10-K 1 j8853_10k.htm 10-K

 

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

 

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-K

 

(Mark One)

 

ý

 

Annual report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934

 

 

 

for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2002

 

 

 

o

 

Transition report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934

 

 

 

for the transition period from                    to                    

 

Commission File Number: 0-27246

 

ZORAN CORPORATION

(Exact Name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

DELAWARE

 

94-2794449

(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)

 

 

 

3112 Scott Boulevard, Santa Clara, California 95054

(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip code)

 

(408) 919-4111

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class

 

Name of Exchange on which registered

None

 

None

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

 

Common Stock, $.001 par value

(Title of Class)

 

Indicate by check mark whether registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.   YES ý    NO o

 

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. o

 

Indicate by check mark whether registrant is an accelerated filer (as defined by Rule 12b-2 of the Act). YES ý NO o

 

The aggregate market value of registrant’s voting stock held by non-affiliates of registrant based upon the closing sale price of the Common Stock on June 28, 2002, as reported on the Nasdaq National Market, was approximately $618,000,000.  Shares of Common Stock held by each officer, director and holder of 10% or more of the outstanding Common Stock have been excluded in that such persons may be deemed to be affiliates.  This determination of affiliate status is not necessarily a conclusive determination for other purposes.

 

Outstanding shares of registrant’s Common Stock, $0.001 par value, as of March 17, 2003: 27,399,578

 

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

 

Parts of the definitive proxy statement for registrant’s 2003 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be filed with the Commission pursuant to Regulation 14A not later than 120 days after the end of the fiscal year covered by this Report are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Report.

 

 



 

PART I

 

This report includes a number of forward-looking statements which reflect the Company’s current views with respect to future events and financial performance.  These forward-looking statements are subject to certain risks and uncertainties, including those discussed in “Item 7 Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Future Performance and Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this report, that could cause actual results to differ materially from historical results or those currently anticipated.  In this report, the words “anticipates,” “believes,” “expects,” “intends,” “future” and similar expressions identify forward-looking statements.  Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date hereof.

 

Item 1.                Business.

 

Introduction

 

We develop and market integrated circuits, integrated circuit cores and embedded software used by original equipment manufacturers, or OEMs, in digital video and audio products for commercial and consumer markets. We also provide complete, copy-ready system reference designs based on our technology that help our customers produce commercial and consumer products more quickly and cost-effectively. Our integrated circuits are used in a variety of products, including digital versatile disc, or DVD, players, filmless digital cameras, professional and consumer video editing systems and digital speakers and audio systems.

 

We were incorporated in California in December 1981 and reincorporated in Delaware in November 1996. Our corporate headquarters are located at 3112 Scott Boulevard, Santa Clara California 95054, and our telephone number is (408) 919-4111. Our website can be found at www.zoran.com. Our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Forms 8-K, and any amendments to those reports, are available free of charge on our website under “Investor Relations / SEC Documents” as soon as reasonably practicable after they are filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

 

Industry Background

 

Until the mid-1990s, video images and audio soundtracks were transmitted, edited and stored almost exclusively using analog formats. More recently, however, advances in technology have allowed audio and video to be processed and stored in digital form. Unlike analog formats, which are inherently unstable and difficult to edit and enhance, digital formats permit the manipulation of audio and video signals through digital signal processing and offer a number of fundamental advantages over analog technologies. Through complex digital signal processing operations, digital audio and video signals may be compressed, providing significant storage and transmission efficiencies. They also may be filtered, allowing for noise reduction, and they may be transmitted and reproduced without perceptible image or sound degradation. Digital formats provide users with additional benefits, including random access to data, superior editing capabilities and enhanced security features such as protection against unauthorized copying and controlled and secure access.

 

One of the most significant barriers to the widespread adoption of digital technology had been the huge amount of data required to represent images and sounds in a digital format, making cost-effective storage or transmission impractical. Through digital compression techniques, a substantial number of the redundancies inherent in audio and video data can be identified and eliminated, significantly reducing the overall amount of data which needs to be retained. Compression techniques introduced in the early 1990s allowed a two-hour movie to be compressed and stored on only two video CDs with video resolution comparable to that of a standard VHS tape. More recent techniques allow the storage of a full-length movie of more than three hours on a single DVD, with substantially improved audio and video quality and the incorporation of additional data, such as additional languages, scenes and director and actor commentary. Additionally, digital compression of video data allows previously unmanageable amounts of data to be stored in the memory of a standard personal computer, thereby permitting the data to be accessed and edited easily. Digital audio compression allows efficient storage and delivery of multi-channel audio, making possible high-quality special effects such as multi-channel surround sound, virtual surround sound and wireless audio delivery via two speakers or headphones. In the field of still photography, digital compression allows dozens or hundreds of digital pictures to be stored on a single memory card, depending on the resolution desired.

 

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To drive the implementation and speed the adoption of products based on digital formats, industry participants organized committees to define international compression standards. The principal standards in use today include:

 

                                          The Joint Photographic Experts Group, or JPEG, standard for the high quality compression of still images and the real-time, low-cost compression and decompression of moving images;

 

                                          The MPEG 1 standard, adopted by the Moving Pictures Experts Group, or MPEG, for the compression of both audio and video data at the high compression ratios necessary for the limited storage capacity of the CD-ROM format;

 

                                          The MPEG 2 standard, subsequently adopted by the Motion Pictures Expert Group, for the compression of both audio and video data, designed to provide improved quality in broadcast and video playback applications;

 

                                          The MPEG 4 standard is an extension of MPEG 1 and MPEG 2 that provides the ability to view, access and manipulate objects rather than pixels, which is especially significant in video streaming, digital television, module multimedia and video game applications; and

 

                                          Dolby AC-3, also known as Dolby Digital, developed by Dolby Laboratories, an industry standard for the compression of audio for use in multi-channel digital surround sound systems.

 

These industry standard techniques have enabled the dramatic growth in digital multimedia markets, including:

 

                                          DVD Players and Recorders. DVD players and recorders use MPEG 2 video compression and Dolby Digital audio technology to provide significantly higher quality playback or recording than is possible with VCR or video CD technology. According to Cahners In-Stat Group, Sales of DVD players are expected to grow from approximately 53 million units in 2002 to almost 84 million units by 2006.  Sales of DVD recorders are expected to grow from approximately 1. million units in 2002 to approximately 31 million in 2006.

 

                                          Filmless Digital Cameras. Filmless digital cameras use JPEG compression technology to capture high resolution images that can be viewed, edited and stored on a computer system and transmitted over telephone lines and computer networks. According to Cahners In-Stat and other marketing research firms, sales of megapixel digital cameras are expected to grow from approximately 24 million units in 2002 to just under 47 million units in 2006.

 

Additional products and markets are developing based on these established compression standards as well as compression technologies such as Meridian Lossless PCM, or MLP, a new standard for DVD audio, Microsoft Windows Media Audio, or WMA, and MP3, a compression standard for the download of audio recordings from the Internet.

 

These established and emerging compression standards specify data formats in which compressed data must be presented in order to enable products from different vendors to interact and permit the capture, transmission, storage and display of audio and video data in digital format. These standards do not specify the compression methodologies to be employed or additional functionality which may be used to enhance or manipulate digital signals. These standards, therefore, do not determine image or sound quality or compression efficiency.  For example, data compression may comply with relevant standards despite being poorly processed and containing artifacts which result in image degradation in video applications or poor sound quality in audio applications. As a result, there can be significant differences in overall image or sound quality between two solutions based on the same standard. Therefore, integrated circuit manufacturers can differentiate their products on the basis of the quality of their compression solution.

 

Historically, as system vendors sought compression solutions, the cost, complexity, and time required to compress and decompress data have imposed significant limitations on the use of digital compression. Over the last several years, as cost-effective compression solutions have emerged, product manufacturers have increasingly sought to design and market lower-cost digital audio and video systems and products to address high volume consumer applications. In addition, product manufacturers are facing competitive pressure to introduce their products more rapidly. To address these issues, OEMs seek to integrate multiple functions on individual chips in order to reduce their costs, speed time-to-market and produce smaller products with reduced power consumption. They also seek solutions that can be easily integrated into their commercial and consumer products. The current challenge to manufacturers of compression integrated circuits is, therefore, to provide product manufacturers with high-quality, cost-effective, standards-based solutions that deliver flexible control, image enhancement, audio effects and other functions in addition to high quality compression solutions.

 

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Zoran Solutions

 

We provide feature-rich, cost-effective, standards-based solutions for a broad range of digital video and audio applications. We were a pioneer in the development of high performance digital signal processor products, and have developed expertise in digital signal processing, integrated circuit design, mathematical algorithms and software development, as well as proprietary digital signal processing and video and audio compression technologies. We apply our multi-disciplinary expertise and proprietary technologies to the development of fully-integrated solutions for high-growth multimedia markets. The key elements of our solution are:

 

Standards-Plus Methodology. We have leveraged our broad multi-disciplinary expertise and proprietary digital signal processing and compression technologies to develop what we refer to as “standards-plus” solutions. We have enabled OEMs to improve image and sound quality and deliver superior products to end users by adding more features around compression standards, such as more efficient use of memory, processing and communication resources, as well as audio and image enhancement algorithms. We have also provided OEMs the ability to include OEM-programmable effects, as well as variable compression ratios for video. These “standards-plus” features allow our customers to differentiate their products from those of their competitors.

 

Expandable and Programmable Architecture. We design our integrated circuits to enable easy adaptation for a broad range of specific applications. We can vary the architecture of our chips by adding or deleting modules, and we can also modify the software embedded in the chips themselves to address specific applications. We also license ready-to manufacture “cores”—building blocks of integrated circuits—that can be integrated into our customers’ chips. Combined with the enhanced functionality of our “standards-plus” technology, our expandable and programmable architecture facilitates product design, upgrades and customization, substantially accelerating our customers’ time to market with differentiated products.

 

Integrated System Solutions. We help our customers meet their total system requirements by providing integrated products that combine hardware and software to address required system functions and features on a single integrated circuit or chip set, reducing the number of integrated circuits, and in some cases providing a complete solution on a single chip. As a result, our customers’ total system cost can be reduced and they can concentrate on differentiating their products from those of their competitors. For example, we introduced the Camera On A CHip, or COACH, which includes most of the electronics of a filmless digital camera.

 

Cost-Effective Products. We focus on reducing the feature size, power requirements and number of integrated circuits necessary to perform required system functions, including compression functions. This reduces our customers’ manufacturing costs for their products which incorporate our integrated circuits, and also reduces the operating costs for these products, enabling the use of our products in a broader range of high volume applications. The modular nature of our architecture reduces our new product development costs, and enables our design engineers to meet our customers’ new product specification and cost parameters.

 

Copy-Ready System Reference Designs. We provide our customers with a broad range of engineering reference boards and products complete with device driver software, embedded software and detailed schematics. These products substantially shorten our customers’ product design time.

 

Strategy

 

We provide cost-effective, high-performance digital audio and video solutions addressing selected high-growth applications enabled by compression in evolving multimedia markets. Key elements of our strategy include:

 

Focus On High-Growth Applications. Our strategy is to focus on providing digital video and audio solutions for emerging high-growth consumer electronics, PC and communications applications. Our current focus markets include DVD players and recorders, filmless digital cameras, digital television, or DTV, professional and consumer video editing systems and digital speakers and audio systems.

 

Leverage Existing Technology and Expertise. We intend to continue to identify those markets that we believe have the highest growth potential for our products and to actively pursue those markets. Our proprietary digital signal processing

 

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and compression technologies can be used to serve emerging markets for digital video and audio. Potential markets include home network audio and video appliances, as well as personal digital video and audio devices.

 

Further Penetrate Key International Markets. In 1998, we opened an office in Shenzhen, China. During 2000, we opened offices in Taiwan and Japan. In 2001, we opened offices in Korea and Hong Kong. We believe that by opening these offices we are better able to provide sales, marketing, and applications support for these growing consumer electronics markets.

 

Extend Technological Leadership. Our years of experience in the fields of digital signal processing, integrated circuit design, algorithms and software development have enabled us to become a leader in the development of digital audio and video solutions enabled by compression. Using our multi-disciplinary expertise, we have developed new technologies for compression of digital audio and video. For example, our proprietary bit rate control technology has helped us provide reliable and inexpensive JPEG-based video compression, and our proprietary Virtual Multi-Channel Digital, or VMD, technology enables high-quality surround-sound effects from two low-cost audio speakers, rather than the four or five speakers required by other technologies. During 2000, we acquired PixelCam Inc., which enabled us to combine our Camera On A Chip, or COACH, processor with PixelCam’s CMOS sensor, providing a more integrated system. Furthermore, during 2000 we acquired Nogatech Inc., which provided us with low cost PC connectivity and MPEG-4 technologies.  We intend to continue to invest in our own research and development, and to evaluate opportunities to acquire additional technologies in order to maintain and extend our technological leadership.

 

Expand Strategic Partnerships. We work closely in the product development process with leading manufacturers of products that incorporate our integrated circuits. We also work closely with key customers and provide them early access to our technologies. Potential products are designed to meet customer-driven product requirements defined jointly by us and our partners with the partner providing technological input and, in selected cases, a portion of the development funding. This strategy has enabled us to develop products with substantial financial and other assistance while retaining ownership of the technology and ensuring an established customer for the product once development is completed. In some cases, our strategic partners also provide sales and marketing support. We have also established long-term relationships with strategic partners that provide manufacturing capacity and will seek to develop additional strategic relationships with manufacturers.

 

Markets and Applications

 

Our products are currently used in a variety of consumer multimedia and PC applications.

 

  Video Playback Systems

 

Currently, three types of digital video playback systems are available for consumer video applications: video CD players, Super Video CD players and DVD players.

 

Video CD players are essentially CD audio players with MPEG 1 decoders and a video output. Video CD players offer video playback of near-VCR quality and two-channel stereo audio playback. Compression enables 60 to 70 minutes of video to be stored on a single CD. Video CD players can also play karaoke titles and were particularly popular in China, although we believe that the volume for these players has declined due to the growth of the DVD player market. We formerly sold MPEG 1-based products to manufacturers of stand-alone video CD players but are no longer selling these products for this market.

 

In 1998, the Chinese government adopted the Super Video CD standard. By utilizing MPEG 2 compression technology as well as graphics, Super Video CD offers substantially higher audio and video quality than is possible with a video CD player. The Super Video CD standard is also being replaced by DVD players.

 

DVD players, the latest generation of video playback systems, use MPEG 2 video compression and Dolby Digital or similar audio technology to provide significantly higher quality playback than is possible with VCRs, Video CD or Super Video CD players. DVD players are sold as stand-alone products and are also bundled with other functions including DVD+VCR combinations, DVD-Receivers and DVD+TV combinations. In addition, the DVD player can act as a platform for playback and editing of digital still images from digital cameras through integrated memory card slots or via direct connection to digital cameras. DVD players are also included in place of CD-ROM drives in some PCs, where they

 

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are referred to as DVD-ROMs. DVD-ROMs are also sold as upgrade products. The growth in the DVD market is demonstrated by the rapidly growing sales of DVD players, the increasing number of models and manufacturers, and the increasing number of DVD titles available for purchase and rent.

 

  Filmless Digital Cameras

 

Filmless digital cameras allow the capture of high resolution images, the viewing, editing and storage of such images on a computer system and their transmission over telephone lines and computer networks. High quality copies of these images can be printed using color printers. In addition, digital cameras can be connected directly to a PC for downloading of pictures and to a television for displaying pictures. The original digital cameras were developed for the professional market and currently sell at prices of $1,000 to $3,000. As technology has advanced and manufacturing costs have decreased, digital cameras for the consumer market have been introduced in the $69 to $600 price range. Compression technology has also enabled the development of digital video security cameras and low cost digital video cameras for use with PCs.

 

  Digital Video Recording Systems

 

Digital video recording systems are aimed at replacing the analog VCR. Digital video recording systems will not only store home made movies and TV programs but will allow them to be easily edited. In addition, digital video recording systems will enable high quality time shifting of TV program viewing by recording the program so that it can be watched simultaneously or on a delayed basis. The recording media includes DVD recordable media and hard disks. Digital video recording systems use MPEG 2 as the video compression format and Dolby Digital or MPEG audio as the audio format.

 

  PC Video Systems

 

Historically, professional video editing systems were comprised of expensive pieces of analog audio and video equipment. Compression technology allows digital video images to be stored in a computer’s memory in sufficient volume to enable capture and “cut and paste” editing to be performed through random access to stored images. As the cost of compression technology has declined, a number of manufacturers have designed low cost digital video capture and editing systems that run on PCs, creating a new category of users in the corporate, education and government markets.

 

The availability of universal serial bus, or USB, connectors on most PCs currently being manufactured creates an opportunity for the development of low-cost external video capture and editing accessories that can be easily installed by consumers. We believe that enhanced support of video in consumer PCs, and the growing popularity of wideband Internet services will open new opportunities for video capture and sharing applications on the PC and will increase the popularity of such products.

 

  Digital Audio Systems

 

Digital audio facilitates enhanced audio playback with features such as multi-channel surround sound and virtual surround sound utilizing two channel technology. Many standards have emerged for the digital compression of audio.  Current digital audio compression standards in use include Dolby Digital, DTS, MLP and MP3. Dolby Digital and DTS are competing standards of audio compression for use in multi-channel digital surround sound systems in movie theaters and at home. MLP was developed for audio compression in DVD audio. MP3 is one of the compression standards recognized for the download of audio recordings over the Internet. Our audio integrated circuits support all of these standards. The principal products using compressed digital audio in the consumer market are DVD players and recorders, PCs incorporating DVD-ROMs, digital speakers and portable MP3 players.

 

  Other Applications

 

Other existing and potential applications for our audio and video compression technologies include Internet audio and video appliances, digital television and television set-top boxes, as well as personal digital audio and video devices.

 

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Technology

 

  Image and Video Technology

 

The JPEG Standard. In 1991, the Joint Photographic Experts Group, or JPEG, Committee of the International Standards Organization completed a technical specification for a standard to compress individual digitized images which may consist of still images or consecutive frames of video data. JPEG has been widely adopted for video editing applications, since each frame in the video is individually compressed, allowing cutting and pasting of sequences as well as modification of individual frames. Images are compressed through elimination of spatial redundancies within an image and the filtering of high frequency areas to which the eye is less sensitive. Using these techniques, the JPEG compression standard is able to reduce the data necessary to represent an image without significant degradation of image quality. Still images or motion video can be compressed to varying degrees using JPEG, with greater compression resulting in lower quality. Typically, four-to-one or five-to-one compression yields broadcast image quality while 20-to-1 compression is similar to VHS quality.

 

Zoran JPEG Technology. Our JPEG technology incorporates a proprietary bit rate control algorithm that enables our JPEG-based products to compress any image to a predetermined size while optimizing video quality using pre-selected parameters. Without this feature, the JPEG compression process results in compressed data files of various sizes based on the actual content of the original image given a constant degree of compression. An image with large amounts of visual detail will generate a larger data file than that generated from an image with less detail. Performance of many video applications is hampered by variability in the size of the compressed images in a video sequence, which can result in inefficient use of available memory, bus speed or communication channel capacity or even the loss of images. Our bit rate control is a “standards-plus” solution that uses real-time digital signal processing algorithms to optimize video quality based on pre-selected parameters, which can be programmed by OEMs, without the loss of any image or video frame. Our bit rate control has been incorporated in our JPEG-based devices that are used in video editing systems, filmless and tapeless digital cameras, color scanners, PC-based security systems, video conferencing and other applications. Other features of our JPEG-based products include their ability to handle a wide range of compression ratios, to perform a “lossless” compression algorithm in the same JPEG device, to rapidly scan or browse a large number of images and utilize advanced image processing algorithms that enable bit rate control of USB data, vertical blank interval detection, infrared remote control detection and scene analysis for computer control applications. We implement these functions in a single integrated circuit while we believe most other manufacturers either offer fewer functions or require multiple chips, resulting in higher manufacturing costs and greater power consumption.

 

CMOS  Sensor Technology. With the widespread availability of inexpensive complementary metal oxide semiconductor, or CMOS, fabrication facilities, image sensor designers are now able to offer a single chip solution to perform the “light-to-bytes” function at a quality level that is competitive with the long established charge coupled device, or CCD, sensor technology, but with far greater operational flexibility and at much lower power consumption. CMOS sensors can scan in a variety of modes and directions and perform analog-domain pre-processing of the signal which may be advantageous from a system perspective. Although the greater pixel circuit complexity results in a larger imager today, progress is being made to both reduce the geometry of the pixel and use more aggressive design rules. The result will be a sensor which provides both cost reduction and performance enhancement benefits to the system designer over the traditional CCD-based solution.

 

Zoran CMOS Sensor Technology. The PixelCam ZR32112 and ZR32312 are high performance 1.3 megapixel CMOS image sensors that are ideal for digital still and video imaging products. Using our proprietary Distributed-Pixel Amplifier design, the pixel response is independent of its distance from each column’s CDS circuitry. This unique architecture results in an extremely uniform pixel array with low fixed-pattern noise without the need for off-chip background frame subtraction circuitry. The bank of analog front-end circuits quantizes each pixel to 10 bit resolution. This highly parallel approach eases speed requirements on individual analog circuits and reduces overall power consumption. Separate programmable red, green and blue PGA circuits enable analog-domain color balance. The flexibility of these sensors’ output image format permits the tradeoff between resolution and frame rate. The image output may also be horizontally “mirrored” and vertically “flipped”.

 

The MPEG Standards. In 1991, the Moving Pictures Expert Group, or MPEG, Committee of the International Standards Organization completed a technical specification for a standard to compress moving audio and video into a single data stream. Like JPEG, MPEG 1 removes spatial redundancies from single frames of video data. MPEG 1 improves on JPEG by also removing redundancies that occur between consecutive video frames. Because video represents movement, it is possible to detect and estimate the movement of similar picture elements between video frames, a process called motion estimation. MPEG motion estimation uses the content of previous and future frames to predict the content of the current frame without using its full content. MPEG 1 implements audio compression by exploiting psycho-acoustic masking,

 

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taking advantage of the fact that the ear is less sensitive to a quiet note at one frequency when a much louder note is present at a nearby frequency. MPEG 1 often achieves audio compression ratios of six-to-one and video compression ratios of over 100-to-1. MPEG 1 is particularly suitable for low-cost CD-ROM applications due to its low-cost implementation.

 

In 1993, the MPEG 2 video committee completed a technical specification to address the more stringent requirements of the broadcast industry. MPEG 2 provides more sophisticated prediction techniques, enabling a compression solution to comprehend video as interlaced fields of data, rather than individual frames. MPEG 2 also allows for operation at higher resolution and at higher bit rates than MPEG 1, resulting in improved image quality for high motion, high detail video. MPEG 2 typically achieves compression ratios of 50-to-1. Because of its higher bit rate, MPEG 2 technology cannot be used in standard CD-ROM applications, but can be used in DVD players.

 

MPEG 4 builds on the experience of the MPEG 1 and MPEG 2 standards, which are currently used in digital video applications. MPEG 4 is rich in features, and can be customized to serve the needs of specific industries while preserving a high level of interoperability across a variety of applications. It allows a new level of interaction with visual content, providing the ability to view, access and manipulate objects rather than pixels. MPEG 4’s impact is especially significant in video streaming, digital television, mobile multimedia and game applications.

 

Zoran MPEG Technology. Beginning in 1997, we established ourselves as a leading provider of MPEG 2 technology for DVD and Super Video CD applications. We introduced the first DVD decoder device integrating digital video with multi-channel digital audio and programmable audio effects for use in DVD players. We also introduced new MPEG compression chip cores that can be integrated into chips manufactured by OEM customers, enabling these customers to reduce the cost of custom chip design and accelerate the time-to-market of their products.

 

 Audio Technology

 

The Dolby Digital Standard. In 1992, Dolby Laboratories launched Dolby Digital, an audio compression technique which has emerged as an industry standard. Dolby Digital was developed as a successor to Dolby’s Pro-Logic analog technique for use in multi-channel digital surround sound systems. It is currently used in movie theaters comprising over 24,000 screens worldwide and is also used in home theater and computer multimedia applications. Digital compression of audio data allows the storage of full quality multi-channel audio playback in the limited space allocated for audio in video-oriented formats. It also facilitates the seamless integration of sound with compressed video. The Dolby Digital audio compression standard is currently the principal audio compression technique used in DVD players. Dolby Digital has also been adopted as a standard for use in high-definition television and digital cable systems.

 

Other Audio Standards. Other digital audio compression standards currently in use include DTS, an audio compression standard that competes with Dolby Digital, MLP, a compression standard for DVD audio, and MP3, used for the download of audio recordings from the Internet.

 

Zoran Audio Technology. Working closely with Dolby Laboratories, we have developed a programmable audio digital signal processing engine with an architecture optimized for Dolby Digital and other demanding audio applications and we were the first to develop a single-chip solution for Dolby Digital decoding. Our Vaddis DVD decoders and audio processors now incorporate this engine to allow systems manufacturers to replace system components with software modules, differentiate their products from their competition, use our SiliconSoftware® library of advanced audio algorithms, and reduce system costs and time to market. In addition to Dolby Digital, our DVD decoders and audio processors support all principal audio compression standards, including DTS, MLP and MP3. Our integrated circuits also include additional functions such as Virtual Multi-Channel Digital, surround sound for headphones, High-Definition CD, karaoke processing and speaker equalization.

 

Products

 

Our multimedia product line consists of four principal product families:

 

                                          DVD—video and audio compression and decompression products based on MPEG, Dolby Digital and DTS;

 

                                          Filmless Digital Cameras—video compression and decompression products based on JPEG technology and CMOS sensors;

 

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                                          PC Video—video compression and decompression products based on JPEG technology and USB multimedia controllers; and

 

                                          Digital Audio—audio decompression products for use in products using MPEG, Dolby Digital, DTS, MLP, MP3 and other audio technologies.

 

 

 

The following table lists our principal multimedia integrated circuits currently in production, including the months in which initial production units were first made available to customers:

 

PRODUCT
FAMILY

 

PRODUCTS

 

INITIAL
COMMERCIAL
SHIPMENT

 

PRINCIPAL
APPLICATIONS

 

 

Vaddis IV Integrated DVD decoder (ZR36730)

 

June 1999

 

 

 

 

Vaddis IV-LC Integrated DVD decoder (ZR36732)

 

November 2000

 

 

DVD

 

Vaddis V Integrated DVD decoder (ZR36750)

 

May 2001

 

 

 

 

Vaddis 5E Integrated DVD decoder (ZR36742)

 

June 2002

 

DVD players and recorders

 

 

Vaddis 6 Integrated DVD integrated servo processor and decoder (ZR36768)

 

December 2002

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Filmless digital camera processor—COACH-LC (ZR36420)

 

March 2000

 

 

FilmlessDigital Cameras

 

Filmless digital camera processor—COACH-V (ZR36430)

 

June 2002

 

Filmless digital cameras, security

 

 

CMOS sensor (ZR32112)

 

July 2000

 

 

 

 

CMOS sensor (ZR32312)

 

August 2002

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

JPEG codec (ZR36060)

 

February 1997

 

PC video editing, security

 

 

JPEG PCI multimedia controller (ZR36067)

 

September 1997

 

PC video editing

PC Video

 

USB multimedia controller  (ZR36503)

 

June 1998

 

PC-TVs, PC digital cameras, video capture devices

 

 

USB multimedia controller (ZR36504)

 

December 1999

 

PC-TVs, PC digital cameras, PC set-top boxes, cable modems

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Digital Audio

 

Programmable Digital audio processor (ZR38601)

 

December 1998

 

Digital speakers for home theater, computers and gaming consoles

 

 

Multi-standard Programmable Digital audio processor (ZR38650)

 

December 1998

 

Audio/video receivers, 3D headphones

 

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DVD. Our Vaddis decoders perform all the audio and video decoding and display requirements of the DVD specification, including MPEG 2 audio and video decoding, Dolby Digital, DTS and MLP audio decoding, on-screen display, decryption required for copyright protection and presentation of graphic information. The Vaddis has additional computation power that can be utilized for customer differentiation features. For example, it can incorporate virtual surround sound algorithms without the addition of hardware. This allows the user to enjoy the theater-like sound obtained from six speakers using a system that includes only two speakers and the Vaddis. The Vaddis IV-LC incorporates a more powerful audio digital signal processor that enables the support of advanced audio algorithms like MPEG 5.1, and DTS and audio DVD, which are needed in today’s DVD player systems. The Vaddis 5E incorporates a host controller and progressive scan output and is targeted for the entry to mid-range segment of the market. The Vaddis V integrates the host controller and incorporates DVD-Audio capability and progressive scan output features that are part of current high-end DVD player systems. The Vaddis 6 is a DVD system on a chip which integrates the functionality of the Vaddis 5E with the functionality of the front-end servo and read channel, further reducing chip count and system cost for DVD player manufacturers. Vaddis decoders are being used in DVD players manufactured by Orion, Samsung, Sanyo, Sharp, Toshiba and others. We provide full reference designs of DVD players, based on our Vaddis chips, that help our customers accelerate their time to market for their products.

 

Filmless Digital Camera Products. Our JPEG technology is used in filmless digital cameras. In September 1999, we introduced the Camera On A CHip, or COACH—an integrated system on a chip solution that includes most of the electronics of a filmless digital camera. The COACH can be connected directly to a high-resolution (up to 4 mega pixel) CCD or CMOS sensor, process the video information in real time, compress the captured image in real time to a flash memory, interface an LCD or micro display and interface to all types of flash memory. Among the unique capabilities of the COACH is the ability to transfer in real-time, over a USB bus, high quality video to the PC and thus serve also as a PC video camera. The COACH also allows for direct connection to a printer, including color correction and special effects, for the non-PC consumer environment. The COACH is supplemented by full filmless digital camera reference designs, “CamONTM” and “CamMiniTM,” shortening the time to market for COACH customers. Our PixelCam CMOS sensor products currently deliver CCD image quality with 1.3 megapixel resolution at one-half the power dissipation and twice

 

10



 

the integration level of CCD sensors. The sensor’s architecture is scalable, which will enable higher resolution product offerings as the digital camera OEM’s needs change. These products also offer the digital camera manufacturer longer battery life and reduced “time to next shot”.

 

PC Video Products. Our ZR36060 codec is a compression/decompression device used for real time encoding and decoding of JPEG video for editing applications. It is fully compliant with JPEG standards. The ZR36060 utilizes our proprietary bit rate control technology for high quality video capture. The ZR36060 can be installed in a chipset that includes the ZR36067 motion controller for PCI board implementation or pre/post-processing devices such as an integrated color space/raster-to-block converter. The ZR36067 is a PCI motion JPEG controller targeting consumer-priced but professional quality desktop PCI video editing systems. The ZR36503 is a video chip for video communication across the USB channel to the PC. The ZR36504 chip incorporates video, audio and data streaming into a single chip for video, audio and data transfer across the USB channel to the PC.

 

Digital Audio Products. The ZR38601, a single-chip digital audio processor designed to support the PC and home theater digital speaker market, takes advantage of most of the advanced audio algorithms included in our

Silicon Software library. Its eight channel output architecture supports the latest home theater applications, including Dolby Surround EX 6.1 channel sound. The ZR38601’s ability to accept six individual channels of audio input also makes it the ideal processor for today’s four channel Direct Sound computer games. The ZR38650, a true multi-standard digital audio processor, takes advantage of our complete SiliconSoftware library. It is designed to support the large mid and low range audio/video receiver market, while providing features previously available only on more expensive models.

 

Integrated Circuit Cores. We offer multimedia integrated circuit, or intellectual property (“IP”), cores which can be incorporated into our customers’ chips. For example, Zoran licenses a video decoder IP core for conversion of an NTSC, PAL, or SECAM TV signal into a format that allows the information in the TV signal to be displayed on a TV monitor. This IP core enables the integration of TV functionality into integrated circuits for LCD panels, LCD-TVs, Plasma Display TVs, set-top boxes, Digital TVs (“DTVs”), projector systems, PC video capture and other applications. Our video encoder IP cores perform the reverse function, converting component video data into an NTSC, PAL or SECAM TV signal. This IP core has applications in ICs for graphics display, set-top boxes, digital cameras, DTVs, DVD players, gaming systems and other applications.

 

 

 

Customers

 

The following table lists representative customers, as well as other OEMs who purchase our products through our resellers. Each of these customers and OEMs purchased, directly or indirectly, at least $100,000 of our products from January 1, 2002 through December 31, 2002:

 

PRODUCT FAMILY

 

DIRECT CUSTOMERS

 

OTHER OEMs

DVD

 

Alco Electronics LTD.

 

Samsung Electronics

 

Orion

 

 

Alcom Electronics

 

Sanyo Electric

 

Sanyo

 

 

Amoisonic Electronics Co., LTD.

 

Shenzhen Bao Tong Electronic

 

Sharp

 

 

Beautiful Enterpirse Co. LTD.

 

Shenzhen HPT Electronics Co. LTD

 

Toshiba

 

 

Daewoo Electronics Co., LTD.

 

Shenzhen Paragon Ind.

 

 

 

 

Fly Ring Digital Technology

 

Sichuan Changhong Electronic Co.

 

 

 

 

FM COM Corp.

 

Sky Wise Holdings LTD..

 

 

 

 

Fujifilm

 

Tomen Electronics Corp.

 

 

 

 

J&S Industrial Co.

 

Universal Pacific Co. LTD.

 

 

 

 

Jiangsu Hongtu High Technology

 

Up-Today Industrial Co., LTD

 

 

 

 

Marketa Semiconductor

 

Zenitron Corporation

 

 

 

 

Mustek International, Inc.

 

Zhongshan Kenloon Lighing Co.

 

 

 

 

Newell Hong Kong

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Digital Audio

 

Alco Electronics LTD.

 

Minton Optic Industry Co. LTD

 

 

 

 

Amega Group Limited

 

Newell Hong Kong

 

 

 

 

CET LTD.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PC Video

 

Alcom Electronics

 

Sinoglobal Technology Inc.

 

 

 

 

ATD Electronique

 

Solectron Technology Inc.

 

 

 

 

Camtel Technology Corp.

 

Topas Electronic

 

 

 

 

Edge Electronics Inc.

 

WUS Printed Circuit Co. LTD.

 

 

 

 

Hauppauge Computer Works, Inc.

 

Zenitron Corporation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Filmless Digital Cameras

 

Chicony Electronics Co., LTD.

 

Newell Hong Kong

 

 

 

 

Concord Camera HK Limited

 

Primax Electronics Ltd.

 

 

 

 

CRS Electronic Co., LTD.

 

Samsung Techwin Co. LTD.

 

 

 

 

DXG Technology Corp.

 

Sinoglobal Technology Inc.

 

 

 

 

Edge Electronics Inc.

 

Smart Generation LTD.

 

 

 

 

Fly Ring Digital Technology

 

Sunnic Technology & Merchandise

 

 

 

 

Kinpo International LTD.

 

Tomen Electronics Corp.

 

 

 

 

Konica Corporation

 

World Wide Licenses LTD.

 

 

 

 

Mustek International Inc.

 

Zenitron Corporation

 

 

 

11



 

Fujifilm purchases our products primarily as a reseller. Fujifilm acts as our primary reseller in Japan and accounts for most of our product sales in Japan. During 2001, sales to Fujifilm accounted for 29.2% of our total revenues, including 30.6% of product sales. During 2002, sales to Fujifilm accounted for 36.6% of our total revenues, including 38.4% of product sales. During 2001, our four largest customers accounted for 56.3% of our revenues, and during 2002, our four largest customers accounted for 58.6% of our revenues.

 

Research and Development

 

We believe that our future success depends on our ability to continue to enhance our existing products and to develop new products that maintain technological competitiveness and compliance with new standards in rapidly evolving consumer-oriented digital audio and video markets. We attempt to leverage our expertise in the fields of digital signal processing, integrated circuit design, algorithms and software development to maintain our position as a leader in the development of digital audio and video solutions enabled by compression. Accordingly, we devote a significant portion of our resources to maintaining and upgrading our products to reduce integrated circuit cost, feature size, power consumption and the number of integrated circuits required to perform compression and other functions necessary for the evolving digital audio and video application markets. In addition, we seek to design integrated circuits and cores, as well as copy-ready reference designs which can reduce the time needed by manufacturers to integrate our products into their own products.

 

We have historically generated a significant percentage of our total revenues from development contracts with our strategic partners. These development contracts provide that we will receive payments upon reaching certain development milestones and that we will retain ownership of the intellectual property developed. Development contracts have enabled us to fund portions of our product development efforts, to respond to the feature requirements of our customers, to accelerate the incorporation of our products into our customers’ products and to accelerate the time-to-market of our customers’ products. We anticipate however, that in the future, development contracts with strategic partners will fund a smaller portion of our development efforts then in the past.

 

We are a party to research and development agreements with the Chief Scientist in Israel’s Ministry of Industry and Trade and the Israel-United States Binational Industrial Research and Development Foundation. These organizations fund up to 50% of incurred project costs for approved projects up to contract maximums. The agreements require us to use our best efforts to achieve specified results and to pay royalties at rates of 3% to 5% of resulting product sales and up to 30% of resulting license revenues, up to a maximum of 100% to 150% of the total funding received. Reported research and development expenses are net of these grants, which fluctuate from period to period. In 2000, we earned total grants of $333,000. We did not receive any grants from these organizations in 2001 or 2002. The terms of Israeli Government

 

12



 

participation also contain restrictions on the location of research and development activities, and the terms of the grants from the Chief Scientist prohibit the transfer of technology developed pursuant to these grants to any person without the prior written consent of the Chief Scientist.

 

As of December 31, 2002, we had a staff of 136 full-time and 30 part-time research and development personnel, 152 of whom are based in Israel.

 

Sales and Marketing

 

Our sales and marketing strategy is to focus on providing solutions, primarily compression related, for manufacturers seeking to design audio and video products for emerging high volume consumer applications. In cooperation with leading manufacturers of audio and video equipment in the commercial and consumer markets, we attempt to identify market segments which have the potential for substantial growth. To implement our strategy, we have established a direct sales force located at several sales and marketing offices, and a worldwide network of independent sales representatives and resellers. In some cases, our strategic partners also provide sales and marketing support.

 

We work closely in the product development process with strategic partners to incorporate our integrated circuits and software into their products. Potential products are designed to meet customer-specific product requirements defined jointly by us and our strategic partners with our partners providing technological input, and in some cases, a portion of the development funding. This strategy has permitted us to develop products with substantial financial and other assistance, while retaining ownership of the technology and ensuring an established customer for the product once development is completed. In addition, our application engineers assist customers in designing their products to incorporate our integrated circuits.

 

Our sales are generally made pursuant to purchase orders received between one and six months prior to the scheduled delivery date. We sell our products primarily through our 29-person direct sales staff, of whom 3 are located in the United States and 26 are located internationally. Our United States sales staff is primarily responsible for sales in North America and South America. Our Israeli sales staff is primarily responsible for sales in Europe and the Middle East. Our sales staffs in China, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea and Taiwan are responsible for sales in their respective regions. In addition, we sell our products indirectly through 5 commissioned sales representatives as well as selected distributors. We typically warrant our products for a 12-month period. To date, we have not experienced material product returns or warranty expense.

 

We have opened offices in other parts of the world in order to better address specific markets. During 1998, we opened an office in Shenzhen, China as part of our effort to capture a leadership position in the Chinese digital audio and video markets. During 2000, we opened an office in Taipei, Taiwan in an effort to better address the digital camera market. As of December 31, 2002, we had a staff of 77 employees in our China office and 12 employees in our Taiwan office, including sales, applications and customer support employees. In addition, in 2001 we opened offices in Hong Kong and Korea which had staffs of six employees and seven employees, respectively, at December 31, 2002. These offices also provide sales, applications and customer support.

 

We distribute our DVD integrated circuit products in Japan primarily through Fujifilm. Fujifilm acts as the primary reseller in Japan of products developed by us under development contracts with Fujifilm. We may sell these products directly in Japan only to specified customers with Fujifilm’s consent. We also operate an office in Tokyo to help promote our products in Japan, manage the sales of products not sold through Fujifilm, such as integrated circuit cores and certain filmless digital camera and JPEG products, and provide applications support for some of our customers.

 

We sell our Dolby technology enabled products under a perpetual, non-exclusive license from Dolby to sell products that incorporate the Dolby Digital algorithm. We are not required to pay license fees or royalties to Dolby under this agreement. Our customers enter into license agreements directly with Dolby, pursuant to which they pay royalties to Dolby. Under our agreement with Dolby, we may sell our Dolby Digital-based products only to customers who are licensees of Dolby. To date, most potential customers for our Dolby Digital-based products are licensees of Dolby. However, the failure or refusal of potential customers to enter into license agreements with Dolby in the future could harm our sales.

 

13



 

We sell our DTS Technology-based products under a non-exclusive license from DTS Technology LLC to sell products that incorporate the DTS algorithm. We are not required to pay royalties to DTS Technology under this agreement. Our customers enter into license agreements directly with DTS, pursuant to which they pay royalties to DTS. Under our agreement with DTS, we may sell our DTS-based products only to customers who are licensees of DTS. The failure or refusal of potential customers to enter into license agreements with DTS in the future could harm our sales.

 

 

Backlog

 

Sales of our products are made pursuant to firm purchase orders. However, sometimes we allow customers to cancel or reschedule deliveries. In addition, purchase orders are subject to price renegotiations and to changes in quantities of products ordered as a result of changes in customers’ requirements and manufacturing availability. Our business is characterized by short lead times and quick delivery schedules. As a result of these factors, we do not believe that backlog at any given time is a meaningful indicator of future sales.

 

Manufacturing

 

We contract our wafer fabrication, assembly and testing to independent foundries and contractors, which enables us to focus on our design strengths, minimize fixed costs and capital expenditures and gain access to advanced manufacturing facilities. Our engineers work closely with our foundry partners and subcontractors to increase yields, lower manufacturing costs and assure quality.

 

Our primary foundry is Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, or TSMC, which has manufactured integrated circuits for us since 1987. TSMC is currently manufacturing our DVD, audio, JPEG and some of our digital camera products. In addition, National Semiconductor manufactures some of our digital camera products. Hyundai and Fujitsu manufacture our USB multimedia controller chips. Our independent foundries fabricate products for other companies and may also produce products of their own design.

 

All of our devices are currently fabricated using standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor process technology with 0.18 micron to 0.8 micron feature sizes. All of our semiconductor products are currently being assembled by one of seven independent contractors, ASE, Amkor, ASAT, Kingpak, Kyocera, STATS or Vate, and tested by those contractors or other independent contractors.

 

We currently purchase products from all of our foundries under individually negotiated purchase orders. We do not currently have a long-term supply contract with TSMC, and therefore TSMC is not obligated to manufacture products for us for any specific period, in any specific quantity or at any specified price, except as may be provided in a particular purchase order.

 

Competition

 

Our existing and potential competitors include many large domestic and international companies that have substantially greater resources in the areas of:

 

                                          finance;

 

                                          manufacturing;

 

                                          technology;

 

                                          marketing; and

 

                                          distribution.

 

14



 

Some of these competitors also have broader product lines and longer standing relationships with customers than we do. Some of our principal competitors maintain their own semiconductor foundries and may therefore benefit from capacity, cost and technical advantages. ALi Corporation, LSI Logic, ESS, Cirrus Logic, Matsushita, MediaTek, National Semiconductor, STMicroelectronics, Sony, Texas Instruments and Winbond have introduced integrated audio and video devices for DVD applications. These manufacturers, as well as others, are licensed by Dolby to incorporate Dolby Digital technology in their products. In addition, some manufacturers, including Sony, incorporate compression technologies other than Dolby Digital in audio products that compete with products using our integrated circuits. In the markets for JPEG-based products for use in filmless digital cameras, our principal competitors are in-house solutions developed and used by major Japanese OEMs, as well as products sold by Atmel, Omnivision, Sunplus and Texas Instruments. Motorola is providing CMOS sensor products.   In the market for JPEG-based products for desktop video editing applications, our principal competitors are Divio and Sunplus. Cirrus Logic (Crystal Semiconductor), Fujitsu, Motorola, STMicroelectronics and Yamaha are currently shipping Dolby Digital-based audio compression products.

 

We believe that our ability to compete successfully in the rapidly evolving markets for high performance audio and video compression technology depends on a number of factors, including:

 

                                          price, quality, performance and features of our products;

 

                                          the timing and success of new product introductions by us, our customers and our competitors;

 

                                          the emergence of new industry standards;

 

                                          our ability to obtain adequate foundry capacity;

 

                                          the number and nature of our competitors in a given market; and

 

                                          general market and economic conditions.

 

The markets in which we compete are intensely competitive and are characterized by rapid technological change, declining average unit selling prices and rapid product obsolescence. We expect competition to increase in the future from existing competitors and from other companies that may enter our existing or future markets with solutions which may be less costly or provide higher performance or more desirable features than our products.

 

The DVD market is growing, and additional competitors are expected to enter the market for integrated circuits used in DVD players. We believe that several large Japanese consumer electronics companies may be planning to enter this market and may attempt to develop MPEG 2 hardware or software to compete with our products. Some of these potential competitors may develop captive implementations for use only with their own PC and commercial and consumer electronics products. This increased competition may result in price reductions, reduced profit margins and loss of market share.

 

Historically, average unit selling prices in the semiconductor industry in general, and for our products in particular, have decreased over the life of a particular product. We expect that the average unit selling prices of our products will continue to be subject to significant pricing pressures. In order to offset expected declines in the average unit selling prices of our products, we will likely need to reduce the cost of our products. We intend to accomplish this by implementing design changes that lower the cost of manufacture, assembly and testing, by negotiating reduced charges by our foundries as and if volumes increase, and by successfully managing our manufacturing and subcontracting relationships. Since we do not operate our own manufacturing, assembly or testing facilities, we may not be able to reduce our costs as rapidly as companies that operate their own facilities. If we fail to introduce lower cost versions of our products in a timely manner or to successfully manage our manufacturing, assembly and testing relationships our business would be harmed.

 

Proprietary Rights and Licenses

 

Our ability to compete successfully is dependent in part upon our ability to protect our proprietary technology and information. Although we rely on a combination of patents, copyrights, trademarks, trade secret laws and licensing arrangements to protect some of our intellectual property, we believe that factors such as the technological and creative skills of our personnel and the success of our ongoing product development efforts are more important in maintaining our

 

15



 

competitive position. We generally enter into confidentiality or license agreements with our employees, resellers, customers and potential customers and limit access to our proprietary information. We currently hold several U.S. patents, and have additional patent applications pending, that pertain to technologies and processes relating to our current business. Our intellectual property rights, if challenged, may not be upheld as valid, may not be adequate to prevent misappropriation of our technology or may not prevent the development of competitive products. Additionally, we may not be able to obtain patents or other intellectual property protection in the future. In particular, the existence of several consortiums that license patents relating to the MPEG standard has created uncertainty with respect to the use and enforceability of patents implementing that standard. Furthermore, the laws of certain foreign countries in which our products are or may be developed, manufactured or sold, including various countries in Asia, may not protect our products or intellectual property rights to the same extent as do the laws of the United States and thus make the possibility of piracy of our technology and products more likely in these countries.

 

We sell our Dolby Digital-based products under a perpetual non-exclusive license from Dolby which permits us to incorporate the Dolby Digital algorithm into our products. Our customers enter into license agreements with Dolby pursuant to which they pay royalties directly to Dolby. Under our agreement with Dolby, we may sell our Dolby Digital-based products only to customers who are licensees of Dolby. To date, most potential customers for our Dolby Digital-based products are licensees of Dolby. However, the failure or refusal of potential customers to enter into license agreements with Dolby in the future could harm our business. We sell our DTS Technology-based products under a non-exclusive license from DTS Technology LLC to sell products that incorporate the DTS algorithm. We are not required to pay royalties to DTS under this agreement. Our customers enter into license agreements directly with DTS, pursuant to which they pay royalties to DTS. Under our agreement with DTS, we may sell our DTS-based products only to customers who are licensees of DTS. The failure or refusal of potential customers to enter into license agreements with Dolby in the future could harm our sales.

 

The semiconductor industry is characterized by vigorous protection and pursuit of intellectual property rights, which have resulted in significant and often protracted and expensive litigation. We or our foundries from time to time are notified of claims that we may be infringing patents or other intellectual property rights owned by third parties. We have been subject to intellectual property claims and litigation in the past and we may be subject to additional claims in the future. In particular, given the uncertainty discussed above regarding patents relating to the MPEG standard, it is difficult for us to assess the possibility that our activities in the MPEG field may give rise to future patent infringement claims. Litigation by or against us relating to patent infringement or other intellectual property matters could result in significant expense to us and divert the efforts of our technical and management personnel, whether or not such litigation results in a determination favorable to us. In the event of an adverse result in any such litigation, we could be required to pay substantial damages, cease the manufacture, use and sale of infringing products, expend significant resources to develop non-infringing technology, discontinue the use of certain processes or obtain licenses to the infringing technology. Licenses may not be offered or the terms of any offered licenses may not be acceptable to us. If we fail to obtain a license from a third party for technology used by us we could incur substantial liabilities and to suspend the manufacture of products, or the use by our foundries of certain processes.

 

Employees

 

As of December 31, 2002, we had 311 full-time and 68 part-time and contract employees, including 136 full-time and 30 part-time and contract employees primarily involved in research and development activities, 159 in marketing and sales, 40 in finance and administration and 14 in manufacturing control and quality assurance. We have 151 full-time employees and 36 part-time and contract employees based in Israel, including 166 employees who are primarily involved in engineering and research and development. We have 75 employees at our facilities in Santa Clara, California. The remaining employees are located in our international offices in Canada, China, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea and Taiwan. We believe that our future success will depend in large part on our ability to attract and retain highly-skilled, engineering, managerial, sales and marketing personnel. Competition for such personnel is intense. Our employees are not represented by any collective bargaining unit, and we have never experienced a work stoppage. We believe that our employee relations are good.

 

16



 

Item 2.                Properties.

 

Our executive offices, our principal administration, marketing and sales operations and a portion of our research and development operations are located in approximately 24,000 square feet of leased space in Santa Clara, California under a lease expiring in March 2003. Our principal research and development and engineering facilities and the balance of our administration, marketing and sales operations are located in approximately 27,000 square feet of leased space in an industrial park in Haifa, Israel under a lease expiring in 2005. In addition, we maintain a small research and development facility in Toronto, Canada. The aggregate annual gross rent for our facilities was approximately $1.7 million in 2002. We also lease sales offices in Tokyo, Japan, Taipei, Taiwan, Shenzhen, China, Hong Kong and Seoul, Korea. See Note 9 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements. We believe that our current facilities are adequate for our needs for the foreseeable future and that, should it be needed, suitable additional space will be available to accommodate expansion of our operations on commercially reasonable terms.

 

Item 3.                Legal Proceedings.

 

We are not a party to any pending legal proceedings which we believe will materially affect our financial condition or results of operations.

 

Item 4.                Submission of Matters to a Vote of Security Holders.

 

We did not submit any matters to a vote of security holders during the fourth quarter of the year ended December 31, 2002.

 

Executive Officers

 

The names of our executive officers and their ages as of December 31, 2002 are as follows:

 

NAME

 

AGE

 

POSITION

 

 

 

 

 

Levy Gerzberg, Ph.D

 

58

 

President, Chief Executive Officer and Director

Camillo Martino

 

41

 

Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer

Isaac Shenberg, Ph.D

 

51

 

Senior Vice President, Business and Strategic Development

Karl Schneider

 

48

 

Vice President, Finance and Chief Financial Officer

 

Levy Gerzberg was a co-founder of Zoran in 1981 and has served as our President and Chief Executive Officer since December 1988 and as a director since 1981. Dr. Gerzberg also served as our President from 1981 to 1984 and as our Executive Vice President and Chief Technical Officer from 1985 to 1988. Prior to co-founding Zoran, Dr. Gerzberg was Associate Director of Stanford University’s Electronics Laboratory. Dr. Gerzberg holds a Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering from Stanford University and an M.S. in Medical Electronics and a B.S. in Electrical Engineering from the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology in Haifa, Israel.

 

Camillo Martino joined Zoran as Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer in August 2001. From January 2001 through July 2001, Mr. Martino served as Chief Executive Officer of Merinta Inc., a subsidiary of Boundless Corporation, engaged in the business of delivering integrated Linux-based internet appliance solutions to network

 

17



 

operators.  Mr. Martino served as Marketing Director for National Semiconductor from May 2000 to December 2000. From February 2000 to May 2000, he served as Vice President & General Manager - International Operations for Netpliance Inc., an internet appliance company. From January 1997 through February 2000, Mr. Martino served in various director of marketing positions for National Semiconductor. Mr. Martino holds a M.S. in Digital Communications from Chisholm Institute of Technology, now part of Monash University, and a B.S. in Electrical Engineering from the University of Melbourne.

 

Isaac Shenberg has served as Vice President, Sales and Marketing of Zoran since January 1995 and as Senior Vice President, Business and Strategic Development since October 1998. From August 1990 to January 1995, Dr. Shenberg served as our Product Line Business Manager. Dr. Shenberg holds a Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering from Stanford University and a B.S. and M.S. in Electrical Engineering from the Technion.

 

Karl Schneider joined Zoran as Corporate Controller in January 1998 and was elected Vice President, Finance and Chief Financial Officer in July 1998. From September 1996 through 1997, Mr. Schneider served as Controller for the Film Measurement and Robotics and Integrated Technologies divisions of KLA-Tencor, a semiconductor equipment company. Mr. Schneider served as the Corporate Controller for SCM Microsystems, Inc. from October 1995 to September 1996, Controller for Reply Corporation from January 1994 to September 1995, Director of Finance for Digital F/X from October 1992 to January 1994 and Controller for Flextronics from September 1987 through June 1991. Mr. Schneider holds a B.S. in Business Administration from San Diego State University.

 

18



 

PART II

 

Item 5.                Market for the Registrant’s Common Stock and Related Stockholder Matters.

 

We effected our initial public offering of our common stock on December 15, 1995.  Since that date, our common stock has been quoted on the Nasdaq National Market under the symbol “ZRAN.” The following table sets forth the high and low closing sales price of our common stock as reported on The Nasdaq National Market for the periods indicated, as adjusted to reflect a three-for-two stock split in May 2002:

 

 

 

High

 

Low

 

2001:

 

 

 

 

 

First Quarter

 

$

14.79

 

$

8.67

 

Second Quarter

 

$

19.81

 

$

9.67

 

Third Quarter

 

$

27.03

 

$

11.40

 

Fourth Quarter

 

$

25.42

 

$

13.68

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2002:

 

 

 

 

 

First Quarter

 

$

29.39

 

$

18.87

 

Second Quarter

 

$

31.81

 

$

19.00

 

Third Quarter

 

$

20.99

 

$

10.54

 

Fourth Quarter

 

$

23.51

 

$

9.11

 

 

As of December 31, 2002, there were 244 holders of record of our common stock.

 

We have never paid cash dividends on our capital stock.  It is our present policy to retain earnings to finance the growth and development of our business and, therefore, we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future.

 

19



 

Item 6.                Selected Financial Data.

 

The following selected consolidated financial data should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto included elsewhere herein.

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2002

 

2001

 

2000

 

1999

 

1998

 

 

 

(in thousands, except per share data)

 

Consolidated Statement of Operations Data:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Revenues:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Product sales

 

$

141,314

 

$

100,012

 

$

67,782

 

$

52,887

 

$

33,465

 

Software, licensing and development

 

7,803

 

7,697

 

11,889

 

8,787

 

10,760

 

Total revenues

 

149,117

 

107,709

 

79,671

 

61,674

 

44,225

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Costs and expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cost of product sales

 

86,904

 

64,740

 

37,993

 

28,523

 

19,036

 

Research and development

 

22,083

 

23,210

 

18,628

 

12,651

 

13,548

 

Selling, general and administrative

 

24,856

 

21,330

 

19,148

 

14,251

 

11,551

 

Amortization of intangible assets

 

8,443

 

9,697

 

1,982

 

 

 

Amortization of goodwill and write-off of acquired in-process research & development

 

 

33,536

 

29,787

 

 

 

Total costs and expenses

 

142,286

 

152,513

 

107,538

 

55,425

 

44,135

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operating income (loss)

 

6,831

 

(44,804

)

(27,867

)

6,249

 

90

 

Interest income

 

7,053

 

9,853

 

9,280

 

1,467

 

1,194

 

Other income (loss)(1)

 

(6,614

)

151

 

(51

)

118

 

(123

)

Income (loss) before income taxes

 

7,270

 

(34,800

)

(18,638

)

7,834

 

1,161

 

Provision for income taxes

 

1,572

 

1,265

 

1,970

 

1,175

 

232

 

Net income (loss)

 

$

5,698

 

$

(36,065

)

$

(20,608

)

$

6,659

 

$

929

 

Basic net income (loss) per share(2)

 

$

0.21

 

$

(1.38

)

$

(0.91

)

$

0.41

 

$

0.06

 

Diluted net income (loss) per share(2)

 

$

0.20

 

$

(1.38

)

$

(0.91

)

$

0.36

 

$

0.06

 

Shares used to compute basic net income (loss) per share(2)

 

27,095

 

26,190

 

22,605

 

16,266

 

15,063

 

Shares used to compute diluted net income (loss) per share(2)

 

28,629

 

26,190

 

22,605

 

18,374

 

16,679

 

 

 

 

December 31,

 

 

 

2002

 

2001

 

2000

 

1999

 

1998

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments

 

$

137,075

 

$

110,105

 

$

175,638

 

$

145,632

 

$

19,175

 

Working capital

 

159,288

 

130,777

 

197,719

 

157,583

 

30,830

 

Total assets

 

342,616

 

331,344

 

359,466

 

182,468

 

49,170

 

Accumulated deficit

 

(88,492

)

(94,190

)

(58,125

)

(37,517

)

(44,176

)

Total stockholders’ equity

 

311,012

 

297,838

 

331,454

 

163,445

 

36,186

 

 


(1)          See Note 5 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

(2)          See Note 2 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for a description of the computation of the number of shares and net income (loss) per share.

 

20



 

Item 7.                Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

 

Overview

 

From our inception in 1981 through 1991, we derived the substantial majority of our revenue from digital filter processors and vector signal processors used principally in military, industrial and medical applications. In 1989, we repositioned our business to develop and market data compression products for the evolving multimedia markets and discontinued development of digital filter processor and vector signal processor products. In 1994, we discontinued production of these products. Our current lines of digital audio and video products include integrated circuits and related products used in digital versatile disc players, movie and home theater systems, filmless digital cameras and video editing systems.

 

We derive most of our revenues from the sale of our integrated circuit products. Historically, average selling prices in the semiconductor industry in general, and for our products in particular, have decreased over the life of a particular product. Average selling prices for our hardware products have fluctuated substantially from period to period, primarily as a result of changes in our customer mix of original equipment manufacturer, or OEM, sales versus sales to distributors and the transition from low-volume to high-volume production. In the past, we have reduced the prices of some of our products in order to better penetrate the consumer market. We believe that, as our product lines continue to mature and competitive markets evolve, we are likely to experience further declines in the average selling prices of our products, although we cannot predict the timing and amount of such future changes with any certainty.

 

Our cost of product sales consists primarily of fabrication costs, assembly and test costs, and the cost of materials and overhead from operations. If we are unable to reduce our cost of product sales to offset anticipated decreases in average selling prices, our product gross margins will decrease. Our product gross margin is also dependent on product mix and on the percentage of products sold directly to our OEM customers versus indirectly through our marketing partners who purchase our products at lower prices but absorb most of the associated marketing and sales support expenses, maintain inventories and provide customer support and training. Lower gross margins on sales to resellers are partially offset by reduced selling and marketing expenses related to such sales. Product sales in Japan are primarily made through Fujifilm, our strategic partner and reseller in Japan. Fujifilm provides more sales and marketing support than our other resellers. We expect both product and customer mix to continue to fluctuate in future periods, causing further fluctuations in margins.

 

We also derive revenue from licensing our software and other intellectual property. Licensing revenue includes one-time license fees and royalties based on the number of units distributed by the licensee. In addition, we have historically generated a significant percentage of our total revenues from development contracts, primarily with key customers, although development revenue has declined substantially as a percentage of total revenues over the past several years. These development contracts have provided us with partial funding for the development of some of our products. These development contracts provide for license and milestone payments which are recorded as development revenue. We classify all development costs, including costs related to these development contracts, as research and development expenses. We retain ownership of the intellectual property developed by us under these development contracts. While we intend to continue to enter into development contracts with certain strategic partners, we expect development revenue to continue to decline as a percentage of total revenues.

 

Our research and development expenses consist of salaries and related costs of employees engaged in ongoing research, design and development activities and costs of engineering materials and supplies. We are also a party to research and development agreements with the Chief Scientist in Israel’s Ministry of Industry and Trade and the Israel-United States Binational Industrial Research and Development Foundation, which fund up to 50% of incurred project costs for approved products up to specified contract maximums. These agreements require us to use our best efforts to achieve specified results and require us to pay royalties at rates of 3% to 5% of resulting product sales, and up to 30% of resulting license revenues, up to a maximum of 100% to 150% of total funding received. Reported research and development expenses are net of these grants, which fluctuate from period to period. We believe that significant investments in research and development are required for us to remain competitive and we expect to continue to devote significant resources to product development, although such expenses as a percentage of total revenues may fluctuate.

 

Our selling, general and administrative expenses consist primarily of employee-related expenses, product promotion, other professional services, sales commissions and royalties. We expect that selling, general and administrative expenses will continue to increase to support our anticipated growth.

 

21



 

We conduct most of our research and development and certain sales and marketing and administrative operations in Israel through our wholly-owned Israeli subsidiary. As a result, some of our expenses are incurred in New Israeli Shekels. To date, substantially all of our product sales and our development and licensing revenue have been denominated in U.S. dollars and most costs of product sales have been incurred in U.S. dollars. We expect that most of our sales and costs of sales will continue to be denominated and incurred in U.S. dollars for the foreseeable future. We have not experienced material losses or gains as a result of currency exchange rate fluctuations and have not engaged in hedging transactions to reduce our exposure to such fluctuations. We may in the future elect to take action to reduce our foreign exchange risk.

 

Our effective income tax rate has benefited from the availability of net operating losses which we have utilized to reduce taxable income for U.S. federal income tax purposes and by our Israeli subsidiary’s status as an “Approved Enterprise” under Israeli law, which provides a ten-year tax holiday for income attributable to a portion of our operations in Israel. Our U.S. federal net operating losses expire at various times between 2003 and 2020, and the benefits from our subsidiary’s Approved Enterprise status expire at various times beginning in 2003.

 

In June 2000, we acquired PixelCam, Inc., a manufacturer of megapixel CMOS image sensors, in exchange for 556,248 shares of our common stock and options to purchase 6,252 shares of our common stock with an aggregate value of $24.6 million. The acquisition was accounted for under the purchase method of accounting. See Note 14 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

On October 26, 2000, we acquired Nogatech Inc., a provider of chips that compress digital video images and establish connections, or video connectivity, between video devices and computers, as well as between video devices across a variety of networks, in exchange for 3,801,839 shares of our common stock and options to purchase 252,708 shares of our common stock with an aggregate value of $163.6 million. The acquisition was accounted for under the purchase method of accounting. See Note 14 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

On April 21, 2002, our Board of Directors approved a three-for-two split of our common stock which was effected in the form of a fifty percent stock dividend, paid on May 22, 2002 to stockholders of record on May 7, 2002. All share and per share information for all periods presented in this report are on a post-split basis.

 

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

 

Our discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based upon our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. On an on-going basis, we evaluate our estimates, including bad debts, inventories, investments, intangible assets and income taxes. We base these estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.

 

We believe the following critical accounting policies affect our more significant judgments and estimates used in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements:

 

                                          We recognize development revenue using the percentage-of-completion method. Under the percentage-of-completion method, revenue recognized is that portion of the total contract price equal to the ratio of costs expended to date to the anticipated final total costs, based on current estimates of the costs to complete the project. These estimates are reviewed and revised periodically throughout the lives of the contracts. Any revisions are recorded in the accounting period in which the revisions are made.

 

                                          Inventories are recorded at the lower of standard cost, which approximates actual cost on a first-in-first-out basis, or market value. We write down inventories to net realizable value based on forecasted demand and market conditions. Actual demand and market conditions may be different from those projected by our management. This could have a material effect on our operating results and financial position.

 

22



 

                                          We maintain allowances for doubtful accounts for estimated losses resulting from the inability of certain of our customers to make required payments.  If the financial condition of our customers were to deteriorate, resulting in an impairment of their ability to make payments, additional allowances may be required.

 

                                          We hold minority interests in private companies having operations or technology in areas within our strategic focus. At December 31, 2002, these investments totaled $1.2 million. We record an investment impairment charge when we believe an investment has experienced a decline in value. We assess the value of this investment principally by using information acquired from the investee, including historical and projected financial performance and recent funding events. Future adverse changes in market conditions or poor operating results of underlying investments could result in losses or an inability to recover the carrying value of the investments that may not be reflected in an investment’s current carrying value thereby possibly requiring an impairment charge in the future. In 2002, we recorded non-cash investment impairment charges of $2.4 million in conjunction with investments in private companies.

 

                                          We assess the impairment of long-lived assets, identifiable intangibles and related goodwill annually or sooner if events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of such assets exceeds the future undiscounted cash flows attributable to such assets. Factors, which could trigger an impairment review, include significant negative industry or economic trends, exiting an activity in conjunction with a restructuring of operations, current, historical or projected losses that demonstrate continuing losses associated with an asset or a significant decline in our market capitalization for an extended period of time, relative to net book value. Impairment evaluations involve management estimates of asset useful lives and future cash flows. These estimates include assumptions about future conditions such as future revenues, gross margins, operating expenses, the fair values of certain assets based on appraisals, and industry trends. Actual useful lives and cash flows could be different from those estimated by our management. This could have a material effect on our operating results and financial position.

 

                                          We follow the liability method of accounting for income taxes which requires recognition of deferred tax liabilities and assets for the expected future tax consequence of temporary differences between the financial statement carrying amounts and the tax bases of assets and liabilities. In the event actual results differ from these expectations, then the resulting impact to income would be assessed in the period such determination was made.

 

23



 

Results of Operations

 

The following table sets forth certain consolidated statement of operations data as a percentage of total revenues for the periods indicated:

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2002

 

2001

 

2000

 

Revenues:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Product sales

 

94.8

%

92.9

%

85.1

%

Software, licensing and development

 

5.2

 

7.1

 

14.9

 

Total revenues

 

100.0

 

100.0

 

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Costs and expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cost of product sales

 

58.3

 

60.1

 

47.7

 

Research and development

 

14.8

 

21.6

 

23.4

 

Selling, general and administrative

 

16.7

 

19.8

 

24.0

 

Amortization of intangible assets

 

5.6

 

9.0

 

2.5

 

Amortization of goodwill and write-off of acquired in-process research & development

 

 

31.1

 

37.4

 

Total costs and expenses

 

95.4

 

141.6

 

135.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operating income (loss)

 

4.6

 

(41.6

)

(35.0

)

Interest income

 

4.7

 

9.2

 

11.6

 

Other income (loss)

 

(4.4

)

0.1

 

 

Income (loss) before income taxes

 

4.9

 

(32.3

)

(23.4

)

Provision for income taxes

 

1.1

 

1.2

 

2.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net income (loss)

 

3.8

%

(33.5

)%

(25.9

)%

 

Year Ended December 31, 2002 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2001

 

Revenues.  Total revenues increased by 38.4% to $149.1 million in 2002 from $107.7 million in 2001.  Product sales increased by 41.3% to $141.3 million in 2002 from $100.0 million in 2001. The increase in product sales resulted primarily from a $38.9 million increase in sales of DVD products and a $7.7 million increase in sales of filmless digital camera products. The increased product sales for both product lines were due to increased unit shipments. Offsetting these increases somewhat was a $6.0 million decrease in sales of PC video products due to lower unit shipments. Software, licensing and development revenues increased slightly to $7.8 million in 2002 from $7.7 million in 2001.

 

Product Gross Margin.   Product gross margin increased to 38.5% in 2002 compared to 35.3% in 2001.  The increase was due to margin improvements in our DVD product line resulting from a shift in product mix to a higher percentage of newer, more cost effective DVD products that are not required to be sold in combination with DVD CPU companion chips which, historically, were sold at low margins.

 

Research and Development.  Research and development (“R&D”) expenses decreased by 4.9% to $22.1 million in 2002 from $23.2 million in 2001. Gross R&D expenses decreased primarily as a result of the timing of major project expenses such as tape-outs. R&D expenses in 2002 and 2001 did not include any reimbursements from the Chief Scientist.  R&D expenses decreased as a percentage of total revenues to 14.8% in 2002, compared to 21.5% in 2001 due to the increase in revenue. We anticipate gross R&D expenses to increase in 2003, as we remain committed to enhancing our technology and development capabilities.

 

Selling, General and Administrative.  Selling, general and administrative (“SG&A”) expenses increased by 16.5% to $24.9 million in 2002 from $21.3 million in 2001.  The increase was primarily due to $2.1 million of increased marketing and application expenses to support planned revenue growth in our Asia Pacific markets and $1.5 million of increased product marketing expenses related to our digital camera products. We expect SG&A expenses to increase in 2003 as we continue to augment our customer and application support in the Asia Pacific region.

 

Amortization of Intangible Assets. During 2002, we recorded $7.6 million and $567,000 in charges related to the amortization of intangible assets associated with our acquisitions of Nogatech and PixelCam, respectively. During 2001, we recorded $8.6 million and $567,000 in such charges for Nogatech and PixelCam, respectively. See Note 6 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

24



 

Amortization of Goodwill and Write-off of Acquired In-process Research and Development. Based on the adoption of Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) Statements Nos. 141 and 142, “Business Combinations” and “Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets” (“SFAS 141” and “SFAS 142”), we did not record charges for the amortization of goodwill during 2002. For 2001, we recorded $33.5 million in goodwill amortization associated with our acquisitions of PixelCam and Nogatech in 2000. SFAS 142 changed the accounting for goodwill from an amortization method to an impairment-only approach. Under SFAS 142, goodwill will be tested annually and whenever events or circumstances occur indicating that goodwill might be impaired. During 2002, we conducted our annual impairment assessment based on our structure as a single reporting unit and determined that no impairment exists.

 

The in-process research and development project acquired from Nogatech relates to MPEG 4 technology to be used in video streaming applications. Our marketing plan at the time of the acquisition indicated that the market that we serve would demand products incorporating this technology beginning in the 2002 to 2003 timeframe. We now believe that our target market will not require this technology until 2004 due to market-related pricing considerations. The delay in the project will shift projected cash flows out by approximately one to two years. We estimate that this project will take approximately one year to complete and will cost approximately $1 million. Completion of this project remains a significant risk to the Company due to the remaining effort to achieve technical feasibility, rapidly changing customer markets and significant competitive threats from other companies. Failure to bring related products to market in a timely manner could adversely impact our future sales and profitability. Additionally, the value of the intangible assets acquired may become impaired.

 

Interest Income. Interest income decreased by $2.8 million to $7.1 million in 2002 compared with $9.9 million in 2001. The reduction was due to a decline in market interest rates.

 

Other Income (Loss). In 2002, we incurred other losses of $6.6 million primarily associated with non-cash impairment charges of $6.0 million and the conversion of equity securities in conjunction with the acquisition of an investee of $696,000. In 2001, we recorded other income of $151,000 primarily associated with foreign exchange gains net of losses. During 2002, we recorded a non-cash impairment charge of $3.6 million associated with marketable equity securities that were considered to be other than temporarily impaired. In determining whether an investment is other than temporarily impaired we consider, among other things, the duration and extent to which the market value has declined relative to our cost basis, the economic factors influencing the markets, the relative performance of the investee and its near-term prospects. There were no such impairment charges for marketable equity securities in 2001. Also in 2002, we recorded a non-cash impairment charge of $2.4 million associated with non-marketable securities. We review our non-marketable investments for impairment when circumstances or events indicate that the carrying value of the investments may not be recoverable. When the fair value of a non-marketable investment declines below its cost basis, we consider all available evidence to evaluate whether a decline in value has occurred. Among other things, we consider the historical and projected financial performance and recent funding events which are ascertained from the investee. There were no such impairment charges in 2001. The non-cash loss of $696,000 was associated with the acquisition by Roxio, Inc. of MGI Software Inc. As of the date of the acquisition, we held approximately 373,000 shares of MGI common stock. Upon consummation of the acquisition, our MGI common stock was exchanged for 18,843 shares of Roxio common stock. In connection with the exchange, we recorded a realized loss of $696,000 and established a new cost basis of our Roxio common stock equal to its fair value on the date of the exchange. See Note 5 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

Provision for Income Taxes.  Excluding charges related to the amortization of goodwill and the write-off of acquired in-process research and development our estimated effective tax rate decreased to 10% for 2002 compared with 15% in 2001.

 

  Year Ended December 31, 2001 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2000

 

Revenues.  Total revenues increased by 35.2% to $107.7 million in 2001 from $79.7 million in 2000.  Product sales increased by 47.5% to $100.0 million in 2001 from $67.8 million in 2000. The increase in product sales resulted primarily from a $38.5 million increase in the sales of  DVD products and a $2.9 million increase in the sales of filmless digital camera products, both of which were associated with increased unit sales. In addition, product sales increased $2.7 in 2001 due to our acquisitions of Nogatech and PixelCam in 2000. Offsetting these increases somewhat were an $8.4 million decrease in sales of our digital audio products and a $3.1 million decrease in sales of our PC video products. Software, licensing and development revenues decreased by 35.3% to $7.7 million in 2001 from $11.9 million in 2000.

 

25



 

Of this decrease, $3.6 million was due to a decline in the number and size of significant new licensing contracts and $406,000 related to the timing of revenue recognition on a long-term development contract.

 

Product Gross Margin.   Product gross margin decreased to 35.3% in 2001 compared to 43.9% in 2000.  The decrease was due to a substantial shift in product mix to a higher percentage of lower-margin DVD products, which include CPU companion chips that are sold at low margin, and a shift in customer mix to a lower percentage of direct sales to OEM customers. In addition, we experienced a decline in the average selling price of our older Vaddis III DVD chip that was being phased out as we transitioned our customer base to our new Vaddis IV Plus DVD chip.

 

Research and Development.  Research and development (“R&D”) expenses increased by 24.6% to $23.2 million in 2001 from $18.6 million in 2000. Gross R&D expenses increased primarily as a result of our acquisitions of PixelCam and Nogatech, which accounted for $2.7 million of the increase, and the timing of major project expenses such as tape-outs which accounted for $1.9 million. R&D expenses in 2001 did not include reimbursements from the Chief Scientist.  For 2000, Chief Scientist reimbursements were $333,000.  R&D expenses decreased as a percentage of total revenues to 21.5% in 2001, compared to 23.4% in 2000 due to the increase in revenue.

 

Selling, General and Administrative.  Selling, general and administrative (“SG&A”) expenses increased by 11.4% to $21.3 million in 2001 from $19.1 million in 2000.  The increase was primarily due to our acquisitions of PixelCam and Nogatech, which accounted for $900,000 of the increase, and the continued expansion of our presence in the Asia Pacific region, including the establishment of offices in Hong Kong and Korea at the beginning of 2001, amounting to approximately $900,000.

 

Amortization of Goodwill and Other Intangibles and Write-off of Acquired In-process Research and Development. The acquisitions of PixelCam and Nogatech resulted in the following charges:

 

                                          PixelCam: During 2001, we recorded $6.0 million in charges related to the amortization of goodwill and other intangibles associated with our acquisition of PixelCam compared to $3.0 million recorded during 2000.  During 2001, we did not record any charges related to the write-off of in-process research and development associated with the PixelCam acquisition. For 2000 we incurred $6.8 million in charges associated with the write-off of in process research and development.

 

                                          Nogatech: During 2001, we recorded $36.7 million in charges related to the amortization of goodwill and other intangibles associated with our acquisition of Nogatech compared to $6.8 million recorded during 2000.  During 2001, we did not record any charges related to the write-off of in-process research and development associated with the Nogatech acquisition. For 2000 we incurred $15.1 million in charges associated with the write-off of in process research and development.

 

Interest Income.  Interest income increased by 6.2% to $9.9 million in 2001 from $9.3 million in 2000. The increase resulted primarily from increased interest income on higher cash balances following our acquisition of Nogatech in October 2000.

 

Provision for Income Taxes.  Excluding charges related to the amortization of goodwill and the write-off of acquired in-process research and development our estimated effective tax rate remained at 15.0% for 2001 and 2000.

 

Liquidity and Capital Resources

 

At December 31, 2002, we had $31.6 million of cash and cash equivalents, $105.5 million of short-term investments and $77.2 million of investments that have maturity dates that are beyond one year and therefore are classified as other assets. In addition, we had $159.3 million of working capital.

 

Our operating activities provided cash of $18.7 million during 2002, primarily due to our net income of $5.7 million, as adjusted for the non-cash impact of amortization of other intangibles of $8.4 million, investment impairment charges of $6.0 million and depreciation of $3.2 million. Net income was further adjusted by the cash impacts of a reduction in inventory of $3.0 million and an increase in accrued expenses of $2.8 million. Net income was also adjusted by the cash impacts of a decrease in accounts payable of $7.8 million and increases in accounts receivable of $2.2 million and prepaid expense of $1.3 million. The reduction in inventory was primarily due to a $1.9 million reduction in inventory associated with digital camera chips. The change in accounts payable and accrued expenses was due to the normal timing differences in our payment patterns.

 

26



 

Cash used in investing activities was $14.0 million during 2002, principally reflecting the purchases of short-term and long-term marketable investments, net of proceeds from sales and maturities of $10.3 million capital expenditures for property and equipment of $2.0 million and purchase of intellectual property of $1.7 million.

 

Cash provided by financing activities was $6.7 million during 2002 and primarily consisted of proceeds from the issuance of common stock under our incentive stock option and employee stock purchase plans.

 

As of December 31, 2002, we were responsible for lease commitments of  $2.6 million associated with our worldwide facilities of which $1.1 million is due in 2003, $979,000 is due in 2004 and $464,000 is due in 2005. In addition, we had inventory purchase commitments of $10.2 million at December 31, 2002.

 

At December 31, 2002 and 2001, we did not have any relationships with unconsolidated entities or financial partnerships, such as entities often referred to as structured finance or special purpose entities, established for the purpose of facilitating off-balance sheet arrangements or other contractually narrow or limited purposes. Accordingly, we are not exposed to the type of financing, liquidity, market or credit risk that could arise if we had engaged in such relationships.

 

We believe that our current balances of cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments, and anticipated cash flow from operations, will satisfy our anticipated working capital and capital expenditure requirements at least through 2003. Nonetheless, our future capital requirements may vary materially from those now planned and will depend on many factors including, but not limited to:

 

                                          the levels at which we maintain inventory and accounts receivable;

 

                                          the market acceptance of our products;

 

                                          the levels of promotion and advertising required to launch our new products or to enter markets and attain a competitive position in the marketplace;

 

                                          our business, product, capital expenditure and research and development plans and technology roadmap;

 

                                          volume pricing concessions;

 

                                          capital improvements to new and existing facilities;

 

                                          technological advances;

 

                                          the response of competitors to our products; and

 

                                          our relationships with our suppliers and customers.

 

In addition, we may require an increase in the level of working capital to accommodate planned growth, hiring and infrastructure needs. Additional capital may also be required for consummation of any acquisitions of businesses, products or technologies.

 

To the extent that our existing resources and cash generated from operations, are insufficient to fund our future activities, we may need to raise additional funds through public or private financings or borrowings. If additional funds are raised through the issuance of debt securities, these securities could have rights, preferences and privileges senior to holders of common stock, and the terms of this debt could impose restrictions on our operations. The sale of additional equity or convertible debt securities could result in additional dilution to our stockholders. We cannot be certain that additional financing will be available in amounts or on terms acceptable to us, if at all. If we are unable to obtain this additional financing, we may be required to reduce the scope of our planned product development and sales and marketing efforts, which could harm our business, financial condition and operating results.

 

27



 

Future Performance and Risk Factors

 

Our future business, operating results and financial condition are subject to various risks and uncertainties, including those described below.

 

Our quarterly revenues and operating results fluctuate due to a variety of factors, which may result in volatility or a decline in the price of our stock.

 

Our quarterly operating results have varied significantly due to a number of factors, including:

 

                                          fluctuation in demand for our products;

 

                                          the timing of new product introductions by us and our competitors;

 

                                          the level of market acceptance of new and enhanced versions of our products and our customers’ products;

 

                                          the timing of large customer orders;

 

                                          the length and variability of the sales cycle for our products;

 

                                          the cyclical nature of the semiconductor industry;

 

                                          the availability of development funding and the timing of development revenue;

 

                                          changes in the mix of products sold;

 

                                          seasonality in demand for our products;

 

                                          competitive pricing pressures; and

 

                                          the evolving and unpredictable nature of the markets for products incorporating our integrated circuits and embedded software.

 

We expect that our operating results will continue to fluctuate in the future as a result of these factors and a variety of other factors, including:

 

                                          the cost and availability of adequate foundry capacity;

 

                                          fluctuations in manufacturing yields;

 

                                          the emergence of new industry standards;

 

                                          product obsolescence; and

 

                                          the amount of research and development expenses associated with new product introductions.

 

Our operating results could also be harmed by:

 

                                          economic conditions generally or in various geographic areas where we or our customers do business;

 

                                          other conditions affecting the timing of customer orders; or

 

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                                          a downturn in the markets for our customers’ products, particularly the consumer electronics market.

 

These factors are difficult or impossible to forecast. We place orders to purchase our products from independent foundries several months in advance of the scheduled delivery date, often in advance of receiving non-cancelable orders from our customers. If anticipated shipments in any quarter are canceled or do not occur as quickly as expected, expense and inventory levels could be disproportionately high. If anticipated license revenues in any quarter are canceled or do not occur, gross margins may be reduced. A significant portion of our expenses are relatively fixed, and the timing of increases in expenses is based in large part on our forecast of future revenues. As a result, if revenues do not meet our expectations we may be unable to quickly adjust expenses to levels appropriate to actual revenues, which could harm our operating results.

 

As a result of these factors, our operating results may vary significantly from quarter to quarter. Any shortfall in revenues or net income from levels expected by securities analysts could cause a decline in the trading price of our stock.

 

Our success for the foreseeable future will be dependent on growth in demand for integrated circuits for DVD and filmless digital camera applications and, to a lesser extent, digital audio and video editing applications and our ability to market and sell our products to manufacturers who incorporate those types of integrated circuits into their products.

 

In 2001 and 2002, we derived a substantial majority of our product revenues from the sale of integrated circuits for DVD applications. We expect that sales of our products for DVD applications will continue to account for a significant portion of our revenues for the near future. Our ability to sell our products for filmless digital camera applications and, to a lesser extent, digital audio and video editing applications will also have an impact on our financial performance for the foreseeable future. If the markets for these products and applications decline or fail to develop as expected, or we are not successful in our efforts to market and sell our products to manufacturers who incorporate integrated circuits into these products, our financial results will be harmed.

 

Our customers experience fluctuating product cycles and seasonality, which causes our sales to fluctuate.

 

Because the markets our customers serve are characterized by numerous new product introductions and rapid product enhancements, our operating results may vary significantly from quarter to quarter. During the final production of a mature product, our customers typically exhaust their existing inventory of our products. Consequently, orders for our products may decline in those circumstances, even if our products are incorporated into both mature products and replacement products. A delay in the customer’s transition to commercial production of a replacement product would delay our ability to recover the lost sales from the discontinuation of the related mature product. Our customers also experience significant seasonality in the sales of their consumer products, which affects their orders of our products. Typically, the second half of the calendar year represents a disproportionate percentage of sales for our customers due to the holiday period, and therefore a disproportionate percentage of our sales. We expect these sales fluctuations to continue for the foreseeable future.

 

Product supply and demand in the semiconductor industry is subject to cyclical variations.

 

The semiconductor industry is subject to cyclical variations in product supply and demand. Downturns in the industry often occur in connection with, or anticipation of, maturing product cycles for both semiconductor companies and their customers and declines in general economic conditions. These downturns have been characterized by abrupt fluctuations in product demand, production over-capacity and accelerated decline of average selling prices. In some cases, these downturns have lasted more than one year. A downturn in the semiconductor industry could harm our sales and revenues if demand drops or our gross margins if average selling prices decline.

 

 

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The development and evolution of markets for our integrated circuits is dependent on factors such as industry standards, over which we have no control; for example, if manufacturers adopt new or competing industry standards with which our products are not compatible, our existing products would become less desirable to the manufacturers and our sales would suffer.

 

The emergence of markets for our products is affected by a variety of factors beyond our control. In particular, our products are designed to conform to current specific industry standards. Manufacturers may not continue to follow these standards, which would make our products less desirable to manufacturers and reduce our sales. Also, competing standards may emerge that are preferred by manufacturers, which could also reduce our sales and require us to make significant expenditures to develop new products. The emergence of new markets for our products is also dependent in part upon third parties developing and marketing content in a format compatible with commercial and consumer products that incorporate our products. If content compatible with commercial and consumer products that incorporate our products is not available, manufacturers may not be able to sell products incorporating our integrated circuits, and our sales to manufacturers would suffer.

 

We rely on independent foundries and contractors for the manufacture, assembly and testing of our integrated circuits, and the failure of any of these third parties to deliver products or otherwise perform as requested could damage our relationships with our customers and harm our sales and financial results.

 

We do not operate any manufacturing facilities, and we rely on independent foundries to manufacture substantially all of our products. These independent foundries fabricate products for other companies and may also produce products of their own design. From time to time there are manufacturing capacity shortages in the semiconductor industry. We do not have long-term supply contracts with any of our suppliers, including our principal supplier, Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, or TSMC. Therefore, TSMC and these other suppliers are not obligated to manufacture products for us for any specific period, in any specific quantity or at any specified price, except as may be provided in a particular purchase order.

 

Our reliance on independent foundries involves a number of risks, including:

 

                                          the inability to obtain adequate manufacturing capacity;

 

                                          the unavailability of or interruption in access to certain process technologies necessary for manufacture of our products;

 

                                          lack of control over delivery schedules;

 

                                          lack of control over quality assurance;

 

                                          lack of control over manufacturing yields and cost; and

 

                                          potential misappropriation of our intellectual property.

 

In addition, TSMC and some of our other foundries are located in areas of the world which are subject to natural disasters such as earthquakes. While the 1999 earthquake in Taiwan did not have a material impact on our independent foundries, a similar event centered near TSMC’s facility could severely reduce TSMC’s ability to manufacture our integrated circuits. The loss of any of our manufacturers as a supplier, our inability to expand the supply of our products in response to increased demand, or our inability to obtain timely and adequate deliveries from our current or future suppliers due to a natural disaster or any other reason could delay or reduce shipments of our products. Any of these circumstances could damage our relationships with current and prospective customers and harm our sales and financial results.

 

We also rely on independent contractors for the assembly and testing of our products. At present, all of our semiconductor products are assembled by one of seven independent contractors: ASE, Amkor, ASAT, Kingpak, Kyocera, STATS or Vate. Our semiconductor products are tested by these contractors or other independent contractors. Our reliance on independent assembly and testing houses limits our control over delivery schedules, quality assurance and product cost. Disruptions in the services provided by our assembly or testing houses or other circumstances that would require us to seek alternative sources of assembly or testing could lead to supply constraints or delays in the delivery of our products. These constraints or delays could damage our relationships with current and prospective customers and harm our sales and financial results.

 

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Because foundry capacity is limited from time to time we may be required to enter into costly long-term supply arrangements to secure foundry capacity.

 

If we are not able to obtain additional foundry capacity as required, our relationships with our customers would be harmed and our sales would likely be reduced. In order to secure additional foundry capacity, we have considered and will continue to consider various arrangements with suppliers, which could include, among others:

 

                                          option payments or other prepayments to a foundry;

 

                                          nonrefundable deposits with or loans to foundries in exchange for capacity commitments;

 

                                          contracts that commit us to purchase specified quantities of silicon wafers over extended periods;

 

                                          issuance of our equity securities to a foundry;

 

                                          investment in a foundry;

 

                                          joint ventures; or

 

                                          other partnership relationships with foundries.

 

We may not be able to make any such arrangement in a timely fashion or at all, and such arrangements, if any, may not be on terms favorable to us. Moreover, if we are able to secure foundry capacity, we may be obligated to utilize all of that capacity or incur penalties. Such penalties may be expensive and could harm our financial results.

 

If our independent foundries do not achieve satisfactory yields, our relationships with our customers may be harmed.

 

The fabrication of silicon wafers is a complex process. Minute levels of contaminants in the manufacturing environment, defects in photomasks used to print circuits on a wafer, difficulties in the fabrication process or other factors can cause a substantial portion of the integrated circuits on a wafer to be non-functional. Many of these problems are difficult to detect at an early stage of the manufacturing process and may be time consuming and expensive to correct. As a result, foundries often experience problems achieving acceptable yields, which are represented by the number of good integrated circuits as a proportion of the number of total integrated circuits on any particular wafer.  Poor yields from our independent foundries would reduce our ability to deliver our products to customers, harm our relationships with our customers, and harm our business.

 

To be successful, we must efficiently develop new and enhanced products to meet rapidly changing customer requirements and industry standards.

 

The markets for our products are characterized by:

 

                                          rapidly changing technologies;

 

                                          evolving industry standards;

 

                                          frequent new product introductions; and

 

                                          short product life cycles.

 

Over the long run, we expect to increase our product development expenses, and our future success will depend to a substantial degree upon our ability to develop and introduce, on a timely and cost-effective basis, new and enhanced products that meet rapidly changing customer requirements and industry standards. We may not successfully develop, introduce or manage the transition to new products. Delays in the introduction or shipment of new or enhanced products, lack of market acceptance for such products or problems associated with new product transitions could harm our sales and financial results.

 

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We face competition or potential competition from companies with greater resources than ours, and if we are unable to compete effectively with these companies, our market share may decline and our business could be harmed.

 

Competition in the compression technology market has historically been dominated by large companies, such as STMicroelectronics, and companies that develop and use their own integrated circuits, such as Sony. As this market continues to develop, we face competition from other large semiconductor vendors, including:

 

                                          ALi Corporation;

 

                                          Atmel Corporation;

 

                                          Cirrus Logic (Crystal Semiconductor);

 

                                          ESS Technology, Inc.;

 

                                          Fujitsu;

 

                                          LSI Logic;

 

                                          MediaTek Inc.;

 

                                          Motorola;

 

                                          Omnivision Technologies, Inc.;

 

                                          Sunplus Technology; and

 

                                          Texas Instruments.

 

We also face competition from internally developed solutions developed and used by major Japanese original equipment manufacturers, who may also be our customers.

 

Many of our existing and potential competitors have substantially greater resources than ours in many areas, including:

 

                                          finances;

 

                                          manufacturing;

 

                                          technology;

 

                                          research and development;

 

                                          marketing; and

 

                                          distribution.

 

Many of our competitors have broader product lines and longer standing relationships with customers than we do. Moreover, our competitors may foresee the course of market developments more accurately than we do and could in the future develop new technologies that compete with our products or even render our products obsolete. In addition, a number of private companies have announced plans for new products to address the same digital multimedia problems that our products address. If we are unable to compete successfully against our current and future competitors, we could experience price reductions, order cancellations and reduced gross margins, any one of which could harm our business.

 

The DVD market is growing, and additional competitors are expected to enter the market for DVD players and software. Some of these potential competitors may develop captive implementations for use only with their own PC and consumer electronics products. It is also possible that application software vendors, such as Microsoft, may attempt to enter the DVD application market in the future. This increased competition may result in price reductions, reduced profit margins and loss of market share.

 

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Our products are characterized by average selling prices that decline over relatively short time periods; if we are unable to reduce our costs or introduce new products with higher average selling prices, our financial results would suffer.

 

Average selling prices for our products decline over relatively short time periods. Many of our manufacturing costs are fixed. When our average selling prices decline, our revenues decline unless we sell more units, and our gross margins decline unless we are able to reduce our manufacturing costs by a commensurate amount. Our operating results suffer when gross margins decline. We have experienced these problems and may continue to experience them in the future and cannot predict when they may occur or their severity.

 

We derive most of our revenue from sales to a small number of large customers, and if we are not able to retain these customers, or they reschedule, reduce or cancel orders, our revenues would be reduced and our financial results would suffer.

 

Our largest customers account for a substantial percentage of our revenues. In 2002, sales to Fujifilm accounted for 36.6% of our total revenue. Our four largest customers in 2002 accounted for approximately 58.6% of our total revenues.  During 2001, our four largest customers accounted for approximately 56.3% of our revenues with Fujifilm accounting for 29.2%. Sales to these large customers have varied significantly from year to year and will continue to fluctuate in the future.  These sales also may fluctuate significantly from quarter to quarter. We may not be able to retain our key customers or these customers may cancel purchase orders or reschedule or decrease their level of purchases from us. Any substantial decrease or delay in sales to one or more of our key customers could harm our sales and financial results. In addition, any difficulty in collecting amounts due from one or more key customers could harm our financial results.

 

We are dependent on our relationship with Fujifilm for a significant percentage of our product sales, and if this relationship were terminated, our business would be harmed.

 

Fujifilm has been our largest customer over the last five years. Fujifilm purchases our products primarily as a reseller. Fujifilm acts as the primary reseller in Japan of products developed by us under development contracts with Fujifilm. We may sell these products directly in Japan only to specified customers with Fujifilm’s consent. Fujifilm provides more sales and marketing support than our other resellers. Fujifilm has provided wafer manufacturing services on a most-favored terms basis to us since 1993 and has also provided funding to support our development efforts. If our relationship with Fujifilm were terminated, our business would be harmed.

 

Our products generally have long sales cycles and implementation periods, which increases our costs in obtaining orders and reduces the predictability of our earnings.

 

Our products are technologically complex. Prospective customers generally must make a significant commitment of resources to test and evaluate our products and to integrate them into larger systems. As a result, our sales process is often subject to delays associated with lengthy approval processes that typically accompany the design and testing of new products. The sales cycles of our products often last for many months or even years. Longer sales cycles require us to invest significant resources in attempting to make sales and delay the generation of revenue.

 

Long sales cycles also subject us to other risks, including customers’ budgetary constraints, internal acceptance reviews and cancellations. In addition, orders expected in one quarter could shift to another because of the timing of customers’ purchase decisions. The time required for our customers to incorporate our products into their own can vary significantly with the needs of our customers and generally exceeds several months, which further complicates our planning processes and reduces the predictability of our operating results.

 

We are not protected by long-term contracts with our customers.

 

We generally do not enter into long-term purchase contracts with our customers, and we cannot be certain as to future order levels from our customers. When we do enter into a long-term contract, the contract is generally terminable at the

 

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convenience of the customer. In the event of an early termination by one of our major customers, it is unlikely that we will be able to rapidly replace that revenue source, which would harm our financial results.

 

We are dependent upon our international sales and operations; economic, political or military events in a country where we make significant sales or have significant operations could interfere with our success or operations there and harm our business.

 

During 2002, 97% of our total revenues were derived from international sales. We anticipate that international sales will continue to represent a substantial majority of our total revenues for the foreseeable future. In addition, substantially all of our semiconductor products are manufactured, assembled and tested outside of the United States by independent foundries and subcontractors.

 

We are subject to the risks inherent in doing business internationally, including:

 

                                          unexpected changes in regulatory requirements;

 

                                          fluctuations in exchange rates;

 

                                          political and economic instability;

 

                                          imposition of tariffs and other barriers and restrictions; and

 

                                          the burdens of complying with a variety of foreign laws.

 

The majority of our research and development personnel and facilities and a significant portion of our sales personnel are located in Israel. Political, economic and military conditions in Israel directly affect our operations. Some of our officers and employees in Israel are obligated to perform approximately 39 days of military reserve duty annually. The absence of these employees for significant periods during the work week may cause us to operate inefficiently during these periods.

 

Our operations in China are subject to the economic and political uncertainties affecting that country. For example, the Chinese economy has experienced significant growth in the past decade, but such growth has been uneven across geographic and economic sectors and has recently been slowing. This growth may continue to decrease and any slowdown may have a negative effect on our business. During 2000 and 2001, we also opened offices in Taipei, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Seoul, Korea. Our operations are subject to the economic and political uncertainties affecting these countries as well.

 

Our business and future operating results could be harmed by terrorist activity or armed conflict.

 

Our business and operating results are subject to uncertainties arising out of possible terrorist attacks on the United States and other regions of the world including locations where we maintain operations and by armed conflict in the Middle East and related economic instability. Our operations could be harmed due to:

 

                                          disruption in commercial activities associated with heightened security concerns affecting international travel and commerce;

 

                                          reduced demand for consumer electronic products due to a potential extension of the global economic slowdown;

 

                                          tightened immigration controls that may adversely affect the residence status of key non-U.S. managers and technical employees in our U.S. facilities or our ability to hire new non-U.S. employees in such facilities; or

 

                                          potential expansion of armed conflict in the Middle East which could adversely affect our operations in Israel.

 

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The prices of our products may become less competitive due to foreign exchange fluctuations.

 

Foreign currency fluctuations may affect the prices of our products. Prices for our products are currently denominated in U.S. dollars for sales to our customers throughout the world. If there is a significant devaluation of the currency in a specific country, the prices of our products will increase relative to that country’s currency and our products may be less competitive in that country. Also, we cannot be sure that our international customers will continue to be willing to place orders denominated in U.S. dollars. If they do not, our revenue and operating results will be subject to foreign exchange fluctuations.

 

Our ability to compete could be jeopardized if we are unable to protect our intellectual property rights from challenges by third parties.

 

Our success and ability to compete depend in large part upon protecting our proprietary technology. We rely on a combination of patent, trade secret, copyright and trademark laws, non-disclosure and other contractual agreements and technical measures to protect our proprietary rights. These agreements and measures may not be sufficient to protect our technology from third-party infringement, or to protect us from the claims of others. Monitoring unauthorized use of our products is difficult and we cannot be certain that the steps we have taken will prevent unauthorized use of our technology, particularly in foreign countries where the laws may not protect our proprietary rights as fully as in the United States. The laws of certain foreign countries in which our products are or may be developed, manufactured or sold, including various countries in Asia, may not protect our products or intellectual property rights to the same extent as do the laws of the United States and thus make the possibility of piracy of our technology and products more likely in these countries. If competitors are able to use our technology, our ability to compete effectively could be harmed.

 

We could become subject to claims and litigation regarding intellectual property rights, which could seriously harm our business and require us to incur significant costs.

 

In recent years, there has been significant litigation in the United States involving patents and other intellectual property rights. In the past, we have been subject to claims and litigation regarding alleged infringement of other parties’ intellectual property rights. We could become subject to litigation in the future either to protect our intellectual property or as a result of allegations that we infringe others’ intellectual property rights. Claims that our products infringe proprietary rights would force us to defend ourselves and possibly our customers or manufacturers against the alleged infringement. These claims and any resulting lawsuit, if successful, could subject us to significant liability for damages and invalidation of our proprietary rights. These lawsuits, regardless of their success, would likely be time-consuming and expensive to resolve and would divert management time and attention. Any potential intellectual property litigation could force us to do one or more of the following:

 

                                          stop selling our products that incorporate the challenged intellectual property;

 

                                          obtain from the owner of the infringed intellectual property right a license to sell or use the relevant technology, which license may not be available on reasonable terms or at all;

 

                                          pay damages; or

 

                                          redesign those products that use such technology.

 

If we are forced to take any of the foregoing actions, our business could be severely harmed.

 

If necessary licenses of third-party technology are not available to us or are very expensive, our products could become obsolete.

 

From time to time we may be required to license technology from third parties to develop new products or product enhancements. Third party licenses may not be available to us on commercially reasonable terms, if at all. If we are unable to obtain any third-party license required to develop new products and product enhancements, we may have to obtain substitute technology of lower quality or performance standards or at greater cost, either of which could seriously harm the competitiveness of our products.

 

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If we are not able to apply our net operating losses against taxable income in future periods, our financial results will be harmed.

 

Our future net income and cash flow will be affected by our ability to apply our net operating losses, which totaled approximately $34.0 million for federal and $4.0 million for state tax reporting purposes as of December 31, 2002, against taxable income in future periods. Our net operating losses incurred prior to the consummation of our initial public offering in 1995 that we can use to reduce future taxable income for federal tax purposes are limited to approximately $3.0 million per year. Changes in tax laws in the United States may further limit our ability to utilize our net operating losses. Any further limitation on our ability to utilize our net operating losses could harm our financial condition.

 

Any acquisitions or strategic investments we make could disrupt our business and severely harm our financial condition.

 

We have made investments in, and acquisitions of, complementary companies, products and technologies. During 2000, we acquired PixelCam and Nogatech, and we may acquire additional businesses, products, or technologies in the future. In the event of any future acquisitions, we could:

 

                  issue stock that would dilute our current stockholders’ percentage ownership;

 

                  incur debt;

 

                  assume liabilities;

 

                  incur expenses related to the future impairment of goodwill and the amortization of other intangible assets; or

 

                  incur other large write-offs immediately or in the future.

 

Our operation of any acquired business will also involve numerous risks, including:

 

                  problems combining the purchased operations, technologies or products;

 

                  unanticipated costs;

 

                  diversion of management’s attention from our core business;

 

                  adverse effects on existing business relationships with customers;

 

                  risks associated with entering markets in which we have no or limited prior experience; and

 

                  potential loss of key employees, particularly those of the purchased organizations.

 

We may not be able to successfully integrate any businesses, products or technologies or personnel that we might acquire in the future and any failure to do so could disrupt our business and seriously harm our financial condition.

 

In addition, we have made minority equity investments in early-stage companies, and we expect to continue to review opportunities to make additional investments in such companies where we believe such investments will provide us with opportunities to gain access to important technologies or otherwise enhance important commercial relationships. We have little or no influence over the early-stage companies in which we have made or may make strategic, minority equity investments. Each of these investments involves a high degree of risk. We may not be successful in achieving the technological or commercial advantage upon which any given investment is premised, and failure by the early-stage company to achieve its own business objectives could result in a loss of all or part of our invested capital and require us to write-off all or a portion of such investments.

 

Our products could contain defects, which could reduce sales of those products or result in claims against us.

 

We develop complex and evolving products. Despite testing by us and our customers, errors may be found in existing or new products. This could result in, among other things, a delay in recognition or loss of revenues, loss of market share or failure to achieve market acceptance. These defects may cause us to incur significant warranty, support and repair costs, divert the attention of our engineering personnel from our product development efforts and harm our relationships with our customers. The occurrence of these problems could result in the delay or loss of market acceptance of our products

 

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and would likely harm our business. Defects, integration issues or other performance problems in our products could result in financial or other damages to our customers or could damage market acceptance of our products. Our customers could also seek damages from us for their losses. A product liability claim brought against us, even if unsuccessful, would likely be time consuming and costly to defend.

 

If we do not maintain our current development contracts or are unable to enter into new development contracts, our business could be harmed.

 

We historically have generated a significant percentage of our total revenues from development contracts, primarily with key customers. These development contracts have provided us with partial funding for the development of some of our products. Under these contracts, we receive payments upon reaching certain development milestones. If we fail to achieve the milestones specified in our existing development contracts, if our existing contracts are terminated or we are unable to secure future development contracts, our ability to cost-effectively develop new products would be reduced and our business would be harmed.

 

We may need additional funds to execute our business plan, and if we are unable to obtain such funds, we will not be able to expand our business as planned.

 

We may require substantial additional capital to finance our future growth, secure additional foundry capacity and fund our ongoing research and development activities beyond 2003. Our capital requirements will depend on many factors, including:

 

                  acceptance of and demand for our products;

 

                  the types of arrangements that we may enter into with our independent foundries; and

 

                  the extent to which we invest in new technology and research and development projects.

 

To the extent that our existing sources of liquidity and cash flow from operations are insufficient to fund our activities, we may need to raise additional funds. If we raise additional funds through the issuance of equity securities, the percentage ownership of our existing stockholders would be reduced. Further, such equity securities may have rights, preferences or privileges senior to those of our common stock. Additional financing may not be available to us when needed or, if available, it may not be available on terms favorable to us.

 

If we fail to manage our future growth, if any, our business would be harmed.

 

We anticipate that our future growth, if any, will require us to recruit and hire a substantial number of new engineering, managerial, sales and marketing personnel. Our ability to manage our growth successfully will also require us to expand and improve our administrative, operational, management and financial systems and controls. Many of our key operations, including the major portion of our research and development operations and a significant portion of our sales and administrative operations, are located in Israel. A majority of our sales and marketing and certain of our research and development and administrative personnel, including our President and Chief Executive Officer and other officers, are based in the United States. The geographic separation of these operations places additional strain on our resources and our ability to effectively manage our growth. If we are unable to manage growth effectively, our business would be harmed.

 

We rely on the services of our executive officers and other key personnel, whose knowledge of our business and industry would be extremely difficult to replace.

 

Our success depends to a significant degree upon the continuing contributions of our senior management. The loss of key management personnel could delay product development cycles or otherwise harm our business. We may not be able to retain the services of any of our key employees. We believe that our future success will also depend in large part on our ability to attract, integrate and retain highly-skilled engineering, managerial, sales and marketing personnel, both in the United States and in Israel. Competition for such personnel is intense, and we may not be successful in attracting, integrating and retaining such personnel. Failure to attract, integrate and retain key personnel could harm our ability to carry out our business strategy and compete with other companies.

 

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The Israeli rate of inflation may negatively impact our costs if it exceeds the rate of devaluation of the New Israeli Shekel against the U.S. dollar.

 

A portion of the cost of our operations, relating mainly to our personnel and facilities in Israel, is incurred in New Israeli Shekels. As a result, we bear the risk that the rate of inflation in Israel will exceed the rate of devaluation of the New Israeli Shekel in relation to the dollar, which will increase our costs as expressed in dollars. To date, we have not engaged in hedging transactions. In the future, we may enter into currency hedging transactions to decrease the risk of financial exposure from fluctuations in the exchange rate of the U.S. dollar against the New Israeli Shekel. These measures may not adequately protect us from the impact of inflation in Israel.

 

The government programs we participate in and tax benefits we receive require us to meet several conditions and may be terminated or reduced in the future, which would increase our costs.

 

In 2001 and 2002, we did not receive proceeds from grants for research and development from the Chief Scientist in Israel’s Ministry of Industry and Trade. However, we did receive an aggregate of $333,000 in such grants during 2000. We plan to seek additional grants from the Chief Scientist in the future. To be eligible for these grants, our development projects must be approved by the Chief Scientist on a case-by-case basis.  If our development projects are not approved by the Chief Scientist, we will not receive grants to fund these projects, which would increase our research and development costs. We also receive tax benefits, in particular exemptions and reductions as a result of the “Approved Enterprise” status of our existing operations in Israel. To be eligible for these tax benefits, we must maintain our Approved Enterprise status by meeting conditions, including making specified investments in fixed assets located in Israel and investing additional equity in our Israeli subsidiary. If we fail to meet these conditions in the future, the tax benefits would be canceled and we could be required to refund the tax benefits already received. These tax benefits may not be continued in the future at their current levels or at any level. Israeli governmental authorities have indicated that the government may reduce or eliminate these benefits in the future, which would harm our business.

 

We have anti-takeover provisions in our charter documents and there are provisions of Delaware law that could prevent or delay a change in control of our company.

 

Our certificate of incorporation, our bylaws and Delaware law contain provisions that could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire us, even if doing so would be beneficial to our stockholders. These include provisions:

 

                  prohibiting a merger with a party that has acquired control of 15% or more of our outstanding common stock, such as a party that has completed a successful tender offer, until three years after that party acquired control of 15% of our outstanding common stock;

 

                  authorizing the issuance of up to 3,000,000 shares of “blank check” preferred stock;

 

                  eliminating stockholders’ rights to call a special meeting of stockholders; and

 

                  requiring advance notice of any stockholder nominations of candidates for election to our board of directors.

 

Our stock price has fluctuated and may continue to fluctuate widely.

 

The market price of our common stock has fluctuated significantly since our initial public offering in 1995. Between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2002, the closing sale price of our common stock, as reported on the Nasdaq National Market, ranged from a low of $9.11 to a high of $31.81.  The market price of our common stock is subject to significant fluctuations in the future in response to a variety of factors, including:

 

                  announcements concerning our business or that of our competitors or customers;

 

                  quarterly variations in operating results;

 

                  changes in analysts’ earnings estimates;

 

                  announcements of technological innovations;

 

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                  the introduction of new products or changes in product pricing policies by us or our competitors;

 

                  proprietary rights or other litigation;

 

                  general conditions in the semiconductor industry; and

 

                  developments in the financial markets.

 

In addition, the stock market has, from time to time, experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have particularly affected the market prices for semiconductor companies or technology companies generally and which have been unrelated to the operating performance of the affected companies. Broad market fluctuations of this type may reduce the future market price of our common stock.

 

Item 7A.     Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risks.

 

We are exposed to financial market risks including changes in interest rates and foreign currency exchange rates.

 

The fair value of our investment portfolio or related income would not be significantly impacted by either a 10% increase or decrease in interest rates due mainly to the short-term nature of the major portion of our investment portfolio.

 

A majority of our revenue and capital spending is transacted in U.S. dollars, although a portion of the cost of our operations, relating mainly to our personnel and facilities in Israel, is incurred in New Israeli Shekels. We have not engaged in hedging transactions to reduce our exposure to fluctuations that may arise from changes in foreign exchange rates. Based on our overall currency rate exposure at December 31, 2002, a near-term 10% appreciation or depreciation of the New Israeli Shekel would have an immaterial affect on our financial condition.

 

Item 8.     Financial Statements and Supplemental Data.

 

Index to Consolidated Financial Statements

 

Report of Independent Accountants

 

Consolidated Balance Sheets as of December 31, 2002 and 2001

 

Consolidated Statements of Operations for each of the three years ended December 31, 2002

 

Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity for the three years ended December 31, 2002

 

Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for each of the three years ended December 31, 2002

 

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

 

Supplemental Data:  Selected Quarterly Financial Information (Unaudited)

 

39



 

REPORT OF INDEPENDENT ACCOUNTANTS

 

To the Board of Directors and Stockholders of

Zoran Corporation

 

 

In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements listed in the accompanying index present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of Zoran Corporation and its subsidiaries at December 31, 2002 and 2001, and the results of their operations and their cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2002 in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.  These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management; our responsibility is to express an opinion on these financial statements based on our audits.  We conducted our audits of these statements in accordance with auditing standards generally accepted in the United States of America, which require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement.  An audit includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements, assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, and evaluating the overall financial statement presentation.  We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

 

As discussed in Notes 2 and 6 of the consolidated financial statements, as of January 1, 2002, the Company ceased amortization of goodwill to conform with the provisions of Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 142, “Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets.”

 

/s/ PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP

 

 

San Jose, California

 

January 24, 2003

 

 

40



 

ZORAN CORPORATION

CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS

(In thousands, except share data)

 

 

 

December 31,

 

 

 

2002

 

2001

 

ASSETS

 

 

 

 

 

Current Assets:

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

$

31,607

 

$

20,287

 

Short-term investments

 

105,468

 

89,818

 

Accounts receivable, net

 

34,652

 

33,367

 

Inventory

 

12,686

 

15,681

 

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

6,479

 

5,130

 

Total current assets

 

190,892

 

164,283

 

Property and equipment, net

 

5,848

 

7,159

 

Other investments

 

78,334

 

89,727

 

Goodwill

 

59,131

 

59,131

 

Intangible assets

 

8,411

 

11,044

 

 

 

$

342,616

 

$

331,344

 

LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY

 

 

 

 

 

Current Liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts payable

 

$

9,639

 

$

16,705

 

Accrued expenses and other liabilities

 

21,965

 

16,801

 

Total current liabilities

 

31,604

 

33,506

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Commitments and Contingencies (Note 9)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stockholders’ Equity:

 

 

 

 

 

Common Stock:  $0.001 par value; 55,000,000 shares authorized; 27,395,117 and 26,702,781 shares issued and outstanding

 

27

 

27

 

Additional paid-in capital

 

399,052

 

391,665

 

Warrants

 

 

717

 

Deferred stock-based compensation

 

(83

)

(375

)

Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)

 

508

 

(6

)

Accumulated deficit

 

(88,492

)

(94,190

)

Total stockholders’ equity

 

311,012

 

297,838

 

 

 

$

342,616

 

$

331,344

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

 

41



 

ZORAN CORPORATION

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS

(In thousands, except per share data)

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2002

 

2001

 

2000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Revenues:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Product sales

 

$

141,314

 

$

100,012

 

$

67,782

 

Software, licensing and development

 

7,803

 

7,697

 

11,889

 

Total revenues

 

149,117

 

107,709

 

79,671

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Costs and expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cost of product sales

 

86,904

 

64,740

 

37,993

 

Research and development

 

22,083

 

23,210

 

18,628

 

Selling, general and administrative

 

24,856

 

21,330

 

19,148

 

Amortization of intangible assets

 

8,443

 

9,697

 

1,982

 

Amortization of goodwill and write-off of acquired in-process research & development

 

 

33,536

 

29,787

 

Total costs and expenses

 

142,286

 

152,513

 

107,538

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operating income (loss)

 

6,831

 

(44,804

)

(27,867

)

Interest income

 

7,053

 

9,853

 

9,280

 

Other income (loss), net

 

(6,614

)

151

 

(51

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Income (loss) before income taxes

 

7,270

 

(34,800

)

(18,638

)

Provision for income taxes

 

1,572

 

1,265

 

1,970

 

Net income (loss)

 

$

5,698

 

$

(36,065

)

$

(20,608

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic net income (loss) per share

 

$

0.21

 

$

(1.38

)

$

(0.91

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Diluted net income (loss) per share

 

$

0.20

 

$

(1.38

)

$

(0.91

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shares used to compute basic net income (loss) per share

 

27,095

 

26,190

 

22,605

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shares used to compute diluted net income (loss) per share

 

28,629

 

26,190

 

22,605

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

 

42



 

ZORAN CORPORATION

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY

(in thousands)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Additional
Paid-In
Capital

 

Warrants

 

Deferred
Stock-Based
Compensation

 

Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Income (Loss)

 

Accumulated
Deficit

 

Total

 

 

 

 

Common Stock

Shares

 

Amount

Balance at December 31, 1999

 

20,879

 

$

21

 

$

195,262

 

$

717

 

$

 

$

4,962

 

$

(37,517

)

$

163,445

 

Issuance of Common Stock

 

891

 

1

 

4,216

 

 

 

 

 

4,217

 

Income tax benefit of employees’ stock transactions

 

 

 

1,003

 

 

 

 

 

1,003

 

Deferred stock-based compensation recorded in conjunction with the Nogatech acquisition

 

 

 

 

 

(1,018

)

 

 

(1,018

)

Amortization of deferred stock-based compensation

 

 

 

 

 

99

 

 

 

99

 

Issuance of Common Stock in connection with acquisitions

 

4,365

 

4

 

188,165

 

 

 

 

 

188,169

 

Decrease in unrealized gain on securities available for sale

 

 

 

 

 

 

(3,853

)

 

(3,853

)

Net loss

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(20,608

)

(20,608

)

Balance at December 31, 2000

 

26,135

 

26

 

388,646

 

717

 

(919

)

1,109

 

(58,125

)

331,454

 

Issuance of Common Stock

 

951

 

1

 

6,886

 

 

 

 

 

6,887

 

Repurchases of Common Stock

 

(383

)

 

(3,867

)

 

 

 

 

(3,867

)

Amortization of deferred stock-based compensation

 

 

 

 

 

544

 

 

 

544

 

Change in unrealized gain (loss) on securities available for sale

 

 

 

 

 

 

(1,115

)

 

(1,115

)

Net loss

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(36,065

)

(36,065

)

Balance at December 31, 2001

 

26,703

 

27

 

391,665

 

717

 

(375

)

(6

)

(94,190

)

297,838

 

Issuance of Common Stock

 

692

 

 

6,670

 

 

 

 

 

6,670

 

Expiration of Warrant

 

 

 

717

 

(717

)

 

 

 

 

Amortization of deferred stock-based compensation

 

 

 

 

 

292

 

 

 

292

 

Change in unrealized gain (loss) on securities available for sale

 

 

 

 

 

 

514

 

 

514

 

Net Income

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5,698

 

5,698

 

Balance at December 31, 2002

 

27,395

 

$

27

 

$

399,052

 

$

 

$

(83

)

$

508

 

$

(88,492

)

$

311,012

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

 

43



 

ZORAN CORPORATION

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS

(in thousands)

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2002

 

2001

 

2000

 

Cash flows from operating activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net income (loss)

 

$

5,698

 

$

(36,065

)

$

(20,608

)

Adjustments:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Depreciation, amortization and other

 

3,247

 

3,700

 

2,987

 

Investment impairment charges

 

6,045

 

 

 

Allowance for doubtful accounts

 

125

 

2,029

 

549

 

Amortization of goodwill and other intangibles

 

8,443

 

43,233

 

9,922

 

Write-off of acquired in-process research and development

 

 

 

21,847

 

Income tax benefit of employees’ stock transactions

 

 

 

1,003

 

Realized loss on exchange of marketable securities

 

696

 

 

 

Changes in current assets and liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts receivable

 

(2,218

)

(7,958

)

(4,967

)

Inventory

 

2,995

 

1,772

 

(7,311

)

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

(1,349

)

328

 

(2,640

)

Accounts payable

 

(7,816

)

5,549

 

234

 

Accrued expenses and other liabilities

 

2,812

 

(231

)

3,374

 

Net cash provided by operating activities

 

18,678

 

12,357

 

4,390

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash flows from investing activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Capital expenditures for property and equipment

 

(1,983

)

(3,771

)

(3,251

)

Purchase of intellectual property

 

(1,681

)

 

 

Purchases of investments

 

(155,354

)

(195,588

)

(180,324

)

Sales of investments

 

45,227

 

25,454

 

46,400

 

Maturities of investments

 

99,763

 

163,887

 

134,645

 

Purchases of long-term equity investments

 

 

(1,171

)

(2,250

)

Cash received in acquisitions (net of costs incurred)

 

 

 

(393

)

Net cash used in investing activities

 

(14,028

)

(11,189

)

(5,173

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash flows from financing activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Proceeds from issuance of Common Stock, net

 

6,670

 

6,887

 

4,217

 

Repurchases of Common Stock

 

 

(3,867

)

 

Net cash provided by financing activities

 

6,670

 

3,020

 

4,217

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net increase in cash and cash equivalents

 

11,320

 

4,188

 

3,434

 

Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of year

 

20,287

 

16,099

 

12,665

 

Cash and cash equivalents at end of year

 

$

31,607

 

$

20,287

 

$

16,099

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Supplemental disclosures:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Income taxes paid

 

$

 

$

 

$

732

 

Purchase of intellectual property included in accrued expense

 

3,150

 

 

 

Purchase of intellectual property included in accounts payable

 

750

 

 

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

 

44



 

ZORAN CORPORATION

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

Note 1 - The Company:

 

Zoran Corporation (“Zoran” or the “Company”) was incorporated in California in December 1981 and reincorporated in Delaware in November 1986.  Zoran develops and markets integrated circuits, integrated circuit cores and embedded software used by original equipment manufacturers, or OEMs, in digital audio and video products for commercial and consumer markets. Current applications incorporating Zoran’s products and IP include digital versatile disc, or DVD, players and recorders,  filmless digital cameras, professional and consumer video editing systems and digital speakers and audio systems. The Company operates in one industry segment.

 

The Company performs research and development and generates a substantial portion of its sales from its operations located in the State of Israel. A significant number of the Company’s full-time employees are located in Israel, including a majority of the Company’s research and development personnel. Therefore, the Company is directly affected by the political, economic and military conditions to which that country is subject.

 

The semiconductor business is highly cyclical and has been subject to significant downturns at various times that have been characterized by diminished product demand, decreased production, overcapacity, and accelerated erosion of average selling prices. As such, the selling price that the Company is able to command for its products is highly dependent on industry-wide production capacity and demand.  Both of these factors could result in rapid deviations in product pricing and, therefore, could adversely effect the Company’s operating results.

 

Principles of consolidation and basis of presentation

 

The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Zoran and all of its subsidiaries. Intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation.

 

Note 2 - Significant Accounting Policies:

 

Zoran has adopted accounting policies which are generally accepted in the industry in which it operates. The following is a summary of the Company’s significant accounting policies.

 

Use of estimates

 

The preparation of these financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and accompanying notes. Actual results could differ from those estimates, although such differences are not expected to be material to the consolidated financial statements.

 

Translation of foreign currencies

 

ZML, an Israeli subsidiary, treats the U.S. dollar as its functional currency. In accordance with Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 52, gains and losses resulting from translation of accounts designated in other than the functional currency are reflected in results of operations and to date have been insignificant.

 

To date, substantially all of the Company’s product sales have been denominated in U.S. dollars and most costs of product sales have been incurred in U.S. dollars. The Company has not experienced material losses or gains as a result of currency exchange rate fluctuations and has not engaged in hedging transactions to reduce its exposure to such fluctuations. The Company may take action in the future to reduce its foreign exchange risk.

 

45



 

Revenue recognition

 

The Company’s standard shipping terms for product sales are FOB point of origin. The Company’s policy is to recognize revenue from product sales upon shipment, provided that persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, the price is fixed and determinable and collectibility is reasonably assured. A provision for estimated future returns and potential warranty liability is recorded at the time revenue is recognized. Warranty expense in 2002 and 2001, was immaterial. Development revenue under development contracts is recognized on the percentage-of-completion method. Under the percentage-of-completion method, revenue recognized is that portion of the total contract price equal to the ratio of costs expended to date to the anticipated final total costs, based on current estimates of the costs to complete the project. Amounts received in advance of performance under contracts are recorded as deferred revenue and are generally recognized within one year from receipt.  Estimates are reviewed and revised periodically throughout the lives of the contracts. Any revisions are recorded in the accounting period in which the revisions are made. Costs associated with development revenues are included primarily in research and development expenses. Revenue resulting from the licensing of the Company’s technology is recognized when significant contractual obligations have been fulfilled and the customer has indicated acceptance. Periodic service and maintenance fees which provide customers access to technical support and minor enhancements to licensed releases are recognized ratably over the service or maintenance period. Royalty revenue is recognized in the period licensed sales are reported to the Company.

 

Research and development costs

 

Costs related to the conceptual formation and design of internally developed software are expensed as research and development as incurred. It is the Company’s policy that certain internal software development costs incurred after technological feasibility has been demonstrated and which meet recoverability tests are capitalized and amortized over the estimated economic life of the product. To date, the Company has incurred no significant internal software development costs which meet the criteria for capitalization.

 

Fair value of financial instruments

 

For certain of Zoran’s financial instruments, including cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable, accrued expenses and other current liabilities, the carrying values approximate their fair values due to the relatively short maturity of these items.

 

Cash equivalents and investments

 

All highly liquid investments purchased with an original maturity of 90 days or less are considered to be cash and cash equivalents.

 

All of Zoran’s investments in marketable securities are classified as available-for-sale and, therefore, are reported at fair value with unrealized gains and losses, net of related tax, if any, included as other comprehensive income, a component of stockholders’ equity. Gains and losses realized upon sales of all such securities are reported in interest and other income (loss). See Note 3.

 

When the fair value of an investment declines below its amortized cost, we consider all available evidence to evaluate whether an other-than-temporary decline in value has occurred. Among other things, we consider the duration and extent to which the market value has declined relative to our cost basis, the economic factors influencing the markets, the relative performance of the investee and its near-term prospects.

 

At December 31, 2002, the Company’s marketable securities consisted of commercial paper with maturities of less than one year and marketable equity securities. Investments in marketable securities also consisted of bonds and medium term notes with maturities greater than one year, which are included in other assets, and amounted to $77.2 million and $86.1 million at December 31, 2002 and 2001, respectively. See Note 3.

 

46



 

Other assets also include investments in non-marketable securities which are accounted for on the cost basis and amounted to $1.2 million and $3.6 million at December 31, 2002 and 2001, respectively. The Company records an investment impairment charge when the fair value of an investment declines below its cost basis. In making this determination the Company considers all available evidence including the historical and projected financial performance and recent funding events which are ascertained from an investee. In 2002, we recorded $2.4 million in such impairment charges. There were no such charges in 2001.

 

Concentration of credit risk of financial instruments

 

Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to significant concentrations of credit risk consist principally of cash and cash equivalents, investments in marketable securities, equity securities and trade accounts receivable. The Company places its cash in banks and cash equivalents primarily in auction rate preferred stock, certificates of deposit and commercial paper. The Company’s marketable securities portfolio consists primarily of corporate bonds, short and medium term notes, Euro dollar bonds and Government securities.  The Company, by policy, limits the amount of its credit exposure through diversification and restricting its investments to highly rated securities. Individual securities are limited to comprising no more than 5% of the portfolio value. Highly rated securities are defined as having a minimum Moody or Standard & Poor’s rating of A1 or A+, respectively. The average maturity of the portfolio is restricted to less than 365 days. The portfolio is overseen by the Vice President, Finance and Chief Financial Officer and is reported on quarterly to senior management.  The Company has not experienced any significant losses on its cash equivalents or short-term investment.

 

The Company markets integrated circuits and technology to manufacturers and distributors of electronic equipment primarily in North America, Europe and the Pacific Rim. The Company performs ongoing credit evaluations of its customers’ financial condition and limits the amount of credit extended when deemed necessary, but generally does not require collateral. Management believes that any risk of loss is significantly reduced due to the diversity of its customers and geographic sales areas. The Company maintains a provision for potential credit losses, and write-offs of accounts receivable were insignificant in each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2002.  As of December 31, 2002, two customers accounted for approximately 21% and 12% of the accounts receivable balance respectively. As of December 31, 2001, three customers accounted for approximately 21%, 12%, and 11% of the accounts receivable balance respectively.

 

Inventory

 

Inventories are stated at the lower of standard cost (which approximates actual cost on a first-in, first-out basis) or market. Market is based on estimated net realizable value.

 

Property and equipment

 

Property and equipment are recorded at cost. Depreciation is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of three to five years.  Leasehold improvements are amortized on a straight-line basis over the shorter of the estimated useful lives of the assets or the remaining term of the lease.

 

Goodwill

 

The Company adopted Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Statement No. 142 “Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets” (“SFAS 142”) as of January 1, 2002. SFAS142 changed the accounting for goodwill from an amortization method to an impairment only approach. In connection with the adoption of SFAS 142, the Company conducted a transitional goodwill impairment assessment based on its structure as one reporting unit and determined that no impairment existed at January 1, 2002. During 2002, the Company also completed its annual impairment assessment and again determined that no impairment existed.

 

47



 

Other intangibles

 

Acquired technology is amortized to expense on a straight-line basis over two to five years. Other intangible assets recorded in connection with the acquisitions of PixelCam, Inc. and Nogatech, Inc. are amortized on a straight-line basis over the estimated periods of benefit, which is approximately three years.

 

Long-lived assets

 

The Company periodically evaluates the recoverability of its long-lived assets, other than goodwill, by comparing expected undiscounted cash flows to the carrying value of the related assets. If the expected undiscounted cash flows are less than the carrying value of the assets the Company recognizes an impairment charge based on the fair value of the assets. To date, the Company has not recorded any impairment charges against the value of its long-lived assets.

 

Income taxes

 

The Company follows the liability method of accounting for income taxes which requires recognition of deferred tax liabilities and assets for the expected future tax consequence of temporary differences between the financial statement carrying amounts and the tax bases of assets and liabilities.

 

For the twelve month periods ended December 31, 2002 and 2001, the provision for income taxes reflects the effective tax rate applied to earnings, excluding charges related to the amortization of goodwill and the write-off of acquired in-process research and development, for the periods. The effective tax rate differs from the U.S. statutory rate due to utilization of net operating losses and State of Israel tax benefits on foreign earnings. The provision includes primarily taxes on income in excess of net operating loss carryover limitations and foreign withholding taxes.

 

Earnings per share

 

In accordance with Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 128, Zoran reports Earnings per Share (“EPS”), both basic and diluted, on the statement of operations. Basic EPS is based upon the weighted average number of common shares outstanding. Diluted EPS is computed using the weighted average common shares outstanding plus any potential common stock, except when their effect is anti-dilutive. Potential common stock includes stock options and warrants. See Note 11.

 

Stock compensation

 

The Company accounts for stock-based compensation using the intrinsic value method prescribed in Accounting Principles Board Opinion No. 25 (“APB 25”), “Accounting for Stock Issued to Employees” and related interpretations. Under APB 25, compensation expense is recognized based on the difference, if any, on the date of grant between the fair value of the Company’s stock and the amount an employee must pay to acquire the stock.  The compensation expense is recognized over the periods the employee performs the related services, generally the vesting period of four years, consistent with the multiple option method described in FASB Interpretation No. 28 (“FIN 28”). Except for Nogatech options assumed as part of the acquisition, no other stock-based employee compensation cost is reflected in net income as all other options granted under our plans had an exercise price equal to the market value of the underlying common stock on the date of grant.

 

48



 

Fair Value Disclosures

 

Had compensation cost for the Company’s option and stock purchase plans been determined based on the fair value at the grant dates, as prescribed in SFAS 123, the Company’s net income (loss) and net income (loss) per share for each of the three years ended December 31, 2002, would have been as follows (in thousands, except per share data):

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2002

 

2001

 

2000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net income (loss) as reported

 

$

5,698

 

$

(36,065

)

$

(20,608

)

Add stock-based employee compensation expense included in reported net income net of related tax effects

 

292

 

544

 

99

 

Deduct: Total stock-based employee compensation expense determined under fair value based methods for all awards net of related tax effects

 

(24,681

)

(21,629

)

(13,342

)

Pro forma loss

 

$

(18,691

)

$

(57,150

)

$

(33,851

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net income (loss) per share:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

As reported

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic

 

$

0.21

 

$

(1.38

)

$

(0.91

)

Diluted

 

$

0.20

 

$

(1.38

)

$

(0.91

)

Pro forma

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic

 

$

(0.69

)

$

(2.18

)

$

(1.50

)

Diluted

 

$

(0.69

)

$

(2.18

)

$

(1.50

)

 

The Company provides information regarding the methodology and assumptions used for the above pro forma disclosure in Note 10.

 

Segment reporting

 

In 1998, the Company adopted Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 131 (“SFAS 131”), “Disclosures about Segments of an Enterprise and Related Information.” The management approach established by SFAS 131 designates the internal organization that is used by management for making operating decisions and assessing performance as the source of the Company’s reportable segments. SFAS 131 also requires disclosures about products and services, geographic areas, and major customers. The Company operates in one industry segment comprising the development and marketing of integrated circuits and software products for use in a variety of video and audio products addressing PC and consumer multimedia markets.

 

Comprehensive income

 

The Company applies Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 130, “Reporting Comprehensive Income.”

 

49



 

The following are the components of comprehensive income (loss) (in thousands):

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2002

 

2001

 

2000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net income (loss)

 

$

5,698

 

$

(36,065

)

$

(20,608

)

Unrealized gain (loss) on marketable securities

 

514

 

(1,115

)

(3,853

)

Comprehensive income (loss)

 

$

6,212

 

$

(37,180

)

$

(24,461

)

 

The components of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) are as follows (in thousands):

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2002

 

2001

 

2000

 

Unrealized gain (loss) on marketable securities, net of related taxes

 

$

508

 

$

(6

)

$

1,109

 

 

Recent accounting pronouncements

 

In August 2001, the FASB issued SFAS No. 143 (“SFAS 143”), “Accounting for Asset Retirement Obligations”. SFAS 143 addresses financial accounting and reporting for obligations associated with the retirement of tangible long-lived assets and the associated asset retirement costs. SFAS 143 applies to all entities. It applies to legal obligations associated with the retirement of long-lived assets that result from the acquisition, construction, development and/or the normal operation of a long-lived asset, except for certain obligations of lessees. SFAS 143 is effective for financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after June 25, 2002. The Company expects that the initial application of SFAS 143 will not have a material impact on its financial statements.

 

In April 2002, the FASB issued SFAS No. 145 (“SFAS 145”), “Rescission of SFAS Nos. 4, 44 and 64, Amendment of SFAS 13, and Technical Corrections.” SFAS 145 rescinds SFAS No. 4, “Reporting Gains and Losses from Extinguishment of Debt,” and an amendment of that statement, SFAS No. 64, “Extinguishments of Debt Made to Satisfy Sinking-Fund Requirements,” as well as SFAS No. 44, “Accounting for Intangible Assets of Motor Carriers.” SFAS 145 amends SFAS No. 13, “Accounting for Leases,” to eliminate an inconsistency between the required accounting for sale-leaseback transactions and the required accounting for certain lease modifications that have economic effects that are similar to sale-leaseback transactions. SFAS 145 also amends other existing authoritative pronouncements to make various technical corrections, clarify meanings, or describe their applicability under changed conditions. The provisions of SFAS 145 will be adopted during fiscal 2003. The Company does not expect that the adoption of SFAS 145 will have a material impact on its financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.

 

In June 2002, the FASB issued SFAS No. 146 (“SFAS 146”), “Accounting for Exit or Disposal Activities.” SFAS 146 addresses significant issues regarding the recognition, measurement, and reporting of costs that are associated with exit and disposal activities, including restructuring activities that are currently accounted for under EITF No. 94-3, “Liability Recognition for Certain Employee Termination Benefits and Other Costs to Exit an Activity (Including Certain Costs Incurred in a Restructuring).” The scope of SFAS 146 also includes costs related to terminating a contract that is not a capital lease and termination benefits that employees who are involuntarily terminated receive under the terms of a one-time benefit arrangement that is not an ongoing benefit arrangement or an individual deferred-compensation contract. SFAS 146 will be effective for exit or disposal activities that are initiated after December 31, 2002 and early application is encouraged. The Company will adopt SFAS 146 for its fiscal year beginning January 1, 2003 and does not expect that the adoption will have a material impact on its financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.

 

In November 2002, the FASB issued FASB Interpretation No. 45 (“FIN 45”), “Guarantor’s Accounting and Disclosure Requirements for Guarantees, Including Indirect Guarantees of Indebtedness of Others.” FIN 45 requires that a liability be recorded in the guarantor’s balance sheet upon issuance of a guarantee. In addition, FIN 45 requires disclosures about the guarantees that an entity has issued, including a reconciliation of changes in the entity’s product warranty liabilities.  The initial recognition and initial measurement provisions of FIN 45 are applicable on a prospective basis to guarantees

 

50



 

issued or modified after December 31, 2002, irrespective of the guarantor’s fiscal year-end.  The disclosure requirements of FIN 45 are effective for financial statements of interim or annual periods ending after December 15, 2002.  The Company does not expect that the adoption of FIN 45 will have a material impact on its financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.

 

In November 2002, the Emerging Issues Task Force (“EITF”) reached a consensus on Issue No. 00-21, “Revenue Arrangements with Multiple Deliverables.” EITF Issue No. 00-21 provides guidance on how to account for arrangements that involve the delivery or performance of multiple products, services and/or rights to use assets. The provisions of EITF Issue No. 00-21 will apply to revenue arrangements entered into in fiscal periods beginning after June 15, 2003 The Company does not expect that this will have a material impact on its financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.

 

In December 2002, the FASB issued Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 148 (“SFAS 148”), “Accounting for Stock-Based Compensation, Transition and Disclosure.” SFAS 148 provides alternative methods of transition for a voluntary change to the fair value based method of accounting for stock-based employee compensation. SFAS 148 also requires that disclosures of the pro forma effect of using the fair value method of accounting for stock-based employee compensation be displayed more prominently and in a tabular format. Additionally, SFAS 148 requires disclosure of the pro forma effect in interim financial statements. The transition and annual disclosure requirements of SFAS 148 are effective for fiscal years ended after December 15, 2002.  The interim disclosure requirements are effective for interim periods beginning after December 15, 2002.  The Company does not expect that the adoption of SFAS 148 will have a material impact on its financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.

 

In January 2003, the FASB issued FASB Interpretation No. 46 (“FIN 46”), “Consolidation of Variable Interest Entities, an Interpretation of ARB No. 51.”  FIN 46 requires certain variable interest entities to be consolidated by the primary beneficiary of the entity if the equity investors in the entity do not have the characteristics of a controlling financial interest or do not have sufficient equity at risk for the entity to finance its activities without additional subordinated financial support from other parties. FIN 46 is effective immediately for all new variable interest entities created or acquired after January 31, 2003. For variable interest entities created or acquired prior to February 1, 2003, the provisions of FIN 46 must be applied for the first interim or annual period beginning after June 15, 2003. The Company does not expect that the adoption of FIN 46 will have a material impact on its financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.

 

51



 

NOTE 3 - MARKETABLE SECURITIES

 

The Company’s portfolio of marketable securities at December 31, 2002 was as follows (in thousands):

 

 

 

Cost

 

Gross
Unrealized
Gains

 

Gross
Unrealized
Losses

 

Estimated
Fair
Value

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Corporate bonds

 

$

130,337

 

$

733

 

$

(390

)

$

130,680

 

Short/Medium term notes

 

30,609

 

186

 

(10

)

30,785

 

U.S. government securities

 

3,000

 

4

 

 

3,004

 

Foreign bonds

 

16,404

 

103

 

(62

)

16,445

 

Marketable equity securities

 

1,709

 

 

 

1,709

 

Total marketable securities

 

182,059

 

1,026

 

(462

)

182,623

 

Less amounts classified as long-term assets

 

76,914

 

438

 

(197

)

77,155

 

Total

 

$

105,145

 

$

588

 

$

(265

)

$

105,468

 

 

The Company’s portfolio of marketable securities at December 31, 2001 was as follows (in thousands):

 

 

 

Cost

 

Gross
Unrealized
Gains

 

Gross
Unrealized
Losses

 

Estimated
Fair
Value

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Corporate bonds

 

$

123,427

 

$

992

 

$

(530

)

$

123,889

 

Short/Medium term notes

 

40,948

 

253

 

(52

)

41,149

 

Foreign bonds

 

7,380

 

70

 

 

7,450

 

Time deposits

 

3,171

 

 

 

3,171

 

Marketable equity securities

 

1,000

 

 

(742

)

258

 

Total marketable securities

 

175,926

 

1,315

 

(1,324

)

175,917

 

Less amounts classified as long-term assets

 

85,741

 

644

 

(286

)

86,099

 

Total