10-K 1 kvhi1231201910-k.htm 10-K Document

 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
x
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019
OR
¨
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                      to                     
Commission File Number 0-28082
KVH Industries, Inc.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)
Delaware
 
05-0420589
(State or Other Jurisdiction of Incorporation or Organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer Identification Number)
50 Enterprise Center, Middletown, RI 02842
(Address of Principal Executive Offices) (Zip Code)
(401) 847-3327
(Registrant’s Telephone Number, Including Area Code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each Class
 Trading Symbol(s)
Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Common Stock, $0.01 par value per share
 KVHI
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
 (Nasdaq Global Select Market)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ¨ No x

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ¨ No x

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x No ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes x No ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer o
 
Accelerated filer x
Non-accelerated filer o
 
Smaller reporting company x
 
 
                        Emerging growth company o
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ¨ No x

As of June 30, 2019, the aggregate market value of the registrant’s common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was $167,642,021 based on the closing sale price of $10.87 per share as reported on the Nasdaq Global Select Market. Shares of common stock held by executive officers and directors of the registrant and their affiliates have been excluded from this calculation because such persons may be deemed affiliates. As of February 24, 2020, the registrant had 17,966,005 shares of common stock outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant’s Proxy Statement relating to its 2020 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated herein by reference in Part III.
 



INDEX TO FORM 10-K
 
 
 
Page
 
 
 
 
 
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Mine Safety Disclosures
 
 
 
 
 
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Item 15.
Item 16.
 

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PART I
ITEM 1.
Business
Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Information

In addition to historical facts, this annual report contains forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements are merely our current predictions of future events. These statements are inherently uncertain, and actual events could differ materially from our predictions. Important factors that could cause actual events to vary from our predictions include those discussed in this annual report under the headings “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” and “Item 1A. Risk Factors.” We assume no obligation to update our forward-looking statements to reflect new information or developments. We urge readers to review carefully the risk factors described in this annual report and in the other documents that we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

Additional Information Available

Our principal Internet address is www.kvh.com. Our website provides a hyperlink to a third-party website through which our annual, quarterly, and current reports, as well as amendments to those reports, are available free of charge. We believe these reports are made available as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file them with, or furnish them to, the SEC. We do not provide any information regarding our SEC filings directly to the third-party website, and we do not check its accuracy or completeness. The SEC maintains an Internet site at http://www.sec.gov that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC.

Introduction

We are a leading manufacturer of solutions that provide global high-speed Internet, television, and voice services via satellite to mobile users at sea and on land. We are also a leading provider of commercially licensed entertainment, including news, sports, music, and movies, to commercial and leisure customers in the maritime, hotel, and retail markets. We are also a premier manufacturer of high-performance navigational sensors and integrated inertial systems for defense and commercial inertial navigation applications. Our reporting segments are as follows:

the mobile connectivity segment and
the inertial navigation segment

Through these segments, we manufacture and sell our solutions in a number of major geographic areas, including internationally. We generate revenues from various international locations, primarily consisting of Canada, Europe (both inside and outside the European Union), Africa, Asia/Pacific, and the Middle East.

During the second quarter of 2019, we sold Videotel, which provided eLearning computer-based training, to an affiliate of Oakley Capital. We determined that the sale met the requirements for reporting as discontinued operations in accordance with Financial Accounting Standards Board Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) 205-20. Accordingly, we have classified the results of the Videotel business as discontinued operations in our financial statements.

We are headquartered in Middletown, Rhode Island, with active operations in Denmark, the State of Illinois, Norway, Singapore, and the United Kingdom. KVH is a Delaware corporation formed in 1985.

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Our Business Segments
Segment
 
Primary Products
 
Major Brands
 
2019 Net Sales (1)
Mobile connectivity
 
Satellite television and internet solutions and media and content delivery solutions
 
TracVision®
TracPhone®
CommBox
TM
Mini-VSAT Broadband
SM
IP-MobileCast TM
KVH OneCare TM
NEWSLink
TM
AgilePlans
TM
 
$
122,015

Inertial navigation
 
Digital compass and fiber optic gyro-based navigation and guidance systems
 
TACNAV®

 
35,878

 
 
 
 
Total
 
$
157,893

(1) Amounts in thousands
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mobile Connectivity Segment

The mobile connectivity segment primarily manufactures and distributes a comprehensive family of mobile satellite antenna products and services that provide access to the Internet and voice services while on the move. Product sales within the mobile connectivity segment accounted for 20% of our consolidated net sales for both 2019 and 2018. Sales of mini-VSAT Broadband airtime service accounted for 48% and 46% of our consolidated net sales for 2019 and 2018, respectively. Sales of content services within the mobile connectivity segment accounted for 6% and 7% of our consolidated net sales for 2019 and 2018, respectively.

In the global maritime market, we believe that there is significant demand for mobile access to television, the Internet, voice services, entertainment content, and operational services such as navigation chart updates, weather services, and voyage optimization. For both maritime and onshore customers that want to access live television while on the move, we offer a comprehensive family of mobile satellite antenna products marketed under the TracVision brand. For access to the Internet and voice services while on the move, which we refer to collectively as our airtime services, we offer a family of mobile satellite antenna products and communication services marketed under the brands mini-VSAT Broadband and TracPhone, respectively. The network infrastructure that we have developed to support our airtime services also supports the delivery of other value-added services such as our IP-MobileCast content delivery service for both entertainment and operational needs.

Our mobile satellite antenna products use sophisticated robotics, stabilization and control software, sensing technologies, transceiver integration, and advanced antenna designs to automatically search for, identify and point directly at the selected television and communications satellite while the vehicle or vessel is in motion. Our antennas use gyros and inclinometers to measure the pitch, roll and yaw of an antenna platform in relation to the earth. Microprocessors and our proprietary stabilization and control software use that data to compute the antenna movement necessary for the antenna’s motors to point the antenna properly and maintain contact with the satellite. If an obstruction temporarily blocks the satellite signal, our products continue to track the satellite’s location according to the movement of the antenna platform in order to carry out automatic, rapid reacquisition of the signal when a direct line of sight to the satellite is restored.

Our Certified Support Network offers our TracVision and TracPhone customers an international network of skilled technical dealers and support centers in many locations where our customers are likely to travel. We have selected technical dealers based on their technical expertise, professionalism, and commitment to quality, and regularly provide them with extensive training in the sale, installation and support of our products.

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Maritime

In the marine market, we offer a range of mobile satellite TV, internet access, and communications products.

Satellite Internet and Phone. Our mini-VSAT Broadband network offers an end-to-end solution for offshore mobile connectivity. This unified C/Ku-band Broadband service enables us to offer commercial, leisure, and government customers an integrated hardware and service solution for mobile communications and seamless region-to-region roaming. We design and manufacture the onboard TracPhone terminals, own hub equipment installed in leased earth stations, lease the satellite capacity, manage the network through third-party service providers, and provide 24/7/365 after-sale support. Because we manufacture the onboard hardware, we can integrate the full rack of discrete below decks equipment typically used on traditional VSAT systems into a single, streamlined unit that is significantly easier to deploy than competing VSAT solutions. Our mini-VSAT Broadband network utilizes advanced next-generation high-throughput satellites (HTS) capabilities offered by Intelsat Epic satellite services and SKY Perfect JSAT, as well as ArcLight spread spectrum modem technology developed by ViaSat.

Our approach allowed us to develop and bring to market our TracPhone V series of terminals. Our 60-cm diameter TracPhone V7-HTS Ku-band antenna is 85% smaller by volume and 75% lighter than alternative 1-meter diameter VSAT antennas and is designed to deliver faster data speeds globally to the maritime market. We are able to offer download/upload speeds as fast as 10 megabits per second (Mbps)/3 Mbps.

In October 2018, we introduced our 37-cm diameter TracPhone V3-HTS Ku-band antenna, which is practical for use on smaller vessels as well as land vehicles. We believe that the TracPhone V3-HTS is the world’s fastest, lightest, ultra-compact Ku-band marine VSAT antenna. Weighing 11 kg (25 lbs.), the TracPhone V3-HTS is smaller than any other Ku-band marine satellite communications antenna currently on the market and is designed to provide faster data speeds (5 Mbps download/2 Mbps upload) than some larger marine satellite antennas.

In March 2019, we introduced the TracPhone V11-HTS, which we believe is the world’s fastest 1 meter Ku/C-band maritime VSAT antenna, designed to deliver data speeds as fast as 20 Mbps download/3 Mbps upload to commercial maritime vessels and superyachts around the world. The fast data speeds support the critical needs of commercial ships today for operations, Internet of Things (IoT) applications, and crew connectivity. Superyacht guests can now enjoy fast connectivity for streaming HD content and accessing Internet and social media platforms at sea.

LTE Broadband. In June 2018, we introduced the TracPhone LTE-1, which is a high-gain dual antenna array, modem, GPS, and Wi-Fi router inside a 34-cm diameter dome. The TracPhone LTE-1 uses cellular technology from two of the leading LTE carriers in the U.S., automatically switching between them to provide Internet access in U.S. waters up to approximately 20 miles offshore, with data download speeds up to 100 Mbps.

VSAT Deployments. We are actively engaged in sales efforts for the TracPhone HTS Series and mini-VSAT Broadband service to government agencies for maritime, military, and emergency responder use. We also continue to expand our ability to support the commercial maritime market. For example, in December 2018, we completed the deployment of 45 TracPhone V7-HTS systems on Transpetro oil and gas tankers.

Other Marine Solutions. We offer CommBox, a ship-to-shore network management product that comprises shipboard hardware, a KVH-hosted or privately-owned shore-based hub, and a suite of software applications. Our CommBox offerings are generally integrated into all of our VSAT product offerings. We do not generate significant revenue from sales of standalone CommBox hardware.

We also offer Iridium OpenPort hardware and service to be used in conjunction with our mini-VSAT service. Iridium OpenPort service provides data rates up to 128 kilobits per second (Kbps) and covers the entire world, including the polar regions. We offer the Iridium hardware and service along with our own mini-VSAT solution with the integrated CommBox functionality, which will switch over to the Iridium service if the mini-VSAT service is not available. Our customers might choose to add the Iridium service to expand the geographic coverage of the system or as a backup service.

In September 2019, we started offering Iridium Certus, a next-generation L-band solution providing pole-to-pole global coverage. As a companion to our VSAT systems, the Iridium Certus 38-cm diameter Cobham Sailor 4300 antenna provides L-band data speeds of 352 Kbps download/176 Kbps upload. Optional routing enables onboard data to switch between our mini-VSAT Broadband service and Iridium Certus.

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In addition to our TracPhone VSAT products and mini-VSAT Broadband service, we also offer a family of Inmarsat-compatible TracPhone products that provide in-motion access to global satellite communications. These products rely on services offered by Inmarsat, a satellite service provider that supports links for phone, fax, and data communications as fast as 432 Kbps. The TracPhone FB250, FB500, and FleetOne antennas use the Inmarsat FleetBroadband service to offer voice and Internet service. The TracPhone FB250, FB500 and FleetOne products are manufactured by Thrane & Thrane A/S of Denmark (acquired by Cobham) and distributed on an OEM basis by us in North America under our TracPhone brand and distributed in other markets on a non-exclusive basis.

Unlike mini-VSAT Broadband, where we control and sell the airtime, we purchase Inmarsat and Iridium airtime directly from these companies and resell it to our customers.

Satellite TV. Our TracVision TV-series satellite TV antennas are designed with the full spectrum of vessel sizes in mind, ranging from recreational vessels as small as 20 to 25 feet to large commercial vessels. The TV-series incorporate an Internet Protocol (IP)-enabled control unit to allow access to system information from any Wi-Fi device. Our family of marine TracVision products includes the 32-cm diameter TracVision TV1, 37-cm diameter TracVision TV3, 45-cm diameter TracVision TV5, 60-cm diameter TracVision TV6, and 81-cm TracVision TV8. These products are compatible with Ku-band SDTV and HDTV programming as well as high-powered regional satellite TV services around the globe, based on available signal strength and antenna size requirements.

Our TracVision HD-series satellite TV antennas are designed to offer a high definition TV experience comparable to that available to a home DIRECTV HDTV subscriber. Our TracVision HD7 uses a 60-cm diameter satellite TV antenna to receive signals from two DIRECTV Ka-band satellites and one DIRECTV Ku-band satellite simultaneously. It includes an IP-enabled antenna control unit as well as an optional antenna control unit via a free TracVision application for use on an Apple iPhone or iPad. We believe the TracVision HD7 was the first marine antenna to offer this combination of capabilities. Our TracVision HD11 offers a worldwide satellite TV capability through the use of a 1-meter diameter antenna and a global low noise block (LNB) designed for use with the majority of direct-to-home satellite TV services. As a result, it is able to receive all Ku-band and DIRECTV Ka-band satellite television signals without changing hardware elements. The Ku-band also works with modern satellite television services currently available throughout the world. The Ka-band receives DIRECTV HDTV. Like the TracVision HD7, the TracVision HD11 features an optional application for the Apple iPhone or iPad to provide easy control of the system.

In October 2019, we launched the TracVision UHD7, a high-performance 60 cm (24 inch) marine satellite TV antenna designed to provide boat owners, charter yacht guests, and commercial vessel crews with access to ultra high-definition (UHD) and 4K programming from DIRECTV as well as regular HD programming from other leading satellite TV providers.

Land Mobile

We design, manufacture, and sell a range of TracVision satellite TV antenna systems for use on a broad array of vehicles, including recreational vehicles (RV), buses, conversion vans, and automobiles.

In the RV and bus markets, we offer TracVision satellite TV products, intended for both stationary and in-motion use. Our TracVision R1 delivers DIRECTV or DISH network service through a small 32-cm diameter dome. Our TracVision A9 uses hybrid phased-array antenna technology to provide in-motion reception of satellite TV programming in the continental United States using either the DIRECTV or DISH Network services. The TracVision A9 stands approximately five inches high and mounts either to a vehicle’s roof rack or directly to the vehicle’s roof, making it practical for use aboard minivans, SUVs and other passenger vehicles. The TracVision A9 includes a mobile satellite television antenna and an IP-enabled TV hub for easy system configuration and control via Wi-Fi devices, such as an Apple iPhone or iPad. The TracVision A9 is also suitable for tall motor coaches and buses. Automotive customers subscribe to DIRECTV’s TOTAL CHOICE MOBILE satellite TV programming package, which is specifically promoted for automotive applications, or to DISH Network programming.


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Airtime Services

In addition to our mobile satellite antenna hardware and software, we offer airtime plans that enable customers to obtain Internet and voice services. We offer a variety of rate plans that are flexible to meet the customer's needs. The key features of the mini-VSAT Broadband service are usage-based airtime plans, a network management portal and a comprehensive global customer support program. Our usage-based plans are designed around each vessel's monthly data requirements for operational and crew needs. Our network management portal, myKVH, is a secure portal that enables a ship operator to manage network usage by vessel or by individual crew members by allocating operational and crew data caps while receiving customized usage alerts. For customers that want the certainty of a fixed monthly price, we offer fixed rate plans that vary depending on data speeds and include protocol restrictions, such as limiting streaming of video content. User speeds are also restricted but not stopped when users reach established data use thresholds. In addition, we offer multiple usage plans that are either billed monthly based on the data consumed without any application or protocol blocking or based on a monthly minimum data quota with the option to add more data for an incremental charge.

In April 2017, we launched a new mini-VSAT Broadband service offering, AgilePlans. AgilePlans is our all-inclusive connectivity-as-a-service, or CaaS, usage-based pricing model for commercial maritime customers of our mini-VSAT broadband service. Under this CaaS model, we charge subscribers a monthly fee in exchange for which we provide satellite communication hardware, shipping and installation, maintenance and support, airtime and voice services, a service management portal and certain basic content services with no minimum commitment. We offer AgilePlan customers a variety of airtime data plans with varying data allotments and fixed data usage levels with our exclusive dual-channel configuration with hybrid airtime plans delivering both a high-speed channel and an unlimited use data channel. Under our CaaS model, we retain ownership of our satellite equipment and do not sell it to subscribers, who must return the hardware to us if they terminate our service. We expect that, as customers subscribe to our AgilePlans service, our revenues from product sales will continue to decline, and our provision of this equipment to subscribers will continue to increase our capital expenditures, which over time will continue to increase our costs of service sales as we depreciate these assets.

In June 2019, we launched KVH Watch, the maritime industry’s only all-inclusive, no-commitment, Internet of Things (IoT) Connectivity as a Service program utilizing global VSAT communications. KVH WatchTM is designed as the connectivity solution for remote equipment monitoring and intervention by maritime equipment manufacturers and IoT application providers. With remote monitoring, manufacturers can more easily act in real time, reducing expensive service calls and improving equipment performance for the maritime operation.

The bandwidth speeds offered by the Ku-band satellites also permit faster data rates than those supported by Inmarsat’s L-band satellites. TracPhone V11-HTS customers may select service packages with Internet data connections offering shore-to-ship satellite data rates as fast as 20 Mbps, and ship-to-shore satellite data rates as fast as 3 Mbps. The V7-HTS offers shore-to-ship satellite data rates as fast as 10 Mbps and ship-to-shore data rates as fast as 3 Mbps. The TracPhone V3-HTS, due to its smaller dish diameter, offers shore-to-ship satellite data rates as fast as 5 Mbps and ship-to-shore data rates as fast as 2 Mbps. In addition, subscriptions include Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) telephone services designed for use over satellite connections. The TracPhone V11-HTS and V7-HTS can support two or more simultaneous calls while the TracPhone V3-HTS can support one call at a time.

Our legacy mini-VSAT Broadband network currently uses a combination of 23 Ku-band transponders on 19 satellites to provide Ku-band coverage throughout the northern hemisphere, around the continents in the southern hemisphere, and C-band coverage world-wide. Of the 23 Ku-band transponders, we directly contract for eight as of January 1, 2020, and we directly contract for three global C-band transponders. The remaining Ku-band transponders are contracted by ViaSat. Under the terms of our revenue-sharing arrangement with ViaSat, expansions of our ViaSat network position us to earn revenue not only from the maritime and land-based use of the mini-VSAT Broadband service but also from aeronautical platforms that roam throughout our network. In November 2018, we renewed our contract with ViaSat until the end of 2021. The new contract includes an obligation to make certain minimum quarterly payments to ViaSat that decline over the contract period. After this contract period, a one-year notice is required to terminate the agreement. As part of the agreement, starting January 1, 2019, we reduced the number of Ku-band transponders which we directly contract for from fourteen to eight.


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In October 2017, we launched our next-generation, advanced maritime broadband network with Intelsat. The HTS high-speed network complements our first-generation mini-VSAT Broadband network with three to six times the data speeds available to maritime customers. At the core of its capabilities, our advanced maritime broadband network incorporates Intelsat Epic satellite services and the award-winning IntelsatOne Flex platform, a global managed service designed to optimize bandwidth allocations and provide flexible coverage where it is needed. Our mini-VSAT Broadband network also benefits from increased Asian satellite capacity provided by SKY Perfect JSAT. Overall, our mini-VSAT Broadband HTS network currently uses a combination of 88 Ku-band transponders (five of which we directly contract for) on 14 satellites to provide Ku-band coverage throughout the northern and southern hemispheres. Two of the 14 satellites are considered high-throughput satellites that provide coverage via overlapping high-powered spot beams. Sixty-one of the 88 Ku-band transponders are served by the high-throughput satellites. During the first quarter of 2018, we entered into a five-year capital lease for three satellite hubs for the HTS network. It is our long-term plan to continue to maintain and enhance our mini-VSAT Broadband network.

In addition, we offer professional services for our VSAT products that include network design, installation of onboard TracPhone terminals and custom configuration of the CommBox based on customer requirements. These services are performed by our employees as well as a dealer network of certified engineers.

Sale of Videotel - Discontinued Operations

On May 13, 2019, we sold all of the issued share capital of Super Dragon Limited and Videotel Marine Asia Limited (together referred to as Videotel) for $89.4 million in cash, on a cash-free, debt-free basis, subject to a working capital adjustment. Videotel comprised our maritime training business, which offered video, animation, eLearning computer-based training and interactive distance learning services to the maritime industry. The sale was completed immediately upon execution of definitive agreements. Please see Notes 1 and 18 of our accompanying financial statements for further information.

Content Services

As part of our mobile connectivity segment, we offer a variety of value-added services to our maritime customers as well as news content to our hotel customers and radio content to a small number of retail customers. The vast majority of these value-added services are subscription-based.

Our KVH Media Group, which is based in the United Kingdom, distributes commercially licensed entertainment, including news, sports, music, and movies, to commercial and leisure customers in the maritime, hotel, and retail markets. Sales from KVH Media Group are included in our mobile connectivity service sales as part of content service sales. Our "news from home" digital newspaper service includes more than 100 daily newspapers in more than 20 languages that at the end of 2019 was delivered to more than 8,000 commercial ships, hotels, and cruise ships. The digital content can be printed onboard or viewed on a tablet, smartphone, or laptop. For movie and television content, we are an approved distributor of licensed content for certain Hollywood, Bollywood, and independent studios worldwide.

In January 2020, we decided to rebrand IP-Mobilecast to KVH Link. We offer a content subscription service called KVH Link, delivered by IP-MobileCast wherein content and data files are transmitted using multicast technology across our global satellite networks to every vessel or mobile vehicle that has an active, compatible TracPhone V series, V-IP series, or V-HTS series terminal. This delivery mechanism reduces the amount of bandwidth required to transmit large files to a large population of customers. Before multicasting, large data files were generally transmitted across satellite networks “on demand” or unicast, which consumes significant bandwidth. The content is either stored on the terminal itself or on a KVH-supplied media server, which is required for digital rights managed content such as movies. Copyright law requires permission from the rights holder for exhibitions of copyrighted film and television. Historically, studios have granted KVH Media Group permission to license non-theatrical exhibitions aboard ships. While traditionally we licensed this content to commercial maritime customers primarily through the distribution of DVDs, we have now also automated the transmission of this type of entertainment via KVH Link.

Customers that subscribe to one of our entertainment packages generally receive a variety of movie and television content that is cached locally onboard. We transmit local "news from home" and international news segments in a variety of languages on a monthly basis, a library of movies plus daily sports, news clips and special programming such as the highlights of sporting events.



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Inertial Navigation Segment

We offer a portfolio of digital compass and fiber optic gyro (FOG)-based systems that address the rigorous requirements of military and commercial customers. Our systems provide reliable, easy-to-use and continuously available navigation and pointing data. Our guidance and stabilization products include our FOG-based inertial measurement units (IMUs) for precision guidance, FOGs for tactical navigation as well as pointing and stabilization systems, and digital compasses that provide accurate heading information for demanding applications. Sales of FOG-based guidance and navigation systems within the inertial navigation segment accounted for 16% and 17% of our consolidated net sales for 2019 and 2018, respectively. Sales of tactical guidance and navigation systems within the inertial navigation segment accounted for 3% of our consolidated net sales for both 2019 and 2018.

Guidance and Stabilization

Our high-performance digital signal processing (DSP)-based FOG products use an all-fiber design that has no moving parts, resulting in an affordable combination of precision, accuracy, and durability. Our FOG products support a broad range of military applications, including stabilization of remote weapons stations, antennas, radar, optical devices, or turrets; image stabilization and synchronization for shoulder-or tripod-mounted weapon simulators; precision tactical navigation systems for military vehicles, and guidance for weapons and unmanned autonomous vehicles. Our FOG products are also used in numerous commercial products, such as navigation and positioning systems for various applications including precision mapping, dynamic surveying, autonomous vehicles, train location control and track geometry measurement systems, industrial robotics, and optical stabilization.

The CG-5100, our first commercial-grade IMU, is suitable for a wide range of applications such as 3D augmented reality, mobile mapping, platform navigation, and GPS augmentation for unmanned vehicle programs, precise mapping, and imagery.

Our open-loop DSP-1750, DSP-3000, and DSP-4000 FOGs provide precision measurement of the rate and angle of a platform’s turning motion for significantly less cost than competing closed-loop gyros. These DSP-based products deliver performance superior to analog signal processing devices, which experience greater temperature-sensitive drift and rotation errors. Applications for these products include inertial measurement units, integrated navigation systems, attitude/heading/reference systems, and stabilization of antenna, radar, and optical equipment.

The DSP-1750, which we believe to be the world’s smallest high-performance FOG, uses our E·CoreTM ThinFiber technology. This thin fiber, which is produced at our Tinley Park, Illinois manufacturing facility, is only 170 microns in diameter, enabling longer lengths of fiber to be wound into smaller housings. Since the length of the fiber used in a FOG directly relates to gyro accuracy and performance, this technology enables us to produce smaller and more accurate gyros. The small size and weight of the DSP-1750 make it well suited for applications with size and weight restrictions, such as night vision and thermal imaging systems, aircraft-mounted gimbaled cameras for law enforcement and homeland security, and shipboard optical systems.

Our DSP-1760 single-axis and multi-axis FOGs offer improved performance and ease of integration relative to the DSP-1750. Many customers using our DSP-1750 single-axis and dual-axis FOGs also had requirements for packaged DSP-1750s. To address this demand, we introduced the DSP-1760 product line, consisting of packaged one, two, or three axes of FOGs, each with two different interface connector options.

The DSP-3000, DSP-3100, and DSP-3400 are each slightly larger than a deck of playing cards and offers a variety of interface options to support a range of applications. High-performance 2-axis and 3-axis configurations can be realized by integrating multiple DSP-3000 and DSP-3100 units. Currently, the DSP-3000, DSP-3100, and DSP-3400 are used in an array of pointing and stabilization applications, including the U.S. Army’s Common Remotely Operated Weapon Station (CROWS) to provide the image and gun stabilization necessary to ensure that the weapon remains aimed at its target. We estimate that more than 20 companies have developed or are developing stabilized remote weapons stations that we believe will require similar FOG stabilization capabilities. The larger, militarized dual axis DSP-4000 is designed for use in high-shock and highly dynamic environments, such as gun turret stabilization.

Our 1750 IMU is an advanced 6-degrees-of-freedom sensor designed to integrate easily into the most demanding stabilization, pointing, and navigation applications. It offers enhanced performance at a lower cost than competing systems. The 1750 IMU marries the E·Core ThinFiber technology of our DSP-1750 FOGs with very low noise, solid state MEMS accelerometers to create a commercial-off-the-shelf IMU. Our 1775 IMU and 1725 IMU products complement the 1750 IMU and provide customers with a range of choices for advanced 6-degrees-of-freedom sensors. The family of IMUs offers exceptional precision in a very small form factor, making them suitable for applications where space is limited, such as manned and unmanned commercial and defense platforms, optical equipment stabilization systems, pipeline inspection equipment, and autonomous vehicle control and navigation systems.

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Our GEO-FOG 3D and GEO-FOG 3D Dual inertial navigation systems offer roll, pitch and heading accuracies of 0.05 degrees for demanding applications in unmanned, autonomous and manned aerial platforms. These systems combine our 1750 IMU technology with centimeter-level precise GNSS receivers, a 3-axis magnetometer and a barometric pressure sensor.

In June 2018, we introduced a version of the 1775 IMU that includes 25g accelerometers. This version is designed for applications with high levels of acceleration, vibration, or shock. These applications include positioning and navigation systems for drilling, mining, and pipeline inspection and maintenance; mobile mapping systems using multiple sensors such as radar, cameras, and LIDAR; high-speed gimbals; and manned and unmanned platform stabilization and navigation systems.

Tactical Navigation

Our TACNAV® tactical navigation product line employs digital compass sensors and KVH FOGs to offer vehicle-based navigation and pointing systems with a range of capabilities, including Global Positioning Systems / Global Navigation Satellite System (GPS/GNSS) backup and enhancement, vehicle position, hull azimuth and navigation displays. Because our digital compass products measure the earth’s magnetic field rather than detect satellite signals from the GPS/GNSS, they are not susceptible to GPS/GNSS jamming devices.

TACNAV systems vary in size and complexity to suit a wide range of vehicles. Our TACNAV Light, including a version with embedded GPS/GNSS, is low-cost, digital compass-based battlefield navigation system specifically designed for non-turreted vehicles, such as high mobility multi-wheeled vehicles (HMMWVs) and trucks. Our TACNAV TLS, a digital compass-based tactical navigation and targeting system, offers a FOG upgrade for enhanced accuracy designed for turreted vehicles, including reconnaissance vehicles, armored personnel carriers, and light armored vehicles. Our TACNAV II Fiber Optic Gyro Navigation system offers a compact design, continuous output of heading and pointing data, and a flexible architecture that allows it to function as either a stand-alone navigation module or as the central component of an expanded, multifunctional navigation system. Our FOG-based TACNAV 3D product provides full three-dimensional navigation. The TACNAV 3D is fitted with an Iridium transceiver to transmit and receive vehicle position, waypoint, and target location to or from a command center or other vehicle. The system also allows messages to be received from battlefield management systems. The TACNAV Moving Map Display offers real-time moving map technology and an easy-to-use graphical navigation capability for military vehicles. It is compatible with existing and future TACNAV systems, provides a high-bright display for outdoor viewing, and dims to support low-light tactical operations.

Our navigation systems function as standalone tools and also aggregate, integrate, and communicate critical information from a variety of on-board systems. TACNAV can receive data from systems such as the vehicle’s odometer, military and commercial GPS devices, laser rangefinders, turret angle indicators and laser warning systems. TACNAV can also output this data to an on-board computer for retransmission through the vehicle’s communications systems to a digital battlefield management application.

Our TACNAV digital compass products have been sold for use aboard U.S. Army, Marine Corps, and Navy vehicles as well as to many foreign countries, including Australia, the United Kingdom, Canada, Germany, Italy, New Zealand, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Sweden, Taiwan, Malaysia, and Switzerland. We believe that we are among the leading manufacturers of such systems. Our standard TACNAV products can be customized to our customers’ specifications. At customer request, we offer training and other services on a time-and-materials basis.

Value-Added Services

Our value-added services for the inertial navigation market include engineering and program management services, product repairs, and engineering services provided under development contracts.

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Sales, Marketing and Support

Our sales, marketing and support efforts target markets that are substantial and complex, and require in many cases networks of intermediaries, such as dealers, distributors, airtime service providers, and manufacturers' representatives, to reach our ultimate customers. These sales channels vary and evolve from time to time, but currently include targeted efforts to reach the commercial and leisure maritime markets; the recreational vehicle (RV), high-end automotive and bus markets; and the commercial, industrial, and government markets. As our business evolves, we may pursue additional sales channels, including direct sales, in various markets. We believe our brands are well known and well respected by customers within their respective niches. These brands include:
TracVision - satellite television systems for vessels and vehicles
TracPhone - two-way satellite communications systems
mini-VSAT Broadband - mobile satellite communications network and value added services such as VoIP, data management, content and content delivery
KVH Link - content delivery service by IP-Mobilecast
NEWSlink - maritime news delivery service through a variety of means
SPORTSlink - sporting content delivered through a variety of means
TVlink - television programming delivered through a variety of means
MOVIElink - movie distribution through a variety of means
CommBox - data management software for maritime communications
TACNAV - tactical navigation systems for military vehicles
KVH OneCare - services and support for the mini-VSAT Broadband solution
AgilePlans by KVH - Connectivity as a Service Program
KVH Watch - IoT Connectivity as a Service
KVH Elite - dedicated bandwidth for HD-quality streaming

We sell our mobile connectivity products directly and through an international network of independent retailers, chain stores, distributors, and service providers as well as to manufacturers of vessels, maritime equipment, and vehicles.

We sell news, sports, and entertainment media content directly through our KVH Media Group, headquartered in Leeds, England.

Our European headquarters, which is located in Denmark, coordinates our sales, marketing, and support efforts for our mobile connectivity products in Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. Our Asia-Pacific headquarters are managed through our office in Singapore.

We sell our inertial navigation products directly to U.S. and foreign governments and government contractors, as well as through an international network of authorized independent sales representatives. This network also sells our FOG products to commercial and industrial customers.

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Backlog

Backlog is not a meaningful indicator for predicting revenue in future periods. Commercial resellers for our mobile connectivity products and legacy products typically do not carry extensive inventories and rely on us to ship products quickly. Generally, due to the rapid delivery of our commercial products, our backlog for those products is not significant. As of December 31, 2019, we had over 100 TracPhone HTS units in backlog to be shipped through 2020.

Our backlog for all products and services was $19.5 million and $14.5 million on December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively. As of December 31, 2019, $15.0 million of our backlog was scheduled for fulfillment in 2020 and $4.5 million was scheduled for fulfillment in 2021 through 2028. The increase in backlog of $5.0 million from December 31, 2018 to December 31, 2019 was primarily the result of a $3.8 million increase in FOG product orders and a $3.5 million increase in TACNAV product orders, which were partially offset by a $1.6 million decrease in mobile connectivity product orders and a $0.9 million decrease in contracted engineering services.

Backlog consists of orders evidenced by written agreements and specified delivery dates for customers who are acceptable credit risks. We do not include satellite connectivity or media content service sales in our backlog even though many of our satellite connectivity and media content customers have signed annual or multi-year service contracts providing for a fixed monthly fee. Military orders included in backlog are generally subject to cancellation for the convenience of the customer. When orders are canceled, we generally recover actual costs incurred through the date of cancellation and the costs resulting from termination. As of December 31, 2019, our backlog included $3.6 million in orders that are subject to cancellation for convenience by the customer. Individual orders for inertial navigation products are often large and may require procurement of specialized long-lead components and allocation of manufacturing resources. The complexity of planning and executing larger orders generally requires customers to order well in advance of the required delivery date, resulting in backlog.

Intellectual Property

Our ability to compete effectively depends to a significant extent on our ability to protect our proprietary information. We rely primarily on patent, copyright and trade secret laws, confidentiality procedures, and licensing arrangements to protect our intellectual property rights. We own 28 U.S. and foreign patents and have 32 additional patent applications that are currently pending. We also register our trademarks in the United States and other key markets where we do business. Our patents will expire at various dates between July 2020 and September 2036. We enter into confidentiality agreements with our consultants, key employees, and sales representatives and maintain controls over access to and distribution of our technology, software, and other proprietary information. The steps we have taken to protect our technology may be inadequate to prevent others from using what we regard as our technology to compete with us.

We do not generally conduct exhaustive patent searches to determine whether the technology used in our products infringes patents held by third parties. In addition, product development is inherently uncertain in a rapidly evolving technological environment in which there may be numerous patent applications pending, many of which are confidential when filed, with regard to similar technologies.

From time to time, we have faced claims by third parties that our products or technologies infringe their patents or other intellectual property rights, and we may face similar claims in the future. Any claim of infringement could cause us to incur substantial costs defending against or settling the claim, even if the claim is invalid, and could distract the attention of our management. If any of our products is found to violate third-party proprietary rights, we may be required to pay substantial damages. In addition, we may be required to re-engineer our products or seek to obtain licenses from third parties to continue to offer our products. Any efforts to re-engineer our products or obtain licenses on commercially reasonable terms may not be successful, which would prevent us from selling our products, and, in any case, could substantially increase our costs and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

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Manufacturing

Manufacturing operations for our mobile satellite communications and navigation products consist of light manufacture, final assembly and testing. Manufacturing operations for our FOG products are more complex. We produce specialized optical fiber, FOG components and sensing coils and combine them with components purchased from outside vendors for assembly into finished goods. These finished goods undergo extensive calibration and verification over temperature and rotation before shipping to customers. We own optical fiber drawing towers with which we produce the specialized optical fiber that we use in all of our FOG products. We manufacture, warehouse and distribute our mobile satellite communications products at our facilities in Middletown, Rhode Island. We manufacture our navigation and FOG products in our facility located in Tinley Park, Illinois. Our manufacturing processes are controlled by an ISO 9001:2015-certified quality standards program.

Raw Materials, Components and Services
 
We purchase raw materials and most of the components used in our various manufacturing processes, such as printed circuit boards, injection-molded plastic parts, machined metal components, connectors and housings. In addition, we purchase certain services, predominantly networking and mobile broadband services, to support the delivery of our mobile communications solutions.

The materials, molds and dies, subassemblies and components purchased from other manufacturers, and other materials and supplies used in our manufacturing processes have generally been available from a variety of sources. We believe there are a number of acceptable vendors for the components we purchase. We regularly evaluate both domestic and foreign suppliers for quality, dependability and cost effectiveness. From time to time the cost and availability of materials and services is affected by the demands of other industries, among other factors. Whenever practical, we seek to establish multiple sources for the purchase of raw materials, components and services to achieve competitive pricing, maintain flexibility, reduced tariff exposure, and protect against supply disruption. When possible, we employ a company-wide procurement strategy designed to reduce the purchase price of materials, purchased components and services.

For reasons of quality assurance, scarcity or cost effectiveness, certain components and raw materials used in the manufacturing of our products, as well as certain services utilized in the delivery of our solutions, are available only from a limited number of suppliers or from a sole source supplier. We work with our suppliers to develop contingency plans intended to assure continuity of supply while maintaining high quality and reliability, and in some cases, we have established long-term supply contracts with our suppliers. Due to the nature of certain raw materials, purchased components and services, we may not be able to quickly establish additional or replacement sources for certain components, materials or services. In the event that we are unable to obtain sufficient quantities of raw materials or components or unable to obtain sufficient access to the services needed to deliver our solutions on commercially reasonable terms or in a timely manner, our ability to manufacture and deliver our products and services on a timely and cost-competitive basis may be compromised, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. To date, we have not experienced any material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations due to supplier limitations.

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Competition

We encounter significant competition in the markets we serve, and we expect this competition to intensify in the future. Many of our primary competitors are well-established companies and some have substantially greater financial, managerial, technical, marketing, operational, and other resources than we do.

In the marine market for satellite TV equipment, we compete primarily with Intellian, Cobham SATCOM, Orbit Communication Systems, RayMarine (Intellian made), KNS, and Sea King (King Controls).

In the marine market for voice, fax, data, and Internet communications equipment, we compete primarily with Intellian, Cobham SATCOM, Orbit Communication Systems, Jotron AS, KNS Inc., Inmarsat, AddValue, and Iridium Satellite LLC.

In the marine market for high-speed voice, fax, data, and Internet services, we compete primarily with Inmarsat, Marlink, Speedcast, Network Innovations, Global Eagle Entertainment, and Isotropic Network. We also face competition from providers of low-speed data services, which include Inmarsat, Globalstar LP, and Iridium Satellite LLC.

In the market for land mobile satellite TV equipment, we compete primarily with King Controls and Winegard Company.

In the markets for media content, we compete primarily with Swank Motion Pictures and Newspapersdirect Inc.

In the markets for mobile satellite connectivity technology, the principal competitive factors are product size, features, design, performance, reliability, and price. In the markets for airtime services, the principal competitive factors are geographic coverage, data speed, value-added services, and price. In the markets for media content, the principal competitive factors are license rights, distribution, and price.

In the inertial navigation markets, we compete primarily with Honeywell International Inc., Northrop Grumman Corporation, Goodrich Aerospace, IAI, Fizoptica, SAGEM, and Systron Donner Inertial (purchased by EMCORE in 2019). We believe the principal competitive factors in these markets are performance, size, reliability, durability, and price.

Although we believe that we compete favorably with respect to these factors, there can be no assurance that we will continue to do so. We encounter substantial competition in most of our product lines, although no single competitor competes with us across all product lines.

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Research and Development

Focused investments in research and development are critical to our future growth and competitive position in the marketplace. Our research and development efforts are directly related to timely development of new and enhanced products and services that are central to our core business strategy. The industries in which we compete are subject to rapid technological developments, evolving industry standards, changes in customer requirements, and new product and service introductions and enhancements. As a result, our success depends in part upon our ability, on a cost-effective and timely basis, to continue to enhance our existing products and to develop and introduce new products and services that improve performance and meet customers’ operational and cost requirements. Our current research and development efforts include projects to achieve additional cost reductions in our products and the development of new products and services for our existing marine and land mobile communications markets, and navigation, guidance, and stabilization application markets. For example:

In March 2019, we released the TracPhone V11-HTS, which we believe is the world’s fastest 1-meter Ku/C-band maritime VSAT antenna for global connectivity.

In June 2019, we introduced KVH Watch, our new Internet of Things (IoT) Connectivity as a Service program for maritime applications utilizing our global VSAT communications.

In October 2019, we released the TracVision UHD7 for Ultra High-definition 4K TV entertainment at sea.

We continued to develop our Photonics Integrated Chip, a key component in a low-cost FOG for the self-driving automobile market.

Our research and development activities consist of projects funded by us and projects funded partly by customers. Our customer-funded research efforts are made up of contracts with defense and OEM customers, whose performance specifications are unique to their product applications. Defense and OEM research often results in new product offerings. We strive to be the first company to bring a new product to market, and we use our own funds to accelerate new product development efforts.

Government Regulation

Our manufacturing operations are subject to various laws governing the protection of the environment and our employees. These laws and regulations are subject to change, and any such change may require us to improve our technologies, incur expenditures, or both, in order to comply with such laws and regulations.

We are subject to compliance with the U.S. Export Administration Regulations. Some of our products have military or strategic applications and are on the Munitions List of the U.S. International Traffic in Arms Regulations. These products require an individual validated license to be exported to certain jurisdictions. The length of time involved in the licensing process varies and can result in delays of the shipping of the products. Sales of our products to either the U.S. government or its prime contractors are subject to the U.S. Federal Acquisition Regulations.

We are also subject to the laws and regulations of the U.S. and foreign jurisdictions in which we offer and sell our satellite communication products and services, including those of the European Union, Brazil, Norway, Singapore, and Japan. These laws and regulations, as well as the interpretation and application of these laws and regulations, are subject to change and any such change may affect our ability to offer and sell existing and planned satellite communications products and services.

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Employees

On December 31, 2019, we employed 604 total employees, including 581 full-time employees. We employ part-time employees as well as temporary or contract personnel, when necessary, to provide short-term and/or specialized support for production and other functional projects.

We believe our future success will depend upon the continued service of our key technical and senior management personnel and upon our continued ability to attract and retain highly qualified technical and managerial personnel. None of our employees is represented by a labor union. We have never experienced a work stoppage and consider our relationship with our employees to be good.

Working Capital and Seasonality

We hold significant inventory to support our customers and provide prompt delivery of finished goods. As a consequence, we expend substantial working capital in advance of receipt of customer orders. Because of the large size of certain orders, we often incur significant receivables upon order fulfillment.

Our leisure marine business within the mobile connectivity segment is highly seasonal, and seasonality can also impact our commercial marine business. Historically, we have generated the majority of our marine leisure product revenues during the first and second quarters of each year, and these revenues typically decline in the third and fourth quarters of each year. Temporary suspensions of our airtime services typically increase in the third and fourth quarters of each year as boats are placed out of service during the winter months.








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ITEM 1A.
Risk Factors
An investment in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the following risk factors in evaluating our business. If any of these risks, or other risks not presently known to us or that we currently believe are not significant, develops into an actual event, then our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected. If that happens, the market price of our common stock could decline.

We have a history of losses and are uncertain when we may regain profitability.

We recorded substantial losses from continuing operations in 2019 and in each of the last three fiscal years. We expect to incur substantial losses in the near future as we continue to bear the expenses of maintaining two satellite networks during the transition of our mini-VSAT customers from our legacy network to our HTS network, as we increase satellite capacity to handle our growing subscriber base, as we continue to shift our business from a model based primarily on product sales to a model based primarily on recurring revenue, and as we continue to invest in research and development to improve our existing products and develop new products, including our photonic chip-based fiber optic gyro. In upcoming quarters, we expect to invest substantially in the development of our photonic chip-based fiber optic gyro in an effort to take advantage of opportunities we may have in the autonomous vehicle and other markets. We expect that, as we increase our investments in these and other areas, including, for example, our Internet of Things (IoT) product, our losses will grow. Moreover, the sale of our profitable Videotel business in May 2019 will complicate our ability to reduce our losses and regain profitability. Although the sale of the Videotel business generated substantial proceeds that enabled us to reduce our indebtedness, the net proceeds from the sale will allow us to continue to incur significant operating losses for only a limited period of time. In order to regain profitability, we must successfully complete the transition of our mini-VSAT customers to our HTS network and continue to introduce new and improved products in order to maintain and improve our competitive position and generate revenue. Our inability to accomplish any of these goals could have a material adverse effect on our revenues, profitability and cash flow, and we cannot assure you when, or whether, we will regain profitability.

We expect that our AgilePlans pricing model for our mini-VSAT broadband business will continue to adversely affect our revenues at least in the short term.

In April 2017, we launched AgilePlans, our all-inclusive connectivity-as-a-service, or CaaS, usage-based pricing model for our mini-VSAT broadband service. Under this CaaS model, we charge subscribers a monthly fee for satellite communication hardware, shipping and installation, maintenance and support, airtime and voice services, a service management portal and certain basic content services. AgilePlans customers do not make long-term commitments and can cancel their AgilePlans subscription service at any time. In 2019, AgilePlans revenue comprised 10% of our total revenue. Under this model, we retain ownership of our satellite equipment and do not sell it to subscribers; accordingly, to the extent that customers continue to adopt this subscription model, our revenues from product sales will continue to decline, and our provision of this equipment to subscribers will continue to increase our capital expenditures, which over time will increase our operating expenses as we depreciate these assets. Similarly, revenues from other services included in the plans, which have previously been sold separately, will also decline. In May 2019, we sold our Videotel business and the services offered by the Videotel business have historically been included in our AgilePlans programs. Although we retained the right to continue to offer Videotel services as a part of our AgilePlans programs for a period of time, any discontinuation of the Videotel services may reduce the attractiveness of our AgilePlans programs. Although our goal with the AgilePlans pricing model is to increase the number of subscribers and thereby increase our overall mobile connectivity revenues, the pricing model is still relatively untested and may have unanticipated consequences for our business if adopted on a large scale. There can be no assurance that customers will continue to adopt the AgilePlans pricing model or that revenues from our AgilePlans will offset the loss of other revenue and increase our overall mobile connectivity revenues. Accordingly, an expansion of the AgilePlans pricing model may continue to lead to lower overall revenues in our mobile connectivity segment on either a short-term or long-term basis. Further, because we retain ownership of the satellite communications equipment provided to subscribers under the AgilePlans, we may incur increased costs, including write-offs seeking to recover equipment from any customers who may default on payment or transition to another service. Adoption of the same or similar pricing models by competitors may lead to significant price competition, which could also adversely affect our revenues.


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The launch of our high-throughput satellite network is causing us to incur significant additional operating costs and may create technical challenges and management distraction that will adversely affect our operating profit.

In November 2017, we launched our high-throughput satellite, or HTS, communications service that uses Intelsat’s Global IntelsatOne Flex managed services and SKY-Perfect JSAT capacity. We also operate a global network of leased satellite transponders and terrestrial teleports in cooperation with ViaSat, Inc. We anticipate that the HTS network may eventually significantly reduce costs and enhance the capabilities of the satellite communications services that we offer to our customers. In the near term, however, the launch of the HTS network has resulted and will result in additional operating costs arising from the need to operate both the HTS network and the legacy network. The operation of the HTS network may also present technical challenges arising from Intelsat’s use of the relatively new iDirect Velocity technology for the coding and modulation of satellite signals. Further, the operational requirements associated with the HTS network may continue to require significant attention from our management, marketing, sales, and technical teams, potentially distracting them from other opportunities to further develop our services and increase our customer base. Finally, our current focus on the HTS network creates potential risks with respect to the continued operation of our existing satellite communications network and our contractual arrangement with ViaSat and satellite operators. Our arrangement with ViaSat is currently scheduled to expire in 2021. The arrangement with ViaSat and satellite operators will need to be phased out over a period of several years, but the reliability of the existing satellite network will need to be maintained during the entirety of the wind-down period.

Our financial results may be adversely affected by changes in accounting principles applicable to us.

Generally accepted accounting principles in the United States, or U.S. GAAP, are subject to modification and interpretation by the Financial Accounting Standards Board, or the FASB, the SEC, and other bodies formed to promulgate and interpret accounting principles. For example, in May 2014, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Codification Update No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606), which substantially revised revenue recognition guidance under U.S. GAAP. We implemented this new revenue standard in the first quarter of 2018. The adoption of this new standard is having a material impact on our consolidated financial statements, including delays in recognition of revenue for certain mini-VSAT Broadband services and hardware contracts and balance sheet impacts relating to accounts receivable, contract assets and contract liabilities. These or other changes in accounting principles are adversely affecting our reported financial results, including a meaningful increase to our accumulated deficit upon adoption. Moreover, our system of internal controls was originally designed to address previous standards for revenue recognition (Topic 605), and the relatively minor modifications we have made to our internal controls to address the new standard may be insufficient to implement the new standard accurately or in full. In the third quarter of 2019, we identified an error relating to our treatment of sales-type leases of our marine mobile communications products, under which we had generally deferred recognition of product revenue and associated product costs rather than recognizing those items upon shipment. Although we determined that this error was immaterial to our financial statements, it is possible that our financial statements contain other errors that, if identified, would be material. Any insufficiencies or errors in implementation could lead to mistakes in, or delays in filing, our consolidated financial statements as well as deficiencies or weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting and our disclosure controls and procedures, any of which could lead to additional accounting, legal and other expenses, potential restatements, loss of investor confidence, enforcement actions by governmental authorities, securities class actions and other adverse consequences.

Our revenues and results of operations have been and may continue to be adversely impacted by economic turmoil in the markets we serve, political events, macroeconomic conditions, credit tightening and associated declines in consumer and enterprise spending.

Economic conditions in the various geographic markets we serve have experienced significant turmoil over the last several years, including slow economic activity, tight credit markets, inflation and deflation concerns, low consumer confidence, limited capital spending, adverse business conditions, war and refugee crises in the Middle East and Europe, terrorist attacks, the anticipated departure of the United Kingdom from the European Union, leadership transitions in the United Kingdom, the changes in government priorities, trade wars, a government shutdown, gridlock from a divided Congress, and liquidity concerns. These factors vary in intensity by region. These conditions can make it difficult for businesses, governments and consumers to accurately forecast and plan future activities. Many governments, including the US government, are experiencing significant deficits that have caused and may continue to cause them to curtail spending significantly and/or reallocate funds away from defense programs. There can be no assurances that government programs to improve economic conditions will be effective. As a result of these and other factors, customers and government entities could continue to slow or suspend spending on our products and services. We may also incur increased credit losses and need to further increase our allowance for doubtful accounts, which would have a negative impact on our earnings and financial condition.

We cannot predict the timing, duration, or ultimate impact of the turmoil in our markets. We expect our business to continue to be adversely impacted by this turmoil to varying degrees and for varying amounts of time, in all our geographic markets.

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The recent coronavirus outbreak may adversely affect our revenues, results of operations and financial condition.

China and other countries are experiencing outbreaks of coronavirus, which is continuing to spread to other countries, including countries in which we, our customers and our suppliers do business. Governments in affected regions have implemented and may continue to implement safety precautions, including quarantines, travel restrictions, business closures, cancellations of public gatherings and other measures. Other organizations and individuals are taking additional steps to avoid or reduce infection, including limiting travel and staying home from work. These measures are disrupting normal business operations both in and outside of affected areas. Travel restrictions and safety precautions have limited our field service engineers from servicing and installing our equipment in the certain regions of Asia. Although we are unable to predict the precise impact of the coronavirus on our business, our mobile communications business in particular depends to a large extent on travel. We anticipate that, unless the outbreak is swiftly contained, governmental, individual, business and other organizational measures to limit the spread of the virus will adversely affect our revenues, results of operations and financial condition, perhaps materially. We continue to monitor our operations and government recommendations and have made some modifications to our operations because of the coronavirus. For example, we have asked some of our employees to alter or cancel travel plans involving affected areas. Major industry events in the region have been cancelled thus reducing our ability to meet with existing and potential new customers.  This or any other outbreak and any additional preventative or protective actions that may be taken in response to this or any other global health threat or pandemic may result in additional business and/or operational disruption. Our customers’ businesses could be disrupted, and our revenues could be adversely affected. Additionally, global economic disruptions like coronavirus could negatively impact our supply chain and cause delays in the delivery of raw materials, components and other supplies that we need to conduct our operations. We may be unable to locate replacement materials, components or other supplies, and ongoing delays could reduce sales and adversely affect our revenues and results of operations. The extent to which the coronavirus will impact our business will depend on many factors beyond our control, including the speed of contagion, the development and implementation of effective preventative measures and possible treatments, the scope of governmental and other restrictions on travel and other activity, and public reactions to these factors.

Turmoil in U.S. trade policy, including changes to existing trade agreements and any resulting changes in international trade relations, may have a material adverse effect on us.

The U.S. administration is continuing to alter the U.S.’s approach to international trade, often in unpredictable ways, and is renegotiating, and may terminate, certain existing bilateral or multi-lateral trade agreements and treaties with foreign countries. In addition, the U.S. administration has imposed tariffs on certain foreign goods and may increase tariffs or impose new ones, and certain foreign governments have imposed retaliatory tariffs on certain U.S. goods and may increase tariffs or impose new ones. We derive a majority of our revenues from international sales, which makes us especially vulnerable to increased tariffs. The changes have created ongoing turmoil in international trade relations and it is unclear what future actions the U.S. government or foreign governments will or will not take with respect to tariffs or other international trade agreements and policies. Current trade negotiations may fail, which may exacerbate these risks. Ongoing or new trade wars or other governmental action related to tariffs or international trade agreements or policies could reduce demand for our products and services, increase our costs, reduce our profitability, adversely impact our supply chain or otherwise have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

Fluctuations in oil prices may continue to adversely affect our revenues and profitability.

Oil prices have declined significantly since the peak in 2014. West Texas Intermediate oil prices dropped from a high of $107.26 per barrel on June 20, 2014 to a low of $26.21 per barrel on February 11, 2016. Customers of our mobile satellite business include offshore support vessel companies that participate in or depend on the offshore oil industry. Although prices have recovered somewhat in recent periods, the cycle of fluctuations in worldwide oil prices has had a significant impact on the financial performance of companies in this sector of the economy, and as a result demand for new products and services has declined severely since 2015 as they have sought to reduce expenditures. In addition, we have experienced a higher customer churn rate primarily attributed to customers that operate in this sector, where the sale, decommissioning, or laying up of vessels has led to a higher rate of airtime plan terminations and suspensions. These trends could continue to limit or reduce demand for our mobile connectivity products and services from companies in this sector, which could continue to adversely affect our revenues and profitability.


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Our financial performance is impacted by U.S. government contracts, which are subject to uncertain levels of funding and termination.

We have historically sold a substantial portion of our TACNAV and FOG products and services to the U.S. government and its contractors. We are unable to predict the impact on our business of Congressional gridlock, tax reform and government policies, which have increased already significant budget deficits and may lead to an overall reduction in federal spending. A reduction in sales to the U.S. government or its contractors, whether due to lack of funding, for convenience or otherwise, or the occurrence of delays, could negatively impact our results of operations and financial condition.

In addition, U.S. government contracts generally also permit the government to terminate the contract, in whole or in part, without prior notice, at the government's convenience or for default based on performance. Government customers can also decline to exercise previously disclosed contract options. If one of our contracts is terminated for convenience, we would generally be entitled to payments for our allowable costs and would receive some allowance for profit on the work performed. If one of our contracts is terminated for default, we would generally be entitled to payments for our work that has been accepted by the government. A termination arising out of our default could expose us to liability and adversely affect our ability to obtain future contracts and orders. Furthermore, on contracts for which we are a subcontractor and not the prime contractor, the U.S. government could terminate the prime contract for convenience or otherwise, irrespective of our performance as a subcontractor.

We must generate a certain level of sales of the TracPhone V-HTS series products and our mini-VSAT Broadband service in order to maintain or improve our service gross margins.

As a result of our mini-VSAT Broadband network infrastructure, our cost of service sales includes certain fixed costs that do not generally vary in proportion with the volume of service sales, and we have almost no ability to reduce these fixed costs in the short term. These fixed costs have increased significantly each year as we have further expanded our network to accommodate additional subscriber demand and/or coverage areas, and we expect that this trend will continue in 2020 and beyond, particularly as we expand our HTS network. If sales of our TracPhone V-HTS series products and the mini-VSAT Broadband service, including through our AgilePlans subscription model, do not generate the level of revenue that we expect or if those revenues decline, our service gross margins may continue to decline. As our market share has increased, we have also experienced a general increase in customer termination and suspension rates, compounded by accelerated declines in sales for vessels servicing the oil supply market with some bulk carriers, and lower unit sales of our mobile connectivity hardware, both in the United States and Europe. The failure to improve our mini-VSAT Broadband service gross margins and unit or subscriber sales would have a material adverse effect on our overall profitability.

Competition may limit our ability to sell our mobile connectivity products and services and inertial navigation products.

The mobile connectivity markets and defense navigation and inertial navigation markets in which we participate are very competitive, and we expect this competition to persist and intensify in the future. We may not be able to compete successfully against current and future competitors, which could impair our ability to sell our products and services. For example, improvements in the performance of lower-cost gyros by competitors could potentially jeopardize sales of our FOGs and FOG-based systems. As our market share in the mobile satellite communication market has grown, competition has intensified significantly, most notably from companies that seek to compete primarily on price. These companies may continue to implement price reductions and discounts for both products and services, which have required us to reduce our prices or offer discounts in order to maintain or increase our market share. Some of our VSAT competitors have also leveraged partnerships amongst themselves in order to capture larger combined market share. We anticipate that this trend of substantial competition will continue. Further, some of the companies that we depend on to supply us with capacity on satellite communications networks may vertically integrate by introducing their own products and services in competition with our products and services, thus potentially incentivizing them to refrain from providing satellite network capacity to us, or to make it available only on less favorable terms.

In the marine market for satellite TV equipment, we compete primarily with Intellian, Cobham SATCOM, Orbit Communication Systems, RayMarine (Intellian made), KNS, and Sea King (King Controls).

In the marine market for voice, fax, data, and Internet communications equipment, we compete primarily with Intellian, Cobham SATCOM, Orbit Communication Systems, Jotron AS, KNS Inc., Inmarsat, AddValue, and Iridium Satellite LLC.

In the marine market for high-speed voice, fax, data, and Internet services, we compete primarily with Inmarsat, Marlink, Speedcast, Network Innovations, Global Eagle Entertainment and Isotropic Network. We also face competition from providers of low-speed data services, which include Inmarsat, Globalstar LP, and Iridium Satellite LLC.

In the market for land mobile satellite TV equipment, we compete primarily with King Controls and Winegard Company.

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In the markets for media content, the KVH Media Group competes primarily with Swank Motion Pictures and NewspaperDirect Inc.

In the inertial navigation markets, we compete primarily with Honeywell International Inc., Northrop Grumman Corporation, Goodrich Aerospace, IAI, Fizoptica, SAGEM, and Systron Donner Inertial.

Among the factors that may affect our ability to compete in our markets are the following:

many of our primary competitors are well-established companies that generally have substantially greater financial, managerial, technical, marketing, personnel and other resources than we do, which help them to compete more effectively in the market for mobile broadband solutions for larger fleets of vessels;
the infrastructure costs for potential customers to switch from an existing service provider to our service may create disincentives for customers to enter into agreements for our services, even when those services are more attractive or cost-effective;
many of our primary competitors have well-established and/or growing partner programs, which pose a threat of multiplying their market influence;
product and service improvements, new product and service developments or price reductions by competitors may weaken customer acceptance of, and reduce demand for, our products and services;
new technology or market trends may disrupt or displace a need for our products and services;
our competitors may have access to a broader array of media content than we do, which may cause customers to prefer competitors’ media offerings; and
our competitors may have lower production costs than we do, which may enable them to compete more aggressively in offering discounts and other promotions.

The emergence of a competing small maritime VSAT antenna and complementary service or other similar service could reduce the competitive advantage we believe we currently enjoy with our smaller TracPhone V-HTS series antennas and Ku-band mini-VSAT Broadband service, or with our TracPhone V11-HTS antenna and our C/Ku-band mini-VSAT Broadband service.

Our TracPhone V-HTS systems offer customers a range of benefits due to their integrated design, hardware costs that are lower than existing maritime Ku-band VSAT systems, and broadband technology. We currently compete against companies that offer established maritime Ku-band VSAT service using, in some cases, antennas 1-meter in diameter or larger. While we are unaware of any company offering a 37-cm VSAT solution comparable to our TracPhone V3-HTS, we are encountering regional competition from companies offering 60-cm VSAT systems and services, which are comparable in size to our TracPhone V7-HTS. Likewise, our TracPhone V11-HTS, at 1.1-meters in diameter, is approximately 85% smaller and lighter than competing C-band maritime VSAT systems, which use antennas in excess of 2.4-meters in diameter to provide similar global services. We are unaware of any competitor currently offering a similar size solution for global C-band coverage, but any introduction of such a product could adversely impact our success. In addition, other companies could replicate some of the distinguishing features of our TracPhone V-HTS series products, which could potentially reduce the appeal of our solution, increase price competition, and adversely affect sales. We compete against Inmarsat's Fleet Xpress service, a global Ka-band mobile VSAT service that Inmarsat claims is faster and has a lower price per megabit than existing Ku-band services. This service may continue to adversely impact sales of our mini-VSAT Broadband service and related equipment. Our arrangement to use the IntelsatOne Flex service for our HTS network is not exclusive, and competitors’ use of this service could also adversely impact sales. Moreover, consumers may choose other services such as FleetBroadband or Iridium OpenPort for their service coverage at potentially lower hardware costs despite higher service costs and slower data rates.

If we are unable to improve our existing mobile connectivity and inertial navigation products and services and develop new, innovative products and services, our sales and market share may decline.

The markets for mobile connectivity products and services and inertial navigation products and services are each characterized by rapid technological change, frequent new product innovations, changes in customer requirements and expectations, and evolving industry standards. For example, we now compete with Inmarsat's Fleet Xpress satellite communications products and services. If we fail to make innovations in our existing products and services and reduce the costs of our products and services in a timely way, our market share may decline. For example, the introductions of our TracVision TV-series antennas in 2014 occurred later than we had anticipated, which we believe led certain customers to purchase competing products. Products or services using new technologies, or emerging industry standards, could render our products and services obsolete. If our competitors successfully introduce new or enhanced products or services that eliminate technological advantages our products or services may have in a market or otherwise outperform our products or services, or are perceived by consumers as doing so, we may be unable to compete successfully in the markets affected by these changes.

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We are devoting significant resources to research and development efforts that may be unsuccessful.

Research and development in our industry is inherently complex and uncertain, and our current and anticipated research and development projects may not achieve the results we seek. For example, we are currently investing in the development of a new, low-cost FOG for the autonomous vehicle market that will satisfy rigorous performance expectations but that can be manufactured at a significantly lower cost than our current FOGs. We plan to invest significantly to substantially accelerate this development program. The autonomous vehicle market is extremely competitive and evolving rapidly, factors that may afford us only a brief window to develop and introduce a competitively priced product before customers make design choices that could limit our opportunities or exclude us from the market altogether. We are also seeking to develop enhancements to our current generation of TACNAV products. As with all development projects, we may encounter unforeseen technical challenges, delays, cost overruns, licensing requirements or other problems that prevent us from achieving our goals, as a result of which we could lose significant market opportunities. Our research and development expenses increased 7% from 2018 to 2019, and the financial resources that we can devote to our research and development efforts may be insufficient to achieve our goals. Our efforts may not result in any viable products or may result in products whose performance, features, price or availability may not be attractive to customers or which we cannot manufacture and sell profitably. As a result, our efforts may not result in products that generate meaningful revenues or earnings in the near term, or at all. We may expend a significant amount of resources in unsuccessful research and development efforts, and any failure to achieve our research and development goals may harm our reputation with customers or otherwise adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The purchasing and delivery schedules and priorities of the U.S. military and foreign governments are often unpredictable.

We sell our FOG systems and tactical navigation products and services to U.S. and foreign military and government customers, either directly or as a subcontractor to other contractors. These customers often use a competitive bidding process and have unique purchasing and delivery requirements, which often makes the timing of sales to these customers unpredictable. Factors that affect their purchasing and delivery decisions include:

increasing budgetary pressures, which may reduce or delay funding for military programs;
changes in modernization plans for military equipment;
changes in tactical navigation requirements;
global conflicts impacting troop deployment, including troop withdrawals;
priorities for current battlefield operations;
new military and operational doctrines that affect military equipment needs;
sales cycles that are long and difficult to predict;
shifting response time and/or delays in the approval process associated with the export licenses we must obtain prior to the international shipment of certain of our military products;
delays in military procurement schedules; and
delays in the testing and acceptance of our products, including delays resulting from changes in customer specifications.

These factors periodically cause substantial fluctuations in sales of our TACNAV and FOG products and services from period to period. For example, TACNAV product sales increased $0.4 million, or 9%, from 2018 to 2019. Similarly, sales of our FOG products decreased $1.7 million, or 6%, from 2018 to 2019. In October 2014, we received a $19.0 million TACNAV product and services contract with an international military customer which included program management and engineering services delivered through 2017 and hardware shipments that were completed in the third quarter of 2016. These types of large orders contribute to the unpredictability of our revenues from period to period. Government customers may change defense spending priorities at any time.

Sales of our FOG systems and TACNAV products generally consist of a few large orders, and the delay or cancellation of a single order will substantially reduce our net sales.
    
KVH products sold to customers in the defense industry are purchased through orders that can generally range in size from several hundred thousand dollars to several million dollars. For example, we received an order for FOG products of $4.0 million in October 2019 and orders for TACNAV products and services of $6.7 million and $3.5 million in September 2019 and April 2017, respectively. Orders of this size are often unpredictable and difficult to replicate. As a result, the delay or cancellation of a single order could materially reduce our net sales and results of operations. We routinely experience repeated and unanticipated delays in defense orders, which make our revenues and operating results less predictable. Because our inertial navigation products typically have relatively higher product gross margins than our mobile connectivity products, the loss of an order for inertial navigation products could have a disproportionately adverse effect on our results of operations.


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Only a few customers account for a substantial portion of our inertial navigation revenues, and the loss of any of these customers could substantially reduce our net sales.

We derive a significant portion of our inertial navigation revenues from a small number of customers, many of whom are contractors for the U.S. government. The loss of business from any of these customers or delays in orders could substantially reduce our net sales and results of operations and could seriously harm our business. Since we are often awarded a contract as a subcontractor to a major defense supplier that is engaged in a competitive bidding process as prime contractor for a major weapons procurement program, our revenues depend significantly on the success of the prime contractors with which we align ourselves.

Commercial sales of our inertial navigation products are unpredictable.

Fluctuating commercial sales of our inertial navigation products are making it more difficult to predict our future revenues. We have been marketing our inertial navigation products, particularly our FOG products and systems, to original equipment manufacturers for incorporation into commercial products, such as navigation and positioning systems for various applications, including precision mapping, dynamic surveying, self-driving and other autonomous vehicles, train location control and track geometry measurement systems, industrial robotics, and optical stabilization. Because we sell these products to original equipment manufacturers rather than end-users, we have less information about market trends and other developments affecting the buying patterns of end-users and, as a result, may be unable to forecast demand for these products accurately. Sales of FOGs for commercial applications decreased from 2018 to 2019; however, sales can significantly increase or decrease quarter-to-quarter due to our customer mix. Moreover, sales of these products for commercial applications depend on the success of our customers’ products, and any decline in sales of our customers’ products would reduce demand for our products.

Our results of operations are adversely affected by unseasonably cold weather, prolonged winter conditions, disasters or similar events.

Our leisure marine business is highly seasonal, and seasonality can also impact our commercial marine business. Historically, we have generated the majority of our leisure marine product revenues during the first and second quarters of each year, and these revenues typically decline in the third and fourth quarters of each year, compared to the first two quarters. Temporary suspensions of our airtime services typically increase in the third and fourth quarters of each year as boats are placed out of service during winter months. Our leisure marine business is also significantly affected by the weather. Unseasonably cool weather, prolonged winter conditions, hurricanes, unusual amounts of rain, and natural and other disasters may decrease boating, which could reduce our revenues. Specifically, we may encounter a decrease in new airtime activations as well as an increase in the number of cancellations or temporary suspensions of our airtime service.

An increasing portion of our revenues derives from commercial leases of mobile connectivity equipment, rather than sales, which increases our credit and collection risk.

We are actively seeking to increase revenues from the commercial markets for our mini-VSAT Broadband service, particularly shipping companies and other companies that deploy a fleet of vessels. In marketing this service, we offer leasing arrangements for the TracPhone antennas to both commercial and leisure customers. If commercial leases become increasingly popular with our customers, we could face increased risks of default under those leases. Defaults could increase our costs of collection (including costs of retrieving or abandoning leased equipment) and reduce the amount we collect from customers, which could harm our results of operations. Moreover, fleet sales are likely to be less common than, and perhaps substantially larger than, our typical orders, which could lead to increased variability in our quarterly revenues and gross margin realization.

Our ability to compete in the maritime airtime services market will be impaired if we are unable to provide sufficient service capacity to meet customer demand.

We currently offer our mini-VSAT Broadband service in the Americas, Europe, the Middle East, Africa, Asia-Pacific, and Australian and New Zealand waters. In the future, we may need to expand capacity, including under our HTS network, in existing coverage areas to support our subscriber base. If we are unable to reach agreement with third-party satellite providers to support our mini-VSAT Broadband service and its technology or if transponder capacity is unavailable to meet growing demand in a given region, our ability to provide airtime services will be at risk and could reduce the attractiveness of our products and services.


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Changes in foreign currency exchange rates negatively affect our financial condition and results of operations.

Because of the scope of our foreign sales and foreign operations, we face significant exposure to movements in exchange rates for foreign currencies, particularly the pound sterling and the euro. During 2018 and 2019, the U.S. dollar strengthened slightly against certain foreign currencies, which adversely affected revenues reported in U.S. dollars and decreased the reported value of our assets in foreign countries. If the U.S. dollar continues to strengthen (as has recently occurred relative to the pound sterling), our revenues denominated in foreign currencies but reported in U.S. dollars, as well as the reported value of our assets in foreign countries, would be commensurately lower.

We also have intragroup receivables and liabilities, such as loans, that can generate significant foreign currency effects. Changes in exchange rates, particularly the U.S. dollar against the pound sterling, could lead to the recognition of unrealized foreign exchange losses.

Moreover, certain of our products and services are sold internationally in U.S. dollars; if the U.S. dollar strengthens, the relative cost of these products and services to customers located in foreign countries would increase, which could adversely affect export sales. In addition, most of our financial obligations, including payments under our outstanding debt obligations, must be satisfied in U.S. dollars. Our exposures to changes in foreign currency exchange rates may change over time as our business practices evolve and could result in increased costs or reduced revenue and could adversely affect our cash flow. Changes in the relative values of currencies occur regularly and may have a significant impact on our operating results. We cannot predict with any certainty changes in foreign currency exchange rates or the degree to which we can cost-effectively mitigate this exposure.

Brexit and political uncertainty in the United Kingdom and Europe could adversely affect our revenue and results of operations and disrupt our operations.

We have significant operations in the United Kingdom, including the major portion of our KVH Media Group operations. The United Kingdom's departure from the European Union, or Brexit, and the recent change in governmental leadership in the United Kingdom have caused significant political uncertainty in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. The impact of Brexit and the resulting turmoil on the political and economic future of the United Kingdom and the European Union is uncertain, and we may be adversely affected in ways we do not currently anticipate. Brexit may result in a significant change in the British regulatory environment, which would likely increase our compliance costs. Customers and other businesses may curtail expenditures, including for purchases of our products and services. We may find it more difficult to conduct business in the United Kingdom and the European Union, as Brexit may result in increased restrictions on the movement of capital, goods and personnel. Depending on the outcome of negotiations between the United Kingdom and the European Union regarding the terms of Brexit, we may decide to relocate or otherwise alter our European operations to respond to the new business, legal, regulatory, tax and trade environments that may result. Brexit may materially and adversely affect our relationships with customers, suppliers and employees and could result in decreased revenue, increased expenses, higher tariffs and taxes, and lower earnings and cash flow.

Tight credit availability, environmental concerns and ongoing low levels of consumer confidence are adversely affecting sales of our mobile satellite TV products.

Factors such as tight credit, environmental protection laws and ongoing low levels of consumer confidence can materially and adversely affect sales of larger vehicles and vessels for which our mobile satellite TV products are designed, such as yachts and recreational vehicles. Many customers finance their purchases of these vehicles and vessels, and tight credit availability can reduce demand for both these vehicles and vessels and our mobile satellite TV products. Moreover, financing for these purchases has sometimes been unavailable or more difficult to obtain. The increased cost of operating these vehicles and vessels can adversely affect demand for our mobile satellite TV products.


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The agreements governing the indebtedness under our secured credit facility subject us to various restrictions that may limit our ability to pursue business opportunities.

The agreements governing the indebtedness under our secured credit facility subject us to various restrictions on our ability to engage in certain activities, including, among other things, our ability to:

acquire other businesses or make investments;
raise additional capital;
incur other debt or create liens on our assets;
pay dividends or make distributions;
prepay indebtedness; and
merge, dissolve, liquidate, consolidate, or dispose of all or substantially all of our assets.

These restrictions may limit or restrict our cash flow and our ability to pursue business opportunities or strategies that we would otherwise consider to be in our best interests.

Our secured credit facility contains certain financial and other restrictive covenants that we may not satisfy, and that, if not satisfied, could result in the acceleration of the amounts due under our secured credit facility and the limitation of our ability to borrow additional funds in the future.

Although no amount were outstanding under the agreements as of December 31, 2019, the agreements governing our secured credit facility subject us to various financial and other affirmative and negative covenants with which we must comply on an ongoing or periodic basis. These include covenants pertaining to a maximum consolidated leverage ratio and a minimum consolidated fixed charge coverage ratio and covenants requiring the mandatory prepayment of amounts outstanding under the revolver under specified circumstances, including (i) 100% of the net cash proceeds from certain dispositions to the extent not reinvested in our business within a stated period, (ii) 50% of the net cash proceeds from stated equity issuances, and (iii) 100% of the net cash proceeds from certain receipts above certain threshold amounts outside the ordinary course of business. The consolidated leverage ratio may not be greater than 2.50:1.00 and declines to 2.00:1.00 on December 31, 2020. The consolidated fixed charge coverage ratio may not be less than 1.25:1.00. If we violate any of these covenants, any outstanding debt under our secured credit facility could become immediately due and payable, our lenders could proceed against any collateral securing such indebtedness, and our ability to borrow additional funds in the future could be limited or terminated. Alternatively, we could be forced to refinance or renegotiate the terms and conditions of our secured credit facility, including the interest rates, financial and restrictive covenants and security requirements of the secured credit facility, on terms that may be significantly less favorable to us.

Our mobile satellite products currently depend on satellite services, gateway teleports and terrestrial networks provided by third parties, and a disruption in those services could adversely affect sales.

Our satellite antenna products include the equipment necessary to utilize satellite services. We do not own the satellites that directly provide two-way satellite communications or the terrestrial networks that interconnect our facilities with the satellite teleports that communicate with the satellites. We currently offer satellite television products compatible with the DIRECTV and DISH Network services in the United States, the Bell TV service in Canada, the Sky Mexico service and various other regional satellite TV services in other parts of the world.

SES, Eutelsat, Sky Perfect-JSAT, Telesat, EchoStar, Intelsat and Star One currently provide the satellite capacity to support the mini-VSAT Broadband service and our TracPhone V-IP and V-HTS series products. Intelsat also currently provides our C-Band satellite coverage. In addition, we have agreements with various teleports and Internet service providers around the globe to support the mini-VSAT Broadband service. The terrestrial fiber links that we use to connect with the Internet and to move our voice and data services between our facilities and the various satellite earth stations that support our services are provided to us through numerous service providers, some of which have contractual relationships with our satellite service providers and not directly with us. We rely on Inmarsat for satellite communications services for our FleetBroadband and FleetOne compatible TracPhone products. We also have an arrangement with Iridium for additional satellite communications services that we make available to our customers as a backup option to provide communications redundancy with our primary service offerings.


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We exercise little or no control over these third-party providers of satellite, teleport and terrestrial network services, which increases our vulnerability to problems with the services they provide. Due to our reliance on these service providers, when problems occur, it may be difficult to identify the source of the problem. Service disruption or outages, regardless of whether they are caused by our service, the equipment or services of our third-party service providers, or our customers’ or their equipment and systems, may result in loss of market acceptance of our service, and any necessary repairs or other remedial actions may cause us to incur significant costs and expenses. Any failure on the part of third-party service providers to achieve or maintain expected performance levels, stability and security could harm our relationships with our customers, result in claims for credits or damages, damage our reputation, significantly reduce customer demand for our solution and seriously harm our financial condition and operating results.

If customers become dissatisfied with the programming, pricing, service, availability or other aspects of any of these satellite services, or if any one or more of these services becomes unavailable for any reason, we could suffer a substantial decline in sales of our satellite products. There may be no alternative service provider available in a particular geographic area, and our modem or other technology may not be compatible with the technology of any alternative service provider that may be available. Even if available, delays caused by switching our technology to another service provider, if available, and qualifying this new service provider could materially harm our customer relationships, business, financial condition and operating results. In addition, the unexpected failure of a satellite could disrupt the availability of programming and services, which could reduce the demand for, or customer satisfaction with, our products.

We rely upon third-party communications technology and satellite providers to permit two-way broadband Internet via our TracPhone V-HTS and V-IP series antennas, and any disruption in the availability of this technology will adversely affect sales.

Our mini-VSAT Broadband service relies on broadband communications technology developed by ViaSat and Intelsat for use with satellite capacity controlled by SES, Eutelsat, Sky Perfect-JSAT, Telesat, Echostar, Intelsat and Star One. Our TracPhone broadband satellite terminals combine our stabilized antenna technology with this third-party mobile broadband technology, including modems, to provide two-way broadband Internet service. This third-party technology is also integrated within the satellite hubs that support this service. Sales of the TracPhone V-HTS series products and our mini-VSAT Broadband service could be disrupted if we fail to receive approval from regulatory authorities to provide our service in the waters of various countries where our customers operate or if there are issues with the availability of the third-party hardware. Moreover, satellite communications technology may continue to evolve, which could reduce the relative attractiveness of the third-party technology we currently offer, and the hardware we use may cease to be compatible with changes in satellite service offerings. As we transition customers to our HTS service over the next few years, we may encounter technological challenges, increased expenses, customer dissatisfaction, inventory obsolescence, interruptions in supply, disruptions in current relationships or arrangements and unforeseen obstacles, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our mobile satellite business, revenues and profitability.

We have single dedicated manufacturing facilities for each of our mobile connectivity and inertial navigation product categories, and any significant disruption to a facility will impair our ability to deliver our products.

We currently manufacture all of our mobile connectivity products at our manufacturing facility in Middletown, Rhode Island, and the majority of our inertial navigation products at our facility in Tinley Park, Illinois. Some of our production processes are complex, and we may be unable to respond rapidly to the loss of the use of either production facility. For example, our production facilities use some specialized equipment that may take time to replace if they are damaged or become unusable for any reason. In that event, shipments would be delayed, which could result in customer or dealer dissatisfaction, loss of sales and damage to our reputation. Finally, we have only a limited capability to increase our manufacturing capacity in the short term. If short-term demand for our products exceeds our manufacturing capacity, our inability to fulfill orders in a timely manner could also lead to customer or dealer dissatisfaction, loss of sales and damage to our reputation.


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We depend on sole or limited source suppliers, and any disruption in supply could impair our ability to deliver our products on time or at expected cost.

We obtain many key components for our products from third-party suppliers, and in some cases we use a single or a limited number of suppliers. Any interruption in supply could impair our ability to deliver our products until we identify and qualify a new source of supply, which could take several weeks, months or longer and could increase our costs significantly. Suppliers might change or discontinue key components, which could require us to modify our product designs. For example, in the past, we have experienced changes in the chemicals used to coat our optical fiber, which changed its characteristics and thereby necessitated design modifications. Department of Defense regulations requiring government contractors to implement processes to avoid counterfeit parts may require us to find new sources of materials or components if the current supplier cannot meet the requirements. In general, we do not have written long-term supply agreements with our suppliers but instead purchase components through purchase orders, which expose us to potential price increases and termination of supply without notice or recourse. It is generally not our practice to carry significant inventories of product components, and this could magnify the impact of the loss of a supplier. If we are required to use a new source of materials or components, it could also result in unexpected manufacturing difficulties and could affect product performance and reliability. In addition, from time to time, lead times for certain components can increase significantly due to imbalances in overall market supply and demand. This, in turn, could limit our ability to satisfy the demand for certain of our products on a timely basis and could result in some customer orders being rescheduled or canceled.

We may continue to increase the use of international suppliers to source components for our manufacturing operations, which could disrupt our business.

Although we have historically manufactured and sourced raw materials for the majority of our products domestically, in order for us to compete with lower priced competing products while also improving our profitability, in some instances we have found it desirable to source raw materials and manufactured components and assemblies from Europe, Asia, and South America. Reliance on foreign manufacturing and/or raw material supply has lengthened our supply chain and increased the risk that a disruption in that supply chain could have a material adverse effect on our operations and financial performance.

We depend on cloud-based data services operated by third parties, and any disruption in the operation of these services could harm our business.

Some of our content services and business records are hosted by various cloud-based data services operated by third parties. Any failure or downtime in one of these services could affect a significant percentage of our customers. Although we control and have access to our servers and all of the components of our network that are located in our internal facilities and certain of our external data facilities, we do not control the operation of external facilities. The providers of our data management services have no obligation to renew their agreements with us on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. If we are unable to renew these agreements on commercially reasonable terms, or if one or more of our data management service providers is acquired, closes, suffers financial difficulty or is unable to meet our growing capacity needs, we may be required to transfer our data to other services, and we may incur significant costs and service interruptions in connection with doing so, which could harm our reputation with our customers and adversely affect our revenues and results of operations.

Adverse economic conditions could result in financial difficulties or bankruptcy for any of our suppliers, which could adversely affect our business and results of operations.

A deterioration in the current state of worldwide economic conditions and tight credit could present challenges to our suppliers, which could result in disruptions to our business, increase our costs, delay shipment of our products or delivery of services, and impair our ability to generate and recognize revenue. To address their own business challenges, our suppliers may increase prices, reduce the availability of credit, require deposits or advance payments or take other actions that may impose a burden on us.

They may also reduce production capacity, slow or delay delivery of products, face challenges meeting our specifications or otherwise fail to meet our requirements. In some cases, our suppliers may face bankruptcy. We may be required to identify, qualify, and engage new suppliers, which would require time and the attention of management. Any of these events could impair our ability to deliver our products and services to customers in a timely and cost-effective manner, cause us to breach our contractual commitments or result in the loss of customers.


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Our media and entertainment business relies on licensing arrangements with content providers, and the loss of or changes in those arrangements could adversely affect our business.

We distribute premium news, sports, movies, and music content for commercial and leisure customers in the maritime, hotel, and retail markets. We do not generate this content but instead license the content from third parties on a non-exclusive basis. We do not have long-term license agreements with any content provider. Accordingly, any content provider could terminate our existing arrangements with little or no advance notice or could adversely modify the terms of the arrangement, including initiating potential price increases. Further, the licenses we obtain are limited in scope, and any violation of the terms of a license could expose us to liability for copyright infringement. We pay license fees that are based in part on the revenue we generate from sublicenses, and our licensors generally have the right to audit our records to determine whether we have paid all necessary license fees. Failure to pay required license fees could result in any combination of termination of our license rights, penalties, or damages. The loss of content could adversely affect the attractiveness of our media and entertainment offerings, which could in turn adversely affect our revenues. Any increase in the cost of content could reduce the profitability of these offerings.

Any failure to maintain and expand our third-party distribution relationships may limit our ability to penetrate markets for mobile connectivity products and services.

We market and sell our mobile connectivity products and services through an international network of independent retailers, chain stores and distributors, as well as to manufacturers of marine vessels, recreational vehicles and buses. Many of our distributors are also responsible for providing onsite support and installation for our products, which requires our distributors to employ highly skilled workers and maintain facilities in locations convenient to our customers, such as at maritime ports. We also expect our distributors to assist us in expanding internationally. Some of our distribution relationships are new, and our new distributors may not be successful in marketing and selling our products and services. In addition, our distribution partners do not have exclusive relationships with us and may sell products of other companies, including competing products, and are generally not required to purchase minimum quantities of our products. Our competitors may be able to cause our current or potential distributors to favor their services over ours, either through financial incentives, technological innovation, by offering a broader array of services to these service providers or otherwise, which could reduce the effectiveness of our use of these distributors. If we fail to maintain relationships with our current distributors, fail to develop relationships with new distributors in new and existing markets, or manage, train, or provide appropriate incentives to our existing distributors, or if our distributors are not successful in their sales efforts, sales of our products and services may decline and our operating results could be harmed.

Our international business operations expose us to a number of difficulties in coordinating our activities abroad and in dealing with multiple regulatory environments.

Historically, sales to customers outside the United States have accounted for a significant portion of our net sales. We derived 54% and 57% of our revenues in 2019 and 2018, respectively, from sales to customers outside the United States. We have foreign sales offices in Denmark, the United Kingdom, Singapore, Hong Kong, Japan, Norway, Cyprus and the Philippines, as well as a subsidiary in Brazil that manages local sales. However, aside from these international sales offices, substantially all of our personnel and operations, particularly for our mobile connectivity equipment business and our inertial navigation business, are located in the United States. Our limited operations in foreign countries may impair our ability to compete successfully in international markets and to meet the service and support needs of our customers in countries where we have little to no infrastructure. We are subject to a number of risks associated with our international business activities, which may increase our costs and require significant management attention. These risks include:

retaliatory and other tariffs;
technical challenges we may face in adapting our mobile connectivity products to function with different satellite services and technology in use in various regions around the world;
satisfaction of international regulatory requirements and delays and costs associated with procurement of any necessary licenses or permits;
the potential unavailability of content licenses covering international waters and foreign locations;
restrictions on the sale of certain inertial navigation products to foreign military and government customers;
increased costs of providing customer support in multiple languages;
increased costs of managing operations that are international in scope;
potentially adverse tax consequences, including restrictions on the repatriation of earnings;
protectionist laws and business practices that favor local competitors, which could slow our growth in international markets;
potentially longer sales cycles, which could slow our revenue growth from international sales;
potentially longer accounts receivable payment cycles and difficulties in collecting accounts receivable; and
economic and political instability in some international markets.

28


We could incur additional legal compliance costs associated with our international operations and could become subject to legal penalties if we do not comply with certain regulations.

As a result of our international operations, we are subject to a number of legal requirements, including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the U.K. Bribery Act and the customs, export, trade sanctions and anti-boycott laws of the United States, including those administered by the U.S. Customs and Border Protection, the Bureau of Industry and Security, the Department of Commerce, the Department of State, and the Office of Foreign Assets Control of the Treasury Department, as well as those of other nations in which we do business. In addition, the governments of many of the countries where our customers use our products and services maintain licensing and regulatory requirements for the importation and use of satellite communications and reception equipment, including the use of such equipment in the country’s territorial waters, the transmission of satellite signals on certain radio frequencies, the transmission of voice over Internet services using such equipment, and, in some cases, the reception of certain video programming services. These laws and regulations are changing continuously, and compliance with these laws and regulations is complex. We incur significant costs identifying and maintaining compliance with applicable licensing and regulatory requirements. In addition, our training and compliance programs and our other internal control policies may be insufficient to protect us from acts committed by our employees, agents or third-party contractors. Any violation of these requirements by us or our employees, agents or third-party contractors may subject us to significant criminal and civil liability.

Exports of certain inertial navigation products are subject to the U.S. Export Administration Regulations and the International Traffic in Arms Regulations and require a license from the U.S. Department of State prior to shipment.

We must comply with the United States Export Administration Regulations and the International Traffic in Arms Regulations, or ITAR. Certain of our products have military or strategic applications and are on the munitions list of the ITAR and require an individual validated license in order to be exported to certain jurisdictions. Any changes in export regulations or reclassifications of our products may further restrict the export of our products, and we may cease to be able to procure export licenses for our products under existing regulations. The length of time required by the licensing process can vary, potentially delaying the shipment of products and the recognition of the corresponding revenue. Any restriction on the export of a product line or any amount of our products could cause a significant reduction in net sales.

We are subject to FCC rules and regulations, and any non-compliance could subject us to FCC enforcement actions, fines, loss of licenses and possibly restrictions on our ability to operate or offer certain of our services.

The satellite communications industry is regulated by the Federal Communications Commission in the United States and, as a result, we are subject to existing and potential FCC regulations relating to privacy, contributions to the Universal Service Fund, or USF, and other requirements. If we do not comply with FCC rules and regulations, we could be subject to FCC enforcement actions, substantial fines, penalties, loss of licenses and possibly restrictions on our ability to operate or offer certain of our services. Any enforcement action by the FCC, which may be a public process, could hurt our reputation in the industry, possibly impair our ability to sell our services to customers and could harm our business and results of operations.

Reform of federal and state USF programs could increase the cost of our service to our customers, diminishing or eliminating our pricing advantage.

The FCC has been considering reform or other modifications to its USF program. The way we calculate our contribution to USF may change if the FCC engages in reform or adopts other modifications. In April 2012, the FCC released a Further Notice of Proposed Rulemaking to consider reforms to the manner in which companies like us contribute to the federal USF program. In general, the Further Notice of Proposed Rulemaking indicates that the FCC is considering changes to the companies that should contribute, how contributions should be assessed, and methods to improve the administration of the system. We cannot predict the outcome of this proceeding or its impact on our business at this time. The changes in the leadership of the U.S. Government resulting from the federal election in 2016 may renew interest in completing this proceeding.

Should the FCC adopt new contribution mechanisms or otherwise modify contribution obligations that increase our contribution burden, we will either need to raise the amount we currently collect from our customers to cover this obligation or absorb the costs, which would reduce our profit margins. The attractiveness of our services may also be reduced as compared to the services of our competitors that do not appear to contribute to USF, or do not do so to the same extent that we do.


29


Privacy concerns and domestic or foreign laws and regulations may reduce demand for our services, increase our costs and harm our business.

Our company and our customers can potentially use our services to collect, use and store information, including personally identifiable information or other information treated as confidential, regarding the content and manner of usage of our services by them, their employees and maritime crews. Federal, state and foreign governments and agencies have adopted, are considering adopting, and may adopt new and more stringent laws and regulations regarding the collection, use, storage and disclosure of such information obtained from consumers and individuals, such as the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation, or the GDPR, which took effect in May 2018, and the California Consumer Privacy Act, or CCPA, which took effect on January 1, 2020. The costs of compliance with, and other burdens imposed by, such laws and regulations that are applicable to us and the operations of our customers may limit the use and adoption of our services and reduce overall demand, and any non-compliance with these laws and regulations could lead to significant remediation expenses, fines, penalties or other regulatory liabilities such as orders or consent decrees forcing us to modify our privacy practices, as well as reputational damage or third-party lawsuits seeking damages or other relief. For example, the GDPR imposes a strict data protection compliance regime with penalties of up to the greater of 4% of worldwide revenue and €20 million.

Domestic and international legislative and regulatory initiatives may harm our ability, and the ability of our customers, to process, handle, store, use and transmit information, including demographic and personally identifiable information or other information treated as confidential, regarding individual users of the services, which could reduce demand for some of our services, increase our costs and force us to change our business practices. These laws and regulations are still evolving and are likely to be in flux and subject to uncertain interpretation for the foreseeable future. For example, under the GDPR, data protection authorities in each country have the ability to interpret the GDPR, which could create inconsistencies on a country-by-country basis. Under the CCPA, there is some uncertainty because regulations have not yet been finalized, and it is unclear how the California Attorney General, who has primary enforcement authority, will interpret and enforce the law. Our business could be harmed if legislation or regulations are adopted, interpreted or implemented in a manner that is inconsistent from country to country or inconsistent with our current policies and practices or those of our customers. In addition, although foreign data protection, privacy, and consumer protection laws and regulations, such as the GDPR, are often more stringent than those currently in effect in the United States, the CCPA and proposed privacy laws in several states indicate that privacy restrictions in the United States could equal or exceed those under the GDPR.

Acquisitions may disrupt our operations or adversely affect our results.

We evaluate strategic acquisition opportunities to acquire other businesses as they arise. The expenses we incur evaluating and pursuing these and other such acquisitions could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations. If we acquire a business, we may be unable to manage it profitably or successfully integrate its operations with our own. Moreover, we may be unable to realize the strategic, financial, operational and other benefits we anticipate from any acquisition, and any acquisition may increase our overall operating expenses, including expenses we may incur to complete acquired research and development programs. Competition for acquisition opportunities could increase the price we pay for businesses we acquire and could reduce the number of potential acquisition targets. Further, our approach to acquisitions may involve a number of special financial and business risks, such as:

entry into new and unfamiliar lines of business or markets, which may present challenges or risks that we did not anticipate;
entry into new or unfamiliar geographic regions, including exposure to additional tax and regulatory regimes;
increased expenses associated with the amortization of acquired intangible assets;
increased exposure to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates;
charges related to any potential acquisition from which we may withdraw;
diversion of our management’s time, attention, and resources;
loss of key acquired personnel;
increased costs to improve or coordinate managerial, operational, financial, and administrative systems, including compliance with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002;
dilutive issuances of equity securities;
the assumption of legal liabilities; and
losses arising from impairment charges associated with goodwill or intangible assets.

For example, we incurred additional expenses to implement internal control over financial reporting appropriate for a public company at two companies we acquired, which previously operated as private companies not subject to U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.


30


If we cannot effectively manage changes in our rate of growth, our business may suffer.

We have previously expanded our operations to pursue existing and potential market opportunities, and we are continuing to expand our international operations. For example, we expanded our service offerings through acquisitions in 2014 and in 2013. This growth placed a strain on our personnel, management, financial and other resources and increased our operating expenses. If any portion of our business grows more rapidly than we anticipate and we fail to manage that growth properly, we may incur unnecessary expenses, and the efficiency of our operations may decline. If we are unable to adjust our operating expenses on a timely basis in response to changes in revenue cycles, our results of operations may be harmed. To manage changes in our rate of growth effectively, we must, among other things:

match our manufacturing facilities and capacity to demand for our products and services in a timely manner;
secure appropriate satellite capacity to match changes in demand for airtime services in a timely manner;
successfully attract, train, motivate and manage appropriate numbers of employees for manufacturing, sales, marketing and customer support activities;
effectively manage our inventory and working capital;
maintain the efficiencies within our operating, administrative, financial and accounting systems; and
ensure that our procedures and internal controls are revised and updated to remain appropriate for the size and scale of our business operations.

If we are unable to hire and retain the skilled personnel we need to expand our operations, our business will suffer.

To meet our growth objectives, we must attract and retain highly skilled technical, operational, managerial and sales and marketing personnel. If we fail to attract and retain the necessary personnel, we may be unable to achieve our business objectives and may lose our competitive position, which could lead to a significant decline in net sales. We face significant competition for these skilled professionals from other companies, research and academic institutions, government entities and other organizations.

Our success depends on the services of our executive officers.

Our future success depends to a significant degree on the skills and efforts of Martin Kits van Heyningen, our co-founder, President, Chief Executive Officer, and Chairman of the Board. If we lost the services of Mr. Kits van Heyningen, our business and operating results could be seriously harmed. We also depend on the ability of our other executive officers to work effectively as a team. The loss of one or more of our executive officers could impair our ability to manage our business effectively.

Our business may suffer if we cannot protect our proprietary technology.

Our ability to compete depends significantly upon our patents, copyrights, source code, and other proprietary technology. The steps we have taken to protect our technology may be inadequate to prevent others from using what we regard as our technology to compete with us. Our patents will eventually expire and could be challenged, invalidated or circumvented, and the rights we have under our patents could provide no competitive advantages. Existing trade secret, copyright, and trademark laws offer only limited protection. Customers or others with access to our proprietary or licensed media content could copy that content without permission or otherwise violate the terms of our customer agreements, which would adversely affect our revenues and could impair our relationships with content providers. In addition, the laws of some foreign countries do not protect our proprietary technology to the same extent as the laws of the United States, which could increase the likelihood of misappropriation. Furthermore, other companies could independently develop similar or superior technology without violating our intellectual property rights. Any misappropriation of our technology or the development of competing technology could seriously harm our competitive position, which could lead to a substantial reduction in net sales.

If we resort to legal proceedings to enforce our intellectual property rights, the proceedings could be burdensome, disruptive and expensive, distract the attention of management, and there can be no assurance that we would prevail.

Also, we have delivered certain technical data and information to the U.S. government under procurement contracts, and it may have unlimited rights to use that technical data and information. There can be no assurance that the U.S. government will not authorize others to use that data and information to compete with us.


31


Claims by others that we infringe their intellectual property rights could harm our business and financial condition.

Our industries are characterized by the existence of a large number of patents and frequent claims and related litigation regarding patent and other intellectual property rights. We cannot be certain that our products do not and will not infringe issued patents, patents that may be issued in the future, or other intellectual property rights of others.

We do not generally conduct exhaustive patent searches to determine whether the technology used in our products infringes patents held by third parties. In addition, product development is inherently uncertain in a rapidly evolving technological environment in which there may be numerous patent applications pending, many of which are confidential when filed, with regard to similar technologies.

From time to time we have faced claims by third parties that our products or technology infringe their patents or other intellectual property rights, and we may face similar claims in the future. For example, we were sued for patent infringement in 2015, and we settled this claim in January 2016 with a payment of cash to Advanced Media Network. Any claim of infringement could cause us to incur substantial costs defending against or settling the claim, even if the claim is invalid, and could distract the attention of our management. If any of our products are found to violate third-party proprietary rights, we may be required to pay substantial damages. In addition, we may be required to re-engineer our products or obtain licenses from third parties to continue to offer our products. Any efforts to re-engineer our products or obtain licenses on commercially reasonable terms may not be successful, which would prevent us from selling our products, and, in any case, could substantially increase our costs and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Cybersecurity breaches could disrupt our operations, expose us to liability, damage our reputation, and require us to incur significant costs or otherwise adversely affect our financial results.

We are highly dependent on information technology networks and systems, including the Internet and third-party systems, to securely process, transmit and store electronic information, including personal information of our customers. We also retain sensitive data, including intellectual property, proprietary business information, personally identifiable information, credit card information, and usage data of our employees and customers on our computer networks and those of third parties. Although we take certain protective measures and endeavor to modify them as we believe circumstances warrant, invasive technologies and techniques continue to evolve rapidly, and increasingly sophisticated hacking organizations are targeting business systems. As a result, the computer systems, software and networks that we use are vulnerable to disruption, shutdown, unauthorized access, misuse, erasure, alteration, employee error, phishing, computer viruses, ransomware or other malicious code, and other events that could have a security impact. The protective measures on which we rely may be inadequate to detect future cybersecurity breaches or determine the extent of any breach, and there can be no assurance that undetected breaches have not already occurred. Any security breach may compromise information stored on networks we use and may result in significant data losses or theft of our, our customers', our business partners' or our employees' sensitive information. Public reports suggest that cybersecurity incidents are happening more often and with increasingly severe consequences. We may be required to expend substantial additional resources to augment our efforts to address potential cybersecurity risks, which could adversely affect our results of operations and which may not be successful.

If any of these events were to occur, they could disrupt our operations, distract our management, cause us to lose existing customers and fail to attract new customers, as well as subject us to regulatory actions, litigation, fines, damage to our reputation or competitive position, or orders or decrees requiring us to modify our business practices, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.



32


Fluctuations in our quarterly net sales and results of operations could depress the market price of our common stock.

We have at times experienced significant fluctuations in our net sales and results of operations from one quarter to the next. Our future net sales and results of operations could vary significantly from quarter to quarter due to a number of factors, many of which are outside our control. Accordingly, you should not rely on quarter-to-quarter comparisons of our results of operations as an indication of future performance. It is possible that our net sales or results of operations in a quarter will fall below the expectations of securities analysts or investors. If this occurs, the market price of our common stock could fall significantly. Our results of operations in any quarter can fluctuate for many reasons, including:

changes in demand for our mobile connectivity and inertial navigation products and services, including as a result of our AgilePlans;
the timing and size of individual orders from military customers, which may be delayed or canceled for various reasons;
the mix of products and services we sell, including the mix of fixed rate and metered contracts for airtime services;
our ability to manufacture, test and deliver products in a timely and cost-effective manner, including the availability and timely delivery of components and subassemblies from our suppliers;
our success in winning competitions for orders;
the timing of new product introductions by us or our competitors;
the scope and success of our investments in research and development;
expenses incurred in pursuing acquisitions and investments;
expenses incurred in expanding, maintaining, or improving our mini-VSAT Broadband network;
market and competitive pricing pressures;
unanticipated charges or expenses, such as increases in warranty claims;
general economic climate; and
seasonality of pleasure boat and recreational vehicle usage.

In light of our current and anticipated investments in research and development and the expansion of our HTS network, we expect that our operating expenses in upcoming quarters will increase significantly over the amounts we incurred in prior comparable quarters.

A large portion of our expenses, including expenses for network infrastructure, facilities, equipment, and personnel, are relatively fixed. Accordingly, if our net sales decline or do not grow as much or as quickly as we anticipate, we might be unable to maintain or improve our operating margins. Any failure to achieve anticipated net sales could therefore significantly harm our operating results for a particular fiscal period.

The market price of our common stock may be volatile.

Our stock price has historically been volatile. During the period from January 1, 2018 to December 31, 2019, the trading price of our common stock ranged from $8.64 to $14.15. Many factors may cause the market price of our common stock to fluctuate, including:

variations in our quarterly results of operations;
the introduction of new products and services by us or our competitors;
changing needs of military customers;
changes in estimates of our performance or recommendations by securities analysts;
the hiring or departure of key personnel;
acquisitions or strategic alliances involving us or our competitors;
market conditions in our industries; and
the global macroeconomic and geopolitical environment.

In addition, the stock market can experience extreme price and volume fluctuations. Major stock market indices experienced dramatic declines in 2008, the first quarter of 2009, January 2016, and the fourth quarter of 2018. These fluctuations are often unrelated to the operating performance of particular companies. These broad market fluctuations may adversely affect the market price of our common stock. When the market price of a company’s stock drops significantly, stockholders often institute securities litigation against that company. Any such litigation could cause us to incur significant expenses defending against the claim, divert the time and attention of our management and result in significant damages.


33


The timing and amount of any repurchases under our recently announced share repurchase program are uncertain.

In October 2019, we announced that our board of directors had approved a share repurchase program of up to 1,000,000 shares, or approximately 5.5% of our outstanding shares of common stock at that time. We currently expect that share repurchases under the program will be funded with cash on hand. The volume and timing of any such repurchases will depend on a variety of factors, including the availability of shares, price, market conditions, alternative uses of capital, liquidity, general business conditions, satisfaction of debt covenants, and applicable regulatory requirements. The program does not obligate us to repurchase any minimum number or dollar amount of shares, and the program may be modified, suspended or terminated at any time without prior notice. Any repurchases may reduce the public float of shares available for trading on a daily basis, which could reduce our liquidity and lead to greater volatility in our stock price. The existence of the program may cause our stock price to be higher than it would otherwise be, and any discontinuation or reduction of the program could cause the trading price of our stock to decline.

We may have exposure to additional tax liabilities, which could negatively impact our income tax expense, net income and cash flow.

We are subject to income and other taxes in both the U.S. and the foreign jurisdictions in which we operate. The determination of our worldwide provision for income taxes and current and deferred tax assets and liabilities requires significant judgment and estimation. In the ordinary course of our business, there are many transactions and calculations where the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. We are subject to regular review and audit by both domestic and foreign tax authorities and to the prospective and retrospective effects of changing tax regulations and legislation. Although we believe our tax estimates are reasonable, the ultimate tax outcome may materially differ from the amounts recorded in our consolidated financial statements and may materially affect our income tax benefit or expense, net loss or income, and cash flows in the period in which such determination is made. As of December 31, 2019, we had liabilities for uncertain tax positions of $0.5 million.

Deferred tax assets are recognized for the expected future tax consequences of temporary differences between the carrying amount for financial reporting purposes and the tax bases of assets and liabilities, and for net operating losses and tax credit carry forwards. In some cases, we may record a valuation allowance to reduce our deferred tax assets to estimated realizable value. We review our deferred tax assets and valuation allowance requirements quarterly. If we are unable to demonstrate that it is more likely than not that we will not be able to generate sufficient future taxable income to realize the net carrying value of deferred tax assets, we will record a valuation allowance to reduce the deferred tax assets to estimated realizable value, which could result in a material income tax charge. As part of our review, we consider positive and negative evidence, including cumulative results of recent years.

Our effective tax rate fluctuates, and we may incur obligations in tax jurisdictions in excess of accrued amounts.

As a global company, we are subject to taxation in numerous countries, states and other jurisdictions. As a result, our effective tax rate is based on the tax rates in effect where we operate. In preparing our financial statements, we estimate the amount of tax that will become payable in each jurisdiction. Our effective tax rate may vary as a result of numerous factors, including changes in the mix of our profitability from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, the results of examinations and audits of our tax filings, whether we secure or sustain acceptable arrangements with tax authorities, adjustments to the value of our uncertain tax positions, changes in accounting for income taxes and changes in tax laws, including the 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, or the 2017 Tax Act. Any of these factors could cause us to experience an effective tax rate significantly different from previous periods or our current expectations.

The 2017 Tax Act made significant changes to the U.S. corporate income tax system. These changes include a federal statutory corporate income tax rate reduction from 35% to 21%, the elimination or reduction of certain domestic deductions and credits, and limitations on the deductibility of interest expense and executive compensation. The 2017 Tax Act also transitions taxation of earnings from a worldwide system to a modified territorial system and includes base erosion prevention measures on non-U.S. earnings, which subjects certain earnings of our foreign subsidiaries to U.S. taxation as global intangible low-taxed income, or GILTI. Both recently issued and future U.S. Treasury regulations, administrative interpretations or court decisions interpreting the 2017 Tax Act may require further adjustments and changes in our estimates, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations or financial conditions. In addition, there is substantial uncertainty regarding the application of many of the provisions of the 2017 Tax Act and related U.S. Treasury regulations, and the positions we take may later be challenged by tax authorities, which could lead to additional taxes, penalties and interest and, if material, might require us to revise or restate our consolidated financial statements. Moreover, the 2017 Tax Act and related regulations and interpretations require us to perform new, complex computations, make significant judgments and estimates, and prepare and analyze information not previously relevant or regularly produced. Our information management systems and related processes may require modifications in order to collect and process necessary information. We may be unable to make necessary modifications in a timely or effective manner, which could result in the miscalculation of our tax obligations.

34



In June 2019, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit overturned the 2015 U.S. tax court decision in Altera Corp. v. Commissioner. The court’s opinion upheld U.S. Treasury regulations requiring the inclusion of stock-based compensation costs under cost-sharing agreements. Based on our preliminary analysis, we believe the impact of the court’s decision would not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements. However, additional changes to precedent or applicable law on this point could impact our financial statements or operations.

Further changes in the tax laws of foreign jurisdictions could arise as a result of the base erosion and profit shifting (BEPS) project undertaken by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), which represents a coalition of member countries. On October 5, 2015, the OECD issued a series of reports recommending changes to numerous long-standing tax principles. Many of these recommendations or similar concepts are being adopted by various countries in which we do business and may increase our taxes in these countries. Changes to these and other areas in relation to international tax reform, including future actions taken by foreign governments in response to the 2017 Tax Act, could increase uncertainty and may adversely affect our tax rate and cash flow in future years.

Changes in the competitive environment, supply chain issues, and the transition to out HTS network may require inventory write-downs.

From time to time, we have recorded significant inventory charges and/or inventory write-offs as a result of substantial declines in customer demand. For example, in 2019, we recorded a $2.3 million inventory reserve relating to our TracPhone V-IP products as we decided to no longer promote sales of these products but instead to focus our efforts on migrating customers to our HTS network and products. Market or competitive changes could lead to future charges for excess or obsolete inventory, especially if we are unable to appropriately adjust the supply of material from our vendors.

If goodwill or other intangible assets that we have recorded in connection with our acquisitions of other businesses become impaired, we could have to take significant charges against earnings.

As a result of our acquisitions, we have recorded, and may continue to record, a significant amount of goodwill and other intangible assets. Under current accounting guidelines, we must assess, at least annually and potentially more frequently, whether the value of goodwill and other intangible assets has been impaired. Any reduction or impairment of the value of goodwill or other intangible assets will result in additional charges against earnings, which could materially reduce our reported results of operations in future periods.

Our charter and by-laws and Delaware law may deter takeovers.

Our certificate of incorporation, by-laws and Delaware law contain provisions that could have an anti-takeover effect and discourage, delay or prevent a change in control or an acquisition that many stockholders may find attractive. These provisions may also discourage proxy contests and make it more difficult for our stockholders to take some corporate actions, including the election of directors. These provisions relate to:

the ability of our Board of Directors to issue preferred stock, and determine its terms, without a stockholder vote;
the classification of our Board of Directors, which effectively prevents stockholders from electing a majority of the directors at any one annual meeting of stockholders;
the limitation that directors may be removed only for cause by the affirmative vote of the holders of two-thirds of our shares of capital stock entitled to vote;
the prohibition against stockholder actions by written consent;
the inability of stockholders to call a special meeting of stockholders; and
advance notice requirements for stockholder proposals and director nominations.

ITEM 1B.
Unresolved Staff Comments
None.


35


ITEM 2.
Properties
The following table provides information about our principal facilities as of December 31, 2019.
Location
 
Type
 
Principal Uses
 
Approximate
Square
Footage
 
Ownership
 
Lease
Expiration
Middletown, Rhode Island
 
Office
 
Corporate headquarters, research and development, sales and service, marketing and administration
 
75,000
 
Owned
 
Middletown, Rhode Island
 
Plant and warehouse
 
Manufacturing and warehousing (mobile connectivity products)
 
75,300
 
Owned
 
Tinley Park, Illinois
 
Plant and warehouse
 
Manufacturing, warehousing, research and development (inertial navigation products)
 
101,000
 
Owned
 
Horten, Norway
 
Office
 
Research and development, sales, marketing and support
 
4,400
 
Leased
 
December 2020
Singapore
 
Office
 
Asian headquarters and sales office
 
3,444
 
Leased
 
April
2022
Kokkedal, Denmark
 
Office and warehouse
 
European headquarters, sales, marketing and support
 
11,000
 
Leased
 
3 month notice
Leeds, UK
 
Media Lab
 
Audio/video production, sales and support
 
2,608
 
Leased
 
January
2021
Leeds, UK
 
Office
 
Audio/video production, Media distribution, sales and administration
 
3,628
 
Leased
 
January
2021
Liverpool, UK
 
Office
 
Maritime sales, news production, marketing and support
 
4,692
 
Leased
 
June
2023
Manila, Philippines
 
Office
 
News production, inside sales, support
 
7,440
 
Leased
 
September 2021
New Delhi, India
 
Office
 
News production
 
1,800
 
Leased
 
November 2025
Davie, Florida
 
Office
 
Sales support
 
1,800
 
Leased
 
August
2021

ITEM 3.
Legal Proceedings

From time to time, we are involved in litigation incidental to the conduct of our business. In the ordinary course of business, we are a party to inquiries, legal proceedings and claims including, from time to time, disagreements with vendors and customers.

ITEM 4.
Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.


36


PART II
ITEM 5.
Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Market Information. Our common stock trades on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol “KVHI.”
The following table provides, for the periods indicated, the high and low sale prices for our common stock as reported on the NASDAQ Global Select Market.
 
High
 
Low
Year Ended December 31, 2019:
 
 
 
First quarter
$
11.89

 
$
10.01

Second quarter
10.92

 
9.09

Third quarter
11.10

 
8.64

Fourth quarter
11.64

 
9.37

Year Ended December 31, 2018:
 
 
 
First quarter
$
12.00

 
$
9.05

Second quarter
13.55

 
10.00

Third quarter
14.15

 
11.70

Fourth quarter
13.18

 
9.16


Stockholders. As of February 24, 2020, we had 69 holders of record of our common stock. This number does not include stockholders for whom shares were held in a nominee or “street” name.

Dividends. We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our capital stock, and we have no plan to pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. We currently intend to retain any future earnings to finance our operations and future growth.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities. On November 26, 2008, our Board of Directors authorized a program to repurchase up to one million shares of our common stock. The program was superseded on October 4, 2019. On October 4, 2019, our Board of Directors authorized a new share repurchase program pursuant to which we may purchase up to one million shares of our common stock. The repurchase program is expected to be funded using our existing cash, cash equivalents, marketable securities, and future cash flows. Under the repurchase program, at management’s discretion, we may repurchase shares on the open market from time to time, in privately negotiated transactions or block transactions, or through an accelerated repurchase agreement. The timing of such repurchases depends on availability of shares, price, market conditions, alternative uses of capital, and applicable regulatory requirements. The program may be modified, suspended or terminated at any time without prior notice. The repurchase program has a duration of one year. Under our 2018 Credit Agreement, we may not repurchase more than $5.0 million of shares before October 31, 2021 without appropriate consent.

During 2019, we repurchased 115,016 shares of our common stock in open market transactions at a cost of approximately $1.3 million. Except as noted above, there were no other repurchase programs outstanding during 2019.

During 2019, no vested restricted shares were surrendered in satisfaction of tax withholding obligations. There were no shares repurchased in satisfaction of tax withholding obligations during the fourth quarter of 2019.


37


Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

The following table provides information about our repurchases of common stock during the quarter ended December 31, 2019.

Period
Total Number of Shares Purchased
Average Price Paid per Share
Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs
Maximum Number of Shares that May Yet Be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs
October 1-October 31 (1)

$


1,000,000

November 1-November 30
38,557

$
11.05

38,557

961,443

December 1-December 31
76,459

$
11.34

76,459

884,984

Total
115,016

$
11.24

115,016

 
______________
(1)    The paragraphs preceding the table provide information about the date the share repurchase program was announced, the number of shares approved, the expiration date of the program and each other program that expired, was terminated or was abandoned during the period covered by the table.


ITEM 6.
Selected Financial Data

Not applicable.

ITEM 7.
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
    
The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with the other financial information and consolidated financial statements and related notes appearing elsewhere in this annual report. This discussion contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in the forward-looking statements as a result of a variety of factors, including those discussed under the heading “Item 1A. Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this annual report.

Overview

We design, develop, manufacture and market mobile connectivity products and services for the marine and land mobile markets, and inertial navigation products for commercial and defense markets. Our reporting segments are as follows:

the mobile connectivity segment and
the inertial navigation segment

Through these segments, we manufacture and sell our solutions in a number of major geographic areas, including internationally. We generate a majority of our revenues from various international locations, primarily consisting of Canada, Europe (both inside and outside the European Union), Africa, Asia/Pacific, and the Middle East.

Mobile Connectivity Segment

Our mobile connectivity segment offers satellite communications products and services. Our mobile connectivity products enable customers to receive voice and Internet services and live digital television via satellite services in marine vessels, recreational vehicles, buses and automobiles. We sell and lease our mobile connectivity products through an extensive international network of dealers and distributors. We also sell and lease products directly to end users.


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Our mobile connectivity service sales include sales of satellite voice and Internet airtime services, engineering services provided under development contracts, sales from product repairs, and extended warranty sales. Our mobile connectivity service sales also include our distribution of entertainment, including news, sports, music, and movies, to commercial and leisure customers in the maritime, hotel, and retail markets through KVH Media Group. We typically recognize revenue from media content sales ratably over the period of the service contract. We provide, for monthly fixed fees and usage-based fees, satellite connectivity services for broadband Internet, data and Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) service to our TracPhone V-series customers. We also earn monthly usage fees for third-party satellite connectivity for voice, data and Internet services to our Inmarsat and Iridium customers who choose to activate their subscriptions with us. As a percentage of total revenue, our service sales were 61% in 2019 and 59% in 2018.

Within the mobile connectivity segment, our marine leisure business is highly seasonal, and seasonality can also impact our commercial marine business. Historically, we have generated the majority of our marine leisure product revenues during the first and second quarters of each year, and these revenues typically decline in the third and fourth quarters of each year, compared to the first two quarters. Temporary suspensions of our airtime services typically increase in the third and fourth quarters of each year as boats are placed out of service during the winter months.

Sale of Videotel - Discontinued Operations

In May 2019, we sold our Videotel business, which provided eLearning computer-based training, to an affiliate of Oakley Capital, a UK company, for $89.4 million in cash, on a cash-free, debt-free basis, subject to a working capital adjustment. We made a bridge loan to the purchaser and received payment of the initial purchase price on June 21, 2019. We determined that the sale met the requirements for reporting as discontinued operations in accordance with ASC 205-20. Accordingly, we have classified the results of the Videotel business as discontinued operations for all periods presented. In December 2019, we finalized the working capital adjustment. Please see Notes 1 and 18 for further discussion.

Inertial Navigation Segment

Our inertial navigation segment offers precision fiber optic gyro (FOG)-based systems that enable platform and optical stabilization, navigation, pointing, and guidance. Our inertial navigation products also include tactical navigation systems that provide uninterrupted access to navigation and pointing information in a variety of military vehicles, including tactical trucks and light armored vehicles. Our inertial navigation products are sold directly to U.S. and foreign governments and government contractors, as well as through an international network of authorized independent sales representatives. In addition, our inertial navigation products are used in numerous commercial products, such as navigation and positioning systems for various applications including precision mapping, dynamic surveying, autonomous vehicles, train location control and track geometry measurement systems, industrial robotics and optical stabilization. Our inertial navigation service sales include engineering services provided under development contracts, product repairs and extended warranty sales. 

Summary of Net Sales

The following table provides, for the periods indicated, our sales by segment for our continuing operations:
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2019
 
2018
 
(in thousands)
Mobile connectivity (1)
$
122,015

 
$
115,926

Inertial navigation
35,878

 
37,103

Net sales
$
157,893

 
$
153,029


(1)
Mobile connectivity net sales for 2019 include a $1.4 million favorable adjustment to correct an immaterial prior period accounting error related to the implementation and application of ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (ASC 606). See Note 11 of our consolidated financial statements for more information.

Product sales within the mobile connectivity segment accounted for 20% of our consolidated net sales for both 2019 and 2018. Sales of mini-VSAT Broadband airtime service accounted for 48% and 46% of our consolidated net sales for 2019 and 2018, respectively.

Within our inertial navigation segment, net sales of FOG-based guidance and navigation systems accounted for 16% and 17% of our consolidated net sales for 2019 and 2018, respectively.

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No other single product class accounted for 10% or more of consolidated net sales. No individual customer accounted for 10% or more of our consolidated net sales for 2019 or 2018.

We operate in a number of major geographic areas across the globe. We generate our international net sales, based upon customer location, primarily from customers located in Canada, Europe, Africa, Asia/Pacific, the Middle East, and India. Our international net sales totaled 54% and 57% of our consolidated net sales for 2019 and 2018, respectively. No individual foreign country represented 10% or more of our consolidated net sales for 2019 and 2018. See Note 12 to our consolidated financial statements for more information on our segments.

Customer-Funded Research and Development

In addition to our internally funded research and development efforts, we also conduct research and development activities that are funded by our customers. These activities relate primarily to engineering studies, surveys, prototype development, program management, and standard product customization. In accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, we account for customer-funded research as service revenue, and we account for the associated research and development costs as costs of service and product sales. As a result, customer-funded research and development are not included in the research and development expense that we present in our statement of operations. The following table presents our total annual research and development effort, representing the sum of research costs of service and product sales and the operating expense of research and development as described in our statement of operations. Our management believes this information is useful because it provides a better understanding of our total expenditures on research and development activities.
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2019
 
2018
 
(in thousands)
Research and development expense presented in the statement of operations
$
15,926

 
$
14,951

Costs of customer-funded research and development included in costs of service sales
4,373

 
3,087

Total consolidated statements of operations expenditures on research and development activities
$
20,299

 
$
18,038



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Results of Operations
The following table provides, for the periods indicated, certain financial data relating to our continuing operations expressed as a percentage of net sales:
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2019
 
2018
Sales:
 
 
 
Product (1)
39.2
 %
 
41.3
 %
Service
60.8

 
58.7

Net sales
100.0

 
100.0

Costs and expenses:
 
 
 
Costs of product sales (1)
27.2

 
25.8

Costs of service sales
38.8

 
36.2

Research and development
10.1

 
9.8

Sales, marketing and support (1)
21.2

 
20.0

General and administrative
16.1

 
15.2

Total costs and expenses
113.4

 
107.0

Loss from operations
(13.4
)
 
(7.0
)
Interest income
1.3

 
0.4

Interest expense
0.6

 
1.2

Other income, net
0.1

 
0.5

Loss from continuing operations before income taxes (benefit) expense
(12.6
)
 
(7.3
)
Income tax (benefit) expense from continuing operations (1)
(2.5
)
 
0.2

Net loss from continuing operations (1)
(10.1
)%
 
(7.5
)%
(1)
The Company’s product sales, costs of product sales, sales, marketing and support expense, income tax benefit and net loss from continuing operations for 2019 presented as a percentage of net sales include adjustments to correct immaterial prior period accounting errors related to the implementation and application of ASC 606. See Note 11 of our consolidated financial statements for more information.

Years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018

Net Sales

As discussed further under the heading "Segment Discussion" below, product sales decreased $1.4 million, or 2%, to $61.9 million in 2019 from $63.3 million in 2018, due to a decrease in inertial navigation product sales of $1.6 million, partially offset by an increase in mobile connectivity product sales of $0.3 million. Service sales for 2019 increased $6.2 million, or 7%, to $96.0 million from $89.8 million in 2018 due to an increase of $5.8 million in mobile connectivity service sales and an increase in inertial navigation service sales of $0.4 million.

In 2020, we expect that net sales will increase for both our mobile connectivity and internal navigation segments primarily due to an increase in mini-VSAT airtime sales, TACNAV and FOG product sales.

Costs of Sales

Costs of sales consists of costs of product sales and costs of service sales. Costs of sales increased in 2019 to $104.1 million from $95.0 million in 2018. The increase in costs of sales was driven by an increase of $5.8 million in costs of service sales and a $3.4 million increase in costs of product sales, of which $1.6 million was attributable to the correction of an immaterial prior period accounting error. As a percentage of net sales, costs of sales was 66% and 62% for 2019 and 2018, respectively.


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Our costs of product sales consist primarily of materials, manufacturing overhead, and direct labor used to produce our products. For 2019, costs of product sales increased by $3.4 million, or 9%, to $42.9 million from $39.5 million in 2018. As a percentage of product sales, costs of product sales were 69% and 62% for 2019 and 2018, respectively. Mobile connectivity costs of product sales increased by $4.6 million, or 22%, primarily due to a $2.3 million inventory reserve for TracPhone V-IP products as we decided to no longer promote sales of these products and to instead focus our efforts on migrating customers to our HTS network and products and a $1.6 million adjustment to correct an immaterial error related to the implementation and application of ASC 606 to sales-type leases. Mobile connectivity costs of product sales as a percentage of mobile connectivity product sales were 82% and 68% for 2019 and 2018, respectively. Inertial navigation costs of product sales decreased by $1.2 million, or 7%, primarily due to a $3.4 million decrease in our FOG costs of product sales, largely offset by a $1.9 million decrease in absorption of factory overhead due to a decrease in the volume of production and an increase in scrap and other manufacturing period costs. Inertial navigation costs of product sales as a percentage of inertial navigation product sales was 56% and 57% for 2019 and 2018, respectively.

Our costs of service sales consist primarily of satellite service capacity, depreciation, service network overhead expense associated with our mini-VSAT Broadband network infrastructure, direct network service labor, Inmarsat service costs, product installation costs, engineering and related direct costs associated with customer-funded research and development, media materials and distribution costs, and service repair materials. For 2019, costs of service sales increased by $5.8 million, or 10%, to $61.3 million from $55.4 million in 2018. As a percentage of service sales, costs of service sales were 64% and 62% for 2019 and 2018, respectively. Mobile connectivity costs of service sales increased by $5.3 million, or 10%, primarily due to a $4.5 million increase in mini-VSAT airtime costs of service sales, including increased HTS network capacity costs, legacy network revenue share minimums and AgilePlans depreciation costs. In addition, there was a $0.8 million increase in costs associated with contract engineering service revenue. Mobile connectivity costs of service sales as a percentage of mobile connectivity service sales were 63% and 62% for 2019 and 2018, respectively. Inertial navigation costs of service sales increased by $0.5 million, or 16%, primarily due to an increase in contract engineering service revenues. Inertial navigation costs of service sales as a percentage of inertial navigation service sales was 70% and 65% for 2019 and 2018, respectively.

In 2020, we expect that our costs of sales will generally increase in correlation with our expected growth in our mobile connectivity and inertial navigation net sales. To the extent that customers continue to subscribe to our AgilePlans program, we expect a corresponding decrease in product sales and increase in depreciation expense for AgilePlans equipment.

Operating Expenses

Research and development expense consists of direct labor, materials, external consultants, and related overhead costs that support our internally funded product development and product sustaining engineering activities. Research and development expense for 2019 increased by $1.0 million, or 7%, to $15.9 million from $15.0 million in 2018. The primary reason for the increase in research and development expense was a $0.8 million increase in salaries and employee benefits, a $0.7 million increase in expensed materials, and a $0.4 million increase in consulting fees, partially offset by a $1.3 million increase in funded engineering expenses (which are reflected in costs of service sales rather than research and development expense). As a percentage of net sales, research and development expense was 10% in both 2019 and 2018.

We expect that research and development expense will grow year-over-year in 2020 as we invest in developing new technologies and continue to fund planned strategic investments in the development of our photonic chip and enhancement of our IoT platforms. Research and development costs in 2020 may represent a larger percentage of net sales due in part to a decrease in funded engineering costs.

Sales, marketing, and support expense consists primarily of salaries and related expenses for sales and marketing personnel, commissions for both in-house and third-party representatives, costs related to the co-development of certain content, other sales and marketing support costs such as advertising, literature and promotional materials, product service personnel and support costs, warranty-related costs and bad debt expense. Sales, marketing and support expense also includes the operating expenses of our sales office subsidiaries in Denmark, Singapore, Brazil, and Japan. Sales, marketing, and support expense increased by $2.9 million, or 9%, to $33.4 million in 2019 from $30.6 million in 2018. The increase in sales, marketing and support expense resulted primarily from a $2.4 million increase in salaries and employee benefits and a $0.5 million increase in marketing expenses, partially offset by a $0.6 million decrease in bad debt expense. As a percentage of net sales, sales, marketing and support expense was 21% and 20% in 2019 and 2018, respectively.

We expect that our sales, marketing, and support expense will increase year-over-year in 2020 primarily driven by increased personnel, marketing and technology investments to support product sales and launches. Further, we expect higher sales and marketing expenses in 2020 as we continue to invest in the ongoing success of our AgilePlan offerings.

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General and administrative expense consists of costs attributable to management, finance and accounting, information technology, human resources, certain outside professional services, and other administrative costs. General and administrative expense for 2019 increased by $2.3 million, or 10%, to $25.5 million from $23.2 million for 2018. The increase in general and administrative expense resulted primarily from a $2.1 million increase in salaries and associated compensation and a $0.4 million increase in computer expenses, partially offset by a $0.2 million decrease in legal and professional fees. As a percentage of net sales, general and administrative expense was 16% and 15% for 2019 and 2018, respectively.
We expect general and administrative expenses to increase year-over-year in 2020, primarily driven by increased personnel costs.    
Interest and Other Income, Net
Interest income relates to interest earned on our cash and cash equivalents, as well as from investments. Interest income increased by $1.4 million to $2.0 million from $0.6 million for 2018. The increase was primarily due to the interest related to the note receivable from Oakley Capital in connection with our sale of Videotel and interest related to our marketable securities. Interest expense for 2019 decreased by $0.8 million, or 43%, to $1.0 million from $1.8 million for 2018 primarily as a result of our repayment of all of our debt obligations during 2019. Other income, net for 2019 decreased to $0.1 million from other income, net of $0.7 million for 2018 primarily due to a decreased in foreign exchange gains from our UK operations.
    
Income Tax (Benefit) Expense

Income tax benefit was $4.0 million for 2019 and income tax expense was $0.3 million for 2018. This change was primarily attributed to the recognition of the tax benefit sustained from losses on continuing operations in the U.S. which was required to negate the tax expense incurred under discontinued operations.

The effective tax rate for 2019 was 20.0%. The primary driver of the difference between our effective tax rate as compared to the United States federal statutory rate was the impact of recording a net valuation reserve on the current year tax benefit generated on U.S. net operating losses and tax credits, as well as the income from discontinued operations. This impact was offset by income taxed at lower foreign tax rates. The effective income tax rate of (3.1)% for 2018 differs from the U.S. federal statutory rate principally as a result of recording the valuation reserve against the U.S. deferred tax assets, which was partially offset by income taxed at lower foreign tax rates.

Discontinued Operations

During the second quarter of 2019, we sold our Videotel business for $89.4 million in cash, on a cash-free, debt-free basis, subject to a working capital adjustment. We determined that the sale met the requirements for reporting as discontinued operations in accordance with ASC 205-20. Accordingly, we have classified the results of the Videotel business as discontinued operations for all periods presented. In December 2019, we finalized the working capital adjustment which reduced the proceeds from the sale of Videotel to $88.4 million. Please see Notes 1 and 18 of our consolidated financial statements for further information. Results for discontinued operations are as follows:

 
Year Ended
 
December 31,
 
2019
 
2018
Sales from discontinued operations
$
5,769

 
$
17,732

Income from discontinued operations, net of tax
$
49,264

 
$
3,212



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Segment Discussion - Years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018

As noted above, we have classified our Videotel business as discontinued operations and have therefore excluded it from the segment information below. The Videotel business had previously been included in our mobile connectivity business segment.

Our net sales by segment for 2019 and 2018 were as follows:
 
 
 
 
 
Change
 
For the year ended December 31,
 
2019 vs. 2018
 
2019
 
2018
 
$
 
%
 
(dollars in thousands)
Mobile connectivity sales
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Product(1)
$31,623
 
$31,351
 
$
272

 
1
 %
Service
90,392

 
84,575

 
5,817

 
7
 %
Net sales
$
122,015

 
$
115,926

 
$
6,089

 
5
 %
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Inertial navigation sales
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Product
$30,302
 
$31,926
 
$
(1,624
)
 
(5
)%
       Service
5,576

 
5,177

 
399

 
8
 %
Net sales
$
35,878

 
$
37,103

 
$
(1,225
)
 
(3
)%

(1)
Mobile connectivity product sales for 2019 include a $1.4 million favorable adjustment to correct an immaterial prior period accounting error related to the implementation and application of ASC 606. See Note 11 of our consolidated financial statements for more information.

Operating (loss) income by segment for 2019 and 2018 were as follows:

 
 
 
 
 
Change
 
For the year ended December 31,
 
2019 vs. 2018
 
2019
 
2018
 
$
 
%
 
(dollars in thousands)
Mobile connectivity(2)
$
(5,569
)
 
$
681

 
$
(6,250
)
 
n/m

Inertial navigation
2,961

 
4,917

 
(1,956
)
 
(40
)%
 
$
(2,608
)
 
$
5,598

 
$
(8,206
)
 
(147
)%
Unallocated
(18,488
)
 
(16,244
)
 
(2,244
)
 
(14
)%
Loss from operations
$
(21,096
)
 
$
(10,646
)
 
$
(10,450
)
 
(98
)%

(2)
Mobile connectivity loss from operations for 2019 include a $0.3 million unfavorable adjustment to correct an immaterial prior period accounting error related to the implementation and application of ASC 606. See Note 11 of our consolidated financial statements for more information.

Mobile Connectivity Segment

Net sales in the mobile connectivity segment increased by $6.1 million, or 5%, in 2019 as compared to 2018. Mobile connectivity product sales increased by $0.3 million, or 1%, to $31.6 million in 2019 from $31.4 million in 2018. The increase in mobile connectivity product sales reflects a $1.4 million correction of an immaterial accounting error in lease-type mobile connectivity product sales and a $0.5 million increase in marine accessories sales, partially offset by a $1.0 million decrease in TracVison product sales and a $0.5 million decrease in land mobile product sales.


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Mobile connectivity service sales increased by $5.8 million, or 7%, to $90.4 million in 2019 from $84.6 million in 2018. The increase was primarily due to a $6.6 million increase in mini-VSAT service sales, driven by an 11% increase in subscribers, partially as a result of the introduction of AgilePlans. Partially offsetting this increase was a $1.2 million decrease in our content service sales, which resulted primarily from a decrease in subscribers.

We expect that our mini-VSAT service sales will continue to grow year-over-year, primarily through the continued expansion of our mini-VSAT Broadband customer base and the availability of our AgilePlans subscription service model. We expect that mini-VSAT product sales will decline to the extent that customers select the AgilePlans subscription service model.

Operating earnings for the mobile connectivity segment decreased $6.3 million in 2019 as compared to 2018. This decrease was primarily the result of a decrease in sales less associated costs of $3.8 million, which includes a $2.3 million inventory reserve related to our TracPhone V-IP products, a $0.3 million unfavorable adjustment to correct an immaterial prior period accounting error related to the implementation and application of ASC 606 and an increase in airtime network costs due to the operation of both our HTS network and our legacy network. In addition, mobile connectivity operating expenses increased in 2019 due to a $2.2 million increase in employee salaries and benefits, a $0.4 million increase in consulting and a $0.4 million increase in marketing expenses, partially offset by a $0.5 million decrease in bad debt expense.

Inertial Navigation Segment

Net sales in the inertial navigation segment decreased $1.2 million, or 3%, in 2019 as compared to 2018. Inertial navigation product sales decreased $1.6 million, or 5%, to $30.3 million in 2019 from $31.9 million in 2018. Specifically, sales of our FOG and OEM products decreased $2.0 million, or 7%, partially offset by a $0.4 million, or 9%, increase in TACNAV products. Inertial navigation service sales increased $0.4 million, or 8%, to $5.6 million in 2019 from $5.2 million in 2018. The primary reason for the increase was a $0.6 million, or 13%, increase in contracted engineering services for an engineering and services development contract from a major U.S. defense contractor, which began in the fourth quarter of 2018 and is expected to continue through the third quarter of 2021.

Operating earnings for the inertial navigation segment decreased $2.0 million in 2019 as compared to 2018. This decrease was primarily due to the decrease in sales less associated costs of $0.5 million, a $0.5 million increase in salaries and associated compensation, a $0.4 million increase in external commissions and a $0.2 million increase in professional fees.

Unallocated

Certain corporate-level costs have not been allocated because they are not attributable to either segment. These costs primarily consist of broad corporate functions, including executive, legal, finance, information technology, and costs associated with corporate actions.

Unallocated operating loss increased $2.2 million, or 14%, in 2019 compared to 2018. The increase in unallocated operating loss was primarily the result of an increase in salaries and associated compensation.

Critical Accounting Policies and Significant Estimates

The discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based upon our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, revenues and expenses, and related disclosure at the date of our financial statements. Our significant accounting policies are summarized in Note 1 to our consolidated financial statements. The significant accounting policies that we believe are the most critical in understanding and evaluating our reported financial results include the following:


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Revenue Recognition

We adopted ASC 606 on January 1, 2018 using the modified retrospective method for all contracts not completed as of the date of adoption. The adoption of ASC 606 represents a change in accounting principle that was intended to more closely align revenue recognition with the delivery of our products and services and to provide enhanced disclosures. In accordance with ASC 606, revenue is recognized when a customer obtains control of promised products and services. The amount of revenue recognized reflects the consideration which we expect to be entitled to receive in exchange for these products and services. To achieve this core principle, we apply the following five steps:

1) Identify the contract with a customer
2) Identify the performance obligations in the contract
3) Determine the transaction price
4) Allocate the transaction price to performance obligations in the contract
5) Recognize revenue when or as we satisfy a performance obligation

Product sales

Revenue from product sales is recognized when control of the goods is transferred to the customer, which generally occurs at our plant or warehouse upon delivery to the carrier for shipment. Revenue related to shipping and handling is recognized when the products are shipped and the associated costs are accrued for based on our election to account for shipping and handling activities as a fulfillment of the promise to transfer the products and not as a combined promise. For certain inertial navigation product sales, customer acceptance or inspection may be required before control of the goods is transferred to the customer. For those sales, revenue is recognized after notification of customer acceptance and the goods have been delivered to the carrier for shipment. In certain circumstances customers may request a bill-and-hold arrangement. Under these bill-and-hold arrangements, revenue is recognized when we have fulfilled all of our performance obligations, we have received notification of customer acceptance of the goods, the units are segregated for the specific customer only, and the goods are ready for physical transfer to the customer in accordance with its defined contract delivery schedule.

Our standard payment terms are generally Net 30. Under certain limited conditions, we, at our sole discretion, provide for the return of goods. No product is accepted for return and no credit is allowed on any returned product unless we have granted and confirmed prior written permission by means of appropriate authorization. We establish reserves for potential sales returns, credits, and allowances, and evaluates, on a monthly basis, the adequacy of those reserves based upon historical experience and expectations for the future.

Contracts with multiple performance obligations

We sell products and services through arrangements that in certain instances bundle VSAT equipment, satellite connectivity and other services. For these arrangements, we have determined that the performance obligations are not distinct in the context of the contracts with certain customers. We will recognize product revenue under these arrangements over the estimated satellite connectivity customer life, which is estimated to be five years based on historical evidence.

Satellite connectivity and media content service sales

Directly sold and re-sold satellite connectivity service for voice, data and Internet is recognized monthly based upon minutes or megabytes of traffic processed or contracted fixed fee schedules. AgilePlans subscribers make only a one-month service commitment, and other subscribers typically enter into a one-year minimum service agreement. We have evaluated whether we obtain control of the services that are being transferred to the customer in assessing gross revenue reporting as principal verse net revenue reporting as agent for our satellite connectivity service sales and our payments to the applicable service providers. Based on our assessment of the indicators, we have determined that gross revenue reporting as a principal is appropriate. The applicable indicators of gross revenue reporting included, but were not limited to, the following:

We are the primary obligor in our arrangements with our subscribers. We manage all interactions with the subscribers, while satellite connectivity service providers do not interact with the subscribers. In addition, we assume the entire performance risk under our arrangements with the subscribers and in the event of a performance issue, we may incur reductions in fees without regard for any recourse that we may have with the applicable satellite connective service providers.

We have discretion in establishing pricing, as the pricing under our arrangements with the subscribers is negotiated through a contracting process. We then separately negotiate the fees with the applicable satellite service providers.

46



We have complete discretion in determining which satellite service providers we will contract with.

As a result, we have determined that we earn revenue (as a principal) from the delivery of satellite connectivity services to our subscribers and record all satellite connectivity service sales to subscribers as gross sales. All associated regulatory service fees and costs are recorded net in the consolidated financial statements.

We sell prepaid airtime services in the form of prepaid cards. A liability is established upon purchase equal to the cash paid for the prepaid card. We recognize revenue from the prepaid services upon the use of the prepaid card by the customer. We do not offer refunds for unused prepaid services. Prepaid airtime services have not been a significant portion of our total sales.

Media content sales include our distribution of commercially licensed news, sports, movies and music content for commercial and leisure customers in the maritime, hotel, and retail markets. We typically recognize revenue from media content sales ratably over the period of the service contract.

The accounting estimates related to the recognition of satellite connectivity and media content service sales require us to make assumptions about future billing adjustments for disputes with subscribers as well as unauthorized usage. We recognize the monthly subscription fee as service revenue over the service delivery period. Under AgilePlans, we retain ownership of the hardware that we provide to these customers, who must return the hardware if they decide to terminate the service. As we do not sell the hardware under AgilePlans, we do not recognize any product revenue when the hardware is deployed to an AgilePlans customer.

Inertial navigation service sales

We engage in contracts for development, production, and services activities related to standard product modification or enhancement. We consider the nature of these contracts and the types of products and services provided when determining the proper accounting for a particular contract. Customer and government-agency contracted engineering service and sales under development contracts are recognized primarily during the periods in which we perform the service or development efforts in accordance with the agreement. Services performed under these types of contracts include engineering studies, surveys, building construction, prototype development, and program management. Performance is determined principally by comparing the accumulated labor hours incurred to date with management’s estimate of the total labor hours to complete the contracted work. Incurred labor hours represent work performed, which corresponds with and best depicts the transfer of control to the customer. This continuous transfer of control to the customer is supported by clauses in the contract that allow the customer to unilaterally terminate the contract for convenience, pay us for costs incurred plus a reasonable profit and take control of any work in process. We establish billing terms at the time project deliverables and milestones are agreed. Unbilled revenue recognized in excess of the amounts invoiced to clients are classified within the accompanying consolidated balance sheets as “accounts receivable” as our right to consideration is unconditional.

Product service sales

Product service sales other than under development contracts are recognized when completed services are delivered to the customer. We also sell extended warranty contracts on mobile connectivity and inertial navigation products. Sales under these contracts are recognized ratably over the contract term. Product service sales including extended warranties are not a significant portion of our total sales.

Accounts Receivable Allowance

Our estimate of allowance for doubtful accounts related to trade receivables is primarily based on specific and historical criteria. We evaluate specific accounts where we have information that the customer may have an inability to meet its financial obligations. We make judgments, based on facts and circumstances, regarding the need to record a specific reserve for that customer against amounts owed to reduce the receivable to the amount that we expect to collect. We also provide for a reserve based on an aging analysis of our accounts receivable. We evaluate these reserves on a monthly basis and adjust them as we receive additional information that impacts the amount reserved. If circumstances change, we could change our estimates of the recoverability of amounts owed to us by a material amount. Our bad debt recovery was $0.2 million for 2019 compared to bad debt expense of $0.4 million for 2018.

We wrote off $0.6 million and $0.3 million of our accounts receivable in 2019 and 2018, respectively. These write-offs were driven largely by the financial deterioration of several airtime and mobile connectivity product customers.

47


Inventories

Inventory is valued at the lower of cost or net realizable value. We generally must order components for our products and build inventory in advance of product shipments. We regularly review current quantities on hand, actual and projected sales volumes and anticipated selling prices on products and write down, as appropriate, slow-moving and/or obsolete inventory to its net realizable value. In 2019 and 2018, we wrote off $2.5 million and $0.2 million, respectively, of inventory that was deemed excess or obsolete. However, if we overestimate projected sales or anticipated selling prices, our inventory might be overstocked or overvalued, and we would have to reduce our inventory valuation accordingly.

Accounting for Income Taxes

We are subject to income taxes in the U.S. and in numerous foreign jurisdictions. We account for income taxes following ASC 740, Accounting for Income Taxes, recognizing deferred tax assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates for the effect of temporary differences between book and tax basis of recorded assets and liabilities. Deferred tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance if it is more likely than not that some or all of a deferred tax asset will not be realized.

As part of the process of preparing our financial statements, we are required to estimate our provision for income taxes in each of the jurisdictions in which we operate. This involves estimating our actual current tax exposure, including assessing the risks associated with tax audits, together with assessing temporary differences resulting from the different treatment of items for tax and accounting purposes. These differences result in deferred tax assets and liabilities. We assess the likelihood that our deferred tax assets will be recovered from future taxable income and record a valuation allowance to reduce the deferred tax assets to an amount that, in our judgment, is more likely than not to be recovered.

Management judgment is required in determining our provision for income taxes, our deferred tax assets and liabilities, and any valuation allowance recorded against our deferred tax assets. The valuation allowance is based on our estimates of future taxable income and the period over which we expect the deferred tax assets to be recovered. Our assessment of future taxable income is based on historical experience and current and anticipated market and economic conditions and trends. In the event that actual results differ from these estimates or we adjust our estimates in the future, we may need to adjust our valuation allowance, which could materially impact our consolidated financial position and results of operations. In 2016, as a result of negative evidence, principally three years of cumulative pre-tax operating losses, we concluded that it was more likely than not that certain of our deferred tax assets were not realizable and therefore, recorded a full valuation allowance against those deferred tax assets. As of December 31, 2019, we concluded that a net increase of the valuation allowance of $0.3 million was appropriate. As of December 31, 2019, we had valuation allowances of $18.5 million to offset gross deferred tax assets of $20.1 million. The change was the result of an increase in domestic tax credit and net operating loss balances offset by a decrease attributed the derecognition of foreign net operating losses.

We record benefits for uncertain tax positions based on an assessment of whether it is more likely than not that the tax positions will be sustained by the taxing authorities. If this threshold is not met, no tax benefit of the uncertain position is recognized. The tax benefit to be recognized of any tax position that meets the more likely than not recognition threshold is calculated as the largest amount that is more than 50% likely of being realized upon resolution of the contingency.

We recognize interest and penalties within the income tax expense line in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations. Accrued interest and penalties are included within the related tax liability line in the consolidated balance sheets.
Tax Reform
The 2017 Tax Cut and Jobs Act (the "Tax Act") has resulted in significant changes to the U.S. corporate income tax system. These changes include a federal statutory rate reduction from 35% to 21%, the elimination or reduction of certain domestic deductions and credits and limitations on the deductibility of interest expense and executive compensation. The 2017 Tax Act also transitions international taxation from a worldwide system to a modified territorial system and includes base erosion prevention measures on non-U.S. earnings, which has the effect of subjecting certain earnings of our foreign subsidiaries to U.S. taxation as GILTI. These changes were effective beginning in 2018.
The 2017 Tax Act also includes the transition toll tax, which is a one-time mandatory deemed repatriation tax on accumulated foreign subsidiaries' previously untaxed foreign earnings.
Changes in tax rates and tax laws are accounted for in the period of enactment. Therefore, during the year ended December 31, 2017, we recorded a reduction in our deferred tax assets and corresponding valuation allowance of $1.7 million and a net tax benefit of $0.1 million related to our estimate of the impact of the 2017 Tax Act. Included in the $1.7 million reduction in our deferred tax assets and corresponding valuation allowance, was $0.8 million related to the transition toll tax.

48


As of December 31, 2018, we had completed our assessment of the total impact of the 2017 Tax Act, which resulted in a total reduction in our deferred tax assets and corresponding valuation allowance of $2.3 million and a net tax benefit of $0.1 million. Included in the $2.3 million reduction in our deferred tax assets and corresponding valuation allowance, was $1.2 million related to the transition toll tax.
Because we completed this analysis in 2018, we recorded a reduction in our deferred tax assets and corresponding valuation allowance in 2018 of $0.5 million in order to adjust our 2017 estimate.
Warranty Provision
We typically offer standard limited warranties that range from one to two years and vary by product. We provide for the estimated cost of product warranties at the time product revenue is recognized. Factors that affect our warranty reserves include the number of units sold, historical and anticipated rates of warranty repairs and the cost per repair. While we engage in extensive product quality programs and processes, including actively monitoring and evaluating the quality of our component suppliers, our estimated warranty obligation is affected by ongoing product failure rates, specific product class failures outside our baseline experience, material usage and service delivery costs incurred in correcting a product failure. If actual product failure rates, material usage or service delivery costs differ from our estimates, revisions to the estimated warranty liability would be required. For example, our warranty expense increased $0.1 million in 2019 from 2018, driven primarily by an increase in warranty expenses related to our inertial navigation products from $0.3 million in 2018 to $0.4 million in 2019. Mobile connectivity products warranty expense remained flat at $1.8 million for 2019 and 2018.
Assumptions and historical warranty experience are evaluated to determine the appropriateness of such assumptions. We assess the adequacy of the warranty provision on a quarterly basis and we adjust this provision when necessary.
Stock-Based Compensation
Our stock-based compensation cost is measured at the grant date based on the fair value of the award and is recognized as expense over the requisite service period, which is generally the vesting period.
We use the Black-Scholes valuation model for estimating the fair value on the date of grant of compensatory stock options. Determining the fair value of stock option awards at the grant date requires judgment regarding certain valuation assumptions, including the volatility of our stock price, expected term of the option, risk-free interest rate and expected dividends. Changes in these assumptions and estimates could result in different fair values and could therefore impact our earnings. These changes would not impact our cash flows. The fair value of restricted stock awards is based upon our stock price on the grant date.
The amount of stock-based compensation expense recorded in any period for unvested awards requires estimates of the amount of stock-based awards that are expected to be forfeited prior to vesting. As of January 1, 2017, we adopted ASC Update No. 2016-09, Compensation-Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting. As a result of this adoption, commencing on January 1, 2017 prospectively, we have elected to account for forfeitures as they occur which could result in a significant reversal of previously recognized stock-based compensation expense.
Compensation costs for awards subject only to service conditions that vest ratably are recognized on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period for the entire award. We have no awards that are subject to performance or market conditions as of December 31, 2019.
Goodwill, Intangible Assets, and other Long-Lived Assets

In January 2017, we adopted ASC Update No. 2017-04, Intangibles-Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test of Goodwill Impairment. ASC 350 requires the completion of a goodwill impairment test at least annually based on either an optional qualitative assessment or a quantitative analysis comparing the estimated fair value of a reporting unit to its carrying value as of the test date. Any impairment charges would be based on the quantitative analysis. To date, we have not recorded or incurred goodwill impairment losses. For the October 1, 2018 and 2019 tests, we performed a qualitative assessment of goodwill impairment and concluded that it was more likely than not that our reporting units' fair values exceeded their carrying values. Accordingly, it was not necessary for us to perform the quantitative analysis. 

49


Intangible assets with estimated lives and other long-lived assets are reviewed for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability of intangible assets with estimated lives and other long-lived assets is measured by a comparison of the carrying amount of an asset or asset group to future net undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated by the asset or asset group. If these comparisons indicate that an asset is not recoverable, we will recognize an impairment loss for the amount by which the carrying value of the asset or asset group exceeds the related estimated fair value. Estimated fair value is based on either discounted future operating cash flows or appraised values, depending on the nature of the asset. During 2019, there were no events or changes in circumstances that indicated that any of the carrying amounts of our intangible assets or other long-lived assets may not be recoverable. See Note 9 for further discussion of goodwill and intangible assets.

Contingencies

We are subject to ongoing business risks arising in the ordinary course of business. See Item 3. Legal Proceedings, for more information regarding litigation matters. An estimated loss contingency is accrued when it is probable that a liability has been incurred or an asset has been impaired and the amount of loss can be reasonably estimated. We regularly evaluate current information available to determine whether such amounts should be adjusted and record changes in estimates in the period they become known. We reserve for legal contingencies and legal fees when the amounts are probable and reasonably estimable.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

Our primary liquidity needs have been to fund general business requirements, including working capital requirements, capital expenditures, and, until recently, interest payments and debt repayments. In recent years, we have funded our operations primarily from cash flows from operations, an asset sale, bank financings, proceeds received from exercises of stock options and proceeds from the issuance of stock.

In June 2019, we received $89.4 million from the sale of our Videotel business.

In February 2018, we sold 376,569 shares of treasury stock to SKY Perfect JSAT Corporation for an aggregate of $4.5 million in a private placement.

We believe that our cash and cash equivalents as of December 31, 2019, our estimated cash flows from operations, and borrowings available under our credit agreement will be sufficient to fund our operations, anticipated capital expenditures, and debt repayment obligations through at least the next twelve months based on our current operating plans. However, as the need or opportunity arises, we may seek to raise additional capital through public or private sales of securities or through additional debt financing. There are no assurances that we will be able to obtain any additional funding or that such funding will be available on terms acceptable to us.

We believe that our primary long-term capital requirements relate to servicing and repaying our satellite service capacity and equipment lease obligations. At December 31, 2019, we had no outstanding debt obligations and had outstanding non-cancellable satellite service capacity and other lease obligations with future minimum payments of $59.2 million.

Our ability to make payments on our satellite service capacity and equipment lease obligations, as well as our ability to fund planned capital expenditures, will depend on our ability to generate cash in the future. Our ability to generate cash in the future will depend upon, among other things, the performance of our operating segments and general economic, financial, competitive, legislative, regulatory and other factors that are beyond our control.

As of December 31, 2019, we had $48.3 million in cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities, of which $2.0 million in cash equivalents was held in local currencies by our foreign subsidiaries. Our foreign subsidiaries held no marketable securities as of December 31, 2019. As of December 31, 2019, we had $70.9 million in working capital.


50


Operating Activities

Operating activities used $14.2 million of net cash in 2019 and provided $5.2 million of net cash in 2018, a decrease of $19.4 million. Although our net income increased $41.5 million to $33.3 million in 2019 from a net loss of $8.2 million in 2018, our net income in 2019 reflected discrete operating items additions of $37.7 million, whereas our net loss in 2018 reflected net discrete operating items deductions of $15.7 million. The $19.4 million decrease also reflected a $4.0 million increase in cash outflows relating to accounts payable, a $3.6 million increase in cash outflows related to accrued compensation, product warranty and other, a $2.2 million decrease in cash inflows relating to accounts receivable and a $0.4 million increase in cash outflows for inventory. Partially offsetting these items were a $1.7 million increase in cash inflows related to deferred revenue and contract liabilities and a $1.0 million decrease in cash outflows relating to non-current assets.

Investing Activities

Net cash provided by investing activities for 2019 was $46.0 million as compared to net cash used in investing activities of $7.6 million for 2018. The $53.6 million increase in net cash provided by investing activities was primarily the result of an $88.4 million increase in proceeds from the sale of Videotel and a $3.4 million decrease in capital expenditures. Partially offsetting these items was a $38.2 million increase in net investments in marketable securities.

Financing Activities

Net cash used in financing activities for 2019 was $30.8 million as compared to $13.3 million for 2018. The $17.5 million increase in net cash used in financing activities is primarily attributable to a $16.8 million increase in payments on borrowings, a $4.5 million decrease in proceeds from the sale of treasury stock and a $1.3 million increase in stock repurchases, offset in part by a $5.0 million increase in proceeds from line of credit borrowings.

Borrowing Arrangements

Principal Credit Facility

On October 30, 2018, we amended and restated our 2014 credit agreement by entering into (i) a three-year senior credit facility agreement, or the 2018 credit agreement, with Bank of America, N.A., as administrative agent, and the lenders named from time to time as parties thereto, or the 2018 lenders, for an aggregate amount of up to $42.5 million, including a term loan, or the 2018 term loan, of $22.5 million and a reducing revolving credit facility, or the 2018 revolver, of up to $20.0 million initially and reducing to $15.0 million on December 31, 2019, each to be used for general corporate purposes, including the refinancing of our then-outstanding indebtedness under the 2014 credit agreement, (ii) a security agreement required by the 2018 lenders with respect to our grant of a security interest in substantially all of our assets in order to secure our obligations under the 2018 credit agreement and, (iii) pledge agreements required by the 2018 lenders with respect to our grant of a security interest in 65% of the capital stock of each of KVH Industries A/S and KVH Industries U.K. Limited that we hold in order to secure our obligations under the 2018 credit agreement. On the closing date, we repaid $17.2 million on the 2014 term loan and refinanced its remaining balance. On the closing date, we also borrowed $5.0 million under the 2018 revolver.

On May 13, 2019, we entered into a consent with Bank of America, N.A., as administrative agent, authorizing the purchase agreement and bridge loan to Oakley Capital, as discussed in Note 1 to our consolidated financial statements. On June 27, 2019, we used the proceeds of the sale of Videotel to repay in full the then-outstanding balance of $21.4 million under the 2018 term loan and to repay $13.0 million of the then-outstanding balance under the 2018 revolver. Under the terms of the consent, the 2018 revolver will remain at $20.0 million through the term of the 2018 credit agreement. On October 30, 2021, the entire principal balance of any outstanding loans under the 2018 revolver will be due and payable, together with all accrued and unpaid interest, fees and any other amounts due and payable under the 2018 credit agreement. As of December 31, 2019, no amounts were outstanding under the 2018 revolver, and the full balance of $20.0 million was available for borrowing.

The 2018 credit agreement contains provisions requiring the mandatory prepayment of amounts outstanding under the 2018 revolver under specified circumstances, including (i) 100% of the net cash proceeds from certain dispositions to the extent not reinvested in our business within a stated period, (ii) 50% of the net cash proceeds from stated equity issuances and (iii) 100% of the net cash proceeds from certain receipts above certain threshold amounts outside the ordinary course of business.

Borrowings under the 2018 revolver are subject to the satisfaction of various conditions precedent at the time of each borrowing, including the continued accuracy of our representations and warranties and the absence of any default under the 2018 credit agreement.


51


The 2018 credit agreement contains two financial covenants, a maximum Consolidated Leverage Ratio and a minimum Consolidated Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio, each as defined in the 2018 credit agreement. The Consolidated Leverage Ratio may not be greater than 2.50:1.00 on December 31, 2019 and declines to 2.00:1.00 on December 31, 2020. The Consolidated Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio may not be less than 1.25:1.00.

The 2018 credit agreement imposes certain other affirmative and negative covenants, including without limitation covenants with respect to the payment of taxes and other obligations, compliance with laws, performance of material contracts, creation of liens, incurrence of indebtedness, investments, dispositions, fundamental changes, restricted payments, changes in the nature of our business, transactions with affiliates, corporate and accounting changes, and sale and leaseback arrangements.

Our obligation to repay any loans that may be outstanding under the 2018 credit agreement could be accelerated upon an event of default under its terms, including certain failures to pay principal or interest when due, certain breaches of representations and warranties, the failure to comply with our affirmative and negative covenants under the 2018 credit agreement, a change of control, certain defaults in payment relating to other indebtedness, the acceleration of payment of certain other indebtedness, certain events relating to our liquidation, dissolution, bankruptcy, insolvency or receivership, the entry of certain judgments against us, certain property loss events, and certain events relating to the impairment of collateral or the 2018 lenders’ security interest therein.

Mortgage Loan

In April 2019, we repaid in full the outstanding balance under our mortgage loan of $2.6 million. In April 2010, we entered into two interest rate swap agreements that were intended to hedge our mortgage interest obligations over the term of the mortgage loan by fixing the interest rates specified in the mortgage loan to 5.91% for half of the principal amount outstanding as of April 1, 2010 and 6.07% for the remaining half. Both interest rate swap agreements were also settled upon repayment of the mortgage loan.

Other Matters

We intend to continue to invest in the mini-VSAT Broadband network on a global basis. As part of the future potential capacity expansion, we would plan to seek to acquire additional satellite capacity from satellite operators, expend funds to seek regulatory approvals and permits, develop product enhancements in anticipation of the expansion, and hire additional personnel. From time to time we have entered into multi-year agreements to lease satellite capacity, and we have also purchased numerous satellite hubs to support the added capacity. These transactions can involve millions of dollars, and from time to time we have entered into secured lending arrangements to finance them. During the first quarter of 2018, we entered into a five-year capital lease for three satellite hubs for the HTS network. The total cost of the five-year capital lease will be $3.1 million.

On November 26, 2008, our Board of Directors authorized a program to repurchase up to one million shares of our common stock. The program was superseded on October 4, 2019. On October 4, 2019, our Board of Directors authorized a new share repurchase program pursuant to which we may purchase up to one million shares of our common stock. The repurchase program is expected to be funded by using our existing cash, cash equivalents, marketable securities and future cash flows. Under the repurchase program, we, at management’s discretion, may repurchase shares on the open market from time to time, in privately negotiated transactions or block transactions, or through an accelerated repurchase agreement. The timing of such repurchases depends on availability of shares, price, market conditions, alternative uses of capital, and applicable regulatory requirements. The program may be modified, suspended or terminated at any time without prior notice. The repurchase program has a duration of one year. Under the 2018 Credit Agreement, we may not repurchase more than $5.0 million of shares before October 31, 2021 without appropriate consent. As of December 31, 2019, we had repurchased 115,016 shares of our common stock in open market transactions at a cost of approximately $1.3 million.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

As of December 31, 2019, we did not have any off-balance sheet arrangements that have or are reasonably likely to have a current or future material effect on our financial condition, changes in financial condition, revenues, expenses, results of operations, liquidity, capital expenditures or capital resources.

Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements

See Note 1 of our accompanying audited consolidated financial statements for a description of recently issued accounting pronouncements including the dates of adoption and effects on our results of operations, financial position and disclosures.


52


ITEM 7A.
Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosure About Market Risk

Not applicable.

ITEM 8.
Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

Our consolidated financial statements, together with the report of Grant Thornton LLP thereon, our independent registered public accounting firm, are presented after the signature page to this annual report. The report of Grant Thornton LLP on our internal control over financial reporting is included in Item 9A of this annual report.

ITEM 9.
Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

None.


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ITEM 9A.
Controls and Procedures

Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures

We maintain disclosure controls and procedures, as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, which are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed in the reports that we file or submit under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the Securities and Exchange Commission's rules and forms and that such information is accumulated and communicated to our management, including our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure.

Under the supervision and with the participation of our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, our management has evaluated the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures as of December 31, 2019, the end of the period covered by this annual report. Based on that evaluation, our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures were effective as of December 31, 2019.

Management's Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting

Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting. Our internal control over financial reporting is the process designed by and under the supervision of our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of our financial reporting and the preparation of our financial statements for external reporting in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. Management has evaluated the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting using the criteria set forth by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO) in Internal Control-Integrated Framework (2013).

Under the supervision and with the participation of our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, our management has assessed the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2019 and concluded that it was effective.

Our independent registered public accounting firm, Grant Thornton LLP, has issued a report regarding the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2019, and that report is included in Item 9A in this annual report.

Evaluation of Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting

Under the supervision and with the participation of our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, our management has evaluated changes in our internal control over financial reporting that occurred during the fourth quarter of 2019. Based on that evaluation, our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer did not identify any change in our internal control over financial reporting that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.

Important Considerations

The effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures and our internal control over financial reporting is subject to various inherent limitations, including cost limitations, judgments used in decision making, assumptions about the likelihood of future events, the soundness of our systems, the possibility of human error, and the risk of fraud. Moreover, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions and the risk that the degree of compliance with policies or procedures may deteriorate over time. Because of these limitations, there can be no assurance that any system of disclosure controls and procedures or internal control over financial reporting will be successful in preventing all errors or fraud or in making all material information known in a timely manner to the appropriate levels of management.


54


Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

Board of Directors and Stockholders
KVH Industries, Inc.

Opinion on internal control over financial reporting
We have audited the internal control over financial reporting of KVH Industries, Inc. (a Delaware corporation) and subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2019, based on criteria established in the 2013 Internal Control - Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (“COSO”). In our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2019, based on criteria established in the 2013 Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by COSO.

We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (“PCAOB”), the consolidated financial statements of the Company as of and for the year ended December 31, 2019, and our report dated February 28, 2020 expressed an unqualified opinion on those financial statements.

Basis for opinion
The Company’s management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the accompanying Management’s Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audit. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audit included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk, and performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Definition and limitations of internal control over financial reporting
A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

/s/ GRANT THORNTON LLP
 
Boston, Massachusetts
February 28, 2020

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ITEM 9B.
Other Information
    
None.
PART III

We have omitted the information required in Part III of this annual report because we intend to include that information in our definitive proxy statement for our 2020 annual meeting of stockholders, which we expect to file before 120 days after the end of fiscal 2019. We incorporate the information required in Part III of this annual report by reference to our 2020 proxy statement.

ITEM 10.
Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

Except as set forth below, the information required by this item is incorporated by reference to our 2020 proxy statement.

Our Board of Directors has adopted a Code of Business Conduct and Ethics that applies to our directors, executive officers and employees. Our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics can be found on our website, which is located at www.kvh.com. We intend to make all required disclosures concerning any amendments to or waivers from, our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics on our website. Any person may request a copy of the Code of Business Conduct and Ethics, at no cost, by writing to us at the following address: KVH Industries, Inc., 50 Enterprise Center, Middletown, Rhode Island, 02842, Attention: Investor Relations.

ITEM 11.
Executive Compensation

The information required by this item is incorporated by reference to our 2020 proxy statement.

ITEM 12.
Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

The information required by this item is incorporated by reference to our 2020 proxy statement.

ITEM 13.
Certain Relationships and Related Transactions and Director Independence

The information required by this item is incorporated by reference to our 2020 proxy statement.

ITEM 14.
Principal Accountant Fees and Services

The information required by this item is incorporated by reference to our 2020 proxy statement.


56


PART IV
ITEM 15.
Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules


57


Exhibit No.
 
Description
 
Filed with
this Form
10-K
 
Incorporated by Reference
 
Form
 
Filing Date
 
Exhibit No.
 
Share Purchase Agreement dated as of May 13, 2019 among KVH Industries, Inc., KVH Media Group Limited and Pelican Holdco Limited relating to the sale of the entire issued share capital of Super Dragon Limited and Videotel Marine Asia Limited
 
 
 
8-K
 
May 16, 2019
 
2.1

 
Tax Deed of Covenant dated as of May 13, 2019 among KVH Industries, Inc., KVH Media Group Limited and Pelican Holdco Limited relating to the sale of the entire issued share capital of Super Dragon Limited and Videotel Marine Asia Limited
 
 
 
8-K
 
May 16, 2019
 
2.2

 
Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, as amended
 
 
 
10-Q
 
August 6,
2010
 
3.1

 
Amended and Restated Bylaws
 
 
 
10-Q
 
November 1, 2017
 
3.2

 
Specimen certificate for the common stock
 
 
 
10-K
 
March 2, 2018
 
4.1

 
Fourth Amended and Restated 2006 Stock Incentive Plan
 
 
 
DEF 14A
 
April 25, 2013
 
App. A

 
2016 Equity and Incentive Plan
 
 
 
DEF 14A
 
April 25, 2016
 
App. A

 
Amended and Restated 1996 Employee Stock Purchase Plan
 
 
 
DEF 14A
 
April 25, 2016
 
App. B

 
Form of Incentive Stock Option Agreement granted under the 2016 Equity and Incentive Plan
 
 
 
10-K
 
March 9, 2017
 
10.5

 
Form of Non-Statutory Stock Option Agreement granted under the 2016 Equity and Incentive Plan
 
 
 
10-K
 
March 9, 2017
 
10.6

 
Form of Restricted Stock Agreement granted under the 2016 Equity and Incentive Plan
 
 
 
10-K
 
March 9, 2017
 
10.7

 
Policy Regarding Automatic Grants to Non-Employee Directors
 
 
 
10-Q
 
May 6, 2009
 
10.23

 
Loan Agreement dated April 6, 2009 by and among KVH Industries, Inc., and Bank of America, N.A.
 
 
 
8-K
 
April 8,
2009
 
10.1

 
Second Amendment, dated June 9, 2011 by and between KVH Industries, Inc. and Bank of America, N.A., amending the Loan Agreement, dated April 6, 2009, as amended
 
 
 
8-K
 
June 14,
2011
 
10.2

 
Master Loan and Security Agreement, dated as of January 30, 2013 by and between KVH Industries, Inc. and Bank of America Leasing & Capital, LLC
 
 
 
8-K
 
February 5, 2013
 
10.1

 
Equipment Security Note, dated as of January 30, 2013 by and between KVH Industries, Inc. and Bank of America Leasing & Capital, LLC
 
 
 
8-K
 
February 5, 2013
 
10.2





58



Exhibit No.
 
Description
 
Filed with
this Form
10-K
 
Incorporated by Reference
 
Form
 
Filing Date
 
Exhibit No.
 
Amended and Restated Credit Agreement dated as of October 30, 2018 among KVH Industries, Inc., Bank of America, N.A., as Administrative Agent, Swingline Lender and L/C Issuer, and the Lenders party hereto
 
 
 
10-Q
 
October 31, 2018
 
10.1

 
Amended and Restated Security Agreement dated as of October 30, 2018 between KVH Industries, Inc. and Bank of America, N.A., as Administrative Agent
 
 
 
10-Q
 
October 31, 2018
 
10.2

 
Amended and Restated Pledge Agreement dated as of October 30, 2018 between KVH Industries, Inc. and Bank of America, N.A., as Administrative Agent with respect to KVH Industries A/S
 
 
 
10-Q
 
October 31, 2018
 
10.3

 
Amended and Restated Pledge Agreement dated as of October 30, 2018 between KVH Industries, Inc. and Bank of America, N.A., as Administrative Agent with respect to KVH Industries U.K. Limited
 
 
 
10-Q
 
October 31, 2018
 
10.4


 
Consent dated as of May 13, 2019 among KVH Industries, Inc., as Borrower, Bank of America, N.A., as Lender and Administrative Agent, and The Washington Trust Company, as Lender, under the Amended and Restated Credit Agreement dated as of October 30, 2018 among such parties
 
 
 
8-K
 
May 16, 2019
 
10.4

 
List of Subsidiaries
 
X
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Consent of Grant Thornton LLP
 
X
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Rule 13a-14(a)/15d-14(a) certification of principal executive officer
 
X
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Rule 13a-14(a)/15d-14(a) certification of principal financial officer
 
X
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Rule 1350 certification
 
X
 
 
 
 
 
 
101.1
 
Interactive Data File regarding (a) our Consolidated Balance Sheets as of December 31, 2019 and 2018, (b) our Consolidated Statements of Operations for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, (c) our Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income (Loss) for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, (d) our Consolidated Statements of Stockholders' Equity for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, (e) our Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, and (e) the Notes to such Consolidated Financial Statements
 
X
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
*
Management contract or compensatory plan.
    


59


ITEM 16.
Form 10-K Summary

None.

SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized.

 
KVH Industries, Inc.
 
 
 
Date: February 28, 2020
By:
/S/    MARTIN A. KITS VAN HEYNINGEN
 
 
Martin A. Kits van Heyningen
President, Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of the Board

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, this report has been signed below by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.
Name
 
Title
 
Date
 
 
 
 
 
/S/ MARTIN A. KITS VAN HEYNINGEN
 
President, Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of the Board (Principal Executive Officer)
 
February 28, 2020
Martin A. Kits van Heyningen
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/S/ DONALD W. REILLY
 
Chief Financial Officer (Principal Financial Officer)
 
February 28, 2020
Donald W. Reilly
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/S/ JENNIFER L. BAKER
 
Vice President and Chief Accounting Officer (Principal Accounting Officer)
 
February 28, 2020
Jennifer L. Baker
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/S/ MARK S. AIN
 
Director
 
February 28, 2020
Mark S. Ain
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/S/ JAMES S. DODEZ
 
Director
 
February 28, 2020
James S. Dodez
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/S/ STANLEY K. HONEY
 
Director
 
February 28, 2020
Stanley K. Honey
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/S/ BRUCE J. RYAN
 
Director
 
February 28, 2020
Bruce J. Ryan
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/S/ CHARLES R. TRIMBLE
 
Director
 
February 28, 2020
Charles R. Trimble
 
 
 
 

60


REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
Board of Directors and Stockholders
KVH Industries, Inc.

Opinion on the financial statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of KVH Industries, Inc. (a Delaware corporation) and subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2019 and 2018, the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive income (loss), stockholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the two years in the period ended December 31, 2019, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the “financial statements”). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2019 and 2018, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the two years in the period ended December 31, 2019 in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (“PCAOB”), the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2019, based on criteria established in the 2013 Internal Control - Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (“COSO”), and our report dated February 28, 2020 expressed an unqualified opinion.
Basis for opinion
These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
/s/ GRANT THORNTON LLP
 
We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2014.
 
Boston, Massachusetts
February 28, 2020

61


KVH INDUSTRIES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(in thousands, except share and per share data)
 
December 31,
 
2019
 
2018
ASSETS
 
 
 
Current assets:
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
18,365

 
$
15,212

Marketable securities
29,907

 
25

Accounts receivable, net of allowance for doubtful accounts of $1,589 and $2,390 as of December 31, 2019 & December 31, 2018, respectively
32,891

 
28,592

Inventories
23,465

 
22,942

Prepaid expenses and other current assets
3,188

 
2,532

Current contract assets
1,458

 
3,566

Current assets held for sale

 
4,871

Total current assets
109,274

 
77,740

Property and equipment, net
53,584

 
50,633

Intangible assets, net
4,943

 
5,661

Goodwill
15,408

 
15,031

Right of use assets
6,286

 

Other non-current assets
6,443

 
5,484

Non-current contract assets
3,408

 
6,971

Non-current deferred income tax asset
45

 
226

Non-current assets held for sale

 
25,906

Total assets
$
199,391

 
$
187,652

LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
 
 
 
Current liabilities:
 
 
 
Accounts payable
$
15,031

 
$
16,735

Accrued compensation and employee-related expenses
5,637

 
4,947

Accrued other
7,733

 
9,100

Accrued product warranty costs
2,194

 
1,916

Current portion of long-term debt

 
9,928

Contract liabilities
4,443

 
7,647

Current operating lease liability
2,831

 

Liability for uncertain tax positions
521

 
893

Current liabilities held for sale

 
4,844

Total current liabilities
38,390

 
56,010

Other long-term liabilities
1,292

 
1,920

Long-term operating lease liability
3,482

 

Long-term contract liabilities
5,476

 
9,070

Long-term debt, excluding current portion

 
19,437

Non-current deferred income tax liability
762

 
966

Non-current liabilities held for sale

 
734

Total liabilities
$
49,402

 
$
88,137

Commitments and contingencies (Notes 1, 5, 6, 15, 16 and 17)

 

Stockholders’ equity:
 
 
 
Preferred stock, $0.01 par value. Authorized 1,000,000 shares; none issued

 

Common stock, $0.01 par value. Authorized 30,000,000 shares, 19,398,699 and 19,026,393 shares issued at December 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, respectively; and 18,001,261 and 17,743,971 shares outstanding at December 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, respectively
194

 
190

Additional paid-in capital
144,485

 
139,617

Accumulated earnings (deficit)
19,538

 
(15,397
)
Accumulated other comprehensive loss
(2,767
)
 
(14,731
)
 
161,450

 
109,679

Less: treasury stock at cost, common stock, 1,397,438 and 1,282,422 shares as of December 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, respectively
(11,461
)
 
(10,164
)
Total stockholders’ equity
149,989

 
99,515

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity
$
199,391

 
$
187,652


See accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
62


KVH INDUSTRIES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(in thousands, except per share amounts)
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2019
 
2018
Sales:
 
 
 
Product
$
61,925

 
$
63,277

Service
95,968

 
89,752

Net sales
157,893

 
153,029

Costs and expenses:
 
 
 
Costs of product sales
42,887

 
39,510

Costs of service sales
61,256

 
55,442

Research and development
15,926

 
14,951

Sales, marketing and support
33,434

 
30,571

General and administrative
25,486

 
23,201

Total costs and expenses
178,989

 
163,675

Loss from operations
(21,096
)
 
(10,646
)
Interest income
2,003

 
622

Interest expense
1,020

 
1,784

Other income, net
101

 
710

Loss from continuing operations before income tax (benefit) expense
(20,012
)
 
(11,098
)
Income tax (benefit) expense from continuing operations
(4,003
)
 
346

Net loss from continuing operations
(16,009
)
 
(11,444
)
Income from discontinued operations, net of tax
49,264

 
3,212

Net income (loss)
$
33,255

 
$
(8,232
)
 
 
 
 
Net loss from continuing operations per common share
 
 
 
Basic and diluted
$
(0.92
)
 
$
(0.67
)
Net income from discontinued operations per common share
 
 
 
Basic and diluted
$
2.82

 
$
0.19

Net income (loss) per common share
 
 
 
Basic and diluted
$
1.90

 
$
(0.48
)
Number of shares used in per share calculation:
 
 
 
Basic and diluted
17,459

 
17,072



See accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
63


KVH INDUSTRIES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS)
(in thousands)
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2019
 
2018
Net income (loss)
$
33,255

 
$
(8,232
)
Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax:
 
 
 
Unrealized gain on available-for-sale securities

 
1

Foreign currency translation adjustment
11,953

 
(3,473
)
Unrealized gain on derivative instruments, net
11

 
58

Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax (1)
11,964

 
(3,414
)
Total comprehensive income (loss)
$
45,219

 
$
(11,646
)

(1) Tax impact was nominal for all periods.

See accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
64


KVH INDUSTRIES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(in thousands)
 
Common Stock
 
Additional
Paid-in
Capital
 
(Accumulated Deficit) Retained Earnings
 
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Loss
 
Treasury Stock
 
Total
Stockholders’
Equity
 
Shares
 
Amount
 
Shares
 
Amount
Balance at December 31, 2017
18,788

 
$
188

 
$
134,361

 
$
(4,417
)
 
$
(11,317
)
 
(1,659
)
 
$
(13,150
)
 
$
105,665

Net loss

 

 

 
(8,232
)
 

 

 

 
(8,232
)
Other comprehensive loss

 

 

 

 
(3,414
)
 

 

 
(3,414
)
ASC 606 Adoption

 

 

 
(2,748
)
 

 

 

 
(2,748
)
Stock-based compensation

 

 
3,321

 

 

 

 

 
3,321

Issuance of common stock under employee stock purchase plan
17

 

 
167

 

 

 

 

 
167

Sales of treasury stock

 

 
1,478

 

 

 
377