continues its efforts to explore expanding rail regulation and is reviewing proposed rulemaking in various areas, including reciprocal switching and commodity exemptions, and has finalized rules creating new procedures for smaller rate complaints that are being reviewed in appellate courts. The STB also continues to explore changes to the methodology for determining railroad revenue adequacy and the possible uses of revenue adequacy in regulating railroad rates. The STB posts quarterly reports on rate reasonableness cases, maintains a database on service complaints, and has the authority to initiate investigations, among other things.


DOT, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, and DHS, along with other federal agencies, have jurisdiction over certain aspects of safety, movement of hazardous materials and hazardous waste, emissions requirements, and equipment standards. Additionally, various state and local agencies have jurisdiction over disposal of hazardous waste and seek to regulate movement of hazardous materials in ways not preempted by federal law.


Environmental Regulation – We are subject to extensive federal and state environmental statutes and regulations pertaining to public health and the environment. The statutes and regulations are administered and monitored by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and by various state environmental agencies. The primary laws affecting our operations are the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, regulating the management and disposal of solid and hazardous wastes; the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, regulating the cleanup of contaminated properties; the Clean Air Act, regulating air emissions; and the Clean Water Act, regulating wastewater discharges.


Information concerning environmental claims and contingencies and estimated remediation costs is set forth in Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Critical Accounting Estimates – Environmental, Item 7, and Note 17 to the Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Item 8.


Item 1A. Risk Factors


The following discussion addresses significant factors, events, and uncertainties that make an investment in our securities risky and provides important information for the understanding of our “forward-looking statements,” which are discussed immediately preceding Item 7A of this Form 10-K and elsewhere. The risk factors set forth in this Item 1A should be read in conjunction with the rest of the information included in this report, including Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, Item 7, and Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Item 8.


We urge you to consider carefully the factors described below and the risks that they present for our operations as well as the risks addressed in other reports and materials that we file with the SEC and the other information included or incorporated by reference in this Form 10-K. When the factors, events, and contingencies described below or elsewhere in this Form 10-K materialize, our business, reputation, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, or prospects can be materially adversely affected. In such case, the trading price of our common stock could decline and you could lose part or all of your investment. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also materially adversely affect our business, reputation, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, and prospects.




Strategic and Operational Risks


We Must Manage Fluctuating Demand for Our Services and Network Capacity – Significant reductions in demand for rail services with respect to one or more commodities or changes in consumer preferences that affect the businesses of our customers can lead to increased costs associated with resizing our operations, including higher unit operating costs and costs for the storage of locomotives, rail cars, and other equipment; workforce adjustments; and other related activities, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity. If there is significant demand for our services that exceeds the designed capacity of our network or shifts in traffic flow that are contrary to the designed capacity of our network, we may experience network difficulties, including congestion and reduced velocity, that could compromise the level of service we provide to our customers. This level of demand may also compound the impact of weather and weather-related events on our operations and velocity. Although we continue to work to improve our transportation plan, add capacity, improve operations at our yards and other facilities, and improve our ability to address surges in demand for any reason with adequate resources, we cannot be sure that these measures will fully or adequately address any service shortcomings resulting from demand exceeding our planned capacity. We may experience other operational or service difficulties related to network capacity, dramatic and unplanned fluctuations in our customers’ demand for rail service with respect to one or more commodities or operating regions, or other events that could negatively impact our operational efficiency, which could all have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity.


We Transport Hazardous Materials – We transport certain hazardous materials and other materials, including crude oil, ethanol, and toxic inhalation hazard (TIH) materials, such as chlorine, that pose certain risks in the event of a release or combustion. Additionally, U.S. laws impose common carrier obligations on railroads that require us to transport certain hazardous materials regardless of risk or potential exposure to loss. A rail accident or other incident or accident on our network, at our facilities, or at the facilities of our customers involving the release or combustion of hazardous materials could involve significant costs and claims for personal injury, property damage, and environmental penalties and remediation in excess of our insurance coverage for these risks, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity.


We Rely on Technology and Technology Improvements in Our Business Operations – We rely on information technology in all aspects of our business, including technology systems operated by us or under control of third-parties. If we do not have sufficient capital or do not deploy sufficient capital in a timely manner to acquire, develop, or implement new technology or maintain or upgrade current systems, such as Positive Train Control (PTC) or the latest version of our transportation control systems, we may suffer a rail service outage or competitive disadvantage within the rail industry and with companies providing other modes of transportation service, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity.


We Are Subject to Cybersecurity Risks – We rely on information technology in all aspects of our business, including technology systems operated by us (whether created by us or purchased), under control of third-parties, and open-source software. Although we devote significant resources to protect our technology systems and proprietary data, we have experienced and will likely continue to experience varying degrees of cyber incidents in the normal course of business. There can be no assurance that the systems we have designed to identify, prevent, or limit the effects of cyber incidents or attacks will be sufficient to prevent or detect such incidents or attacks, or to avoid a material adverse impact on our systems after such incidents or attacks do occur. Furthermore, due to the rising numbers and increasing sophistication of cyber-attacks, an increasingly complex information technology supply chain, and the nature of zero-day exploits, we may be unable to anticipate or implement adequate preventative measures to prevent a security breach, including by ransomware, human error, or other cyber-attack methods, from materially disrupting our systems or the systems of third-parties upon which we rely. A successful cyber-attack that results in significant service interruption; safety failure; other operational difficulties; unauthorized access to (or the loss of access to) competitively sensitive, confidential, or other critical data or systems; loss of customers; financial losses; regulatory fines; and misuse or corruption of critical data and proprietary information, could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity. We may experience security breaches that could remain undetected for an extended period and, therefore, have a greater impact on the services we offer. Additionally, we may be exposed to increased cybersecurity risk because we are a component of the critical U.S. infrastructure.




Severe Weather Could Result in Significant Business Interruptions and Expenditures – As a railroad with a vast network, we are exposed to severe weather conditions and other natural phenomena, including earthquakes, hurricanes, fires, floods, mudslides or landslides, extreme temperatures, avalanches, and significant precipitation, and climate change may cause or contribute to the severity or frequency of such weather conditions. Line outages and other interruptions caused by these conditions can adversely affect our entire rail network, potentially negatively affecting revenues, costs, and liabilities, despite efforts we undertake to plan for these events. Our revenues can also be adversely affected by severe weather that causes damage and disruptions to our customers. These impacts caused by severe weather could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity.


A Significant Portion of Our Revenues Involves Transportation of Commodities to and from International Markets – Although revenues from our operations are attributable to transportation services provided in the U.S., a significant portion of our revenues involves the transportation of commodities to and from international markets, including Mexico, Canada, and Southeast Asia, by various carriers and, at times, various modes of transportation. Significant and sustained interruptions of trade with Mexico, Canada, or countries in Southeast Asia, including China, could adversely affect customers and other entities that, directly or indirectly, purchase or rely on rail transportation services in the U.S. as part of their operations, and any such interruptions could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity. Any one or more of the following could cause a significant and sustained interruption of trade with Mexico, Canada, or countries in Southeast Asia: (a) a deterioration of security for international trade and businesses; (b) the adverse impact of new laws, rules, and regulations or the interpretation of laws, rules, and regulations by government entities, courts, or regulatory bodies, including the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA) and a “Phase One” trade agreement with China; (c) actions of taxing authorities that affect our customers doing business in foreign countries; (d) any significant adverse economic developments, such as extended periods of high inflation, material disruptions in the banking sector or in the capital markets of these foreign countries, and significant changes in the valuation of the currencies of these foreign countries that could materially affect the cost or value of imports or exports; (e) shifts in patterns of international trade that adversely affect import and export markets; (f) a material reduction in foreign direct investment in these countries; and (g) public health crises, including the outbreak of pandemic or contagious disease, such as the coronavirus and its variant strains (COVID).


We Are Dependent on Certain Key Suppliers of Locomotives and Rail – Due to the capital-intensive nature and sophistication of locomotive equipment, parts, and maintenance, potential new suppliers face high barriers to entry. Therefore, if one of the domestic suppliers of locomotives discontinues manufacturing locomotives, supplying parts, or providing maintenance for any reason, including bankruptcy or insolvency or the inability to manufacture locomotives that meet efficiency or regulatory emissions standards, we could experience significant cost increases and reduced availability of the locomotives that are necessary for our operations. Additionally, we utilize a limited number of steel producers that meet our specifications. Rail is critical to our operations for rail replacement programs, maintenance, and for adding additional network capacity, new rail and storage yards, and expansions of existing facilities. This industry similarly has high barriers to entry, and if one of these suppliers discontinues operations for any reason, including bankruptcy or insolvency, we could experience both significant cost increases for rail purchases and difficulty obtaining sufficient rail for maintenance and other projects. Changes to trade agreements or policies that result in increased tariffs on goods imported into the United States could also result in significant cost increases for rail purchases and difficulty obtaining sufficient rail.


Workforce Risks


Strikes or Work Stoppages Could Adversely Affect Our Operations – The U.S. Class I railroads are party to collective bargaining agreements with various labor unions. The majority of our employees belong to labor unions and are subject to these agreements. Disputes over the terms of these agreements or our potential inability to negotiate acceptable contracts with these unions can lead to, among other things, strikes, work stoppages, slowdowns, or lockouts, which could cause a significant disruption of our operations and have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity. Additionally, future national labor agreements, or renegotiation of labor agreements or provisions of labor agreements, could compromise our service reliability or significantly increase our costs for health care, wages, and other benefits, which could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity. Labor disputes, work stoppages, slowdowns, or lockouts at loading/unloading facilities, ports, or other transport access points could compromise our service reliability and have a material adverse impact on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity. Labor disputes, work stoppages, slowdowns, or lockouts by employees of our customers or our suppliers could compromise our service reliability and have a material adverse impact on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity.




The Availability of Qualified Personnel Could Adversely Affect Our Operations – Changes in demographics, training requirements, and pandemic illnesses or restrictions could negatively affect the availability of qualified personnel for us, our customers, and throughout the supply chain. Our ability to quickly react to other factors that affect our ability to attract and retain employees may be restricted due to limited flexibility to make unilateral changes to collective bargaining agreements, which cover the majority of our workforce. Unpredictable increases in demand for rail services and a lack of network fluidity may exacerbate our risks, which could have a negative impact on our operational efficiency and otherwise have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity.


Legal and Regulatory Risks


We Are Subject to Significant Governmental Regulation – We are subject to governmental regulation by a significant number of federal, state, and local authorities covering a variety of health, safety, labor, environmental, economic (as discussed below), tax, and other matters. Many laws and regulations require us to obtain and maintain various licenses, permits, and other authorizations, and we cannot guarantee that we will continue to be able to do so. Our failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations could have a material adverse effect on us. Governments or regulators may change the legislative or regulatory frameworks that we operate in without providing us any recourse to address any adverse effects on our business, including, without limitation, regulatory determinations or rules regarding dispute resolution, increasing the amount of our traffic subject to common carrier regulation, business relationships with other railroads, use of embargoes, calculation of our cost of capital or other inputs relevant to computing our revenue adequacy, the prices we charge, changes in tax rates, enactment of new tax laws, and revision in tax regulations. Significant legislative activity in Congress or regulatory activity by the STB could expand regulation of railroad operations and pricing for rail services, which could reduce capital spending on our rail network, facilities, and equipment, and have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity. 


We May Be Subject to Various Claims and Lawsuits That Could Result in Significant Expenditures – As a railroad with operations in densely populated urban areas and a vast rail network, we are exposed to the potential for various claims and litigation related to labor and employment, personal injury, property damage, environmental liability, and other matters. Any material changes to litigation trends or a catastrophic rail accident or series of accidents involving any or all of property damage, personal injury, and environmental liability that exceed our insurance coverage for such risks could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity.


We Are Subject to Significant Environmental Laws and Regulations – Due to the nature of the railroad business, our operations are subject to extensive federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations concerning, among other things, emissions to the air; discharges to waters; handling, storage, transportation, and disposal of waste and other materials; and hazardous material or petroleum releases. We generate and transport hazardous and non-hazardous waste in our operations. Environmental liability can extend to previously owned or operated properties, leased properties, properties owned by third-parties, as well as properties we currently own. Environmental liabilities have arisen and may also arise from claims asserted by adjacent landowners or other third-parties in toxic tort litigation. We have been and may be subject to allegations or findings that we have violated, or are strictly liable under, these laws or regulations. We currently have certain obligations at existing sites for investigation, remediation, and monitoring, and we likely will have obligations at other sites in the future. We maintain adequate reserves for liabilities for these obligations, but fluctuations of potential costs affect our estimates based on our experience and, as necessary, the advice and assistance of our consultants. However, actual costs may vary from our estimates due to any or all of several factors, including changes to environmental laws or interpretations of such laws, technological changes affecting investigations and remediation, the participation and financial viability of other parties responsible for any such liability, and the corrective action or change to corrective actions required to remediate any existing or future sites. We could incur significant costs as a result of any of the foregoing, and we may be required to incur significant expenses to investigate and remediate known, unknown, or future environmental contamination, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity.




Macroeconomic and Industry Risks


We Face Competition from Other Railroads and Other Transportation Providers – We face competition from other railroads, motor carriers, ships, barges, and pipelines. Our main railroad competitor is Burlington Northern Santa Fe LLC. Its primary subsidiary, BNSF Railway Company (BNSF), operates parallel routes in many of our main traffic corridors. In addition, we operate in corridors served by other railroads and motor carriers. Motor carrier competition exists in all three of our commodity groups. Because of the proximity of our routes to major inland and Gulf Coast waterways, barges can be particularly competitive, especially for grain and bulk commodities in certain areas where we operate. In addition to price competition, we face competition with respect to transit times, quality, and reliability of service from motor carriers and other railroads. Motor carriers in particular can have an advantage over railroads with respect to transit times and timeliness of service. However, railroads are much more fuel-efficient than trucks, which reduces the impact of transporting goods on the environment and public infrastructure, and we have been making efforts to convert truck traffic to rail. Additionally, we must build or acquire and maintain our rail system, while trucks, barges, and maritime operators are able to use public rights-of-way maintained by public entities. Any of the following could also affect the competitiveness of our transportation services for some or all of our commodities, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity: (a) improvements or expenditures materially increasing the quality or reducing the costs of these alternative modes of transportation, such as autonomous or more fuel efficient trucks, (b) legislation that eliminates or significantly increases the size or weight limitations applied to motor carriers, or (c) legislation or regulatory changes that impose operating restrictions on railroads or that adversely affect the profitability of some or all railroad traffic. Many movements face product or geographic competition where our customers can use different products (e.g., natural gas instead of coal, sorghum instead of corn) or commodities from different locations (e.g., grain from states or countries that we do not serve, crude oil from different regions). Sourcing different commodities or different locations allows shippers to substitute different carriers and such competition may reduce our volume or constrain prices. Additionally, any future consolidation of the rail industry could materially affect our competitive environment.


We May Be Affected by Climate Change and Market or Regulatory Responses to Climate Change – Climate change, including the impact of global warming and transition risks involving policy, legal risks, and market risks, could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity over both a long-term and near-term basis. Restrictions, caps, taxes, or other controls on emissions of GHGs, including diesel exhaust, could significantly increase our operating costs. Restrictions on emissions could also affect our customers that (a) use commodities that we carry to produce energy, (b) use significant amounts of energy in producing or delivering the commodities we carry, or (c) manufacture or produce goods that consume significant amounts of energy or burn fossil fuels, including chemical producers, farmers and food producers, and automakers and other manufacturers. Significant cost increases, government regulation, or changes of consumer preferences for goods or services relating to alternative sources of energy, emissions reductions, and GHG emissions could materially affect the markets for the commodities we carry and demand for our services, which in turn could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity. Government incentives encouraging the use of alternative sources of energy also could affect certain of our customers and the markets for certain of the commodities we carry in an unpredictable manner that could alter our traffic patterns, including, for example, increasing royalties charged to producers of PRB coal by the U.S. Department of Interior and the impacts of ethanol incentives on farming and ethanol producers. We could face increased costs related to defending and resolving legal claims and other litigation related to climate change and the alleged impact of our operations on climate change. Violent weather caused by climate change, including hurricanes, fires, floods, extreme temperatures, avalanches, and significant precipitation could cause line outages and other interruptions to our infrastructure. Any of these factors, individually or in operation with one or more of the other factors, or other unpredictable impacts of climate change could reduce the amount of traffic we handle and have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity. While we work to implement our Climate Action Plan, our efforts to achieve emission reduction targets could significantly increase our operational costs and capital expenditures.




Our Business, Financial Condition, and Results of Operations have been Adversely Affected, and in the Future, Could be Materially Adversely Affected by Pandemics or Other Public Health Crises – Pandemics, epidemics, and other outbreaks of disease can have significant and widespread impacts. As we saw during the peaks of the COVID pandemic, outbreaks of disease can cause a global slowdown of economic activity (including the decrease in demand for a broad variety of goods), disruptions in global supply chains, and significant volatility and disruption of financial markets, resulting further in adverse effects on workforces, customers, and regional and local economies. The impact of pandemics or public health crises on our results of operations and financial condition may depend on numerous evolving factors, including, but not limited to: governmental, business, and individuals’ actions that have been and continue to be taken in response to a global pandemic or other public health crises (including restrictions on travel and transport, workforce pressures, social distancing, and shelter-in-place orders); the effect of a pandemic or other public health crises on economic activity and actions taken in response; the effect on our customers and their demand for our services; the effect of a pandemic or other public health crises on the credit-worthiness of our customers; national or global supply chain challenges or disruption; facility closures; commodity cost volatility; general macroeconomic uncertainty in key global markets and financial market volatility; global economic conditions and levels of economic growth; and the pace of recovery as the pandemic subsides as well as response to a potential reoccurrence. Further, a pandemic or other public health crises, and the volatile regional and global economic conditions stemming from such an event, could also precipitate and aggravate the other risk factors that we identify, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations (including revenues and profitability), and/or stock price. Additionally, a pandemic or other public health crises also may affect our operating and financial results in a manner that is not presently known to us or that we currently do not consider to present significant risks to our operations.


Financial Risks


We Are Affected By Fluctuating Fuel Prices – Fuel costs constitute a significant portion of our transportation expenses. Diesel fuel prices can be subject to dramatic fluctuations, and significant price increases could have a material adverse effect on our operating results. Although we currently are able to recover a significant amount of our fuel expenses from our customers through revenues from fuel surcharges, we cannot be certain that we will always be able to mitigate rising or elevated fuel costs through our fuel surcharges. Additionally, future market conditions or legislative or regulatory activities could adversely affect our ability to apply fuel surcharges or adequately recover increased fuel costs through fuel surcharges. As fuel prices fluctuate, our fuel surcharge programs trail such fluctuations in fuel price by approximately two months, and may be a significant source of quarter-over-quarter and year-over-year volatility, particularly in periods of rapidly changing prices. International, political, and economic factors, events and conditions, including the start of the Russian-Ukraine conflict in late February 2022, affect the volatility of fuel prices and supplies. Weather can also affect fuel supplies and limit domestic refining capacity. A severe shortage of, or disruption to, domestic fuel supplies could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity. Alternatively, lower fuel prices could have a positive impact on the economy by increasing consumer discretionary spending that potentially could increase demand for various consumer products we transport. However, lower fuel prices could have a negative impact on other commodities we transport, such as coal and domestic drilling-related shipments, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity.


We Rely on Capital Markets – Due to the significant capital expenditures required to operate and maintain a safe and efficient railroad, we rely on the capital markets to provide some of our capital requirements. We utilize long-term debt instruments, bank financing, and commercial paper, and we pledge certain amount of our receivables as collateral for credit. Significant instability or disruptions of the capital markets, including, among other things, current rising interest rates in the credit markets, or deterioration of our financial condition due to internal or external factors could restrict or prohibit our access to, and significantly increase the cost of, commercial paper and other financing sources, including bank credit facilities and the issuance of long-term debt, including corporate bonds. A significant deterioration of our financial condition could result in a reduction of our credit rating to below investment grade, which could restrict us from utilizing our current receivables securitization facility (Receivables Facility). This may also limit our access to external sources of capital and significantly increase the costs of short and long-term debt financing.




General Risk Factors


We Are Affected by General Economic Conditions – Prolonged, severe adverse domestic and global macroeconomic conditions or disruptions of financial and credit markets, including, for example, the recessionary fears and high inflation we are seeing in the current economic environment, may affect the producers and consumers of the commodities we carry and may have a material adverse effect on our access to liquidity, results of operations, and financial condition.


We May Be Affected by Acts of Terrorism, War, or Risk of War – Our rail lines, facilities, and equipment, including rail cars carrying hazardous materials, could be direct targets or indirect casualties of terrorist attacks. Terrorist attacks, or other similar events, any government response thereto, and war or risk of war may adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity. In addition, insurance premiums for some or all of our current coverages could increase dramatically, or certain coverages may not be available to us in the future.


Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments




Item 2. Properties


We employ a variety of assets in the management and operation of our rail business. Our rail network covers 23 states in the western two-thirds of the U.S.








Our rail network includes 32,534 route miles. We own 26,121 miles and operate on the remainder pursuant to trackage rights or leases. The following table describes track miles:


As of December 31,

    2022       2021  


    32,534       32,452  

Other main line

    7,113       7,093  

Passing lines and turnouts

    3,454       3,412  

Switching and classification yard lines

    8,853       8,887  

Total miles

    51,954       51,844  




We own our headquarters building in Omaha, Nebraska. The facility has 1.2 million square feet of space that can accommodate approximately 4,000 employees.




The Harriman Dispatching Center (HDC), located in Omaha, Nebraska, is our primary dispatching facility. It is linked to regional dispatching and locomotive management facilities at various locations along our network. HDC employees coordinate moves of locomotives and trains, manage traffic and train crews on our network, and coordinate interchanges with other railroads. Generally, around 500 employees work on-site in the facility. In the event of a disruption of operations at HDC due to a cyber-attack, flooding or severe weather, pandemic outbreak, or other event, we maintain the capability to conduct critical operations at back-up facilities in different locations.




In addition to our track structure, we operate numerous facilities, including terminals for intermodal and other freight; rail yards for building trains (classification yards), switching, storage-in-transit (the temporary storage of customer goods in rail cars prior to shipment), and other activities; offices to administer and manage our operations; dispatching centers to direct traffic on our rail network; crew on duty locations for train crews along our network; and shops and other facilities for fueling, maintenance, and repair of locomotives and repair and maintenance of rail cars and other equipment. The following table includes the major yards and terminals on our system:


Major Classification Yards

Major Intermodal Terminals

North Platte, Nebraska

Joliet (Global 4), Illinois

Englewood (Houston), Texas

Global II (Chicago), Illinois

North Little Rock, Arkansas

East Los Angeles, California

Livonia, Louisiana

Mesquite, Texas

West Colton, California

Lathrop, California

Fort Worth, Texas

LATC (Los Angeles), California

Houston, Texas

ICTF (Los Angeles), California

Roseville, California

Marion, Arkansas




Our equipment includes owned and leased locomotives and rail cars; heavy maintenance equipment and machinery; other equipment and tools in our shops, offices, and facilities; and vehicles for maintenance, transportation of crews, and other activities. As of December 31, 2022, we owned or leased the following units of equipment:













Age (yrs.)


Multiple purpose

    6,083       1,038       7,121       23.4  


    149       -       149       42.7  


    15       53       68       42.5  

Total locomotives

    6,247       1,091       7,338       N/A  







Freight cars








Age (yrs.)


Covered hoppers

    13,360       9,714       23,074       22.1  

Open hoppers

    4,926       779       5,705       35.8  


    6,188       4,060       10,248       24.2  


    2,598       6,877       9,475       38.2  

Refrigerated cars

    2,496       1,371       3,867       22.4  

Flat cars

    2,248       1,450       3,698       32.4  


    -       312       312       31.4  

Total freight cars

    31,816       24,563       56,379       N/A  





Highway revenue equipment








Age (yrs.)



    48,180       1,356       49,536       11.4  


    29,703       19,616       49,319       12.0  

Total highway revenue equipment

    77,883       20,972       98,855       N/A  


We continuously assess our need for equipment to run an efficient and reliable network. Many factors cause us to adjust the size of our active fleets, including changes in carload volume, weather events, seasonality, customer preferences, and operational efficiency initiatives. As some of these factors are difficult to assess or can change rapidly, we maintain a surge fleet to remain agile. Without the surge fleet, our ability to react quickly is hindered as equipment suppliers are limited and lead times to acquire equipment are long and may be in excess of a year. We believe our locomotive and freight car fleets are appropriately sized to meet our current and future business requirements. These fleets serve as the most reliable and efficient equipment to facilitate growth without additional acquisitions. Locomotive and freight car in service utilization percentages for the year ended December 31, 2022, were 70% and 78%, respectively.




Our rail network requires significant annual capital investments for replacement, improvement, and expansion. These investments enhance safety, support the transportation needs of our customers, improve our operational efficiency, and support emission reduction initiatives outlined in our Climate Action Plan. Additionally, we add new equipment to our fleet to replace older equipment and to support growth and customer demand.


2022 Capital Program – During 2022, our capital program totaled approximately $3.4 billion. (See the cash capital investments table in Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Liquidity and Capital Resources, Item 7, of this report.)


2023 Capital Plan – In 2023, we expect our capital plan to be approximately $3.6 billion, up 6% from 2022. (See further discussion of our 2023 capital plan in Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Liquidity and Capital Resources, Item 7, of this report.)




Equipment Encumbrances – Equipment with a carrying value of approximately $903 million and $1.2 billion at December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively, served as collateral for finance leases and other types of equipment obligations in accordance with the secured financing arrangements utilized to acquire or refinance such railroad equipment.


Environmental Matters – Certain of our properties are subject to federal, state, and local laws and regulations governing the protection of the environment. (See discussion within this report of environmental issues in Business – Governmental and Environmental Regulation, Item 1; Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Critical Accounting Estimates – Environmental, Item 7; and Note 17 to the Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Item 8.)




Item 3. Legal Proceedings


From time to time, we are involved in legal proceedings, claims, and litigation that occur in connection with our business. We routinely assess our liabilities and contingencies in connection with these matters based upon the latest available information and, when necessary, we seek input from our third-party advisors when making these assessments. Consistent with SEC rules and requirements, we describe below material pending legal proceedings (other than ordinary routine litigation incidental to our business), material proceedings known to be contemplated by governmental authorities, other proceedings arising under federal, state, or local environmental laws and regulations (including governmental proceedings involving potential fines, penalties, or other monetary sanctions in excess of $1,000,000), and such other pending matters that we may determine to be appropriate.




We receive notices from the EPA and state environmental agencies alleging that we are or may be liable under federal or state environmental laws for remediation costs at various sites throughout the U.S., including sites on the Superfund National Priorities List or state superfund lists. We cannot predict the ultimate impact of these proceedings and suits because of the number of potentially responsible parties involved, the degree of contamination by various wastes, the scarcity and quality of volumetric data related to many of the sites, and the speculative nature of remediation costs.


Information concerning environmental claims and contingencies and estimated remediation costs is set forth in this report in Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Critical Accounting Estimates – Environmental, Item 7, and Note 17 to the Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Item 8.




Antitrust Litigation – As we reported in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2007, 20 rail shippers (many of whom were represented by the same law firms) filed virtually identical antitrust lawsuits in various federal district courts against us and four other Class I railroads in the U.S. Currently, UPRR and three other Class I railroads are the named defendants in the lawsuits. The original plaintiff filed the first of these claims in the U.S. District Court in New Jersey on May 14, 2007. These suits alleged that the named railroads engaged in price-fixing by establishing common fuel surcharges for certain rail traffic.


On August 16, 2019, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit (D.C. Circuit) affirmed the decision of U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia (U.S. District Court) denying class certification (the Certification Denial). Only five plaintiffs remain in this multidistrict litigation (MDL) originally filed in 2007, which remains pending. They are proceeding on a consolidated basis in the U.S. District Court before the Honorable Paul L. Friedman (MDL I). Since the Certification Denial, approximately 111 lawsuits have been filed in federal court based on claims identical to those alleged in the class certification case. The Judicial Panel on Multidistrict Litigation consolidated these suits for pretrial proceedings in the U.S. District Court before the Honorable Beryl A. Howell (MDL II).


On February 19, 2021, the court denied our motion to exclude plaintiffs' alleged evidence of conspiracy under a federal statute designed to incent and protect railroad communications made to further interline service (i.e., where two railroads are in the route). On May 17, 2022, the DC Circuit reversed the trial court and largely adopted the railroads’ interpretation of the statute, although no individual evidentiary rulings were made.


We also filed a motion for summary judgment on May 14, 2021, in the MDL I proceedings, and the briefing was completed in September 2021. A hearing has not been scheduled on the motion.


As we reported in our Current Report on Form 8-K, filed on June 10, 2011, the Railroad received a complaint filed in the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia on June 7, 2011, by Oxbow Carbon & Minerals LLC and related entities (Oxbow). Just as it did in the MDL proceedings, Union Pacific filed a motion for summary judgment on May 14, 2021, and no hearing has been scheduled.


We continue to deny the allegations that our fuel surcharge programs violate the antitrust laws or any other laws. We believe that these lawsuits are without merit, and we will vigorously defend our actions. Therefore, we currently believe that these matters will not have a material adverse effect on any of our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity.




Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures


Not applicable. 


Information About Our Executive Officers and Principal Executive Officers of Our Subsidiaries


The Board of Directors typically elects and designates our executive officers on an annual basis at the board meeting held in conjunction with the Annual Meeting of Shareholders, and they hold office until their successors are elected. Executive officers also may be elected and designated throughout the year, as the Board of Directors considers appropriate. There are no family relationships among the officers, nor is there any arrangement or understanding between any officer and any other person pursuant to officer selection. The following table sets forth certain information current as of February 10, 2023, relating to the executive officers.





Experience During




Past Five Years

Lance M. Fritz

Chairman, President, and Chief Executive Officer of UPC and the Railroad


Current Position

Jennifer L. Hamann

Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of UPC and the Railroad



Craig V. Richardson

Executive Vice President, Chief Legal Officer, and Corporate Secretary of UPC and the Railroad



Kenny G. Rocker

Executive Vice President – Marketing and Sales of the Railroad



Todd M. Rynaski

Senior Vice President and Chief Accounting, Risk, and Compliance Officer of UPC and the Railroad



Eric J. Gehringer

Executive Vice President – Operations of the Railroad



Elizabeth F. Whited

Executive Vice President – Sustainability and Strategy of UPC and the Railroad





Ms. Hamann was elected Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of UPC and the Railroad effective January 1, 2020. She previously served as Senior Vice President  Finance (April 2019  December 2019) and Vice President  Planning & Analysis (October 2017  March 2019).


Mr. Richardson was elected Executive Vice President, Chief Legal Officer, and Corporate Secretary of UPC and the Railroad effective December 8, 2020. He most recently served as Vice President  Commercial and Regulatory Law since 2015.


Mr. Rocker was elected Executive Vice President  Marketing and Sales of the Railroad effective August 15, 2018. Mr. Rocker previously served at the Railroad as Vice President – Marketing and Sales  Industrial team (October 2016  August 2018).

[4] Mr. Rynaski was elected Senior Vice President and Chief Accounting, Risk, and Compliance Officer of UPC and the Railroad effective July 1, 2022. Mr. Rynaski previously served as Vice President and Controller (September 2015  June 2022).


Mr. Gehringer was elected Executive Vice President  Operations of the Railroad effective January 1, 2021. Mr. Gehringer previously served as Senior Vice President  Transportation (July 2020  December 2020), Vice President  Mechanical and Engineering (January 2020  July 2020), Vice President  Engineering (March 2018  January 2020), and Assistant Vice President  Engineering (September 2016  March 2018).


Ms. Whited was elected Executive Vice President  Sustainability and Strategy of UPC and the Railroad effective February 3, 2022. She previously served as Executive Vice President and Chief Human Resources Officer (August 2018  February 2022) and Executive Vice President and Chief Marketing Officer (December 2016  August 2018).







Item 5. Market for the Registrants Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters, and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities


Our common stock is traded on the NYSE under the symbol “UNP”.


At February 3, 2023, there were 611,872,981 shares of common stock outstanding and 28,959 common shareholders of record. On that date, the closing price of the common stock on the NYSE was $210.29. We paid dividends to our common shareholders during each of the past 123 years.


Comparison Over One- and Three-Year Periods – The following table presents the cumulative total shareholder returns, assuming reinvestment of dividends, over one- and three-year periods for the Corporation (UNP), a peer group index (comprised of CSX Corporation and Norfolk Southern Corporation), the Dow Jones Transportation Index (DJ Trans), and the Standard & Poor’s 500 Stock Index (S&P 500).






Peer Group


DJ Trans


S&P 500


1 Year (2022)









3 Year (2020 - 2022)

    22.0       33.6       27.9       24.7  


Five-Year Performance Comparison – The following graph provides an indicator of cumulative total shareholder returns for the Corporation as compared to the peer group index (described above), the DJ Trans, and the S&P 500. The graph assumes that $100 was invested in the common stock of Union Pacific Corporation and each index on December 31, 2017, and that all dividends were reinvested. The information below is historical in nature and is not necessarily indicative of future performance.






Purchases of Equity Securities – During 2022, we repurchased 27,374,826 shares of our common stock at an average price of $231.51. The following table presents common stock repurchases during each month for the fourth quarter of 2022:



  Total Number of Shares Purchased [a]     Average Price Paid Per Share     Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of a Publicly Announced Plan or Program     Maximum Number of Shares Remaining Under the Plan or Program [b]  

Oct. 1 through Oct. 31

    1,985,868     $ 196.40       1,985,704       85,423,274  

Nov. 1 through Nov. 30

    1,235,296       206.48       1,234,889       84,188,385  

Dec. 1 through Dec. 31

    281,092       213.45       281,074       83,907,311  


    3,502,256     $ 201.32       3,501,667       N/A  



Total number of shares purchased during the quarter includes approximately 589 shares delivered or attested to UPC by employees to pay stock option exercise prices, satisfy excess tax withholding obligations for stock option exercises or vesting of retention units, and pay withholding obligations for vesting of retention shares.


Effective April 1, 2022, our Board of Directors authorized the repurchase of up to 100 million shares of our common stock by March 31, 2025, replacing our previous repurchase program. These repurchases may be made on the open market or through other transactions. Our management has sole discretion with respect to determining the timing and amount of these transactions.


Item 6. [Reserved]


Item 7. Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations


The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and applicable notes to the Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Item 8, and other information in this report, including Risk Factors set forth in Item 1A and Critical Accounting Estimates and Cautionary Information at the end of this Item 7. The following section generally discusses 2022 and 2021 items and year-to-year comparisons between 2022 and 2021. Discussions of 2020 items and year-to-year comparisons between 2021 and 2020 that are not included in this Form 10-K can be found in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in Part II, Item 7, of the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021.


The Railroad, along with its subsidiaries and rail affiliates, is our one reportable business segment. Although revenues are analyzed by commodity, we analyze the net financial results of the Railroad as one segment due to the integrated nature of the rail network.




2022 Results


Safety – Union Pacific is dedicated to maintaining a safe and healthy workplace. Throughout 2022, we continued to use our Total Safety Culture, Courage to Care, COMMIT (Coaching, Observing, Mentoring, and Motivating with Integrity and Trust), and Peer to Peer programs throughout our operations to enhance employee safety and engagement. In addition, based on the evaluation of a third-party expert on the effectiveness of these programs completed in 2021, we are implementing engagement improvements to enhance our safety culture. These initiatives include defining and setting standards for employee interactions, corrective actions and follow up, and root cause analysis. As a result of these efforts, our reportable personal injury incidents rate per 200,000 employee-hours of 0.80 decreased 18% from 2021. We also continued to adapt to the evolving environment due to COVID and other illnesses. Safety procedures and policies are refined based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines.





We continued to refine our proprietary software to evaluate train and route characteristics to enable proactive intervention by our Operating Practices Command Center to prevent derailments. In addition, we increased the replacement of freight car wheels and took steps to address human factor yard derailments related to switch alignment. Despite these efforts, our reportable derailment incident rate per million train miles increased 8% year-over-year.


Network Operations – Throughout 2022, our network was congested in several key corridors, which hindered our ability to handle all of the demand in several markets. To address this congestion, we aggressively hired and graduated 1,302 new train, engine, and yard employees; temporarily relocated train, engine, and yard employees to areas with the greatest need; added locomotives to the fleet in select locations; and reduced freight car inventory, relative to carloads, from our network. Due to this congestion, our operating metrics deteriorated year-over-year. Freight car velocity decreased due to increased terminal dwell and higher operating car inventory levels, which drove lower train speeds. Additional details on these metrics are discussed in Other Operating/Performance and Financial Statistics of this Item 7.


Freight Revenues – Freight revenues increased 14% year-over-year to $23.2 billion driven by higher fuel surcharge revenues, core pricing gains, and a 2% increase in volume. Volume increases were driven by strong production and inventory replenishment in the automotive industry, increased demand for coal due to higher natural gas prices, and continued strength in the industrial markets driven by rock, sand, and plastics. These gains were partially offset by declines in international intermodal, parcel, grain, and petroleum products.


Financial Results  Higher fuel prices, operational challenges, inflation, increased volume-related costs, and a one-time charge for the labor agreements reached with our labor unions (See Labor Agreements in Other Matters in this Item 7 of Part II), drove a 20% increase in operating expenses. Partially offsetting these increases were lower weather-related expenses in 2022 compared to 2021, when we incurred additional costs associated with Winter Storm Uri and wildfires in California. Increased revenues, due to higher fuel surcharge revenues, improved pricing, additional volume, and intermodal accessorial charges, more than offset the increased expenses producing operating income of $9.9 billion, a 6% increase over 2021. Our operating ratio was 60.1%, deteriorating 2.9 points from 2021. Net income of $7.0 billion translated into earnings of $11.21 per diluted share, up 13% from 2021.


Fuel Prices – The onset of the Russia-Ukraine conflict in late February 2022 drove crude oil prices above $100 a barrel, where it remained elevated until mid-2022, driving an increase in our average fuel price. While our average fuel price declined 8% in the fourth quarter from the second quarter high of $4.03, our average price in the fourth quarter was 46% higher than the fourth quarter of 2021.


Our average price of diesel fuel for the full year of 2022 was $3.65 per gallon, an increase of 64% from 2021. The higher price resulted in increased operating expenses of $1.3 billion (excluding any impact from year-over-year volume increases). Gross ton-miles increased 3%, which also drove higher fuel expense. Partially offsetting these increases was a 1% improvement in our fuel consumption rate to a new full year record low.


Liquidity – We are continually evaluating our financial condition and liquidity. On December 31, 2022, we had $973 million of cash and cash equivalents. Despite the challenging year, we generated $9.4 billion of cash provided by operating activities, yielding free cash flow of $2.7 billion after reductions of $3.5 billion for cash used in investing activities and $3.2 billion in dividends. We repurchased $6.3 billion of our shares. We have been, and we expect to continue to be, in compliance with our debt covenants. We have $2.0 billion of credit available under our revolving credit facility and up to $700 million undrawn on our Receivables Facility. As of December 31, 2022, none of the revolving credit facility was drawn. Additional details are discussed in Liquidity and Capital Resources of this Item 7.




Free cash flow is defined as cash provided by operating activities less cash used in investing activities and dividends paid. Free cash flow is not considered a financial measure under GAAP by SEC Regulation G and Item 10 of SEC Regulation S-K and may not be defined and calculated by other companies in the same manner. We believe free cash flow is important to management and investors in evaluating our financial performance and measures our ability to generate cash without additional external financing. Free cash flow should be considered in addition to, rather than as a substitute for, cash provided by operating activities. The following table reconciles cash provided by operating activities (GAAP measure) to free cash flow (non-GAAP measure):










Cash provided by operating activities

  $ 9,362     $ 9,032     $ 8,540  

Cash used in investing activities

    (3,471 )     (2,709 )     (2,676 )

Dividends paid

    (3,159 )     (2,800 )     (2,626 )

Free cash flow

  $ 2,732     $ 3,523     $ 3,238  


2023 Outlook


Safety – Operating a safe railroad benefits all our constituents: employees, customers, shareholders, and the communities we serve. We will continue using a comprehensive safety management system approach utilizing technology, hazard identification and risk assessments, employee engagement, training, quality control, and targeted capital investments. We will continually evaluate and adjust deployment of Total Safety Culture, Courage to Care, COMMIT, and Peer to Peer resources throughout our operations, which allows us to identify and implement best practices for employee and operational safety. In addition, our Operating Practices Command Center will continue the implementation of predictive technology to reduce variability by seeking to identify causes of mainline service interruptions and develop solutions, in addition to assisting employees with understanding best practices for handling trains. We will continue our efforts to utilize data to identify and mitigate exposure to risk, detect rail defects, improve or close crossings, and educate the public and law enforcement agencies about crossing safety through a combination of our own programs (including risk assessment strategies), industry programs, and local community activities across the network. We also are dedicated to maintaining a healthy workplace and continue monitoring the COVID case levels, modifying our policies as needed to protect employees and minimize the risk of workplace transmission.


Network Operations – In 2023, we strive to increase reliability of our service product, reduce variability in network operations, and improve resource availability, including actively hiring additional train, engine, and yard employees. Further train length initiatives allow us to efficiently add incremental volume growth to our existing train network. We will continue to make capital investments targeted to improve operational performance, handle more volume, and increase efficiency, requiring fewer locomotives, freight cars, and other critical resources.


Financial Expectations – We expect volume to outpace industrial production growth in 2023 due to our business development efforts bringing new customers to our railroad. In the current environment, we expect continued operating ratio improvement driven by pricing in excess of inflation, improving our service product, and better leveraging our resources. We expect to generate strong cash flow from operating activities allowing us to continue our industry leading dividend payout ratio and commit excess cash to our share repurchase programs. Macroeconomic uncertainties remain in 2023 that could have a material impact on our 2023 financial and operating results. Regardless of external factors, we will focus on providing our customers consistent and reliable service; efficiently managing operations; seeking new business opportunities; and protecting our employees, customers, and communities.


Market Conditions – Current forecasts for industrial production indicate negative growth in 2023. The macroeconomic uncertainty, high inflationary environment, and disruptions in supply chains will continue to impact our shipments. In addition, other factors, such as changes in domestic and foreign monetary policy (including rising interest rates), may affect economic activity and demand for rail transportation; natural gas prices, weather conditions, and demand for other energy sources may impact the coal market; crude oil prices and spreads may drive demand for petroleum products and drilling materials; available truck capacity could impact our intermodal business; and international trade agreements could promote or hinder trade.




Fuel Prices – Projections for crude oil and natural gas continue to fluctuate in the current economic environment. We could again see volatile fuel prices during 2023, as they are sensitive to global and U.S. domestic demand, refining capacity, geopolitical events, weather conditions, and other factors. As prices fluctuate, there will be a timing impact on earnings, as our fuel surcharge programs trail increases or decreases in fuel price by approximately two months.


Significant changes in fuel prices could have an impact on consumer discretionary spending, impacting demand for various consumer products we transport. Alternatively, those changes could have an inverse impact on commodities such as coal, petroleum products, and domestic drilling-related shipments. Increased diesel fuel prices also impact our competitive position versus trucks. As prices rise, the demand for more fuel-efficient rail transportation also rises, but at a slower rate.


Capital Plan – In 2023, we expect our capital plan to be approximately $3.6 billion, up 6% from 2022 as we make investments to support our growth strategy. We will continue to harden our infrastructure, replace older assets, and improve the safety and resilience of the network. In addition, the plan includes investments in growth-related projects to drive more carloads to the network, certain ramps to efficiently handle volumes from new and existing intermodal customers, continuous modernization of our locomotive fleet, and projects intended to improve operational efficiency. The capital plan may be revised if business conditions warrant or if new laws or regulations affect our ability to generate sufficient returns on these investments. (See further discussion in this Item 7 under Liquidity and Capital Resources – Capital Plan.)




Operating Revenues



% Change


% Change









    2022 v 2021     2021 v 2020  

Freight revenues

  $ 23,159     $ 20,244     $ 18,251       14




Other subsidiary revenues

    884       741       743       19       -  

Accessorial revenues

    779       752       473       4       59  


    53       67       66       (21 )     2  


  $ 24,875     $ 21,804     $ 19,533       14





We generate freight revenues by transporting products from our three commodity groups. Freight revenues vary with volume (carloads) and average revenue per car (ARC). Changes in price, traffic mix, and fuel surcharges drive ARC. Customer incentives, which are primarily provided for shipping to/from specific locations or based on cumulative volumes, are recorded as a reduction to operating revenues. Customer incentives that include variable consideration based on cumulative volumes are estimated using the expected value method, which is based on available historical, current, and forecasted volumes, and recognized as the related performance obligation is satisfied. We recognize freight revenues over time as shipments move from origin to destination. The allocation of revenues between reporting periods is based on the relative transit time in each reporting period with expenses recognized as incurred.


Other subsidiary revenues (primarily logistics and commuter rail operations) are generally recognized over time as shipments move from origin to destination. The allocation of revenues between reporting periods is based on the relative transit time in each reporting period with expenses recognized as incurred. Accessorial revenues are recognized at a point in time as performance obligations are satisfied.


Freight revenues increased 14% year-over-year to $23.2 billion driven by higher fuel surcharge revenues, core pricing gains, and a 2% increase in volume. Volume increases were driven by strong production and inventory replenishment in the automotive industry, increased demand for coal due to higher natural gas prices, and continued strength in the industrial markets driven by rock, sand, and plastics. These gains were partially offset by declines in international intermodal, parcel, grain, and petroleum products.


Our fuel surcharge programs generated freight revenues of $3.7 billion and $1.7 billion in 2022 and 2021, respectively. Fuel surcharge revenues in 2022 increased $2.0 billion because of a 64% increase in fuel price and a 2% increase in carloadings.


In 2022, other subsidiary revenues increased compared to 2021 primarily driven by higher fuel surcharge and an increase in automotive parts shipments due to market demand and contract wins at our Loup subsidiary. Accessorial revenues increased in 2022 compared to 2021 driven by increased intermodal accessorial charges tied to global supply chain disruptions. Other revenues decreased year-over-year.




The following tables summarize the year-over-year changes in freight revenues, revenue carloads, and ARC by commodity type:


Freight Revenues


% Change


% Change









    2022 v 2021     2021 v 2020  

Grain & grain products

  $ 3,598     $ 3,181     $ 2,829       13





    712       697       660       2       6  

Food & refrigerated

    1,093       998       937       10       7  

Coal & renewables

    2,134       1,780       1,534       20       16  


    7,537       6,656       5,960       13       12  

Industrial chemicals & plastics

    2,158       1,943       1,845       11       5  

Metals & minerals

    2,196       1,811       1,580       21       15  

Forest products

    1,465       1,357       1,160       8       17  

Energy & specialized markets

    2,386       2,212       2,037       8       9  


    8,205       7,323       6,622       12       11  


    2,257       1,761       1,680       28       5  


    5,160       4,504       3,989       15       13  


    7,417       6,265       5,669       18       11  


  $ 23,159     $ 20,244     $ 18,251       14





Revenue Carloads


% Change


% Change









    2022 v 2021     2021 v 2020  

Grain & grain products

    798       805       745       (1





    190       201       193       (5 )     4  

Food & refrigerated

    187       189       185       (1 )     2  

Coal & renewables

    885       819       797       8       3  


    2,060       2,014       1,920       2       5  

Industrial chemicals & plastics

    637       606       587       5       3  

Metals & minerals

    785       697       646       13       8  

Forest products

    241       250       220       (4 )     14  

Energy & specialized markets

    552       559       539       (1 )     4  


    2,215       2,112       1,992       5       6  


    778       701       692       11       1  

Intermodal [a]

    3,116       3,211       3,149       (3 )     2  


    3,894       3,912       3,841       -       2  


    8,169       8,038       7,753       2






% Change


% Change


Average Revenue per Car







    2022 v 2021     2021 v 2020  

Grain & grain products

  $ 4,509     $ 3,953     $ 3,797       14





    3,749       3,470       3,427       8       1  

Food & refrigerated

    5,844       5,279       5,047       11       5  

Coal & renewables

    2,410       2,173       1,926       11       13  


    3,658       3,305       3,104       11       6  

Industrial chemicals & plastics

    3,388       3,207       3,144       6       2  

Metals & minerals

    2,797       2,598       2,445       8       6  

Forest products

    6,092       5,424       5,269       12       3  

Energy & specialized markets

    4,320       3,956       3,780       9       5  


    3,704       3,467       3,324       7       4  


    2,902       2,511       2,427       16       3  

Intermodal [a]

    1,656       1,403       1,267       18       11  


    1,905       1,601       1,476       19       8  


  $ 2,835     $ 2,519     $ 2,354       13







For intermodal shipments, each container or trailer equals one carload.




Bulk – Bulk includes shipments of grain and grain products, fertilizer, food and refrigerated, and coal and renewables. Freight revenues from bulk shipments increased in 2022 compared to 2021 due to higher fuel surcharge revenues, core pricing gains, and volume increases, partially offset by negative mix from increased coal shipments and decreased grain shipments. Volume grew 2% compared to 2021 driven by increases in coal and renewable shipments due to higher natural gas prices and contract wins, partially offset by declines in grain and grain products shipments as network constraints increased shuttle cycle times for our grain traffic.


2022 Bulk Carloads


Industrial – Industrial includes shipments of industrial chemicals and plastics, metals and minerals, forest products, and energy and specialized markets. Freight revenues from industrial shipments increased in 2022 versus 2021 due to higher fuel surcharge revenues, volume increases, and core pricing gains, partially offset by negative mix of traffic from increased short haul rock shipments and decreased petroleum. Volume increased 5% compared to 2021. The growth was driven by metals and minerals due to strong demand for sand and rock as well as new business wins, expansions, and market demand for industrial chemicals and plastics. Many of our customers in the Gulf Coast experienced Winter Storm Uri disruptions for an extended period causing a significant impact on industrial chemicals and plastics and metals and minerals industries in the first quarter of 2021. The 2021 weather events coupled with strong demand in 2022 drove the year-over-year increase for the impacted commodities. Partially offsetting some of the growth was a decline in petroleum shipments, within the energy and specialized markets commodity line, primarily due to regulatory challenges in Mexico markets.


2022 Industrial Carloads

Premium – Premium includes shipments of finished automobiles, automotive parts, and merchandise in intermodal containers, both domestic and international. Freight revenues from premium shipments increased driven by higher fuel surcharges, core pricing gains, and positive mix of traffic, partially offset by a slight decline in volume. Automotive shipments increased 11% compared to 2021 driven by an increase in finished vehicle shipments and automotive parts as the automotive industry continued to recover from the shortage of semiconductors and the 2021 weather disruptions in the first quarter. Premium volume was flat compared to 2021 as the increased automotive shipments, domestic intermodal contract wins, and market strength due to tight truck capacity earlier in the year were more than offset by ongoing international supply chain disruptions and the soft market demand in the fourth quarter for domestic and parcel shipments.

2022 Premium Carloads



Mexico Business – Each of our commodity groups includes revenues from shipments to and from Mexico. Revenues from Mexico business were $2.7 billion in 2022, up 14% compared to 2021, driven by higher fuel surcharge revenues, core pricing gains, and positive mix of traffic, partially offset by a 1% decline in volume. The volume decrease was driven by lower intermodal and petroleum shipments, partially offset by increases in automotive parts and steel shipments.




Operating Expenses



% Change


% Change









    2022 v 2021     2021 v 2020  

Compensation and benefits

  $ 4,645     $ 4,158     $ 3,993       12





    3,439       2,049       1,314       68       56  

Purchased services and materials

    2,442       2,016       1,962       21       3  


    2,246       2,208       2,210       2       -  

Equipment and other rents

    898       859       875       5       (2 )


    1,288       1,176       1,345       10       (13 )


  $ 14,958     $ 12,466     $ 11,699       20





Operating expenses increased $2.5 billion, or 20%, in 2022 compared to 2021 driven by higher fuel prices, operational inefficiencies, inflation, increased volume-related costs, and a one-time charge for the labor agreements reached with our labor unions (See Labor Agreements in Other Matters in this Item 7 of Part II). Partially offsetting these increases were lower weather-related expenses in 2022 compared to 2021, which included costs associated with Winter Storm Uri and wildfires in California.

2022 Operating Expenses



Compensation and Benefits – Compensation and benefits include wages, payroll taxes, health and welfare costs, pension costs, and incentive costs. In 2022, expenses increased 12% compared to 2021, due to wage inflation, increased employee levels to address congestion across the system and increased carload volumes, and a one-time charge for the labor agreements reached with our labor unions (See Labor Agreements in Other Matters in this Item 7 of Part II). The year-over-year comparison was positively impacted by the 2021 weather-related expenses.


Fuel – Fuel includes locomotive fuel and gasoline for highway and non-highway vehicles and heavy equipment. Locomotive diesel fuel prices, which averaged $3.65 per gallon (including taxes and transportation costs) in 2022, compared to $2.23 per gallon in 2021, increased expenses $1.3 billion (excluding any impact from increased volume year-over-year). Gross ton-miles increased 3% driving higher fuel expense. Partially offsetting this increase was a 1% improvement to a record low fuel consumption rate in 2022, computed as gallons of fuel consumed divided by gross ton-miles.


Purchased Services and Materials – Expense for purchased services and materials includes the costs of services purchased from outside contractors and other service providers (including equipment maintenance and contract expenses incurred by our subsidiaries for external transportation services); materials used to maintain the Railroad’s lines, structures, and equipment; costs of operating facilities jointly used by UPRR and other railroads; transportation and lodging for train crew employees; trucking and contracting costs for intermodal containers; leased automobile maintenance expenses; and tools and supplies. Purchased services and materials increased 21% in 2022 compared to 2021 driven by higher locomotive maintenance expenses due to a larger active fleet to assist in recovering the network, inflation, increased drayage costs incurred by our Loup subsidiary, and volume-related costs. The year-over-year comparison was positively impacted by the 2021 weather-related expenses.


Depreciation – The majority of depreciation relates to road property, including rail, ties, ballast, and other track material. Depreciation expense was up 2% in 2022 compared to 2021.


Equipment and Other Rents – Equipment and other rents expense primarily includes rental expense that the Railroad pays for freight cars owned by other railroads or private companies; freight car, intermodal, and locomotive leases; and office and other rent expenses, offset by equity income from certain equity method investments. Equipment and other rents expense increased 5% compared to 2021 due to higher volume and network congestion. Higher equity income partially offset some of these increases. 




Other – Other expenses include state and local taxes; freight, equipment, and property damage; utilities; insurance; personal injury; environmental; employee travel; telephone and cellular; computer software; bad debt; and other general expenses. Other expenses increased 10% in 2022 compared to 2021 driven by casualty expenses, including higher personal injury expense and damaged freight; increased business travel costs; and higher state and local taxes, partially offset by higher equity income. 


Non-Operating Items



% Change


% Change










2022 v 2021


2021 v 2020


Other income, net

  $ 426     $ 297     $ 287       43




Interest expense

    (1,271 )     (1,157 )     (1,141 )     10       1  

Income tax expense

    (2,074 )     (1,955 )     (1,631 )     6       20  


Other Income, net – Other income increased in 2022 compared to 2021 driven by higher real estate income and net periodic pension benefits, partially offset by a $36 million gain from the sale of an investment in a technology company in 2021 and higher environmental remediation expense at non-operating sites. Real estate sales in 2022 included a $79 million gain from a land sale to the Illinois State Toll Highway Authority and a $35 million gain from a land sale to the Colorado Department of Transportation. Real estate sales in 2021 included a $50 million gain from a sale to the Colorado Department of Transportation. 


Interest Expense – Interest expense increased in 2022 compared to 2021 due to an increased weighted-average debt level of $32.1 billion in 2022 from $28.3 billion in 2021, partially offset by a lower effective interest rate of 4.0% in 2022 compared to 4.1% in 2021. 


Income Tax Expense – Income tax expense increased in 2022 compared to 2021 due to higher pre-tax income, partially offset by reductions of $95 million in deferred tax expense from Nebraska, Iowa, Arkansas, and Idaho reducing their corporate income tax rates. 2021 income tax expense included reductions of $32 million in deferred tax expense from Nebraska, Oklahoma, Idaho, Louisiana, and Arkansas reducing their corporate income tax rates. Our effective tax rates for 2022 and 2021 were 22.9% and 23.1%, respectively.




We report a number of key performance measures weekly to the STB. We provide this data on our website at www.up.com/investor/aar-stb_reports/index.htm.


Operating/Performance Statistics


Management continuously monitors these key operating metrics to evaluate our operational efficiency and asset utilization in striving to provide a consistent, reliable service product to our customers.


Railroad performance measures are included in the table below:



% Change


% Change








2022 v 2021


2021 v 2020


Gross ton-miles (GTMs) (billions)

    843.4       817.9       771.8       3 %       6 %  

Revenue ton-miles (billions)

    420.8       411.3       385.0       2         7    

Freight car velocity (daily miles per car) [a]

    191       203       221       (6 )       (8 )  

Average train speed (miles per hour) [a]

    23.8       24.6       25.9       (3 )       (5 )  

Average terminal dwell time (hours) [a]

    24.4       23.7       22.7       3         4    

Locomotive productivity (GTMs per horsepower day)

125       133       137       (6 )       (3 )  

Train length (feet)

    9,329       9,334       8,798       -         6    

Intermodal car trip plan compliance (%) [b]

    67       73       81       (6 )


    (8 )


Manifest/Automotive car trip plan compliance (%) [b]

59       63       71       (4 )


    (8 )


Workforce productivity (car miles per employee)

1,036       1,038       947       -         10    

Total employees (average)

    30,717       29,905       30,960       3         (3 )  

Operating ratio (%)

    60.1       57.2       59.9       2.9  


    (2.7 )




As reported to the STB.

[b] Methodology used to report (described below) is not comparable with the reporting to the STB under docket number EP 770.




Gross and Revenue Ton-Miles – Gross ton-miles are calculated by multiplying the weight of loaded and empty freight cars by the number of miles hauled. Revenue ton-miles are calculated by multiplying the weight of freight by the number of tariff miles. In 2022, gross ton-miles and revenue ton-miles increased 3% and 2%, respectively, compared to 2021, driven by a 2% increase in carloadings. Changes in commodity mix drove the variance in year-over-year increases between gross ton-miles, revenue ton-miles, and carloads (higher increases in coal, which are generally heavier).


Freight Car Velocity – Freight car velocity measures the average daily miles per car on our network. The two key drivers of this metric are the speed of the train between terminals (average train speed) and the time a rail car spends at the terminals (average terminal dwell time). Freight car velocity, average train speed, and average terminal dwell deteriorated compared to 2021 as excess operating car inventory levels and hiring challenges decreased network fluidity.


Locomotive Productivity – Locomotive productivity is gross ton-miles per average daily locomotive horsepower. Locomotive productivity decreased 6% in 2022 compared to 2021 driven by an increase in our average active fleet size as resources were deployed to alleviate network congestion and handle increased volume compared to 2021.


Train Length – Train length is the average maximum train length on a route measured in feet. Our train length remained relatively flat compared to 2021 due to lower international intermodal shipments and efforts to recover the network offsetting productivity initiatives. 


Car Trip Plan Compliance – Car trip plan compliance is the percentage of cars delivered on time in accordance with our original trip plan. Our network trip plan compliance is broken into the intermodal and manifest/automotive products. Intermodal car trip plan compliance and manifest/automotive car trip plan compliance deteriorated in 2022 compared to 2021 because of crew shortages.


Workforce Productivity – Workforce productivity is average daily car miles per employee. Workforce productivity decreased slightly in 2022, as average daily car miles increased 3% and employees increased 3% compared to 2021. The 3% increase in employee levels was driven by an increase in train, engine, and yard employees to address volume increases and operational inefficiencies due to crew shortages.


Operating Ratio – Operating ratio is our operating expenses reflected as a percentage of operating revenues. Our operating ratio of 60.1% deteriorated 2.9 points compared to 2021 driven by operational inefficiencies, inflation, a one-time charge for the labor agreements reached with our labor unions (See Labor Agreements in Other Matters in this Item 7 of Part II), higher fuel prices, and other cost increases, partially offset by core pricing gains, mix of traffic, and lower weather-related expenses.


Return on Average Common Shareholders Equity


Millions, Except Percentages








Net income

  $ 6,998     $ 6,523     $ 5,349  

Average equity

  $ 13,162     $ 15,560     $ 17,543  

Return on average common shareholders' equity

    53.2 %     41.9 %     30.5 %




Return on Invested Capital as Adjusted (ROIC)


Millions, Except Percentages








Net income

  $ 6,998     $ 6,523     $ 5,349  

Interest expense

    1,271       1,157       1,141  

Interest on average operating lease liabilities

    56       54       64  

Taxes on interest

    (304 )     (280 )     (282 )

Net operating profit after taxes as adjusted

  $ 8,021     $ 7,454     $ 6,272  

Average equity

  $ 13,162     $ 15,560     $ 17,543  

Average debt

    31,528       28,229       25,965  

Average operating lease liabilities

    1,695       1,682       1,719  

Average invested capital as adjusted

  $ 46,385     $ 45,471     $ 45,227  

Return on invested capital as adjusted

    17.3 %     16.4 %     13.9 %


ROIC is considered a non-GAAP financial measure by SEC Regulation G and Item 10 of SEC Regulation S-K and may not be defined and calculated by other companies in the same manner. We believe this measure is important to management and investors in evaluating the efficiency and effectiveness of our long-term capital investments. In addition, we currently use ROIC as a performance criterion in determining certain elements of equity compensation for our executives. ROIC should be considered in addition to, rather than as a substitute for, other information provided in accordance with GAAP. The most comparable GAAP measure is return on average common shareholders’ equity. The tables above provide a reconciliation from return on average common shareholders’ equity to ROIC. At December 31, 2022, 2021, and 2020, the incremental borrowing rate on operating leases was 3.3%, 3.2%, and 3.7%, respectively.


Adjusted Debt / Adjusted EBITDA


Millions, Except Ratios

Dec. 31,

Dec. 31,

Dec. 31,


for the Twelve Months Ended








Net income

  $ 6,998     $ 6,523     $ 5,349  



Income tax expense

    2,074       1,955       1,631  


    2,246       2,208       2,210  

Interest expense

    1,271       1,157       1,141  


  $ 12,589     $ 11,843     $ 10,331  



Other income, net

    (426 )     (297 )     (287 )

Interest on operating lease liabilities

    54       56       59  

Adjusted EBITDA

  $ 12,217     $ 11,602     $ 10,103  


  $ 33,326     $ 29,729     $ 26,729  

Operating lease liabilities

    1,631       1,759       1,604  

Unfunded pension and OPEB, net of tax cost of $0, $0, and $195 [a]

    -       -       637  

Adjusted debt

  $ 34,957     $ 31,488     $ 28,970  

Adjusted debt / adjusted EBITDA

    2.9       2.7       2.9  


[a] Prior periods were recast to conform to the current year presentation, which removes the impact of pension and OPEB (other postretirement benefits) when the net amount represents a funded amount.


Adjusted debt to adjusted EBITDA (earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, amortization, and adjustments for other income and interest on present value of operating leases) is considered a non-GAAP financial measure by SEC Regulation G and Item 10 of SEC Regulation S-K and may not be defined and calculated by other companies in the same manner. We believe this measure is important to management and investors in evaluating the Company’s ability to sustain given debt levels (including leases) with the cash generated from operations. In addition, a comparable measure is used by rating agencies when reviewing the Company’s credit rating. Adjusted debt to adjusted EBITDA should be considered in addition to, rather than as a substitute for, net income. The table above provides a reconciliation from net income to adjusted EBITDA and debt to adjusted debt. At December 31, 2022, 2021, and 2020, the incremental borrowing rate on operating leases was 3.3%, 3.2%, and 3.7%, respectively.






We are continually evaluating our financial condition and liquidity. We analyze a wide range of economic scenarios and the impact on our ability to generate cash. These analyses inform our liquidity plans and activities outlined below and indicate we have sufficient borrowing capacity to sustain an extended period of lower volumes.


At both December 31, 2022 and 2021, we had a working capital deficit due to upcoming debt maturities. It is not unusual for us to have a working capital deficit, and we believe it is not an indication of a lack of liquidity. We also maintain adequate resources, including our credit facility and, when necessary, access the capital markets to meet foreseeable cash requirements.


During 2022, we generated $9.4 billion of cash provided by operating activities, and issued $5.4 billion of long-term debt. We have been, and we expect to continue to be, in compliance with our debt covenants. We increased the dividend once during 2022 paying out $3.2 billion and repurchased shares totaling $6.3 billion, including the completion of our $2.2 billion accelerated share repurchase programs entered into on February 17, 2022.


Our principal sources of liquidity include cash and cash equivalents, our Receivables Facility, our revolving credit facility, as well as the availability of commercial paper and other sources of financing through the capital markets. On December 31, 2022, we had $973 million of cash and cash equivalents, $2.0 billion of committed credit available under our revolving credit facility, and up to $700 million undrawn on the Receivables Facility. As of December 31, 2022, none of the revolving credit facility was drawn, and we did not draw on our revolving credit facility at any time during 2022. At December 31, 2022, we had $100 million of the Receivables Facility drawn, $200 million of commercial paper, and a $100 million term loan outstanding. Our access to the Receivables Facility may be reduced or restricted if our bond ratings fall to certain levels below investment grade. If our bond rating were to deteriorate, it could have an adverse impact on our liquidity. Access to commercial paper as well as other capital market financing is dependent on market conditions. Deterioration of our operating results or financial condition due to internal or external factors could negatively impact our ability to access capital markets as a source of liquidity. Access to liquidity through the capital markets is also dependent on our financial stability. We expect that we will continue to have access to liquidity through any or all the following sources or activities: (a) increasing the utilization of our Receivables Facility, (b) issuing commercial paper, (c) entering into bank loans, outside of our revolving credit facility, or (iv) issuing bonds or other debt securities to public or private investors based on our assessment of the current condition of the credit markets. The Company’s $2.0 billion revolving credit facility is intended to support the issuance of commercial paper by UPC and also serves as an additional source of liquidity to fund short-term needs. The Company currently does not intend to make any borrowings under this facility.


As described in the notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements and as referenced in the table below, we have contractual obligations that may affect our financial condition. Based on our assessment of the underlying provisions and circumstances of our contractual obligations, other than the risks that we and other similarly situated companies face with respect to the condition of the capital markets (as described in Item 1A of Part II of this report), as of the date of this filing, there is no known trend, demand, commitment, event, or uncertainty that is reasonably likely to occur that would have a material adverse effect on our consolidated results of operations, financial condition, or liquidity. In addition, our commercial obligations, financings, and commitments are customary transactions that are like those of other comparable corporations, particularly within the transportation industry.




The following table identifies material obligations as of December 31, 2022:



Payments Due by December 31,


Contractual Obligations




















Debt [a]

  $ 61,664     $ 2,837     $ 2,562     $ 2,642     $ 2,081       2,323     $ 49,219  

Purchase obligations [b]

    3,241       920       818       822       275       180       226  

Operating leases [c]

    1,803       335       318       321       248       188       393  

Other post retirement benefits [d]

    396       45       40       40       40       39       192  

Finance lease obligations [e]

    259       76       63       44       35       30       11  

Total contractual obligations

  $ 67,363     $ 4,213     $ 3,801     $ 3,869     $ 2,679     $ 2,760     $ 50,041  



Excludes finance lease obligations of $234 million as well as unamortized discount and deferred issuance costs of ($1,775) million. Includes an interest component of $26,797 million.


Purchase obligations include locomotive maintenance contracts; purchase commitments for fuel purchases, ties, ballast, and rail; and agreements to purchase other goods and services.


Includes leases for locomotives, freight cars, other equipment, and real estate. Includes an interest component of $172 million. 


Includes estimated other post retirement, medical, and life insurance payments, and payments made under the unfunded pension plan for the next ten years.


Represents total obligations, including interest component of $25 million.


Cash Flows










Cash provided by operating activities

  $ 9,362     $ 9,032     $ 8,540  

Cash used in investing activities

    (3,471 )     (2,709 )     (2,676 )

Cash used in financing activities

    (5,887 )     (7,158 )     (4,902 )

Net change in cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash

  $ 4     $ (835 )   $ 962  


Operating Activities


Cash provided by operating activities increased in 2022 compared to 2021 due primarily to an increase in net income.


Cash flow conversion is defined as cash provided by operating activities less cash used in capital investments as a ratio of net income. Cash flow conversion rate is not considered a financial measure under GAAP by SEC Regulation G and Item 10 of SEC Regulation S-K and may not be defined and calculated by other companies in the same manner. We believe cash flow conversion rate is important to management and investors in evaluating our financial performance and measures our ability to generate cash without additional external financing. Cash flow conversion rate should be considered in addition to, rather than as a substitute for, cash provided by operating activities. The following table reconciles cash provided by operating activities (GAAP measure) to cash flow conversion rate (non-GAAP measure):




For the Year Ended December 31,








Cash provided by operating activities

  $ 9,362     $ 9,032     $ 8,540  

Cash used in capital investments

    (3,620 )     (2,936 )     (2,927 )

Total (a)

    5,742       6,096       5,613  

Net income (b)

    6,998       6,523       5,349  

Cash flow conversion rate (a/b)










Investing Activities


Cash used in investing activities in 2022 increased compared to 2021 primarily driven by increased freight car and locomotive capital investments as we modernize our locomotives to move more freight efficiently and sustainably across our network.


The following tables detail cash capital investments and track statistics for the years ended December 31:











  $ 544     $ 443     $ 507  

Rail and other track material

    437       507       471  


    216       215       225  

Other [a]

    693       760       629  

Total road infrastructure replacements