485APOS 1 merged485awhitehall092015.htm WHITEHALL 485A 092015 merged485awhitehall092015.htm - Generated by SEC Publisher for SEC Filing
  SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
 
Form N-1A
 
  REGISTRATION STATEMENT (NO. 33-64845)  
  UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 [X]
  Pre-Effective Amendment No. [ ]
Post -Effective Amendment No. 61 [X]
and
 
  REGISTRATION STATEMENT (NO. 811-07443) UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT
  OF 1940    
  Amendment No. 63 [X]
 
 
VANGUARD WHITEHALL FUNDS
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Declaration of Trust)
 
P.O. Box 2600, Valley Forge, PA 19482
(Address of Principal Executive Office)
 
Registrant’s Telephone Number (610) 669-1000
 
Heidi Stam, Esquire
P.O. Box 876
Valley Forge, PA 19482
 
  Approximate Date of Proposed Public Offering:  
  It is proposed that this filing will become effective (check appropriate box)  
  [ ] immediately upon filing pursuant to paragraph (b)  
  [ ] on (date) pursuant to paragraph (b)  
  [ ] 60 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(1)  
  [X] on December 7, 2015 pursuant to paragraph (a)(1)  
  [ ] 75 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(2)  
  [ ] on (date) pursuant to paragraph (a)(2) of rule 485  
  If appropriate, check the following box:  
  [ ] This post-effective amendment designates a new effective date for a
    previously filed post-effective amendment.  

 


 

VANGUARD WHITEHALL FUNDS

Contents of Registration Statement

This Registration Statement consists of the following paper and documents:

Part A — Prospectuses

Vanguard International Dividend Appreciation Index Fund — Investor, Admiral, and ETF Share Classes

Vanguard International High Dividend Yield Index Fund — Investor, Admiral, and ETF Share Classes

Part B — Statement of Additional Information

Vanguard International Dividend Appreciation Index Fund — Investor, Admiral, and ETF Share Classes

Vanguard International High Dividend Yield Index Fund — Investor, Admiral, and ETF Share Classes

Part C— Statement of Additional Information

Signature Page

Exhibits

This Registration Statement does not affect the registration of any series or any class of a series of the Registrant not included herein.


Vanguard International Dividend Appreciation Index Fund
Prospectus
 
 
 
December XX, 2015
 
 
Investor Shares & Admiral™ Shares
 
Vanguard International Dividend Appreciation Index Fund Investor Shares (•)
Vanguard International Dividend Appreciation Index Fund Admiral Shares (•)
 
Subject to Completion
Preliminary Prospectus
Dated September 22, 2015
 
Information contained in this prospectus is subject to completion or amendment.
A registration statement for Vanguard International Dividend Appreciation Index
Fund has been filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission but has
not yet become effective.
 
Shares of Vanguard International Dividend Appreciation Index Fund may not be
sold, nor may offers to buy be accepted, prior to the time the registration statement
becomes effective. This communication shall not constitute an offer to sell, nor
shall there be any sale of these securities in any state in which such offer,
solicitation, or sale would be unlawful prior to registration or qualification under
the securities laws of any such state.
 
 
 
This is the Fund's initial prospectus, so it contains no performance data.
The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) has not approved or disapproved these securities or
passed upon the adequacy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 


 

Contents      
 
 
Fund Summary 1 Investing With Vanguard 19
Investing in Index Funds 5 Purchasing Shares 19
More on the Fund 6 Converting Shares 22
The Fund and Vanguard 13 Redeeming Shares 24
Investment Advisor 13 Exchanging Shares 27
Dividends, Capital Gains, and Taxes 15 Frequent-Trading Limitations 27
Share Price 17 Other Rules You Should Know 30
    Fund and Account Updates 34
    Contacting Vanguard 36
    Additional Information 37
    Glossary of Investment Terms 38

 


 

Fund Summary

Investment Objective

The Fund seeks to track the performance of a benchmark index that measures the investment return of non-US companies that have a history of increasing dividends.

Fees and Expenses

The following table describes the fees and expenses you may pay if you buy and hold Investor Shares or Admiral Shares of the Fund.

  Shareholder Fees          
  (Fees paid directly from your investment)          
      Investor Shares   Admiral Shares  
  Sales Charge (Load) Imposed on Purchases   None   None  
  Purchase Fee   None   None  
  Sales Charge (Load) Imposed on Reinvested Dividends   None   None  
  Redemption Fee   None   None  
  Account Service Fee (for certain fund account balances below   $20 /year $20 /year
$ 10,000 )        
 
  Annual Fund Operating Expenses          
  (Expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)      
      Investor Shares   Admiral Shares  
  Management Fees   •%   •%  
  12b-1 Distribution Fee   None   None  
  Other Expenses   •%   •%  
  Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses1   0.35 % 0.25 %

 

1 The expense information shown in the table reflects estimated amounts for the current fiscal year.

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Examples

The following examples are intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund’s Investor Shares or Admiral Shares with the cost of investing in other mutual funds. They illustrate the hypothetical expenses that you would incur over various periods if you invested $10,000 in the Fund’s shares. These examples assume that the Shares provide a return of 5% each year and that total annual fund operating expenses remain as stated in the preceding table. The results apply whether or not you redeem your investment at the end of the given period. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:

    1 Year   3 Years
Investor Shares $ 36   $ 113
Admiral Shares $ 26   $ 80

 

Portfolio Turnover

The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in more taxes when Fund shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the previous expense examples, reduce the Fund’s performance. The Fund has no operating history and therefore has no portfolio turnover information.

Principal Investment Strategies

The Fund employs an indexing investment approach designed to track the performance of the NASDAQ International Dividend Achievers Select Index, which focuses on high quality companies located in developed and emerging markets, excluding the United States, that have both the ability and the commitment to grow their dividends over time. The Fund attempts to replicate the target index by investing all, or substantially all, of its assets in the broadly diversified collection of securities that make up the Index, holding each stock in approximately the same proportion as its weighting in the Index.

Principal Risks

An investment in the Fund could lose money over short or even long periods. You should expect the Fund’s share price and total return to fluctuate within a wide range, like the fluctuations of the global stock markets. The Fund is subject to the following risks, which could affect the Fund’s performance:

Stock market risk, which is the chance that stock prices overall will decline. Stock markets tend to move in cycles, with periods of rising prices and periods of falling

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prices. The Fund’s investments in foreign stocks can be riskier than U.S. stock investments. Foreign stocks tend to be more volatile and less liquid than U.S. stocks. The prices of foreign stocks and the prices of U.S. stocks may move in opposite directions. In addition, the Fund’s target index may, at times, become focused in stocks of a particular market sector, which would subject the Fund to proportionately higher exposure to the risks of that sector.

Country/regional risk, which is the chance that world events—such as political upheaval, financial troubles, or natural disasters—will adversely affect the value of securities issued by companies in foreign countries or regions. Because the Fund may invest a large portion of its assets in securities of companies located in any one country or region, the Fund’s performance may be hurt disproportionately by the poor performance of its investments in that area. Country/regional risk is especially high in emerging markets.

Emerging markets risk, which is the chance that the stocks of companies located in emerging markets will be substantially more volatile, and substantially less liquid, than the stocks of companies located in more developed foreign markets because, among other factors, emerging markets can have greater custodial and operational risks; less developed legal, regulatory, and accounting systems; and greater political, social, and economic instability than developed markets.

Currency risk, which is the chance that the value of a foreign investment, measured in U.S. dollars, will decrease because of unfavorable changes in currency exchange rates. Currency risk is especially high in emerging markets.

Investment style risk, which is the chance that returns from dividend-paying stocks will trail returns from global stock markets. Dividend-paying stocks tend to go through cycles of doing better—or worse—than the global markets in general. These periods have, in the past, lasted for as long as several years.

Asset concentration risk, which is the chance that the Fund’s performance may be hurt disproportionately by the poor performance of relatively few stocks. The Fund tends to invest a high percentage of its assets in its ten largest holdings.

An investment in the Fund is not a deposit of a bank and is not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other government agency.

Annual Total Returns

This is the Fund’s initial prospectus, so it containts no Fund performance data.

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Investment Advisor
The Vanguard Group, Inc. (Vanguard)

Portfolio Managers

Justin E. Hales, CFP, Portfolio Manager at Vanguard. He has co-managed the Fund since its inception in 2015.

Michael Perre, Principal of Vanguard. He has co-managed the Fund since its inception in 2015.

Purchase and Sale of Fund Shares

You may purchase or redeem shares online through our website (vanguard.com), by mail (The Vanguard Group, P.O. Box 1110, Valley Forge, PA 19482-1110), or by telephone (800-662-2739). The minimum investment amount required to open and maintain a Fund account for Investor Shares or Admiral Shares is $3,000 or $10,000, respectively. The minimum investment amount required to add to an existing Fund account is generally $1. Institutional, financial intermediary, and Vanguard retail managed clients should contact Vanguard for information on special eligibility rules that may apply to them regarding Admiral Shares.

Tax Information

The Fund’s distributions may be taxable as ordinary income or capital gain. If you are investing through a tax-deferred retirement account, such as an IRA, special tax rules apply.

Payments to Financial Intermediaries

The Fund and its investment advisor do not pay financial intermediaries for sales of Fund shares.

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Investing in Index Funds

What Is Indexing?

Indexing is an investment strategy for tracking the performance of a specified market benchmark, or “index.” An index is a group of securities whose overall performance is used as a standard to measure the investment performance of a particular market. There are many types of indexes. Some represent entire markets—such as the U.S. stock market or the U.S. bond market. Other indexes cover market segments—such as small-capitalization stocks or short-term bonds. The index sponsor determines the securities to include in the index, the weighting of each security in the index, and the appropriate time to make changes to the composition of the index. One cannot invest directly in an index.

An index fund holds all, or a representative sample, of the securities that make up its target index. Index funds attempt to mirror the performance of the target index, for better or worse. However, an index fund generally does not perform exactly like its target index. For example, like all mutual funds, index funds have operating expenses and transaction costs. Market indexes do not, and therefore they will usually have a slight performance advantage over funds that track them.

Index funds typically have the following characteristics:

Variety of investments. Most Vanguard index funds generally invest in the securities of a variety of companies and industries.

Relative performance consistency. Because they seek to track market benchmarks, index funds usually do not perform dramatically better or worse than their benchmarks.

Low cost. Index funds are inexpensive to run compared with actively managed funds.

They have low or no research costs and typically keep trading activity—and thus brokerage commissions and other transaction costs—to a minimum compared with actively managed funds.

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More on the Fund

This prospectus describes the principal risks you would face as a Fund shareholder. It is important to keep in mind one of the main axioms of investing: generally, the higher the risk of losing money, the higher the potential reward. The reverse, also, is generally true: the lower the risk, the lower the potential reward. As you consider an investment in any mutual fund, you should take into account your personal tolerance

for fluctuations in the securities markets. Look for this symbol throughout the prospectus. It is used to mark detailed information about the more significant risks that you would confront as a Fund shareholder. To highlight terms and concepts important to mutual fund investors, we have provided Plain Talk® explanations along the way. Reading the prospectus will help you decide whether the Fund is the right investment for you. We suggest that you keep this prospectus for future reference.

Share Class Overview

This prospectus offers the Fund’s Investor Shares and Admiral Shares. The Fund also issues an exchange-traded class of shares (ETF Shares), which are offered through a separate prospectus.

All share classes offered by the Fund have the same investment objective, strategies, and policies. However, different share classes have different expenses; as a result, their investment performances will differ.

Plain Talk About Fund Expenses
 
All mutual funds have operating expenses. These expenses, which are deducted
from a fund’s gross income, are expressed as a percentage of the net assets of
the fund. Assuming that operating expenses remain as stated in the Fees and
Expenses section, Vanguard International Dividend Appreciation Index Fund’s
expense ratios would be as follows: for Investor Shares, 0.35%, or $3.50 per
$1,000 of average net assets; for Admiral Shares, 0.25%, or $2.50 per $1,000 of
average net assets.

 

Plain Talk About Costs of Investing
 
Costs are an important consideration in choosing a mutual fund. That is because
you, as a shareholder, pay a proportionate share of the costs of operating a fund,
plus any transaction costs incurred when the fund buys or sells securities. These
costs can erode a substantial portion of the gross income or the capital
appreciation a fund achieves. Even seemingly small differences in expenses can,
over time, have a dramatic effect on a fund‘s performance.

 

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The following sections explain the principal investment strategies and policies that the Fund uses in pursuit of its objective. The Fund‘s board of trustees, which oversees the Fund‘s management, may change investment strategies or policies in the interest of shareholders without a shareholder vote, unless those strategies or policies are designated as fundamental. Note that the Fund‘s investment objective is not fundamental and may be changed without a shareholder vote. Under normal circumstances, the Fund will invest at least 80% of its assets in the stocks that make up its target index. The Fund may change its 80% policy only upon 60 days‘ notice to shareholders.

Market Exposure

The Fund invests mainly in stocks of companies located in developed and emerging markets outside of the United States that have a record of increasing dividends over time. Stocks purchased by the Fund are expected to have increasing dividends over time and also to have the potential for long-term capital appreciation. The Fund may purchase stocks that have relatively low dividend yields if the company issuing the stock has increased dividends in recent years.


The Fund is subject to stock market risk, which is the chance that stock prices overall will decline. Stock markets tend to move in cycles, with periods of rising prices and periods of falling prices. The Fund’s investments in foreign stocks can be riskier than U.S. stock investments. Foreign stocks tend to be more volatile and less liquid than U.S. stocks. The prices of foreign stocks and the prices of U.S. stocks may move in opposite directions. In addition, the Fund’s target index may, at times, become focused in stocks of a particular market sector, which would subject the Fund to proportionately higher exposure to the risks of that sector.

To illustrate the volatility of foreign stock prices, the following table shows the best, worst, and average annual total returns for foreign stock markets over various periods as measured by the MSCI EAFE Index, a widely used barometer of foreign market activity. (Total returns consist of dividend income plus change in market price.) Note that the returns shown do not include the costs of buying and selling stocks or other expenses that a real-world investment portfolio would incur.

Foreign Stock Market Returns                  
(1970–2014 )                
    1 Year 5 Years   10 Years   20 Years  
Best   69.4 % 36.1 % 22.0 % 15.5 %
Worst   –43.4   –4.7   0.8   3.1  
Average   11.3   9.7   10.2   10.3  

 

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The table covers all of the 1-, 5-, 10-, and 20-year periods from 1970 through 2014. These average annual returns reflect past performance of foreign stocks; you should not regard them as an indication of future performance of either foreign markets as a whole or the Fund in particular.

Note that the MSCI EAFE Index does not take into account returns for emerging markets, which can be substantially more volatile and substantially less liquid than the more developed markets included in the Index. In addition, because the MSCI EAFE Index tracks the European and Pacific developed markets collectively, the returns in the preceding table do not reflect the variability of returns for these markets individually. To illustrate this variability, the following table shows returns for different foreign markets—as well as for the U.S. market for comparison—from 2005 through 2014, as measured by their respective indexes.

Returns for Various Stock Markets1              
  European   Pacific   Emerging   U.S.  
  Market2   Market2   Markets2   Market  
2005 9.42 % 22.64 % 34.00 % 4.91 %
2006 33.72   12.20   32.17   15.79  
2007 13.86   5.30   39.39   5.49  
2008 –46.42   –36.42   –53.33   –37.00  
2009 35.83   24.18   78.51   26.46  
2010 3.88   15.92   18.88   15.06  
2011 –11.06   –13.74   –18.42   2.11  
2012 19.12   14.42   18.22   16.00  
2013 25.23   18.27   –3.79   32.39  
2014 –6.18   –2.70   –2.19   13.69  

 

1 European market returns are measured by the MSCI Europe Index, Pacific market returns are measured by the MSCI Pacific Index, emerging markets returns are measured by the MSCI Emerging Markets Index, and U.S. market returns are measured by the S&P 500 Index.

2 MSCI Index returns are adjusted for withholding taxes.

Keep in mind that these returns reflect past performance of the various indexes; you should not consider them as an indication of future performance of the indexes or of the Fund in particular.

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The Fund is subject to country/regional risk and currency risk. Country/regional risk is the chance that world events—such as political upheaval, financial troubles, or natural disasters—will adversely affect the value of securities issued by companies in foreign countries or regions. Because the Fund may invest a large portion of its assets in securities of companies located in any one country or region, the Fund‘s performance may be hurt disproportionately by the poor performance of its investments in that area. Currency risk is the chance that the value of a foreign investment, measured in U.S. dollars, will decrease because of unfavorable changes in currency exchange rates. Country/regional risk and currency risk are especially high in emerging markets.


The Fund is subject to emerging markets risk, which is the chance that the stocks of companies located in emerging markets will be substantially more volatile, and substantially less liquid, than the stocks of companies located in more developed foreign markets because, among other factors, emerging markets can have greater custodial and operational risks; less developed legal, regulatory, and accounting systems; and greater political, social, and economic instability than developed markets.

Plain Talk About International Investing
 
U.S. investors who invest abroad will encounter risks not typically associated
with U.S. companies because foreign stock and bond markets operate differently
from the U.S. markets. For instance, foreign companies and governments are not
subject to the same accounting, auditing, and financial-reporting standards and
practices as U.S. companies and the U.S. government, and their stocks and
bonds may not be as liquid as those of similar U.S. entities. In addition, foreign
stock exchanges, brokers, companies, bond markets, and dealers may be subject
to less government supervision and regulation than their counterparts in the
United States. These factors, among others, could negatively affect the returns

 

The Fund is subject to investment style risk, which is the chance that returns from dividend-paying stocks will trail returns from global stock markets. Dividend-paying stocks tend to go through cycles of doing better—or worse—than the global markets in general. These periods have, in the past, lasted for as long as several years.

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Security Selection

The Fund attempts to track the performance of a benchmark index that measures the investment return of non-US companies that have a record of increasing dividends over time. The companies in which the Fund invests will be within the capitalization range of the companies included in the NASDAQ International Dividend Achievers Select Index ($XXX.X million to $XXX.X billion as of Month XX, 2015). In the future, the Index’s market-capitalization range may be higher or lower, and the Fund’s investments may track another index. Such changes may occur at any time and without notice to Fund shareholders.

The Fund uses the replication method of indexing, meaning that the Fund generally holds the same stocks as those in its target index, and in approximately the same proportions.


Because the Fund tends to invest a high percentage of assets in its ten largest holdings, the Fund is subject to asset concentration risk, which is the chance that the Fund‘s performance may be hurt disproportionately by the poor performance of relatively few stocks.

Other Investment Policies and Risks

The Fund reserves the right to substitute a different index for the index it currently tracks if the current index is discontinued, if the Fund‘s agreement with the sponsor of its target index is terminated, or for any other reason determined in good faith by the Fund’s board of trustees. In any such instance, the substitute index would represent the same market segment as the current index.

To track its target index as closely as possible, the Fund attempts to remain fully invested in stocks. To help stay fully invested and to reduce transaction costs, the Fund may invest, to a limited extent, in derivatives, including stock futures. The Fund may also use derivatives such as total return swaps to obtain exposure to a stock, a basket of stocks, or an index. Generally speaking, a derivative is a financial contract whose value is based on the value of a financial asset (such as a stock, a bond, or a currency), a physical asset (such as gold, oil, or wheat), a market index (such as the S&P 500 Index), or a reference rate (such as LIBOR). Investments in derivatives may subject the Fund to risks different from, and possibly greater than, those of investments directly in the underlying securities, assets, or market indexes. The Fund will not use derivatives for speculation or for the purpose of leveraging (magnifying) investment returns.

The Fund may enter into foreign currency exchange forward contracts, which are a type of derivative, in order to maintain the same currency exposure as its respective index. A foreign currency exchange forward contract is an agreement to buy or sell a country’s currency at a specific price on a specific date, usually 30, 60, or 90 days in

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the future. In other words, the contract guarantees an exchange rate on a given date. These contracts, however, would not prevent the Fund’s securities from falling in value as a result of risks other than unfavorable currency exchange movements. The Fund may use these contracts to gain currency exposure when investing in stock index futures and to settle trades in a foreign currency.

Cash Management

The Fund‘s daily cash balance may be invested in one or more Vanguard CMT Funds, which are very low-cost money market funds. When investing in a Vanguard CMT Fund, the Fund bears its proportionate share of the at-cost expenses of the CMT Fund in which it invests.

Temporary Investment Measures

The Fund may temporarily depart from its normal investment policies and strategies when the advisor believes that doing so is in the Fund‘s best interest, so long as the alternative is consistent with the Fund‘s investment objective. For instance, the Fund may invest beyond its normal limits in derivatives or exchange-traded funds that are consistent with the Fund‘s objective when those instruments are more favorably priced or provide needed liquidity, as might be the case when the Fund receives large cash flows that it cannot prudently invest immediately.

Frequent Trading or Market-Timing

Background. Some investors try to profit from strategies involving frequent trading of mutual fund shares, such as market-timing. For funds holding foreign securities, investors may try to take advantage of an anticipated difference between the price of the fund’s shares and price movements in overseas markets, a practice also known as time-zone arbitrage. Investors also may try to engage in frequent trading of funds holding investments such as small-cap stocks and high-yield bonds. As money is shifted into and out of a fund by a shareholder engaging in frequent trading, the fund incurs costs for buying and selling securities, resulting in increased brokerage and administrative costs. These costs are borne by all fund shareholders, including the long-term investors who do not generate the costs. In addition, frequent trading may interfere with an advisor’s ability to efficiently manage the fund.

Policies to address frequent trading. The Vanguard funds (other than money market funds and short-term bond funds, but including Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund) do not knowingly accommodate frequent trading. The board of trustees of each Vanguard fund (other than money market funds and short-term bond funds, but including Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund) has adopted policies and procedures reasonably designed to detect and discourage frequent trading and, in some cases, to compensate the fund for the costs

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associated with it. These policies and procedures do not apply to Vanguard ETF® Shares because frequent trading in ETF Shares generally does not disrupt portfolio management or otherwise harm fund shareholders. Although there is no assurance that Vanguard will be able to detect or prevent frequent trading or market-timing in all circumstances, the following policies have been adopted to address these issues:

• Each Vanguard fund reserves the right to reject any purchase request—including exchanges from other Vanguard funds—without notice and regardless of size. For example, a purchase request could be rejected because the investor has a history of frequent trading or if Vanguard determines that such purchase may negatively affect a fund’s operation or performance.

• Each Vanguard fund (other than money market funds and short-term bond funds, but including Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund) generally prohibits, except as otherwise noted in the Investing With Vanguard section, an investor’s purchases or exchanges into a fund account for 30 calendar days (60 calendar days for participants in employer-sponsored defined contribution plans recordkept directly by Vanguard) after the investor has redeemed or exchanged out of that fund account.

• Certain Vanguard funds charge shareholders purchase and/or redemption fees on transactions.

See the Investing With Vanguard section of this prospectus for further details on Vanguard’s transaction policies.

Each Vanguard fund (other than money market funds), in determining its net asset value, will use fair-value pricing when appropriate, as described in the Share Price section. Fair-value pricing may reduce or eliminate the profitability of certain frequent-trading strategies.

Do not invest with Vanguard if you are a market-timer.

Turnover Rate

Although the Fund normally seeks to invest for the long term, the Fund may sell securities regardless of how long they have been held. Generally, an index fund sells securities in response to redemption requests from shareholders of conventional (not exchange-traded) shares or to changes in the composition of its target index. The Fund has no operating history and therefore has no portfolio turnover information.

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Plain Talk About Turnover Rate
 
Turnover rate gives an indication of how transaction costs, which are not included
in the fund’s expense ratio, could affect the fund’s future returns. In general, the
greater the volume of buying and selling by the fund, the greater the impact that
brokerage commissions and other transaction costs will have on its return. Also,
funds with high turnover rates may be more likely to generate capital gains,
including short-term capital gains, that must be distributed to shareholders as
taxable income.

 

The Fund and Vanguard

The Fund is a member of The Vanguard Group, a family of more than 190 mutual funds holding assets of approximately $2.9 trillion. All of the funds that are members of The Vanguard Group (other than funds of funds) share in the expenses associated with administrative services and business operations, such as personnel, office space, and equipment.

Vanguard Marketing Corporation provides marketing services to the funds. Although shareholders do not pay sales commissions or 12b-1 distribution fees, each fund (other than a fund of funds) or each share class of a fund (in the case of a fund with multiple share classes) pays its allocated share of the Vanguard funds’ marketing costs.

Plain Talk About Vanguard’s Unique Corporate Structure
 
The Vanguard Group is truly a mutual mutual fund company. It is owned jointly by
the funds it oversees and thus indirectly by the shareholders in those funds.
Most other mutual funds are operated by management companies that may be
owned by one person, by a private group of individuals, or by public investors
who own the management company’s stock. The management fees charged by
these companies include a profit component over and above the companies’ cost
of providing services. By contrast, Vanguard provides services to its member
funds on an at-cost basis, with no profit component, which helps to keep the
funds’ expenses low.

 

Investment Advisor

The Vanguard Group, Inc. (Vanguard), P.O. Box 2600, Valley Forge, PA 19482, which began operations in 1975, serves as advisor to the Fund through its Equity Investment Group. As of August 31, 2015 Vanguard served as advisor for approximately

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$2.4 trillion in assets. Vanguard provides investment advisory services to the Fund on an at-cost basis, subject to the supervision and oversight of the trustees and officers of the Fund.

For a discussion of why the board of trustees approved the Fund’s investment advisory arrangement, see the semiannual report to shareholders covering the fiscal period ended April 30, which will be available 60 days after that date.

Vanguard’s Equity Investment Group is overseen by:

Mortimer J. Buckley, Chief Investment Officer and Managing Director of Vanguard. As Chief Investment Officer, he is responsible for the oversight of Vanguard’s Equity Investment and Fixed Income Groups. The investments managed by these two groups include active quantitative equity funds, equity index funds, active bond funds, index bond funds, stable value portfolios, and money market funds. Mr. Buckley joined Vanguard in 1991 and has held various senior leadership positions with Vanguard. He received his A.B. in economics from Harvard and an M.B.A. from Harvard Business School.

Joseph Brennan, CFA, Principal of Vanguard and global head of Vanguard’s Equity Index Group. He has oversight responsibility for all equity index funds managed by the Equity Investment Group. He first joined Vanguard in 1991. He received his B.A. in economics from Fairfield University and an M.S. in finance from Drexel University.

John Ameriks, Ph.D., Principal of Vanguard and head of Vanguard’s Quantitative Equity Group. He has oversight responsibility for all active quantitative equity funds managed by the Equity Investment Group. He joined Vanguard in 2003. He received his A.B. in economics from Stanford University and a Ph.D. in economics from Columbia University.

The managers primarily responsible for the day-to-day management of the Fund are:

Justin E. Hales, CFP, Portfolio Manager at Vanguard. He has been with Vanguard since 2004, has worked in investment management since 2006, has managed investment portfolios since 2014, and has co-managed the Fund since its inception in 2015. Education: B.A., University of Maryland.

Michael Perre, Principal of Vanguard. He has been with Vanguard since 1990, has managed investment portfolios since 1999, and has co-managed the Fund since its inception in 2015. Education: B.A., Saint Joseph’s University; M.B.A., Villanova University.

The Statement of Additional Information provides information about each portfolio manager’s compensation, other accounts under management, and ownership of shares of the Fund.

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Dividends, Capital Gains, and Taxes

Fund Distributions

The Fund distributes to shareholders virtually all of its net income (interest and dividends, less expenses) as well as any net short-term or long-term capital gains realized from the sale of its holdings. Income dividends generally are distributed quarterly in March, June, September, and December; capital gains distributions, if any, generally occur annually in December. In addition, the Fund may occasionally make a supplemental distribution at some other time during the year. You can receive distributions of income or capital gains in cash, or you can have them automatically reinvested in more shares of the Fund.

Plain Talk About Distributions
 
As a shareholder, you are entitled to your portion of a fund’s income from interest
and dividends as well as capital gains from the fund’s sale of investments.
Income consists of both the dividends that the fund earns from any stock
holdings and the interest it receives from any money market and bond
investments. Capital gains are realized whenever the fund sells securities for
higher prices than it paid for them. These capital gains are either short-term or
long-term, depending on whether the fund held the securities for one year or less
or for more than one year.

 

Basic Tax Points

Vanguard will send you a statement each year showing the tax status of all your distributions. In addition, investors in taxable accounts should be aware of the following basic federal income tax points:

• Distributions are taxable to you whether or not you reinvest these amounts in additional Fund shares.

• Distributions declared in December—if paid to you by the end of January—are taxable as if received in December.

• Any dividend distribution or short-term capital gains distribution that you receive is taxable to you as ordinary income. If you are an individual and meet certain holding-period requirements with respect to your Fund shares, you may be eligible for reduced tax rates on “qualified dividend income,” if any, distributed by the Fund.

• Any distribution of net long-term capital gains is taxable to you as long-term capital gains, no matter how long you have owned shares in the Fund.

• Capital gains distributions may vary considerably from year to year as a result of the Fund‘s normal investment activities and cash flows.

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• A sale or exchange of Fund shares is a taxable event. This means that you may have a capital gain to report as income, or a capital loss to report as a deduction, when you complete your tax return.

• Any conversion between classes of shares of the same fund is a nontaxable event. contrast, an exchange between classes of shares of different funds is a taxable event.

Individuals, trusts, and estates whose income exceeds certain threshold amounts are subject to a 3.8% Medicare contribution tax on “net investment income.” Net investment income takes into account distributions paid by the Fund and capital gains from any sale or exchange of Fund shares.

Dividend distributions and capital gains distributions that you receive, as well as your gains or losses from any sale or exchange of Fund shares, may be subject to state local income taxes.

The Fund may be subject to foreign taxes or foreign tax withholding on dividends, interest, and some capital gains that it receives on foreign securities. You may qualify for an offsetting credit or deduction under U.S. tax laws for any amount designated your portion of the Fund’s foreign tax obligations, provided that you meet certain requirements. See your tax advisor or IRS publications for more information.

This prospectus provides general tax information only. If you are investing through a tax-deferred retirement account, such as an IRA, special tax rules apply. Please consult your tax advisor for detailed information about any tax consequences for you

Plain Talk About Buying a Dividend
 
Unless you are investing through a tax-deferred retirement account (such as an
IRA), you should consider avoiding a purchase of fund shares shortly before the
fund makes a distribution, because doing so can cost you money in taxes. This is
known as “buying a dividend.” For example: On December 15, you invest $5,000,
buying 250 shares for $20 each. If the fund pays a distribution of $1 per share on
December 16, its share price will drop to $19 (not counting market change). You
still have only $5,000 (250 shares x $19 = $4,750 in share value, plus 250 shares
x $1 = $250 in distributions), but you owe tax on the $250 distribution you
received—even if you reinvest it in more shares. To avoid buying a dividend, check
a fund’s distribution schedule before you invest.

 

General Information

Backup withholding. By law, Vanguard must withhold 28% of any taxable distributions or redemptions from your account if you do not:

  • Provide us with your correct taxpayer identification number.
  • Certify that the taxpayer identification number is correct.

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• Confirm that you are not subject to backup withholding.

Similarly, Vanguard must withhold taxes from your account if the IRS instructs us to do so.

Foreign investors. Vanguard funds offered for sale in the United States (Vanguard U.S. funds), including the Fund offered in this prospectus, generally are not sold outside the United States, except to certain qualified investors. Non-U.S. investors should be aware that U.S. withholding and estate taxes and certain U.S. tax reporting requirements may apply to any investments in Vanguard U.S. funds. Foreign investors should visit the Non-U.S. Investors page on our website at vanguard.com for information on Vanguard’s non-U.S. products.

Invalid addresses. If a dividend distribution or capital gains distribution check mailed to your address of record is returned as undeliverable, Vanguard will automatically reinvest the distribution and all future distributions until you provide us with a valid mailing address. Reinvestments will receive the net asset value calculated on the date of the reinvestment.

Share Price

Share price, also known as net asset value (NAV), is calculated each business day as of the close of regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), generally 4 p.m., Eastern time. Each share class has its own NAV, which is computed by dividing the total assets, minus liabilities, allocated to the share class by the number of Fund shares outstanding for that class. On U.S. holidays or other days when the NYSE is closed, the NAV is not calculated, and the Fund does not sell or redeem shares. However, on those days the value of the Fund’s assets may be affected to the extent that the Fund holds securities that change in value on those days (such as foreign securities that trade on foreign markets that are open).

Stocks held by a Vanguard fund are valued at their market value when reliable market quotations are readily available from the principal exchange or market on which they are traded. Such securities are generally valued at their official closing price, the last reported sales price, or if there were no sales that day, the mean between the closing bid and asking prices. Certain short-term debt instruments used to manage a fund’s cash may be valued at amortized cost when it approximates fair value. The values of any foreign securities held by a fund are converted into U.S. dollars using an exchange rate obtained from an independent third party as of the close of regular trading on the NYSE. The values of any mutual fund shares held by a fund are based on the NAVs of the shares. The values of any ETF or closed-end fund shares held by a fund are based on the market value of the shares.

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When a fund determines that market quotations either are not readily available or do not accurately reflect the value of a security, the security is priced at its fair value (the amount that the owner might reasonably expect to receive upon the current sale of the security). A fund also will use fair-value pricing if the value of a security it holds has been materially affected by events occurring before the fund’s pricing time but after the close of the principal exchange or market on which the security is traded. This most commonly occurs with foreign securities, which may trade on foreign exchanges that close many hours before the fund’s pricing time. Intervening events might be company-specific (e.g., earnings report, merger announcement) or country-specific or regional/global (e.g., natural disaster, economic or political news, act of terrorism, interest rate change). Intervening events include price movements in U.S. markets that exceed a specified threshold or that are otherwise deemed to affect the value of foreign securities. Fair-value pricing may be used for domestic securities—for example, if (1) trading in a security is halted and does not resume before the fund’s pricing time or a security does not trade in the course of a day and (2) the fund holds enough of the security that its price could affect the NAV.

Fair-value prices are determined by Vanguard according to procedures adopted by the board of trustees. When fair-value pricing is employed, the prices of securities used by a fund to calculate the NAV may differ from quoted or published prices for the same securities.

Vanguard fund share prices are published daily on our website at vanguard.com/prices.

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Investing With Vanguard

This section of the prospectus explains the basics of doing business with Vanguard. Vanguard fund shares can be held directly with Vanguard or indirectly through an intermediary, such as a bank, a broker, or an investment advisor. If you hold Vanguard fund shares directly with Vanguard, you should carefully read each topic within this section that pertains to your relationship with Vanguard. If you hold Vanguard fund shares indirectly through an intermediary (including shares held through a Vanguard brokerage account), please see Investing With Vanguard Through Other Firms, and also refer to your account agreement with the intermediary for information about transacting in that account. Vanguard reserves the right to change the following policies without notice. Please call or check online for current information. See

Contacting Vanguard.

For Vanguard fund shares held directly with Vanguard, each fund you hold in an account is a separate “fund account.” For example, if you hold three funds in a nonretirement account titled in your own name, two funds in a nonretirement account titled jointly with your spouse, and one fund in an individual retirement account, you have six fund accounts—and this is true even if you hold the same fund in multiple accounts. Note that each reference to “you” in this prospectus applies to any one or more registered account owners or persons authorized to transact on your account.

Purchasing Shares

Vanguard reserves the right, without notice, to increase or decrease the minimum amount required to open, convert shares to, or maintain a fund account or to add to an existing fund account.

Investment minimums may differ for certain categories of investors.

Account Minimums for Investor Shares To open and maintain an account. $3,000.

To add to an existing account. Generally $1.

Account Minimums for Admiral Shares

To open and maintain an account. $10,000. If you request Admiral Shares when you open a new account but the investment amount does not meet the account minimum for Admiral Shares, your investment will be placed in Investor Shares of the Fund. Institutional, financial intermediary, and Vanguard retail managed clients should contact Vanguard for information on special eligibility rules that may apply to them.

To add to an existing account. Generally $1.

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How to Initiate a Purchase Request

Be sure to check Exchanging Shares, Frequent-Trading Limitations, and Other Rules You Should Know before placing your purchase request.

Online. You may open certain types of accounts, request a purchase of shares, and request an exchange through our website or our mobile application if you are registered for online access.

By telephone. You may call Vanguard to begin the account registration process or request that the account-opening forms be sent to you. You may also call Vanguard to request a purchase of shares in your account or to request an exchange. See

Contacting Vanguard.

By mail. You may send Vanguard your account registration form and check to open a new fund account. To add to an existing fund account, you may send your check with an Invest-by-Mail form (from a transaction confirmation or your account statement), with a deposit slip (available online), or with a written request. You may also send a written request to Vanguard to make an exchange. For a list of Vanguard addresses, see Contacting Vanguard.

How to Pay for a Purchase

By electronic bank transfer. You may purchase shares of a Vanguard fund through an electronic transfer of money from a bank account. To establish the electronic bank transfer service on an account, you must designate the bank account online, complete a special form, or fill out the appropriate section of your account registration form. After the service is set up on your account, you can purchase shares by electronic bank transfer on a regular schedule (Automatic Investment Plan) or upon request. Your purchase request can be initiated online (if you are registered for online access), by telephone, or by mail.

By wire. Wiring instructions vary for different types of purchases. Please call Vanguard for instructions and policies on purchasing shares by wire. See Contacting Vanguard.

By check. You may make initial or additional purchases to your fund account by sending a check or by utilizing our mobile application if you are registered for online access. Also see How to Initiate a Purchase Request. Make your check payable to Vanguard and include the appropriate fund number (e.g., Vanguard—xx). For a list of Fund numbers (for share classes in this prospectus), see Additional Information.

By exchange. You may purchase shares of a Vanguard fund using the proceeds from the simultaneous redemption of shares of another Vanguard fund. You may initiate an exchange online (if you are registered for online access), by telephone, or by mail. See

Exchanging Shares.

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Trade Date

The trade date for any purchase request received in good order will depend on the day and time Vanguard receives your request, the manner in which you are paying, and the type of fund you are purchasing. Your purchase will be executed using the NAV as calculated on the trade date. NAVs are calculated only on days that the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) is open for trading (a business day).

For purchases by check into all funds other than money market funds and for purchases by exchange, wire, or electronic bank transfer (not using an Automatic Investment Plan) into all funds: If the purchase request is received by Vanguard on a business day before the close of regular trading on the NYSE (generally 4 p.m., Eastern time), the trade date for the purchase will be the same day. If the purchase request is received on a business day after the close of regular trading on the NYSE, or on a nonbusiness day, the trade date for the purchase will be the next business day.

For purchases by check into money market funds: If the purchase request is received by Vanguard on a business day before the close of regular trading on the NYSE (generally 4 p.m., Eastern time), the trade date for the purchase will be the next business day. If the purchase request is received on a business day after the close of regular trading on the NYSE, or on a nonbusiness day, the trade date for the purchase will be the second business day following the day Vanguard receives the purchase request. Because money market instruments must be purchased with federal funds and it takes a money market mutual fund one business day to convert check proceeds into federal funds, the trade date for the purchase will be one business day later than for other funds.

For purchases by electronic bank transfer using an Automatic Investment Plan: Your trade date generally will be the date you designated for withdrawal of funds from your bank account. Your bank account generally will be debited on the business day after your trade date. If the date you designated for withdrawal of funds from your bank account falls on a weekend, holiday, or other nonbusiness day, your trade date generally will be the previous business day.

If your purchase request is not accurate and complete, it may be rejected. See Other Rules You Should Know—Good Order.

For further information about purchase transactions, consult our website at vanguard.com or see Contacting Vanguard.

Other Purchase Rules You Should Know

Admiral Shares. Admiral Shares generally are not available for SIMPLE IRAs, Vanguard Individual 401(k) Plans, and Vanguard retail-serviced Individual 403(b)(7) Custodial Accounts.

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Check purchases. All purchase checks must be written in U.S. dollars and must be drawn on a U.S. bank. Vanguard does not accept cash, traveler’s checks, or money orders. In addition, Vanguard may refuse “starter checks” and checks that are not made payable to Vanguard.

New accounts. We are required by law to obtain from you certain personal information that we will use to verify your identity. If you do not provide the information, we may not be able to open your account. If we are unable to verify your identity, Vanguard reserves the right, without notice, to close your account or take such other steps as we deem reasonable. Certain types of accounts may require additional documentation.

Refused or rejected purchase requests. Vanguard reserves the right to stop selling fund shares or to reject any purchase request at any time and without notice, including, but not limited to, purchases requested by exchange from another Vanguard fund. This also includes the right to reject any purchase request because the investor has a history of frequent trading or because the purchase may negatively affect a fund’s operation or performance.

Large purchases. Call Vanguard before attempting to invest a large dollar amount.

No cancellations. Vanguard will not accept your request to cancel any purchase request once processing has begun. Please be careful when placing a purchase request.

Converting Shares

When a conversion occurs, you receive shares of one class in place of shares of another class of the same fund. At the time of conversion, the dollar value of the “new” shares you receive equals the dollar value of the “old” shares that were converted. In other words, the conversion has no effect on the value of your investment in the fund at the time of the conversion. However, the number of shares you own after the conversion may be greater than or less than the number of shares you owned before the conversion, depending on the net asset values of the two share classes.

Vanguard will not accept your request to cancel any self-directed conversion request once processing has begun. Please be careful when placing a conversion request.

A conversion between share classes of the same fund is a nontaxable event.

Trade Date

The trade date for any conversion request received in good order will depend on the day and time Vanguard receives your request. Your conversion will be executed using the NAVs of the different share classes on the trade date. NAVs are calculated only on days that the NYSE is open for trading (a business day).

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For a conversion request (other than a request to convert to ETF Shares) received by Vanguard on a business day before the close of regular trading on the NYSE (generally 4 p.m., Eastern time), the trade date will be the same day. For a conversion request received on a business day after the close of regular trading on the NYSE, or on a nonbusiness day, the trade date will be the next business day. See Other Rules You Should Know.

Conversions From Investor Shares to Admiral Shares

Self-directed conversions. If your account balance in the Fund is at least $10,000, you may ask Vanguard to convert your Investor Shares to Admiral Shares. You may request a conversion through our website (if you are registered for online access), by telephone, or by mail. Institutional, financial intermediary, and Vanguard retail managed clients should contact Vanguard for information on special eligibility rules that may apply to them. See Contacting Vanguard.

Automatic conversions. Vanguard conducts periodic reviews of account balances and may, if your account balance in the Fund exceeds $10,000, automatically convert your Investor Shares to Admiral Shares. You will be notified before an automatic conversion occurs and will have an opportunity to instruct Vanguard not to effect the conversion. Institutional, financial intermediary, and Vanguard retail managed clients should contact Vanguard for information on special eligibility rules that may apply to them.

Conversions to ETF Shares

Owners of conventional shares (i.e., not exchange-traded shares) issued by the Fund may convert those shares to ETF Shares of equivalent value of the same fund. Please note that investors who own conventional shares through a 401(k) plan or other employer-sponsored retirement or benefit plan generally may not convert those shares to ETF Shares and should check with their plan sponsor or recordkeeper. ETF Shares, whether acquired through a conversion or purchased on the secondary market, cannot be converted to conventional shares. Also, ETF Shares of one fund cannot be exchanged for ETF Shares of another fund.

ETF Shares must be held in a brokerage account. Thus, before converting conventional shares to ETF Shares, you must have an existing, or open a new, brokerage account. This account may be with Vanguard Brokerage Services® (Vanguard Brokerage) or with any other brokerage firm.

Vanguard Brokerage does not impose a fee on conversions from conventional shares to Vanguard ETF Shares. However, other brokerage firms may charge a fee to process a conversion. Vanguard reserves the right, in the future, to impose a transaction fee on conversions or to limit or terminate the conversion privilege. For additional information on converting conventional shares to ETF Shares, please contact Vanguard to obtain a prospectus for ETF Shares. See Contacting Vanguard.

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Mandatory Conversions to Investor Shares

If an account no longer meets the balance requirements for Admiral Shares, Vanguard may automatically convert the shares in the account to Investor Shares. A decline in the account balance because of market movement may result in such a conversion. Vanguard will notify the investor in writing before any mandatory conversion occurs. Please note that mandatory conversions do not apply to ETF Shares.

Redeeming Shares

How to Initiate a Redemption Request

Be sure to check Exchanging Shares, Frequent-Trading Limitations, and Other Rules You Should Know before placing your redemption request.

Online. You may request a redemption of shares or request an exchange through our website or our mobile application if you are registered for online access.

By telephone. You may call Vanguard to request a redemption of shares or an exchange. See Contacting Vanguard.

By mail. You may send a written request to Vanguard to redeem from a fund account or to make an exchange. See Contacting Vanguard.

How to Receive Redemption Proceeds

By electronic bank transfer. You may have the proceeds of a fund redemption sent directly to a designated bank account. To establish the electronic bank transfer service on an account, you must designate a bank account online, complete a special form, or fill out the appropriate section of your account registration form. After the service is set up on your account, you can redeem shares by electronic bank transfer on a regular schedule (Automatic Withdrawal Plan) or upon request. Your redemption request can be initiated online (if you are registered for online access), by telephone, or by mail.

By wire. To receive your proceeds by wire, you may instruct Vanguard to wire your redemption proceeds ($100 minimum) to a previously designated bank account. To establish the wire redemption service, you generally must designate a bank account online, complete a special form, or fill out the appropriate section of your account registration form.

By exchange. You may have the proceeds of a Vanguard fund redemption invested directly in shares of another Vanguard fund. You may initiate an exchange online (if you are registered for online access), by telephone, or by mail. See Exchanging Shares.

By check. If you have not chosen another redemption method, Vanguard will mail you a redemption check, generally payable to all registered account owners, normally within two business days of your trade date, and generally to the address of record.

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Trade Date

The trade date for any redemption request received in good order will depend on the day and time Vanguard receives your request and the manner in which you are redeeming. Your redemption will be executed using the NAV as calculated on the trade date. NAVs are calculated only on days that the NYSE is open for trading (a business day).

For redemptions by check, exchange, or wire: If the redemption request is received by Vanguard on a business day before the close of regular trading on the NYSE (generally 4 p.m., Eastern time), the trade date will be the same day. If the redemption request is received on a business day after the close of regular trading on the NYSE, or on a nonbusiness day, the trade date will be the next business day.

• Note on timing of wire redemptions from money market funds: For telephone requests received by Vanguard on a business day before 10:45 a.m., Eastern time (2 p.m., Eastern time, for Vanguard Prime Money Market Fund), the redemption proceeds generally will leave Vanguard by the close of business the same day. For telephone requests received by Vanguard on a business day after those cut-off times, or on a nonbusiness day, and for all requests other than by telephone, the redemption proceeds generally will leave Vanguard by the close of business on the next business day.

• Note on timing of wire redemptions from all other funds: For requests received by Vanguard on a business day before the close of regular trading on the NYSE (generally 4 p.m., Eastern time), the redemption proceeds generally will leave Vanguard by the close of business on the next business day. For requests received by Vanguard on a business day after the close of regular trading on the NYSE, or on a nonbusiness day, the redemption proceeds generally will leave Vanguard by the close of business on the second business day after Vanguard receives the request.

For redemptions by electronic bank transfer using an Automatic Withdrawal Plan: Your trade date generally will be the date you designated for withdrawal of funds (redemption of shares) from your Vanguard account. Proceeds of redeemed shares generally will be credited to your designated bank account two business days after your trade date. If the date you designated for withdrawal of funds from your Vanguard account falls on a weekend, holiday, or other nonbusiness day, your trade date generally will be the previous business day.

For redemptions by electronic bank transfer not using an Automatic Withdrawal Plan: If the redemption request is received by Vanguard on a business day before the close of regular trading on the NYSE (generally 4 p.m., Eastern time), the trade date will be the same day. If the redemption request is received on a business day after the close of regular trading on the NYSE, or on a nonbusiness day, the trade date will be the next business day.

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If your redemption request is not accurate and complete, it may be rejected. If we are unable to send your redemption proceeds by wire or electronic bank transfer because the receiving institution rejects the transfer, Vanguard will make additional efforts to complete your transaction. If Vanguard is still unable to complete the transaction, we may send the proceeds of the redemption to you by check, generally payable to all registered account owners, or use your proceeds to purchase new shares of the fund from which you sold shares for the purpose of the wire or electronic bank transfer transaction. See Other Rules You Should Know—Good Order.

For further information about redemption transactions, consult our website at vanguard.com or see Contacting Vanguard.

Other Redemption Rules You Should Know

Documentation for certain accounts. Special documentation may be required to redeem from certain types of accounts, such as trust, corporate, nonprofit, or retirement accounts. Please call us before attempting to redeem from these types of accounts.

Potentially disruptive redemptions. Vanguard reserves the right to pay all or part of a redemption in kind—that is, in the form of securities—if we reasonably believe that a cash redemption would negatively affect the fund’s operation or performance or that the shareholder may be engaged in market-timing or frequent trading. Under these circumstances, Vanguard also reserves the right to delay payment of the redemption proceeds for up to seven calendar days. By calling us before you attempt to redeem a large dollar amount, you may avoid in-kind or delayed payment of your redemption. Please see Frequent-Trading Limitations for information about Vanguard’s policies to limit frequent trading.

Recently purchased shares. Although you can redeem shares at any time, proceeds may not be made available to you until the fund collects payment for your purchase. This may take up to seven calendar days for shares purchased by check or by electronic bank transfer. If you have written a check on a fund with checkwriting privileges, that check may be rejected if your fund account does not have a sufficient available balance.

Address change. If you change your address online or by telephone, there may be up to a 14-day restriction on your ability to request check redemptions online and by telephone. You can request a redemption in writing at any time. Confirmations of address changes are sent to both the old and new addresses.

Payment to a different person or address. At your request, we can make your redemption check payable, or wire your redemption proceeds, to a different person or send it to a different address. However, this generally requires the written consent of all registered account owners and may require a signature guarantee or a notarized

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signature. You may obtain a signature guarantee from some commercial or savings banks, credit unions, trust companies, or member firms of a U.S. stock exchange.

No cancellations. Vanguard will not accept your request to cancel any redemption request once processing has begun. Please be careful when placing a redemption request.

Emergency circumstances. Vanguard funds can postpone payment of redemption proceeds for up to seven calendar days. In addition, Vanguard funds can suspend redemptions and/or postpone payments of redemption proceeds beyond seven calendar days at times when the NYSE is closed or during emergency circumstances, as determined by the SEC.

Exchanging Shares

An exchange occurs when you use the proceeds from the redemption of shares of one Vanguard fund to simultaneously purchase shares of a different Vanguard fund. You can make exchange requests online (if you are registered for online access), by telephone, or by mail. See Purchasing Shares and Redeeming Shares.

If the NYSE is open for regular trading (generally until 4 p.m., Eastern time, on a business day) at the time an exchange request is received in good order, the trade date generally will be the same day. See Other Rules You Should Know—Good Order for additional information on all transaction requests.

Vanguard will not accept your request to cancel any exchange request once processing has begun. Please be careful when placing an exchange request.

Please note that Vanguard reserves the right, without notice, to revise or terminate the exchange privilege, limit the amount of any exchange, or reject an exchange, at any time, for any reason. See Frequent-Trading Limitations for additional restrictions on exchanges.

Frequent-Trading Limitations

Because excessive transactions can disrupt management of a fund and increase the fund’s costs for all shareholders, the board of trustees of each Vanguard fund places certain limits on frequent trading in the funds. Each Vanguard fund (other than money market funds and short-term bond funds, but including Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund) limits an investor’s purchases or exchanges into a fund account for 30 calendar days (60 calendar days for participants in employer-sponsored defined contribution plans recordkept directly by Vanguard) after the investor has redeemed or exchanged out of that fund account. ETF Shares are not subject to these frequent-trading limits.

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For Vanguard Retirement Investment Program pooled plans, the limitations apply to exchanges made online or by telephone.

These frequent-trading limitations do not apply to the following:

• Purchases of shares with reinvested dividend or capital gains distributions.

• Transactions through Vanguard’s Automatic Investment Plan, Automatic Exchange Service, Direct Deposit Service, Automatic Withdrawal Plan, Required Minimum Distribution Service, and Vanguard Small Business Online®.

• Discretionary transactions through Vanguard Asset Management Services, Vanguard Personal Advisor Services®, and Vanguard Institutional Advisory Services®.

• Redemptions of shares to pay fund or account fees.

• Redemptions of shares to remove excess shareholder contributions to certain types of retirement accounts (including, but not limited to, IRAs, certain Individual 403(b)(7) Custodial Accounts, and Vanguard Individual 401(k) Plans).

• Transaction requests submitted by mail to Vanguard from shareholders who hold their accounts directly with Vanguard or through a Vanguard brokerage account. (Transaction requests submitted by fax, if otherwise permitted, are subject to the limitations.)

• Transfers and reregistrations of shares within the same fund.

• Purchases of shares by asset transfer or direct rollover.

• Conversions of shares from one share class to another in the same fund.

• Checkwriting redemptions.

• Section 529 college savings plans.

• Certain approved institutional portfolios and asset allocation programs, as well as trades made by funds or trusts managed by Vanguard or its affiliates that invest in other Vanguard funds. (Please note that shareholders of Vanguard’s funds of funds are subject to the limitations.)

For participants in employer-sponsored defined contribution plans,* the frequent-trading limitations do not apply to:

• Purchases of shares with participant payroll or employer contributions or loan repayments.

• Purchases of shares with reinvested dividend or capital gains distributions.

• Distributions, loans, and in-service withdrawals from a plan.

• Redemptions of shares as part of a plan termination or at the direction of the plan.

• Transactions executed through the Vanguard Managed Account Program.

• Redemptions of shares to pay fund or account fees.

• Share or asset transfers or rollovers.

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• Reregistrations of shares.

• Conversions of shares from one share class to another in the same fund.

• Exchange requests submitted by written request to Vanguard. (Exchange requests submitted by fax, if otherwise permitted, are subject to the limitations.)

* The following Vanguard fund accounts are subject to the frequent-trading limitations: SEP-IRAs, SIMPLE IRAs, certain Individual 403(b)(7) Custodial Accounts, and Vanguard Individual 401(k) Plans.

Accounts Held by Institutions (Other Than Defined Contribution Plans)

Vanguard will systematically monitor for frequent trading in institutional clients’ accounts. If we detect suspicious trading activity, we will investigate and take appropriate action, which may include applying to a client’s accounts the 30-day policy previously described, prohibiting a client’s purchases of fund shares, and/or revoking the client’s exchange privilege.

Accounts Held by Intermediaries

When intermediaries establish accounts in Vanguard funds for the benefit of their clients, we cannot always monitor the trading activity of the individual clients. However, we review trading activity at the intermediary (omnibus) level, and if we detect suspicious activity, we will investigate and take appropriate action. If necessary, Vanguard may prohibit additional purchases of fund shares by an intermediary, including for the benefit of certain of the intermediary’s clients. Intermediaries also may monitor their clients’ trading activities with respect to Vanguard funds.

For those Vanguard funds that charge purchase and/or redemption fees, intermediaries will be asked to assess these fees on client accounts and remit these fees to the funds. The application of purchase and redemption fees and frequent-trading limitations may vary among intermediaries. There are no assurances that Vanguard will successfully identify all intermediaries or that intermediaries will properly assess purchase and redemption fees or administer frequent-trading limitations. If you invest with Vanguard through an intermediary, please read that firm’s materials carefully to learn of any other rules or fees that may apply.

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Other Rules You Should Know

Prospectus and Shareholder Report Mailings

Vanguard attempts to eliminate the unnecessary expense of duplicate mailings by sending just one summary prospectus (or prospectus) and/or shareholder report when two or more shareholders have the same last name and address. You may request individual prospectuses and reports by contacting our Client Services Department in writing, by telephone, or online. See Contacting Vanguard.

Vanguard.com

Registration. If you are a registered user of vanguard.com, you can review your account holdings; buy, sell, or exchange shares of most Vanguard funds; and perform most other transactions through our website. You must register for this service online.

Electronic delivery. Vanguard can deliver your account statements, transaction confirmations, prospectuses, tax forms, and shareholder reports electronically. If you are a registered user of vanguard.com, you can consent to the electronic delivery of these documents by logging on and changing your mailing preferences under “Account Maintenance.” You can revoke your electronic consent at any time through our website, and we will begin to send paper copies of these documents within 30 days of receiving your revocation.

Telephone Transactions

Automatic. When we set up your account, we will automatically enable you to do business with us by telephone, unless you instruct us otherwise in writing.

Tele-Account®. To obtain fund and account information through Vanguard’s automated telephone service, you must first establish a Personal Identification Number (PIN) by calling Tele-Account at 800-662-6273.

Proof of a caller’s authority. We reserve the right to refuse a telephone request if the caller is unable to provide the requested information or if we reasonably believe that the caller is not an individual authorized to act on the account. Before we allow a caller to act on an account, we may request the following information:

• Authorization to act on the account (as the account owner or by legal documentation or other means).

• Account registration and address.

• Fund name and account number, if applicable.

• Other information relating to the caller, the account owner, or the account.

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Good Order

We reserve the right to reject any transaction instructions that are not in “good order.” Good order generally means that your instructions:

• Are provided by the person(s) authorized in accordance with Vanguard’s policies and procedures to access the account and request transactions.

  • Include the fund name and account number.
  • Include the amount of the transaction (stated in dollars, shares, or percentage).
  • Have an original signature and date from the authorized person(s).

Written instructions also must generally include:

• Signature guarantees or notarized signatures, if required for the type of transaction.

(Call Vanguard for specific requirements.)

• Any supporting documentation that may be required.

Written instructions are acceptable when a Vanguard form is not applicable. The requirements vary among types of accounts and transactions. For more information, consult our website at vanguard.com or see Contacting Vanguard.

Vanguard reserves the right, without notice, to revise the requirements for good order.

Future Trade-Date Requests

Vanguard does not accept requests to hold a purchase, conversion, redemption, or exchange transaction for a future date. All such requests will receive trade dates as previously described in Purchasing Shares, Converting Shares, Redeeming Shares, and

Exchanging Shares. Vanguard reserves the right to return future-dated purchase checks.

Accounts With More Than One Owner

If an account has more than one owner or authorized person, Vanguard generally will accept instructions from any one owner or authorized person.

Responsibility for Fraud

Vanguard will not be responsible for any account losses because of fraud if we reasonably believe that the person transacting business on an account is authorized to do so. Please take precautions to protect yourself from fraud. Keep your account information private, and immediately review any account statements or other information that we provide to you. It is important that you contact Vanguard immediately about any transactions or changes to your account that you believe to be unauthorized.

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Uncashed Checks

Please cash your distribution or redemption checks promptly. Vanguard will not pay interest on uncashed checks. Vanguard may be required to transfer assets related to uncashed checks to a state under the state’s abandoned property law.

Dormant Accounts

If your account has no activity in it for a period of time, Vanguard may be required to transfer it to a state under the state’s abandoned property law.

Unusual Circumstances

If you experience difficulty contacting Vanguard online or by telephone, you can send us your transaction request by regular or express mail. See Contacting Vanguard for addresses.

Investing With Vanguard Through Other Firms

You may purchase or sell shares of most Vanguard funds through a financial intermediary, such as a bank, a broker, or an investment advisor. Please consult your financial intermediary to determine which, if any, shares are available through that firm and to learn about other rules that may apply.

Please see Frequent-Trading LimitationsAccounts Held by Intermediaries for information about the assessment of any purchase or redemption fees and the monitoring of frequent trading for accounts held by intermediaries.

Account Service Fee

Vanguard charges a $20 account service fee on fund accounts that have a balance below $10,000 for any reason, including market fluctuation. The account service fee applies to both retirement and nonretirement fund accounts and will be assessed on fund accounts in all Vanguard funds, regardless of the account minimum. The fee, which will be collected by redeeming fund shares in the amount of $20, will be deducted from a fund account only once per calendar year.

If you register on vanguard.com and elect to receive electronic delivery of statements, reports, and other materials for all of your fund accounts, the account service fee for balances below $10,000 will not be charged, so long as that election remains in effect.

The account service fee also does not apply to the following:

• Money market sweep accounts owned in connection with a Vanguard Brokerage Services® account.

• Accounts held through intermediaries.

• Accounts held by institutional clients.

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• Accounts held by Voyager, Voyager Select, Flagship, and Flagship Select clients.

Eligibility is based on total household assets held at Vanguard, with a minimum of $50,000 to qualify for Vanguard Voyager Services®, $500,000 for Vanguard Voyager Select Services®, $1 million for Vanguard Flagship Services®, and $10 million for Vanguard Flagship Select Services™. Vanguard determines eligibility by aggregating assets of all qualifying accounts held by the investor and immediate family members who reside at the same address. Aggregate assets include investments in Vanguard mutual funds, Vanguard ETFs®, certain annuities through Vanguard, the Vanguard 529 Plan, and certain small-business accounts. Assets in employer-sponsored retirement plans for which Vanguard provides recordkeeping services may be included in determining eligibility if the investor also has a personal account holding Vanguard mutual funds. Note that assets held in a Vanguard Brokerage Services account (other than Vanguard funds, including Vanguard ETFs) are not included when determining a household’s eligibility.

• Participant accounts in employer-sponsored defined contribution plans.* Please consult your enrollment materials for the rules that apply to your account.

• Section 529 college savings plans.

* The following Vanguard fund accounts have alternative fee structures: SIMPLE IRAs, certain Individual 403(b)(7) Custodial Accounts, Vanguard Retirement Investment Program pooled plans, and Vanguard Individual 401(k) Plans.

Low-Balance Accounts

The Fund reserves the right to liquidate a fund account whose balance falls below the account minimum for any reason, including market fluctuation. This policy applies to nonretirement fund accounts and accounts that are held through intermediaries.

Right to Change Policies

In addition to the rights expressly stated elsewhere in this prospectus, Vanguard reserves the right, without notice, to (1) alter, add, or discontinue any conditions of purchase (including eligibility requirements), redemption, exchange, conversion, service, or privilege at any time; (2) accept initial purchases by telephone; (3) freeze any account and/or suspend account services if Vanguard has received reasonable notice of a dispute regarding the assets in an account, including notice of a dispute between the registered or beneficial account owners, or if Vanguard reasonably believes a fraudulent transaction may occur or has occurred; (4) temporarily freeze any account and/or suspend account services upon initial notification to Vanguard of the death of the shareholder until Vanguard receives required documentation in good order; (5) alter, impose, discontinue, or waive any purchase fee, redemption fee, account service fee, or other fees charged to a group of shareholders; and (6) redeem an account or suspend account privileges, without the owner’s permission to do so, in cases of

33


 

threatening conduct or activity Vanguard believes to be suspicious, fraudulent, or illegal. Changes may affect any or all investors. These actions will be taken when, at the sole discretion of Vanguard management, Vanguard reasonably believes they are deemed to be in the best interest of a fund.

Share Classes

Vanguard reserves the right, without notice, to change the eligibility requirements of its share classes, including the types of clients who are eligible to purchase each share class.

Fund and Account Updates

Confirmation Statements

We will send (or provide through our website, whichever you prefer) a confirmation of your trade date and the amount of your transaction when you buy, sell, exchange, or convert shares. However, we will not send confirmations reflecting only checkwriting redemptions or the reinvestment of dividend or capital gains distributions. For any month in which you had a checkwriting redemption, a Checkwriting Activity Statement will be sent to you itemizing the checkwriting redemptions for that month. Promptly review each confirmation statement that we provide to you. It is important that you contact Vanguard immediately with any questions you may have about any transaction reflected on a confirmation statement, or Vanguard will consider the transaction properly processed.

Portfolio Summaries

We will send (or provide through our website, whichever you prefer) quarterly portfolio summaries to help you keep track of your accounts throughout the year. If you prefer, you may request to receive monthly portfolio summaries. Each summary shows the market value of your account at the close of the statement period, as well as all distributions, purchases, redemptions, exchanges, transfers, and conversions for the current calendar quarter (or month). Promptly review each summary that we provide to you. It is important that you contact Vanguard immediately with any questions you may have about any transaction reflected on the summary, or Vanguard will consider the transaction properly processed.

Tax Information Statements

For most accounts, we are required to provide annual tax forms to assist you in preparing your income tax returns. We will generally send (or provide through our website, whichever you prefer) annual tax forms in January. These forms will report the previous year’s dividends, capital gains distributions, proceeds from the sale of shares

34


 

from taxable accounts, and distributions from IRAs and other retirement plans. Registered users of vanguard.com can also view these forms through our website. Vanguard may also provide you with additional tax-related documentation. For more information, consult our website at vanguard.com or see Contacting Vanguard.

Annual and Semiannual Reports

We will send (or provide through our website, whichever you prefer) reports about Vanguard International Dividend Appreciation Index Fund twice a year, in June and December. These reports include overviews of the financial markets and provide the following specific Fund information:

• Performance assessments and comparisons with industry benchmarks.

• Financial statements with listings of Fund holdings.

Portfolio Holdings

Please consult the Fund‘s Statement of Additional Information or our website for a description of the policies and procedures that govern disclosure of the Fund’s portfolio holdings.

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Contacting Vanguard  
 
 
Web  
Vanguard.com For the most complete source of Vanguard news
  For fund, account, and service information
  For most account transactions
  For literature requests
  24 hours a day, 7 days a week
 
Phone  
Vanguard Tele-Account® 800-662-6273 For automated fund and account information
  Toll-free, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week
Investor Information 800-662-7447 For fund and service information
(Text telephone for people with hearing For literature requests
impairment at 800-749-7273) Hours of operation: Monday–Friday, 8 a.m. to 10 p.m.,
  Eastern time; Saturday, 9 a.m. to 4 p.m., Eastern time
Client Services 800-662-2739 For account information
(Text telephone for people with hearing For most account transactions
impairment at 800-749-7273) Hours of operation: Monday–Friday, 8 a.m. to 10 p.m.,
  Eastern time; Saturday, 9 a.m. to 4 p.m., Eastern time
Institutional Division For information and services for large institutional investors
888-809-8102 Hours of operation: Monday–Friday, 8:30 a.m. to 9 p.m.,
  Eastern time
Financial Advisor and Intermediary For information and services for financial intermediaries
Sales Support 800-997-2798 including financial advisors, broker-dealers, trust institutions,
  and insurance companies
  Hours of operation: Monday–Friday, 8:30 a.m. to 7 p.m.,
  Eastern time
Financial Advisory and Intermediary For account information and trading support for financial
Trading Support 800-669-0498 intermediaries including financial advisors, broker-dealers,
  trust institutions, and insurance companies
  Hours of operation: Monday–Friday, 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m.,
  Eastern time

 

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Vanguard Addresses

Please be sure to use the correct address. Use of an incorrect address could delay the processing of your transaction.

Regular Mail (Individuals) The Vanguard Group      
  P.O. Box 1110      
  Valley Forge, PA 19482-1110      
Regular Mail (Institutions and Intermediaries) The Vanguard Group      
  P.O. Box 2900      
  Valley Forge, PA 19482-2900      
Registered, Express, or Overnight Mail The Vanguard Group      
  455 Devon Park Drive      
  Wayne, PA 19087-1815      
 
 
Additional Information          
 
 
        Vanguard  
  Inception Suitable Newspaper Fund CUSIP
  Date for IRAs Abbreviation Number Number
International Dividend Appreciation Index Fund          
Investor Shares Yes 2015
Admiral Shares Yes 0515

 

CFA® is a registered trademark owned by CFA Institute.

“Dividend Achievers” is a trademark of The NASDAQ OMX Group, Inc. (collectively, with its affiliates, “NASDAQ OMX”) and has been licensed for use by The Vanguard Group, Inc. Vanguard mutual funds are not sponsored, endorsed, sold, or promoted by NASDAQ OMX and NASDAQ OMX makes no representation regarding the advisability of investing in the funds. NASDAQ OMX MAKES NO WARRANTIES AND BEARS NO LIABILITY WITH RESPECT TO THE VANGUARD MUTUAL FUNDS.

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Glossary of Investment Terms

Active Management. An investment approach that seeks to exceed the average returns of a particular financial market or market segment. In selecting securities to buy and sell, active managers may rely on, among other things, research, market forecasts, quantitative models, and their own judgment and experience.

Capital Gains Distribution. Payment to mutual fund shareholders of gains realized on securities that a fund has sold at a profit, minus any realized losses.

Common Stock. A security representing ownership rights in a corporation.

Dividend Distribution. Payment to mutual fund shareholders of income from interest or dividends generated by a fund’s investments.

Expense Ratio. A fund’s total annual operating expenses expressed as a percentage of the fund’s average net assets. The expense ratio includes management and administrative expenses, but it does not include the transaction costs of buying and selling portfolio securities.

Inception Date. The date on which the assets of a fund (or one of its share classes) are first invested in accordance with the fund’s investment objective. For funds with a subscription period, the inception date is the day after that period ends. Investment performance is generally measured from the inception date.

Indexing. A low-cost investment strategy in which a mutual fund attempts to track—rather than outperform—a specified market benchmark, or “index.”

Median Market Capitalization. An indicator of the size of companies in which a fund invests; the midpoint of market capitalization (market price x shares outstanding) of a fund’s stocks, weighted by the proportion of the fund’s assets invested in each stock. Stocks representing half of the fund’s assets have market capitalizations above the median, and the rest are below it.

Mutual Fund. An investment company that pools the money of many people and invests it in a variety of securities in an effort to achieve a specific objective over time.

Securities. Stocks, bonds, money market instruments, and other investments.

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Total Return. A percentage change, over a specified time period, in a mutual fund’s net asset value, assuming the reinvestment of all distributions of dividends and capital gains.

Volatility. The fluctuations in value of a mutual fund or other security. The greater a fund’s volatility, the wider the fluctuations in its returns.

Yield. Income (interest or dividends) earned by an investment, expressed as a percentage of the investment’s price.


 

Connect with Vanguard® > vanguard.com  
 
 
 
For More Information If you are a current Vanguard shareholder and would
If you would like more information about Vanguard like information about your account, account
International Dividend Appreciation Index Fund, the transactions, and/or account statements, please call:
following documents are available free upon request:  
  Client Services Department
Annual/Semiannual Reports to Shareholders Telephone: 800-662-2739
Additional information about the Fund’s investments Text telephone for people with hearing impairment:
will be available in the Fund’s annual and semiannual 800-749-7273
reports to shareholders. In the annual report, you will  
  Information Provided by the Securities and
find a discussion of the market conditions and  
  Exchange Commission (SEC)
investment strategies that significantly affected the  
  You can review and copy information about the Fund
Fund’s performance during its last fiscal year.  
  (including the SAI) at the SEC’s Public Reference Room
Statement of Additional Information (SAI) in Washington, DC. To find out more about this public
The SAI provides more detailed information about the service, call the SEC at 202-551-8090. Reports and
Fund and is incorporated by reference into (and thus other information about the Fund are also available in
legally a part of) this prospectus. the EDGAR database on the SEC’s website at
  www.sec.gov, or you can receive copies of this
To receive a free copy of the latest annual or semiannual  
  information, for a fee, by electronic request at the
report (once available) or the SAI, or to request  
  following email address: publicinfo@sec.gov, or by
additional information about the Fund or other Vanguard  
  writing the Public Reference Section, Securities and
funds, please visit vanguard.com or contact us as  
  Exchange Commission, Washington, DC 20549-1520.
follows:  
  Fund’s Investment Company Act file number: 811-07443
The Vanguard Group  
Investor Information Department  
P.O. Box 2600  
Valley Forge, PA 19482-2600  
Telephone: 800-662-7447  
Text telephone for people with hearing impairment:  
800-749-7273  
 
 
  © 2015 The Vanguard Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
  Vanguard Marketing Corporation, Distributor.
 
  P XXX 122015

 


Vanguard International Dividend Appreciation ETF
 
Prospectus
 
 
December XX, 2015
 
 
Exchange-traded fund shares that are not individually redeemable and are listed
on NASDAQ
 
Vanguard International Dividend Appreciation Index Fund ETF Shares (•)
 
 
 
Subject to Completion
Preliminary Prospectus
Dated September 22, 2015
 
Information contained in this prospectus is subject to completion or amendment.
A registration statement for Vanguard International Dividend Appreciation Index
Fund has been filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission but has not
yet become effective.
 
Shares of Vanguard International Dividend Appreciation Index Fund may not be
sold, nor may offers to buy be accepted, prior to the time the registration
statement becomes effective. This communication shall not constitute an offer to
sell, nor shall there be any sale of these securities in any state in which such offer,
solicitation, or sale would be unlawful prior to registration or qualification under
the securities laws of any such state.
 
 
This is the Fund's initial prospectus, so it contains no performance data.
The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) has not approved or disapproved these securities or
passed upon the adequacy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 


 

Contents      
 
 
Vanguard ETF Summary 1 More on the Fund and ETF Shares 9
Investing in Vanguard ETF Shares 6 The Fund and Vanguard 18
Investing in Index Funds 8 Investment Advisor 19
    Dividends, Capital Gains, and Taxes 20
    Share Price and Market Price 22
    Additional Information 23
    Glossary of Investment Terms 24

 


 

ETF Summary

Investment Objective

The Fund seeks to track the performance of a benchmark index that measures the investment return of non-US companies that have a history of increasing dividends.

Fees and Expenses

The following table describes the fees and expenses you may pay if you buy and hold ETF Shares of the Fund.

Shareholder Fees      
(Fees paid directly from your investment)      
 
Transaction Fee on Purchases and Sales None through Vanguard    
  (Broker fees vary)    
Transaction Fee on Reinvested Dividends None through Vanguard    
  (Broker fees vary)    
Transaction Fee on Conversion to ETF Shares None through Vanguard    
  (Broker fees vary)    
 
Annual Fund Operating Expenses      
(Expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)    
 
Management Fees   •%  
12b-1 Distribution Fee   None  
Other Expenses   •%  
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses1   0.25 %

 

1 The expense information shown in the table reflects estimated amounts for the current fiscal year.

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Example

The following example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund’s ETF Shares with the cost of investing in other funds. It illustrates the hypothetical expenses that you would incur over various periods if you invested $10,000 in the Fund’s shares. This example assumes that the Shares provide a return of 5% each year and that total annual fund operating expenses remain as stated in the preceding table. The results apply whether or not you redeem your investment at the end of the given period. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:

  1 Year   3 Years
$26   $ 80

 

This example does not include the brokerage commissions that you may pay to buy and sell ETF Shares of the Fund.

Portfolio Turnover

The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in more taxes when Fund shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the previous expense example, reduce the Fund’s performance. The Fund has no operating history and therefore has no portfolio information.

Principal Investment Strategies

The Fund employs an indexing investment approach designed to track the performance of the NASDAQ International Dividend Achievers Select Index, which focuses on high quality companies located in developed and emerging markets, excluding the United States, that have both the ability and the commitment to grow their dividends over time. The Fund attempts to replicate the target index by investing all, or substantially all, of its assets in the broadly diversified collection of securities that make up the Index, holding each stock in approximately the same proportion as its weighting in the Index.

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Principal Risks

An investment in the Fund could lose money over short or even long periods. You should expect the Fund’s share price and total return to fluctuate within a wide range, like the fluctuations of global stock markets. The Fund is subject to the following risks, which could affect the Fund’s performance:

Stock market risk, which is the chance that stock prices overall will decline. Stock markets tend to move in cycles, with periods of rising prices and periods of falling prices. The Fund’s investments in foreign stocks can be riskier than U.S. stock investments. Foreign stocks tend to be more volatile and less liquid than U.S. stocks. The prices of foreign stocks and the prices of U.S. stocks may move in opposite directions. In addition, the Fund’s target index may, at times, become focused in stocks of a particular market sector, which would subject the Fund to proportionately higher exposure to the risks of that sector.

Country/regional risk, which is the chance that world events—such as political upheaval, financial troubles, or natural disasters—will adversely affect the value of securities issued by companies in foreign countries or regions. Because the Fund may invest a large portion of its assets in securities of companies located in any one country or region, the Fund’s performance may be hurt disproportionately by the poor performance of its investments in that area. Country/regional risk is especially high in emerging markets.

Emerging markets risk, which is the chance that the stocks of companies located in emerging markets will be substantially more volatile, and substantially less liquid, than the stocks of companies located in more developed foreign markets because, among other factors, emerging markets can have greater custodial and operational risks; less developed legal, regulatory, and accounting systems; and greater political, social, and economic instability than developed markets.

Currency risk, which is the chance that the value of a foreign investment, measured in U.S. dollars, will decrease because of unfavorable changes in currency exchange rates. Currency risk is especially high in emerging markets.

Investment style risk, which is the chance that returns from dividend-paying stocks will trail returns from global stock markets. Dividend-paying stocks tend to go through cycles of doing better—or worse—than the global markets in general. These periods have, in the past, lasted for as long as several years.

Asset concentration risk, which is the chance that the Fund’s performance may be hurt disproportionately by the poor performance of relatively few stocks. The Fund tends to invest a high percentage of its assets in its ten largest holdings.

Because ETF Shares are traded on an exchange, they are subject to additional risks:

• The Fund’s ETF Shares are listed for trading on NASDAQ and are bought and sold on the secondary market at market prices. Although it is expected that the market price of an ETF Share typically will approximate its net asset value (NAV), there may

3


 

be times when the market price and the NAV differ significantly. Thus, you may pay more or less than NAV when you buy ETF Shares on the secondary market, and you may receive more or less than NAV when you sell those shares.

• Although the Fund’s ETF Shares are listed for trading on NASDAQ, it is possible that an active trading market may not be maintained.

• Trading of the Fund’s ETF Shares may be halted by the activation of individual or marketwide trading halts (which halt trading for a specific period of time when the price of a particular security or overall market prices decline by a specified percentage). Trading of the Fund’s ETF Shares may also be halted if (1) the shares are delisted from NASDAQ without first being listed on another exchange or (2) NASDAQ officials determine that such action is appropriate in the interest of a fair and orderly market or for the protection of investors.

An investment in the Fund is not a deposit of a bank and is not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other government agency.

Annual Total Returns

This is the Fund’s initial prospectus, so it containts no Fund performance data.

Investment Advisor
The Vanguard Group, Inc. (Vanguard)

Portfolio Managers

Justin E. Hales, CFP, Portfolio Manager at Vanguard. He has co-managed the Fund since its inception in 2015.

Michael Perre, Principal of Vanguard. He has co-managed the Fund since its inception in 2015.

Purchase and Sale of Fund Shares

You can buy and sell ETF Shares of the Fund through a brokerage firm. The price you pay or receive for ETF Shares will be the prevailing market price, which may be more or less than the NAV of the shares. The brokerage firm may charge you a commission to execute the transaction. Unless imposed by your brokerage firm, there is no minimum dollar amount you must invest and no minimum number of shares you must buy. ETF Shares of the Fund cannot be directly purchased from or redeemed with the Fund, except by certain authorized broker-dealers. These broker-dealers may purchase and redeem ETF Shares only in large blocks (Creation Units) worth several million dollars, typically in exchange for baskets of securities. For this Fund, the number of ETF Shares in a Creation Unit is X.

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Tax Information

The Fund’s distributions may be taxable as ordinary income or capital gain. If you are investing through a tax-deferred retirement account, such as an IRA, special tax rules apply.

Payments to Financial Intermediaries

The Fund and its investment advisor do not pay financial intermediaries for sales of Fund shares.

5


 

Investing in Vanguard ETF® Shares

What Are Vanguard ETF Shares?

Vanguard ETF Shares are an exchange-traded class of shares issued by certain Vanguard mutual funds. ETF Shares represent an interest in the portfolio of stocks or bonds held by the issuing fund. This prospectus describes International Dividend Appreciation ETF, a class of shares issued by Vanguard International Dividend Appreciation Index Fund. In addition to ETF Shares, the Fund offers two conventional (not exchange-traded) classes of shares. This prospectus, however, relates only to ETF Shares.

How Are Vanguard ETF Shares Different From Conventional Mutual Fund Shares?

Conventional mutual fund shares can be purchased from and redeemed with the issuing fund for cash at the net asset value (NAV), typically calculated once a day. ETF Shares, by contrast, cannot be purchased directly from or redeemed directly with the issuing fund by an individual investor. Rather, ETF Shares can only be purchased or redeemed by or through certain authorized broker-dealers. These broker-dealers may purchase and redeem ETF Shares only in large blocks (Creation Units) worth several million dollars, usually in exchange for baskets of securities and not for cash (although some funds issue and redeem Creation Units in exchange for cash or a combination of cash and securities).

An organized secondary trading market is expected to exist for ETF Shares, unlike conventional mutual fund shares, because ETF Shares are listed for trading on a national securities exchange. Investors can purchase and sell ETF Shares on the secondary market through a broker. Secondary-market transactions occur not at NAV, but at market prices that change throughout the day based on the supply of and demand for ETF Shares and on changes in the prices of the fund’s portfolio holdings.

The market price of a fund’s ETF Shares typically will differ somewhat from the NAV of those shares. The difference between market price and NAV is expected to be small most of the time, but in times of market disruption or extreme market volatility, the difference may become significant.

6


 

How Do I Buy and Sell Vanguard ETF Shares?

ETF Shares of the Fund are listed for trading on NASDAQ. You can buy and sell ETF Shares on the secondary market in the same way you buy and sell any other exchange-traded security—through a broker. Your broker may charge a commission to execute a transaction. You will also incur the cost of the “bid-ask spread,” which is the difference between the price a dealer will pay for a security and the somewhat higher price at which the dealer will sell the same security. Since secondary-market transactions occur at market prices, you may pay more (premium) or less (discount) than NAV when you buy ETF Shares and receive more or less than NAV when you sell those shares. In times of severe market disruption, the bid-ask spread and premiums/ discounts can increase significantly. Unless imposed by your broker, there is no minimum dollar amount you must invest and no minimum number of ETF Shares you must buy.

Your ownership of ETF Shares will be shown on the records of the broker through which you hold the shares. Vanguard will not have any record of your ownership. Your account information will be maintained by your broker, which will provide you with account statements, confirmations of your purchases and sales of ETF Shares, and tax information. Your broker also will be responsible for ensuring that you receive income and capital gains distributions as well as shareholder reports and other communications from the fund whose ETF Shares you own. You will receive other services (e.g., dividend reinvestment and average cost information) only if your broker offers these services.

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Investing in Index Funds

What Is Indexing?

Indexing is an investment strategy for tracking the performance of a specified market benchmark, or “index.” An index is a group of securities whose overall performance is used as a standard to measure the investment performance of a particular market. There are many types of indexes. Some represent entire markets—such as the U.S. stock market or the U.S. bond market. Other indexes cover market segments—such as small-capitalization stocks or short-term bonds. The index sponsor determines the securities to include in the index, the weighting of each security in the index, and the appropriate time to make changes to the composition of the index. One cannot invest directly in an index.

An index fund holds all, or a representative sample, of the securities that make up its target index. Index funds attempt to mirror the performance of the target index, for better or worse. However, an index fund generally does not perform exactly like its target index. For example, like all mutual funds, index funds have operating expenses and transaction costs. Market indexes do not, and therefore they will usually have a slight performance advantage over funds that track them.

Index funds typically have the following characteristics:

Variety of investments. Most Vanguard index funds generally invest in the securities of a variety of companies and industries.

Relative performance consistency. Because they seek to track market benchmarks, index funds usually do not perform dramatically better or worse than their benchmarks.

Low cost. Index funds are inexpensive to run compared with actively managed funds.

They have low or no research costs and typically keep trading activity—and thus brokerage commissions and other transaction costs—to a minimum compared with actively managed funds.

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More on the Fund and ETF Shares

This prospectus describes the principal risks you would face as a Fund shareholder. It is important to keep in mind one of the main axioms of investing: generally, the higher the risk of losing money, the higher the potential reward. The reverse, also, is generally true: the lower the risk, the lower the potential reward. As you consider an investment in any mutual fund, you should take into account your personal tolerance for fluctuations in the securities markets. Look for this symbol  throughout the prospectus. It is used to mark detailed information about the more significant risks that you would confront as a Fund shareholder. To highlight terms and concepts important to mutual fund investors, we have provided Plain Talk® explanations along the way. Reading the prospectus will help you decide whether the Fund is the right investment for you. We suggest that you keep this prospectus for future reference.

Share Class Overview

This prospectus offers the Fund’s ETF Shares, an exchange-traded class of shares. A separate prospectus offers the Fund’s Investor Shares and Admiral™ Shares, which generally have investment minimums of $3,000 and $10,000, respectively.

All share classes offered by the Fund have the same investment objective, strategies, and policies. However, different share classes have different expenses; as a result, their investment performances will differ.

A Note to Investors

Vanguard ETF Shares can be purchased directly from the issuing Fund only by or through authorized broker-dealers in exchange for a basket of securities (or, in some cases, for cash or a combination of cash and securities) that is expected to be worth several million dollars. Most individual investors, therefore, will not be able to purchase ETF Shares directly from the Fund. Instead, these investors will purchase ETF Shares on the secondary market with the assistance of a broker.

Plain Talk About Fund Expenses
 
All mutual funds have operating expenses. These expenses, which are deducted
from a fund’s gross income, are expressed as a percentage of the net assets of
the fund. Assuming that operating expenses remain as stated in the Fees and
Expenses section, Vanguard International Dividend Appreciation Index Fund ETF
Shares’ expense ratio would be 0.25%, or $2.50 per $1,000 of average net
assets.

 

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Plain Talk About Costs of Investing
 
Costs are an important consideration in choosing a mutual fund. That is because
you, as a shareholder, pay a proportionate share of the costs of operating a fund,
plus any transaction costs incurred when the fund buys or sells securities. These
costs can erode a substantial portion of the gross income or the capital
appreciation a fund achieves. Even seemingly small differences in expenses can,
over time, have a dramatic effect on a fund‘s performance.

 

The following sections explain the principal investment strategies and policies that the Fund uses in pursuit of its objective. The Fund‘s board of trustees, which oversees the Fund’s management, may change investment strategies or policies in the interest of shareholders without a shareholder vote, unless those strategies or policies are designated as fundamental. Note that the Fund’s investment objective is not fundamental and may be changed without a shareholder vote. Under normal circumstances, the Fund will invest at least 80% of its assets in the stocks that make up its target index. The Fund may change its 80% policy only upon 60 days‘ notice to shareholders.

Market Exposure

The Fund invests mainly in stocks of companies located in developed and emerging markets outside of the United States that have a record of increasing dividends over time. Stocks purchased by the Fund are expected to have increasing dividends over time and also to have the potential for long-term capital appreciation. The Fund may purchase stocks that have relatively low dividend yields if the company issuing the stock has increased dividends in recent years.


The Fund is subject to stock market risk, which is the chance that stock prices overall will decline. Stock markets tend to move in cycles, with periods of rising prices and periods of falling prices. The Fund’s investments in foreign stocks can be riskier than U.S. stock investments. Foreign stocks tend to be more volatile and less liquid than U.S. stocks. The prices of foreign stocks and the prices of U.S. stocks may move in opposite directions. In addition, the Fund’s target index may, at times, become focused in stocks of a particular market sector, which would subject the Fund to proportionately higher exposure to the risks of that sector.

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To illustrate the volatility of foreign stock prices, the following table shows the best, worst, and average annual total returns for foreign stock markets over various periods as measured by the MSCI EAFE Index, a widely used barometer of foreign market activity. (Total returns consist of dividend income plus change in market price.) Note that the returns shown do not include the costs of buying and selling stocks or other expenses that a real-world investment portfolio would incur.

Foreign Stock Market Returns                  
(1970–2014 )                
    1 Year 5 Years   10 Years   20 Years  
Best   69.4 % 36.1 % 22.0 % 15.5 %
Worst   –43.4   –4.7   0.8   3.1  
Average   11.3   9.7   10.2   10.3  

 

The table covers all of the 1-, 5-, 10-, and 20-year periods from 1970 through 2014. These average annual returns reflect past performance of foreign stocks; you should not regard them as an indication of future performance of either foreign markets as a whole or the Fund in particular.

Note that the MSCI EAFE Index does not take into account returns for emerging markets, which can be substantially more volatile and substantially less liquid than the more developed markets included in the Index. In addition, because the MSCI EAFE Index tracks the European and Pacific developed markets collectively, the returns in the preceding table do not reflect the variability of returns for these markets individually. To illustrate this variability, the following table shows returns for different foreign markets—as well as for the U.S. market for comparison—from 2005 through 2014, as measured by their respective indexes.

Returns for Various Stock Markets1              
  European   Pacific   Emerging   U.S.  
  Market2   Market2   Markets2   Market  
2005 9.42 % 22.64 % 34.00 % 4.91 %
2006 33.72   12.20   32.17   15.79  
2007 13.86   5.30   39.39   5.49  

 

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Returns for Various Stock Markets1      
  European Pacific Emerging U.S.
  Market2 Market2 Markets2 Market
2008 –46.42 –36.42 –53.33 –37.00
2009 35.83 24.18 78.51 26.46
2010 3.88 15.92 18.88 15.06
2011 –11.06 –13.74 –18.42 2.11
2012 19.12 14.42 18.22 16.00
2013 25.23 18.27 –3.79 32.39
2014 –6.18 –2.70 –2.19 13.69

 

1 European market returns are measured by the MSCI Europe Index, Pacific market returns are measured by the MSCI Pacific Index, emerging markets returns are measured by the MSCI Emerging Markets Index, and U.S. market returns are measured by the S&P 500 Index.

2 MSCI Index returns are adjusted for withholding taxes.

Keep in mind that these returns reflect past performance of the various indexes; you should not consider them as an indication of future performance of the indexes or of the Fund in particular.


The Fund is subject to country/regional risk and currency risk. Country/regional risk is the chance that world events—such as political upheaval, financial troubles, or natural disasters—will adversely affect the value of securities issued by companies in foreign countries or regions. Because the Fund may invest a large portion of its assets in securities of companies located in any one country or region, the Fund‘s performance may be hurt disproportionately by the poor performance of its investments in that area. Currency risk is the chance that the value of a foreign investment, measured in U.S. dollars, will decrease because of unfavorable changes in currency exchange rates. Country/regional risk and currency risk are especially high in emerging markets.


The Fund is subject to emerging markets risk, which is the chance that the stocks of companies located in emerging markets will be substantially more volatile, and substantially less liquid, than the stocks of companies located in more developed foreign markets because, among other factors, emerging markets can have greater custodial and operational risks; less developed legal, regulatory, and accounting systems; and greater political, social, and economic instability than developed markets.

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Plain Talk About International Investing
 
U.S. investors who invest abroad will encounter risks not typically associated
with U.S. companies because foreign stock and bond markets operate differently
from the U.S. markets. For instance, foreign companies and governments are not
subject to the same accounting, auditing, and financial-reporting standards and
practices as U.S. companies and the U.S. government, and their stocks and
bonds may not be as liquid as those of similar U.S. entities. In addition, foreign
stock exchanges, brokers, companies, bond markets, and dealers may be subject
to less government supervision and regulation than their counterparts in the
United States. These factors, among others, could negatively affect the returns
U.S. investors receive from foreign investments.

 


The Fund is subject to investment style risk, which is the chance that returns from dividend-paying stocks will trail returns from global stock markets. Dividend-paying stocks tend to go through cycles of doing better—or worse—than the global markets in general. These periods have, in the past, lasted for as long as several years.

Security Selection

The Fund attempts to track the performance of a benchmark index that measures the investment return of non-US companies that have a record of increasing dividends over time. The companies in which the Fund invests will be within the capitalization range of the companies included in the NASDAQ International Dividend Achievers Select Index ($XXX.X million to $XXX.X billion as of Month XX, 2015). In the future, the Index’s market-capitalization range may be higher or lower, and the Fund’s investments may track another index. Such changes may occur at any time and without notice to Fund shareholders.

The Fund uses the replication method of indexing, meaning that the Fund generally holds the same stocks as those in its target index, and in approximately the same proportions.


Because the Fund tends to invest a high percentage of assets in its ten largest holdings, the Fund is subject to asset concentration risk, which is the chance that the Fund‘s performance may be hurt disproportionately by the poor performance of relatively few stocks.

Other Investment Policies and Risks

The Fund reserves the right to substitute a different index for the index it currently tracks if the current index is discontinued, if the Fund‘s agreement with the sponsor

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of its target index is terminated, or for any other reason determined in good faith by the Fund’s board of trustees. In any such instance, the substitute index would represent the same market segment as the current index.

To track its target index as closely as possible, the Fund attempts to remain fully invested in stocks. To help stay fully invested and to reduce transaction costs, the Fund may invest, to a limited extent, in derivatives, including stock futures. The Fund may also use derivatives such as total return swaps to obtain exposure to a stock, a basket of stocks, or an index. Generally speaking, a derivative is a financial contract whose value is based on the value of a financial asset (such as a stock, a bond, or a currency), a physical asset (such as gold, oil, or wheat), a market index (such as the S&P 500 Index), or a reference rate (such as LIBOR). Investments in derivatives may subject the Fund to risks different from, and possibly greater than, those of investments directly in the underlying securities, assets, or market indexes. The Fund will not use derivatives for speculation or for the purpose of leveraging (magnifying) investment returns.

The Fund may enter into foreign currency exchange forward contracts, which are a type of derivative, in order to maintain the same currency exposure as its respective index. A foreign currency exchange forward contract is an agreement to buy or sell a country’s currency at a specific price on a specific date, usually 30, 60, or 90 days in the future. In other words, the contract guarantees an exchange rate on a given date. These contracts, however, would not prevent the Fund’s securities from falling in value as a result of risks other than unfavorable currency exchange movements. The Fund may use these contracts to gain currency exposure when investing in stock index futures and to settle trades in a foreign currency.

Cash Management

The Fund‘s daily cash balance may be invested in one or more Vanguard CMT Funds, which are very low-cost money market funds. When investing in a Vanguard CMT Fund, the Fund bears its proportionate share of the at-cost expenses of the CMT Fund in which it invests.

Temporary Investment Measures

The Fund may temporarily depart from its normal investment policies and strategies when the advisor believes that doing so is in the Fund‘s best interest, so long as the alternative is consistent with the Fund‘s investment objective. For instance, the Fund may invest beyond its normal limits in derivatives or exchange-traded funds that are consistent with the Fund‘s objective when those instruments are more favorably priced or provide needed liquidity, as might be the case when the Fund receives large cash flows that it cannot prudently invest immediately.

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Special Risks of Exchange-Traded Shares


ETF Shares are not individually redeemable. They can be redeemed with the issuing Fund at NAV only by or through authorized broker-dealers and only in large blocks known as Creation Units, which would cost millions of dollars to assemble. Consequently, if you want to liquidate some or all of your ETF Shares, you must sell them on the secondary market at prevailing market prices.


The market price of ETF Shares may differ from NAV. Although it is expected that the market price of an ETF Share typically will approximate its NAV, there may be times when the market price and the NAV differ significantly. Thus, you may pay more (premium) or less (discount) than NAV when you buy ETF Shares on the secondary market, and you may receive more or less than NAV when you sell those shares. These discounts and premiums are likely to be greatest during times of market disruption or extreme market volatility.

Vanguard’s website at vanguard.com shows the previous day’s closing NAV and closing market price for the Fund’s ETF Shares. The website also discloses, in the Premium/Discount Analysis section of the ETF Shares’ Price & Performance page, how frequently the Fund’s ETF Shares traded at a premium or discount to NAV (based on closing NAVs and market prices) and the magnitudes of such premiums and discounts.


An active trading market may not exist. Although Vanguard ETF Shares are listed on a national securities exchange, it is possible that an active trading market may not be maintained. Although this could happen at any time, it is more likely to occur during times of severe market disruption. If you attempt to sell your ETF Shares when an active trading market is not functioning, you may have to sell at a significant discount to NAV. In extreme cases, you may not be able to sell your shares at all.


Trading may be halted. Trading of Vanguard ETF Shares on an exchange may be halted by the activation of individual or marketwide trading halts (which halt trading for a specific period of time when the price of a particular security or overall market prices decline by a specified percentage). Trading of ETF Shares may also be halted if (1) the shares are delisted from the listing exchange without first being listed on another exchange or (2) exchange officials determine that such action is appropriate in the interest of a fair and orderly market or for the protection of investors.

Conversion Privilege

Owners of conventional shares issued by the Fund may convert those shares to ETF Shares of equivalent value of the same fund. Please note that investors who own conventional shares through a 401(k) plan or other employer-sponsored retirement or

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benefit plan generally may not convert those shares to ETF Shares and should check with their plan sponsor or recordkeeper. ETF Shares, whether acquired through a conversion or purchased on the secondary market, cannot be converted to conventional shares. Also, ETF Shares of one fund cannot be exchanged for ETF Shares of another fund.

You must hold ETF Shares in a brokerage account. Thus, before converting conventional shares to ETF Shares, you must have an existing, or open a new, brokerage account. This account may be with Vanguard Brokerage Services® (Vanguard Brokerage) or with any other brokerage firm. To initiate a conversion of conventional shares to ETF Shares, please contact your broker.

Vanguard Brokerage does not impose a fee on conversions from Vanguard conventional shares to Vanguard ETF Shares. However, other brokerage firms may charge a fee to process a conversion. Vanguard reserves the right, in the future, to impose a transaction fee on conversions or to limit or terminate the conversion privilege.

Converting conventional shares to ETF Shares is generally accomplished as follows. First, after your broker notifies Vanguard of your request to convert, Vanguard will transfer your conventional shares from your account to the broker’s omnibus account with Vanguard (an account maintained by the broker on behalf of all its customers who hold conventional Vanguard fund shares through the broker). After the transfer, Vanguard’s records will reflect your broker, not you, as the owner of the shares. Next, your broker will instruct Vanguard to convert the appropriate number or dollar amount of conventional shares in its omnibus account to ETF Shares of equivalent value, based on the respective NAVs of the two share classes.

Your Fund’s transfer agent will reflect ownership of all ETF Shares in the name of the Depository Trust Company (DTC). The DTC will keep track of which ETF Shares belong to your broker, and your broker, in turn, will keep track of which ETF Shares belong to you.

Because the DTC is unable to handle fractional shares, only whole shares can be converted. For example, if you owned 300.250 conventional shares, and this was equivalent in value to 90.750 ETF Shares, the DTC account would receive 90 ETF Shares. Conventional shares with a value equal to 0.750 ETF Shares (in this example, that would be 2.481 conventional shares) would remain in the broker’s omnibus account with Vanguard. Your broker then could either (1) credit your account with 0.750 ETF Shares or (2) redeem the 2.481 conventional shares for cash at NAV and deliver that cash to your account. If your broker chose to redeem your conventional shares, you would realize a gain or loss on the redemption that must be reported on your tax return (unless you hold the shares in an IRA or other tax-deferred account). Please consult your broker for information on how it will handle the conversion process, including whether it will impose a fee to process a conversion.

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If you convert your conventional shares to ETF Shares through Vanguard Brokerage, all conventional shares for which you request conversion will be converted to ETF Shares of equivalent value. Because no fractional shares will have to be sold, the transaction will not be taxable.

Here are some important points to keep in mind when converting conventional shares of a Vanguard fund to ETF Shares:

• The conversion process can take anywhere from several days to several weeks, depending on your broker. Vanguard generally will process conversion requests either on the day they are received or on the next business day. Vanguard imposes conversion blackout windows around the dates when a fund with ETF Shares declares dividends. This is necessary to prevent a shareholder from collecting a dividend from both the conventional share class currently held and also from the ETF share class to which the shares will be converted.

• Until the conversion process is complete, you will remain fully invested in a fund’s conventional shares, and your investment will increase or decrease in value in tandem with the NAV of those shares.

• The conversion transaction is nontaxable except, if applicable, to the very limited extent previously described.

A precautionary note to investment companies: Vanguard ETF Shares are issued by registered investment companies, and therefore the acquisition of such shares by other investment companies is subject to the restrictions of Section 12(d)(1) of the Investment Company Act of 1940. Vanguard has obtained an SEC exemptive order that allows registered investment companies to invest in the issuing funds beyond the limits of Section 12(d)(1), subject to certain terms and conditions, including the requirement to enter into a participation agreement with Vanguard.

Frequent Trading and Market-Timing

Unlike frequent trading of a Vanguard fund’s conventional (i.e., not exchange-traded) classes of shares, frequent trading of ETF Shares does not disrupt portfolio management, increase the fund’s trading costs, lead to realization of capital gains by the fund, or otherwise harm fund shareholders. The vast majority of trading in ETF Shares occurs on the secondary market. Because these trades do not involve the issuing fund, they do not harm the fund or its shareholders. A few institutional investors are authorized to purchase and redeem ETF Shares directly with the issuing fund. Because these trades typically are effected in kind (i.e., for securities and not for cash), they do not cause any of the harmful effects to the issuing fund (as previously noted) that may result from frequent cash trades. For these reasons, the board of trustees of each fund that issues ETF Shares has determined that it is not necessary to adopt policies and procedures to detect and deter frequent trading and market-timing of ETF Shares.

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Portfolio Holdings

Please consult the Fund‘s Statement of Additional Information or our website for a description of the policies and procedures that govern disclosure of the Fund’s portfolio holdings.

Turnover Rate

Although the Fund generally seeks to invest for the long term, the Fund may sell securities regardless of how long they have been held. Generally, an index fund sells securities in response to redemption requests from shareholders of conventional (not exchange-traded) shares or to changes in the composition of its target index. The Fund has no operating history and therefore has no portfolio turnover information.

Plain Talk About Turnover Rate
 
Turnover rate gives an indication of how transaction costs, which are not included
in the fund’s expense ratio, could affect the fund’s future returns. In general, the
greater the volume of buying and selling by the fund, the greater the impact that
brokerage commissions and other transaction costs will have on its return. Also,
funds with high turnover rates may be more likely to generate capital gains,
including short-term capital gains, that must be distributed to shareholders as
taxable income.

 

The Fund and Vanguard

The Fund is a member of The Vanguard Group, a family of more than 190 mutual funds holding assets of approximately $2.9 trillion. All of the funds that are members of The Vanguard Group (other than funds of funds) share in the expenses associated with administrative services and business operations, such as personnel, office space, and equipment.

Vanguard Marketing Corporation provides marketing services to the funds. Although shareholders do not pay sales commissions or 12b-1 distribution fees, each fund (other than a fund of funds) or each share class of a fund (in the case of a fund with multiple share classes) pays its allocated share of the Vanguard funds’ marketing costs.

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Plain Talk About Vanguard’s Unique Corporate Structure
 
The Vanguard Group is truly a mutual mutual fund company. It is owned jointly by
the funds it oversees and thus indirectly by the shareholders in those funds.
Most other mutual funds are operated by management companies that may be
owned by one person, by a private group of individuals, or by public investors
who own the management company’s stock. The management fees charged by
these companies include a profit component over and above the companies’ cost
of providing services. By contrast, Vanguard provides services to its member
funds on an at-cost basis, with no profit component, which helps to keep the
funds’ expenses low.

 

Investment Advisor

The Vanguard Group, Inc. (Vanguard), P.O. Box 2600, Valley Forge, PA 19482, which began operations in 1975, serves as advisor to the Fund through its Equity Investment Group. As of August 31, 2015 Vanguard served as advisor for approximately $2.4 trillion in assets. Vanguard provides investment advisory services to the Fund on an at-cost basis, subject to the supervision and oversight of the trustees and officers of the Fund.

For a discussion of why the board of trustees approved the Fund’s investment advisory arrangement, see the semiannual report to shareholders covering the fiscal period ended April 30, which will be available 60 days after that date.

Vanguard’s Equity Investment Group is overseen by:

Mortimer J. Buckley, Chief Investment Officer and Managing Director of Vanguard. As Chief Investment Officer, he is responsible for the oversight of Vanguard’s Equity Investment and Fixed Income Groups. The investments managed by these two groups include active quantitative equity funds, equity index funds, active bond funds, index bond funds, stable value portfolios, and money market funds. Mr. Buckley joined Vanguard in 1991 and has held various senior leadership positions with Vanguard. He received his A.B. in economics from Harvard and an M.B.A. from Harvard Business School.

Joseph Brennan, CFA, Principal of Vanguard and global head of Vanguard’s Equity Index Group. He has oversight responsibility for all equity index funds managed by the Equity Investment Group. He first joined Vanguard in 1991. He received his B.A. in economics from Fairfield University and an M.S. in finance from Drexel University.

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John Ameriks, Ph.D., Principal of Vanguard and head of Vanguard’s Quantitative Equity Group. He has oversight responsibility for all active quantitative equity funds managed by the Equity Investment Group. He joined Vanguard in 2003. He received his A.B. in economics from Stanford University and a Ph.D. in economics from Columbia University.

The managers primarily responsible for the day-to-day management of the Fund are:

Justin E. Hales, CFP, Portfolio Manager at Vanguard. He has been with Vanguard since 2004, has worked in investment management since 2006, has managed investment portfolios since 2014, and has co-managed the Fund since its inception in 2015. Education: B.A., University of Maryland.

Michael Perre, Principal of Vanguard. He has been with Vanguard since 1990, has managed investment portfolios since 1999, and has co-managed the Fund since its inception in 2015. Education: B.A., Saint Joseph’s University; M.B.A., Villanova University.

The Statement of Additional Information provides information about each portfolio manager’s compensation, other accounts under management, and ownership of shares of the Fund.

Dividends, Capital Gains, and Taxes

Fund Distributions

The Fund distributes to shareholders virtually all of its net income (interest and dividends, less expenses) as well as any net short-term or long-term capital gains realized from the sale of its holdings. Income dividends generally are distributed quarterly in March, June, September, and December; capital gains distributions, if any, generally occur annually in December. In addition, the Fund may occasionally make a supplemental distribution at some other time during the year.

Plain Talk About Distributions
 
As a shareholder, you are entitled to your portion of a fund’s income from interest
and dividends as well as capital gains from the fund’s sale of investments.
Income consists of both the dividends that the fund earns from any stock
holdings and the interest it receives from any money market and bond
investments. Capital gains are realized whenever the fund sells securities for
higher prices than it paid for them. These capital gains are either short-term or
long-term, depending on whether the fund held the securities for one year or less
or for more than one year.

 

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Reinvestment of Distributions

In order to reinvest dividend and capital gains distributions, investors in the Fund’s ETF Shares must hold their shares at a broker that offers a reinvestment service. This can be the broker’s own service or a service made available by a third party, such as the broker’s outside clearing firm or the Depository Trust Company (DTC). If a reinvestment service is available, distributions of income and capital gains can automatically be reinvested in additional whole and fractional ETF Shares of the Fund. If a reinvestment service is not available, investors will receive their distributions in cash. To determine whether a reinvestment service is available and whether there is a commission or other charge for using this service, consult your broker.

As with all exchange-traded funds, reinvestment of dividend and capital gains distributions in additional ETF Shares will occur four business days or more after the ex-dividend date (the date when a distribution of dividends or capital gains is deducted from the price of the Fund’s shares). The exact number of days depends on your broker. During that time, the amount of your distribution will not be invested in the Fund and therefore will not share in the Fund’s income, gains, and losses.

Basic Tax Points

Investors in taxable accounts should be aware of the following basic federal income tax points:

• Distributions are taxable to you whether or not you reinvest these amounts in additional ETF Shares.

• Distributions declared in December—if paid to you by the end of January—are taxable as if received in December.

• Any dividend distribution or short-term capital gains distribution that you receive is taxable to you as ordinary income. If you are an individual and meet certain holding-period requirements with respect to your Fund shares, you may be eligible for reduced tax rates on “qualified dividend income,” if any, distributed by the Fund.

• Any distribution of net long-term capital gains is taxable to you as long-term capital gains, no matter how long you have owned ETF Shares.

• Capital gains distributions may vary considerably from year to year as a result of the Fund‘s normal investment activities and cash flows.

• A sale of ETF Shares is a taxable event. This means that you may have a capital gain to report as income, or a capital loss to report as a deduction, when you complete your tax return.

Individuals, trusts, and estates whose income exceeds certain threshold amounts are subject to a 3.8% Medicare contribution tax on “net investment income.” Net investment income takes into account distributions paid by the Fund and capital gains from any sale or exchange of Fund shares.

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Dividend distributions and capital gains distributions that you receive, as well as your gains or losses from any sale of ETF Shares, may be subject to state and local income taxes.

The Fund may be subject to foreign taxes or foreign tax withholding on dividends, interest, and some capital gains that it receives on foreign securities. You may qualify for an offsetting credit or deduction under U.S. tax laws for any amount designated as your portion of the Fund’s foreign tax obligations, provided that you meet certain requirements. See your tax advisor or IRS publications for more information.

This prospectus provides general tax information only. If you are investing through a tax-deferred retirement account, such as an IRA, special tax rules apply. Please consult your tax advisor for detailed information about any tax consequences for you.

Share Price and Market Price

Share price, also known as net asset value (NAV), is calculated each business day as of the close of regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), generally 4 p.m., Eastern time. Each share class has its own NAV, which is computed by dividing the total assets, minus liabilities, allocated to the share class by the number of Fund shares outstanding for that class. On U.S. holidays or other days when the NYSE is closed, the NAV is not calculated, and the Fund does not sell or redeem shares. However, on those days the value of the Fund’s assets may be affected to the extent that the Fund holds securities that change in value on those days (such as foreign securities that trade on foreign markets that are open).

Remember: If you buy or sell ETF Shares on the secondary market, you will pay or receive the market price, which may be higher or lower than NAV. Your transaction will be priced at NAV only if you purchase or redeem your ETF Shares in Creation Unit blocks (an option available only to certain authorized broker-dealers) or if you convert your conventional fund shares to ETF Shares.

Stocks held by a Vanguard fund are valued at their market value when reliable market quotations are readily available from the principal exchange or market on which they are traded. Such securities are generally valued at their official closing price, the last reported sales price, or if there were no sales that day, the mean between the closing bid and asking prices. Certain short-term debt instruments used to manage a fund’s cash may be valued at amortized cost when it approximates fair value. The values of any foreign securities held by a fund are converted into U.S. dollars using an exchange rate obtained from an independent third party as of the close of regular trading on the NYSE. The values of any mutual fund shares held by a fund are based on the NAVs of the shares. The values of any ETF or closed-end fund shares held by a fund are based on the market value of the shares.

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When a fund determines that market quotations either are not readily available or do not accurately reflect the value of a security, the security is priced at its fair value (the amount that the owner might reasonably expect to receive upon the current sale of the security). A fund also will use fair-value pricing if the value of a security it holds has been materially affected by events occurring before the fund’s pricing time but after the close of the principal exchange or market on which the security is traded. This most commonly occurs with foreign securities, which may trade on foreign exchanges that close many hours before the fund’s pricing time. Intervening events might be company-specific (e.g., earnings report, merger announcement) or country-specific or regional/global (e.g., natural disaster, economic or political news, act of terrorism, interest rate change). Intervening events include price movements in U.S. markets that exceed a specified threshold or that are otherwise deemed to affect the value of foreign securities. Fair-value pricing may be used for domestic securities—for example, if (1) trading in a security is halted and does not resume before the fund’s pricing time or a security does not trade in the course of a day and (2) the fund holds enough of the security that its price could affect the NAV.

Fair-value prices are determined by Vanguard according to procedures adopted by the board of trustees. When fair-value pricing is employed, the prices of securities used by a fund to calculate the NAV may differ from quoted or published prices for the same securities.

Vanguard’s website will show the previous day’s closing NAV and closing market price for the Fund’s ETF Shares.

Additional Information        
 
    Suitable Vanguard CUSIP
  Inception Date for IRAs Fund Number Number
International Dividend Appreciation        
Index Fund        
ETF Shares Yes 4415

 

CFA® is a registered trademark owned by CFA Institute.

“Dividend Achievers” is a trademark of The NASDAQ OMX Group, Inc. (collectively, with its affiliates, “NASDAQ OMX”) and has been licensed for use by The Vanguard Group, Inc. Vanguard mutual funds are not sponsored, endorsed, sold, or promoted by NASDAQ OMX and NASDAQ OMX makes no representation regarding the advisability of investing in the funds. NASDAQ OMX MAKES NO WARRANTIES AND BEARS NO LIABILITY WITH RESPECT TO THE VANGUARD MUTUAL FUNDS.

23


 

Glossary of Investment Terms

Active Management. An investment approach that seeks to exceed the average returns of a particular financial market or market segment. In selecting securities to buy and sell, active managers may rely on, among other things, research, market forecasts, quantitative models, and their own judgment and experience.

Authorized Participant. Institutional investors that are permitted to purchase Creation Units directly from, and redeem Creation Units directly with, the issuing fund. To be an Authorized Participant, an entity must be a participant in the Depository Trust Company and must enter into an agreement with the fund’s Distributor.

Bid-Ask Spread. The difference between the price a dealer is willing to pay for a security (the bid price) and the somewhat higher price at which the dealer is willing to sell the same security (the ask price).

Capital Gains Distribution. Payment to mutual fund shareholders of gains realized on securities that a fund has sold at a profit, minus any realized losses.

Common Stock. A security representing ownership rights in a corporation.

Creation Unit. A large block of a specified number of ETF Shares. Certain broker-dealers known as “Authorized Participants” may purchase and redeem ETF Shares from the issuing fund in Creation Unit size blocks.

Dividend Distribution. Payment to mutual fund shareholders of income from interest or dividends generated by a fund’s investments.

Ex-Dividend Date. The date when a distribution of dividends and/or capital gains is deducted from the share price of a mutual fund or stock. On the ex-dividend date, the share price drops by the amount of the distribution (plus or minus any market activity).

Expense Ratio. A fund’s total annual operating expenses expressed as a percentage of the fund’s average net assets. The expense ratio includes management and administrative expenses, but it does not include the transaction costs of buying and selling portfolio securities.

Inception Date. The date on which the assets of a fund (or one of its share classes) are first invested in accordance with the fund’s investment objective. For funds with a subscription period, the inception date is the day after that period ends. Investment performance is generally measured from the inception date.

Indexing. A low-cost investment strategy in which a mutual fund attempts to track—rather than outperform—a specified market benchmark, or “index.”

24


 

Median Market Capitalization. An indicator of the size of companies in which a fund invests; the midpoint of market capitalization (market price x shares outstanding) of a fund’s stocks, weighted by the proportion of the fund’s assets invested in each stock. Stocks representing half of the fund’s assets have market capitalizations above the median, and the rest are below it.

Mutual Fund. An investment company that pools the money of many people and invests it in a variety of securities in an effort to achieve a specific objective over time.

Securities. Stocks, bonds, money market instruments, and other investments.

Total Return. A percentage change, over a specified time period, in a mutual fund’s net asset value, assuming the reinvestment of all distributions of dividends and capital gains.

Volatility. The fluctuations in value of a mutual fund or other security. The greater a fund’s volatility, the wider the fluctuations in its returns.

Yield. Income (interest or dividends) earned by an investment, expressed as a percentage of the investment’s price.


 

  Institutional Division
  P.O. Box 2900
  Valley Forge, PA 19482-2900
 
 
 
 
Connect with Vanguard® > vanguard.com  
 
 
 
For More Information To receive a free copy of the latest annual or
If you would like more information about Vanguard semiannual report (once available) or the SAI, or to
International Dividend Appreciation ETF, the following request additional information about Vanguard ETF
documents are available free upon request: Shares, please visit vanguard.com or contact us as
  follows:
Annual/Semiannual Reports to Shareholders  
  The Vanguard Group
Additional information about the Fund’s investments  
  Institutional Investor Information
will be available in the Fund’s annual and semiannual  
  P.O. Box 2900
reports to shareholders. In the annual report, you will  
  Valley Forge, PA 19482-2900
find a discussion of the market conditions and  
  Telephone: 866-499-8473
investment strategies that significantly affected the  
Fund’s performance during its last fiscal year. Information Provided by the Securities and
  Exchange Commission (SEC)
Statement of Additional Information (SAI) You can review and copy information about the Fund
The SAI for the issuing Fund provides more detailed (including the SAI) at the SEC’s Public Reference Room
information about the Fund’s ETF Shares and is in Washington, DC. To find out more about this public
incorporated by reference into (and thus legally a part service, call the SEC at 202-551-8090. Reports and
of) this prospectus. other information about the Fund are also available in
  the EDGAR database on the SEC’s website at
  www.sec.gov, or you can receive copies of this
  information, for a fee, by electronic request at the
  following email address: publicinfo@sec.gov, or by
  writing the Public Reference Section, Securities and
  Exchange Commission, Washington, DC 20549-1520.
 
  Fund’s Investment Company Act file number: 811-07443
 
 
 
 
  © 2015 The Vanguard Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
  U.S. Patent Nos. 6,879,964; 7,337,138; 7,720,749; 7,925,573; 8,090,646;
  and 8,417,623.
  Vanguard Marketing Corporation, Distributor.
  P XXX 122015

 


Vanguard® International High Dividend Yield Index Fund
Prospectus
 
 
 
December , 2015
 
 
Investor Shares & Admiral™ Shares
 
Vanguard International High Dividend Yield Index Fund Investor Shares (•)
Vanguard International High Dividend Yield Index Fund Admiral Shares (•)
 
 
Subject to Completion
Preliminary Prospectus
Dated September 22, 2015
 
Information contained in this prospectus is subject to completion or amendment.
A registration statement for Vanguard International High Dividend Yield Index Fund
has been filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission but has not yet
become effective.
 
Shares of Vanguard International High Dividend Yield Index Fund may not be sold,
nor may offers to buy be accepted, prior to the time the registration statement
becomes effective. This communication shall not constitute an offer to sell, nor
shall there be any sale of these securities in any state in which such offer,
solicitation, or sale would be unlawful prior to registration or qualification under
the securities laws of any such state.
 
 
This is the Fund's initial prospectus, so it contains no performance data.
The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) has not approved or disapproved these securities or
passed upon the adequacy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 


 

Contents      
 
 
Fund Summary 1 Investing With Vanguard 19
Investing in Index Funds 5 Purchasing Shares 19
More on the Fund 6 Converting Shares 22
The Fund and Vanguard 13 Redeeming Shares 24
Investment Advisor 13 Exchanging Shares 27
Dividends, Capital Gains, and Taxes 15 Frequent-Trading Limitations 27
Share Price 17 Other Rules You Should Know 29
    Fund and Account Updates 34
    Contacting Vanguard 35
    Additional Information 36
    Glossary of Investment Terms 37

 


 

Fund Summary

Investment Objective

The Fund seeks to track the performance of a benchmark index that measures the investment return of non-U.S. companies that are characterized by high dividend yield.

Fees and Expenses

The following table describes the fees and expenses you may pay if you buy and hold Investor Shares or Admiral Shares of the Fund.

  Shareholder Fees          
  (Fees paid directly from your investment)          
      Investor Shares   Admiral Shares  
  Sales Charge (Load) Imposed on Purchases   None   None  
  Purchase Fee   None   None  
  Sales Charge (Load) Imposed on Reinvested Dividends   None   None  
  Redemption Fee   None   None  
  Account Service Fee (for certain fund account balances below   $20 /year $20 /year
$10,000 )        
 
  Annual Fund Operating Expenses          
  (Expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)      
      Investor Shares   Admiral Shares  
  Management Fees   •%   •%  
  12b-1 Distribution Fee   None   None  
  Other Expenses   •%   •%  
  Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses1   0.40 % 0.30 %

 

1 The expense information shown in the table reflects estimated amounts for the current fiscal year.

1


 

Examples

The following examples are intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund’s Investor Shares or Admiral Shares with the cost of investing in other mutual funds. They illustrate the hypothetical expenses that you would incur over various periods if you invested $10,000 in the Fund’s shares. These examples assume that the Shares provide a return of 5% each year and that total annual fund operating expenses remain as stated in the preceding table. The results apply whether or not you redeem your investment at the end of the given period. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:

    1 Year   3 Years
Investor Shares $ 41   $ 128
Admiral Shares $ 31   $ 97

 

Portfolio Turnover

The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in more taxes when Fund shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the previous expense examples, reduce the Fund’s performance. The Fund has no operating history and therefore has no portfolio turnover information.

Principal Investment Strategies

The Fund employs an indexing investment approach designed to track the performance of the FTSE All-World ex US High Dividend Yield Index, which focuses on companies located in developed and emerging markets, excluding the United States, that are forecasted to have above-average dividend yields. The Fund invests by sampling the Index, meaning that it holds a broadly diversified collection of securities that, in the aggregate, approximates the full Index in terms of key characteristics. These key characteristics include industry weightings and market capitalization, as well as certain financial measures, such as price/earnings ratio and dividend yield.

2


 

Principal Risks

An investment in the Fund could lose money over short or even long periods. You should expect the Fund’s share price and total return to fluctuate within a wide range, like the fluctuations of global stock markets. The Fund is subject to the following risks, which could affect the Fund’s performance:

Stock market risk, which is the chance that stock prices overall will decline. Stock markets tend to move in cycles, with periods of rising prices and periods of falling prices. The Fund’s investments in foreign stocks can be riskier than U.S. stock investments. Foreign stocks tend to be more volatile and less liquid than U.S. stocks. The prices of foreign stocks and the prices of U.S. stocks may move in opposite directions. In addition, the Fund’s target index may, at times, become focused in stocks of a particular market sector, which would subject the Fund to proportionately higher exposure to the risks of that sector.

Country/regional risk, which is the chance that world events—such as political upheaval, financial troubles, or natural disasters—will adversely affect the value of securities issued by companies in foreign countries or regions. Because the Fund may invest a large portion of its assets in securities of companies located in any one country or region, the Fund’s performance may be hurt disproportionately by the poor performance of its investments in that area. Country/regional risk is especially high in emerging markets.

Emerging markets risk, which is the chance that the stocks of companies located in emerging markets will be substantially more volatile, and substantially less liquid, than the stocks of companies located in more developed foreign markets because, among other factors, emerging markets can have greater custodial and operational risks; less developed legal, regulatory, and accounting systems; and greater political, social, and economic instability than developed markets.

Currency risk, which is the chance that the value of a foreign investment, measured in U.S. dollars, will decrease because of unfavorable changes in currency exchange rates. Currency risk is especially high in emerging markets.

Index sampling risk, which is the chance that the securities selected for the Fund, in the aggregate, will not provide investment performance matching that of the Fund’s target index. Index sampling risk for the Fund should be low.

Investment style risk, which is the chance that returns from dividend-paying stocks will trail returns from global stock markets. Dividend-paying stocks tend to go through cycles of doing better—or worse—than the global markets in general. These periods have, in the past, lasted for as long as several years.

An investment in the Fund is not a deposit of a bank and is not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other government agency.

3


 

Annual Total Returns

This is the Fund’s initial prospectus, so it containts no Fund performance data.

Investment Advisor
The Vanguard Group, Inc. (Vanguard)

Portfolio Managers

Justin E. Hales, CFP, Portfolio Manager at Vanguard. He has co-managed the Fund since its inception in 2015.

Michael Perre, Principal of Vanguard. He has co-managed the Fund since its inception in 2015.

Purchase and Sale of Fund Shares

You may purchase or redeem shares online through our website (vanguard.com), by mail (The Vanguard Group, P.O. Box 1110, Valley Forge, PA 19482-1110), or by telephone (800-662-2739). The minimum investment amount required to open and maintain a Fund account for Investor Shares or Admiral Shares is $3,000 or $10,000, respectively. The minimum investment amount required to add to an existing Fund account is generally $1. Institutional, financial intermediary, and Vanguard retail managed clients should contact Vanguard for information on special eligibility rules that may apply to them regarding Admiral Shares.

Tax Information

The Fund’s distributions may be taxable as ordinary income or capital gain. If you are investing through a tax-deferred retirement account, such as an IRA, special tax rules apply.

Payments to Financial Intermediaries

The Fund and its investment advisor do not pay financial intermediaries for sales of Fund shares.

4


 

Investing in Index Funds

What Is Indexing?

Indexing is an investment strategy for tracking the performance of a specified market benchmark, or “index.” An index is a group of securities whose overall performance is used as a standard to measure the investment performance of a particular market. There are many types of indexes. Some represent entire markets—such as the U.S. stock market or the U.S. bond market. Other indexes cover market segments—such as small-capitalization stocks or short-term bonds. The index sponsor determines the securities to include in the index, the weighting of each security in the index, and the appropriate time to make changes to the composition of the index. One cannot invest directly in an index.

An index fund holds all, or a representative sample, of the securities that make up its target index. Index funds attempt to mirror the performance of the target index, for better or worse. However, an index fund generally does not perform exactly like its target index. For example, like all mutual funds, index funds have operating expenses and transaction costs. Market indexes do not, and therefore they will usually have a slight performance advantage over funds that track them.

Index funds typically have the following characteristics:

Variety of investments. Most Vanguard index funds generally invest in the securities of a variety of companies and industries.

Relative performance consistency. Because they seek to track market benchmarks, index funds usually do not perform dramatically better or worse than their benchmarks.

Low cost. Index funds are inexpensive to run compared with actively managed funds.

They have low or no research costs and typically keep trading activity—and thus brokerage commissions and other transaction costs—to a minimum compared with actively managed funds.

5


 

More on the Fund

This prospectus describes the principal risks you would face as a Fund shareholder. It is important to keep in mind one of the main axioms of investing: generally, the higher the risk of losing money, the higher the potential reward. The reverse, also, is generally true: the lower the risk, the lower the potential reward. As you consider an investment in any mutual fund, you should take into account your personal tolerance

for fluctuations in the securities markets. Look for this   symbol throughout the prospectus. It is used to mark detailed information about the more significant risks that you would confront as a Fund shareholder. To highlight terms and concepts important to mutual fund investors, we have provided Plain Talk® explanations along the way. Reading the prospectus will help you decide whether the Fund is the right investment for you. We suggest that you keep this prospectus for future reference.

Share Class Overview

This prospectus offers the Fund’s Investor Shares and Admiral Shares. The Fund also issues an exchange-traded class of shares (ETF Shares), which are offered through a separate prospectus.

All share classes offered by the Fund have the same investment objective, strategies, and policies. However, different share classes have different expenses; as a result, their investment performances will differ.

Plain Talk About Fund Expenses
 
All mutual funds have operating expenses. These expenses, which are deducted
from a fund’s gross income, are expressed as a percentage of the net assets of
the fund. Assuming that operating expenses remain as stated in the Fees and
Expenses section, Vanguard International High Dividend Yield Index Fund’s
expense ratios would be as follows: for Investor Shares, 0.40%, or $4.00 per
$1,000 of average net assets; for Admiral Shares, 0.30%, or $3.00 per $1,000 of
average net assets.

 

Plain Talk About Costs of Investing
 
Costs are an important consideration in choosing a mutual fund. That is because
you, as a shareholder, pay a proportionate share of the costs of operating a fund,
plus any transaction costs incurred when the fund buys or sells securities. These
costs can erode a substantial portion of the gross income or the capital
appreciation a fund achieves. Even seemingly small differences in expenses can,
over time, have a dramatic effect on a fund‘s performance.

 

6


 

The following sections explain the principal investment strategies and policies that the Fund uses in pursuit of its objective. The Fund‘s board of trustees, which oversees the Fund’s management, may change investment strategies or policies in the interest of shareholders without a shareholder vote, unless those strategies or policies are designated as fundamental. Note that the Fund’s investment objective is not fundamental and may be changed without a shareholder vote. Under normal circumstances, the Fund will invest at least 80% of its assets in the stocks that make up its target index. The Fund may change its 80% policy only upon 60 days‘ notice to shareholders.

Market Exposure

The Fund invests mainly in stocks of companies located in developed and emerging markets outside of the United States that are characterized by high dividend yields relative to global stock markets. Stocks purchased by the Fund are expected to pay high dividends and may also have the potential for long-term capital appreciation.


The Fund is subject to stock market risk, which is the chance that stock prices overall will decline. Stock markets tend to move in cycles, with periods of rising prices and periods of falling prices. The Fund’s investments in foreign stocks can be riskier than U.S. stock investments. Foreign stocks tend to be more volatile and less liquid than U.S. stocks. The prices of foreign stocks and the prices of U.S. stocks may move in opposite directions. In addition, the Fund’s target index may, at times, become focused in stocks of a particular market sector, which would subject the Fund to proportionately higher exposure to the risks of that sector.

To illustrate the volatility of foreign stock prices, the following table shows the best, worst, and average annual total returns for foreign stock markets over various periods as measured by the MSCI EAFE Index, a widely used barometer of foreign market activity. (Total returns consist of dividend income plus change in market price.) Note that the returns shown do not include the costs of buying and selling stocks or other expenses that a real-world investment portfolio would incur.

Foreign Stock Market Returns                  
(1970–2014 )                
    1 Year 5 Years   10 Years   20 Years  
Best   69.4 % 36.1 % 22.0 % 15.5 %
Worst   –43.4   –4.7   0.8   3.1  
Average   11.3   9.7   10.2   10.3  

 

7


 

The table covers all of the 1-, 5-, 10-, and 20-year periods from 1970 through 2014. These average annual returns reflect past performance of foreign stocks; you should not regard them as an indication of future performance of either foreign markets as a whole or the Fund in particular.

Note that the MSCI EAFE Index does not take into account returns for emerging markets, which can be substantially more volatile and substantially less liquid than the more developed markets included in the Index. In addition, because the MSCI EAFE Index tracks the European and Pacific developed markets collectively, the returns in the preceding table do not reflect the variability of returns for these markets individually. To illustrate this variability, the following table shows returns for different foreign markets—as well as for the U.S. market for comparison—from 2005 through 2014, as measured by their respective indexes.

Returns for Various Stock Markets1              
  European   Pacific   Emerging   U.S.  
  Market2   Market2   Markets2   Market  
2005 9.42 % 22.64 % 34.00 % 4.91 %
2006 33.72   12.20   32.17   15.79  
2007 13.86   5.30   39.39   5.49  
2008 –46.42   –36.42   –53.33   –37.00  
2009 35.83   24.18   78.51   26.46  
2010 3.88   15.92   18.88   15.06  
2011 –11.06   –13.74   –18.42   2.11  
2012 19.12   14.42   18.22   16.00  
2013 25.23   18.27   –3.79   32.39  
2014 –6.18   –2.70   –2.19   13.69  

 

1 European market returns are measured by the MSCI Europe Index, Pacific market returns are measured by the MSCI Pacific Index, emerging markets returns are measured by the MSCI Emerging Markets Index, and U.S. market returns are measured by the S&P 500 Index.

2 MSCI Index returns are adjusted for withholding taxes.

Keep in mind that these returns reflect past performance of the various indexes; you should not consider them as an indication of future performance of the indexes or of the Fund in particular.

8


 


The Fund is subject to country/regional risk and currency risk. Country/regional risk is the chance that world events—such as political upheaval, financial troubles, or natural disasters—will adversely affect the value of securities issued by companies in foreign countries or regions. Because the Fund may invest a large portion of its assets in securities of companies located in any one country or region, the Fund‘s performance may be hurt disproportionately by the poor performance of its investments in that area. Currency risk is the chance that the value of a foreign investment, measured in U.S. dollars, will decrease because of unfavorable changes in currency exchange rates. Country/regional risk and currency risk are especially high in emerging markets.


The Fund is subject to emerging markets risk, which is the chance that the stocks of companies located in emerging markets will be substantially more volatile, and substantially less liquid, than the stocks of companies located in more developed foreign markets because, among other factors, emerging markets can have greater custodial and operational risks; less developed legal, regulatory, and accounting systems; and greater political, social, and economic instability than developed markets.

Plain Talk About International Investing
 
U.S. investors who invest abroad will encounter risks not typically associated
with U.S. companies because foreign stock and bond markets operate differently
from the U.S. markets. For instance, foreign companies and governments are not
subject to the same accounting, auditing, and financial-reporting standards and
practices as U.S. companies and the U.S. government, and their stocks and
bonds may not be as liquid as those of similar U.S. entities. In addition, foreign
stock exchanges, brokers, companies, bond markets, and dealers may be subject
to less government supervision and regulation than their counterparts in the
United States. These factors, among others, could negatively affect the returns
U.S. investors receive from foreign investments.

 

The Fund is subject to investment style risk, which is the chance that returns from dividend-paying stocks will trail returns from global stock markets. Dividend-paying stocks tend to go through cycles of doing better—or worse than the global markets in general. These periods have, in the past, lasted for as long as several years.

9


 

Security Selection

The Fund attempts to track the investment performance of the FTSE All-World ex US High Dividend Yield Index, which consists of companies whose common stocks are characterized by high dividend yields relative to global stock markets. The FTSE All-World ex US High Dividend Yield Index is maintained by FTSE Group (FTSE), a widely known global index provider that currently calculates more than 100,000 indexes.

The Fund uses a sampling method of indexing, meaning that the Fund’s advisor, using computer programs, generally selects from the target index a representative sample of securities that will resemble the target index in terms of key risk factors and other characteristics. These include industry weightings, market capitalization, and other financial characteristics of stocks.


The Fund is subject to index sampling risk, which is the chance that the securities selected for the Fund, in the aggregate, will not provide investment performance matching that of the Fund’s target index. Index sampling risk for the Fund should be low.

Other Investment Policies and Risks

The Fund reserves the right to substitute a different index for the index it currently tracks if the current index is discontinued, if the Fund‘s agreement with the sponsor of its target index is terminated, or for any other reason determined in good faith by the Fund’s board of trustees. In any such instance, the substitute index would represent the same market segment as the current index.

To track its target index as closely as possible, the Fund attempts to remain fully invested in stocks. To help stay fully invested and to reduce transaction costs, the Fund may invest, to a limited extent, in derivatives, including stock futures. The Fund may also use derivatives such as total return swaps to obtain exposure to a stock, a basket of stocks, or an index. Generally speaking, a derivative is a financial contract whose value is based on the value of a financial asset (such as a stock, a bond, or a currency), a physical asset (such as gold, oil, or wheat), a market index (such as the S&P 500 Index), or a reference rate (such as LIBOR). Investments in derivatives may subject the Fund to risks different from, and possibly greater than, those of investments directly in the underlying securities, assets, or market indexes. The Fund will not use derivatives for speculation or for the purpose of leveraging (magnifying) investment returns.

The Fund may enter into foreign currency exchange forward contracts, which are a type of derivative, in order to maintain the same currency exposure as its respective index. A foreign currency exchange forward contract is an agreement to buy or sell a country’s currency at a specific price on a specific date, usually 30, 60, or 90 days in the future. In other words, the contract guarantees an exchange rate on a given date.

10


 

These contracts, however, would not prevent the Fund’s securities from falling in value as a result of risks other than unfavorable currency exchange movements. The Fund may use these contracts to gain currency exposure when investing in stock index futures and to settle trades in a foreign currency.

Cash Management

The Fund‘s daily cash balance may be invested in one or more Vanguard CMT Funds, which are very low-cost money market funds. When investing in a Vanguard CMT Fund, the Fund bears its proportionate share of the at-cost expenses of the CMT Fund in which it invests.

Temporary Investment Measures

The Fund may temporarily depart from its normal investment policies and strategies when the advisor believes that doing so is in the Fund‘s best interest, so long as the alternative is consistent with the Fund‘s investment objective. For instance, the Fund may invest beyond its normal limits in derivatives or exchange-traded funds that are consistent with the Fund‘s objective when those instruments are more favorably priced or provide needed liquidity, as might be the case when the Fund receives large cash flows that it cannot prudently invest immediately.

Frequent Trading or Market-Timing

Background. Some investors try to profit from strategies involving frequent trading of mutual fund shares, such as market-timing. For funds holding foreign securities, investors may try to take advantage of an anticipated difference between the price of the fund’s shares and price movements in overseas markets, a practice also known as time-zone arbitrage. Investors also may try to engage in frequent trading of funds holding investments such as small-cap stocks and high-yield bonds. As money is shifted into and out of a fund by a shareholder engaging in frequent trading, the fund incurs costs for buying and selling securities, resulting in increased brokerage and administrative costs. These costs are borne by all fund shareholders, including the long-term investors who do not generate the costs. In addition, frequent trading may interfere with an advisor’s ability to efficiently manage the fund.

Policies to address frequent trading. The Vanguard funds (other than money market funds and short-term bond funds, but including Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund) do not knowingly accommodate frequent trading. The board of trustees of each Vanguard fund (other than money market funds and short-term bond funds, but including Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund) has adopted policies and procedures reasonably designed to detect and discourage frequent trading and, in some cases, to compensate the fund for the costs associated with it. These policies and procedures do not apply to Vanguard ETF®

11


 

Shares because frequent trading in ETF Shares generally does not disrupt portfolio management or otherwise harm fund shareholders. Although there is no assurance that Vanguard will be able to detect or prevent frequent trading or market-timing in all circumstances, the following policies have been adopted to address these issues:

• Each Vanguard fund reserves the right to reject any purchase request—including exchanges from other Vanguard funds—without notice and regardless of size. For example, a purchase request could be rejected because the investor has a history of frequent trading or if Vanguard determines that such purchase may negatively affect a fund’s operation or performance.

• Each Vanguard fund (other than money market funds and short-term bond funds, but including Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund) generally prohibits, except as otherwise noted in the Investing With Vanguard section, an investor’s purchases or exchanges into a fund account for 30 calendar days (60 calendar days for participants in employer-sponsored defined contribution plans recordkept directly by Vanguard) after the investor has redeemed or exchanged out of that fund account.

• Certain Vanguard funds charge shareholders purchase and/or redemption fees on transactions.

See the Investing With Vanguard section of this prospectus for further details on Vanguard’s transaction policies.

Each Vanguard fund (other than money market funds), in determining its net asset value, will use fair-value pricing when appropriate, as described in the Share Price section. Fair-value pricing may reduce or eliminate the profitability of certain frequent-trading strategies.

Do not invest with Vanguard if you are a market-timer.

Turnover Rate

Although the Fund generally seeks to invest for the long term, the Fund may sell securities regardless of how long they have been held. Generally, an index fund sells securities in response to redemption requests from shareholders of conventional (not exchange-traded) shares or to changes in the composition of its target index. The Fund has no operating history and therefore has no portfolio turnover information.

12


 

Plain Talk About Turnover Rate
 
Turnover rate gives an indication of how transaction costs, which are not included
in the fund’s expense ratio, could affect the fund’s future returns. In general, the
greater the volume of buying and selling by the fund, the greater the impact that
brokerage commissions and other transaction costs will have on its return. Also,
funds with high turnover rates may be more likely to generate capital gains,
including short-term capital gains, that must be distributed to shareholders as
taxable income.

 

The Fund and Vanguard

The Fund is a member of The Vanguard Group, a family of more than 190 mutual funds holding assets of approximately $2.9 trillion. All of the funds that are members of The Vanguard Group (other than funds of funds) share in the expenses associated with administrative services and business operations, such as personnel, office space, and equipment.

Vanguard Marketing Corporation provides marketing services to the funds. Although shareholders do not pay sales commissions or 12b-1 distribution fees, each fund (other than a fund of funds) or each share class of a fund (in the case of a fund with multiple share classes) pays its allocated share of the Vanguard funds’ marketing costs.

Plain Talk About Vanguard’s Unique Corporate Structure
 
The Vanguard Group is truly a mutual mutual fund company. It is owned jointly by
the funds it oversees and thus indirectly by the shareholders in those funds.
Most other mutual funds are operated by management companies that may be
owned by one person, by a private group of individuals, or by public investors
who own the management company’s stock. The management fees charged by
these companies include a profit component over and above the companies’ cost
of providing services. By contrast, Vanguard provides services to its member
funds on an at-cost basis, with no profit component, which helps to keep the
funds’ expenses low.

 

Investment Advisor

The Vanguard Group, Inc. (Vanguard), P.O. Box 2600, Valley Forge, PA 19482, which began operations in 1975, serves as advisor to the Fund through its Equity Investment Group. As of August 31, 2015 Vanguard served as advisor for approximately $2.4 trillion in assets. Vanguard provides investment advisory services to the Fund on

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an at-cost basis, subject to the supervision and oversight of the trustees and officers of the Fund.

For a discussion of why the board of trustees approved the Fund’s investment advisory arrangement, see the semiannual report to shareholders covering the fiscal period ended April 30, which will be available 60 days after that date.

Vanguard’s Equity Investment Group is overseen by:

Mortimer J. Buckley, Chief Investment Officer and Managing Director of Vanguard. As Chief Investment Officer, he is responsible for the oversight of Vanguard’s Equity Investment and Fixed Income Groups. The investments managed by these two groups include active quantitative equity funds, equity index funds, active bond funds, index bond funds, stable value portfolios, and money market funds. Mr. Buckley joined Vanguard in 1991 and has held various senior leadership positions with Vanguard. He received his A.B. in economics from Harvard and an M.B.A. from Harvard Business School.

Joseph Brennan, CFA, Principal of Vanguard and global head of Vanguard’s Equity Index Group. He has oversight responsibility for all equity index funds managed by the Equity Investment Group. He first joined Vanguard in 1991. He received his B.A. in economics from Fairfield University and an M.S. in finance from Drexel University.

John Ameriks, Ph.D., Principal of Vanguard and head of Vanguard’s Quantitative Equity Group. He has oversight responsibility for all active quantitative equity funds managed by the Equity Investment Group. He joined Vanguard in 2003. He received his A.B. in economics from Stanford University and a Ph.D. in economics from Columbia University.

The managers primarily responsible for the day-to-day management of the Fund are:

Justin E. Hales, CFP, Portfolio Manager at Vanguard. He has been with Vanguard since 2004, has worked in investment management since 2006, has managed investment portfolios since 2014, and has co-managed the Fund since its inception in 2015. Education: B.A., University of Maryland.

Michael Perre, Principal of Vanguard. He has been with Vanguard since 1990, has managed investment portfolios since 1999, and has co-managed the Fund since its inception in 2015. Education: B.A., Saint Joseph’s University; M.B.A., Villanova University.

The Statement of Additional Information provides information about each portfolio manager’s compensation, other accounts under management, and ownership of shares of the Fund.

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Dividends, Capital Gains, and Taxes

Fund Distributions

The Fund distributes to shareholders virtually all of its net income (interest and dividends, less expenses) as well as any net short-term or long-term capital gains realized from the sale of its holdings. Income dividends generally are distributed quarterly in March, June, September, and December; capital gains distributions, if any, generally occur annually in December. You can receive distributions of income or capital gains in cash, or you can have them automatically reinvested in more shares of the Fund.

Plain Talk About Distributions
 
As a shareholder, you are entitled to your portion of a fund’s income from interest
and dividends as well as capital gains from the fund’s sale of investments.
Income consists of both the dividends that the fund earns from any stock
holdings and the interest it receives from any money market and bond
investments. Capital gains are realized whenever the fund sells securities for
higher prices than it paid for them. These capital gains are either short-term or
long-term, depending on whether the fund held the securities for one year or less
or for more than one year.

 

Basic Tax Points

Vanguard will send you a statement each year showing the tax status of all your distributions. In addition, investors in taxable accounts should be aware of the following basic federal income tax points:

• Distributions are taxable to you whether or not you reinvest these amounts in additional Fund shares.

• Distributions declared in December—if paid to you by the end of January—are taxable as if received in December.

• Any dividend distribution or short-term capital gains distribution that you receive is taxable to you as ordinary income. If you are an individual and meet certain holding-period requirements with respect to your Fund shares, you may be eligible for reduced tax rates on “qualified dividend income,” if any, distributed by the Fund.

• Any distribution of net long-term capital gains is taxable to you as long-term capital gains, no matter how long you have owned shares in the Fund.

• Capital gains distributions may vary considerably from year to year as a result of the Fund‘s normal investment activities and cash flows.

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• A sale or exchange of Fund shares is a taxable event. This means that you may have a capital gain to report as income, or a capital loss to report as a deduction, when you complete your tax return.

• Any conversion between classes of shares of the same fund is a nontaxable event. By contrast, an exchange between classes of shares of different funds is a taxable event.

Individuals, trusts, and estates whose income exceeds certain threshold amounts are subject to a 3.8% Medicare contribution tax on “net investment income.” Net investment income takes into account distributions paid by the Fund and capital gains from any sale or exchange of Fund shares.

Dividend distributions and capital gains distributions that you receive, as well as your gains or losses from any sale or exchange of Fund shares, may be subject to state and local income taxes.

The Fund may be subject to foreign taxes or foreign tax withholding on dividends, interest, and some capital gains that it receives on foreign securities. You may qualify for an offsetting credit or deduction under U.S. tax laws for any amount designated as your portion of the Fund’s foreign tax obligations, provided that you meet certain requirements. See your tax advisor or IRS publications for more information.

This prospectus provides general tax information only. If you are investing through a tax-deferred retirement account, such as an IRA, special tax rules apply. Please consult your tax advisor for detailed information about any tax consequences for you.

Plain Talk About Buying a Dividend
 
Unless you are investing through a tax-deferred retirement account (such as an
IRA), you should consider avoiding a purchase of fund shares shortly before the
fund makes a distribution, because doing so can cost you money in taxes. This is
known as “buying a dividend.” For example: On December 15, you invest $5,000,
buying 250 shares for $20 each. If the fund pays a distribution of $1 per share on
December 16, its share price will drop to $19 (not counting market change). You
still have only $5,000 (250 shares x $19 = $4,750 in share value, plus 250 shares
x $1 = $250 in distributions), but you owe tax on the $250 distribution you
received—even if you reinvest it in more shares. To avoid buying a dividend, check
a fund’s distribution schedule before you invest.

 

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General Information

Backup withholding. By law, Vanguard must withhold 28% of any taxable distributions or redemptions from your account if you do not:

  • Provide us with your correct taxpayer identification number.
  • Certify that the taxpayer identification number is correct.
  • Confirm that you are not subject to backup withholding.

Similarly, Vanguard must withhold taxes from your account if the IRS instructs us to do so.

Foreign investors. Vanguard funds offered for sale in the United States (Vanguard U.S. funds), including the Fund offered in this prospectus, generally are not sold outside the United States, except to certain qualified investors. Non-U.S. investors should be aware that U.S. withholding and estate taxes and certain U.S. tax reporting requirements may apply to any investments in Vanguard U.S. funds. Foreign investors should visit the Non-U.S. Investors page on our website at vanguard.com for information on Vanguard’s non-U.S. products.

Invalid addresses. If a dividend distribution or capital gains distribution check mailed to your address of record is returned as undeliverable, Vanguard will automatically reinvest the distribution and all future distributions until you provide us with a valid mailing address. Reinvestments will receive the net asset value calculated on the date of the reinvestment.

Share Price

Share price, also known as net asset value (NAV), is calculated each business day as of the close of regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), generally 4 p.m., Eastern time. Each share class has its own NAV, which is computed by dividing the total assets, minus liabilities, allocated to the share class by the number of Fund shares outstanding for that class. On U.S. holidays or other days when the NYSE is closed, the NAV is not calculated, and the Fund does not sell or redeem shares. However, on those days the value of the Fund’s assets may be affected to the extent that the Fund holds securities that change in value on those days (such as foreign securities that trade on foreign markets that are open).

Stocks held by a Vanguard fund are valued at their market value when reliable market quotations are readily available from the principal exchange or market on which they are traded. Such securities are generally valued at their official closing price, the last reported sales price, or if there were no sales that day, the mean between the closing bid and asking prices. Certain short-term debt instruments used to manage a fund’s cash may be valued at amortized cost when it approximates fair value. The values of any foreign securities held by a fund are converted into U.S. dollars using an exchange

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rate obtained from an independent third party as of the close of regular trading on the NYSE. The values of any mutual fund shares held by a fund are based on the NAVs of the shares. The values of any ETF or closed-end fund shares held by a fund are based on the market value of the shares.

When a fund determines that market quotations either are not readily available or do not accurately reflect the value of a security, the security is priced at its fair value (the amount that the owner might reasonably expect to receive upon the current sale of the security). A fund also will use fair-value pricing if the value of a security it holds has been materially affected by events occurring before the fund’s pricing time but after the close of the principal exchange or market on which the security is traded. This most commonly occurs with foreign securities, which may trade on foreign exchanges that close many hours before the fund’s pricing time. Intervening events might be company-specific (e.g., earnings report, merger announcement) or country-specific or regional/global (e.g., natural disaster, economic or political news, act of terrorism, interest rate change). Intervening events include price movements in U.S. markets that exceed a specified threshold or that are otherwise deemed to affect the value of foreign securities. Fair-value pricing may be used for domestic securities—for example, if (1) trading in a security is halted and does not resume before the fund’s pricing time or a security does not trade in the course of a day and (2) the fund holds enough of the security that its price could affect the NAV.

Fair-value prices are determined by Vanguard according to procedures adopted by the board of trustees. When fair-value pricing is employed, the prices of securities used by a fund to calculate the NAV may differ from quoted or published prices for the same securities.

Vanguard fund share prices are published daily on our website at vanguard.com/prices.

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Investing With Vanguard

This section of the prospectus explains the basics of doing business with Vanguard. Vanguard fund shares can be held directly with Vanguard or indirectly through an intermediary, such as a bank, a broker, or an investment advisor. If you hold Vanguard fund shares directly with Vanguard, you should carefully read each topic within this section that pertains to your relationship with Vanguard. If you hold Vanguard fund shares indirectly through an intermediary (including shares held through a Vanguard brokerage account), please see Investing With Vanguard Through Other Firms, and also refer to your account agreement with the intermediary for information about transacting in that account. Vanguard reserves the right to change the following policies without notice. Please call or check online for current information. See

Contacting Vanguard.

For Vanguard fund shares held directly with Vanguard, each fund you hold in an account is a separate “fund account.” For example, if you hold three funds in a nonretirement account titled in your own name, two funds in a nonretirement account titled jointly with your spouse, and one fund in an individual retirement account, you have six fund accounts—and this is true even if you hold the same fund in multiple accounts. Note that each reference to “you” in this prospectus applies to any one or more registered account owners or persons authorized to transact on your account.

Purchasing Shares

Vanguard reserves the right, without notice, to increase or decrease the minimum amount required to open, convert shares to, or maintain a fund account or to add to an existing fund account.

Investment minimums may differ for certain categories of investors.

Account Minimums for Investor Shares To open and maintain an account. $3,000.

To add to an existing account. Generally $1.

Account Minimums for Admiral Shares

To open and maintain an account. $10,000. If you request Admiral Shares when you open a new account but the investment amount does not meet the account minimum for Admiral Shares, your investment will be placed in Investor Shares of the Fund. Institutional, financial intermediary, and Vanguard retail managed clients should contact Vanguard for information on special eligibility rules that may apply to them.

To add to an existing account. Generally $1.

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How to Initiate a Purchase Request

Be sure to check Exchanging Shares, Frequent-Trading Limitations, and Other Rules You Should Know before placing your purchase request.

Online. You may open certain types of accounts, request a purchase of shares, and request an exchange through our website or our mobile application if you are registered for online access.

By telephone. You may call Vanguard to begin the account registration process or request that the account-opening forms be sent to you. You may also call Vanguard to request a purchase of shares in your account or to request an exchange. See

Contacting Vanguard.

By mail. You may send Vanguard your account registration form and check to open a new fund account. To add to an existing fund account, you may send your check with an Invest-by-Mail form (from a transaction confirmation or your account statement), with a deposit slip (available online), or with a written request. You may also send a written request to Vanguard to make an exchange. For a list of Vanguard addresses, see Contacting Vanguard.

How to Pay for a Purchase

By electronic bank transfer. You may purchase shares of a Vanguard fund through an electronic transfer of money from a bank account. To establish the electronic bank transfer service on an account, you must designate the bank account online, complete a special form, or fill out the appropriate section of your account registration form. After the service is set up on your account, you can purchase shares by electronic bank transfer on a regular schedule (Automatic Investment Plan) or upon request. Your purchase request can be initiated online (if you are registered for online access), by telephone, or by mail.

By wire. Wiring instructions vary for different types of purchases. Please call Vanguard for instructions and policies on purchasing shares by wire. See Contacting Vanguard.

By check. You may make initial or additional purchases to your fund account by sending a check or by utilizing our mobile application if you are registered for online access. Also see How to Initiate a Purchase Request. Make your check payable to Vanguard and include the appropriate fund number (Vanguard—xx). For a list of fund numbers (for share classes in this prospectus), see Additional Information.

By exchange. You may purchase shares of a Vanguard fund using the proceeds from the simultaneous redemption of shares of another Vanguard fund. You may initiate an exchange online (if you are registered for online access), by telephone, or by mail. See

Exchanging Shares.

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Trade Date

The trade date for any purchase request received in good order will depend on the day and time Vanguard receives your request, the manner in which you are paying, and the type of fund you are purchasing. Your purchase will be executed using the NAV as calculated on the trade date. NAVs are calculated only on days that the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) is open for trading (a business day).

For purchases by check into all funds other than money market funds and for purchases by exchange, wire, or electronic bank transfer (not using an Automatic Investment Plan) into all funds: If the purchase request is received by Vanguard on a business day before the close of regular trading on the NYSE (generally 4 p.m., Eastern time), the trade date for the purchase will be the same day. If the purchase request is received on a business day after the close of regular trading on the NYSE, or on a nonbusiness day, the trade date for the purchase will be the next business day.

For purchases by check into money market funds: If the purchase request is received by Vanguard on a business day before the close of regular trading on the NYSE (generally 4 p.m., Eastern time), the trade date for the purchase will be the next business day. If the purchase request is received on a business day after the close of regular trading on the NYSE, or on a nonbusiness day, the trade date for the purchase will be the second business day following the day Vanguard receives the purchase request. Because money market instruments must be purchased with federal funds and it takes a money market mutual fund one business day to convert check proceeds into federal funds, the trade date for the purchase will be one business day later than for other funds.

For purchases by electronic bank transfer using an Automatic Investment Plan: Your trade date generally will be the date you designated for withdrawal of funds from your bank account. Your bank account generally will be debited on the business day after your trade date. If the date you designated for withdrawal of funds from your bank account falls on a weekend, holiday, or other nonbusiness day, your trade date generally will be the previous business day.

If your purchase request is not accurate and complete, it may be rejected. See Other Rules You Should Know—Good Order.

For further information about purchase transactions, consult our website at vanguard.com or see Contacting Vanguard.

Other Purchase Rules You Should Know

Admiral Shares. Admiral Shares generally are not available for SIMPLE IRAs, Vanguard Individual 401(k) Plans, and Vanguard retail-serviced Individual 403(b)(7) Custodial Accounts.

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Check purchases. All purchase checks must be written in U.S. dollars and must be drawn on a U.S. bank. Vanguard does not accept cash, traveler’s checks, or money orders. In addition, Vanguard may refuse “starter checks” and checks that are not made payable to Vanguard.

New accounts. We are required by law to obtain from you certain personal information that we will use to verify your identity. If you do not provide the information, we may not be able to open your account. If we are unable to verify your identity, Vanguard reserves the right, without notice, to close your account or take such other steps as we deem reasonable. Certain types of accounts may require additional documentation.

Refused or rejected purchase requests. Vanguard reserves the right to stop selling fund shares or to reject any purchase request at any time and without notice, including, but not limited to, purchases requested by exchange from another Vanguard fund. This also includes the right to reject any purchase request because the investor has a history of frequent trading or because the purchase may negatively affect a fund’s operation or performance.

Large purchases. Call Vanguard before attempting to invest a large dollar amount.

No cancellations. Vanguard will not accept your request to cancel any purchase request once processing has begun. Please be careful when placing a purchase request.

Converting Shares

When a conversion occurs, you receive shares of one class in place of shares of another class of the same fund. At the time of conversion, the dollar value of the “new” shares you receive equals the dollar value of the “old” shares that were converted. In other words, the conversion has no effect on the value of your investment in the fund at the time of the conversion. However, the number of shares you own after the conversion may be greater than or less than the number of shares you owned before the conversion, depending on the net asset values of the two share classes.

Vanguard will not accept your request to cancel any self-directed conversion request once processing has begun. Please be careful when placing a conversion request.

A conversion between share classes of the same fund is a nontaxable event.

Trade Date

The trade date for any conversion request received in good order will depend on the day and time Vanguard receives your request. Your conversion will be executed using the NAVs of the different share classes on the trade date. NAVs are calculated only on days that the NYSE is open for trading (a business day).

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For a conversion request (other than a request to convert to ETF Shares) received by Vanguard on a business day before the close of regular trading on the NYSE (generally 4 p.m., Eastern time), the trade date will be the same day. For a conversion request received on a business day after the close of regular trading on the NYSE, or on a nonbusiness day, the trade date will be the next business day. See Other Rules You Should Know.

Conversions From Investor Shares to Admiral Shares

Self-directed conversions. If your account balance in the Fund is at least $10,000, you may ask Vanguard to convert your Investor Shares to Admiral Shares. You may request a conversion through our website (if you are registered for online access), by telephone, or by mail. Institutional, financial intermediary, and Vanguard retail managed clients should contact Vanguard for information on special eligibility rules that may apply to them. See Contacting Vanguard.

Automatic conversions. Vanguard conducts periodic reviews of account balances and may, if your account balance in the Fund exceeds $10,000, automatically convert your Investor Shares to Admiral Shares. You will be notified before an automatic conversion occurs and will have an opportunity to instruct Vanguard not to effect the conversion. Institutional, financial intermediary, and Vanguard retail managed clients should contact Vanguard for information on special eligibility rules that may apply to them.

Conversions to ETF Shares

Owners of conventional shares (i.e., not exchange-traded shares) issued by the Fund may convert those shares to ETF Shares of equivalent value of the same fund. Please note that investors who own conventional shares through a 401(k) plan or other employer-sponsored retirement or benefit plan generally may not convert those shares to ETF Shares and should check with their plan sponsor or recordkeeper. ETF Shares, whether acquired through a conversion or purchased on the secondary market, cannot be converted to conventional shares. Also, ETF Shares of one fund cannot be exchanged for ETF Shares of another fund.

ETF Shares must be held in a brokerage account. Thus, before converting conventional shares to ETF Shares, you must have an existing, or open a new, brokerage account. This account may be with Vanguard Brokerage Services® (Vanguard Brokerage) or with any other brokerage firm.

Vanguard Brokerage does not impose a fee on conversions from conventional shares to Vanguard ETF Shares. However, other brokerage firms may charge a fee to process a conversion. Vanguard reserves the right, in the future, to impose a transaction fee on conversions or to limit or terminate the conversion privilege. For additional information on converting conventional shares to ETF Shares, please contact Vanguard to obtain a prospectus for ETF Shares. See Contacting Vanguard.

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Mandatory Conversions to Investor Shares

If an account no longer meets the balance requirements for Admiral Shares, Vanguard may automatically convert the shares in the account to Investor Shares. A decline in the account balance because of market movement may result in such a conversion. Vanguard will notify the investor in writing before any mandatory conversion occurs. Please note that mandatory conversions do not apply to ETF Shares.

Redeeming Shares

How to Initiate a Redemption Request

Be sure to check Exchanging Shares, Frequent-Trading Limitations, and Other Rules You Should Know before placing your redemption request.

Online. You may request a redemption of shares or request an exchange through our website or our mobile application if you are registered for online access.

By telephone. You may call Vanguard to request a redemption of shares or an exchange. See Contacting Vanguard.

By mail. You may send a written request to Vanguard to redeem from a fund account or to make an exchange. See Contacting Vanguard.

How to Receive Redemption Proceeds

By electronic bank transfer. You may have the proceeds of a fund redemption sent directly to a designated bank account. To establish the electronic bank transfer service on an account, you must designate a bank account online, complete a special form, or fill out the appropriate section of your account registration form. After the service is set up on your account, you can redeem shares by electronic bank transfer on a regular schedule (Automatic Withdrawal Plan) or upon request. Your redemption request can be initiated online (if you are registered for online access), by telephone, or by mail.

By wire. To receive your proceeds by wire, you may instruct Vanguard to wire your redemption proceeds ($100 minimum) to a previously designated bank account. To establish the wire redemption service, you generally must designate a bank account online, complete a special form, or fill out the appropriate section of your account registration form.

By exchange. You may have the proceeds of a Vanguard fund redemption invested directly in shares of another Vanguard fund. You may initiate an exchange online (if you are registered for online access), by telephone, or by mail. See Exchanging Shares.

By check. If you have not chosen another redemption method, Vanguard will mail you a redemption check, generally payable to all registered account owners, normally within two business days of your trade date, and generally to the address of record.

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Trade Date

The trade date for any redemption request received in good order will depend on the day and time Vanguard receives your request and the manner in which you are redeeming. Your redemption will be executed using the NAV as calculated on the trade date. NAVs are calculated only on days that the NYSE is open for trading (a business day).

For redemptions by check, exchange, or wire: If the redemption request is received by Vanguard on a business day before the close of regular trading on the NYSE (generally 4 p.m., Eastern time), the trade date will be the same day. If the redemption request is received on a business day after the close of regular trading on the NYSE, or on a nonbusiness day, the trade date will be the next business day.

• Note on timing of wire redemptions from money market funds: For telephone requests received by Vanguard on a business day before 10:45 a.m., Eastern time (2 p.m., Eastern time, for Vanguard Prime Money Market Fund), the redemption proceeds generally will leave Vanguard by the close of business the same day. For telephone requests received by Vanguard on a business day after those cut-off times, or on a nonbusiness day, and for all requests other than by telephone, the redemption proceeds generally will leave Vanguard by the close of business on the next business day.

• Note on timing of wire redemptions from all other funds: For requests received by Vanguard on a business day before the close of regular trading on the NYSE (generally 4 p.m., Eastern time), the redemption proceeds generally will leave Vanguard by the close of business on the next business day. For requests received by Vanguard on a business day after the close of regular trading on the NYSE, or on a nonbusiness day, the redemption proceeds generally will leave Vanguard by the close of business on the second business day after Vanguard receives the request.

For redemptions by electronic bank transfer using an Automatic Withdrawal Plan: Your trade date generally will be the date you designated for withdrawal of funds (redemption of shares) from your Vanguard account. Proceeds of redeemed shares generally will be credited to your designated bank account two business days after your trade date. If the date you designated for withdrawal of funds from your Vanguard account falls on a weekend, holiday, or other nonbusiness day, your trade date generally will be the previous business day.

For redemptions by electronic bank transfer not using an Automatic Withdrawal Plan: If the redemption request is received by Vanguard on a business day before the close of regular trading on the NYSE (generally 4 p.m., Eastern time), the trade date will be the same day. If the redemption request is received on a business day after the close of regular trading on the NYSE, or on a nonbusiness day, the trade date will be the next business day.

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If your redemption request is not accurate and complete, it may be rejected. If we are unable to send your redemption proceeds by wire or electronic bank transfer because the receiving institution rejects the transfer, Vanguard will make additional efforts to complete your transaction. If Vanguard is still unable to complete the transaction, we may send the proceeds of the redemption to you by check, generally payable to all registered account owners, or use your proceeds to purchase new shares of the fund from which you sold shares for the purpose of the wire or electronic bank transfer transaction. See Other Rules You Should Know—Good Order.

For further information about redemption transactions, consult our website at vanguard.com or see Contacting Vanguard.

Other Redemption Rules You Should Know

Documentation for certain accounts. Special documentation may be required to redeem from certain types of accounts, such as trust, corporate, nonprofit, or retirement accounts. Please call us before attempting to redeem from these types of accounts.

Potentially disruptive redemptions. Vanguard reserves the right to pay all or part of a redemption in kind—that is, in the form of securities—if we reasonably believe that a cash redemption would negatively affect the fund’s operation or performance or that the shareholder may be engaged in market-timing or frequent trading. Under these circumstances, Vanguard also reserves the right to delay payment of the redemption proceeds for up to seven calendar days. By calling us before you attempt to redeem a large dollar amount, you may avoid in-kind or delayed payment of your redemption. Please see Frequent-Trading Limitations for information about Vanguard’s policies to limit frequent trading.

Recently purchased shares. Although you can redeem shares at any time, proceeds may not be made available to you until the fund collects payment for your purchase. This may take up to seven calendar days for shares purchased by check or by electronic bank transfer. If you have written a check on a fund with checkwriting privileges, that check may be rejected if your fund account does not have a sufficient available balance.

Address change. If you change your address online or by telephone, there may be up to a 14-day restriction on your ability to request check redemptions online and by telephone. You can request a redemption in writing at any time. Confirmations of address changes are sent to both the old and new addresses.

Payment to a different person or address. At your request, we can make your redemption check payable, or wire your redemption proceeds, to a different person or send it to a different address. However, this generally requires the written consent of all registered account owners and may require a signature guarantee or a notarized

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signature. You may obtain a signature guarantee from some commercial or savings banks, credit unions, trust companies, or member firms of a U.S. stock exchange.

No cancellations. Vanguard will not accept your request to cancel any redemption request once processing has begun. Please be careful when placing a redemption request.

Emergency circumstances. Vanguard funds can postpone payment of redemption proceeds for up to seven calendar days. In addition, Vanguard funds can suspend redemptions and/or postpone payments of redemption proceeds beyond seven calendar days at times when the NYSE is closed or during emergency circumstances, as determined by the SEC.

Exchanging Shares

An exchange occurs when you use the proceeds from the redemption of shares of one Vanguard fund to simultaneously purchase shares of a different Vanguard fund. You can make exchange requests online (if you are registered for online access), by telephone, or by mail. See Purchasing Shares and Redeeming Shares.

If the NYSE is open for regular trading (generally until 4 p.m., Eastern time, on a business day) at the time an exchange request is received in good order, the trade date generally will be the same day. See Other Rules You Should Know—Good Order for additional information on all transaction requests.

Vanguard will not accept your request to cancel any exchange request once processing has begun. Please be careful when placing an exchange request.

Please note that Vanguard reserves the right, without notice, to revise or terminate the exchange privilege, limit the amount of any exchange, or reject an exchange, at any time, for any reason. See Frequent-Trading Limitations for additional restrictions on exchanges.

Frequent-Trading Limitations

Because excessive transactions can disrupt management of a fund and increase the fund’s costs for all shareholders, the board of trustees of each Vanguard fund places certain limits on frequent trading in the funds. Each Vanguard fund (other than money market funds and short-term bond funds, but including Vanguard Short-Term Inflation-Protected Securities Index Fund) limits an investor’s purchases or exchanges into a fund account for 30 calendar days (60 calendar days for participants in employer-sponsored defined contribution plans recordkept directly by Vanguard) after the investor has redeemed or exchanged out of that fund account. ETF Shares are not subject to these frequent-trading limits.

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For Vanguard Retirement Investment Program pooled plans, the limitations apply to exchanges made online or by telephone.

These frequent-trading limitations do not apply to the following:

• Purchases of shares with reinvested dividend or capital gains distributions.

• Transactions through Vanguard’s Automatic Investment Plan, Automatic Exchange Service, Direct Deposit Service, Automatic Withdrawal Plan, Required Minimum Distribution Service, and Vanguard Small Business Online®.

• Discretionary transactions through Vanguard Asset Management Services, Vanguard Personal Advisor Services®, and Vanguard Institutional Advisory Services®.

• Redemptions of shares to pay fund or account fees.

• Redemptions of shares to remove excess shareholder contributions to certain types of retirement accounts (including, but not limited to, IRAs, certain Individual 403(b)(7) Custodial Accounts, and Vanguard Individual 401(k) Plans).

• Transaction requests submitted by mail to Vanguard from shareholders who hold their accounts directly with Vanguard or through a Vanguard brokerage account. (Transaction requests submitted by fax, if otherwise permitted, are subject to the limitations.)

• Transfers and reregistrations of shares within the same fund.

• Purchases of shares by asset transfer or direct rollover.

• Conversions of shares from one share class to another in the same fund.

• Checkwriting redemptions.

• Section 529 college savings plans.

• Certain approved institutional portfolios and asset allocation programs, as well as trades made by funds or trusts managed by Vanguard or its affiliates that invest in other Vanguard funds. (Please note that shareholders of Vanguard’s funds of funds are subject to the limitations.)

For participants in employer-sponsored defined contribution plans,* the frequent-trading limitations do not apply to:

• Purchases of shares with participant payroll or employer contributions or loan repayments.

• Purchases of shares with reinvested dividend or capital gains distributions.

• Distributions, loans, and in-service withdrawals from a plan.

• Redemptions of shares as part of a plan termination or at the direction of the plan.

• Transactions executed through the Vanguard Managed Account Program.

• Redemptions of shares to pay fund or account fees.

• Share or asset transfers or rollovers.

28


 

• Reregistrations of shares.

• Conversions of shares from one share class to another in the same fund.

• Exchange requests submitted by written request to Vanguard. (Exchange requests submitted by fax, if otherwise permitted, are subject to the limitations.)

* The following Vanguard fund accounts are subject to the frequent-trading limitations: SEP-IRAs, SIMPLE IRAs, certain Individual 403(b)(7) Custodial Accounts, and Vanguard Individual 401(k) Plans.

Accounts Held by Institutions (Other Than Defined Contribution Plans)

Vanguard will systematically monitor for frequent trading in institutional clients’ accounts. If we detect suspicious trading activity, we will investigate and take appropriate action, which may include applying to a client’s accounts the 30-day policy previously described, prohibiting a client’s purchases of fund shares, and/or revoking the client’s exchange privilege.

Accounts Held by Intermediaries

When intermediaries establish accounts in Vanguard funds for the benefit of their clients, we cannot always monitor the trading activity of the individual clients. However, we review trading activity at the intermediary (omnibus) level, and if we detect suspicious activity, we will investigate and take appropriate action. If necessary, Vanguard may prohibit additional purchases of fund shares by an intermediary, including for the benefit of certain of the intermediary’s clients. Intermediaries also may monitor their clients’ trading activities with respect to Vanguard funds.

For those Vanguard funds that charge purchase and/or redemption fees, intermediaries will be asked to assess these fees on client accounts and remit these fees to the funds. The application of purchase and redemption fees and frequent-trading limitations may vary among intermediaries. There are no assurances that Vanguard will successfully identify all intermediaries or that intermediaries will properly assess purchase and redemption fees or administer frequent-trading limitations. If you invest with Vanguard through an intermediary, please read that firm’s materials carefully to learn of any other rules or fees that may apply.

Other Rules You Should Know

Prospectus and Shareholder Report Mailings

Vanguard attempts to eliminate the unnecessary expense of duplicate mailings by sending just one summary prospectus (or prospectus) and/or shareholder report when two or more shareholders have the same last name and address. You may

29


 

request individual prospectuses and reports by contacting our Client Services Department in writing, by telephone, or online. See Contacting Vanguard.

Vanguard.com

Registration. If you are a registered user of vanguard.com, you can review your account holdings; buy, sell, or exchange shares of most Vanguard funds; and perform most other transactions through our website. You must register for this service online.

Electronic delivery. Vanguard can deliver your account statements, transaction confirmations, prospectuses, tax forms, and shareholder reports electronically. If you are a registered user of vanguard.com, you can consent to the electronic delivery of these documents by logging on and changing your mailing preferences under “Account Maintenance.” You can revoke your electronic consent at any time through our website, and we will begin to send paper copies of these documents within 30 days of receiving your revocation.

Telephone Transactions

Automatic. When we set up your account, we will automatically enable you to do business with us by telephone, unless you instruct us otherwise in writing.

Tele-Account®. To obtain fund and account information through Vanguard’s automated telephone service, you must first establish a Personal Identification Number (PIN) by calling Tele-Account at 800-662-6273.

Proof of a caller’s authority. We reserve the right to refuse a telephone request if the caller is unable to provide the requested information or if we reasonably believe that the caller is not an individual authorized to act on the account. Before we allow a caller to act on an account, we may request the following information:

• Authorization to act on the account (as the account owner or by legal documentation or other means).

• Account registration and address.

• Fund name and account number, if applicable.

• Other information relating to the caller, the account owner, or the account.

Good Order

We reserve the right to reject any transaction instructions that are not in “good order.” Good order generally means that your instructions:

• Are provided by the person(s) authorized in accordance with Vanguard’s policies and procedures to access the account and request transactions.

• Include the fund name and account number.

• Include the amount of the transaction (stated in dollars, shares, or percentage).

30


 

• Have an original signature and date from the authorized person(s).

Written instructions also must generally include:

• Signature guarantees or notarized signatures, if required for the type of transaction.

(Call Vanguard for specific requirements.)

• Any supporting documentation that may be required.

Written instructions are acceptable when a Vanguard form is not applicable. The requirements vary among types of accounts and transactions. For more information, consult our website at vanguard.com or see Contacting Vanguard.

Vanguard reserves the right, without notice, to revise the requirements for good order.

Future Trade-Date Requests

Vanguard does not accept requests to hold a purchase, conversion, redemption, or exchange transaction for a future date. All such requests will receive trade dates as previously described in Purchasing Shares, Converting Shares, Redeeming Shares, and

Exchanging Shares. Vanguard reserves the right to return future-dated purchase checks.

Accounts With More Than One Owner

If an account has more than one owner or authorized person, Vanguard generally will accept instructions from any one owner or authorized person.

Responsibility for Fraud

Vanguard will not be responsible for any account losses because of fraud if we reasonably believe that the person transacting business on an account is authorized to do so. Please take precautions to protect yourself from fraud. Keep your account information private, and immediately review any account statements or other information that we provide to you. It is important that you contact Vanguard immediately about any transactions or changes to your account that you believe to be unauthorized.

Uncashed Checks

Please cash your distribution or redemption checks promptly. Vanguard will not pay interest on uncashed checks. Vanguard may be required to transfer assets related to uncashed checks to a state under the state’s abandoned property law.

Dormant Accounts

If your account has no activity in it for a period of time, Vanguard may be required to transfer it to a state under the state’s abandoned property law.

31


 

Unusual Circumstances

If you experience difficulty contacting Vanguard online or by telephone, you can send us your transaction request by regular or express mail. See Contacting Vanguard for addresses.

Investing With Vanguard Through Other Firms

You may purchase or sell shares of most Vanguard funds through a financial intermediary, such as a bank, a broker, or an investment advisor. Please consult your financial intermediary to determine which, if any, shares are available through that firm and to learn about other rules that may apply.

Please see Frequent-Trading LimitationsAccounts Held by Intermediaries for information about the assessment of any purchase or redemption fees and the monitoring of frequent trading for accounts held by intermediaries.

Account Service Fee

Vanguard charges a $20 account service fee on fund accounts that have a balance below $10,000 for any reason, including market fluctuation. The account service fee applies to both retirement and nonretirement fund accounts and will be assessed on fund accounts in all Vanguard funds, regardless of the account minimum. The fee, which will be collected by redeeming fund shares in the amount of $20, will be deducted from a fund account only once per calendar year.

If you register on vanguard.com and elect to receive electronic delivery of statements, reports, and other materials for all of your fund accounts, the account service fee for balances below $10,000 will not be charged, so long as that election remains in effect.

The account service fee also does not apply to the following:

• Money market sweep accounts owned in connection with a Vanguard Brokerage Services® account.

• Accounts held through intermediaries.

• Accounts held by institutional clients.

• Accounts held by Voyager, Voyager Select, Flagship, and Flagship Select clients.

Eligibility is based on total household assets held at Vanguard, with a minimum of $50,000 to qualify for Vanguard Voyager Services®, $500,000 for Vanguard Voyager Select Services®, $1 million for Vanguard Flagship Services®, and $10 million for Vanguard Flagship Select Services™. Vanguard determines eligibility by aggregating assets of all qualifying accounts held by the investor and immediate family members who reside at the same address. Aggregate assets include investments in Vanguard mutual funds, Vanguard ETFs®, certain annuities through Vanguard, the Vanguard 529 Plan, and certain small-business accounts. Assets in employer-sponsored retirement plans for which Vanguard provides recordkeeping services may be included in determining eligibility if the investor also has a personal account holding Vanguard

32


 

mutual funds. Note that assets held in a Vanguard Brokerage Services account (other than Vanguard funds, including Vanguard ETFs) are not included when determining a household’s eligibility.

• Participant accounts in employer-sponsored defined contribution plans.* Please consult your enrollment materials for the rules that apply to your account.

• Section 529 college savings plans.

* The following Vanguard fund accounts have alternative fee structures: SIMPLE IRAs, certain Individual 403(b)(7) Custodial Accounts, Vanguard Retirement Investment Program pooled plans, and Vanguard Individual 401(k) Plans.

Low-Balance Accounts

The Fund reserves the right to liquidate a fund account whose balance falls below the account minimum for any reason, including market fluctuation. This policy applies to nonretirement fund accounts and accounts that are held through intermediaries.

Right to Change Policies

In addition to the rights expressly stated elsewhere in this prospectus, Vanguard reserves the right, without notice, to (1) alter, add, or discontinue any conditions of purchase (including eligibility requirements), redemption, exchange, conversion, service, or privilege at any time; (2) accept initial purchases by telephone; (3) freeze any account and/or suspend account services if Vanguard has received reasonable notice of a dispute regarding the assets in an account, including notice of a dispute between the registered or beneficial account owners, or if Vanguard reasonably believes a fraudulent transaction may occur or has occurred; (4) temporarily freeze any account and/or suspend account services upon initial notification to Vanguard of the death of the shareholder until Vanguard receives required documentation in good order; (5) alter, impose, discontinue, or waive any purchase fee, redemption fee, account service fee, or other fees charged to a group of shareholders; and (6) redeem an account or suspend account privileges, without the owner’s permission to do so, in cases of threatening conduct or activity Vanguard believes to be suspicious, fraudulent, or illegal. Changes may affect any or all investors. These actions will be taken when, at the sole discretion of Vanguard management, Vanguard reasonably believes they are deemed to be in the best interest of a fund.

Share Classes

Vanguard reserves the right, without notice, to change the eligibility requirements of its share classes, including the types of clients who are eligible to purchase each share class.

33


 

Fund and Account Updates

Confirmation Statements

We will send (or provide through our website, whichever you prefer) a confirmation of your trade date and the amount of your transaction when you buy, sell, exchange, or convert shares. However, we will not send confirmations reflecting only checkwriting redemptions or the reinvestment of dividend or capital gains distributions. For any month in which you had a checkwriting redemption, a Checkwriting Activity Statement will be sent to you itemizing the checkwriting redemptions for that month. Promptly review each confirmation statement that we provide to you. It is important that you contact Vanguard immediately with any questions you may have about any transaction reflected on a confirmation statement, or Vanguard will consider the transaction properly processed.

Portfolio Summaries

We will send (or provide through our website, whichever you prefer) quarterly portfolio summaries to help you keep track of your accounts throughout the year. If you prefer, you may request to receive monthly portfolio summaries. Each summary shows the market value of your account at the close of the statement period, as well as all distributions, purchases, redemptions, exchanges, transfers, and conversions for the current calendar quarter (or month). Promptly review each summary that we provide to you. It is important that you contact Vanguard immediately with any questions you may have about any transaction reflected on the summary, or Vanguard will consider the transaction properly processed.

Tax Information Statements

For most accounts, we are required to provide annual tax forms to assist you in preparing your income tax returns. We will generally send (or provide through our website, whichever you prefer) annual tax forms in January. These forms will report the previous year’s dividends, capital gains distributions, proceeds from the sale of shares from taxable accounts, and distributions from IRAs and other retirement plans. Registered users of vanguard.com can also view these forms through our website. Vanguard may also provide you with additional tax-related documentation. For more information, consult our website at vanguard.com or see Contacting Vanguard.

Annual and Semiannual Reports

We will send (or provide through our website, whichever you prefer) reports about Vanguard International High Dividend Yield Index Fund twice a year, in June and December. These reports include overviews of the financial markets and provide the following specific Fund information:

• Performance assessments and comparisons with industry benchmarks.

34


 

• Financial statements with listings of Fund holdings.

Portfolio Holdings

Please consult the Fund‘s Statement of Additional Information or our website for a description of the policies and procedures that govern disclosure of the Fund’s portfolio holdings.

Contacting Vanguard  
 
 
Web  
Vanguard.com For the most complete source of Vanguard news
  For fund, account, and service information
  For most account transactions
  For literature requests
  24 hours a day, 7 days a week
 
Phone  
Vanguard Tele-Account® 800-662-6273 For automated fund and account information
  Toll-free, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week
Investor Information 800-662-7447 For fund and service information
(Text telephone for people with hearing For literature requests
impairment at 800-749-7273) Hours of operation: Monday–Friday, 8 a.m. to 10 p.m.,
  Eastern time; Saturday, 9 a.m. to 4 p.m., Eastern time
Client Services 800-662-2739 For account information
(Text telephone for people with hearing For most account transactions
impairment at 800-749-7273) Hours of operation: Monday–Friday, 8 a.m. to 10 p.m.,
  Eastern time; Saturday, 9 a.m. to 4 p.m., Eastern time
Institutional Division For information and services for large institutional investors
888-809-8102 Hours of operation: Monday–Friday, 8:30 a.m. to 9 p.m.,
  Eastern time
Financial Advisor and Intermediary For information and services for financial intermediaries
Sales Support 800-997-2798 including financial advisors, broker-dealers, trust institutions,
  and insurance companies
  Hours of operation: Monday–Friday, 8:30 a.m. to 7 p.m.,
  Eastern time
Financial Advisory and Intermediary For account information and trading support for financial
Trading Support 800-669-0498 intermediaries including financial advisors, broker-dealers,
  trust institutions, and insurance companies
  Hours of operation: Monday–Friday, 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m.,
  Eastern time

 

35


 

Vanguard Addresses

Please be sure to use the correct address. Use of an incorrect address could delay the processing of your transaction.

Regular Mail (Individuals) The Vanguard Group      
  P.O. Box 1110      
  Valley Forge, PA 19482-1110      
Regular Mail (Institutions and Intermediaries) The Vanguard Group      
  P.O. Box 2900      
  Valley Forge, PA 19482-2900      
Registered, Express, or Overnight Mail The Vanguard Group      
  455 Devon Park Drive      
  Wayne, PA 19087-1815      
 
 
Additional Information          
 
 
        Vanguard  
  Inception Suitable Newspaper Fund CUSIP
  Date for IRAs Abbreviation Number Number
International High Dividend Yield Index Fund          
Investor Shares Yes 1530
Admiral Shares Yes 0530

 

CFA® is a registered trademark owned by CFA Institute.

London Stock Exchange Group companies includes FTSE International Limited (“FTSE”), Frank Russell Company (“Russell”), MTS Next Limited (“MTS”), and FTSE TMX Global Debt Capital Markets Inc (“FTSE TMX”). All rights reserved. “FTSE®”, “Russell®”, “MTS®”, “FTSE TMX®” and “FTSE Russell” and other service marks and trademarks related to the FTSE or Russell indexes are trade marks of the London Stock Exchange Group companies and are used by FTSE, MTS, FTSE TMX and Russell under licence.

All information is provided for information purposes only. Every effort is made to ensure that all information given in this publication is accurate, but no responsibility or liability can be accepted by the London Stock Exchange Group companies nor its licensors for any errors or for any loss from use of this publication. Neither the London Stock Exchange Group companies nor any of their licensors make any claim, prediction, warranty or representation whatsoever, expressly or impliedly, either as to the results to be obtained from the use of the FTSE All-World ex US High Dividend Yield Index or the fitness or suitability of the Index for any particular purpose to which it might be put. The London Stock Exchange Group companies do not provide investment advice and nothing in this document should be taken as constituting financial or investment advice. The London Stock Exchange Group companies make no representation regarding the advisability of investing in any asset. A decision to invest in any such asset should not be made in reliance on any information herein. Indexes cannot be invested in directly. Inclusion of an asset in an index is not a recommendation to buy, sell or hold that asset. The general information contained in this publication should not be acted upon without obtaining specific legal, tax, and investment advice from a licensed professional. No part of this information may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission of the London Stock Exchange Group companies. Distribution of the London Stock Exchange Group companies’ index values and the use of their indexes to create financial products require a licence with FTSE, FTSE TMX, MTS and/or Russell and/or its licensors.

36


 

Glossary of Investment Terms

Active Management. An investment approach that seeks to exceed the average returns of a particular financial market or market segment. In selecting securities to buy and sell, active managers may rely on, among other things, research, market forecasts, quantitative models, and their own judgment and experience.

Capital Gains Distribution. Payment to mutual fund shareholders of gains realized on securities that a fund has sold at a profit, minus any realized losses.

Common Stock. A security representing ownership rights in a corporation.

Dividend Distribution. Payment to mutual fund shareholders of income from interest or dividends generated by a fund’s investments.

Expense Ratio. A fund’s total annual operating expenses expressed as a percentage of the fund’s average net assets. The expense ratio includes management and administrative expenses, but it does not include the transaction costs of buying and selling portfolio securities.

Inception Date. The date on which the assets of a fund (or one of its share classes) are first invested in accordance with the fund’s investment objective. For funds with a subscription period, the inception date is the day after that period ends. Investment performance is generally measured from the inception date.

Indexing. A low-cost investment strategy in which a mutual fund attempts to track—rather than outperform—a specified market benchmark, or “index.”

Mutual Fund. An investment company that pools the money of many people and invests it in a variety of securities in an effort to achieve a specific objective over time.

Securities. Stocks, bonds, money market instruments, and other investments.

Total Return. A percentage change, over a specified time period, in a mutual fund’s net asset value, assuming the reinvestment of all distributions of dividends and capital gains.

Volatility. The fluctuations in value of a mutual fund or other security. The greater a fund’s volatility, the wider the fluctuations in its returns.

Yield. Income (interest or dividends) earned by an investment, expressed as a percentage of the investment’s price.

37


 

  P.O. Box 2600
  Valley Forge, PA 19482-2600
 
 
 
 
Connect with Vanguard® > vanguard.com  
 
 
 
For More Information If you are a current Vanguard shareholder and would
If you would like more information about Vanguard like information about your account, account
International High Dividend Yield Index Fund, the transactions, and/or account statements, please call:
following documents are available free upon request:  
  Client Services Department
Annual/Semiannual Reports to Shareholders Telephone: 800-662-2739
Additional information about the Fund’s investments Text telephone for people with hearing impairment:
will be available in the Fund’s annual and semiannual 800-749-7273
reports to shareholders. In the annual report, you will  
  Information Provided by the Securities and
find a discussion of the market conditions and  
  Exchange Commission (SEC)
investment strategies that significantly affected the  
  You can review and copy information about the Fund
Fund’s performance during its last fiscal year.  
  (including the SAI) at the SEC’s Public Reference Room
Statement of Additional Information (SAI) in Washington, DC. To find out more about this public
The SAI provides more detailed information about the service, call the SEC at 202-551-8090. Reports and
Fund and is incorporated by reference into (and thus other information about the Fund are also available in
legally a part of) this prospectus. the EDGAR database on the SEC’s website at
  www.sec.gov, or you can receive copies of this
To receive a free copy of the latest annual or semiannual  
  information, for a fee, by electronic request at the
report (once available) or the SAI, or to request  
  following email address: publicinfo@sec.gov, or by
additional information about the Fund or other Vanguard  
  writing the Public Reference Section, Securities and
funds, please visit vanguard.com or contact us as  
  Exchange Commission, Washington, DC 20549-1520.
follows:  
  Fund’s Investment Company Act file number: 811-07443
The Vanguard Group  
Investor Information Department  
P.O. Box 2600  
Valley Forge, PA 19482-2600  
Telephone: 800-662-7447  
Text telephone for people with hearing impairment:  
800-749-7273  
 
 
  © 2015 The Vanguard Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
  Vanguard Marketing Corporation, Distributor.
 
  P XXX 122015

 


Vanguard® International High Dividend Yield ETF
Prospectus
 
 
 
December , 2015
 
 
Exchange-traded fund shares that are not individually redeemable and are listed on
NASDAQ
 
Vanguard International High Dividend Yield Index Fund ETF Shares (•)
 
 
Subject to Completion
Preliminary Prospectus
Dated September 22, 2015
 
Information contained in this prospectus is subject to completion or amendment.
A registration statement for Vanguard International High Dividend Yield Index Fund
has been filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission but has not yet
become effective.
 
Shares of Vanguard International High Dividend Yield Index Fund may not be sold,
nor may offers to buy be accepted, prior to the time the registration statement
becomes effective. This communication shall not constitute an offer to sell, nor
shall there be any sale of these securities in any state in which such offer,
solicitation, or sale would be unlawful prior to registration or qualification under
the securities laws of any such state.
 
 
 
This is the Fund's initial prospectus, so it contains no performance data.
The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) has not approved or disapproved these securities or
passed upon the adequacy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 


 

Contents      
 
 
Vanguard ETF Summary 1 More on the Fund and ETF Shares 9
Investing in Vanguard ETF Shares 6 The Fund and Vanguard 18
Investing in Index Funds 8 Investment Advisor 18
    Dividends, Capital Gains, and Taxes 20
    Share Price and Market Price 22
    Additional Information 24
    Glossary of Investment Terms 25

 


 

ETF Summary

Investment Objective

The Fund seeks to track the performance of a benchmark index that measures the investment return of non-U.S. companies that are characterized by high dividend yield.

Fees and Expenses

The following table describes the fees and expenses you may pay if you buy and hold ETF Shares of the Fund.

Shareholder Fees      
(Fees paid directly from your investment)      
 
Transaction Fee on Purchases and Sales None through Vanguard    
  (Broker fees vary)    
Transaction Fee on Reinvested Dividends None through Vanguard    
  (Broker fees vary)    
Transaction Fee on Conversion to ETF Shares None through Vanguard    
  (Broker fees vary)    
 
Annual Fund Operating Expenses      
(Expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)    
 
Management Fees   XX.XX%  
12b-1 Distribution Fee   None  
Other Expenses   XX.XX%  
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses1   0.30 %

 

1 The expense information shown in the table reflects estimated amounts for the current fiscal year.

1


 

Example

The following example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund’s ETF Shares with the cost of investing in other funds. It illustrates the hypothetical expenses that you would incur over various periods if you invested $10,000 in the Fund’s shares. This example assumes that the Shares provide a return of 5% each year and that total annual fund operating expenses remain as stated in the preceding table. The results apply whether or not you redeem your investment at the end of the given period. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:

  1 Year   3 Years
$ 31   $ 97

 

This example does not include the brokerage commissions that you may pay to buy and sell ETF Shares of the Fund.

Portfolio Turnover

The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in more taxes when Fund shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the previous expense example, reduce the Fund’s performance. The Fund has no operating history and therefore has no portfolio turnover information.

Principal Investment Strategies

The Fund employs an indexing investment approach designed to track the performance of the FTSE All-World ex US High Dividend Yield Index, which focuses on companies located in developed and emerging markets, excluding the United States, that are forecasted to have above-average dividend yields. The Fund invests by sampling the Index, meaning that it holds a broadly diversified collection of securities that, in the aggregate, approximates the full Index in terms of key characteristics. These key characteristics include industry weightings and market capitalization, as well as certain financial measures, such as price/earnings ratio and dividend yield.

2


 

Principal Risks

An investment in the Fund could lose money over short or even long periods. You should expect the Fund’s share price and total return to fluctuate within a wide range, like the fluctuations of global stock markets. The Fund is subject to the following risks, which could affect the Fund’s performance:

Stock market risk, which is the chance that stock prices overall will decline. Stock markets tend to move in cycles, with periods of rising prices and periods of falling prices. The Fund’s investments in foreign stocks can be riskier than U.S. stock investments. Foreign stocks tend to be more volatile and less liquid than U.S. stocks. The prices of foreign stocks and the prices of U.S. stocks may move in opposite directions. In addition, the Fund’s target index may, at times, become focused in stocks of a particular market sector, which would subject the Fund to proportionately higher exposure to the risks of that sector.

Country/regional risk, which is the chance that world events—such as political upheaval, financial troubles, or natural disasters—will adversely affect the value of securities issued by companies in foreign countries or regions. Because the Fund may invest a large portion of its assets in securities of companies located in any one country or region, the Fund’s performance may be hurt disproportionately by the poor performance of its investments in that area. Country/regional risk is especially high in emerging markets.

Emerging markets risk, which is the chance that the stocks of companies located in emerging markets will be substantially more volatile, and substantially less liquid, than the stocks of companies located in more developed foreign markets because, among other factors, emerging markets can have greater custodial and operational risks; less developed legal, regulatory, and accounting systems; and greater political, social, and economic instability than developed markets.

Currency risk, which is the chance that the value of a foreign investment, measured in U.S. dollars, will decrease because of unfavorable changes in currency exchange rates. Currency risk is especially high in emerging markets.

Index sampling risk, which is the chance that the securities selected for the Fund, in the aggregate, will not provide investment performance matching that of the Fund’s target index. Index sampling risk for the Fund should be low.

Investment style risk, which is the chance that returns from dividend-paying stocks will trail returns from global stock markets. Dividend-paying stocks tend to go through cycles of doing better—or worse—than the global markets in general. These periods have, in the past, lasted for as long as several years.

3


 

Because ETF Shares are traded on an exchange, they are subject to additional risks:

• The Fund’s ETF Shares are listed for trading on NASDAQ and are bought and sold on the secondary market at market prices. Although it is expected that the market price of an ETF Share typically will approximate its net asset value (NAV), there may be times when the market price and the NAV differ significantly. Thus, you may pay more or less than NAV when you buy ETF Shares on the secondary market, and you may receive more or less than NAV when you sell those shares.

• Although the Fund’s ETF Shares are listed for trading on NASDAQ, it is possible that an active trading market may not be maintained.

• Trading of the Fund’s ETF Shares may be halted by the activation of individual or marketwide trading halts (which halt trading for a specific period of time when the price of a particular security or overall market prices decline by a specified percentage). Trading of the Fund’s ETF Shares may also be halted if (1) the shares are delisted from NASDAQ without first being listed on another exchange or (2) NASDAQ officials determine that such action is appropriate in the interest of a fair and orderly market or for the protection of investors.

An investment in the Fund is not a deposit of a bank and is not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other government agency.

Annual Total Returns

This is the Fund’s initial prospectus, so it containts no Fund performance data.

Investment Advisor
The Vanguard Group, Inc. (Vanguard)

Portfolio Managers

Justin E. Hales, CFP, Portfolio Manager at Vanguard. He has co-managed the Fund since its inception in 2015.

Michael Perre, Principal of Vanguard. He has co-managed the Fund since its inception in 2015.

4


 

Purchase and Sale of Fund Shares

You can buy and sell ETF Shares of the Fund through a brokerage firm. The price you pay or receive for ETF Shares will be the prevailing market price, which may be more or less than the NAV of the shares. The brokerage firm may charge you a commission to execute the transaction. Unless imposed by your brokerage firm, there is no minimum dollar amount you must invest and no minimum number of shares you must buy. ETF Shares of the Fund cannot be directly purchased from or redeemed with the Fund, except by certain authorized broker-dealers. These broker-dealers may purchase and redeem ETF Shares only in large blocks (Creation Units) worth several million dollars, typically in exchange for baskets of securities. For this Fund, the number of ETF Shares in a Creation Unit is X.

Tax Information

The Fund’s distributions may be taxable as ordinary income or capital gain. If you are investing through a tax-deferred retirement account, such as an IRA, special tax rules apply.

Payments to Financial Intermediaries

The Fund and its investment advisor do not pay financial intermediaries for sales of Fund shares.

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Investing in Vanguard ETF® Shares

What Are Vanguard ETF Shares?

Vanguard ETF Shares are an exchange-traded class of shares issued by certain Vanguard mutual funds. ETF Shares represent an interest in the portfolio of stocks or bonds held by the issuing fund. This prospectus describes International High Dividend Yield ETF, a class of shares issued by Vanguard International High Dividend Yield Index Fund. In addition to ETF Shares, the Fund offers one conventional (not exchange-traded) class of shares. This prospectus, however, relates only to ETF Shares.

How Are Vanguard ETF Shares Different From Conventional Mutual Fund Shares?

Conventional mutual fund shares can be purchased from and redeemed with the issuing fund for cash at the net asset value (NAV), typically calculated once a day. ETF Shares, by contrast, cannot be purchased directly from or redeemed directly with the issuing fund by an individual investor. Rather, ETF Shares can only be purchased or redeemed by or through certain authorized broker-dealers. These broker-dealers may purchase and redeem ETF Shares only in large blocks (Creation Units) worth several million dollars, usually in exchange for baskets of securities and not for cash (although some funds issue and redeem Creation Units in exchange for cash or a combination of cash and securities).

An organized secondary trading market is expected to exist for ETF Shares, unlike conventional mutual fund shares, because ETF Shares are listed for trading on a national securities exchange. Investors can purchase and sell ETF Shares on the secondary market through a broker. Secondary-market transactions occur not at NAV, but at market prices that change throughout the day based on the supply of and demand for ETF Shares and on changes in the prices of the fund’s portfolio holdings.

The market price of a fund’s ETF Shares typically will differ somewhat from the NAV of those shares. The difference between market price and NAV is expected to be small most of the time, but in times of market disruption or extreme market volatility, the difference may become significant.

How Do I Buy and Sell Vanguard ETF Shares?

ETF Shares of the Fund are listed for trading on NASDAQ. You can buy and sell ETF Shares on the secondary market in the same way you buy and sell any other exchange-traded security—through a broker. Your broker may charge a commission to execute a transaction. You will also incur the cost of the “bid-ask spread,” which is the difference between the price a dealer will pay for a security and the somewhat higher price at which the dealer will sell the same security. Since secondary-market transactions occur at market prices, you may pay more (premium) or less (discount) than NAV when you buy ETF Shares and receive more or less than NAV when you sell

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those shares. In times of severe market disruption, the bid-ask spread and premiums/ discounts can increase significantly. Unless imposed by your broker, there is no minimum dollar amount you must invest and no minimum number of ETF Shares you must buy.

Your ownership of ETF Shares will be shown on the records of the broker through which you hold the shares. Vanguard will not have any record of your ownership. Your account information will be maintained by your broker, which will provide you with account statements, confirmations of your purchases and sales of ETF Shares, and tax information. Your broker also will be responsible for ensuring that you receive income and capital gains distributions as well as shareholder reports and other communications from the fund whose ETF Shares you own. You will receive other services (e.g., dividend reinvestment and average cost information) only if your broker offers these services.

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Investing in Index Funds

What Is Indexing?

Indexing is an investment strategy for tracking the performance of a specified market benchmark, or “index.” An index is a group of securities whose overall performance is used as a standard to measure the investment performance of a particular market. There are many types of indexes. Some represent entire markets—such as the U.S. stock market or the U.S. bond market. Other indexes cover market segments—such as small-capitalization stocks or short-term bonds. The index sponsor determines the securities to include in the index, the weighting of each security in the index, and the appropriate time to make changes to the composition of the index. One cannot invest directly in an index.

An index fund holds all, or a representative sample, of the securities that make up its target index. Index funds attempt to mirror the performance of the target index, for better or worse. However, an index fund generally does not perform exactly like its target index. For example, like all mutual funds, index funds have operating expenses and transaction costs. Market indexes do not, and therefore they will usually have a slight performance advantage over funds that track them.

Index funds typically have the following characteristics:

Variety of investments. Most Vanguard index funds generally invest in the securities of a variety of companies and industries.

Relative performance consistency. Because they seek to track market benchmarks, index funds usually do not perform dramatically better or worse than their benchmarks.

Low cost. Index funds are inexpensive to run compared with actively managed funds.

They have low or no research costs and typically keep trading activity—and thus brokerage commissions and other transaction costs—to a minimum compared with actively managed funds.

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More on the Fund and ETF Shares

This prospectus describes the principal risks you would face as a Fund shareholder. It is important to keep in mind one of the main axioms of investing: generally, the higher the risk of losing money, the higher the potential reward. The reverse, also, is generally true: the lower the risk, the lower the potential reward. As you consider an investment in any mutual fund, you should take into account your personal tolerance for fluctuations in the securities markets. Look for this symbol  throughout the prospectus. It is used to mark detailed information about the more significant risks that you would confront as a Fund shareholder. To highlight terms and concepts important to mutual fund investors, we have provided Plain Talk® explanations along the way. Reading the prospectus will help you decide whether the Fund is the right investment for you. We suggest that you keep this prospectus for future reference.

Share Class Overview

This prospectus offers the Fund’s ETF Shares, an exchange-traded class of shares. A separate prospectus offers the Fund’s Investor Shares and Admiral™ Shares, which generally have investment minimums of $3,000 and $10,000, respectively.

All share classes offered by the Fund have the same investment objective, strategies, and policies. However, different share classes have different expenses; as a result, their investment performances will differ.

A Note to Investors

Vanguard ETF Shares can be purchased directly from the issuing Fund only by or through authorized broker-dealers in exchange for a basket of securities (or, in some cases, for cash or a combination of cash and securities) that is expected to be worth several million dollars. Most individual investors, therefore, will not be able to purchase ETF Shares directly from the Fund. Instead, these investors will purchase ETF Shares on the secondary market with the assistance of a broker.

Plain Talk About Fund Expenses
 
All mutual funds have operating expenses. These expenses, which are deducted
from a fund’s gross income, are expressed as a percentage of the net assets of
the fund. Assuming that operating expenses remain as stated in the Fees and
Expenses section, Vanguard International High Dividend Yield Index Fund ETF
Shares’ expense ratio would be 0.30%, or $3.00 per $1,000 of average net
assets.

 

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Plain Talk About Costs of Investing
 
Costs are an important consideration in choosing a mutual fund. That is because
you, as a shareholder, pay a proportionate share of the costs of operating a fund,
plus any transaction costs incurred when the fund buys or sells securities. These
costs can erode a substantial portion of the gross income or the capital
appreciation a fund achieves. Even seemingly small differences in expenses can,
over time, have a dramatic effect on a fund‘s performance.

 

The following sections explain the principal investment strategies and policies that the Fund uses in pursuit of its objective. The Fund‘s board of trustees, which oversees the Fund’s management, may change investment strategies or policies in the interest of shareholders without a shareholder vote, unless those strategies or policies are designated as fundamental. Note that the Fund’s investment objective is not fundamental and may be changed without a shareholder vote. Under normal circumstances, the Fund will invest at least 80% of its assets in the stocks that make up its target index. The Fund may change its 80% policy only upon 60 days‘ notice to shareholders.

Market Exposure

The Fund invests mainly in stocks of companies located in developed and emerging markets outside of the United States that are characterized by high dividend yields relative to global stock markets. Stocks purchased by the Fund are expected to pay high dividends and may also have the potential for long-term capital appreciation.


The Fund is subject to stock market risk, which is the chance that stock prices overall will decline. Stock markets tend to move in cycles, with periods of rising prices and periods of falling prices. The Fund’s investments in foreign stocks can be riskier than U.S. stock investments. Foreign stocks tend to be more volatile and less liquid than U.S. stocks. The prices of foreign stocks and the prices of U.S. stocks may move in opposite directions. In addition, the Fund’s target index may, at times, become focused in stocks of a particular market sector, which would subject the Fund to proportionately higher exposure to the risks of that sector.

To illustrate the volatility of foreign stock prices, the following table shows the best, worst, and average annual total returns for foreign stock markets over various periods as measured by the MSCI EAFE Index, a widely used barometer of foreign market activity. (Total returns consist of dividend income plus change in market price.) Note that the returns shown do not include the costs of buying and selling stocks or other expenses that a real-world investment portfolio would incur.

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Foreign Stock Market Returns                  
(1970–2014 )                
    1 Year 5 Years   10 Years   20 Years  
Best   69.4 % 36.1 % 22.0 % 15.5 %
Worst   –43.4   –4.7   0.8   3.1  
Average   11.3   9.7   10.2   10.3  

 

The table covers all of the 1-, 5-, 10-, and 20-year periods from 1970 through 2014. These average annual returns reflect past performance of foreign stocks; you should not regard them as an indication of future performance of either foreign markets as a whole or the Fund in particular.

Note that the MSCI EAFE Index does not take into account returns for emerging markets, which can be substantially more volatile and substantially less liquid than the more developed markets included in the Index. In addition, because the MSCI EAFE Index tracks the European and Pacific developed markets collectively, the returns in the preceding table do not reflect the variability of returns for these markets individually. To illustrate this variability, the following table shows returns for different foreign markets—as well as for the U.S. market for comparison—from 2005 through 2014, as measured by their respective indexes.

Returns for Various Stock Markets1              
  European   Pacific   Emerging   U.S.  
  Market2   Market2   Markets2   Market  
2005 9.42 % 22.64 % 34.00 % 4.91 %
2006 33.72   12.20   32.17   15.79  
2007 13.86   5.30   39.39   5.49  
2008 –46.42   –36.42   –53.33   –37.00  
2009 35.83   24.18   78.51   26.46  
2010 3.88   15.92   18.88   15.06  
2011 –11.06   –13.74   –18.42   2.11  
2012 19.12   14.42   18.22   16.00  
2013 25.23   18.27   –3.79   32.39  
2014 –6.18   –2.70   –2.19   13.69  

 

1 European market returns are measured by the MSCI Europe Index, Pacific market returns are measured by the MSCI Pacific Index, emerging markets returns are measured by the MSCI Emerging Markets Index, and U.S. market returns are measured by the S&P 500 Index.

2 MSCI Index returns are adjusted for withholding taxes.

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Keep in mind that these returns reflect past performance of the various indexes; you should not consider them as an indication of future performance of the indexes or of the Fund in particular.


The Fund is subject to country/regional risk and currency risk. Country/regional risk is the chance that world events—such as political upheaval, financial troubles, or natural disasters—will adversely affect the value of securities issued by companies in foreign countries or regions. Because the Fund may invest a large portion of its assets in securities of companies located in any one country or region, the Fund‘s performance may be hurt disproportionately by the poor performance of its investments in that area. Currency risk is the chance that the value of a foreign investment, measured in U.S. dollars, will decrease because of unfavorable changes in currency exchange rates. Country/regional risk and currency risk are especially high in emerging markets.


The Fund is subject to emerging markets risk, which is the chance that the stocks of companies located in emerging markets will be substantially more volatile, and substantially less liquid, than the stocks of companies located in more developed foreign markets because, among other factors, emerging markets can have greater custodial and operational risks; less developed legal, regulatory, and accounting systems; and greater political, social, and economic instability than developed markets.

Plain Talk About International Investing
 
U.S. investors who invest abroad will encounter risks not typically associated
with U.S. companies because foreign stock and bond markets operate differently
from the U.S. markets. For instance, foreign companies and governments are not
subject to the same accounting, auditing, and financial-reporting standards and
practices as U.S. companies and the U.S. government, and their stocks and
bonds may not be as liquid as those of similar U.S. entities. In addition, foreign
stock exchanges, brokers, companies, bond markets, and dealers may be subject
to less government supervision and regulation than their counterparts in the
United States. These factors, among others, could negatively affect the returns
U.S. investors receive from foreign investments.

 


The Fund is subject to investment style risk, which is the chance that returns from dividend-paying stocks will trail returns from global stock markets. Dividend-paying stocks tend to go through cycles of doing better—or worse—than the global markets in general. These periods have, in the past, lasted for as long as several years.

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Security Selection

The Fund attempts to track the investment performance of the FTSE All-World ex US High Dividend Yield Index, which consists of companies whose common stocks are characterized by high dividend yields relative to global stock markets. The FTSE All-World ex US High Dividend Yield Index is maintained by FTSE Group (FTSE), a widely known global index provider that currently calculates more than 100,000 indexes.

The Fund uses a sampling method of indexing, meaning that the Fund’s advisor, using computer programs, generally selects from the target index a representative sample of securities that will resemble the target index in terms of key risk factors and other characteristics. These include industry weightings, market capitalization, and other financial characteristics of stocks.


The Fund is subject to index sampling risk, which is the chance that the securities selected for the Fund, in the aggregate, will not provide investment performance matching that of the Fund’s target index. Index sampling risk for the Fund should be low.

Other Investment Policies and Risks

The Fund reserves the right to substitute a different index for the index it currently tracks if the current index is discontinued, if the Fund‘s agreement with the sponsor of its target index is terminated, or for any other reason determined in good faith by the Fund’s board of trustees. In any such instance, the substitute index would represent the same market segment as the current index.

To track its target index as closely as possible, the Fund attempts to remain fully invested in stocks. To help stay fully invested and to reduce transaction costs, the Fund may invest, to a limited extent, in derivatives, including stock futures. The Fund may also use derivatives such as total return swaps to obtain exposure to a stock, a basket of stocks, or an index. Generally speaking, a derivative is a financial contract whose value is based on the value of a financial asset (such as a stock, a bond, or a currency), a physical asset (such as gold, oil, or wheat), a market index (such as the S&P 500 Index), or a reference rate (such as LIBOR). Investments in derivatives may subject the Fund to risks different from, and possibly greater than, those of investments directly in the underlying securities, assets, or market indexes. The Fund will not use derivatives for speculation or for the purpose of leveraging (magnifying) investment returns.

The Fund may enter into foreign currency exchange forward contracts, which are a type of derivative, in order to maintain the same currency exposure as its respective index. A foreign currency exchange forward contract is an agreement to buy or sell a country’s currency at a specific price on a specific date, usually 30, 60, or 90 days in the future. In other words, the contract guarantees an exchange rate on a given date.

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These contracts, however, would not prevent the Fund’s securities from falling in value as a result of risks other than unfavorable currency exchange movements. The Fund may use these contracts to gain currency exposure when investing in stock index futures and to settle trades in a foreign currency.

Cash Management

The Fund‘s daily cash balance may be invested in one or more Vanguard CMT Funds, which are very low-cost money market funds. When investing in a Vanguard CMT Fund, the Fund bears its proportionate share of the at-cost expenses of the CMT Fund in which it invests.

Temporary Investment Measures

The Fund may temporarily depart from its normal investment policies and strategies when the advisor believes that doing so is in the Fund‘s best interest, so long as the alternative is consistent with the Fund‘s investment objective. For instance, the Fund may invest beyond its normal limits in derivatives or exchange-traded funds that are consistent with the Fund‘s objective when those instruments are more favorably priced or provide needed liquidity, as might be the case when the Fund receives large cash flows that it cannot prudently invest immediately.

Special Risks of Exchange-Traded Shares


ETF Shares are not individually redeemable. They can be redeemed with the issuing Fund at NAV only by or through authorized broker-dealers and only in large blocks known as Creation Units, which would cost millions of dollars to assemble. Consequently, if you want to liquidate some or all of your ETF Shares, you must sell them on the secondary market at prevailing market prices.


The market price of ETF Shares may differ from NAV. Although it is expected that the market price of an ETF Share typically will approximate its NAV, there may be times when the market price and the NAV differ significantly. Thus, you may pay more (premium) or less (discount) than NAV when you buy ETF Shares on the secondary market, and you may receive more or less than NAV when you sell those shares. These discounts and premiums are likely to be greatest during times of market disruption or extreme market volatility.

Vanguard’s website at vanguard.com shows the previous day’s closing NAV and closing market price for the Fund’s ETF Shares. The website also discloses, in the Premium/Discount Analysis section of the ETF Shares’ Price & Performance page, how frequently the Fund’s ETF Shares traded at a premium or discount to NAV (based on closing NAVs and market prices) and the magnitudes of such premiums and discounts.

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An active trading market may not exist. Although Vanguard ETF Shares are listed on a national securities exchange, it is possible that an active trading market may not be maintained. Although this could happen at any time, it is more likely to occur during times of severe market disruption. If you attempt to sell your ETF Shares when an active trading market is not functioning, you may have to sell at a significant discount to NAV. In extreme cases, you may not be able to sell your shares at all.


Trading may be halted. Trading of Vanguard ETF Shares on an exchange may be halted by the activation of individual or marketwide trading halts (which halt trading for a specific period of time when the price of a particular security or overall market prices decline by a specified percentage). Trading of ETF Shares may also be halted if (1) the shares are delisted from the listing exchange without first being listed on another exchange or (2) exchange officials determine that such action is appropriate in the interest of a fair and orderly market or for the protection of investors.

Conversion Privilege

Owners of conventional shares issued by the Fund may convert those shares to ETF Shares of equivalent value of the same fund. Please note that investors who own conventional shares through a 401(k) plan or other employer-sponsored retirement or benefit plan generally may not convert those shares to ETF Shares and should check with their plan sponsor or recordkeeper. ETF Shares, whether acquired through a conversion or purchased on the secondary market, cannot be converted to conventional shares. Also, ETF Shares of one fund cannot be exchanged for ETF Shares of another fund.

You must hold ETF Shares in a brokerage account. Thus, before converting conventional shares to ETF Shares, you must have an existing, or open a new, brokerage account. This account may be with Vanguard Brokerage Services® (Vanguard Brokerage) or with any other brokerage firm. To initiate a conversion of conventional shares to ETF Shares, please contact your broker.

Vanguard Brokerage does not impose a fee on conversions from Vanguard conventional shares to Vanguard ETF Shares. However, other brokerage firms may charge a fee to process a conversion. Vanguard reserves the right, in the future, to impose a transaction fee on conversions or to limit or terminate the conversion privilege.

Converting conventional shares to ETF Shares is generally accomplished as follows. First, after your broker notifies Vanguard of your request to convert, Vanguard will transfer your conventional shares from your account to the broker’s omnibus account with Vanguard (an account maintained by the broker on behalf of all its customers who hold conventional Vanguard fund shares through the broker). After the transfer, Vanguard’s records will reflect your broker, not you, as the owner of the shares. Next,

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your broker will instruct Vanguard to convert the appropriate number or dollar amount of conventional shares in its omnibus account to ETF Shares of equivalent value, based on the respective NAVs of the two share classes.

Your Fund’s transfer agent will reflect ownership of all ETF Shares in the name of the Depository Trust Company (DTC). The DTC will keep track of which ETF Shares belong to your broker, and your broker, in turn, will keep track of which ETF Shares belong to you.

Because the DTC is unable to handle fractional shares, only whole shares can be converted. For example, if you owned 300.250 conventional shares, and this was equivalent in value to 90.750 ETF Shares, the DTC account would receive 90 ETF Shares. Conventional shares with a value equal to 0.750 ETF Shares (in this example, that would be 2.481 conventional shares) would remain in the broker’s omnibus account with Vanguard. Your broker then could either (1) credit your account with 0.750 ETF Shares or (2) redeem the 2.481 conventional shares for cash at NAV and deliver that cash to your account. If your broker chose to redeem your conventional shares, you would realize a gain or loss on the redemption that must be reported on your tax return (unless you hold the shares in an IRA or other tax-deferred account). Please consult your broker for information on how it will handle the conversion process, including whether it will impose a fee to process a conversion.

If you convert your conventional shares to ETF Shares through Vanguard Brokerage, all conventional shares for which you request conversion will be converted to ETF Shares of equivalent value. Because no fractional shares will have to be sold, the transaction will not be taxable.

Here are some important points to keep in mind when converting conventional shares of a Vanguard fund to ETF Shares:

• The conversion process can take anywhere from several days to several weeks, depending on your broker. Vanguard generally will process conversion requests either on the day they are received or on the next business day. Vanguard imposes conversion blackout windows around the dates when a fund with ETF Shares declares dividends. This is necessary to prevent a shareholder from collecting a dividend from both the conventional share class currently held and also from the ETF share class to which the shares will be converted.

• Until the conversion process is complete, you will remain fully invested in a fund’s conventional shares, and your investment will increase or decrease in value in tandem with the NAV of those shares.

• The conversion transaction is nontaxable except, if applicable, to the very limited extent previously described.

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A precautionary note to investment companies: Vanguard ETF Shares are issued by registered investment companies, and therefore the acquisition of such shares by other investment companies is subject to the restrictions of Section 12(d)(1) of the Investment Company Act of 1940. Vanguard has obtained an SEC exemptive order that allows registered investment companies to invest in the issuing funds beyond the limits of Section 12(d)(1), subject to certain terms and conditions, including the requirement to enter into a participation agreement with Vanguard.

Frequent Trading and Market-Timing

Unlike frequent trading of a Vanguard fund’s conventional (i.e., not exchange-traded) classes of shares, frequent trading of ETF Shares does not disrupt portfolio management, increase the fund’s trading costs, lead to realization of capital gains by the fund, or otherwise harm fund shareholders. The vast majority of trading in ETF Shares occurs on the secondary market. Because these trades do not involve the issuing fund, they do not harm the fund or its shareholders. A few institutional investors are authorized to purchase and redeem ETF Shares directly with the issuing fund. Because these trades typically are effected in kind (i.e., for securities and not for cash), they do not cause any of the harmful effects to the issuing fund (as previously noted) that may result from frequent cash trades. For these reasons, the board of trustees of each fund that issues ETF Shares has determined that it is not necessary to adopt policies and procedures to detect and deter frequent trading and market-timing of ETF Shares.

Portfolio Holdings

Please consult the Fund‘s Statement of Additional Information or our website for a description of the policies and procedures that govern disclosure of the Fund’s portfolio holdings.

Turnover Rate

Although the Fund generally seeks to invest for the long term, the Fund may sell securities regardless of how long they have been held. Generally, an index fund sells securities in response to redemption requests from shareholders of conventional (not exchange-traded) shares or to changes in the composition of its target index. The Fund has no operating history and therefore has no portfolio turnover information.

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Plain Talk About Turnover Rate
 
Turnover rate gives an indication of how transaction costs, which are not included
in the fund’s expense ratio, could affect the fund’s future returns. In general, the
greater the volume of buying and selling by the fund, the greater the impact that
brokerage commissions and other transaction costs will have on its return. Also,
funds with high turnover rates may be more likely to generate capital gains,
including short-term capital gains, that must be distributed to shareholders as
taxable income.

 

The Fund and Vanguard

The Fund is a member of The Vanguard Group, a family of more than 190 mutual funds holding assets of approximately $2.9 trillion. All of the funds that are members of The Vanguard Group (other than funds of funds) share in the expenses associated with administrative services and business operations, such as personnel, office space, and equipment.

Vanguard Marketing Corporation provides marketing services to the funds. Although shareholders do not pay sales commissions or 12b-1 distribution fees, each fund (other than a fund of funds) or each share class of a fund (in the case of a fund with multiple share classes) pays its allocated share of the Vanguard funds’ marketing costs.

Plain Talk About Vanguard’s Unique Corporate Structure
 
The Vanguard Group is truly a mutual mutual fund company. It is owned jointly by
the funds it oversees and thus indirectly by the shareholders in those funds.
Most other mutual funds are operated by management companies that may be
owned by one person, by a private group of individuals, or by public investors
who own the management company’s stock. The management fees charged by
these companies include a profit component over and above the companies’ cost
of providing services. By contrast, Vanguard provides services to its member
funds on an at-cost basis, with no profit component, which helps to keep the
funds’ expenses low.

 

Investment Advisor

The Vanguard Group, Inc. (Vanguard), P.O. Box 2600, Valley Forge, PA 19482, which began operations in 1975, serves as advisor to the Fund through its Equity Investment Group. As of August 31, 2015, Vanguard served as advisor for approximately $2.4 trillion in assets. Vanguard provides investment advisory services to the Fund on

18


 

an at-cost basis, subject to the supervision and oversight of the trustees and officers of the Fund.

For a discussion of why the board of trustees approved the Fund’s investment advisory arrangement, see the semiannual report to shareholders covering the fiscal period ended April 30, which will be available 60 days after that date.

Vanguard’s Equity Investment Group is overseen by:

Mortimer J. Buckley, Chief Investment Officer and Managing Director of Vanguard. As Chief Investment Officer, he is responsible for the oversight of Vanguard’s Equity Investment and Fixed Income Groups. The investments managed by these two groups include active quantitative equity funds, equity index funds, active bond funds, index bond funds, stable value portfolios, and money market funds. Mr. Buckley joined Vanguard in 1991 and has held various senior leadership positions with Vanguard. He received his A.B. in economics from Harvard and an M.B.A. from Harvard Business School.

Joseph Brennan, CFA, Principal of Vanguard and global head of Vanguard’s Equity Index Group. He has oversight responsibility for all equity index funds managed by the Equity Investment Group. He first joined Vanguard in 1991. He received his B.A. in economics from Fairfield University and an M.S. in finance from Drexel University.

John Ameriks, Ph.D., Principal of Vanguard and head of Vanguard’s Quantitative Equity Group. He has oversight responsibility for all active quantitative equity funds managed by the Equity Investment Group. He joined Vanguard in 2003. He received his A.B. in economics from Stanford University and a Ph.D. in economics from Columbia University.

The managers primarily responsible for the day-to-day management of the Fund are:

Justin E. Hales, CFP, Portfolio Manager at Vanguard. He has been with Vanguard since 2004, has worked in investment management since 2006, has managed investment portfolios since 2014, and has co-managed the Fund since its inception in 2015. Education: B.A., University of Maryland.

Michael Perre, Principal of Vanguard. He has been with Vanguard since 1990, has managed investment portfolios since 1999, and has co-managed the Fund since its inception in 2015. Education: B.A., Saint Joseph’s University; M.B.A., Villanova University.

The Statement of Additional Information provides information about each portfolio manager’s compensation, other accounts under management, and ownership of shares of the Fund.

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Dividends, Capital Gains, and Taxes

Fund Distributions

The Fund distributes to shareholders virtually all of its net income (interest and dividends, less expenses) as well as any net short-term or long-term capital gains realized from the sale of its holdings. Income dividends generally are distributed quarterly in March, June, September, and December; capital gains distributions, if any, generally occur annually in December.

Plain Talk About Distributions
 
As a shareholder, you are entitled to your portion of a fund’s income from interest
and dividends as well as capital gains from the fund’s sale of investments.
Income consists of both the dividends that the fund earns from any stock
holdings and the interest it receives from any money market and bond
investments. Capital gains are realized whenever the fund sells securities for
higher prices than it paid for them. These capital gains are either short-term or
long-term, depending on whether the fund held the securities for one year or less
or for more than one year.

 

Reinvestment of Distributions

In order to reinvest dividend and capital gains distributions, investors in the Fund’s ETF Shares must hold their shares at a broker that offers a reinvestment service. This can be the broker’s own service or a service made available by a third party, such as the broker’s outside clearing firm or the Depository Trust Company (DTC). If a reinvestment service is available, distributions of income and capital gains can automatically be reinvested in additional whole and fractional ETF Shares of the Fund. If a reinvestment service is not available, investors will receive their distributions in cash. To determine whether a reinvestment service is available and whether there is a commission or other charge for using this service, consult your broker.

As with all exchange-traded funds, reinvestment of dividend and capital gains distributions in additional ETF Shares will occur four business days or more after the ex-dividend date (the date when a distribution of dividends or capital gains is deducted from the price of the Fund’s shares). The exact number of days depends on your broker. During that time, the amount of your distribution will not be invested in the Fund and therefore will not share in the Fund’s income, gains, and losses.

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Basic Tax Points

Investors in taxable accounts should be aware of the following basic federal income tax points:

• Distributions are taxable to you whether or not you reinvest these amounts in additional ETF Shares.

• Distributions declared in December—if paid to you by the end of January—are taxable as if received in December.

• Any dividend distribution or short-term capital gains distribution that you receive is taxable to you as ordinary income. If you are an individual and meet certain holding-period requirements with respect to your Fund shares, you may be eligible for reduced tax rates on “qualified dividend income,” if any, distributed by the Fund.

• Any distribution of net long-term capital gains is taxable to you as long-term capital gains, no matter how long you have owned ETF Shares.

• Capital gains distributions may vary considerably from year to year as a result of the Fund‘s normal investment activities and cash flows.

• A sale of ETF Shares is a taxable event. This means that you may have a capital gain to report as income, or a capital loss to report as a deduction, when you complete your tax return.

Individuals, trusts, and estates whose income exceeds certain threshold amounts are subject to a 3.8% Medicare contribution tax on “net investment income.” Net investment income takes into account distributions paid by the Fund and capital gains from any sale or exchange of Fund shares.

Dividend distributions and capital gains distributions that you receive, as well as your gains or losses from any sale of ETF Shares, may be subject to state and local income taxes.

The Fund may be subject to foreign taxes or foreign tax withholding on dividends, interest, and some capital gains that it receives on foreign securities. You may qualify for an offsetting credit or deduction under U.S. tax laws for any amount designated as your portion of the Fund’s foreign tax obligations, provided that you meet certain requirements. See your tax advisor or IRS publications for more information.

This prospectus provides general tax information only. If you are investing through a tax-deferred retirement account, such as an IRA, special tax rules apply. Please consult your tax advisor for detailed information about any tax consequences for you.

21


 

Share Price and Market Price

Share price, also known as net asset value (NAV), is calculated each business day as of the close of regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), generally 4 p.m., Eastern time. Each share class has its own NAV, which is computed by dividing the total assets, minus liabilities, allocated to the share class by the number of Fund shares outstanding for that class. On U.S. holidays or other days when the NYSE is closed, the NAV is not calculated, and the Fund does not sell or redeem shares. However, on those days the value of the Fund’s assets may be affected to the extent that the Fund holds securities that change in value on those days (such as foreign securities that trade on foreign markets that are open).

Remember: If you buy or sell ETF Shares on the secondary market, you will pay or receive the market price, which may be higher or lower than NAV. Your transaction will be priced at NAV only if you purchase or redeem your ETF Shares in Creation Unit blocks (an option available only to certain authorized broker-dealers) or if you convert your conventional fund shares to ETF Shares.

Stocks held by a Vanguard fund are valued at their market value when reliable market quotations are readily available from the principal exchange or market on which they are traded. Such securities are generally valued at their official closing price, the last reported sales price, or if there were no sales that day, the mean between the closing bid and asking prices. Certain short-term debt instruments used to manage a fund’s cash may be valued at amortized cost when it approximates fair value. The values of any foreign securities held by a fund are converted into U.S. dollars using an exchange rate obtained from an independent third party as of the close of regular trading on the NYSE. The values of any mutual fund shares held by a fund are based on the NAVs of the shares. The values of any ETF or closed-end fund shares held by a fund are based on the market value of the shares.

When a fund determines that market quotations either are not readily available or do not accurately reflect the value of a security, the security is priced at its fair value (the amount that the owner might reasonably expect to receive upon the current sale of the security). A fund also will use fair-value pricing if the value of a security it holds has been materially affected by events occurring before the fund’s pricing time but after the close of the principal exchange or market on which the security is traded. This most commonly occurs with foreign securities, which may trade on foreign exchanges that close many hours before the fund’s pricing time. Intervening events might be company-specific (e.g., earnings report, merger announcement) or country-specific or regional/global (e.g., natural disaster, economic or political news, act of terrorism, interest rate change). Intervening events include price movements in U.S. markets that exceed a specified threshold or that are otherwise deemed to affect the value of foreign securities. Fair-value pricing may be used for domestic securities—for example, if (1) trading in a security is halted and does not resume before the fund’s pricing time

22


 

or a security does not trade in the course of a day and (2) the fund holds enough of the security that its price could affect the NAV.

Fair-value prices are determined by Vanguard according to procedures adopted by the board of trustees. When fair-value pricing is employed, the prices of securities used by a fund to calculate the NAV may differ from quoted or published prices for the same securities.

Vanguard’s website will show the previous day’s closing NAV and closing market price for the Fund’s ETF Shares.

23


 

Additional Information        
 
    Suitable Vanguard CUSIP
  Inception Date for IRAs Fund Number Number
International High Dividend Yield        
Index Fund        
ETF Shares Yes 4430

 

CFA® is a registered trademark owned by CFA Institute.

London Stock Exchange Group companies includes FTSE International Limited (“FTSE”), Frank Russell Company (“Russell”), MTS Next Limited (“MTS”), and FTSE TMX Global Debt Capital Markets Inc (“FTSE TMX”). All rights reserved. “FTSE®”, “Russell®”, “MTS®”, “FTSE TMX®” and “FTSE Russell” and other service marks and trademarks related to the FTSE or Russell indexes are trade marks of the London Stock Exchange Group companies and are used by FTSE, MTS, FTSE TMX and Russell under licence.

All information is provided for information purposes only. Every effort is made to ensure that all information given in this publication is accurate, but no responsibility or liability can be accepted by the London Stock Exchange Group companies nor its licensors for any errors or for any loss from use of this publication. Neither the London Stock Exchange Group companies nor any of their licensors make any claim, prediction, warranty or representation whatsoever, expressly or impliedly, either as to the results to be obtained from the use of the FTSE All-World ex US High Dividend Yield Index or the fitness or suitability of the Index for any particular purpose to which it might be put. The London Stock Exchange Group companies do not provide investment advice and nothing in this document should be taken as constituting financial or investment advice. The London Stock Exchange Group companies make no representation regarding the advisability of investing in any asset. A decision to invest in any such asset should not be made in reliance on any information herein. Indexes cannot be invested in directly. Inclusion of an asset in an index is not a recommendation to buy, sell or hold that asset. The general information contained in this publication should not be acted upon without obtaining specific legal, tax, and investment advice from a licensed professional. No part of this information may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission of the London Stock Exchange Group companies. Distribution of the London Stock Exchange Group companies’ index values and the use of their indexes to create financial products require a licence with FTSE, FTSE TMX, MTS and/or Russell and/or its licensors.

24


 

Glossary of Investment Terms

Active Management. An investment approach that seeks to exceed the average returns of a particular financial market or market segment. In selecting securities to buy and sell, active managers may rely on, among other things, research, market forecasts, quantitative models, and their own judgment and experience.

Authorized Participant. Institutional investors that are permitted to purchase Creation Units directly from, and redeem Creation Units directly with, the issuing fund. To be an Authorized Participant, an entity must be a participant in the Depository Trust Company and must enter into an agreement with the fund’s Distributor.

Bid-Ask Spread. The difference between the price a dealer is willing to pay for a security (the bid price) and the somewhat higher price at which the dealer is willing to sell the same security (the ask price).

Capital Gains Distribution. Payment to mutual fund shareholders of gains realized on securities that a fund has sold at a profit, minus any realized losses.

Common Stock. A security representing ownership rights in a corporation.

Creation Unit. A large block of a specified number of ETF Shares. Certain broker-dealers known as “Authorized Participants” may purchase and redeem ETF Shares from the issuing fund in Creation Unit size blocks.

Dividend Distribution. Payment to mutual fund shareholders of income from interest or dividends generated by a fund’s investments.

Ex-Dividend Date. The date when a distribution of dividends and/or capital gains is deducted from the share price of a mutual fund or stock. On the ex-dividend date, the share price drops by the amount of the distribution (plus or minus any market activity).

Expense Ratio. A fund’s total annual operating expenses expressed as a percentage of the fund’s average net assets. The expense ratio includes management and administrative expenses, but it does not include the transaction costs of buying and selling portfolio securities.

Inception Date. The date on which the assets of a fund (or one of its share classes) are first invested in accordance with the fund’s investment objective. For funds with a subscription period, the inception date is the day after that period ends. Investment performance is generally measured from the inception date.

Indexing. A low-cost investment strategy in which a mutual fund attempts to track—rather than outperform—a specified market benchmark, or “index.”

Mutual Fund. An investment company that pools the money of many people and invests it in a variety of securities in an effort to achieve a specific objective over time.

Securities. Stocks, bonds, money market instruments, and other investments.

25


 

Total Return. A percentage change, over a specified time period, in a mutual fund’s net asset value, assuming the reinvestment of all distributions of dividends and capital gains.

Volatility. The fluctuations in value of a mutual fund or other security. The greater a fund’s volatility, the wider the fluctuations in its returns.

Yield. Income (interest or dividends) earned by an investment, expressed as a percentage of the investment’s price.

26


 

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  Institutional Division
  P.O. Box 2900
  Valley Forge, PA 19482-2900
 
 
 
 
Connect with Vanguard® > vanguard.com  
 
 
 
For More Information To receive a free copy of the latest annual or
If you would like more information about Vanguard semiannual report (once available) or the SAI, or to
International High Dividend Yield ETF, the following request additional information about Vanguard ETF
documents are available free upon request: Shares, please visit vanguard.com or contact us as
  follows:
Annual/Semiannual Reports to Shareholders  
  The Vanguard Group
Additional information about the Fund’s investments  
  Institutional Investor Information
will be available in the Fund’s annual and semiannual  
  P.O. Box 2900
reports to shareholders. In the annual report, you will  
  Valley Forge, PA 19482-2900
find a discussion of the market conditions and  
  Telephone: 866-499-8473
investment strategies that significantly affected the  
Fund’s performance during its last fiscal year. Information Provided by the Securities and
  Exchange Commission (SEC)
Statement of Additional Information (SAI) You can review and copy information about the Fund
The SAI for the issuing Fund provides more detailed (including the SAI) at the SEC’s Public Reference Room
information about the Fund’s ETF Shares and is in Washington, DC. To find out more about this public
incorporated by reference into (and thus legally a part service, call the SEC at 202-551-8090. Reports and
of) this prospectus. other information about the Fund are also available in
  the EDGAR database on the SEC’s website at
  www.sec.gov, or you can receive copies of this
  information, for a fee, by electronic request at the
  following email address: publicinfo@sec.gov, or by
  writing the Public Reference Section, Securities and
  Exchange Commission, Washington, DC 20549-1520.
 
  Fund’s Investment Company Act file number: 811-07443
 
 
 
 
  © 2015 The Vanguard Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
  U.S. Patent Nos. 6,879,964; 7,337,138; 7,720,749; 7,925,573; 8,090,646;
  and 8,417,623.
  Vanguard Marketing Corporation, Distributor.
  P XXX 122015

 


Subject to Completion

Preliminary Statement of Additional Information

Dated September 22, 2015

Information contained in this Statement of Additional Information is subject to completion or amendment. A registration statement for Vanguard Whitehall Funds to add a new Series, Vanguard International Dividend Appreciation Index Fund and Vanguard International High Dividend Yield Index Fund, has been filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission but has not yet become effective.

Shares of Vanguard International Dividend Appreciation Index Fund and/or Vanguard International High Dividend Yield Index Fund may not be sold, nor may offers to buy be accepted, prior to the time the registration statement becomes effective. This Statement of Additional Information is not a prospectus.

PART B

VANGUARD® WHITEHALL FUNDS

STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

December XX, 2015

This Statement of Additional Information (SAI) is not a prospectus but should be read in conjunction with a Fund’s current prospectus (dated December XX, 2015) for Vanguard International Dividend Appreciation Index and Vanguard International High Dividend Yield Index Funds. To obtain, without charge, a prospectus or the most recent Annual Report to Shareholders, which contains the Fund’s financial statements as hereby incorporated by reference, please contact The Vanguard Group, Inc. (Vanguard).

Phone: Investor Information Department at 800-662-7447

Online: vanguard.com

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Description of the Trust B -1
Fundamental Policies B -4
Investment Strategies, Risks, and Nonfundamental Policies B -4
Share Price B -21
Purchase and Redemption of Shares B -22
Management of the Funds B -23
Investment Advisory Services B -35
Portfolio Transactions B -37
Proxy Voting Guidelines B -38
Information About the ETF Share Class B -43
Financial Statements B -64
 
DESCRIPTION OF THE TRUST

 

Vanguard Whitehall Funds (the Trust) currently offers the following funds and share classes (identified by ticker symbol):

    Share Classes1  
Fund2 Investor Admiral Institutional ETF
Vanguard Selected Value Fund VASVX
Vanguard International Explorer Fund VINEX
Vanguard Mid-Cap Growth Fund VMGRX
Vanguard High Dividend Yield Index Fund VHDYX VYM
Vanguard Emerging Markets Government Bond Index Fund VGOVX VGAVX VGIVX VWOB
Vanguard Global Minimum Volatility Fund VMVFX VMNVX
Vanguard International Dividend Appreciation Index Fund
Vanguard International High Dividend Yield Index Fund
1 Individually, a class; collectively, the classes.        
2 Individually, a Fund; collectively, the Funds.        

 

B-1


 

The Trust has the ability to offer additional funds or classes of shares. There is no limit on the number of full and fractional shares that may be issued for a single fund or class of shares.

This Statement of Additional Information relates only to Vanguard International Dividend Appreciation Index Fund and Vanguard International High Dividend Yield Index Fund. A separate Statement of Additional Information dated February 25, 2015, which relates to the Trust’s other Funds, can be obtained free of charge by contacting Vanguard.

Throughout this document, any references to “class” apply only to the extent a Fund issues multiple classes.

Organization

The Trust was organized as a Maryland corporation in 1995 and was reorganized as a Delaware statutory trust in 1998. Prior to its reorganization as a Delaware statutory trust, the Trust was known as Vanguard Whitehall Funds, Inc. The Trust is registered with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) under the Investment Company Act of 1940 (the 1940 Act) as an open-end management investment company. All Funds within the Trust, other than Vanguard Emerging Markets Government Bond Index Fund, are classified as diversified within the meaning of the 1940 Act. Vanguard Emerging Markets Government Bond Index Fund is classified as nondiversified within the meaning of the 1940 Act.

Service Providers

Custodians. • serves as the Funds’ custodian. The custodians are responsible for maintaining the Funds’ assets, keeping all necessary accounts and records of Fund assets, and appointing any foreign sub-custodians or foreign securities depositories.

Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm. PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, Two Commerce Square, Suite 1700, 2001 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19103-7042, serves as the Funds‘ independent registered public accounting firm. The independent registered public accounting firm audits the Funds‘ annual financial statements and provides other related services.

Transfer and Dividend-Paying Agent. The Funds‘ transfer agent and dividend-paying agent is Vanguard, P.O. Box 2600, Valley Forge, PA 19482.

Characteristics of the Funds‘ Shares

Restrictions on Holding or Disposing of Shares. There are no restrictions on the right of shareholders to retain or dispose of a Fund’s shares, other than those described in the Fund’s current prospectus and elsewhere in this Statement of Additional Information. Each Fund or class may be terminated by reorganization into another mutual fund or class or by liquidation and distribution of the assets of the Fund or class. Unless terminated by reorganization or liquidation, each Fund and share class will continue indefinitely.

Shareholder Liability. The Trust is organized under Delaware law, which provides that shareholders of a statutory trust are entitled to the same limitations of personal liability as shareholders of a corporation organized under Delaware law. This means that a shareholder of a Fund generally will not be personally liable for payment of the Fund’s debts. Some state courts, however, may not apply Delaware law on this point. We believe that the possibility of such a situation arising is remote.

Dividend Rights. The shareholders of each class of a Fund are entitled to receive any dividends or other distributions declared by the Fund for each such class. No shares of a Fund have priority or preference over any other shares of the Fund with respect to distributions. Distributions will be made from the assets of the Fund and will be paid ratably to all shareholders of a particular class according to the number of shares of the class held by shareholders on the record date. The amount of dividends per share may vary between separate share classes of the Fund based upon differences in the net asset values of the different classes and differences in the way that expenses are allocated between share classes pursuant to a multiple class plan approved by the Fund’s board of trustees.

Voting Rights. Shareholders are entitled to vote on a matter if (1) the matter concerns an amendment to the Declaration of Trust that would adversely affect to a material degree the rights and preferences of the shares of a Fund or any class; (2) the trustees determine that it is necessary or desirable to obtain a shareholder vote; (3) a merger or consolidation, share conversion, share exchange, or sale of assets is proposed and a shareholder vote is required by the 1940 Act to approve the transaction; or (4) a shareholder vote is required under the 1940 Act. The 1940 Act requires a shareholder

B-2


 

vote under various circumstances, including to elect or remove trustees upon the written request of shareholders representing 10% or more of a Fund’s net assets, to change any fundamental policy of a Fund (please see Fundamental Policies), and to enter into certain merger transactions. Unless otherwise required by applicable law, shareholders of a Fund receive one vote for each dollar of net asset value owned on the record date and a fractional vote for each fractional dollar of net asset value owned on the record date. However, only the shares of the Fund or class affected by a particular matter are entitled to vote on that matter. In addition, each class has exclusive voting rights on any matter submitted to shareholders that relates solely to that class, and each class has separate voting rights on any matter submitted to shareholders in which the interests of one class differ from the interests of another. Voting rights are noncumulative and cannot be modified without a majority vote.

Liquidation Rights. In the event that a Fund is liquidated, shareholders will be entitled to receive a pro rata share of the Fund’s net assets. In the event that a class of shares is liquidated, shareholders of that class will be entitled to receive a pro rata share of the Fund’s net assets that are allocated to that class. Shareholders may receive cash, securities, or a combination of the two.

Preemptive Rights. There are no preemptive rights associated with the Funds‘ shares.

Conversion Rights. Fund shareholders may convert their shares into another class of shares of the same Fund upon satisfaction of any then-applicable eligibility requirements, as described in the Fund’s current prospectus. ETF Shares cannot be converted into conventional shares of a Fund. For additional information about the conversion rights applicable to ETF Shares, please see Information About the ETF Share Class.

Redemption Provisions. Each Fund’s redemption provisions are described in its current prospectus and elsewhere in this Statement of Additional Information.

Sinking Fund Provisions. The Funds have no sinking fund provisions.

Calls or Assessment. Each Fund’s shares, when issued, are fully paid and non-assessable.

Tax Status of the Funds

Each Fund expects to qualify each year for treatment as a “regulated investment company” under Subchapter M of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the IRC). This special tax status means that the Fund will not be liable for federal tax on income and capital gains distributed to shareholders. In order to preserve its tax status, each Fund must comply with certain requirements. If a Fund fails to meet these requirements in any taxable year, the Fund will, in some cases, be able to cure such failure, including by paying a fund-level tax, paying interest, making additional distributions, or disposing of certain assets. If the Fund is ineligible to or otherwise does not cure such failure for any year, it will be subject to tax on its taxable income at corporate rates, and all distributions from earnings and profits, including any distributions of net tax-exempt income and net long-term capital gains, will be taxable to shareholders as ordinary income. In addition, a Fund could be required to recognize unrealized gains, pay substantial taxes and interest, and make substantial distributions before regaining its tax status as a regulated investment company.

Dividends received and distributed by each Fund on shares of stock of domestic corporations and certain foreign corporations generally may be eligible to be reported by the Fund, and treated by individual shareholders, as “qualified dividend income” taxed at long-term capital gain rates instead of at higher ordinary income tax rates. Individuals must satisfy holding period and other requirements in order to be eligible for such treatment. Capital gains distributed by the Funds are not eligible for treatment as qualified dividend income.

Dividends received and distributed by a Fund on shares of stock of domestic corporations may be eligible for the dividends-received deduction applicable to corporate shareholders. Corporations must satisfy certain requirements in order to claim the deduction. Capital gains distributed by the Funds are not eligible for the dividends-received deduction.

Each Fund may declare a capital gain dividend consisting of the excess (if any) of net realized long-term capital gains over net realized short-term capital losses. Net capital gains for a fiscal year are computed by taking into account any capital loss carryforwards of the Fund. For Fund fiscal years beginning on or after December 22, 2010, capital losses may be carried forward indefinitely and retain their character as either short-term or long-term. Under prior law, net capital losses could be carried forward for eight tax years and were treated as short-term capital losses. A Fund is required to use capital losses arising in fiscal years beginning on or after December 22, 2010, before using capital losses arising in fiscal years prior to December 22, 2010.

B-3


 

FUNDAMENTAL POLICIES

Each Fund is subject to the following fundamental investment policies, which cannot be changed in any material way without the approval of the holders of a majority of the Fund’s shares. For these purposes, a “majority” of shares means shares representing the lesser of (1) 67% or more of the Fund’s net assets voted, so long as shares representing more than 50% of the Fund’s net assets are present or represented by proxy or (2) more than 50% of the Fund’s net assets.

Borrowing. Each Fund may borrow money only as permitted by the 1940 Act or other governing statute, by the Rules thereunder, or by the SEC or other regulatory agency with authority over the Fund.

Commodities. Each Fund may invest in commodities only as permitted by the 1940 Act or other governing statute, by the Rules thereunder, or by the SEC or other regulatory agency with authority over the Fund.

Diversification. With respect to 75% of its total assets, each Fund may not (1) purchase more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of any one issuer or (2) purchase securities of any issuer if, as a result, more than 5% of the Fund’s total assets would be invested in that issuer’s securities. This limitation does not apply to obligations of the U.S. government or its agencies or instrumentalities.

Industry Concentration. Each Fund will not concentrate its investments in the securities of issuers whose principal business activities are in the same industry, except as may be necessary to approximate the composition of its target index.

Loans. Each Fund may make loans to another person only as permitted by the 1940 Act or other governing statute, by the Rules thereunder, or by the SEC or other regulatory agency with authority over the Fund.

Real Estate. Each Fund may not invest directly in real estate unless it is acquired as a result of ownership of securities or other instruments. This restriction shall not prevent the Fund from investing in securities or other instruments (1) issued by companies that invest, deal, or otherwise engage in transactions in real estate or (2) backed or secured by real estate or interests in real estate.

Senior Securities. Each Fund may not issue senior securities except as permitted by the 1940 Act or other governing statute, by the Rules thereunder, or by the SEC or other regulatory agency with authority over the Fund.

Underwriting. Each Fund may not act as an underwriter of another issuer’s securities, except to the extent that the Fund may be deemed to be an underwriter within the meaning of the Securities Act of 1933 (the 1933 Act), in connection with the purchase and sale of portfolio securities.

Compliance with the fundamental policies previously described is generally measured at the time the securities are purchased. Unless otherwise required by the 1940 Act (as is the case with borrowing), if a percentage restriction is adhered to at the time the investment is made, a later change in percentage resulting from a change in the market value of assets will not constitute a violation of such restriction. All fundamental policies must comply with applicable regulatory requirements. For more details, see Investment Strategies, Risks, and Nonfundamental Policies.

None of these policies prevents the Funds from having an ownership interest in Vanguard. As a part owner of Vanguard, each Fund may own securities issued by Vanguard, make loans to Vanguard, and contribute to Vanguard’s costs or other financial requirements. See Management of the Funds for more information.

INVESTMENT STRATEGIES, RISKS, AND NONFUNDAMENTAL POLICIES

Some of the investment strategies and policies described on the following pages and in each Fund’s prospectus set forth percentage limitations on a Fund’s investment in, or holdings of, certain securities or other assets. Unless otherwise required by law, compliance with these strategies and policies will be determined immediately after the acquisition of such securities or assets by the Fund. Subsequent changes in values, net assets, or other circumstances will not be considered when determining whether the investment complies with the Fund’s investment strategies and policies.

The following investment strategies, risks, and policies supplement each Fund’s investment strategies, risks, and policies set forth in the prospectus. With respect to the different investments discussed as follows, a Fund may acquire such investments to the extent consistent with its investment strategies and policies.

Borrowing. A fund’s ability to borrow money is limited by its investment policies and limitations; by the 1940 Act; and by applicable exemptions, no-action letters, interpretations, and other pronouncements issued from time to time by the SEC and its staff or any other regulatory authority with jurisdiction. Under the 1940 Act, a fund is required to maintain

B-4


 

continuous asset coverage (that is, total assets including borrowings, less liabilities exclusive of borrowings) of 300% of the amount borrowed, with an exception for borrowings not in excess of 5% of the fund’s total assets made for temporary or emergency purposes. Any borrowings for temporary purposes in excess of 5% of the fund’s total assets must maintain continuous asset coverage. If the 300% asset coverage should decline as a result of market fluctuations or for other reasons, a fund may be required to sell some of its portfolio holdings within three days (excluding Sundays and holidays) to reduce the debt and restore the 300% asset coverage, even though it may be disadvantageous from an investment standpoint to sell securities at that time.

Borrowing will tend to exaggerate the effect on net asset value of any increase or decrease in the market value of a fund’s portfolio. Money borrowed will be subject to interest costs that may or may not be recovered by earnings on the securities purchased with the proceeds of such borrowing. A fund also may be required to maintain minimum average balances in connection with a borrowing or to pay a commitment or other fee to maintain a line of credit; either of these requirements would increase the cost of borrowing over the stated interest rate.

The SEC takes the position that transactions that have a leveraging effect on the capital structure of a fund or are economically equivalent to borrowing can be viewed as constituting a form of borrowing by the fund for purposes of the 1940 Act. These transactions can include entering into reverse repurchase agreements; engaging in mortgage-dollar-roll transactions; selling securities short (other than short sales “against-the-box”); buying and selling certain derivatives (such as futures contracts); selling (or writing) put and call options; engaging in sale-buybacks; entering into firm-commitment and standby-commitment agreements; engaging in when-issued, delayed-delivery, or forward-commitment transactions; and participating in other similar trading practices. (Additional discussion about a number of these transactions can be found on the following pages.) A borrowing transaction will not be considered to constitute the issuance, by a fund, of a “senior security,” as that term is defined in Section 18(g) of the 1940 Act, and therefore such transaction will not be subject to the 300% asset coverage requirement otherwise applicable to borrowings by a fund, if the fund maintains an offsetting financial position; segregates liquid assets (with such liquidity determined by the advisor in accordance with procedures established by the board of trustees) equal (as determined on a daily mark-to-market basis) in value to the fund’s potential economic exposure under the borrowing transaction; or otherwise “covers” the transaction in accordance with applicable SEC guidance (collectively, “covers” the transaction). A fund may have to buy or sell a security at a disadvantageous time or price in order to cover a borrowing transaction. In addition, segregated assets may not be available to satisfy redemptions or to fulfill other obligations.

Common Stock. Common stock represents an equity or ownership interest in an issuer. Common stock typically entitles the owner to vote on the election of directors and other important matters, as well as to receive dividends on such stock. In the event an issuer is liquidated or declares bankruptcy, the claims of owners of bonds, other debt holders, and owners of preferred stock take precedence over the claims of those who own common stock.

Convertible Securities. Convertible securities are hybrid securities that combine the investment characteristics of bonds and common stocks. Convertible securities typically consist of debt securities or preferred stock that may be converted (on a voluntary or mandatory basis) within a specified period of time (normally for the entire life of the security) into a certain amount of common stock or other equity security of the same or a different issuer at a predetermined price. Convertible securities also include debt securities with warrants or common stock attached and derivatives combining the features of debt securities and equity securities. Other convertible securities with features and risks not specifically referred to herein may become available in the future. Convertible securities involve risks similar to those of both fixed income and equity securities. In a corporation’s capital structure, convertible securities are senior to common stock but are usually subordinated to senior debt obligations of the issuer.

The market value of a convertible security is a function of its “investment value” and its “conversion value.” A security’s “investment value” represents the value of the security without its conversion feature (i.e., a nonconvertible fixed income security). The investment value may be determined by reference to its credit quality and the current value of its yield to maturity or probable call date. At any given time, investment value is dependent upon such factors as the general level of interest rates, the yield of similar nonconvertible securities, the financial strength of the issuer, and the seniority of the security in the issuer’s capital structure. A security’s “conversion value” is determined by multiplying the number of shares the holder is entitled to receive upon conversion or exchange by the current price of the underlying security. If the conversion value of a convertible security is significantly below its investment value, the convertible security will trade like nonconvertible debt or preferred stock and its market value will not be influenced greatly by fluctuations in the market price of the underlying security. In that circumstance, the convertible security takes on the characteristics of a bond, and its price moves in the opposite direction from interest rates. Conversely, if the conversion value of a

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convertible security is near or above its investment value, the market value of the convertible security will be more heavily influenced by fluctuations in the market price of the underlying security. In that case, the convertible security’s price may be as volatile as that of common stock. Because both interest rates and market movements can influence its value, a convertible security generally is not as sensitive to interest rates as a similar fixed income security, nor is it as sensitive to changes in share price as its underlying equity security. Convertible securities are often rated below investment grade or are not rated, and they are generally subject to a high degree of credit risk.

Although all markets are prone to change over time, the generally high rate at which convertible securities are retired (through mandatory or scheduled conversions by issuers or through voluntary redemptions by holders) and replaced with newly issued convertible securities may cause the convertible securities market to change more rapidly than other markets. For example, a concentration of available convertible securities in a few economic sectors could elevate the sensitivity of the convertible securities market to the volatility of the equity markets and to the specific risks of those sectors. Moreover, convertible securities with innovative structures, such as mandatory-conversion securities and equity-linked securities, have increased the sensitivity of the convertible securities market to the volatility of the equity markets and to the special risks of those innovations, which may include risks different from, and possibly greater than, those associated with traditional convertible securities. A convertible security may be subject to redemption at the option of the issuer at a price set in the governing instrument of the convertible security. If a convertible security held by a fund is subject to such redemption option and is called for redemption, the fund must allow the issuer to redeem the security, convert it into the underlying common stock, or sell the security to a third party.

Debt Securities. A debt security, sometimes called a fixed income security, consists of a certificate or other evidence of a debt (secured or unsecured) on which the issuing company or governmental body promises to pay the holder thereof a fixed, variable, or floating rate of interest for a specified length of time and to repay the debt on the specified maturity date. Some debt securities, such as zero-coupon bonds, do not make regular interest payments but are issued at a discount to their principal or maturity value. Debt securities include a variety of fixed income obligations, including, but not limited to, corporate bonds, government securities, municipal securities, convertible securities, mortgage-backed securities, and asset-backed securities. Debt securities include investment-grade securities, non-investment-grade securities, and unrated securities. Debt securities are subject to a variety of risks, such as interest rate risk, income risk, call/prepayment risk, inflation risk, credit risk, liquidity risk, and (in the case of foreign securities) country risk and currency risk. The reorganization of an issuer under the federal bankruptcy laws may result in the issuer’s debt securities being cancelled without repayment, repaid only in part, or repaid in part or in whole through an exchange thereof for any combination of cash, debt securities, convertible securities, equity securities, or other instruments or rights in respect to the same issuer or a related entity.

Debt Securities—Foreign Debt Securities. Foreign debt securities are debt securities issued by entities organized, domiciled, or with a principal executive office outside the United States, such as foreign governments and corporations. Foreign debt securities may trade in U.S. or foreign markets. Investing in foreign debt securities involves certain special risk considerations that are not typically associated with investing in debt securities of U.S. issuers.

Depositary Receipts. Depositary receipts are securities that evidence ownership interests in a security or a pool of securities that have been deposited with a “depository.” Depositary receipts may be sponsored or unsponsored and include American Depositary Receipts (ADRs), European Depositary Receipts (EDRs), and Global Depositary Receipts (GDRs). For ADRs, the depository is typically a U.S. financial institution, and the underlying securities are issued by a foreign issuer. For other depositary receipts, the depository may be a foreign or a U.S. entity, and the underlying securities may have a foreign or a U.S. issuer. Depositary receipts will not necessarily be denominated in the same currency as their underlying securities. Generally, ADRs are issued in registered form, denominated in U.S. dollars, and designed for use in the U.S. securities markets. Other depositary receipts, such as GDRs and EDRs, may be issued in bearer form and denominated in other currencies, and they are generally designed for use in securities markets outside the United States. Although the two types of depositary receipt facilities (sponsored and unsponsored) are similar, there are differences regarding a holder’s rights and obligations and the practices of market participants.

A depository may establish an unsponsored facility without participation by (or acquiescence of) the underlying issuer; typically, however, the depository requests a letter of nonobjection from the underlying issuer prior to establishing the facility. Holders of unsponsored depositary receipts generally bear all the costs of the facility. The depository usually charges fees upon the deposit and withdrawal of the underlying securities, the conversion of dividends into U.S. dollars or other currency, the disposition of noncash distributions, and the performance of other services. The depository of an

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unsponsored facility frequently is under no obligation to distribute shareholder communications received from the underlying issuer or to pass through voting rights to depositary receipt holders with respect to the underlying securities.

Sponsored depositary receipt facilities are created in generally the same manner as unsponsored facilities, except that sponsored depositary receipts are established jointly by a depository and the underlying issuer through a deposit agreement. The deposit agreement sets out the rights and responsibilities of the underlying issuer, the depository, and the depositary receipt holders. With sponsored facilities, the underlying issuer typically bears some of the costs of the depositary receipts (such as dividend payment fees of the depository), although most sponsored depositary receipt holders may bear costs such as deposit and withdrawal fees. Depositories of most sponsored depositary receipts agree to distribute notices of shareholder meetings, voting instructions, and other shareholder communications and information to the depositary receipt holders at the underlying issuer’s request.

For purposes of a fund’s investment policies, investments in depositary receipts will be deemed to be investments in the underlying securities. Thus, a depositary receipt representing ownership of common stock will be treated as common stock. Depositary receipts do not eliminate all of the risks associated with directly investing in the securities of foreign issuers.

Derivatives. A derivative is a financial instrument that has a value based on—or “derived from”—the values of other assets, reference rates, or indexes. Derivatives may relate to a wide variety of underlying references, such as commodities, stocks, bonds, interest rates, currency exchange rates, and related indexes. Derivatives include futures contracts and options on futures contracts, certain forward-commitment transactions, options on securities, caps, floors, collars, swap agreements, and certain other financial instruments. Some derivatives, such as futures contracts and certain options, are traded on U.S. commodity and securities exchanges, while other derivatives, such as swap agreements, may be privately negotiated and entered into in the over-the-counter market (OTC Derivatives) or may be cleared through a clearinghouse (Cleared Derivatives) and traded on an exchange or swap execution facility. As a result of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd-Frank Act”), certain swap agreements, such as certain standardized credit default and interest rate swap agreements, must be cleared through a clearinghouse and traded on an exchange or swap execution facility. This could result in an increase in the overall costs of such transactions. While the intent of derivatives regulatory reform is to mitigate risks associated with derivatives markets, the new regulations could, among other things, increase liquidity and decrease pricing for more standardized products while decreasing liquidity and increasing pricing for less standardized products. The risks associated with the use of derivatives are different from, and possibly greater than, the risks associated with investing directly in the securities, assets, or market indexes on which the derivatives are based.

Derivatives are used by some investors for speculative purposes. Derivatives also may be used for a variety of purposes that do not constitute speculation, such as hedging, managing risk, seeking to stay fully invested, seeking to reduce transaction costs, seeking to simulate an investment in equity or debt securities or other investments, and seeking to add value by using derivatives to more efficiently implement portfolio positions when derivatives are favorably priced relative to equity or debt securities or other investments. There is no assurance that any derivatives strategy used by a fund’s advisor will succeed. The other parties to the funds’ OTC Derivatives contracts (usually referred to as “counterparties”) will not be considered the issuers thereof for purposes of certain provisions of the 1940 Act and the IRC, although such OTC Derivatives may qualify as securities or investments under such laws. The funds’ advisors, however, will monitor and adjust, as appropriate, the funds’ credit risk exposure to OTC Derivative counterparties.

Derivative products are highly specialized instruments that require investment techniques and risk analyses different from those associated with stocks, bonds, and other traditional investments. The use of a derivative requires an understanding not only of the underlying instrument but also of the derivative itself, without the benefit of observing the performance of the derivative under all possible market conditions.

When the fund enters into a Cleared Derivative, an initial margin deposit with a Futures Commission Merchant (FCM) is required. Initial margin deposits are typically calculated as an amount equal to the volatility in market value of a Cleared Derivative over a fixed period. If the value of the fund’s Cleared Derivatives declines, the fund will be required to make additional “variation margin” payments to the FCM to settle the change in value. If the value of the fund’s Cleared Derivatives increases, the FCM will be required to make additional “variation margin” payments to the fund to settle the change in value. This process is known as “marking-to-market” and is calculated on a daily basis.

For OTC Derivatives, the fund is subject to the risk that a loss may be sustained as a result of the insolvency or bankruptcy of the counterparty or the failure of the counterparty to make required payments or otherwise comply with

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the terms of the contract. Additionally, the use of credit derivatives can result in losses if a fund’s advisor does not correctly evaluate the creditworthiness of the issuer on which the credit derivative is based.

Derivatives may be subject to liquidity risk, which exists when a particular derivative is difficult to purchase or sell. If a derivative transaction is particularly large or if the relevant market is illiquid (as is the case with certain OTC Derivatives), it may not be possible to initiate a transaction or liquidate a position at an advantageous time or price.

Derivatives may be subject to pricing or “basis” risk, which exists when a particular derivative becomes extraordinarily expensive relative to historical prices or the prices of corresponding cash market instruments. Under certain market conditions, it may not be economically feasible to initiate a transaction or liquidate a position in time to avoid a loss or take advantage of an opportunity.

Because certain derivatives have a leverage component, adverse changes in the value or level of the underlying asset, reference rate, or index can result in a loss substantially greater than the amount invested in the derivative itself. Certain derivatives have the potential for unlimited loss, regardless of the size of the initial investment. A derivative transaction will not be considered to constitute the issuance, by a fund, of a “senior security,” as that term is defined in Section 18(g) of the 1940 Act, and therefore such transaction will not be subject to the 300% asset coverage requirement otherwise applicable to borrowings by a fund, if the fund covers the transaction in accordance with the requirements described under the heading “Borrowing.”

Like most other investments, derivative instruments are subject to the risk that the market value of the instrument will change in a way detrimental to a fund’s interest. A fund bears the risk that its advisor will incorrectly forecast future market trends or the values of assets, reference rates, indexes, or other financial or economic factors in establishing derivative positions for the fund. If the advisor attempts to use a derivative as a hedge against, or as a substitute for, a portfolio investment, the fund will be exposed to the risk that the derivative will have or will develop imperfect or no correlation with the portfolio investment. This could cause substantial losses for the fund. Although hedging strategies involving derivative instruments can reduce the risk of loss, they can also reduce the opportunity for gain or even result in losses by offsetting favorable price movements in other fund investments. Many derivatives (in particular, OTC Derivatives) are complex and often valued subjectively. Improper valuations can result in increased cash payment requirements to counterparties or a loss of value to a fund.

Exchange-Traded Funds. A fund may purchase shares of exchange-traded funds (ETFs), including ETF Shares issued by other Vanguard funds. Typically, a fund would purchase ETF shares for the same reason it would purchase (and as an alternative to purchasing) futures contracts: to obtain exposure to all or a portion of the stock or bond market. ETF shares enjoy several advantages over futures. Depending on the market, the holding period, and other factors, ETF shares can be less costly and more tax-efficient than futures. In addition, ETF shares can be purchased for smaller sums, offer exposure to market sectors and styles for which there is no suitable or liquid futures contract, and do not involve leverage.

An investment in an ETF generally presents the same principal risks as an investment in a conventional fund (i.e., one that is not exchange-traded) that has the same investment objective, strategies, and policies. The price of an ETF can fluctuate within a wide range, and a fund could lose money investing in an ETF if the prices of the securities owned by the ETF go down. In addition, ETFs are subject to the following risks that do not apply to conventional funds: (1) the market price of an ETF’s shares may trade at a discount or a premium to their net asset value; (2) an active trading market for an ETF’s shares may not develop or be maintained; and (3) trading of an ETF’s shares may be halted by the activation of individual or marketwide trading halts (which halt trading for a specific period of time when the price of a particular security or overall market prices decline by a specified percentage). Trading of an ETF’s shares may also be halted if the shares are delisted from the exchange without first being listed on another exchange or if the listing exchange’s officials determine that such action is appropriate in the interest of a fair and orderly market or for the protection of investors.

Most ETFs are investment companies. Therefore, a fund’s purchases of ETF shares generally are subject to the limitations on, and the risks of, a fund’s investments in other investment companies, which are described under the heading “Other Investment Companies.”

Vanguard ETF®* Shares are exchange-traded shares that represent an interest in an investment portfolio held by Vanguard funds. A fund’s investments in Vanguard ETF Shares are also generally subject to the descriptions, limitations, and risks described under the heading “Other Investment Companies,” except as provided by an exemption granted by the SEC that permits registered investment companies to invest in a Vanguard fund that issues ETF Shares beyond the limits of Section 12(d)(1) of the 1940 Act, subject to certain terms and conditions.

*      U.S. Patent Nos. 6,879,964; 7,337,138; 7,720,749; 7,925,573; 8,090,646; and 8,417,623.

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Foreign Securities. Typically, foreign securities are considered to be equity or debt securities issued by entities organized, domiciled, or with a principal executive office outside the United States, such as foreign corporations and governments. Securities issued by certain companies organized outside the United States may not be deemed to be foreign securities if the company’s principal operations are conducted from the United States or when the company’s equity securities trade principally on a U.S. stock exchange. Foreign securities may trade in U.S. or foreign securities markets. A fund may make foreign investments either directly by purchasing foreign securities or indirectly by purchasing depositary receipts or depositary shares of similar instruments (depositary receipts) for foreign securities. Direct investments in foreign securities may be made either on foreign securities exchanges or in the OTC markets. Investing in foreign securities involves certain special risk considerations that are not typically associated with investing in securities of U.S. companies or governments.

Because foreign issuers are not generally subject to uniform accounting, auditing, and financial reporting standards and practices comparable to those applicable to U.S. issuers, there may be less publicly available information about certain foreign issuers than about U.S. issuers. Evidence of securities ownership may be uncertain in many foreign countries. As a result, there are multiple risks that could result in a loss to the fund, including, but not limited to, the risk that a fund’s trade details could be incorrectly or fraudulently entered at the time of the transaction. Securities of foreign issuers are generally more volatile and less liquid than securities of comparable U.S. issuers, and foreign investments may be effected through structures that may be complex or confusing. In certain countries, there is less government supervision and regulation of stock exchanges, brokers, and listed companies than in the United States. In addition, with respect to certain foreign countries, there is the possibility of expropriation or confiscatory taxation, political or social instability, war, terrorism, nationalization, limitations on the removal of funds or other assets, or diplomatic developments that could affect U.S. investments in those countries. Additionally, economic or other sanctions imposed on the United States by a foreign country, or imposed on a foreign country by the United States, could impair a fund’s ability to buy, sell, hold, receive, deliver, or otherwise transact in certain investment securities. Sanctions could also affect the value and/or liquidity of a foreign security.

Although an advisor will endeavor to achieve the most favorable execution costs for a fund’s portfolio transactions in foreign securities under the circumstances, commissions and other transaction costs are generally higher than those on U.S. securities. In addition, it is expected that the custodian arrangement expenses for a fund that invests primarily in foreign securities will be somewhat greater than the expenses for a fund that invests primarily in domestic securities. Certain foreign governments levy withholding or other taxes against dividend and interest income from or transactions in foreign securities. Although in some countries a portion of these taxes is recoverable by the fund, the nonrecovered portion of foreign withholding taxes will reduce the income received from such securities.

The value of the foreign securities held by a fund that are not U.S. dollar-denominated may be significantly affected by changes in currency exchange rates. The U.S. dollar value of a foreign security generally decreases when the value of the U.S. dollar rises against the foreign currency in which the security is denominated, and it tends to increase when the value of the U.S. dollar falls against such currency (as discussed under the heading “Foreign Securities—Foreign Currency Transactions,” a fund may attempt to hedge its currency risks). In addition, the value of fund assets may be affected by losses and other expenses incurred in converting between various currencies in order to purchase and sell foreign securities, as well as by currency restrictions, exchange control regulation, currency devaluations, and political and economic developments.

Foreign Securities—China Stock Connect Risk. A fund may purchase China A-Shares through the Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect (Stock Connect), a mutual market access program designed to, among other things, enable foreign investment in the People’s Republic of China (PRC) via brokers in Hong Kong. There are significant risks inherent in investing in China A-Shares through Stock Connect. The underdeveloped state of PRC’s investment and banking systems subjects the settlement, clearing, and registration of securities transactions to heightened risks.

Specifically, trading can be affected by a number of issues. Stock Connect can only operate when both PRC and Hong Kong markets are open for trading and when banking services are available in both markets on the corresponding settlement days. As such, if one or both markets are closed on a U.S. trading day, a fund may not be able to dispose of its shares in a timely manner, which could adversely affect the fund’s performance. PRC regulations require that a fund that wishes to sell its China A-Shares pre-deliver the securities to a broker. If the securities are not in the broker’s possession before the market opens on the day of selling, the sell order will be rejected. This requirement could also limit a fund’s ability to dispose of its China A-Shares purchased through Stock Connect in a timely manner.

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Additionally, Stock Connect is subject to daily quota limitations on purchases into the PRC. Once the daily quota is reached, orders to purchase additional China A-Shares through Stock Connect will be rejected. A fund’s investment in China A-Shares may only be traded through Stock Connect and is not otherwise transferable. Stock Connect utilizes an omnibus clearing structure, and the fund’s shares will be registered in its custodian’s name on the Central Clearing and Settlement System. This may limit an advisor’s ability to effectively manage a fund.

Foreign Securities—Emerging Market Risk. Investing in emerging market countries involves certain risks not typically associated with investing in the United States, and it imposes risks greater than, or in addition to, risks of investing in more developed foreign countries. These risks include, but are not limited to, the following: nationalization or expropriation of assets or confiscatory taxation; currency devaluations and other currency exchange rate fluctuations; greater social, economic, and political uncertainty and instability (including amplified risk of war and terrorism); more substantial government involvement in the economy; less government supervision and regulation of the securities markets and participants in those markets and possible arbitrary and unpredictable enforcement of securities regulations; controls on foreign investment and limitations on repatriation of invested capital and on the fund’s ability to exchange local currencies for U.S. dollars; unavailability of currency-hedging techniques in certain emerging market countries; generally smaller, less seasoned, or newly organized companies; difference in, or lack of, auditing and financial reporting standards, which may result in unavailability of material information about issuers; difficulty in obtaining and/or enforcing a judgment in a court outside the United States; and greater price volatility, substantially less liquidity, and significantly smaller market capitalization of securities markets. Also, any change in the leadership or politics of emerging market countries, or the countries that exercise a significant influence over those countries, may halt the expansion of or reverse the liberalization of foreign investment policies now occurring and adversely affect existing investment opportunities. Furthermore, high rates of inflation and rapid fluctuations in inflation rates have had, and may continue to have, negative effects on the economies and securities markets of certain emerging market countries. Custodial services and other investment-related costs are often more expensive in emerging market countries, which can reduce a fund’s income from investments in securities or debt instruments of emerging market country issuers.

Foreign Securities—Foreign Currency Transactions. The value in U.S. dollars of a fund’s non-dollar-denominated foreign securities may be affected favorably or unfavorably by changes in foreign currency exchange rates and exchange control regulations, and the fund may incur costs in connection with conversions between various currencies. To seek to minimize the impact of such factors on net asset values, a fund may engage in foreign currency transactions in connection with its investments in foreign securities. A fund will enter into foreign currency transactions only to attempt to “hedge” the currency risk associated with investing in foreign securities. Although such transactions tend to minimize the risk of loss that would result from a decline in the value of the hedged currency, they also may limit any potential gain that might result should the value of such currency increase.

Currency exchange transactions may be conducted either on a spot (i.e., cash) basis at the rate prevailing in the currency exchange market or through forward contracts to purchase or sell foreign currencies. A forward currency contract involves an obligation to purchase or sell a specific currency at a future date, which may be any fixed number of days from the date of the contract agreed upon by the parties, at a price set at the time of the contract. These contracts are entered into with large commercial banks or other currency traders who are participants in the interbank market. Currency exchange transactions also may be effected through the use of swap agreements or other derivatives.

Currency exchange transactions may be considered borrowings. A currency exchange transaction will not be considered to constitute the issuance, by a fund, of a “senior security,” as that term is defined in Section 18(g) of the 1940 Act, and therefore such transaction will not be subject to the 300% asset coverage requirement otherwise applicable to borrowings by a fund, if the fund covers the transaction in accordance with the requirements described under the heading “Borrowing.”

By entering into a forward contract for the purchase or sale of foreign currency involved in underlying security transactions, a fund may be able to protect itself against part or all of the possible loss between trade and settlement dates for that purchase or sale resulting from an adverse change in the relationship between the U.S. dollar and such foreign currency. This practice is sometimes referred to as “transaction hedging.” In addition, when the advisor reasonably believes that a particular foreign currency may suffer a substantial decline against the U.S. dollar, a fund may enter into a forward contract to sell an amount of foreign currency approximating the value of some or all of its portfolio securities denominated in such foreign currency. This practice is sometimes referred to as “portfolio hedging.” Similarly,

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when the advisor reasonably believes that the U.S. dollar may suffer a substantial decline against a foreign currency, a fund may enter into a forward contract to buy that foreign currency for a fixed dollar amount.

A fund may also attempt to hedge its foreign currency exchange rate risk by engaging in currency futures, options, and “cross-hedge” transactions. In cross-hedge transactions, a fund holding securities denominated in one foreign currency will enter into a forward currency contract to buy or sell a different foreign currency (one that the advisor reasonably believes generally tracks the currency being hedged with regard to price movements). The advisor may select the tracking (or substitute) currency rather than the currency in which the security is denominated for various reasons, including in order to take advantage of pricing or other opportunities presented by the tracking currency or to take advantage of a more liquid or more efficient market for the tracking currency. Such cross-hedges are expected to help protect a fund against an increase or decrease in the value of the U.S. dollar against certain foreign currencies.

A fund may hold a portion of its assets in bank deposits denominated in foreign currencies, so as to facilitate investment in foreign securities as well as protect against currency fluctuations and the need to convert such assets into U.S. dollars (thereby also reducing transaction costs). To the extent these assets are converted back into U.S. dollars, the value of the assets so maintained will be affected favorably or unfavorably by changes in foreign currency exchange rates and exchange control regulations.

The forecasting of currency market movement is extremely difficult, and whether any hedging strategy will be successful is highly uncertain. Moreover, it is impossible to forecast with precision the market value of portfolio securities at the expiration of a forward currency contract. Accordingly, a fund may be required to buy or sell additional currency on the spot market (and bear the expense of such transaction) if its advisor’s predictions regarding the movement of foreign currency or securities markets prove inaccurate. In addition, the use of cross-hedging transactions may involve special risks and may leave a fund in a less advantageous position than if such a hedge had not been established. Because forward currency contracts are privately negotiated transactions, there can be no assurance that a fund will have flexibility to roll over a forward currency contract upon its expiration if it desires to do so. Additionally, there can be no assurance that the other party to the contract will perform its services thereunder.

Foreign Securities—Foreign Investment Companies. Some of the countries in which a fund may invest may not permit, or may place economic restrictions on, direct investment by outside investors. Fund investments in such countries may be permitted only through foreign government-approved or authorized investment vehicles, which may include other investment companies. Such investments may be made through registered or unregistered closed-end investment companies that invest in foreign securities. Investing through such vehicles may involve layered fees or expenses and may also be subject to the limitations on, and the risks of, a fund’s investments in other investment companies, which are described under the heading “Other Investment Companies.

Foreign Securities—Russian Market Risk. There are significant risks inherent in investing in Russian securities. The underdeveloped state of Russia’s banking system subjects the settlement, clearing, and registration of securities transactions to significant risks. In March of 2013, the National Settlement Depository (NSD) began acting as a central depository for the majority of Russian equity securities; the NSD is now recognized as the Central Securities Depository in Russia.

For Russian issuers with less than 50 shareholders, ownership records are maintained only by registrars who are under contract with the issuers and are currently not settled with the NSD. Although a Russian subcustodian will maintain copies of the registrar’s records (Share Extracts) on its premises, such Share Extracts are not recorded with the NSD and may not be legally sufficient to establish ownership of securities. The registrars may not be independent from the issuer, are not necessarily subject to effective state supervision, and may not be licensed with any governmental entity. A fund will endeavor to ensure by itself or through a custodian or other agent that the fund’s interest continues to be appropriately recorded for Russian issuers with less than 50 shareholders by inspecting the share register and by obtaining extracts of share registers through regular confirmations. However, these extracts have no legal enforceability, and the possibility exists that a subsequent illegal amendment or other fraudulent act may deprive the fund of its ownership rights or may improperly dilute its interest. In addition, although applicable Russian regulations impose liability on registrars for losses resulting from their errors, a fund may find it difficult to enforce any rights it may have against the registrar or issuer of the securities in the event of loss of share registration.

Futures Contracts and Options on Futures Contracts. Futures contracts and options on futures contracts are derivatives.

A futures contract is a standardized agreement between two parties to buy or sell at a specific time in the future a specific

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quantity of a commodity at a specific price. The commodity may consist of an asset, a reference rate, or an index. A security futures contract relates to the sale of a specific quantity of shares of a single equity security or a narrow-based securities index. The value of a futures contract tends to increase and decrease in tandem with the value of the underlying commodity. The buyer of a futures contract enters into an agreement to purchase the underlying commodity on the settlement date and is said to be “long” the contract. The seller of a futures contract enters into an agreement to sell the underlying commodity on the settlement date and is said to be “short” the contract. The price at which a futures contract is entered into is established either in the electronic marketplace or by open outcry on the floor of an exchange between exchange members acting as traders or brokers. Open futures contracts can be liquidated or closed out by physical delivery of the underlying commodity or payment of the cash settlement amount on the settlement date, depending on the terms of the particular contract. Some financial futures contracts (such as security futures) provide for physical settlement at maturity. Other financial futures contracts (such as those relating to interest rates, foreign currencies, and broad-based securities indexes) generally provide for cash settlement at maturity. In the case of cash-settled futures contracts, the cash settlement amount is equal to the difference between the final settlement or market price for the relevant commodity on the last trading day of the contract and the price for the relevant commodity agreed upon at the outset of the contract. Most futures contracts, however, are not held until maturity but instead are “offset” before the settlement date through the establishment of an opposite and equal futures position.

The purchaser or seller of a futures contract is not required to deliver or pay for the underlying commodity unless the contract is held until the settlement date. However, both the purchaser and seller are required to deposit “initial margin” with a futures commission merchant (FCM) when the futures contract is entered into. Initial margin deposits are typically calculated as an amount equal to the volatility in market value of a contract over a fixed period. If the value of the fund’s position declines, the fund will be required to make additional “variation margin” payments to the FCM to settle the change in value. If the value of the fund’s position increases, the FCM will be required to make additional “variation margin” payments to the fund to settle the change in value. This process is known as “marking-to-market” and is calculated on a daily basis. A futures transaction will not be considered to constitute the issuance, by a fund, of a “senior security,” as that term is defined in Section 18(g) of the 1940 Act, and therefore such transaction will not be subject to the 300% asset coverage requirement otherwise applicable to borrowings by a fund, if the fund covers the transaction in accordance with the requirements described under the heading “Borrowing.”

An option on a futures contract (or futures option) conveys the right, but not the obligation, to purchase (in the case of a call option) or sell (in the case of a put option) a specific futures contract at a specific price (called the “exercise” or “strike” price) any time before the option expires. The seller of an option is called an option writer. The purchase price of an option is called the premium. The potential loss to an option buyer is limited to the amount of the premium plus transaction costs. This will be the case, for example, if the option is held and not exercised prior to its expiration date. Generally, an option writer sells options with the goal of obtaining the premium paid by the option buyer. If an option sold by an option writer expires without being exercised, the writer retains the full amount of the premium. The option writer, however, has unlimited economic risk because its potential loss, except to the extent offset by the premium received when the option was written, is equal to the amount the option is “in-the-money” at the expiration date. A call option is in-the-money if the value of the underlying futures contract exceeds the exercise price of the option. A put option is in-the-money if the exercise price of the option exceeds the value of the underlying futures contract. Generally, any profit realized by an option buyer represents a loss for the option writer.

A fund that takes the position of a writer of a futures option is required to deposit and maintain initial and variation margin with respect to the option, as previously described in the case of futures contracts. A futures option transaction will not be considered to constitute the issuance, by a fund, of a “senior security,” as that term is defined in Section 18(g) of the 1940 Act, and therefore such transaction will not be subject to the 300% asset coverage requirement otherwise applicable to borrowings by a fund, if the fund covers the transaction in accordance with the requirements described under the heading “Borrowing.”

Each Fund intends to comply with Rule 4.5 under the Commodity Exchange Act (CEA), under which a mutual fund may be excluded from the definition of the term Commodity Pool Operator (CPO) if the fund meets certain conditions such as limiting its investments in certain CEA-regulated instruments (e.g., futures, options, or swaps) and complying with certain marketing restrictions. Accordingly, Vanguard is not subject to registration or regulation as a CPO with respect to the Fund under the CEA. A Fund will only enter into futures contracts and futures options that are traded on a U.S. or foreign exchange, board of trade, or similar entity or that are quoted on an automated quotation system.

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Futures Contracts and Options on Futures Contracts—Risks. The risk of loss in trading futures contracts and in writing futures options can be substantial because of the low margin deposits required, the extremely high degree of leverage involved in futures and options pricing, and the potential high volatility of the futures markets. As a result, a relatively small price movement in a futures position may result in immediate and substantial loss (or gain) for the investor. For example, if at the time of purchase, 10% of the value of the futures contract is deposited as margin, a subsequent 10% decrease in the value of the futures contract would result in a total loss of the margin deposit, before any deduction for the transaction costs, if the account were then closed out. A 15% decrease would result in a loss equal to 150% of the original margin deposit if the contract were closed out. Thus, a purchase or sale of a futures contract, and the writing of a futures option, may result in losses in excess of the amount invested in the position. In the event of adverse price movements, a fund would continue to be required to make daily cash payments to maintain its required margin. In such situations, if the fund has insufficient cash, it may have to sell portfolio securities to meet daily margin requirements (and segregation requirements, if applicable) at a time when it may be disadvantageous to do so. In addition, on the settlement date, a fund may be required to make delivery of the instruments underlying the futures positions it holds.

A fund could suffer losses if it is unable to close out a futures contract or a futures option because of an illiquid secondary market. Futures contracts and futures options may be closed out only on an exchange that provides a secondary market for such products. However, there can be no assurance that a liquid secondary market will exist for any particular futures product at any specific time. Thus, it may not be possible to close a futures or option position. Moreover, most futures exchanges limit the amount of fluctuation permitted in futures contract prices during a single trading day. The daily limit establishes the maximum amount that the price of a futures contract may vary either up or down from the previous day’s settlement price at the end of a trading session. Once the daily limit has been reached in a particular type of contract, no trades may be made on that day at a price beyond that limit. The daily limit governs only price movement during a particular trading day and therefore does not limit potential losses, because the limit may prevent the liquidation of unfavorable positions. Futures contract prices have occasionally moved to the daily limit for several consecutive trading days with little or no trading, thereby preventing prompt liquidation of future positions and subjecting some futures traders to substantial losses. The inability to close futures and options positions also could have an adverse impact on the ability to hedge a portfolio investment or to establish a substitute for a portfolio investment.

U.S. Treasury futures are generally not subject to such daily limits.

A fund bears the risk that its advisor will incorrectly predict future market trends. If the advisor attempts to use a futures

contract or a futures option as a hedge against, or as a substitute for, a portfolio investment, the fund will be exposed to the risk that the futures position will have or will develop imperfect or no correlation with the portfolio investment. This could cause substantial losses for the fund. Although hedging strategies involving futures products can reduce the risk of loss, they can also reduce the opportunity for gain or even result in losses by offsetting favorable price movements in other fund investments.

A fund could lose margin payments it has deposited with its FCM if, for example, the FCM breaches its agreement with the fund or becomes insolvent or goes into bankruptcy. In that event, the fund may be entitled to return of margin owed to it only in proportion to the amount received by the FCM’s other customers, potentially resulting in losses to the fund.

Interfund Borrowing and Lending. The SEC has granted an exemption permitting registered open-end Vanguard funds to participate in Vanguard’s interfund lending program. This program allows the Vanguard funds to borrow money from and lend money to each other for temporary or emergency purposes. The program is subject to a number of conditions, including, among other things, the requirements that (1) no fund may borrow or lend money through the program unless it receives a more favorable interest rate than is typically available from a bank for a comparable transaction, (2) no fund may loan money if the loan would cause its aggregate outstanding loans through the program to exceed 15% of its net assets at the time of the loan, and (3) a fund’s interfund loans to any one fund shall not exceed 5% of the lending fund’s net assets. In addition, a Vanguard fund may participate in the program only if and to the extent that such participation is consistent with the fund’s investment objective and investment policies. The boards of trustees of the Vanguard funds are responsible for overseeing the interfund lending program. Any delay in repayment to a lending fund could result in a lost investment opportunity or additional borrowing costs.

Investing for Control. The Vanguard funds invest in securities and other instruments for the sole purpose of achieving a specific investment objective. As such, they do not seek to acquire enough of a company’s outstanding voting stock

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to have control over management decisions. The Vanguard funds do not invest for the purpose of controlling a company’s management.

Options. An option is a derivative. An option on a security (or index) is a contract that gives the holder of the option, in return for the payment of a “premium,” the right, but not the obligation, to buy from (in the case of a call option) or sell to (in the case of a put option) the writer of the option the security underlying the option (or the cash value of the index) at a specified exercise price prior to the expiration date of the option. The writer of an option on a security has the obligation upon exercise of the option to deliver the underlying security upon payment of the exercise price (in the case of a call option) or to pay the exercise price upon delivery of the underlying security (in the case of a put option). The writer of an option on an index has the obligation upon exercise of the option to pay an amount equal to the cash value of the index minus the exercise price, multiplied by the specified multiplier for the index option. The multiplier for an index option determines the size of the investment position the option represents. Unlike exchange-traded options, which are standardized with respect to the underlying instrument, expiration date, contract size, and strike price, the terms of over-the-counter (OTC) options (options not traded on exchanges) generally are established through negotiation with the other party to the option contract. Although this type of arrangement allows the purchaser or writer greater flexibility to tailor an option to its needs, OTC options generally involve greater credit risk than exchange-traded options, which are guaranteed by the clearing organization of the exchanges where they are traded.

The buyer (or holder) of an option is said to be “long” the option, while the seller (or writer) of an option is said to be “short” the option. A call option grants to the holder the right to buy (and obligates the writer to sell) the underlying security at the strike price, which is the predetermined price at which the option may be exercised. A put option grants to the holder the right to sell (and obligates the writer to buy) the underlying security at the strike price. The purchase price of an option is called the “premium.” The potential loss to an option buyer is limited to the amount of the premium plus transaction costs. This will be the case if the option is held and not exercised prior to its expiration date. Generally, an option writer sells options with the goal of obtaining the premium paid by the option buyer, but that person could also seek to profit from an anticipated rise or decline in option prices. If an option sold by an option writer expires without being exercised, the writer retains the full amount of the premium. The option writer, however, has unlimited economic risk because its potential loss, except to the extent offset by the premium received when the option was written, is equal to the amount the option is “in-the-money” at the expiration date. A call option is in-the-money if the value of the underlying position exceeds the exercise price of the option. A put option is in-the-money if the exercise price of the option exceeds the value of the underlying position. Generally, any profit realized by an option buyer represents a loss for the option writer. The writing of an option will not be considered to constitute the issuance, by a fund, of a “senior security,” as that term is defined in Section 18(g) of the 1940 Act, and therefore such transaction will not be subject to the 300% asset coverage requirement otherwise applicable to borrowings by a fund, if the fund covers the transaction in accordance with the requirements described under the heading “Borrowing.”

If a trading market, in particular options, were to become unavailable, investors in those options (such as the funds) would be unable to close out their positions until trading resumes, and they may be faced with substantial losses if the value of the underlying instrument moves adversely during that time. Even if the market were to remain available, there may be times when options prices will not maintain their customary or anticipated relationships to the prices of the underlying instruments and related instruments. Lack of investor interest, changes in volatility, or other factors or conditions might adversely affect the liquidity, efficiency, continuity, or even the orderliness of the market for particular options.

A fund bears the risk that its advisor will not accurately predict future market trends. If the advisor attempts to use an option as a hedge against, or as a substitute for, a portfolio investment, the fund will be exposed to the risk that the option will have or will develop imperfect or no correlation with the portfolio investment, which could cause substantial losses for the fund. Although hedging strategies involving options can reduce the risk of loss, they can also reduce the opportunity for gain or even result in losses by offsetting favorable price movements in other fund investments. Many options, in particular OTC options, are complex and often valued based on subjective factors. Improper valuations can result in increased cash payment requirements to counterparties or a loss of value to a fund.

OTC Swap Agreements. An over-the-counter (OTC) swap agreement, which is a type of derivative, is an agreement between two parties (counterparties) to exchange payments at specified dates (periodic payment dates) on the basis of a specified amount (notional amount) with the payments calculated with reference to a specified asset, reference rate, or index.

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Examples of OTC swap agreements include, but are not limited to, interest rate swaps, credit default swaps, equity swaps, commodity swaps, foreign currency swaps, index swaps, excess return swaps, and total return swaps. Most OTC swap agreements provide that when the periodic payment dates for both parties are the same, payments are netted, and only the net amount is paid to the counterparty entitled to receive the net payment. Consequently, a fund’s current obligations (or rights) under an OTC swap agreement will generally be equal only to the net amount to be paid or received under the agreement, based on the relative values of the positions held by each counterparty. OTC swap agreements allow for a wide variety of transactions. For example, fixed rate payments may be exchanged for floating rate payments; U.S. dollar-denominated payments may be exchanged for payments denominated in a different currency; and payments tied to the price of one asset, reference rate, or index may be exchanged for payments tied to the price of another asset, reference rate, or index.

An OTC option on an OTC swap agreement, also called a “swaption,” is an option that gives the buyer the right, but not the obligation, to enter into a swap on a future date in exchange for paying a market-based “premium.” A receiver swaption gives the owner the right to receive the total return of a specified asset, reference rate, or index. A payer swaption gives the owner the right to pay the total return of a specified asset, reference rate, or index. Swaptions also include options that allow an existing swap to be terminated or extended by one of the counterparties.

The use of OTC swap agreements by a fund entails certain risks, which may be different from, or possibly greater than, the risks associated with investing directly in the securities and other investments that are the referenced asset for the swap agreement. OTC swaps are highly specialized instruments that require investment techniques, risk analyses, and tax planning different from those associated with stocks, bonds, and other traditional investments. The use of an OTC swap requires an understanding not only of the referenced asset, reference rate, or index but also of the swap itself, without the benefit of observing the performance of the swap under all possible market conditions.

OTC swap agreements may be subject to liquidity risk, which exists when a particular swap is difficult to purchase or sell. If an OTC swap transaction is particularly large or if the relevant market is illiquid (as is the case with many OTC swaps), it may not be possible to initiate a transaction or liquidate a position at an advantageous time or price, which may result in significant losses. In addition, OTC swap transactions may be subject to a fund’s limitation on investments in illiquid securities.

OTC swap agreements may be subject to pricing risk, which exists when a particular swap becomes extraordinarily expensive or inexpensive relative to historical prices or the prices of corresponding cash market instruments. Under certain market conditions, it may not be economically feasible to initiate a transaction or liquidate a position in time to avoid a loss or take advantage of an opportunity or to realize the intrinsic value of the OTC swap agreement.

Because certain OTC swap agreements have a leverage component, adverse changes in the value or level of the underlying asset, reference rate, or index can result in a loss substantially greater than the amount invested in the swap itself. Certain OTC swaps have the potential for unlimited loss, regardless of the size of the initial investment. A leveraged OTC swap transaction will not be considered to constitute the issuance, by a fund, of a “senior security,” as that term is defined in Section 18(g) of the 1940 Act, and therefore such transaction will not be subject to the 300% asset coverage requirement otherwise applicable to borrowings by a fund, if the fund covers the transaction in accordance with the requirements described under the heading “Borrowing.”

Like most other investments, OTC swap agreements are subject to the risk that the market value of the instrument will change in a way detrimental to a fund’s interest. A fund bears the risk that its advisor will not accurately forecast future market trends or the values of assets, reference rates, indexes, or other economic factors in establishing OTC swap positions for the fund. If the advisor attempts to use an OTC swap as a hedge against, or as a substitute for, a portfolio investment, the fund will be exposed to the risk that the OTC swap will have or will develop imperfect or no correlation with the portfolio investment. This could cause substantial losses for the fund. Although hedging strategies involving OTC swap instruments can reduce the risk of loss, they can also reduce the opportunity for gain or even result in losses by offsetting favorable price movements in other fund investments. Many OTC swaps are complex and often valued subjectively. Improper valuations can result in increased cash payment requirements to counterparties or a loss of value to a fund.

The use of an OTC swap agreement also involves the risk that a loss may be sustained as a result of the insolvency or bankruptcy of the counterparty or the failure of the counterparty to make required payments or otherwise comply with the terms of the agreement. Additionally, the use of credit default swaps can result in losses if a fund’s advisor does not correctly evaluate the creditworthiness of the issuer on which the credit swap is based.

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The market for OTC swaps and swaptions is a relatively new market. It is possible that developments in the market could adversely affect a fund, including its ability to terminate existing OTC swap agreements or to realize amounts to be received under such agreements. As previously noted under the heading “Derivatives,” under the Dodd-Frank Act, certain swaps that may be used by a fund may be cleared through a clearinghouse and traded on an exchange or swap execution facility.

Other Investment Companies. A fund may invest in other investment companies to the extent permitted by applicable law or SEC exemption. Under Section 12(d)(1) of the 1940 Act, a fund generally may invest up to 10% of its assets in shares of investment companies and up to 5% of its assets in any one investment company, as long as no investment represents more than 3% of the voting stock of an acquired investment company. In addition, no funds for which Vanguard acts as an advisor may, in the aggregate, own more than 10% of the voting stock of a closed-end investment company. The 1940 Act and related rules provide certain exemptions from these restrictions. If a fund invests in other investment companies, shareholders will bear not only their proportionate share of the fund’s expenses (including operating expenses and the fees of the advisor), but they also may indirectly bear the similar expenses of the underlying investment companies. Certain investment companies, such as business development companies (BDCs), are more akin to operating companies and, as such, their expenses are not direct expenses paid by fund shareholders and are not used to calculate the fund’s net asset value. SEC rules nevertheless require that any expenses incurred by a BDC be included in a fund’s expense ratio as “Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses.” The expense ratio of a fund that holds a BDC will thus overstate what the fund actually spends on portfolio management, administrative services, and other shareholder services by an amount equal to these Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses. The Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses are not included in a fund’s financial statements, which provide a clearer picture of a fund’s actual operating expenses. Shareholders would also be exposed to the risks associated not only with the investments of the fund but also with the portfolio investments of the underlying investment companies. Certain types of investment companies, such as closed-end investment companies, issue a fixed number of shares that typically trade on a stock exchange or over-the-counter at a premium or discount to their net asset value. Others are continuously offered at net asset value but also may be traded on the secondary market.

Preferred Stock. Preferred stock represents an equity or ownership interest in an issuer. Preferred stock normally pays dividends at a specified rate and has precedence over common stock in the event the issuer is liquidated or declares bankruptcy. However, in the event an issuer is liquidated or declares bankruptcy, the claims of owners of bonds take precedence over the claims of those who own preferred and common stock. Preferred stock, unlike common stock, often has a stated dividend rate payable from the corporation’s earnings. Preferred stock dividends may be cumulative or noncumulative, participating, or auction rate. “Cumulative” dividend provisions require all or a portion of prior unpaid dividends to be paid before dividends can be paid to the issuer’s common stock. “Participating” preferred stock may be entitled to a dividend exceeding the stated dividend in certain cases. If interest rates rise, the fixed dividend on preferred stocks may be less attractive, causing the price of such stocks to decline. Preferred stock may have mandatory sinking fund provisions, as well as provisions allowing the stock to be called or redeemed, which can limit the benefit of a decline in interest rates. Preferred stock is subject to many of the risks to which common stock and debt securities are subject. In addition, preferred stock may be subject to more abrupt or erratic price movements than common stock or debt securities because preferred stock may trade with less frequency and in more limited volume.

Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs). An equity REIT owns real estate properties directly and generates income from rental and lease payments. Equity REITs also have the potential to generate capital gains as properties are sold at a profit. A mortgage REIT makes construction, development, and long-term mortgage loans to commercial real estate developers and earns interest income on these loans. A hybrid REIT holds both properties and mortgages. To avoid taxation at the corporate level, REITs must distribute most of their earnings to shareholders.

Investments in REITs are subject to many of the same risks as direct investments in real estate. In general, real estate values can be affected by a variety of factors, including supply and demand for properties, general or local economic conditions, and the strength of specific industries that rent properties. Ultimately, a REIT’s performance depends on the types and locations of the properties it owns and on how well the REIT manages its properties. For example, rental income could decline because of extended vacancies, increased competition from nearby properties, tenants’ failure to pay rent, regulatory limitations on rents, fluctuations in rental income, variations in market rental rates, or incompetent management. Property values could decrease because of overbuilding in the area, environmental liabilities, uninsured damages caused by natural disasters, a general decline in the neighborhood, losses because of casualty or condemnation, increases in property taxes, or changes in zoning laws.

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The value of a REIT may also be affected by changes in interest rates. Rising interest rates generally increase the cost of financing for real estate projects, which could cause the value of an equity REIT to decline. During periods of declining interest rates, mortgagors may elect to prepay mortgages held by mortgage REITs, which could lower or diminish the yield on the REIT. REITs are also subject to heavy cash-flow dependency, default by borrowers, and changes in tax and regulatory requirements. In addition, a REIT may fail to qualify for tax-exempt status under the IRC and/or fail to maintain exemption from the 1940 Act.

Repurchase Agreements. A repurchase agreement is an agreement under which a fund acquires a fixed income security (generally a security issued by the U.S. government or an agency thereof, a banker’s acceptance, or a certificate of deposit) from a bank, a broker, or a dealer and simultaneously agrees to resell such security to the seller at an agreed-upon price and date (normally, the next business day). Because the security purchased constitutes collateral for the repurchase obligation, a repurchase agreement may be considered a loan that is collateralized by the security purchased. The resale price reflects an agreed-upon interest rate effective for the period the instrument is held by a fund and is unrelated to the interest rate on the underlying instrument. In these transactions, the securities acquired by a fund (including accrued interest earned thereon) must have a total value in excess of the value of the repurchase agreement and be held by a custodian bank until repurchased. In addition, the investment advisor will monitor a fund’s repurchase agreement transactions generally and will evaluate the creditworthiness of any bank, broker, or dealer party to a repurchase agreement relating to a fund. The aggregate amount of any such agreements is not limited, except to the extent required by law.

The use of repurchase agreements involves certain risks. One risk is the seller’s ability to pay the agreed-upon repurchase price on the repurchase date. If the seller defaults, the fund may incur costs in disposing of the collateral, which would reduce the amount realized thereon. If the seller seeks relief under the bankruptcy laws, the disposition of the collateral may be delayed or limited. For example, if the other party to the agreement becomes insolvent and subject to liquidation or reorganization under the bankruptcy or other laws, a court may determine that the underlying security is collateral for a loan by the fund not within its control, and therefore the realization by the fund on such collateral may be automatically stayed. Finally, it is possible that the fund may not be able to substantiate its interest in the underlying security and may be deemed an unsecured creditor of the other party to the agreement.

Restricted and Illiquid Securities. Illiquid securities are securities that cannot be sold or disposed of within seven days in the ordinary course of business at approximately the price at which they are valued. The SEC generally limits aggregate holdings of illiquid securities by a mutual fund to 15% of its net assets (5% for money market funds). A fund may experience difficulty valuing and selling illiquid securities and, in some cases, may be unable to value or sell certain illiquid securities for an indefinite period of time. Illiquid securities may include a wide variety of investments, such as (1) repurchase agreements maturing in more than seven days (unless the agreements have demand/redemption features), (2) OTC options contracts and certain other derivatives (including certain swap agreements), (3) fixed time deposits that are not subject to prepayment or do not provide for withdrawal penalties upon prepayment (other than overnight deposits), (4) loan interests and other direct debt instruments, (5) certain municipal lease obligations, (6) commercial paper issued pursuant to Section 4(2) of the 1933 Act, and (7) securities whose disposition is restricted under the federal securities laws. Illiquid securities include restricted, privately placed securities that, under the federal securities laws, generally may be resold only to qualified institutional buyers. If a substantial market develops for a restricted security held by a fund, it may be treated as a liquid security, in accordance with procedures and guidelines approved by the board of trustees. This generally includes securities that are unregistered, that can be sold to qualified institutional buyers in accordance with Rule 144A under the 1933 Act, or that are exempt from registration under the 1933 Act, such as commercial paper. Although a fund’s advisor monitors the liquidity of restricted securities, the board of trustees oversees and retains ultimate responsibility for the advisor’s liquidity determinations. Several factors that the trustees consider in monitoring these decisions include the valuation of a security; the availability of qualified institutional buyers, brokers, and dealers that trade in the security; and the availability of information about the security’s issuer.

Reverse Repurchase Agreements. In a reverse repurchase agreement, a fund sells a security to another party, such as a bank or broker-dealer, in return for cash and agrees to repurchase that security at an agreed-upon price and time. Under a reverse repurchase agreement, the fund continues to receive any principal and interest payments on the underlying security during the term of the agreement. Reverse repurchase agreements involve the risk that the market value of securities retained by the fund may decline below the repurchase price of the securities sold by the fund that it is obligated to repurchase. In addition to the risk of such a loss, fees charged to the fund may exceed the return the fund earns from investing the proceeds received from the reverse repurchase agreement transaction. A reverse repurchase

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agreement may be considered a borrowing transaction for purposes of the 1940 Act. A reverse repurchase agreement transaction will not be considered to constitute the issuance, by a fund, of a “senior security,” as that term is defined in Section 18(g) of the 1940 Act, and therefore such transaction will not be subject to the 300% asset coverage requirement otherwise applicable to borrowings by a fund, if the fund covers the transaction in accordance with the requirements described under the heading “Borrowing.” A fund will enter into reverse repurchase agreements only with parties whose creditworthiness has been reviewed and found satisfactory by the advisor. If the buyer in a reverse repurchase agreement becomes insolvent or files for bankruptcy, a fund’s use of proceeds from the sale may be restricted while the other party or its trustee or receiver determines if it will honor the fund’s right to repurchase the securities. If the fund is unable to recover the securities it sold in a reverse repurchase agreement, it would realize a loss equal to the difference between the value of the securities and the payment it received for them.

Securities Lending. A fund may lend its investment securities to qualified institutional investors (typically brokers, dealers, banks, or other financial institutions) who may need to borrow securities in order to complete certain transactions, such as covering short sales, avoiding failures to deliver securities, or completing arbitrage operations. By lending its investment securities, a fund attempts to increase its net investment income through the receipt of interest on the securities lent. Any gain or loss in the market price of the securities lent that might occur during the term of the loan would be for the account of the fund. If the borrower defaults on its obligation to return the securities lent because of insolvency or other reasons, a fund could experience delays and costs in recovering the securities lent or in gaining access to the collateral. These delays and costs could be greater for foreign securities. If a fund is not able to recover the securities lent, a fund may sell the collateral and purchase a replacement investment in the market. The value of the collateral could decrease below the value of the replacement investment by the time the replacement investment is purchased. Cash received as collateral through loan transactions may be invested in other eligible securities. Investing this cash subjects that investment to market appreciation or depreciation. Currently, Vanguard funds that lend securities invest the cash collateral received in one or more Vanguard CMT Funds, which are very low-cost money market funds.

The terms and the structure of the loan arrangements, as well as the aggregate amount of securities loans, must be consistent with the 1940 Act and the rules or interpretations of the SEC thereunder. These provisions limit the amount of securities a fund may lend to 33 1/3% of the fund’s total assets and require that (1) the borrower pledge and maintain with the fund collateral consisting of cash, an irrevocable letter of credit, or securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government having at all times not less than 100% of the value of the securities lent; (2) the borrower add to such collateral whenever the price of the securities lent rises (i.e., the borrower “marks to market” on a daily basis); (3) the loan be made subject to termination by the fund at any time; and (4) the fund receives reasonable interest on the loan (which may include the fund’s investing any cash collateral in interest-bearing short-term investments), any distribution on the lent securities, and any increase in their market value. Loan arrangements made by each fund will comply with all other applicable regulatory requirements, including the rules of the New York Stock Exchange, which presently require the borrower, after notice, to redeliver the securities within the normal settlement time of three business days. The advisor will consider the creditworthiness of the borrower, among other things, in making decisions with respect to the lending of securities, subject to oversight by the board of trustees. At the present time, the SEC does not object if an investment company pays reasonable negotiated fees in connection with lent securities, so long as such fees are set forth in a written contract and approved by the investment company’s trustees. In addition, voting rights pass with the lent securities, but if a fund has knowledge that a material event will occur affecting securities on loan, and in respect to which the holder of the securities will be entitled to vote or consent, the lender must be entitled to call the loaned securities in time to vote or consent. A fund bears the risk that there may be a delay in the return of the securities, which may impair the fund’s ability to vote on such a matter.

Pursuant to Vanguard’s securities lending policy, Vanguard’s fixed income and money market funds are not permitted to, and do not, lend their investment securities.

Tax Matters—Federal Tax Discussion. Discussion herein of U.S. federal income tax matters summarizes some of the important, generally applicable U.S. federal tax considerations relevant to investment in a fund based on the IRC, U.S. Treasury regulations, and other applicable authority. These authorities are subject to change by legislative, administrative, or judicial action, possibly with retroactive effect. A shareholder should consult his or her tax professional for information regarding the particular situation and the possible application of U.S. federal, state, local, foreign, and other taxes.

Tax Matters—Federal Tax Treatment of Derivatives, Hedging, and Related Transactions. A fund’s transactions in derivative instruments (including, but not limited to, options, futures, forward contracts, and swap agreements), as well as any of the fund’s hedging, short sale, securities loan, or similar transactions, may be subject to one or more special

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tax rules that accelerate income to the fund, defer losses to the fund, cause adjustments in the holding periods of the fund’s securities, convert long-term capital gains into short-term capital gains, or convert short-term capital losses into long-term capital losses. These rules could therefore affect the amount, timing, and character of distributions to shareholders.

Because these and other tax rules applicable to these types of transactions are in some cases uncertain under current law, an adverse determination or future guidance by the IRS with respect to these rules (which determination or guidance could be retroactive) may affect whether a fund has made sufficient distributions, and otherwise satisfied the relevant requirements, to maintain its qualification as a regulated investment company and avoid a fund-level tax.

Tax Matters—Federal Tax Treatment of Futures Contracts. For federal income tax purposes, a fund generally must recognize, as of the end of each taxable year, any net unrealized gains and losses on certain futures contracts, as well as any gains and losses actually realized during the year. In these cases, any gain or loss recognized with respect to a futures contract is considered to be 60% long-term capital gain or loss and 40% short-term capital gain or loss, without regard to the holding period of the contract. Gains and losses on certain other futures contracts (primarily non-U.S. futures contracts) are not recognized until the contracts are closed and are treated as long-term or short-term, depending on the holding period of the contract. Sales of futures contracts that are intended to hedge against a change in the value of securities held by a fund may affect the holding period of such securities and, consequently, the nature of the gain or loss on such securities upon disposition. A fund may be required to defer the recognition of losses on one position, such as futures contracts, to the extent of any unrecognized gains on a related offsetting position held by the fund.

A fund will distribute to shareholders annually any net capital gains that have been recognized for federal income tax purposes on futures transactions. Such distributions will be combined with distributions of capital gains realized on the fund’s other investments, and shareholders will be advised on the nature of the distributions.

Tax Matters—Federal Tax Treatment of Non-U.S. Currency Transactions. Special rules generally govern the federal income tax treatment of a fund’s transactions in the following: non-U.S. currencies; non-U.S. currency-denominated debt obligations; and certain non-U.S. currency options, futures contracts, forward contracts, and similar instruments. Accordingly, if a fund engages in these types of transactions, it may have ordinary income or loss to the extent such income or loss results from fluctuations in the value of the non-U.S. currency concerned. Such ordinary income could accelerate fund distributions to shareholders and increase the distributions taxed to shareholders as ordinary income. Any ordinary loss so created will generally reduce ordinary income distributions and, in some cases, could require the recharacterization of prior ordinary income distributions. Net ordinary losses cannot be carried forward by the fund to offset income or gains realized in subsequent taxable years.

Any gain or loss attributable to the non-U.S. currency component of a transaction engaged in by a fund that is not subject to these special currency rules (such as foreign equity investments other than certain preferred stocks) will generally be treated as a capital gain or loss and will not be segregated from the gain or loss on the underlying transaction.

To the extent a fund engages in non-U.S. currency hedging, the fund may elect or be required to apply other rules that could affect the character, timing, or amount of the fund’s gains and losses. For more information, see “Tax Matters—Federal Tax Treatment of Derivatives, Hedging, and Related Transactions.”

Tax Matters—Foreign Tax Credit. Foreign governments may withhold taxes on dividends and interest paid with respect to foreign securities held by a fund. Foreign governments may also impose taxes on other payments or gains with respect to foreign securities. If, at the close of its fiscal year, more than 50% of a fund’s total assets are invested in securities of foreign issuers, the fund may elect to pass through to shareholders the ability to deduct or, if they meet certain holding period requirements, take a credit for foreign taxes paid by the fund. Similarly, if at the close of each quarter of a fund’s taxable year, at least 50% of its total assets consist of interests in other regulated investment companies, the fund is permitted to elect to pass through to its shareholders the foreign income taxes paid by the fund in connection with foreign securities held directly by the fund or held by a regulated investment company in which the fund invests that has elected to pass through such taxes to shareholders.

Tax Matters—Passive Foreign Investment Companies. Each Fund may invest in passive foreign investment companies (PFICs). A foreign company is generally a PFIC if 75% or more of its gross income is passive or if 50% or more of its assets produce passive income. Capital gains on the sale of an interest in a PFIC will be deemed ordinary income regardless of how long the Fund held it. Also, the Fund may be subject to corporate income tax and an interest charge on certain dividends and capital gains earned in respect to PFIC interests, whether or not such amounts are distributed to shareholders. To avoid such tax and interest, a Fund may elect to “mark to market” its PFIC interests, that

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is, to treat such interests as sold on the last day of the Fund’s fiscal year, and to recognize any unrealized gains (or losses, to the extent of previously recognized gains) as ordinary income each year. Distributions from the Fund that are attributable to income or gains earned in respect to PFIC interests are characterized as ordinary income.

Tax Matters—Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduits. If a fund invests directly or indirectly, including through a REIT or other pass-through entity, in residual interests in real estate mortgage investment conduits (REMICs) or equity interests in taxable mortgage pools (TMPs), a portion of the fund’s income that is attributable to a residual interest in a REMIC or an equity interest in a TMP (such portion referred to in the IRC as an “excess inclusion”) will be subject to U.S. federal income tax in all eventsincluding potentially at the fund levelunder a notice issued by the IRS in October 2006 and U.S. Treasury regulations that have yet to be issued but may apply retroactively. This notice also provides, and the regulations are expected to provide, that excess inclusion income of a registered investment company will be allocated to shareholders of the registered investment company in proportion to the dividends received by such shareholders, with the same consequences as if the shareholders held the related interest directly. As a result, a fund investing in such interests may not be a suitable investment for charitable remainder trusts, as noted below. In general, excess inclusion income allocated to shareholders (1) cannot be offset by net operation losses (subject to a limited exception for certain thrift institutions); (2) will constitute unrelated business taxable income (UBTI) to entities (including a qualified pension plan, an individual retirement account, a 401(k) plan, a Keogh plan, or other tax-exempt entity) subject to tax on UBTI, thereby potentially requiring such an entity, which otherwise might not be required, to file a tax return and pay tax on such income; and (3) in the case of a non-U.S. investor, will not qualify for any reduction in U.S. federal withholding tax. A shareholder will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on such inclusions notwithstanding any exemption from such income tax otherwise available under the IRC. As a result, a fund investing in such interests may not be suitable for charitable remainder trusts. See “Tax Matters—Tax-Exempt Investors.”

Tax Matters—Tax Considerations for Non-U.S. Investors. U.S. withholding and estate taxes and certain U.S. tax reporting requirements may apply to any investments made by non-U.S. investors in Vanguard funds. Recent tax legislation provides relief from certain U.S. withholding taxes for certain properly reported distributions of qualifying interest income or short-term capital gain made with respect to a fund’s taxable year beginning prior to 2015, assuming the investor provides valid tax documentation certifying non-U.S. status. A fund is permitted, but is not required, to report any of its distributions as eligible for such relief, and some distributions (e.g., distributions of interest a fund receives from non-U.S. issuers) are not eligible for this relief. The relief does not by its terms apply to a fund’s taxable year beginning in or after 2015 unless so extended by Congress. If Congress extends this relief and if Vanguard chooses to apply this relief for a particular fund, Vanguard will generally apply it on a prospective basis to fund distributions made to shareholders who invest directly with Vanguard. For some funds, Vanguard may choose not to apply the withholding exemption to qualifying fund distributions made to direct shareholders but may provide the reporting to such shareholders. In these cases, a shareholder may be able to reclaim such withholding tax from the Internal Revenue Service (IRS).

If shareholders hold fund shares (including ETF shares) through a broker or intermediary, their broker or intermediary may apply this relief, if extended, to distributions made to shareholders with respect to those shares. If a shareholder’s broker or intermediary instead collects withholding tax where this relief has been extended and where the fund has provided the proper reporting, the shareholder may be able to reclaim such withholding tax from the IRS. Please consult your broker or intermediary regarding the application of these rules.

This relief does not apply to any withholding required under the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA), which generally requires a fund to obtain information sufficient to identify the status of each of its shareholders. If a shareholder fails to provide this information or otherwise fails to comply with FATCA, a fund may be required to withhold under FATCA at a rate of 30% with respect to that shareholder on fund distributions and on the proceeds of the sale, the redemption, or the exchange of fund shares. Please consult your tax advisor for more information about these rules.

Please be aware that the U.S. tax information contained in this Statement of Additional Information is not intended or written to be used, and cannot be used, for the purpose of avoiding U.S. tax penalties.

Tax Matters—Tax-Exempt Investors. Income of a fund that would be UBTI if earned directly by a tax-exempt entity will not generally be attributed as UBTI to a tax-exempt shareholder of the fund. Notwithstanding this “blocking” effect, a tax-exempt shareholder could realize UBTI by virtue of its investment in a fund if shares in the fund constitute debt-financed property in the hands of the tax-exempt shareholder within the meaning of IRC Section 514(b).

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A tax-exempt shareholder may also recognize UBTI if a fund recognizes “excess inclusion income” derived from direct or indirect investments in residual interests in REMICs or equity interests in TMPs. See “Tax Matters—Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduits.”

In addition, special tax consequences apply to charitable remainder trusts that invest in a fund that invests directly or indirectly in residual interests in REMICs or equity interests in TMPs. Charitable remainder trusts and other tax-exempt investors are urged to consult their tax advisors concerning the consequences of investing in a fund.

Warrants. Warrants are instruments that give the holder the right, but not the obligation, to buy an equity security at a specific price for a specific period of time. Changes in the value of a warrant do not necessarily correspond to changes in the value of its underlying security. The price of a warrant may be more volatile than the price of its underlying security, and a warrant may offer greater potential for capital appreciation as well as capital loss. Warrants do not entitle a holder to dividends or voting rights with respect to the underlying security and do not represent any rights in the assets of the issuing company. A warrant ceases to have value if it is not exercised prior to its expiration date. These factors can make warrants more speculative than other types of investments.

When-Issued, Delayed-Delivery, and Forward-Commitment Transactions. When-issued, delayed-delivery, and forward-commitment transactions involve a commitment to purchase or sell specific securities at a predetermined price or yield in which payment and delivery take place after the customary settlement period for that type of security. Typically, no interest accrues to the purchaser until the security is delivered. When purchasing securities pursuant to one of these transactions, payment for the securities is not required until the delivery date. However, the purchaser assumes the rights and risks of ownership, including the risks of price and yield fluctuations and the risk that the security will not be issued as anticipated. When a fund has sold a security pursuant to one of these transactions, the fund does not participate in further gains or losses with respect to the security. If the other party to a delayed-delivery transaction fails to deliver or pay for the securities, the fund could miss a favorable price or yield opportunity or suffer a loss. A fund may renegotiate a when-issued or forward-commitment transaction and may sell the underlying securities before delivery, which may result in capital gains or losses for the fund. When-issued, delayed-delivery, and forward-commitment transactions will not be considered to constitute the issuance, by a fund, of a “senior security,” as that term is defined in Section 18(g) of the 1940 Act, and therefore such transaction will not be subject to the 300% asset coverage requirement otherwise applicable to borrowings by the fund, if the fund covers the transaction in accordance with the requirements described under the heading “Borrowing.”

Regulatory restrictions in India. Shares of Vanguard International Dividend Appreciation Index Fund have not been, and will not be, registered under the laws of India and are not intended to benefit from any laws in India promulgated for the protection of shareholders. As a result of regulatory requirements in India, shares of the Fund shall not be knowingly offered to (directly or indirectly) or sold or delivered to (within India); transferred to or purchased by; or held for, on the account of, or for the benefit of (1) a “person resident in India” (as defined in the Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999), (2) a “non-resident Indian,” an “overseas corporate body,” or a “person of Indian origin,” (as each such term is defined in the Foreign Exchange Management (Deposit) Regulations, 2000), or (3) any other entity or person disqualified or otherwise prohibited from accessing the Indian securities market under applicable laws, as may be amended from time to time. Each investor, prior to purchasing shares of the Fund, must satisfy itself regarding compliance with these requirements.

SHARE PRICE

Multiple-class funds do not have a single share price. Rather, each class has a share price, called its net asset value, or NAV, that is calculated each business day as of the close of regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange (the Exchange), generally 4 p.m., Eastern time. NAV per share for Vanguard International Dividend Appreciation Index Fund and Vanguard International High Dividend Yield Index Fund, is computed by dividing the total assets, minus liabilities, allocated to the share class by the number of Fund shares outstanding for that class. On U.S. holidays or other days when the Exchange is closed, the NAV is not calculated, and the Funds do not sell or redeem shares. However, on those days the value of a Fund’s assets may be affected to the extent that the Fund holds securities that change in value on those days (such as foreign securities that trade on foreign markets that are open).

The Exchange typically observes the following holidays: New Year’s Day; Martin Luther King, Jr., Day; Presidents’ Day (Washington’s Birthday); Good Friday; Memorial Day; Independence Day; Labor Day; Thanksgiving Day; and Christmas

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Day. Although each Fund expects the same holidays to be observed in the future, the Exchange may modify its holiday schedule or hours of operation at any time.

PURCHASE AND REDEMPTION OF SHARES

Purchase of Shares (Other than ETF Shares)

The purchase price of shares of each Fund is the NAV per share next determined after the purchase request is received in good order, as defined in the Fund’s prospectus.

Exchange of Securities for Shares of a Fund. Shares of a Fund may be purchased “in kind” (i.e., in exchange for securities, rather than for cash) at the discretion of the Fund’s portfolio manager. Such securities must not be restricted as to transfer and must have a value that is readily ascertainable. Securities accepted by the Fund will be valued, as set forth in the Fund’s prospectus, as of the time of the next determination of NAV after such acceptance. All dividend, subscription, or other rights that are reflected in the market price of accepted securities at the time of valuation become the property of the Fund and must be delivered to the Fund by the investor upon receipt from the issuer. A gain or loss for federal income tax purposes, depending upon the cost of the securities tendered, would be realized by the investor upon the exchange. Investors interested in purchasing fund shares in kind should contact Vanguard.

Redemption of Shares (Other than ETF Shares)

The redemption price of shares of each Fund is the NAV per share next determined after the redemption request is received in good order, as defined in the Fund’s prospectus.

Each Fund can postpone payment of redemption proceeds for up to seven calendar days. In addition, each Fund can suspend redemptions and/or postpone payments of redemption proceeds beyond seven calendar days (1) during any period that the Exchange is closed or trading on the Exchange is restricted as determined by the SEC; (2) during any period when an emergency exists, as defined by the SEC, as a result of which it is not reasonably practicable for the Fund to dispose of securities it owns or to fairly determine the value of its assets; or (3) for such other periods as the SEC may permit.

The Trust has filed a notice of election with the SEC to pay in cash all redemptions requested by any shareholder of record limited in amount during any 90-day period to the lesser of $250,000 or 1% of the net assets of a Fund at the beginning of such period.

If Vanguard determines that it would be detrimental to the best interests of the remaining shareholders of a Fund to make payment wholly or partly in cash, the Fund may pay the redemption price in whole or in part by a distribution in kind of readily marketable securities held by the Fund in lieu of cash in conformity with applicable rules of the SEC. Investors may incur brokerage charges on the sale of such securities received in payment of redemptions.

The Funds do not charge a redemption fee. Shares redeemed may be worth more or less than what was paid for them, depending on the market value of the securities held by the Funds.

Right to Change Policies

Vanguard reserves the right, without notice, to (1) alter, add, or discontinue any conditions of purchase (including eligibility requirements), redemption, exchange, conversion, service, or privilege at any time; (2) accept initial purchases by telephone; (3) freeze any account and/or suspend account services if Vanguard has received reasonable notice of a dispute regarding the assets in an account, including notice of a dispute between the registered or beneficial account owners, or if Vanguard reasonably believes a fraudulent transaction may occur or has occurred; (4) temporarily freeze any account and/or suspend account services upon initial notification to Vanguard of the death of the shareholder until Vanguard receives required documentation in good order; (5) alter, impose, discontinue, or waive any purchase fee, redemption fee, account service fee, or other fees charged to a group of shareholders; and (6) redeem an account or suspend account privileges, without the owner’s permission to do so, in cases of threatening conduct or activity Vanguard believes to be suspicious, fraudulent, or illegal. Changes may affect any or all investors. These actions will be taken when, at the sole discretion of Vanguard management, Vanguard reasonably believes they are deemed to be in the best interest of a fund.

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Investing With Vanguard Through Other Firms

Each Fund has authorized certain agents to accept on its behalf purchase and redemption orders, and those agents are authorized to designate other intermediaries to accept purchase and redemption orders on the Fund’s behalf (collectively, Authorized Agents). The Fund will be deemed to have received a purchase or redemption order when an Authorized Agent accepts the order in accordance with the Fund’s instructions. In most instances, a customer order that is properly transmitted to an Authorized Agent will be priced at the NAV per share next determined after the order is received by the Authorized Agent.

MANAGEMENT OF THE FUNDS

Each Fund is part of the Vanguard group of investment companies, which consists of more than 190 funds. Each fund is a series of a Delaware statutory trust, and through the trusts’ jointly owned subsidiary, Vanguard, the funds obtain at cost virtually all of their corporate management, administrative, and distribution services. Vanguard also provides investment advisory services on an at-cost basis to several of the Vanguard funds.

Vanguard employs a supporting staff of management and administrative personnel needed to provide the requisite services to the funds and also furnishes the funds with necessary office space, furnishings, and equipment. Each fund pays its share of Vanguard’s total expenses, which are allocated among the funds under methods approved by the board of trustees of each fund. In addition, each fund bears its own direct expenses, such as legal, auditing, and custodial fees.

The funds’ officers are also employees of Vanguard.

Vanguard, Vanguard Marketing Corporation (VMC), the funds, and the funds’ advisors have adopted codes of ethics designed to prevent employees who may have access to nonpublic information about the trading activities of the funds (access persons) from profiting from that information. The codes of ethics permit access persons to invest in securities for their own accounts, including securities that may be held by a fund, but place substantive and procedural restrictions on the trading activities of access persons. For example, the codes of ethics require that access persons receive advance approval for most securities trades to ensure that there is no conflict with the trading activities of the funds.

Vanguard was established and operates under an Amended and Restated Funds’ Service Agreement. The Amended and Restated Funds’ Service Agreement provides that each Vanguard fund may be called upon to invest up to 0.40% of its net assets in Vanguard. The amounts that each fund has invested are adjusted from time to time in order to maintain the proportionate relationship between each fund’s relative net assets and its contribution to Vanguard’s capital.

As of the date of this SAI, Vanguard International Dividend Appreciation Index Fund and Vanguard International High Dividend Yield Index Fund had not commenced operations and therefore had not yet contributed capital to Vanguard.

Management. Corporate management and administrative services include (1) executive staff, (2) accounting and financial, (3) legal and regulatory, (4) shareholder account maintenance, (5) monitoring and control of custodian relationships, (6) shareholder reporting, and (7) review and evaluation of advisory and other services provided to the funds by third parties.

Distribution. Vanguard Marketing Corporation, 400 Devon Park Drive A39, Wayne, PA 19087, a wholly owned subsidiary of Vanguard, is the principal underwriter for the funds and in that capacity performs and finances marketing, promotional, and distribution activities (collectively, marketing and distribution activities) that are primarily intended to result in the sale of the funds’ shares. VMC offers shares of each fund for sale on a continuous basis and will use all reasonable efforts in connection with the distribution of shares of the funds. VMC performs marketing and distribution activities at cost in accordance with the conditions of a 1981 SEC exemptive order that permits the Vanguard funds to internalize and jointly finance the marketing, promotion, and distribution of their shares. The funds’ trustees review and approve the marketing and distribution expenses incurred by the funds, including the nature and cost of the activities and the desirability of each fund’s continued participation in the joint arrangement.

To ensure that each fund’s participation in the joint arrangement falls within a reasonable range of fairness, each fund contributes to VMC’s marketing and distribution expenses in accordance with an SEC-approved formula. Under that formula, one half of the marketing and distribution expenses are allocated among the funds based upon their relative net

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assets. The remaining half of those expenses is allocated among the funds based upon each fund’s sales for the preceding 24 months relative to the total sales of the funds as a group; provided, however, that no fund’s aggregate quarterly rate of contribution for marketing and distribution expenses shall exceed 125% of the average marketing and distribution expense rate for Vanguard, and that no fund shall incur annual marketing and distribution expenses in excess of 0.20% of its average month-end net assets. Each fund’s contribution to these marketing and distribution expenses helps to maintain and enhance the attractiveness and viability of the Vanguard complex as a whole, which benefits all of the funds and their shareholders.

VMC’s principal marketing and distribution expenses are for advertising, promotional materials, and marketing personnel. Other marketing and distribution activities of an administrative nature that VMC undertakes on behalf of the funds may include, but are not limited to:

  • Conducting or publishing Vanguard-generated research and analysis concerning the funds, other investments, the financial markets, or the economy.
  • Providing views, opinions, advice, or commentary concerning the funds, other investments, the financial markets, or the economy.
  • Providing analytical, statistical, performance, or other information concerning the funds, other investments, the financial markets, or the economy.
  • Providing administrative services in connection with investments in the funds or other investments, including, but not limited to, shareholder services, recordkeeping services, and educational services.
  • Providing products or services that assist investors or financial service providers (as defined below) in the investment decision-making process.
  • Providing promotional discounts, commission-free trading, fee waivers, and other benefits to clients of Vanguard Brokerage Services® who maintain qualifying investments in the funds.
  • Sponsoring, jointly sponsoring, financially supporting, or participating in conferences, programs, seminars, presentations, meetings, or other events involving fund shareholders, financial service providers, or others concerning the funds, other investments, the financial markets, or the economy, such as industry conferences, prospecting trips, due diligence visits, training or education meetings, and sales presentations.

VMC performs most marketing and distribution activities itself. Some activities may be conducted by third parties pursuant to shared marketing arrangements under which VMC agrees to share the costs and performance of marketing and distribution activities in concert with a financial service provider. Financial service providers include, but are not limited to, investment advisors, broker-dealers, financial planners, financial consultants, banks, and insurance companies. Under these cost- and performance-sharing arrangements, VMC may pay or reimburse a financial service provider (or a third party it retains) for marketing and distribution activities that VMC would otherwise perform. VMC’s cost- and performance-sharing arrangements may be established in connection with Vanguard investment products or services offered or provided to or through the financial service providers. VMC’s arrangements for shared marketing and distribution activities may vary among financial service providers, and its payments or reimbursements to financial service providers in connection with shared marketing and distribution activities may be significant. VMC participates in an offshore arrangement established with a third party to provide marketing, promotional, and other services to qualifying Vanguard funds that are distributed in certain foreign countries on a private-placement basis to government-sponsored and other institutional investors. In exchange for such services, the third party receives an annual base (fixed) fee, and may also receive discretionary fees or performance adjustments.

In connection with its marketing and distribution activities, VMC may give financial service providers (or their representatives) (1) promotional items of nominal value that display Vanguard’s logo, such as golf balls, shirts, towels, pens, and mouse pads; (2) gifts that do not exceed $100 per person annually and are not preconditioned on achievement of a sales target; (3) an occasional meal, a ticket to a sporting event or the theater, or comparable entertainment that is neither so frequent nor so extensive as to raise any question of propriety and is not preconditioned on achievement of a sales target; and (4) reasonable travel and lodging accommodations to facilitate participation in marketing and distribution activities.

VMC, as a matter of policy, does not pay asset-based fees, sales-based fees, or account-based fees to financial service providers in connection with its marketing and distribution activities for the Vanguard funds. VMC policy also prohibits marketing and distribution activities that are intended, designed, or likely to compromise suitability determinations by, or the fulfillment of any fiduciary duties or other obligations that apply to, financial service providers. Nonetheless, VMC’s

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marketing and distribution activities are primarily intended to result in the sale of the funds’ shares, and, as such, its activities, including shared marketing and distribution activities, may influence participating financial service providers (or their representatives) to recommend, promote, include, or invest in a Vanguard fund or share class. In addition, Vanguard or any of its subsidiaries may retain a financial service provider to provide consulting or other services, and that financial service provider also may provide services to investors. Investors should consider the possibility that any of these activities or relationships may influence a financial service provider’s (or its representatives’) decision to recommend, promote, include, or invest in a Vanguard fund or share class. Each financial service provider should consider its suitability determinations, fiduciary duties, and other legal obligations (or those of its representatives) in connection with any decision to consider, recommend, promote, include, or invest in a Vanguard fund or share class.

As of the date of this SAI, Vanguard International Dividend Appreciation Index Fund and Vanguard International High Dividend Yield Index Fund had not commenced operations and therefore had not incurred any annual shared fund operating expenses.

Officers and Trustees

Each Vanguard fund is governed by the board of trustees of its trust and a single set of officers. Consistent with the board’s corporate governance principles, the trustees believe that their primary responsibility is oversight of the management of each fund for the benefit of its shareholders, not day-to-day management. The trustees set broad policies for the funds; select investment advisors; monitor fund operations, regulatory compliance, performance, and costs; nominate and select new trustees; and elect fund officers. Vanguard manages the day-to-day operations of the funds under the direction of the board of trustees.

The trustees play an active role, as a full board and at the committee level, in overseeing risk management for the funds. The trustees delegate the day-to-day risk management of the funds to various groups, including portfolio review, investment management, risk management, compliance, legal, fund accounting, and fund financial services. These groups provide the trustees with regular reports regarding investment, valuation, liquidity, and compliance, as well as the risks associated with each. The trustees also oversee risk management for the funds through regular interactions with the funds’ internal and external auditors.

The full board participates in the funds’ risk oversight, in part, through the Vanguard funds’ compliance program, which covers the following broad areas of compliance: investment and other operations; recordkeeping; valuation and pricing; communications and disclosure; reporting and accounting; oversight of service providers; fund governance; and codes of ethics, insider trading controls, and protection of nonpublic information. The program seeks to identify and assess risk through various methods, including through regular interdisciplinary communications between compliance professionals and business personnel who participate on a daily basis in risk management on behalf of the funds. The funds’ chief compliance officer regularly provides reports to the board in writing and in person.

The audit committee of the board, which is composed of all independent trustees, oversees management of financial risks and controls. The audit committee serves as the channel of communication between the independent auditors of the funds and the board with respect to financial statements and financial-reporting processes, systems of internal control, and the audit process. The head of internal audit reports directly to the audit committee and provides reports to the committee in writing and in person on a regular basis. Although the audit committee is responsible for overseeing the management of financial risks, the entire board is regularly informed of these risks through committee reports.

All of the trustees bring to each fund’s board a wealth of executive leadership experience derived from their service as executives (in many cases chief executive officers), board members, and leaders of diverse public operating companies, academic institutions, and other organizations. In determining whether an individual is qualified to serve as a trustee of the funds, the board considers a wide variety of information about the trustee, and multiple factors contribute to the board’s decision. Each trustee is determined to have the experience, skills, and attributes necessary to serve the funds and their shareholders because each trustee demonstrates an exceptional ability to consider complex business and financial matters, evaluate the relative importance and priority of issues, make decisions, and contribute effectively to the deliberations of the board. The board also considers the individual experience of each trustee and determines that the trustee’s professional experience, education, and background contribute to the diversity of perspectives on the board. The business acumen, experience, and objective thinking of the trustees are considered invaluable assets for Vanguard management and, ultimately, the Vanguard funds’ shareholders. The specific roles and experience of each

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board member that factor into this determination are presented on the following pages. The mailing address of the trustees and officers is P.O. Box 876, Valley Forge, PA 19482.

        Principal Occupation(s) Number of
      Vanguard and Outside Directorships Vanguard Funds
    Position(s) Funds’ Trustee/ During the Past Five Years Overseen by
Name, Year of Birth   Held With Funds Officer Since and Other Experience Trustee/Officer
Interested Trustee1          
F. William McNabb III   Chairman of the July 2009 Mr. McNabb has served as Chairman of the Board of 196
(1957 ) Board, Chief   Vanguard and of each of the investment companies  
    Executive Officer,   served by Vanguard, since January 2010; Trustee of  
    and President   each of the investment companies served by  
        Vanguard, since 2009; Director of Vanguard since  
        2008; and Chief Executive Officer and President of  
        Vanguard and of each of the investment companies  
        served by Vanguard, since 2008. Mr. McNabb also  
        serves as a Director of Vanguard Marketing  
        Corporation. Mr. McNabb served as a Managing  
        Director of Vanguard from 1995 to 2008.  

 

1 Mr. McNabb is considered an “interested person,” as defined in the 1940 Act, because he is an officer of the Trust.

Independent Trustees          
Emerson U. Fullwood   Trustee January 2008 Mr. Fullwood is the former Executive Chief Staff and 196
(1948 )     Marketing Officer for North America and Corporate  
        Vice President (retired 2008) of Xerox Corporation  
        (document management products and services).  
        Previous positions held at Xerox by Mr. Fullwood include  
        President of the Worldwide Channels Group, President  
        of Latin America, Executive Chief Staff Officer of  
        Developing Markets, and President of Worldwide  
        Customer Services. Mr. Fullwood is the Executive in  
        Residence and 2009–2010 Distinguished Minett  
        Professor at the Rochester Institute of Technology.  
        Mr. Fullwood serves as a Director of SPX Corporation  
        (multi-industry manufacturing), Amerigroup Corporation  
        (managed health care), the University of Rochester  
        Medical Center, Monroe Community College  
        Foundation, the United Way of Rochester, and North  
        Carolina A&T University.  
 
Rajiv L. Gupta   Trustee December 2001 Mr. Gupta is the former Chairman and Chief Executive 196
(1945 )     Officer (retired 2009) and President (2006–2008) of  
        Rohm and Haas Co. (chemicals). Mr. Gupta serves as a  
        Director of Tyco International PLC (diversified  
        manufacturing and services), Hewlett-Packard  
        Company (electronic computer manufacturing), and  
        Delphi Automotive PLC (automotive components) and  
        as Senior Advisor at New Mountain Capital.  

 

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        Principal Occupation(s) Number of
      Vanguard and Outside Directorships Vanguard Funds
    Position(s) Funds’ Trustee/ During the Past Five Years Overseen by
Name, Year of Birth   Held With Funds Officer Since and Other Experience Trustee/Officer
Amy Gutmann   Trustee June 2006 Dr. Gutmann has served as the President of the 196
(1949 )     University of Pennsylvania since 2004. She is the  
        Christopher H. Browne Distinguished Professor of  
        Political Science, School of Arts and Sciences, and  
        Professor of Communication, Annenberg School for  
        Communication, with secondary faculty appointments  
        in the Department of Philosophy, School of Arts and  
        Sciences, and at the Graduate School of Education,  
        University of Pennsylvania. Dr. Gutmann also serves  
        as a Trustee of the National Constitution Center.  
        Dr. Gutmann is Chair of the Presidential Commission  
        for the Study of Bioethical Issues.  
 
JoAnn Heffernan Heisen   Trustee July 1998 Ms. Heisen is the former Corporate Vice President 196
(1950 )     and Chief Global Diversity Officer (retired 2008)  
        and a former member of the Executive Committee  
        (1997–2008) of Johnson & Johnson (pharmaceuticals/  
        medical devices/consumer products). Ms. Heisen  
        served as Vice President and Chief Information Officer  
        of Johnson & Johnson from 1997 to 2005. Ms. Heisen  
        serves as a Director of Skytop Lodge Corporation  
        (hotels), the University Medical Center at Princeton,  
        the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and the Center  
        for Talent Innovation and as a member of the Advisory  
        Board of the Institute for Women’s Leadership at  
        Rutgers University.  
 
F. Joseph Loughrey   Trustee October 2009 Mr. Loughrey is the former President and Chief 196
(1949 )     Operating Officer (retired 2009) and Vice Chairman of  
        the Board (2008–2009) of Cummins Inc. (industrial  
        machinery). Mr. Loughrey serves as Chairman of the  
        Board of Hillenbrand, Inc. (specialized consumer  
        services) and of Oxfam America; as a Director of  
        SKF AB (industrial machinery), Hyster-Yale Materials  
        Handling, Inc. (forklift trucks), the Lumina Foundation  
        for Education, and the V Foundation for Cancer  
        Research; and as a member of the Advisory Council for  
        the College of Arts and Letters and of the Advisory  
        Board to the Kellogg Institute for International Studies,  
        both at the University of Notre Dame. Mr. Loughrey  
        served as a Director of Sauer-Danfoss Inc. (machinery)  
        from 2000 to 2010.  
 
Mark Loughridge   Lead Independent March 2012 Mr. Loughridge is the former Senior Vice President and 196
(1953 ) Trustee   Chief Financial Officer (retired 2013) at IBM  
        (information technology services). Mr. Loughridge also  
        served as a fiduciary member of IBM’s Retirement Plan  
        Committee (2004–2013). Previous positions held by Mr.  
        Loughridge at IBM include Senior Vice President and  
        General Manager of Global Financing (2002–2004),  
        Vice President and Controller (1998–2002), and a  
        variety of management roles. Mr. Loughridge serves as  
        a Director of The Dow Chemical Company and as a  
        member of the Council on Chicago Booth.  

 

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        Principal Occupation(s) Number of
      Vanguard and Outside Directorships Vanguard Funds
    Position(s) Funds’ Trustee/ During the Past Five Years Overseen by
Name, Year of Birth   Held With Funds Officer Since and Other Experience Trustee/Officer
Scott C. Malpass   Trustee March 2012 Mr. Malpass has served as Chief Investment Officer 196
(1962 )     since 1989 and Vice President since 1996 at the  
        University of Notre Dame. Mr. Malpass serves as an  
        Assistant Professor of Finance at the Mendoza College  
        of Business at the University of Notre Dame and is a  
        member of the Notre Dame 403(b) Investment  
        Committee. Mr. Malpass also serves on the boards of  
        TIFF Advisory Services, Inc., and Catholic Investment  
        Services, Inc. (investment advisors) and as a member  
        of the investment advisory committee of Major  
        League Baseball.  
 
André F. Perold   Trustee December 2004 Dr. Perold is the George Gund Professor of Finance 196
(1952 )     and Banking, Emeritus at the Harvard Business School  
        (retired 2011). Dr. Perold serves as Chief Investment  
        Officer and Managing Partner of HighVista Strategies  
        LLC (private investment firm). Dr. Perold also serves as  
        a Director of Rand Merchant Bank and as an Overseer  
        of the Museum of Fine Arts Boston.  
Peter F. Volanakis   Trustee July 2009 Mr. Volanakis is the retired President and Chief 196
(1955 )     Operating Officer (retired 2010) of Corning  
        Incorporated (communications equipment) and a  
        former Director of Corning Incorporated (2000–2010)  
        and of Dow Corning (2001–2010). Mr. Volanakis served  
        as a Director of SPX Corporation (multi-industry  
        manufacturing) in 2012 and as an Overseer of the  
        Amos Tuck School of Business Administration at  
        Dartmouth College from 2001 to 2013. Mr. Volanakis  
        serves as a Trustee of Colby-Sawyer College and as a  
        member of the Advisory Board of the Norris Cotton  
        Cancer Center and of the Advisory Board of the  
        Parthenon Group (strategy consulting).  
 
Executive Officers          
Glenn Booraem   Treasurer July 2010 Mr. Booraem, a Principal of Vanguard, has served as 196
(1967 )     Treasurer of each of the investment companies served  
        by Vanguard, since May 2015. Mr. Booraem served as  
        Controller of each of the investment companies served  
        by Vanguard, from 2010 to 2015, and as Assistant  
        Controller of each of the investment companies served  
        by Vanguard, from 2001 to 2010.  
 
Thomas J. Higgins   Chief Financial September 2008 Mr. Higgins, a Principal of Vanguard, has served as Chief 196
(1957 ) Officer   Financial Officer of each of the investment companies  
        served by Vanguard, since 2008. Mr. Higgins served as  
        Treasurer of each of the investment companies served  
        by Vanguard, from 1998 to 2008.  

 

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        Principal Occupation(s) Number of
      Vanguard and Outside Directorships Vanguard Funds
    Position(s) Funds’ Trustee/ During the Past Five Years Overseen by
Name, Year of Birth   Held With Funds Officer Since and Other Experience Trustee/Officer
Peter Mahoney   Controller May 2015 Mr. Mahoney, head of Global Fund Accounting at 196
(1974 )     Vanguard, has served as Controller of each of the  
        investment companies served by Vanguard, since  
        May 2015. Mr. Mahoney served as head of International  
        Fund Services at Vanguard from 2008 to 2014.  
 
Heidi Stam   Secretary July 2005 Ms. Stam has served as a Managing Director of 196
(1956 )     Vanguard since 2006; General Counsel of Vanguard  
        since 2005; Secretary of Vanguard and of each of the  
        investment companies served by Vanguard, since  
        2005; and Director and Senior Vice President of  
        Vanguard Marketing Corporation since 2005. Ms. Stam  
        served as a Principal of Vanguard from 1997 to 2006.  

 

All but one of the trustees are independent. The independent trustees designate a lead independent trustee. The lead independent trustee is a spokesperson and principal point of contact for the independent trustees and is responsible for coordinating the activities of the independent trustees, including calling regular executive sessions of the independent trustees; developing the agenda of each meeting together with the chairman; and chairing the meetings of the independent trustees, including the meetings of the audit, compensation, and nominating committees. The board also has two investment committees, which consist of independent trustees and the sole interested trustee.

The independent trustees appoint the chairman of the board. The roles of chairman of the board and chief executive officer currently are held by the same person; as a result, the chairman of the board is an “interested” trustee. The independent trustees generally believe that the Vanguard funds’ chief executive officer is best qualified to serve as chairman and that fund shareholders benefit from this leadership structure through accountability and strong day-to-day leadership.

Board Committees: The Trust‘s board has the following committees:

  • Audit Committee: This committee oversees the accounting and financial reporting policies, the systems of internal controls, and the independent audits of each fund. All independent trustees serve as members of the committee.
  • Compensation Committee: This committee oversees the compensation programs established by each fund for the benefit of its trustees. All independent trustees serve as members of the committee.
  • Investment Committees: These committees assist the board in its oversight of investment advisors to the funds and in the review and evaluation of materials relating to the board’s consideration of investment advisory agreements with the funds. Each trustee serves on one of two investment committees.
  • Nominating Committee: This committee nominates candidates for election to the board of trustees of each fund. The committee also has the authority to recommend the removal of any trustee. All independent trustees serve as members of the committee.

The Nominating Committee will consider shareholder recommendations for trustee nominees. Shareholders may send recommendations to Mr. Loughridge, chairman of the committee.

Trustee Compensation

The same individuals serve as trustees of all Vanguard funds and each fund pays a proportionate share of the trustees’ compensation. The funds also employ their officers on a shared basis; however, officers are compensated by Vanguard, not the funds.

Independent Trustees. The funds compensate their independent trustees (i.e., the ones who are not also officers of the funds) in three ways:

  • The independent trustees receive an annual fee for their service to the funds, which is subject to reduction based on absences from scheduled board meetings.
  • The independent trustees are reimbursed for the travel and other expenses that they incur in attending board meetings.

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  • Upon retirement (after attaining age 65 and completing five years of service), the independent trustees who began their service prior to January 1, 2001, receive a retirement benefit under a separate account arrangement. As of January 1, 2001, the opening balance of each eligible trustee’s separate account was generally equal to the net present value of the benefits he or she had accrued under the trustees’ former retirement plan. Each eligible trustee’s separate account will be credited annually with interest at a rate of 7.5% until the trustee receives his or her final distribution. Those independent trustees who began their service on or after January 1, 2001, are not eligible to participate in the plan.

“Interested” Trustee. Mr. McNabb serves as trustee but is not paid in this capacity. He is, however, paid in his role as an officer of Vanguard.

Compensation Table. The following table provides compensation details for each of the trustees. We list the amounts paid as compensation and accrued as retirement benefits by the Funds for each trustee. In addition, the table shows the total amount of benefits that we expect each trustee to receive from all Vanguard funds upon retirement and the total amount of compensation paid to each trustee by all Vanguard funds.

VANGUARD INTERNATIONAL DIVIDEND APPRECIATION INDEX FUND AND VANGUARD INTERNATIONAL HIGH DIVIDEND YIELD INDEX FUND

TRUSTEES’ COMPENSATION TABLE

    Pension or Retirement   Accrued Annual   Total Compensation
  Aggregate Benefits Accrued   Retirement   From All Vanguard
  Compensation as Part of the   Benefit at   Funds Paid
Trustee From the Funds1 Funds’ Expenses1   January 1, 20152   to Trustees3
F. William McNabb III    
Emerson U. Fullwood   $ 225,000
Rajiv L. Gupta     225,000
Amy Gutmann     225,000
JoAnn Heffernan Heisen $ 6,498   225,000
F. Joseph Loughrey     225,000
Mark Loughridge     225,000
Scott C. Malpass     218,600
André F. Perold     225,000
Alfred M. Rankin, Jr.4   12,734   255,000
Peter F. Volanakis     225,000

 

1      As of the date of this SAI, Vanguard International Dividend Appreciation Index Fund and Vanguard International High Dividend Yield Index Fund had not commenced operations.
2      Each trustee is eligible to receive retirement benefits only after completing at least 5 years (60 consecutive months) of service as a trustee for the Vanguard funds. The annual retirement benefit will be paid in monthly installments, beginning with the month following the trustee’s retirement from service, and will cease after 10 years of payments (120 monthly installments). Trustees who began their service on or after January 1, 2001, are not eligible to participate in the retirement benefit plan.
3      The amounts reported in this column reflect the total compensation paid to each trustee for his or her service as trustee of 177 Vanguard funds for the 2014 calendar year.
4.      Mr. Rankin retired from the board of trustees effective December 31, 2014.

Ownership of Fund Shares

All trustees allocate their investments among the various Vanguard funds based on their own investment needs. The following table shows each trustee’s ownership of shares of each Fund and of all Vanguard funds served by the trustee as of December 31, 2014. As of the date of this SAI, Vanguard International Dividend Appreciation Index Fund and Vanguard International High Dividend Yield Index Fund had not yet commenced operations.

Portfolio Holdings Disclosure Policies and Procedures

Introduction

Vanguard and the boards of trustees of the Vanguard funds (Boards) have adopted Portfolio Holdings Disclosure Policies and Procedures (Policies and Procedures) to govern the disclosure of the portfolio holdings of each Vanguard fund.

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Vanguard and the Boards considered each of the circumstances under which Vanguard fund portfolio holdings may be disclosed to different categories of persons under the Policies and Procedures. Vanguard and the Boards also considered actual and potential material conflicts that could arise in such circumstances between the interests of Vanguard fund shareholders, on the one hand, and those of the fund’s investment advisor, distributor, or any affiliated person of the fund, its investment advisor, or its distributor, on the other. After giving due consideration to such matters and after the exercise of their fiduciary duties and reasonable business judgment, Vanguard and the Boards determined that the Vanguard funds have a legitimate business purpose for disclosing portfolio holdings to the persons described in each of the circumstances set forth in the Policies and Procedures and that the Policies and Procedures are reasonably designed to ensure that disclosure of portfolio holdings and information about portfolio holdings is in the best interests of fund shareholders and appropriately addresses the potential for material conflicts of interest.

The Boards exercise continuing oversight of the disclosure of Vanguard fund portfolio holdings by (1) overseeing the implementation and enforcement of the Policies and Procedures, the Code of Ethics, and the Policies and Procedures Designed to Prevent the Misuse of Inside Information (collectively, the portfolio holdings governing policies) by the chief compliance officer of Vanguard and the Vanguard funds; (2) considering reports and recommendations by the chief compliance officer concerning any material compliance matters (as defined in Rule 38a-1 under the 1940 Act and Rule 206(4)-7 under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940) that may arise in connection with any portfolio holdings governing policies; and (3) considering whether to approve or ratify any amendment to any portfolio holdings governing policies. Vanguard and the Boards reserve the right to amend the Policies and Procedures at any time and from time to time without prior notice at their sole discretion. For purposes of the Policies and Procedures, the term “portfolio holdings” means the equity and debt securities (e.g., stocks and bonds) held by a Vanguard fund and does not mean the cash investments, derivatives, and other investment positions (collectively, other investment positions) held by the fund.

Online Disclosure of Ten Largest Stock Holdings

Each actively managed Vanguard fund generally will seek to disclose the fund’s ten largest stock portfolio holdings and the percentage of the fund’s total assets that each of these holdings represents as of the end of the most recent calendar quarter (quarter-end ten largest stock holdings with weightings) online at vanguard.com, in the “Portfolio” section of the fund’s Portfolio & Management page, 15 calendar days after the end of the calendar quarter. Each Vanguard index fund generally will seek to disclose the fund’s ten largest stock portfolio holdings and the percentage of the fund’s total assets that each of these holdings represents as of the end of the most recent month (month-end ten largest stock holdings with weightings) online at vanguard.com, in the “Portfolio” section of the fund’s Portfolio & Management page, 15 calendar days after the end of the month. In addition, Vanguard funds generally will seek to disclose the fund’s ten largest stock portfolio holdings and the aggregate percentage of the fund’s total assets (and, for balanced funds, the aggregate percentage of the fund’s equity securities) that these holdings represent as of the end of the most recent month (month-end ten largest stock holdings) online at vanguard.com, in the “Portfolio” section of the fund’s Portfolio & Management page, 10 business days after the end of the month. Together, the quarter-end and month-end ten largest stock holdings are referred to as the ten largest stock holdings. Online disclosure of the ten largest stock holdings is made to all categories of persons, including individual investors, institutional investors, intermediaries, third-party service providers, rating and ranking organizations, affiliated persons of a Vanguard fund, and all other persons.

Online Disclosure of Complete Portfolio Holdings

Each actively managed Vanguard fund, unless otherwise stated, generally will seek to disclose the fund’s complete portfolio holdings as of the end of the most recent calendar quarter online at vanguard.com, in the “Portfolio” section of the fund’s Portfolio & Management page, 30 calendar days after the end of the calendar quarter. In accordance with Rule 2a-7 under the 1940 Act, each of the Vanguard money market funds will disclose the fund’s complete portfolio holdings as of the last business day of the prior month online at vanguard.com, in the “Portfolio” section of the fund’s Portfolio & Management page, no later than the fifth business day of the current month. The complete portfolio holdings information for money market funds will remain available online for at least six months after the initial posting. Vanguard Market Neutral Fund and Vanguard Alternative Strategies Fund generally will seek to disclose the Fund’s complete portfolio holdings as of the end of the most recent calendar quarter online at vanguard.com, in the “Portfolio” section of the Fund’s Portfolio & Management page, 60 calendar days after the end of the calendar quarter. Each Vanguard index fund generally will seek to disclose the fund’s complete portfolio holdings as of the end of the most recent month online at vanguard.com, in the “Portfolio” section of the fund’s Portfolio & Management page, 15 calendar days after the end of the month. Online disclosure of complete portfolio holdings is made to all categories of persons, including individual

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investors, institutional investors, intermediaries, third-party service providers, rating and ranking organizations, affiliated persons of a Vanguard fund, and all other persons. Vanguard’s Portfolio Review Department will review complete portfolio holdings before disclosure is made and, except with respect to the complete portfolio holdings of the Vanguard money market funds, may withhold any portion of the fund’s complete portfolio holdings from disclosure when deemed to be in the best interests of the fund after consultation with a Vanguard fund’s investment advisor.

Disclosure of Complete Portfolio Holdings to Service Providers Subject to Confidentiality and Trading Restrictions

Vanguard, for legitimate business purposes, may disclose Vanguard fund complete portfolio holdings at times it deems necessary and appropriate to rating and ranking organizations; financial printers; proxy voting service providers; pricing information vendors; issuers of guaranteed investment contracts for stable value portfolios; third parties that deliver analytical, statistical, or consulting services; and other third parties that provide services (collectively, Service Providers) to Vanguard, Vanguard subsidiaries, and/or the Vanguard funds. Disclosure of complete portfolio holdings to a Service Provider is conditioned on the Service Provider being subject to a written agreement imposing a duty of confidentiality, including a duty not to trade on the basis of any material nonpublic information.

The frequency with which complete portfolio holdings may be disclosed to a Service Provider, and the length of the lag, if any, between the date of the information and the date on which the information is disclosed to the Service Provider, is determined based on the facts and circumstances, including, without limitation, the nature of the portfolio holdings information to be disclosed, the risk of harm to the funds and their shareholders, and the legitimate business purposes served by such disclosure. The frequency of disclosure to a Service Provider varies and may be as frequent as daily, with no lag. Disclosure of Vanguard fund complete portfolio holdings by Vanguard to a Service Provider must be authorized by a Vanguard fund officer or a Principal in Vanguard’s Portfolio Review or Legal Department. Any disclosure of Vanguard fund complete portfolio holdings to a Service Provider as previously described may also include a list of the other investment positions that make up the fund, such as cash investments and derivatives.

Currently, Vanguard fund complete portfolio holdings are disclosed to the following Service Providers as part of ongoing arrangements that serve legitimate business purposes: Abel/Noser Corporation; Advisor Software, Inc.; Alcom Printing Group Inc.; Apple Press, L.C.; Bloomberg L.P.; Brilliant Graphics, Inc.; Broadridge Financial Solutions, Inc.; Brown Brothers Harriman & Co.; Canon Business Process Services; FactSet Research Systems Inc.; Innovation Printing & Communications; Institutional Shareholder Services, Inc.; Intelligencer Printing Company; Investment Technology Group, Inc.; Lipper, Inc.; Markit WSO Corporation; McMunn Associates Inc.; Reuters America Inc.; R.R. Donnelley, Inc.; State Street Bank and Trust Company; Trade Informatics LLC; Triune Color Corporation; and Tursack Printing Inc.

Disclosure of Complete Portfolio Holdings to Vanguard Affiliates and Certain Fiduciaries Subject to Confidentiality and Trading Restrictions

Vanguard fund complete portfolio holdings may be disclosed between and among the following persons (collectively, Affiliates and Fiduciaries) for legitimate business purposes within the scope of their official duties and responsibilities, subject to such persons’ continuing legal duty of confidentiality and legal duty not to trade on the basis of any material nonpublic information, as such duties are imposed under the Code of Ethics, the Policies and Procedures Designed to Prevent the Misuse of Inside Information, by agreement, or under applicable laws, rules, and regulations: (1) persons who are subject to the Code of Ethics or the Policies and Procedures Designed to Prevent the Misuse of Inside Information; (2) an investment advisor, distributor, administrator, transfer agent, or custodian to a Vanguard fund; (3) an accounting firm, an auditing firm, or outside legal counsel retained by Vanguard, a Vanguard subsidiary, or a Vanguard fund; (4) an investment advisor to whom complete portfolio holdings are disclosed for due diligence purposes when the advisor is in merger or acquisition talks with a Vanguard fund’s current advisor; and (5) a newly hired investment advisor or sub-advisor to whom complete portfolio holdings are disclosed prior to the time it commences its duties.

The frequency with which complete portfolio holdings may be disclosed between and among Affiliates and Fiduciaries, and the length of the lag, if any, between the date of the information and the date on which the information is disclosed between and among the Affiliates and Fiduciaries, is determined by such Affiliates and Fiduciaries based on the facts and circumstances, including, without limitation, the nature of the portfolio holdings information to be disclosed, the risk of harm to the funds and their shareholders, and the legitimate business purposes served by such disclosure. The frequency of disclosure between and among Affiliates and Fiduciaries varies and may be as frequent as daily, with no lag. Any disclosure of Vanguard fund complete portfolio holdings to any Affiliates and Fiduciaries as previously described

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may also include a list of the other investment positions that make up the fund, such as cash investments and derivatives. Disclosure of Vanguard fund complete portfolio holdings or other investment positions by Vanguard, Vanguard Marketing Corporation, or a Vanguard fund to Affiliates and Fiduciaries must be authorized by a Vanguard fund officer or a Principal of Vanguard.

Currently, Vanguard fund complete portfolio holdings are disclosed to the following Affiliates and Fiduciaries as part of ongoing arrangements that serve legitimate business purposes: Vanguard and each investment advisor, custodian, and independent registered public accounting firm identified in each fund’s Statement of Additional Information.

Disclosure of Portfolio Holdings to Broker-Dealers in the Normal Course of Managing a Fund’s Assets

An investment advisor, administrator, or custodian for a Vanguard fund may, for legitimate business purposes within the scope of its official duties and responsibilities, disclose portfolio holdings (whether partial portfolio holdings or complete portfolio holdings) and other investment positions that make up the fund to one or more broker-dealers during the course of, or in connection with, normal day-to-day securities and derivatives transactions with or through such broker-dealers subject to the broker-dealer’s legal obligation not to use or disclose material nonpublic information concerning the fund’s portfolio holdings, other investment positions, securities transactions, or derivatives transactions without the consent of the fund or its agents. The Vanguard funds have not given their consent to any such use or disclosure and no person or agent of Vanguard is authorized to give such consent except as approved in writing by the Boards of the Vanguard funds. Disclosure of portfolio holdings or other investment positions by Vanguard to broker-dealers must be authorized by a Vanguard fund officer or a Principal of Vanguard.

Disclosure of Nonmaterial Information

The Policies and Procedures permit Vanguard fund officers, Vanguard fund portfolio managers, and other Vanguard representatives (collectively, Approved Vanguard Representatives) to disclose any views, opinions, judgments, advice, or commentary, or any analytical, statistical, performance, or other information, in connection with or relating to a Vanguard fund or its portfolio holdings and/or other investment positions (collectively, commentary and analysis) or any changes in the portfolio holdings of a Vanguard fund that occurred after the end of the most recent calendar quarter (recent portfolio changes) to any person if (1) such disclosure serves a legitimate business purpose, (2) such disclosure does not effectively result in the disclosure of the complete portfolio holdings of any Vanguard fund (which can be disclosed only in accordance with the Policies and Procedures), and (3) such information does not constitute material nonpublic information. Disclosure of commentary and analysis or recent portfolio changes by Vanguard, Vanguard Marketing Corporation, or a Vanguard fund must be authorized by a Vanguard fund officer or a Principal of Vanguard.

An Approved Vanguard Representative must make a good faith determination whether the information constitutes material nonpublic information, which involves an assessment of the particular facts and circumstances. Vanguard believes that in most cases recent portfolio changes that involve a few or even several securities in a diversified portfolio or commentary and analysis would be immaterial and would not convey any advantage to a recipient in making an investment decision concerning a Vanguard fund. Nonexclusive examples of commentary and analysis about a Vanguard fund include (1) the allocation of the fund’s portfolio holdings and other investment positions among various asset classes, sectors, industries, and countries; (2) the characteristics of the stock and bond components of the fund’s portfolio holdings and other investment positions; (3) the attribution of fund returns by asset class, sector, industry, and country; and (4) the volatility characteristics of the fund. Approved Vanguard Representatives may, at their sole discretion, deny any request for information made by any person, and may do so for any reason or for no reason. Approved Vanguard Representatives include, for purposes of the Policies and Procedures, persons employed by or associated with Vanguard or a subsidiary of Vanguard who have been authorized by Vanguard’s Portfolio Review Department to disclose recent portfolio changes and/or commentary and analysis in accordance with the Policies and Procedures.

Disclosure of Portfolio Holdings in Accordance with SEC Exemptive Orders

Vanguard’s Fund Financial Services unit may disclose to the National Securities Clearing Corporation (NSCC), Authorized Participants, and other market makers the daily portfolio composition files (PCFs) that identify a basket of specified securities that may overlap with the actual or expected portfolio holdings of the Vanguard funds that offer a class of shares

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known as Vanguard ETF Shares (ETF Funds), in accordance with the terms and conditions of related exemptive orders (Vanguard ETF Exemptive Orders) issued by the Securities and Exchange Commission, as described in this section.

Unlike the conventional classes of shares issued by ETF Funds, the ETF Shares are listed for trading on a national securities exchange. Each ETF Fund issues and redeems ETF Shares in large blocks, known as “Creation Units.” To purchase or redeem a Creation Unit, an investor must be an “Authorized Participant” or the investor must purchase or redeem through a broker-dealer that is an Authorized Participant. An Authorized Participant is a participant in the Depository Trust Company (DTC) that has executed a “Participant Agreement” with Vanguard Marketing Corporation. Each ETF Fund issues Creation Units in exchange for a “portfolio deposit” consisting of a basket of specified securities (Deposit Securities) and a cash payment (Balancing Amount). Each ETF Fund also redeems Creation Units in kind; an investor who tenders a Creation Unit will receive, as redemption proceeds, a basket of specified securities together with a Balancing Amount.

In connection with the creation and redemption process, and in accordance with the terms and conditions of the Vanguard ETF Exemptive Orders, Vanguard makes available to the NSCC (a clearing agency registered with the SEC and affiliated with the DTC), for dissemination to NSCC participants on each business day prior to the opening of trading on the listing exchange, a PCF containing a list of the names and the required number of shares of each Deposit Security for each ETF Fund. In addition, the listing exchange disseminates (1) continuously throughout the trading day, through the facilities of the Consolidated Tape Association, the market value of an ETF Share; and (2) every 15 seconds throughout the trading day, a calculation of the estimated NAV of an ETF Share (expected to be accurate to within a few basis points). Comparing these two figures allows an investor to determine whether, and to what extent, ETF Shares are selling at a premium or at a discount to NAV. ETF Shares are listed on the exchange and traded on the secondary market in the same manner as other equity securities. The price of ETF Shares trading on the secondary market is based on a current bid/offer market.

In addition to making PCFs available to the NSCC, as previously described, Vanguard’s Fund Financial Services unit may disclose the PCF for any ETF Fund to any person, or online at vanguard.com to all categories of persons, if (1) such disclosure serves a legitimate business purpose and (2) such disclosure does not constitute material nonpublic information. Vanguard’s Fund Financial Services unit must make a good faith determination whether the PCF for any ETF Fund constitutes material nonpublic information, which involves an assessment of the particular facts and circumstances. Vanguard believes that in most cases the PCF for any ETF Fund would be immaterial and would not convey any advantage to the recipient in making an investment decision concerning the ETF Fund, if sufficient time has passed between the date of the PCF and the date on which the PCF is disclosed. Vanguard’s Fund Financial Services unit may, at its sole discretion, determine whether to deny any request for the PCF for any ETF Fund made by any person, and may do so for any reason or for no reason. Disclosure of a PCF must be authorized by a Vanguard fund officer or a Principal in Vanguard’s Fund Financial Services unit.

Disclosure of Portfolio Holdings Related Information to the Issuer of a Security for Legitimate Business Purposes

Vanguard, at its sole discretion, may disclose portfolio holdings information concerning a security held by one or more Vanguard funds to the issuer of such security if the issuer presents, to the satisfaction of Vanguard’s Fund Financial Services unit, convincing evidence that the issuer has a legitimate business purpose for such information. Disclosure of this information to an issuer is conditioned on the issuer being subject to a written agreement imposing a duty of confidentiality, including a duty not to trade on the basis of any material nonpublic information. The frequency with which portfolio holdings information concerning a security may be disclosed to the issuer of such security, and the length of the lag, if any, between the date of the information and the date on which the information is disclosed to the issuer, is determined based on the facts and circumstances, including, without limitation, the nature of the portfolio holdings information to be disclosed, the risk of harm to the funds and their shareholders, and the legitimate business purposes served by such disclosure. The frequency of disclosure to an issuer cannot be determined in advance of a specific request and will vary based upon the particular facts and circumstances and the legitimate business purposes, but in unusual situations could be as frequent as daily, with no lag. Disclosure of portfolio holdings information concerning a security held by one or more Vanguard funds to the issuer of such security must be authorized by a Vanguard fund officer or a Principal in Vanguard’s Portfolio Review or Legal Department.

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Disclosure of Portfolio Holdings as Required by Applicable Law

Vanguard fund portfolio holdings (whether partial portfolio holdings or complete portfolio holdings) and other investment positions that make up a fund shall be disclosed to any person as required by applicable laws, rules, and regulations. Examples of such required disclosure include, but are not limited to, disclosure of Vanguard fund portfolio holdings (1) in a filing or submission with the SEC or another regulatory body, (2) in connection with seeking recovery on defaulted bonds in a federal bankruptcy case, (3) in connection with a lawsuit, or (4) as required by court order. Disclosure of portfolio holdings or other investment positions by Vanguard, Vanguard Marketing Corporation, or a Vanguard fund as required by applicable laws, rules, and regulations must be authorized by a Vanguard fund officer or a Principal of Vanguard.

Prohibitions on Disclosure of Portfolio Holdings

No person is authorized to disclose Vanguard fund portfolio holdings or other investment positions (whether online at vanguard.com, in writing, by fax, by e-mail, orally, or by other means) except in accordance with the Policies and Procedures. In addition, no person is authorized to make disclosure pursuant to the Policies and Procedures if such disclosure is otherwise unlawful under the antifraud provisions of the federal securities laws (as defined in Rule 38a-1 under the 1940 Act). Furthermore, Vanguard’s management, at its sole discretion, may determine not to disclose portfolio holdings or other investment positions that make up a Vanguard fund to any person who would otherwise be eligible to receive such information under the Policies and Procedures, or may determine to make such disclosures publicly as provided by the Policies and Procedures.

Prohibitions on Receipt of Compensation or Other Consideration

The Policies and Procedures prohibit a Vanguard fund, its investment advisor, and any other person or entity from paying or receiving any compensation or other consideration of any type for the purpose of obtaining disclosure of Vanguard fund portfolio holdings or other investment positions. “Consideration” includes any agreement to maintain assets in the fund or in other investment companies or accounts managed by the investment advisor or by any affiliated person of the investment advisor.

INVESTMENT ADVISORY SERVICES

Vanguard International Dividend Appreciation Index Fund and Vanguard International High Dividend Yield Index Fund receive all investment advisory services from Vanguard through its Equity Investment Group. These services are provided on an at cost basis by an experienced advisory staff employed directly by Vanguard. The compensation and other expenses of the advisory staff are allocated among the funds utilizing these services.

1. Other Accounts Managed

Justin E. Hales and Michael Perre co-manage Vanguard International Dividend Appreciation Index Fund and Vanguard International High Dividend Yield Index Fund, which as of the date of this SAI had not yet commenced operations. As of •, 2015, Mr. Hales also managed XX other registered investment companies with total assets of $XXX (none of which had advisory fees based on account performance). As of •, 2015, Mr. Perre also managed all or a portion of X other registered investment companies with total assets of $XXX billion and X other account with total assets of $X.X billion (none of which had advisory fees based on account performance).

2. Material Conflicts of Interest

At Vanguard, individual portfolio managers may manage multiple accounts for multiple clients. In addition to mutual funds, these accounts may include separate accounts, collective trusts, and offshore funds. Managing multiple funds or accounts may give rise to potential conflicts of interest including, for example, conflicts among investment strategies and conflicts in the allocation of investment opportunities. Vanguard manages potential conflicts between funds or accounts through allocation policies and procedures, internal review processes, and oversight by trustees and independent third parties. Vanguard has developed trade allocation procedures and controls to ensure that no one client, regardless of type, is intentionally favored at the expense of another. Allocation policies are designed to address potential conflicts in situations where two or more funds or accounts participate in investment decisions involving the same securities.

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3. Description of Compensation

All Vanguard portfolio managers are Vanguard employees. This section describes the compensation of the Vanguard employees who manage Vanguard mutual funds. As of •, 2015, a Vanguard portfolio manager’s compensation generally consists of base salary, bonus, and payments under Vanguard’s long-term incentive compensation program. In addition, portfolio managers are eligible for the standard retirement benefits and health and welfare benefits available to all Vanguard employees. Also, certain portfolio managers may be eligible for additional retirement benefits under several supplemental retirement plans that Vanguard adopted in the 1980s to restore dollar-for-dollar the benefits of management employees that had been cut back solely as a result of tax law changes. These plans are structured to provide the same retirement benefits as the standard retirement plans.

In the case of portfolio managers responsible for managing multiple Vanguard funds or accounts, the method used to determine their compensation is the same for all funds and investment accounts. A portfolio manager’s base salary is determined by the manager’s experience and performance in the role, taking into account the ongoing compensation benchmark analyses performed by Vanguard’s Human Resources Department. A portfolio manager’s base salary is generally a fixed amount that may change as a result of an annual review, upon assumption of new duties, or when a market adjustment of the position occurs.

A portfolio manager’s bonus is determined by a number of factors. One factor is gross, pre-tax performance of a fund relative to expectations for how the fund should have performed, given the fund’s investment objective, policies, strategies, and limitations, and the market environment during the measurement period. This performance factor is not based on the amount of assets held in the fund’s portfolio. For Vanguard Global Minimum Volatility Fund, the performance factor depends on how successfully the portfolio manager meets or exceeds the performance expectations of the Fund and maintains the risk parameters of the Fund over a three-year period. For Vanguard High Dividend Yield Index Fund and Vanguard Emerging Markets Government Bond Index Fund, the performance factor depends on how closely the portfolio manager tracks the Fund’s benchmark index over a one-year period. Additional factors include the portfolio manager’s contributions to the investment management functions within the sub-asset class, contributions to the development of other investment professionals and supporting staff, and overall contributions to strategic planning and decisions for the investment group. The target bonus is expressed as a percentage of base salary. The actual bonus paid may be more or less than the target bonus, based on how well the manager satisfies the objectives previously described. The bonus is paid on an annual basis.

Under the long-term incentive compensation program, all full-time employees receive a payment from Vanguard’s long-term incentive compensation plan based on their years of service, job level, and, if applicable, management responsibilities. Each year, Vanguard’s independent directors determine the amount of the long-term incentive compensation award for that year based on the investment performance of the Vanguard funds relative to competitors and Vanguard’s operating efficiencies in providing services to the Vanguard funds.

4. Ownership of Securities

Vanguard employees, including portfolio managers, allocate their investments among the various Vanguard funds based on their own individual investment needs and goals. Vanguard employees, as a group, invest a sizeable portion of their personal assets in Vanguard funds. As of •, 2015, Vanguard employees collectively invested more than $X.X billion in Vanguard funds. F. William McNabb III, Chairman of the Board, Chief Executive Officer, and President of Vanguard and the Vanguard funds, invests substantially all of his personal financial assets in Vanguard funds.

As of the date of this SAI, Vanguard International Dividend Appreciation Index Fund and Vanguard International High Dividend Yield Index Fund had not yet commenced operations.

Duration and Termination of Investment Advisory Agreements

Vanguard provides at-cost investment advisory services to Vanguard International Dividend Appreciation Index Fund and Vanguard International High Dividend Yield Index Fund pursuant to the terms of the Fifth Amended and Restated Funds’ Service Agreement. This agreement will continue in full force and effect until terminated or amended by mutual agreement of the Vanguard funds and Vanguard.

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PORTFOLIO TRANSACTIONS

The advisor decides which securities to buy and sell on behalf of a Fund and then selects the brokers or dealers that will execute the trades on an agency basis or the dealers with whom the trades will be effected on a principal basis. For each trade, the advisor must select a broker-dealer that it believes will provide “best execution.” Best execution does not necessarily mean paying the lowest spread or commission rate available. In seeking best execution, the SEC has said that an advisor should consider the full range of a broker-dealer’s services. The factors considered by the advisor in seeking best execution include, but are not limited to, the broker-dealer’s execution capability; clearance and settlement services; commission rate; trading expertise; willingness and ability to commit capital; ability to provide anonymity; financial responsibility; reputation and integrity; responsiveness; access to underwritten offerings and secondary markets; and access to company management, as well as the value of any research provided by the broker-dealer. In assessing which broker-dealer can provide best execution for a particular trade, the advisor also may consider the timing and size of the order and available liquidity and current market conditions. Subject to applicable legal requirements, the advisor may select a broker based partly on brokerage or research services provided to the advisor and its clients, including the Funds. The advisor may cause a Fund to pay a higher commission than other brokers would charge if the advisor determines in good faith that the amount of the commission is reasonable in relation to the value of services provided. The advisor also may receive brokerage or research services from broker-dealers that are provided at no charge in recognition of the volume of trades directed to the broker. To the extent research services or products may be a factor in selecting brokers, services and products may include written research reports analyzing performance or securities; discussions with research analysts; meetings with corporate executives to obtain oral reports on company performance; market data; and other products and services that will assist the advisor in its investment decision-making process. The research services provided by brokers through which a Fund effects securities transactions may be used by the advisor in servicing all of its accounts, and some of the services may not be used by the advisor in connection with the Fund.

The types of securities in which the Funds invest are generally purchased and sold in principal transactions, meaning that the Fund normally purchases securities directly from the issuer or a primary market-maker acting as principal for the securities on a net basis. Explicit brokerage commissions are not paid on these transactions, although purchases of new issues from underwriters of securities typically include a commission or concession paid by the issuer to the underwriter, and purchases from dealers serving as market-makers typically include a dealer’s mark-up (i.e., a spread between the bid and the asked prices). Brokerage commissions are paid, however, in connection with opening and closing futures positions.

As previously explained, the types of securities that the Funds purchase do not normally involve the payment of explicit brokerage commissions. If any such brokerage commissions are paid, however, the advisor will evaluate their reasonableness by considering: (1) historical commission rates; (2) rates that other institutional investors are paying, based upon publicly available information; (3) rates quoted by brokers and dealers; (4) the size of a particular transaction, in terms of the number of shares, dollar amount, and number of clients involved; (5) the complexity of a particular transaction in terms of both execution and settlement; (6) the level and type of business done with a particular firm over a period of time; and (7) the extent to which the broker or dealer has capital at risk in the transaction.

Vanguard International Dividend Appreciation Index Fund and Vanguard International High Dividend Yield Index Fund had not yet commenced operations as of the date of this SAI and therefore had not incurred any brokerage commissions to date.

Some securities that are considered for investment by a Fund may also be appropriate for other Vanguard funds or for other clients served by the advisors. If such securities are compatible with the investment policies of a Fund and one or more of an advisor’s other clients and are considered for purchase or sale at or about the same time, then transactions in such securities may be aggregated by the advisor, and the purchased securities or sale proceeds may be allocated among the participating Vanguard funds and the other participating clients of the advisor in a manner deemed equitable by the advisor. Although there may be no specified formula for allocating such transactions, the allocation methods used, and the results of such allocations, will be subject to periodic review by the Funds‘ board of trustees.

The ability of Vanguard and external advisors to purchase or dispose of investments in regulated industries, certain derivatives markets, certain international markets, and certain issuers that limit ownership by a single shareholder or group of related shareholders, or to exercise rights on behalf of a Fund, may be restricted or impaired because of limitations on the aggregate level of investment unless regulatory or corporate consents or ownership waivers are obtained. As a result, Vanguard and external advisors on behalf of a Fund may be required to limit purchases, sell

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existing investments, or otherwise restrict or limit the exercise of shareholder rights by the Fund, including voting rights. If a Fund is required to limit its investment in a particular issuer, the Fund may seek to obtain economic exposure to that issuer through alternative means, such as through a derivative, which may be more costly than owning securities of the issuer directly.

As of the date of this SAI, Vanguard International Dividend Appreciation Index Fund and Vanguard International High Dividend Yield Index Fund had not commenced operations and, as such, the Funds had not held securities of their “regular brokers or dealers,” as that term is defined in Rule 10b-1 of the 1940 Act.

PROXY VOTING GUIDELINES

The Board of Trustees (the Board) of each Vanguard fund has adopted proxy voting procedures and guidelines to govern proxy voting by the fund. The Board has delegated responsibility for monitoring proxy voting activities to the Proxy Oversight Committee (the Committee), made up of senior officers of Vanguard and subject to the operating procedures and guidelines described below. The Committee reports directly to the Board. Vanguard is subject to these procedures and guidelines to the extent that they call for Vanguard to administer the voting process and implement the resulting voting decisions, and for these purposes the guidelines have also been approved by the Board of Directors of Vanguard.

The overarching objective in voting is simple: to support proposals and director nominees that maximize the value of a fund’s investments—and those of fund shareholders—over the long term. Although the goal is simple, the proposals the funds receive are varied and frequently complex. As such, the guidelines adopted by the Board provide a rigorous framework for assessing each proposal. Under the guidelines, each proposal must be evaluated on its merits, based on the particular facts and circumstances as presented.

For ease of reference, the procedures and guidelines often refer to all funds. However, our processes and practices seek to ensure that proxy voting decisions are suitable for individual funds. For most proxy proposals, particularly those involving corporate governance, the evaluation will result in the same position being taken across all of the funds and the funds voting as a block. In some cases, however, a fund may vote differently, depending upon the nature and objective of the fund, the composition of its portfolio, and other factors.

The guidelines do not permit the Board to delegate voting responsibility to a third party that does not serve as a fiduciary for the funds. Because many factors bear on each decision, the guidelines incorporate factors the Committee should consider in each voting decision. A fund may refrain from voting some or all of its shares or vote in a particular way if doing so would be in the fund’s and its shareholders’ best interests. These circumstances may arise, for example, if the expected cost of voting exceeds the expected benefits of voting, if exercising the vote would result in the imposition of trading or other restrictions, or if a fund (or all Vanguard funds in the aggregate) were to own more than the permissible maximum percentage of a company’s stock (as determined by the company’s governing documents or by applicable law, regulation, or regulatory agreement).

In evaluating proxy proposals, we consider information from many sources, including, but not limited to, the investment advisor for the fund, the management or shareholders of a company presenting a proposal, and independent proxy research services. We will give substantial weight to the recommendations of the company’s board, absent guidelines or other specific facts that would support a vote against management. In all cases, however, the ultimate decision rests with the members of the Committee, who are accountable to the fund’s Board.

While serving as a framework, the following guidelines cannot contemplate all possible proposals with which a fund may be presented. In the absence of a specific guideline for a particular proposal (e.g., in the case of a transactional issue or contested proxy), the Committee will evaluate the issue and cast the fund’s vote in a manner that, in the Committee’s view, will maximize the value of the fund’s investment, subject to the individual circumstances of the fund.

I. The Board of Directors

A. Election of directors

Good governance starts with a majority-independent board, whose key committees are made up entirely of independent directors. As such, companies should attest to the independence of directors who serve on the Compensation, Nominating, and Audit committees. In any instance in which a director is not categorically independent, the basis for the independence determination should be clearly explained in the proxy statement.

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Although the funds will generally support the board’s nominees, the following factors will be taken into account in determining each fund’s vote:

Factors For Approval Factors Against Approval
Nominated slate results in board made up of a majority of Nominated slate results in board made up of a majority of
independent directors. non-independent directors.
All members of Audit, Nominating, and Compensation Audit, Nominating, and/or Compensation committees include
committees are independent of management. non-independent members.
  Incumbent board member failed to attend at least 75% of meetings
  in the previous year.
  Actions of committee(s) on which nominee serves are inconsistent with
  other guidelines (e.g., excessive equity grants, substantial non-audit fees,
  lack of board independence).
  Actions of committee(s) on which nominee serves demonstrate serious
  failures of governance (e.g., unilaterally acting to significantly reduce share-
  holder rights, failure to respond to previous vote results for directors and
  shareholder proposals).
 
 
B. Contested director elections  

 

In the case of contested board elections, we will evaluate the nominees’ qualifications, the performance of the incumbent board, and the rationale behind the dissidents’ campaign, to determine the outcome that we believe will maximize shareholder value.

C. Classified boards

The funds will generally support proposals to declassify existing boards (whether proposed by management or shareholders), and will block efforts by companies to adopt classified board structures in which only part of the board is elected each year.

D. Proxy access

We believe that long-term investors may benefit from having proxy access, or the opportunity to place director nominees on a company’s proxy ballot. In our view, this improves shareholders’ ability to participate in director elections while potentially enhancing boards’ accountability and responsiveness to shareholders.

That said, we also believe that proxy access provisions should be appropriately limited to avoid abuse by investors who lack a meaningful long-term interest in the company. As such, we generally believe that a shareholder or group of shareholders representing 5% of a company’s outstanding shares held for at least three years should be able to nominate directors for up to 20% of the seats on the board.

We will review proposals regarding proxy access case by case. The funds will be most likely to support access provisions with the terms described above, but they may support different thresholds based on a company’s other governance provisions, as well as other relevant factors.

II. Approval of Independent Auditors

The relationship between the company and its auditors should be limited primarily to the audit, although it may include certain closely related activities that do not, in the aggregate, raise any appearance of impaired independence. The funds will generally support management’s recommendation for the ratification of the auditor, except in instances in which audit and audit-related fees make up less than 50% of the total fees paid by the company to the audit firm. We will evaluate on a case-by-case basis instances in which the audit firm has a substantial non-audit relationship with the company (regardless of its size relative to the audit fee) to determine whether independence has been compromised.

III. Compensation Issues

A. Stock-based compensation plans

Appropriately designed stock-based compensation plans, administered by an independent committee of the board and approved by shareholders, can be an effective way to align the interests of long-term shareholders with the interests of

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management, employees, and directors. The funds oppose plans that substantially dilute their ownership interest in the company, provide participants with excessive awards, or have inherently objectionable structural features.

An independent compensation committee should have significant latitude to deliver varied compensation to motivate the company’s employees. However, we will evaluate compensation proposals in the context of several factors (a company’s industry, market capitalization, competitors for talent, etc.) to determine whether a particular plan or proposal balances the perspectives of employees and the company’s other shareholders. We will evaluate each proposal on a case-by-case basis, taking all material facts and circumstances into account.

The following factors will be among those considered in evaluating these proposals:

Factors For Approval Factors Against Approval
Company requires senior executives to hold a minimum amount Total potential dilution (including all stock-based plans) exceeds 15% of
of company stock (frequently expressed as a multiple of salary). shares outstanding.
Company requires stock acquired through equity awards to be Annual equity grants have exceeded 2% of shares outstanding.
held for a certain period of time.  
Compensation program includes performance-vesting awards, Plan permits repricing or replacement of options without
indexed options, or other performance-linked grants. shareholder approval.
Concentration of equity grants to senior executives is limited Plan provides for the issuance of reload options.
(indicating that the plan is very broad-based).  
Stock-based compensation is clearly used as a substitute for Plan contains automatic share replenishment (evergreen) feature.
cash in delivering market-competitive total pay.  

 

B. Bonus plans

Bonus plans, which must be periodically submitted for shareholder approval to qualify for deductibility under Section 162(m) of the IRC, should have clearly defined performance criteria and maximum awards expressed in dollars. Bonus plans with awards that are excessive, in both absolute terms and relative to a comparative group, generally will not be supported.

C. Employee stock purchase plans

The funds will generally support the use of employee stock purchase plans to increase company stock ownership by employees, provided that shares purchased under the plan are acquired for no less than 85% of their market value and that shares reserved under the plan amount to less than 5% of the outstanding shares.

D. Advisory votes on executive compensation (Say on Pay)

In addition to proposals on specific equity or bonus plans, the funds are required to cast advisory votes approving many companies’ overall executive compensation plans (so-called Say on Pay votes). In evaluating these proposals, we consider a number of factors, including the amount of compensation that is at risk, the amount of equity-based compensation that is linked to the company’s performance, and the level of compensation as compared to industry peers. The funds will generally support pay programs that demonstrate effective linkage between pay and performance over time and that provide compensation opportunities that are competitive relative to industry peers. On the other hand, pay programs in which significant compensation is guaranteed or insufficiently linked to performance will be less likely to earn our support.

E. Executive severance agreements (golden parachutes)

Although executives’ incentives for continued employment should be more significant than severance benefits, there are instances—particularly in the event of a change in control—in which severance arrangements may be appropriate. Severance benefits payable upon a change of control AND an executive’s termination (so-called “double trigger” plans) are generally acceptable to the extent that benefits paid do not exceed three times salary and bonus. Arrangements in which the benefits exceed three times salary and bonus should be justified and submitted for shareholder approval. We do not generally support guaranteed severance absent a change in control or arrangements that do not require the termination of the executive (so-called “single trigger” plans).

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IV. Corporate Structure and Shareholder Rights

The exercise of shareholder rights, in proportion to economic ownership, is a fundamental privilege of stock ownership that should not be unnecessarily limited. Such limits may be placed on shareholders’ ability to act by corporate charter or by-law provisions, or by the adoption of certain takeover provisions. In general, the market for corporate control should be allowed to function without undue interference from these artificial barriers.

The funds’ positions on a number of the most commonly presented issues in this area are as follows:

A. Shareholder rights plans (poison pills)

A company’s adoption of a so-called poison pill effectively limits a potential acquirer’s ability to buy a controlling interest without the approval of the target’s board of directors. Such a plan, in conjunction with other takeover defenses, may serve to entrench incumbent management and directors. However, in other cases, a poison pill may force a suitor to negotiate with the board and result in the payment of a higher acquisition premium.

In general, shareholders should be afforded the opportunity to approve shareholder rights plans within a year of their adoption. This provides the board with the ability to put a poison pill in place for legitimate defensive purposes, subject to subsequent approval by shareholders. In evaluating the approval of proposed shareholder rights plans, we will consider the following factors:

Factors For Approval Factors Against Approval
Plan is relatively short-term (3-5 years). Plan is long term (>5 years).
Plan requires shareholder approval for renewal. Renewal of plan is automatic or does not require shareholder approval.
Plan incorporates review by a committee of independent Board with limited independence.
directors at least every three years (so-called TIDE provisions).  
Ownership trigger is reasonable (15-20%). Ownership trigger is less than 15%.
Highly independent, non-classified board. Classified board.
Plan includes permitted-bid/qualified-offer feature (chewable  
pill) that mandates a shareholder vote in certain situations.  

 

B. Increase in authorized shares

The funds are supportive of companies seeking to increase authorized share amounts that do not potentially expose shareholders to excessive dilution. We will generally approve increases of up to 50% of the current share authorization, but will also consider a company’s specific circumstances and market practices.

C. Cumulative voting

The funds are generally opposed to cumulative voting under the premise that it allows shareholders a voice in director elections that is disproportionate to their economic investment in the corporation.

D. Supermajority vote requirements

The funds support shareholders’ ability to approve or reject matters presented for a vote based on a simple majority. Accordingly, the funds will support proposals to remove supermajority requirements and oppose proposals to impose them.

E. Right to call meetings and act by written consent

The funds support shareholders’ right to call special meetings of the board (for good cause and with ample representation) and to act by written consent. The funds will generally vote for proposals to grant these rights to shareholders and against proposals to abridge them.

F. Confidential voting

The integrity of the voting process is enhanced substantially when shareholders (both institutions and individuals) can vote without fear of coercion or retribution based on their votes. As such, the funds support proposals to provide confidential voting.

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G. Dual classes of stock

We are opposed to dual class capitalization structures that provide disparate voting rights to different groups of shareholders with similar economic investments. We will oppose the creation of separate classes with different voting rights and will support the dissolution of such classes.

V. Corporate and Social Policy Issues

Proposals in this category, initiated primarily by shareholders, typically request that the company disclose or amend certain business practices. The Board generally believes that these are “ordinary business matters” that are primarily the responsibility of management and should be evaluated and approved solely by the corporation’s board of directors. Often, proposals may address concerns with which the Board philosophically agrees, but absent a compelling economic impact on shareholder value (e.g., proposals to require expensing of stock options), the funds will typically abstain from voting on these proposals. This reflects the belief that regardless of our philosophical perspective on the issue, these decisions should be the province of company management unless they have a significant, tangible impact on the value of a fund’s investment and management is not responsive to the matter.

VI. Voting in Foreign Markets

Corporate governance standards, disclosure requirements, and voting mechanics vary greatly among the markets outside the United States in which the funds may invest. Each fund’s votes will be used, where applicable, to advocate for improvements in governance and disclosure by each fund’s portfolio companies. We will evaluate issues presented to shareholders for each fund’s foreign holdings in the context with the guidelines described above, as well as local market standards and best practices. The funds will cast their votes in a manner believed to be philosophically consistent with these guidelines, while taking into account differing practices by market. In addition, there may be instances in which the funds elect not to vote, as described below.

Many foreign markets require that securities be “blocked” or reregistered to vote at a company’s meeting. Absent an issue of compelling economic importance, we will generally not subject the fund to the loss of liquidity imposed by these requirements.

The costs of voting (e.g., custodian fees, vote agency fees) in foreign markets may be substantially higher than for U.S. holdings. As such, the fund may limit its voting on foreign holdings in instances in which the issues presented are unlikely to have a material impact on shareholder value.

VII. Voting Shares of a Company that has an Ownership Limitation

Certain companies have provisions in their governing documents that restrict stock ownership in excess of a specified limit. Typically, these ownership restrictions are included in the governing documents of real estate investment trusts, but may be included in other companies’ governing documents.

A company’s governing documents normally allow the company to grant a waiver of these ownership limits, which would allow a fund (or all Vanguard-advised funds) to exceed the stated ownership limit. Sometimes a company will grant a waiver without restriction. From time to time, a company may grant a waiver only if a fund (or funds) agrees to not vote the company’s shares in excess of the normal specified limit. In such a circumstance, a fund may refrain from voting shares if owning the shares beyond the company’s specified limit is in the best interests of the fund and its shareholders.

In addition, applicable law may require prior regulatory approval to permit ownership of certain regulated issuer’s voting securities above certain limits or may impose other restrictions on owners of more than a certain percentage of a regulated issuer’s voting shares. The Board has authorized the funds to vote shares above these limits in the same proportion as votes cast by the issuer’s entire shareholder base (i.e., mirror vote) or to refrain from voting excess shares if mirror voting is not practicable. For example, rules administered by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (the “FRB”) generally require that a person seeking to own more than 10% of a bank regulated by the FRB seek prior approval. Vanguard has obtained regulatory approval that allows Vanguard funds to own up to 15% of a class of a bank’s outstanding voting shares without seeking prior regulatory approval, provided the funds’ shares in excess of 10% are mirror voted or not voted at all.

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These ownership limits may be applied at the individual fund level, across all Vanguard-advised funds, or across all Vanguard funds, regardless of whether they are advised by Vanguard.

VIII. Voting on a Fund’s Holdings of Other Vanguard Funds

Certain Vanguard funds (owner funds) may, from time to time, own shares of other Vanguard funds (underlying funds). If an underlying fund submits a matter to a vote of its shareholders, votes for and against such matters on behalf of the owner funds will be cast in the same proportion as the votes of the other shareholders in the underlying fund.

IX. The Proxy Voting Group

The Board has delegated the day-to-day operations of the funds’ proxy voting process to the Proxy Voting Group, which the Committee oversees. Although most votes will be determined, subject to the individual circumstances of each fund, by reference to the guidelines as separately adopted by each of the funds, there may be circumstances when the Proxy Voting Group will refer proxy issues to the Committee for consideration. In addition, at any time, the Board has the authority to vote proxies, when, at the Board’s or the Committee’s discretion, such action is warranted.

The Proxy Voting Group performs the following functions: (1) managing proxy voting vendors; (2) reconciling share positions; (3) analyzing proxy proposals using factors described in the guidelines; (4) determining and addressing potential or actual conflicts of interest that may be presented by a particular proxy; and (5) voting proxies. The Proxy Voting Group also prepares periodic and special reports to the Board, and any proposed amendments to the procedures and guidelines.

X. The Proxy Oversight Committee

The Board, including a majority of the independent trustees, appoints the members of the Committee who are senior officers of Vanguard.

The Committee does not include anyone whose primary duties include external client relationship management or sales. This clear separation between the proxy voting and client relationship functions is intended to eliminate any potential conflict of interest in the proxy voting process. In the unlikely event that a member of the Committee believes he or she might have a conflict of interest regarding a proxy vote, that member must recuse himself or herself from the committee meeting at which the matter is addressed, and not participate in the voting decision.

The Committee works with the Proxy Voting Group to provide reports and other guidance to the Board regarding proxy voting by the funds. The Committee has an obligation to conduct its meetings and exercise its decision-making authority subject to the fiduciary standards of good faith, fairness, and Vanguard’s Code of Ethics. The Committee shall authorize proxy votes that the Committee determines, at its sole discretion, to be in the best interests of each fund’s shareholders. In determining how to apply the guidelines to a particular factual situation, the Committee may not take into account any interest that would conflict with the interest of fund shareholders in maximizing the value of their investments.

The Board may review these procedures and guidelines and modify them from time to time. A summary of the procedures and guidelines is available on Vanguard’s website at vanguard.com.

You may obtain a free copy of a report that details how the funds voted the proxies relating to the portfolio securities held by the funds for the prior 12-month period ended June 30 by logging on to Vanguard’s website at vanguard.com or the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov.

INFORMATION ABOUT THE ETF SHARE CLASS

Each Fund (the ETF Funds) offers and issues an exchange-traded class of shares called ETF Shares. Each ETF Fund issues and redeems ETF Shares in large blocks, known as “Creation Units.” For the Funds, the number of ETF Shares in a Creation Unit is •.

To purchase or redeem a Creation Unit, you must be an Authorized Participant or you must transact through a broker that is an Authorized Participant. An Authorized Participant is a participant in the Depository Trust Company (DTC) that has executed a Participant Agreement with Vanguard Marketing Corporation, the Funds’ Distributor (the Distributor). For a current list of Authorized Participants, contact the Distributor.

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Investors that are not Authorized Participants must hold ETF Shares in a brokerage account. As with any stock traded on an exchange through a broker, purchases and sales of ETF Shares will be subject to usual and customary brokerage commissions.

Each ETF Fund issues Creation Units in kind in exchange for a basket of securities that are part of—or soon to be part of—its target index (Deposit Securities). Each ETF Fund also redeems Creation Units in kind; an investor who tenders a Creation Unit will receive, as redemption proceeds, a basket of securities that are part of the Fund’s portfolio holdings (Redemption Securities). The Deposit Securities and Redemption Securities may include American Depository Receipts (ADRs). As part of any creation or redemption transaction, the investor will either pay or receive some cash in addition to the securities, as described more fully on the following pages. Each ETF Fund reserves the right to issue Creation Units for cash, rather than in kind. As of the date of this Statement of Additional Information, cash purchases will be required for securities traded in Brazil, Chile, Greece, India, Malaysia, Korea, and Taiwan.

Exchange Listing and Trading

The ETF Shares have been approved for listing on a national securities exchange and will trade on the exchange at market prices that may differ from net asset value (NAV). There can be no assurance that, in the future, ETF Shares will continue to meet all of the exchange’s listing requirements. The exchange may, but is not required to, delist a Fund‘s ETF Shares if (1) following the initial 12-month period beginning upon the commencement of trading, there are fewer than 50 beneficial owners of the ETF Shares for 30 or more consecutive trading days; (2) the value of the target index tracked by the ETF Fund is no longer calculated or available; or (3) such other event shall occur or condition exist that, in the opinion of the exchange, makes further dealings on the exchange inadvisable. The exchange will also delist a Fund‘s ETF Shares upon termination of the ETF Share class.

The exchange disseminates, through the facilities of the Consolidated Tape Association, an updated “indicative optimized portfolio value” (IOPV) for each ETF Fund as calculated by an information provider. The ETF Funds are not involved with or responsible for the calculation or dissemination of the IOPVs, and they make no warranty as to the accuracy of the IOPVs. An IOPV for a Fund’s ETF Shares is disseminated every 15 seconds during regular exchange trading hours. An IOPV has a securities value component and a cash component. The securities values included in an IOPV are based on the real-time market prices of the Deposit Securities for a Fund’s ETF Shares. The IOPV is designed as an estimate of an ETF Fund’s NAV at a particular point in time, but it is only an estimate and should not be viewed as the actual NAV, which is calculated once each day.

Conversions and Exchanges

Owners of conventional shares (i.e., not exchange-traded shares) issued by an ETF Fund may convert those shares to ETF Shares of equivalent value of the same Fund. Please note that investors who own conventional shares through a 401(k) plan or other employer-sponsored retirement or benefit plan generally may not convert those shares to ETF Shares and should check with their plan sponsor or recordkeeper. ETF Shares, whether acquired through a conversion or purchased on the secondary market, cannot be converted to conventional shares. Also, ETF Shares of one fund cannot be exchanged for ETF Shares of another fund.

Investors that are not Authorized Participants must hold ETF Shares in a brokerage account. Thus, before converting conventional shares to ETF Shares, investors must have an existing, or open a new, brokerage account. This account may be with Vanguard Brokerage Services® (Vanguard Brokerage) or with any other brokerage firm. To initiate a conversion of conventional shares to ETF Shares, an investor must contact his or her broker.

Vanguard Brokerage does not impose a fee on conversions from Vanguard conventional shares to Vanguard ETF Shares. However, other brokerage firms may charge a fee to process a conversion. Vanguard reserves the right, in the future, to impose a transaction fee on conversions or to limit or terminate the conversion privilege.

Converting conventional shares to ETF Shares is generally accomplished as follows. First, after the broker notifies Vanguard of an investor‘s request to convert, Vanguard will transfer conventional shares from the investor‘s account with Vanguard to the broker‘s omnibus account with Vanguard (an account maintained by the broker on behalf of all its customers who hold conventional Vanguard fund shares through the broker). After the transfer, Vanguard’s records will reflect the broker, not the investor, as the owner of the shares. Next, the broker will instruct Vanguard to convert the appropriate number or dollar amount of conventional shares in its omnibus account to ETF Shares of equivalent value, based on the respective NAVs of the two share classes. The ETF Fund’s transfer agent will reflect ownership of all ETF

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Shares in the name of the DTC. The DTC will keep track of which ETF Shares belong to the broker, and the broker, in turn, will keep track of which ETF Shares belong to its customers.

Because the DTC is unable to handle fractional shares, only whole shares can be converted. For example, if the investor owned 300.250 conventional shares, and this was equivalent in value to 90.750 ETF Shares, the DTC account would receive 90 ETF Shares. Conventional shares with a value equal to 0.750 ETF Shares (in this example, that would be 2.481 conventional shares) would remain in the broker‘s omnibus account with Vanguard. The broker then could either (1) take certain internal actions necessary to credit the investor‘s account with 0.750 ETF Shares or (2) redeem the 2.481 conventional shares for cash at NAV and deliver that cash to the investor’s account. If the broker chose to redeem the conventional shares, the investor would realize a gain or loss on the redemption that must be reported on his or her tax return (unless the shares are held in an IRA or other tax-deferred account). An investor should consult his or her broker for information on how the broker will handle the conversion process, including whether the broker will impose a fee to process a conversion.

The conversion process works differently for investors who opt to hold ETF Shares through an account at Vanguard Brokerage. Investors who convert their conventional shares to ETF Shares through Vanguard Brokerage will have all conventional shares for which they request conversion converted to the equivalent dollar value of ETF Shares. Because no fractional shares will have to be sold, the transaction will not be taxable.

Here are some important points to keep in mind when converting conventional shares of an ETF Fund to ETF Shares:

  • The conversion process can take anywhere from several days to several weeks, depending on the broker. Vanguard generally will process conversion requests either on the day they are received or on the next business day. Vanguard imposes conversion blackout windows around the dates when the ETF Fund declares dividends. This is necessary to prevent a shareholder from collecting a dividend from both the conventional share class currently held and also from the ETF share class to which the shares will be converted.
  • During the conversion process, an investor will remain fully invested in the Fund‘s conventional shares, and the investment will increase or decrease in value in tandem with the NAV of those shares.
  • The conversion transaction is nontaxable except, if applicable, to the very limited extent previously described.
  • During the conversion process, an investor will be able to liquidate all or part of an investment by instructing Vanguard or the broker (depending on whether the shares are held in the investor’s account or the broker‘s omnibus account) to redeem the conventional shares. After the conversion process is complete, an investor will be able to liquidate all or part of an investment by instructing the broker to sell the ETF Shares.

Book Entry Only System

ETF Shares issued by the Funds are registered in the name of the DTC or its nominee, Cede & Co., and are deposited with, or on behalf of, the DTC. The DTC is a limited-purpose trust company that was created to hold securities of its participants (DTC Participants) and to facilitate the clearance and settlement of transactions among them through electronic book-entry changes in their accounts, thereby eliminating the need for physical movement of securities certificates. DTC Participants include securities brokers and dealers, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations, and certain other organizations. The DTC is a subsidiary of the Depository Trust and Clearing Corporation (DTCC), which is owned by certain participants of the DTCC’s subsidiaries, including the DTC. Access to the DTC system is also available to others such as banks, brokers, dealers, and trust companies that clear through or maintain a custodial relationship with a DTC Participant, either directly or indirectly (Indirect Participants).

Beneficial ownership of ETF Shares is limited to DTC Participants, Indirect Participants, and persons holding interests through DTC Participants and Indirect Participants. Ownership of beneficial interests in ETF Shares (owners of such beneficial interests are referred to herein as Beneficial Owners) is shown on, and the transfer of ownership is effected only through, records maintained by the DTC (with respect to DTC Participants) and on the records of DTC Participants (with respect to Indirect Participants and Beneficial Owners that are not DTC Participants). Beneficial Owners will receive from, or through, the DTC Participant a written confirmation relating to their purchase of ETF Shares. The laws of some jurisdictions may require that certain purchasers of securities take physical delivery of such securities. Such laws may impair the ability of certain investors to acquire beneficial interests in ETF Shares.

Each ETF Fund recognizes the DTC or its nominee as the record owner of all ETF Shares for all purposes. Beneficial Owners of ETF Shares are not entitled to have ETF Shares registered in their names and will not receive or be entitled to physical delivery of share certificates. Each Beneficial Owner must rely on the procedures of the DTC and any DTC

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Participant and/or Indirect Participant through which such Beneficial Owner holds its interests to exercise any rights of a holder of ETF Shares.

Conveyance of all notices, statements, and other communications to Beneficial Owners is effected as follows. The DTC will make available to each ETF Fund, upon request and for a fee, a listing of the ETF Shares of the Fund held by each DTC Participant. The ETF Fund shall obtain from each DTC Participant the number of Beneficial Owners holding ETF Shares, directly or indirectly, through the DTC Participant. The ETF Fund shall provide each DTC Participant with copies of such notice, statement, or other communication, in form, in number, and at such place as the DTC Participant may reasonably request, in order that these communications may be transmitted by the DTC Participant, directly or indirectly, to the Beneficial Owners. In addition, the ETF Fund shall pay to each DTC Participant a fair and reasonable amount as reimbursement for the expenses attendant to such transmittal, subject to applicable statutory and regulatory requirements.

Share distributions shall be made to the DTC or its nominee as the registered holder of all ETF Shares. The DTC or its nominee, upon receipt of any such distributions, shall immediately credit the DTC Participants’ accounts with payments in amounts proportionate to their respective beneficial interests in ETF Shares of the appropriate Fund as shown on the records of the DTC or its nominee. Payments by DTC Participants to Indirect Participants and Beneficial Owners of ETF Shares held through such DTC Participants will be governed by standing instructions and customary practices, as is now the case with securities held for the accounts of customers in bearer form or registered in a “street name,” and will be the responsibility of such DTC Participants.

The ETF Funds have no responsibility or liability for any aspects of the records relating to or notices to Beneficial Owners; for payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in such ETF Shares; for maintenance, supervision, or review of any records relating to such beneficial ownership interests; or for any other aspect of the relationship between the DTC and DTC Participants or the relationship between such DTC Participants and the Indirect Participants and Beneficial Owners owning through such DTC Participants.

The DTC may determine to discontinue providing its service with respect to ETF Shares at any time by giving reasonable notice to the ETF Funds and discharging its responsibilities with respect thereto under applicable law. Under such circumstances, the ETF Funds shall take action either to find a replacement for the DTC to perform its functions at a comparable cost or, if such replacement is unavailable, to issue and deliver printed certificates representing ownership of ETF Shares, unless the ETF Funds makes other arrangements with respect thereto satisfactory to the exchange.

Purchase and Issuance of ETF Shares in Creation Units

Except for conversions to ETF Shares from conventional shares, the ETF Funds issue and sell ETF Shares only in Creation Units on a continuous basis through the Distributor, without a sales load, at their NAV next determined after receipt of an order in proper form on any business day. The ETF Funds do not issue fractional Creation Units.

A business day is any day on which the NYSE is open for business. As of the date of this Statement of Additional Information, the NYSE observes the following U.S. holidays: New Year’s Day; Martin Luther King, Jr., Day; Presidents’ Day (Washington’s Birthday); Good Friday; Memorial Day (observed); Independence Day; Labor Day; Thanksgiving Day; and Christmas Day.

Fund Deposit. The consideration for purchase of a Creation Unit from an ETF Fund generally consists of the in-kind deposit of a designated portfolio of securities (Deposit Securities) and an amount of cash (Cash Component) consisting of a purchase balancing amount and a transaction fee (both described in the following paragraphs). Together, the Deposit Securities and the Cash Component constitute the fund deposit.

The purchase balancing amount is an amount equal to the difference between the NAV of a Creation Unit and the market value of the Deposit Securities (Deposit Amount). It ensures that the NAV of a fund deposit (not including the transaction fee) is identical to the NAV of the Creation Unit it is used to purchase. If the purchase balancing amount is a positive number (i.e., the NAV per Creation Unit exceeds the market value of the Deposit Securities), then that amount will be paid by the purchaser to an ETF Fund in cash. If the purchase balancing amount is a negative number (i.e., the NAV per Creation Unit is less than the market value of the Deposit Securities), then that amount will be paid by an ETF Fund to the purchaser in cash (except as offset by the transaction fee).

Vanguard, through the National Securities Clearing Corporation (NSCC), makes available after the close of each business day a list of the names and the number of shares of each Deposit Security to be included in the next business day’s fund

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deposit for each ETF Fund (subject to possible amendment or correction). Each ETF Fund reserves the right to accept a nonconforming fund deposit.

The identity and number of shares of the Deposit Securities required for a fund deposit may change from one day to another to reflect rebalancing adjustments and corporate actions or to respond to adjustments to the weighting or composition of the component securities of the relevant target index.

In addition, each ETF Fund reserves the right to permit or require the substitution of an amount of cash—referred to as “cash in lieu”—to be added to the Cash Component to replace any Deposit Security. This might occur, for example, if a Deposit Security is not available in sufficient quantity for delivery, is not eligible for transfer through the applicable clearance and settlement system, or is not eligible for trading by an Authorized Participant or the investor for which an Authorized Participant is acting. Trading costs incurred by the ETF Fund in connection with the purchase of Deposit Securities with cash-in-lieu amounts will be an expense of the ETF Fund. However, Vanguard may adjust the transaction fee to protect existing shareholders from this expense.

All questions as to the number of shares of each security in the Deposit Securities and the validity, form, eligibility, and acceptance for deposit of any securities to be delivered shall be determined by the appropriate ETF Fund, and the ETF Fund’s determination shall be final and binding.

Procedures for Purchasing Creation Units. An Authorized Participant may place an order to purchase Creation Units from a stock ETF Fund through the Continuous Net Settlement (CNS) clearing processes of the NSCC as such processes have been enhanced to effect purchases of Creation Units, such processes being referred to herein as the Clearing Process. To purchase through the Clearing Process, an Authorized Participant must be a member of the NSCC that is eligible to use the CNS system. Purchases of Creation Units cleared through the Clearing Process will be subject to a lower transaction fee than those cleared outside the Clearing Process.

For all ETF Funds, to initiate a purchase order for a Creation Unit an Authorized Participant must submit an order in proper form to the Distributor and such order must be received by the Distributor prior to the closing time of regular trading on the NYSE (Closing Time) (ordinarily 4 p.m., Eastern time) to receive that day‘s NAV. The date on which an order to purchase (or redeem) Creation Units is placed is referred to as the transmittal date. Authorized Participants must transmit orders using a transmission method acceptable to the Distributor pursuant to procedures set forth in the Participant Agreement.

The Distributor shall inform the ETF Fund’s custodian of the order. The custodian will then inform the appropriate foreign subcustodians. Each subcustodian shall maintain an account into which the Authorized Participant shall deliver, on behalf of itself or the party on whose behalf it is acting, the relevant Deposit Securities (or the cash value of all or part of such securities, in the case of a permitted or required cash purchase or cash-in-lieu amount), with any appropriate adjustments as advised by Vanguard. Deposit Securities must be delivered to an account maintained at the applicable local subcustodians.

The Authorized Participant must also make available on or before the contractual settlement date, by means satisfactory to the ETF Fund, immediately available or same-day funds estimated by the ETF Fund to be sufficient to pay the Cash Component. Any excess funds will be returned following settlement of the issue of the Creation Unit.

Neither the Trust, the ETF Funds, the Distributor, nor any affiliated party will be liable to an investor who is unable to submit a purchase order by Closing Time, even if the problem is the responsibility of one of those parties (e.g., the Distributor‘s phone or e-mail systems were not operating properly).

If you are not an Authorized Participant, you must place your purchase order in an acceptable form with an Authorized Participant. The Authorized Participant may request that you make certain representations or enter into agreements with respect to the order (e.g., to provide for payments of cash when required).

An order to purchase Creation Units is deemed received on the transmittal date if (1) such order is received by the Distributor prior to Closing Time on such transmittal date, or an earlier cut-off time in the case of an ETF Fund that has established such a time and (2) all other procedures set forth in the Participant Agreement are properly followed.

Except as provided herein, a Creation Unit will not be issued until the transfer of good title to an ETF Fund of the Deposit Securities and the payment of the Cash Component have been completed. When each subcustodian has confirmed to the custodian that the required securities included in the fund deposit have been delivered to the account of the relevant subcustodian, and the Cash Component has been delivered to the custodian, the Distributor shall be notified of such delivery, and the ETF Fund will issue and cause the delivery of the Creation Unit.

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If a fund deposit is incomplete on the third business day after the trade date (the trade date, known as “T,” is the date on which the trade actually takes place; three business days after the trade date is known as “T+3”) because of the failed delivery of one or more of the Deposit Securities, the ETF Fund shall be entitled to cancel the purchase order. Alternatively, the ETF Fund may issue Creation Units in reliance on the Authorized Participant’s undertaking to deliver the missing Deposit Securities at a later date. Such undertaking shall be secured by the delivery and maintenance of cash collateral in an amount determined by the ETF Fund in accordance with the terms of the Participant Agreement.

Rejection of Purchase Orders. Each ETF Fund reserves the absolute right to reject a purchase order. By way of example, and not limitation, an ETF Fund will reject a purchase order if:

  • The order is not in proper form.
  • The investor(s), upon obtaining the ETF Shares ordered, would own 80% or more of the total combined voting power and number of shares of all classes of stock issued by the Fund.
  • The Deposit Securities delivered are not the same (in name or amount) as the published basket.
  • Acceptance of the Deposit Securities would have certain adverse tax consequences to the ETF Fund.
  • Acceptance of the fund deposit would, in the opinion of counsel, be unlawful.
  • Acceptance of the fund deposit would otherwise, at the discretion of the ETF Fund or Vanguard, have an adverse effect on the Fund or any of its shareholders.
  • Circumstances outside the control of the ETF Fund, the Trust, the transfer agent, the custodian, the subcustodian, the Distributor, and Vanguard make it for all practical purposes impossible to process the order. Examples of such circumstances include natural disasters, public service disruptions, or utility problems such as fires, floods, extreme weather conditions, and power outages resulting in telephone, telecopy, and computer failures; market conditions or activities causing trading halts; systems failures involving computer or other information systems affecting the aforementioned parties as well as the DTC, the NSCC, or any other participant in the purchase process; and similar extraordinary events.

If the purchase order is rejected, the Distributor shall notify the Authorized Participant that submitted the order. The ETF Funds, the Trust, the transfer agent, the custodian, the subcustodian, the Distributor, and Vanguard are under no duty, however, to give notification of any defects or irregularities in the delivery of a fund deposit, nor shall any of them incur any liability for the failure to give any such notification.

Transaction Fee on Purchases of Creation Units. Each ETF Fund imposes a transaction fee (payable to the Fund) to compensate the Fund for costs associated with the issuance of Creation Units. The amount of the fee, which may be changed by Vanguard from time to time at its sole discretion, is made available daily to Authorized Participants, market makers, and other interested parties through Vanguard’s proprietary portal system. When an ETF Fund permits (or requires) a purchaser to substitute cash in lieu of depositing one or more Deposit Securities, the purchaser may be assessed an additional charge on the cash-in-lieu portion of the investment. The amount of this charge will be disclosed to investors before they place their orders. The amount will be determined by the ETF Fund at its sole discretion but will not be more than the Fund’s good faith estimate of the costs it will incur investing the cash in lieu, which may include, if applicable, market-impact costs. The maximum transaction fee on purchases of Creation Units, including any additional charges as described, shall be 2% of the value of the Creation Units.

Redemption of ETF Shares in Creation Units

To be eligible to place a redemption order, you must be an Authorized Participant. Investors that are not Authorized Participants must make appropriate arrangements with an Authorized Participant in order to redeem a Creation Unit.

ETF Shares may be redeemed only in Creation Units. Investors should expect to incur brokerage and other transaction costs in connection with assembling a sufficient number of ETF Shares to constitute a redeemable Creation Unit. There can be no assurance, however, that there will be sufficient liquidity in the public trading market at any time to permit assembly of a Creation Unit. Redemption requests received on a business day in good order will receive the NAV next determined after the request is made.

Unless cash redemptions are available or specified for an ETF Fund, an investor tendering a Creation Unit generally will receive redemption proceeds consisting of (1) a basket of Redemption Securities; plus (2) a redemption balancing amount in cash equal to the difference between (x) the NAV of the Creation Unit being redeemed, as next determined after receipt of a request in proper form, and (y) the value of the Redemption Securities; less (3) a transaction fee. If the

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Redemption Securities have a value greater than the NAV of a Creation Unit, the redeeming investor will pay the redemption balancing amount in cash to the ETF Fund rather than receive such amount from the Fund.

Vanguard, through the NSCC, makes available after the close of each business day a list of the names and the number of shares of each Redemption Security to be included in the next business day’s redemption basket for each ETF Fund (subject to possible amendment or correction). The basket of Redemption Securities provided to an investor redeeming a Creation Unit may not be identical to the basket of Deposit Securities required of an investor purchasing a Creation Unit. If an ETF Fund and a redeeming investor mutually agree, the Fund may provide the investor with a basket of Redemption Securities that differs from the composition of the redemption basket published through the NSCC.

Each ETF Fund reserves the right to deliver cash in lieu of any Redemption Security for the same reason it might accept cash in lieu of a Deposit Security, as previously discussed, or if the ETF Fund could not lawfully deliver the security or could not do so without first registering such security under federal or state law.

Neither the Trust, the ETF Funds, the Distributor, nor any affiliated party will be liable to an investor who is unable to submit a redemption order by Closing Time, even if the problem is the responsibility of one of those parties (e.g, the Distributor’s phone or e-mail systems were not operating properly).

Transaction Fee on Redemptions of Creation Units. Each ETF Fund imposes a transaction fee (payable to the Fund) to compensate the Fund for costs associated with the redemption of Creation Units. The amount of the fee, which may be changed by Vanguard from time to time at its sole discretion, is made available daily to Authorized Participants, market makers, and other interested parties through Vanguard’s proprietary portal system. When an ETF Fund permits (or requires) a redeeming investor to receive cash in lieu of one or more Redemption Securities, the investor will be assessed an additional charge on the cash-in-lieu portion of the redemption. The amount of this charge will be disclosed to investors before they place their orders. The amount will vary as determined by the ETF Fund at its sole discretion but will not be more than the Fund’s good faith estimate of the costs it will incur by selling portfolio securities to raise the necessary cash, which may include, if applicable, market-impact costs. The maximum transaction fee on redemptions of Creation Units, including any additional charges as described, shall be 2% of the value of the Creation Units.

Placement of Redemption Orders. To initiate a redemption order for a Creation Unit, an Authorized Participant must submit such order in proper form to the Distributor before Closing Time in order to receive that day’s NAV. Authorized Participants must transmit orders using a transmission method acceptable to the Distributor pursuant to procedures set forth in the Participant Agreement.

If on the settlement date (typically T+3) an Authorized Participant has failed to deliver all of the Vanguard ETF Shares it is seeking to redeem, the ETF Fund shall be entitled to cancel the redemption order. Alternatively, the ETF Fund may deliver to the Authorized Participant the full complement of Redemption Securities and cash in reliance on the Authorized Participant’s undertaking to deliver the missing ETF Shares at a later date. Such undertaking shall be secured by the Authorized Participant’s delivery and maintenance of cash collateral in accordance with collateral procedures that are part of the Participant Agreement. In all cases the ETF Fund shall be entitled to charge the Authorized Participant for any costs (including investment losses, attorney’s fees, and interest) incurred by the ETF Fund as a result of the late delivery or failure to deliver.

If an Authorized Participant, or a redeeming investor acting through an Authorized Participant, is subject to a legal restriction with respect to a particular security included in the basket of Redemption Securities, such investor may be paid an equivalent amount of cash in lieu of the security. In addition, the ETF Fund reserves the right to redeem Creation Units partially for cash to the extent that the Fund could not lawfully deliver one or more Redemption Securities or could not do so without first registering such securities under federal or state law.

In connection with taking delivery of shares of Redemption Securities upon redemption of a Creation Unit, an Authorized Participant, or a Beneficial Owner redeeming through an Authorized Participant, must maintain appropriate security arrangements with a qualified broker-dealer, bank, or other custody provider in each jurisdiction in which any of the Redemption Securities are customarily traded, to which account such Deposit Securities will be delivered.

If appropriate arrangements to take delivery of the Redemption Securities in the applicable foreign jurisdictions, as required in the preceding paragraph, are not in place, or if it is not possible to effect deliveries of the Redemption Securities in such jurisdictions, the ETF Fund may at its discretion effect the redemption in cash. In such case, the investor will receive a cash payment equal to the NAV of the redeemed shares, based on the NAV next calculated after

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receipt of the redemption request in proper form (minus a transaction fee as specified previously, to offset the ETF Fund’s transaction costs associated with the disposition of Redemption Securities of the ETF Fund).

Because the Redemption Securities of the ETF Fund may trade on the relevant exchange(s) on days that the exchange is closed, stockholders may not be able to redeem their shares of the ETF Fund, or to purchase or sell ETF Shares on the exchange, on days when the NAV of the ETF Fund could be significantly affected by events in the relevant foreign markets.

Suspension of Redemption Rights. The right of redemption may be suspended or the date of payment postponed with respect to an ETF Fund (1) for any period during which the NYSE or listing exchange is closed (other than customary weekend and holiday closings), (2) for any period during which trading on the NYSE or listing exchange is suspended or restricted, (3) for any period during which an emergency exists as a result of which disposal of the Fund’s portfolio securities or determination of its NAV is not reasonably practicable, or (4) in such other circumstances as the SEC permits.

Precautionary Notes

A precautionary note to retail investors: The DTC or its nominee will be the registered owner of all outstanding ETF Shares. Your ownership of ETF Shares will be shown on the records of the DTC and the DTC Participant broker through which you hold the shares. Vanguard will not have any record of your ownership. Your account information will be maintained by your broker, which will provide you with account statements, confirmations of your purchases and sales of ETF Shares, and tax information. Your broker also will be responsible for distributing income and capital gains distributions and for ensuring that you receive shareholder reports and other communications from the fund whose ETF Shares you own. You will receive other services (e.g., dividend reinvestment and average cost information) only if your broker offers these services.

A precautionary note to purchasers of Creation Units: You should be aware of certain legal risks unique to investors purchasing Creation Units directly from the issuing fund.

Because new ETF Shares may be issued on an ongoing basis, a “distribution” of ETF Shares could be occurring at any time. Certain activities that you perform as a dealer could, depending on the circumstances, result in your being deemed a participant in the distribution in a manner that could render you a statutory underwriter and subject you to the prospectus delivery and liability provisions of the Securities Act of 1933. For example, you could be deemed a statutory underwriter if you purchase Creation Units from the issuing fund, break them down into the constituent ETF Shares, and sell those shares directly to customers or if you choose to couple the creation of a supply of new ETF Shares with an active selling effort involving solicitation of secondary market demand for ETF Shares. Whether a person is an underwriter depends upon all of the facts and circumstances pertaining to that person's activities, and the examples mentioned here should not be considered a complete description of all the activities that could cause you to be deemed an underwriter.

Dealers who are not “underwriters” but are participating in a distribution (as opposed to engaging in ordinary secondary-market transactions), and thus dealing with ETF Shares as part of an “unsold allotment” within the meaning of Section 4(3)(C) of the Securities Act, will be unable to take advantage of the prospectus delivery exemption provided by Section 4(3) of the Securities Act.

A precautionary note to shareholders redeeming Creation Units: An Authorized Participant that is not a “qualified institutional buyer” as defined in Rule 144A under the Securities Act of 1933 will not be able to receive, as part of the redemption basket, restricted securities eligible for resale under Rule 144A.

A precautionary note to investment companies: Vanguard ETF Shares are issued by registered investment companies, and therefore the acquisition of such shares by other investment companies is subject to the restrictions of Section 12(d)(1) of the Investment Company Act of 1940. Vanguard has obtained an SEC exemptive order that allows registered investment companies to invest in the issuing funds beyond the limits of Section 12(d)(1), subject to certain terms and conditions, including the requirement to enter into a participation agreement with Vanguard.

Appendix A—ETF Shares: Foreign Market Information

The security settlement cycles and local market holiday schedules in foreign countries, as well as unscheduled foreign market closings, may result in the ETF Fund delivering redemption proceeds (either in kind or in cash) more than seven days after receipt of a redemption request in proper form. Listed as a part of this Appendix for the ETF Fund are (a) the

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dates of market holidays in the countries in which the Fund invests and (b) the dates on which, if a redemption request is submitted, the settlement period in a given country will exceed seven days. The proclamation of new holidays, the treatment by market participants of certain days as “informal holidays,” the elimination of existing holidays, or changes in local securities delivery practices could affect the information set forth herein at some time in the future.

Vanguard International Dividend Appreciation ETF

Regular Holidays. For each country in which the ETF Fund invests, the calendar year 2015 market holidays are as follows:

Australia—January 1, January 26, March 9, April 3, April 6, June 8, August 3, October 5, November 3, December 24, December 25, December 28, December 31

Austria—January 1, January 6, April 3, April 6, May 1, May 14, May 25, June 4, October 26, December 24, December 25, December 31

Belgium—January 1, April 3, April 6, May 1, December 25

Brazil—January 1, February 16, February 17, February 18, April 3, April 21, May 1, June 4, July 9, September 7, October 12, November 2, November 20, December 24, December 25, December 31

Canada—January 1, February 16, April 3, May 18, July 1, August 3, September 7, October 12, December 25, December 28

Chile—January 1, April 3, May 1, May 21, June 29, July 16, September 18, October 12, December 8, December 25, December 31

China—January 1, January 2, January 19, February 16, February 18, February 19, February 20, February 23, February 24, April 3, April 6, May 1, May 2, May 25, June 22, July 1, September 7, September 28, October 1, October 2, October 5, October 6, October 7, October 12. October 21, November 11, November 26, December 25

Colombia—January 1, January 12, March 23, April 2, April 3, May 1, May 18, June 8, June 15, June 29, July 20, August 7, August 17, October 12, November 2, November 16, December 8, December 25

Denmark—January 1, April 2, April 3, April 6, May 1, May 14, May 15, May 25, June 5, December 24, December 25, December 31

Egypt—January 1, January 7, January 25, April 12, April 13, July 1, July 23, September 22, September 23, September 24, October 6, October 14, December 23

Finland—January 1, January 6, April 2, April 3, April 6, May 1, May 14, June 19, December 24, December 25, December 31

France—January 1, April 3, April 6, May 1, December 25

Germany—January 1, April 3, April 6, May 1, May 14, May 25, June 4, December 24, December 25, December 31

Greece—January 1, January 6, February 23, March 25, April 3, April 6, April 10, April 13, May 1, June 1, October 28, December 24, December 25, December 31

Hong Kong—January 1, February 18, February 19, February 20, April 3, April 6, April 7, May 1, May 25, July 1, September 28, October 1, October 21, December 24, December 25, December 31

Hungary—January 1, January 2, April 3, April 6, May 1, May 25, August 20, August 21, October 23, December 24, December 25, December 31

India—January 26, February 17, February 19, March 6, April 1, April 2, April 3, April 14, May 1, May 4, August 18, September 17, September 25, October 2, October 22, November 11, November 12, November 25, December 24, December 25