FWP 1 formfwp.htm WO XLE XLF ETF DIGI PLUS BOOST

 RBC Capital Markets®
Filed Pursuant to Rule 433
Registration Statement No. 333-208507
 
The information in this preliminary terms supplement is not complete and may be changed.
 
Preliminary Terms Supplement
Subject to Completion:
Dated February 5, 2018
Pricing Supplement Dated February __, 2018 to the Product Prospectus Supplement ERN-ETF-1 Dated January 11, 2016, the Prospectus Supplement Dated January 8, 2016, and the Prospectus Dated January 8, 2016
Barrier Booster Notes
Linked to the Lesser Performing of Two Exchange
Traded Funds, Due February 28, 2023
Royal Bank of Canada
 
 
 
Royal Bank of Canada is offering Barrier Booster Notes (the “Notes”) linked to the lesser performing of two exchange traded funds (each, a “Reference Asset” and collectively, the “Reference Assets”). The Notes offered are senior unsecured obligations of Royal Bank of Canada and will have the terms described in the documents described above, as supplemented or modified by this terms supplement.

Reference Assets
 
Initial Levels*
 
Barrier Levels
Energy Select Sector SPDR® Fund (the “XLE”)
     
60.00% of its Initial Level
Financial Select Sector SPDR® Fund (the “XLF”)
     
60.00% of its Initial Level
* For each Reference Asset, the Initial Level will be its closing share price on the Pricing Date.
The Notes do not guarantee any return of principal at maturity. Any payments on the Notes are subject to our credit risk.
Investing in the Notes involves a number of risks. See “Additional Risk Factors Specific to the Notes” beginning on page PS-6 of the product prospectus supplement dated January 11, 2016, on page S-1 of the prospectus supplement dated January 8, 2016, and “Selected Risk Considerations” beginning on page P-7 of this terms supplement.
The Notes will not constitute deposits insured by the Canada Deposit Insurance Corporation, the U.S. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other Canadian or U.S. government agency or instrumentality.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of the Notes or determined that this terms supplement is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
Issuer:
Royal Bank of Canada
Stock Exchange Listing:
None
Pricing Date:
February 23, 2018
Principal Amount:
$1,000 per Note
Issue Date:
February 28, 2018
Maturity Date:
February 28, 2023
Valuation Date:
February 23, 2023
Booster Coupon:
[41.50% - 48.50%] (to be determined on the Pricing Date).
Initial Level:
For each Reference Asset, its closing share price on the Pricing Date.
Final Level:
For each Reference Asset, its closing share price on the Valuation Date.
Redemption Amount:
 
If the Final Level of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset is greater than its Initial Level but its Percentage Change does not exceed the Booster Coupon of [41.50% - 48.50%] (to be determined on the Pricing Date), the Notes provide a fixed return equal to the Booster Coupon.
If the Final Level of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset is greater than its Initial Level and its Percentage Change exceeds the Booster Coupon of [41.50% - 48.50%] (to be determined on the Pricing Date), the Notes provide a one-for-one positive return based upon the increase in the price of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset.
If the Final Level of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset is less than or equal to its Initial Level, but greater than or equal to its Barrier Level, the investor will receive the principal amount.
If the Final Level of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset is less than its Barrier Level, then the investor will receive an amount that is less than the principal amount, and that reflects the percentage decrease in the share price of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset. An investor could lose all or a substantial portion of its investment in the Notes.
Lesser Performing
Reference Asset:
The Reference Asset which has the lowest Percentage Change.
Interest Payments:
None.
CUSIP:
78013XFM5
 
Per Note
 
Total
Price to public(1)
100.00%
 
$
Underwriting discounts and commissions(1)
2.75%
 
$
Proceeds to Royal Bank of Canada
97.25%
 
$
(1)Certain dealers who purchase the Notes for sale to certain fee-based advisory accounts may forego some or all of their underwriting discount or selling concessions. The public offering price for investors purchasing the Notes in these accounts may be between $972.50 and $1,000 per $1,000 in principal amount.
The initial estimated value of the Notes as of the date of this terms supplement is $918.61 per $1,000 in principal amount, which is less than the price to public. The final pricing supplement relating to the Notes will set forth our estimate of the initial value of the Notes as of the Pricing Date, which will not be less than $898.61 per $1,000 in principal amount. The actual value of the Notes at any time will reflect many factors, cannot be predicted with accuracy, and may be less than this amount. We describe our determination of the initial estimated value in more detail below.
If the Notes priced on the date of this terms supplement, RBC Capital Markets, LLC, which we refer to as RBCCM, acting as agent for Royal Bank of Canada, would receive a commission of approximately $27.50 per $1,000 in principal amount of the Notes and would use a portion of that commission to allow selling concessions to other dealers of up to approximately $27.50 per $1,000 in principal amount of the Notes. The other dealers may forgo, in their sole discretion, some or all of their selling concessions. See “Supplemental Plan of Distribution (Conflicts of Interest)” below.
 
RBC Capital Markets, LLC
 

 
 
Barrier Booster Notes
Linked to the Lesser Performing of Two
Exchange Traded Funds,
Due February 28, 2023
Royal Bank of Canada
 
SUMMARY
The information in this “Summary” section is qualified by the more detailed information set forth in this terms supplement, the product prospectus supplement, the prospectus supplement, and the prospectus.
 
General:
This terms supplement relates to an offering of Barrier Booster Notes (the “Notes”) linked to the lesser performing of two exchange traded funds (the “Reference Assets”).
Issuer:
Royal Bank of Canada (“Royal Bank”)
Issue:
Senior Global Medium-Term Notes, Series G
Pricing Date:
February 23, 2018
Issue Date:
February 28, 2018
Term:
Approximately five years
Denominations:
Minimum denomination of $1,000, and integral multiples of $1,000 thereafter
Designated Currency:
U.S. Dollars
Valuation Date:
February 23, 2023
Maturity Date:
February 28, 2023
Initial Level:
For each Reference Asset, its closing share price on the Pricing Date.
Final Level:
For each Reference Asset, its closing share price on the Valuation Date.
Barrier Level:
For each Reference Asset, 60.00% of its Initial Level.
Booster Coupon:
[41.50% - 48.50%], to be determined on the Pricing Date.
Redemption Amount:
 
On the Valuation Date, we will pay you at maturity an amount based on the Final Level of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset:
·         If the Final Level of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset is greater than its Initial Level, but its Percentage Change does not exceed the Booster Coupon, the Notes provide a fixed return equal to the Booster Coupon:
$1,000 + ($1,000 x Booster Coupon)
·         If the Final Level of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset is greater than its Initial Level and its Percentage Change exceeds the Booster Coupon, the Notes provide a one-for-one positive return based upon the increase in the price of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset
$1,000 + ($1,000 x Percentage Change of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset)
·        If the Final Level of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset is less than or equal to its Initial Level, but greater than or equal to its Barrier Level, the investor will receive the principal amount.
·        If the Final Level of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset is less than its Barrier Level, then the investor will receive an amount equal to:
$1,000 + ($1,000 x Percentage Change of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset)
In this case, the amount of cash that you receive will be less than your principal amount, if anything, resulting in a loss that is proportionate to the decline of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset from the Pricing Date to the Valuation Date.
Investors in the Notes could lose some or all of their investment if there has been a decline in the trading price of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset below its Barrier Level.
Percentage Change:
 
With respect to each Reference Asset:
Final Level – Initial Level
Initial Level
Lesser Performing
Reference Asset:
The Reference Asset which has the lowest Percentage Change.
Market Disruption Event:
If a market disruption event occurs on the Valuation Date as to a Reference Asset, the determination of the Final Level of that Reference Asset will be postponed. However, the determination of the Final Level of any Reference Asset that is not affected by that market disruption event will not be postponed.
Calculation Agent:
RBC Capital Markets, LLC (“RBCCM”)
 
P-2
RBC Capital Markets, LLC

 
 
Barrier Booster Notes
Linked to the Lesser Performing of Two
Exchange Traded Funds,
Due February 28, 2023
Royal Bank of Canada
 
U.S. Tax Treatment:
By purchasing a Note, each holder agrees (in the absence of a change in law, an administrative determination or a judicial ruling to the contrary) to treat the Notes as a pre-paid cash-settled derivative contract in respect of the Reference Assets for U.S. federal income tax purposes. However, the U.S. federal income tax consequences of your investment in the Notes are uncertain and the Internal Revenue Service could assert that the Notes should be taxed in a manner that is different from that described in the preceding sentence. Please see the section below, “Supplemental Discussion of U.S. Federal Income Tax Consequences,” and the discussion (including the opinion of our counsel Morrison & Foerster LLP) in the product prospectus supplement dated January 11, 2016 under “Supplemental Discussion of U.S. Federal Income Tax Consequences,” which apply to the Notes.
Secondary Market:
RBCCM (or one of its affiliates), though not obligated to do so, may maintain a secondary market in the Notes after the Issue Date. The amount that you may receive upon sale of your Notes prior to maturity may be less than the principal amount.
Listing:
The Notes will not be listed on any securities exchange.
Settlement:
DTC global (including through its indirect participants Euroclear and Clearstream, Luxembourg as described under “Description of Debt Securities—Ownership and Book-Entry Issuance” in the prospectus dated January 8, 2016).
Terms Incorporated in
the Master Note:
All of the terms appearing above the item captioned “Secondary Market” on the cover page and pages P-2 and P-3 of this terms supplement and the terms appearing under the caption “General Terms of the Notes” in the product prospectus supplement dated January 11, 2016, as modified by this terms supplement.
 
P-3
RBC Capital Markets, LLC

 
 
Barrier Booster Notes
Linked to the Lesser Performing of Two
Exchange Traded Funds,
Due February 28, 2023
Royal Bank of Canada
 
ADDITIONAL TERMS OF YOUR NOTES
You should read this terms supplement together with the prospectus dated January 8, 2016, as supplemented by the prospectus supplement dated January 8, 2016 and the product prospectus supplement dated January 11, 2016, relating to our Senior Global Medium-Term Notes, Series G, of which these Notes are a part. Capitalized terms used but not defined in this terms supplement will have the meanings given to them in the product prospectus supplement. In the event of any conflict, this terms supplement will control. The Notes vary from the terms described in the product prospectus supplement in several important ways. You should read this terms supplement carefully.
This terms supplement, together with the documents listed below, contains the terms of the Notes and supersedes all prior or contemporaneous oral statements as well as any other written materials including preliminary or indicative pricing terms, correspondence, trade ideas, structures for implementation, sample structures, brochures or other educational materials of ours. You should carefully consider, among other things, the matters set forth in “Risk Factors” in the prospectus supplement dated January 8, 2016 and “Additional Risk Factors Specific to the Notes” in the product prospectus supplement dated January 11, 2016, as the Notes involve risks not associated with conventional debt securities. We urge you to consult your investment, legal, tax, accounting and other advisors before you invest in the Notes. You may access these documents on the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) website at www.sec.gov as follows (or if that address has changed, by reviewing our filings for the relevant date on the SEC website):
Prospectus dated January 8, 2016:
Prospectus Supplement dated January 8, 2016:
Product Prospectus Supplement ERN-ETF-1 dated January 11, 2016:
Our Central Index Key, or CIK, on the SEC website is 1000275. As used in this terms supplement, “we,” “us,” or “our” refers to Royal Bank of Canada.
Royal Bank of Canada has filed a registration statement (including a product prospectus supplement, a prospectus supplement, and a prospectus) with the SEC for the offering to which this terms supplement relates. Before you invest, you should read those documents and the other documents relating to this offering that we have filed with the SEC for more complete information about us and this offering. You may obtain these documents without cost by visiting EDGAR on the SEC website at www.sec.gov. Alternatively, Royal Bank of Canada, any agent or any dealer participating in this offering will arrange to send you the product prospectus supplement, the prospectus supplement and the prospectus if you so request by calling toll-free at 1-877-688-2301.
 
P-4
RBC Capital Markets, LLC

 
 
Barrier Booster Notes
Linked to the Lesser Performing of Two
Exchange Traded Funds,
Due February 28, 2023
Royal Bank of Canada
 
HYPOTHETICAL EXAMPLES
The table set out below is included for illustration purposes only. The table illustrates the hypothetical Redemption Amount of the Notes for a hypothetical range of performance for the Lesser Performing Reference Asset, assuming the following terms:
Hypothetical Initial Level (for each Reference Asset):
1,000.00*
Hypothetical Barrier Level (for each Reference Asset):
600.00, which is 60.00% of the hypothetical Initial Level
Hypothetical Booster Coupon:
45%, which is the midpoint of the Booster Coupon range of [41.50% - 48.50%] (to be determined on the Pricing Date).
Principal Amount:
$1,000 per Note
* The hypothetical Initial Level of 1,000.00 used in the examples below has been chosen for illustrative purposes only and does not represent the actual Initial Level of either Reference Asset. The actual Initial Levels for each Reference Asset will be set forth on the cover page of the final pricing supplement relating to the Notes. We make no representation or warranty as to which of the Reference Assets will be the Lesser Performing Reference Asset. It is possible that the Final Level of each Reference Asset will be less than its Initial Level.
Hypothetical Final Levels are shown in the first column on the left. The second column shows the Redemption Amount for a range of Final Levels of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset on the Valuation Date. The third column shows the Redemption Amount to be paid on the Notes per $1,000 in principal amount.
Hypothetical Final Level of the Lesser
Performing Reference Asset
Redemption Amount as
Percentage of Principal Amount
Redemption Amount
per $1,000 in Principal
Amount
1,600.00
160.00%
$1,600.00
1,500.00
150.00%
$1,500.00
1,450.00
145.00%
$1,450.00
1,400.00
145.00%
$1,450.00
1,300.00
145.00%
$1,450.00
1,200.00
145.00%
$1,450.00
1,100.00
145.00%
$1,450.00
1,000.00
145.00%
$1,450.00
900.00
100.00%
$1,000.00
800.00
100.00%
$1,000.00
700.00
100.00%
$1,000.00
600.00
100.00%
$1,000.00
599.90
59.99%
$599.90
500.00
50.00%
$500.00
400.00
40.00%
$400.00
250.00
25.00%
$250.00
0.00
0.00%
$0.00
 
P-5
RBC Capital Markets, LLC

 
 
Barrier Booster Notes
Linked to the Lesser Performing of Two
Exchange Traded Funds,
Due February 28, 2023
Royal Bank of Canada
 
Hypothetical Examples of Amounts Payable at Maturity
The following hypothetical examples illustrate how the payments at maturity set forth in the table above are calculated.
Example 1: The price of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset increases by 10% from the Initial Level of 1,000.00 to its Final Level of 1,100.00. Because the Final Level of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset is greater than the Initial Level, but the Percentage Change is less than the Booster Coupon, the investor receives at maturity a cash payment of $1,450.00 per Note, corresponding to the Booster Coupon.
Principal Amount + (Principal Amount x Booster Coupon)
=$1,000 + ($1,000 x 45%) = $1,450
Example 2: The price of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset increases by 50% from the Initial Level of 1,000.00 to its Final Level of 1,500.00. Because the Final Level of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset is greater than the Initial Level, and the Percentage Change is greater than the Booster Coupon, the investor receives at maturity a cash payment
Principal Amount + (Principal Amount x Percentage Change of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset)
= $1,000 + ($1,000 x 50%) = $1,500.00
Example 3: The price of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset decreases by 15% from the Initial Level of 1,000.00 to its Final Level of 850.00. Because the Final Level of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset is greater than its Barrier Level of 600.00, the investor receives at maturity the principal amount, despite the 15% decline in the share price of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset.
Example 4: The price of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset decreases by 60% from the Initial Level of 1,000.00 to its Final Level of 400.00. Because the Final Level of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset is less than its Barrier Level of 600.00, we will pay only $400.00 for each $1,000 in the principal amount of the Notes, calculated as follows:
Principal Amount + (Principal Amount x Percentage Change of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset)
= $1,000 + ($1,000 x -60.00%) = $1,000 - $600.00 = $400.00
* * *
The Payments at Maturity shown above are entirely hypothetical; they are based on prices of the Reference Assets that may not be achieved on the Valuation Date and on assumptions that may prove to be erroneous. The actual market value of your Notes on the Maturity Date or at any other time, including any time you may wish to sell your Notes, may bear little relation to the hypothetical Redemption Amounts shown above, and those amounts should not be viewed as an indication of the financial return on an investment in the Notes or on an investment in either Reference Asset or any securities held by either Reference Asset.
 
P-6
RBC Capital Markets, LLC

 
 
Barrier Booster Notes
Linked to the Lesser Performing of Two
Exchange Traded Funds,
Due February 28, 2023
Royal Bank of Canada
 
SELECTED RISK CONSIDERATIONS
An investment in the Notes involves significant risks. Investing in the Notes is not equivalent to investing directly in the Reference Assets. These risks are explained in more detail in the section “Additional Risk Factors Specific to the Notes” in the product prospectus supplement. In addition to the risks described in the prospectus supplement and the product prospectus supplement, you should consider the following:
·
Principal at Risk – Investors in the Notes could lose all or a substantial portion of their principal amount if there is a decline in the share price of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset between the Pricing Date and the Valuation Date of more than 40%. You will lose 1% of the principal amount of your Notes for each 1% that the Lesser Performing Reference Asset has declined if the Final Level of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset is less than its Barrier Level.
·
Your Redemption Amount Will Be Determined Solely by Reference to the Lesser Performing Reference Asset Even if the Other Reference Asset Performs Better – Your Redemption Amount will be determined solely by reference to the performance of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset. Even if the Final Level of the other Reference Asset has increased compared to its Initial Level, or has experienced a decrease that is less than that of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset, your return will only be determined by reference to the performance of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset, regardless of the performance of the other Reference Asset. The Notes are not linked to a weighted basket, in which the risk may be mitigated and diversified among each of the basket components. For example, in the case of notes linked to a weighted basket, the return would depend on the weighted aggregate performance of the basket components reflected as the basket return. As a result, the depreciation of one basket component could be mitigated by the appreciation of the other basket components, as scaled by the weighting of that basket component. However, in the case of the Notes, the individual performance of each of the Reference Assets would not be combined, and the depreciation of one Reference Asset would not be mitigated by any appreciation of the other Reference Asset. Instead, your return will depend solely on the Final Level of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset.
·
The Notes Do Not Pay Interest and Your Return May Be Lower than the Return on a Conventional Debt Security of Comparable Maturity – You will not receive any interest payments on the Notes as there would be on a conventional fixed-rate or floating-rate debt security having the same maturity. The return that you will receive on the Notes, which could be negative, may be less than the return you could earn on other investments. Your return may be less than the return you would earn if you bought a conventional senior interest bearing debt security of Royal Bank.
·
Payments on the Notes Are Subject to Our Credit Risk, and Changes in Our Credit Ratings Are Expected to Affect the Market Value of the Notes – The Notes are Royal Bank’s senior unsecured debt securities. As a result, your receipt of the Redemption Amount is dependent upon Royal Bank’s ability to repay its obligations at that time. This will be the case even if the share prices of the Reference Assets increase after the Pricing Date. No assurance can be given as to what our financial condition will be at the maturity of the Notes.
·
There May Not Be an Active Trading Market for the NotesSales in the Secondary Market May Result in Significant Losses – There may be little or no secondary market for the Notes. The Notes will not be listed on any securities exchange. RBCCM and other affiliates of Royal Bank may make a market for the Notes; however, they are not required to do so. RBCCM or any other affiliate of Royal Bank may stop any market-making activities at any time. Even if a secondary market for the Notes develops, it may not provide significant liquidity or trade at prices advantageous to you. We expect that transaction costs in any secondary market would be high. As a result, the difference between bid and asked prices for your Notes in any secondary market could be substantial.
·
Owning the Notes Is Not the Same as Owning the Reference Assets — The return on your Notes is unlikely to reflect the return you would realize if you actually owned shares of the Reference Assets. For instance, you will not receive or be entitled to receive any dividend payments or other distributions on those securities during the term of your Notes. As an owner of the Notes, you will not have voting rights or any other rights that holders of the Reference Assets may have.
·
The Initial Estimated Value of the Notes Will Be Less than the Price to the Public — The initial estimated value set forth on the cover page and that will be set forth in the final pricing supplement for the Notes does not represent a minimum price at which we, RBCCM or any of our affiliates would be willing to purchase the Notes in any secondary market (if any exists) at any time. If you attempt to sell the Notes prior to maturity, their market value may be lower than the price you paid for them and the initial estimated value. This is due to, among other things, changes in the share prices of the Reference Assets, the borrowing rate we pay to issue securities of this kind, and the inclusion in the price to the public of the underwriting discount and the estimated costs relating to our hedging of the Notes. These factors, together with various credit, market and economic factors over the term of the Notes, are expected to reduce the price at which you may be able to sell the Notes in any secondary market and will affect the value of the Notes in complex and unpredictable ways. Assuming no change in market conditions or any other relevant factors, the price, if any, at which you may be able to sell your Notes prior to maturity may be less than your original purchase price, as any such sale price would not be expected to include the underwriting discount and the hedging costs relating to the Notes. In addition to bid-ask spreads, the value of the Notes determined by RBCCM for any secondary
 
P-7
RBC Capital Markets, LLC

 
 
Barrier Booster Notes
Linked to the Lesser Performing of Two
Exchange Traded Funds,
Due February 28, 2023
Royal Bank of Canada
 
market price is expected to be based on the secondary rate rather than the internal funding rate used to price the Notes and determine the initial estimated value. As a result, the secondary price will be less than if the internal funding rate was used. The Notes are not designed to be short-term trading instruments. Accordingly, you should be able and willing to hold your Notes to maturity.
·
The Initial Estimated Value of the Notes on the Cover Page of this Terms Supplement and that We Will Provide in the Final Pricing Supplement Are Estimates Only, Calculated as of the Time the Terms of the Notes Are Set — The initial estimated value of the Notes will be based on the value of our obligation to make the payments on the Notes, together with the mid-market value of the derivative embedded in the terms of the Notes. See “Structuring the Notes” below. Our estimates are based on a variety of assumptions, including our credit spreads, expectations as to dividends, interest rates and volatility, and the expected term of the Notes. These assumptions are based on certain forecasts about future events, which may prove to be incorrect. Other entities may value the Notes or similar securities at a price that is significantly different than we do.
The value of the Notes at any time after the Pricing Date will vary based on many factors, including changes in market conditions, and cannot be predicted with accuracy. As a result, the actual value you would receive if you sold the Notes in any secondary market, if any, should be expected to differ materially from the initial estimated value of your Notes.
·
Inconsistent Research — Royal Bank or its affiliates may issue research reports on the Reference Assets or on securities that are, or may become, components of the Reference Assets. We may also publish research from time to time on financial markets and other matters that may influence the share prices of the Reference Assets or the value of the Notes, or express opinions or provide recommendations that may be inconsistent with purchasing or holding the Notes or with the investment view implicit in the Notes or the Reference Assets. You should make your own independent investigation of the merits of investing in the Notes and the Reference Assets.
·
Market Disruption Events and Adjustments – The Redemption Amount and the Valuation Date are subject to adjustment as to each Reference Asset as described in the product prospectus supplement. For a description of what constitutes a market disruption event as well as the consequences of that market disruption event, see “General Terms of the Notes—Market Disruption Events” in the product prospectus supplement.
·
Each Reference Asset and its Underlying Index Are Different — The performance of each Reference Asset may not exactly replicate the performance of its underlying index, because each Reference Asset will reflect transaction costs and fees that are not included in the calculation of its underlying index. It is also possible that the performance of each Reference Asset may not fully replicate or may in certain circumstances diverge significantly from the performance of its underlying index due to the temporary unavailability of certain securities in the secondary market, the performance of any derivative instruments contained in such Reference Asset or due to other circumstances. Each Reference Asset may use futures contracts, options, swap agreements, currency forwards and repurchase agreements in seeking performance that corresponds to its underlying index and in managing cash flows.
During periods of market volatility, securities underlying each Reference Asset may be unavailable in the secondary market, market participants may be unable to calculate accurately the net asset value per share of a Reference Asset and the liquidity of a Reference Asset may be adversely affected. This kind of market volatility may also disrupt the ability of market participants to create and redeem shares of a Reference Asset. Further, market volatility may adversely affect, sometimes materially, the prices at which market participants are willing to buy and sell shares of a Reference Asset. As a result, under these circumstances, the market value of shares of such Reference Asset may vary substantially from the net asset value per share of such Reference Asset. For all of the foregoing reasons, the performance of each Reference Asset may not correlate with the performance of its underlying index as well as the net asset value per share of such Reference Asset, which could materially and adversely affect the value of the Notes in the secondary market and/or reduce your payment at maturity
·
Adjustments to the Reference Asset Could Adversely Affect the Notes — The advisor of the Reference Assets, SSGA Funds Management, Inc. (“SSGA” or the “Advisor”), is responsible for calculating and maintaining the Reference Assets. The Advisor can add, delete or substitute the stocks comprising a Reference Asset. The Advisor may make other methodological changes that could change the share price of a Reference Asset at any time. If one or more of these events occurs, the calculation of the amount payable at maturity may be adjusted to reflect such event or events. Consequently, any of these actions could adversely affect the amount payable at maturity and/or the market value of the Notes.
·
We Have No Affiliation with the Index Sponsor and Will Not Be Responsible for Any Actions Taken by the Index Sponsor — The sponsor of the underlying index for each Reference Asset is not our affiliate and will not be involved in the offering of the Notes in any way. Consequently, we have no control over the actions of the index sponsor, including any actions of the type that would require the calculation agent to adjust the payment to you at maturity. The index sponsor has no obligation of any sort with respect to the Notes. Thus, the index sponsor has no obligation to take your interests into consideration for any reason, including in taking any actions that might affect the value of the Notes. None of our proceeds from the issuance of the Notes will be delivered to the index sponsor.
 
P-8
RBC Capital Markets, LLC

 
 
Barrier Booster Notes
Linked to the Lesser Performing of Two
Exchange Traded Funds,
Due February 28, 2023
Royal Bank of Canada
 
·
We and Our Affiliates Do Not Have Any Affiliation with the Advisor and Are Not Responsible for its Public Disclosure of Information — We and our affiliates are not affiliated with the Advisor in any way and have no ability to control or predict its actions, including any errors in or discontinuance of disclosure regarding its methods or policies relating to the Reference Assets. The Advisor is not involved in the offering of the Notes in any way and has no obligation to consider your interests as an owner of the Notes in taking any actions relating to the Reference Assets that might affect the value of the Notes. Neither we nor any of our affiliates has independently verified the adequacy or accuracy of the information about the Advisor or the Reference Assets contained in any public disclosure of information. You, as an investor in the Notes, should make your own investigation into the Reference Assets.
·
The Reference Assets Are Subject to Management Risks — The Reference Assets are subject to management risk, which is the risk that the Advisor’s investment strategy, the implementation of which is subject to a number of constraints, may not produce the intended results. For example, the Advisor may invest a portion of the Reference Assets’ assets in securities not included in the relevant industry or sector but which the Advisor believes will help the Reference Asset track the relevant industry or sector.
·
Our Business Activities May Create Conflicts of Interest — We and our affiliates expect to engage in trading activities related to the Reference Assets or the securities held by the Reference Assets that are not for the account of holders of the Notes or on their behalf. These trading activities may present a conflict between the holders’ interests in the Notes and the interests we and our affiliates will have in their proprietary accounts, in facilitating transactions, including options and other derivatives transactions, for their customers and in accounts under their management. These trading activities, if they influence the prices of the Reference Assets, could be adverse to the interests of the holders of the Notes. We and one or more of our affiliates may, at present or in the future, engage in business with the issuers of the securities held by the Reference Assets, including making loans to or providing advisory services. These services could include investment banking and merger and acquisition advisory services. These activities may present a conflict between our or one or more of our affiliates’ obligations and your interests as a holder of the Notes. Moreover, we and our affiliates may have published, and in the future expect to publish, research reports with respect to the Reference Assets. This research is modified from time to time without notice and may express opinions or provide recommendations that are inconsistent with purchasing or holding the Notes. Any of these activities by us or one or more of our affiliates may affect the price of the Reference Assets, and, therefore, the market value of the Notes.
·
The Securities Held by Each Reference Asset Are Concentrated in One Sector — All of the securities held by each Reference Assets are issued by companies in a single sector, namely, energy and financials, as applicable.  As a result, the securities that will determine the performance of each Reference Asset and the level of its underlying index, which the Reference Asset seeks to replicate, are concentrated in one sector. Although an investment in the Notes will not give holders any ownership or other direct interests in the securities composing an underlying index, the return on an investment in the Notes will be subject to certain risks associated with a direct equity investment in companies in these market sectors. Accordingly, by investing in the Notes, you will not benefit from the diversification which could result from an investment linked to companies that operate in multiple sectors.
·
A Limited Number of Index Components May Affect the Level of the Relevant Underlying Index and an Underlying Index Is Not Necessarily Representative of the Relevant Sector —As of February 1, 2018, the top three index components constituted 47.10% of the total weight of the Energy Select Sector Index, and the top three index components constituted 31.40% of the total weight of the Financial Select Sector Index. Any reduction in the market price of those securities is likely to have a substantial adverse impact on the level of the relevant underlying index and consequently, the price of the relevant Reference Asset and the value of the Notes.
While the securities included in an underlying index are common stocks of companies generally considered to be involved in various segments of the energy sector or the financial sector, as applicable, the securities included in an underlying index may not follow the price movements of the entire energy sector or the financial sector generally. If the securities included in an underlying index decline in value, that underlying index will decline in value even if security prices in the energy sector or the financial sector generally increase in value.
·
The Stocks of Companies in the Energy Sector Are Subject to Swift Price Fluctuations The issuers of the stocks held by the XLE develop and produce, among other things, crude oil and natural gas, and provide, among other things, drilling services and other services related to energy resources production and distribution. Stock prices for these types of companies are affected by supply and demand both for their specific product or service and for energy products in general. The price of oil and gas, exploration and production spending, government regulation, world events and economic conditions will likewise affect the performance of these companies. Correspondingly, the stocks of companies in the energy sector are subject to swift price fluctuations caused by events relating to international politics, energy conservation, the success of exploration projects and tax and other governmental regulatory policies. Weak demand for the companies’ products or services or for energy products and services in general, as well as negative developments in these other areas, would adversely impact the value of the stocks held by the XLE and, therefore, the price of the XLE and the value of the Notes.
 
P-9
RBC Capital Markets, LLC

 
 
Barrier Booster Notes
Linked to the Lesser Performing of Two
Exchange Traded Funds,
Due February 28, 2023
Royal Bank of Canada
 
·
Economic Conditions Have Adversely Impacted the Stock Prices of Many Companies in the Financial Services Sector, and May Do So During the Term of the Notes — In recent years, economic conditions in the U.S. have resulted, and may continue to result, in significant losses among many companies that operate in the financial services sector. These conditions have also resulted, and may continue to result, in a high degree of volatility in the stock prices of financial institutions, and substantial fluctuations in the profitability of these companies. Numerous financial services companies have experienced substantial decreases in the value of their assets, taken action to raise capital (including the issuance of debt or equity securities), or even ceased operations. Further, companies in the financial services sector have been subject to unprecedented government actions and regulation, which may limit the scope of their operations and, in turn, result in a decrease in value of these companies. Any of these factors may have an adverse impact on the price of the XLF. As a result, the price of the XLF may be adversely affected by economic, political, or regulatory events affecting the financial services sector or one of the sub-sectors of the financial services sector. This in turn could adversely impact the market value of the Notes and decrease the Redemption Amount.
 
P-10
RBC Capital Markets, LLC

 
 
Barrier Booster Notes
Linked to the Lesser Performing of Two
Exchange Traded Funds,
Due February 28, 2023
Royal Bank of Canada
 
INFORMATION REGARDING THE REFERENCE ASSETS
We have derived the following information regarding each of the Reference Assets from publicly available documents. We have not independently verified the accuracy or completeness of the following information. We are not affiliated with any of the Reference Assets and the Reference Assets will have no obligations with respect to the Notes. Neither we nor our affiliates participate in the preparation of the publicly available documents described below. Neither we nor our affiliates have made any due diligence inquiry with respect to any of the Reference Assets in connection with the offering of the Notes. There can be no assurance that all events occurring prior to the date of this document, including events that would affect the accuracy or completeness of the publicly available documents described below, that would affect the trading prices of the shares of any of the Reference Assets have been or will be publicly disclosed. Subsequent disclosure of any events or the disclosure of or failure to disclose material future events concerning any of the Reference Assets could affect the price of the shares of the applicable Reference Asset after the Pricing Date, and therefore could affect the payment at maturity.
The selection of the Reference Assets is not a recommendation to buy or sell the shares of either Reference Asset. Neither we nor any of our affiliates make any representation to you as to the performance of the shares of any of the Reference Assets. Information provided to or filed with the SEC under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and the Investment Company Act of 1940 relating to each Reference Asset may be obtained through the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov.
Each fund is an investment portfolio maintained and managed by SSGA. SSGA is the investment advisor to each of the separate investment portfolios, including the Reference Assets, all of which are offered by the Select Sector SPDR Trust, a registered investment company.
Each fund utilizes a “replication” investment approach in attempting to track the performance of the applicable underlying index. The Reference Assets typically invest in substantially all of the securities which comprise the applicable underlying index in approximately the same proportions as that index. Each fund will normally invest at least 95% of its total assets in the common stocks that comprise the applicable underlying index.
The Energy Select Sector SPDR® Fund
The XLE seeks to provide investment results that correspond generally to the price and yield performance, before fees and expenses, of the Energy Select Sector Index. The Energy Select Sector Index measures the performance of the energy sector of the U.S. equity market. The XLE is composed of companies whose primary line of business is directly associated with the energy sector. The XLE trades on the NYSE Arca under the ticker symbol “XLE.”
The Financial Select Sector SPDR® Fund
The XLF seeks to provide investment results that correspond generally to the price and yield performance, before fees and expenses, of the Financials Select Sector Index. The Financials Select Sector Index measures the performance of the financial sector of the U.S. equity market. The XLF is composed of companies whose primary line of business is directly associated with the financial sector. The XLF trades on the NYSE Arca under the ticker symbol “XLF.”
The Energy Select Sector Index and the Financial Select Sector Index
The Energy Select Sector Index
The Energy Select Sector Index (Index symbol: “XLE”) is a modified market capitalization-based index. The index is intended to track the movements of companies that are components of the S&P 500® Index and are involved in the development or production of energy products. The index includes companies from the oil, gas and consumable fuels industry, as well as the energy equipment and services industry.
The Financial Select Sector Index
The Financial Select Sector Index (Index symbol: “XLF”) is a modified market capitalization-based index, intended to provide an indication of the pattern of common stock price movements of companies that are components of the S&P 500® Index and are involved the following industries: diversified financial services, insurance, commercial banks, capital markets, real estate investment trusts, thrift & mortgage finance, consumer finance, and real estate management & development.
Each index is one of the Select Sector Indices.  The Select Sector Indices are sub-indices of the S&P 500® Index.  Each stock in the S&P 500® Index is allocated to at least one Select Sector Index, and the combined companies of the ten Select Sector Indices represent all of the companies in the S&P 500® Index.  The industry indices are sub-categories within each Select Sector Index and represent a specific industry segment of the overall Select Sector Index.  The ten Select Sector Indices seek to represent the eleven S&P 500® Index sectors. 
Each Select Sector Index was developed and is maintained in accordance with the following criteria:
·
Each of the component stocks in a Select Sector Index (the “Component Stocks”) is a constituent company of the S&P 500® Index.
·
The ten Select Sector Indices together will include all of the companies represented in the S&P 500® Index and each of the stocks in the S&P 500® Index will be allocated to at least one of the Select Sector Indices.
·
The Index Compilation Agent assigns each constituent stock of the S&P 500® Index to a Select Sector Index. The Index Compilation Agent assigns a company’s stock to a particular Select Sector Index based on S&P Dow Jones Indices’ sector classification methodology as set forth in its Global Industry Classification Standard.
 
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RBC Capital Markets, LLC

 
 
Barrier Booster Notes
Linked to the Lesser Performing of Two
Exchange Traded Funds,
Due February 28, 2023
Royal Bank of Canada
 
·
Each Select Sector Index is calculated by S&P Dow Jones Indices using a modified “market capitalization” methodology. This design ensures that each of the component stocks within a Select Sector Index is represented in a proportion consistent with its percentage with respect to the total market capitalization of that Select Sector Index.
·
For reweighting purposes, each Select Sector Index is rebalanced quarterly after the close of business on the second to last calculation day of March, June, September and December using the following procedures:  (1) The rebalancing reference date is two business days prior to the last calculation day of each quarter; (2) With prices reflected on the rebalancing reference date, and membership, shares outstanding, additional weight factor (capping factor) and investable weight factors (as described in the section “Computation of the S&P 500 Index®” below) as of the rebalancing effective date, each company is weighted using the modified market capitalization methodology. Modifications are made as defined below.
(i) The indices are first evaluated to ensure none of the indices breach the maximum allowable limits defined in rules (ii) and (v) below.  If any of the allowable limits are breached, the component stocks are reweighted based on their float-adjusted market capitalization weights.
(ii) If any component stock has a weight greater than 24%, that component stock has its float-adjusted market capitalization weight capped at 23%. The 23% weight cap creates a 2% buffer to ensure that no component stock exceeds 25% as of the quarter-end diversification requirement date.
(iii) All excess weight is equally redistributed to all uncapped component stocks within the relevant Select Sector Index.
(iv) After this redistribution, if the float-adjusted market capitalization weight of any other component stock(s) then breaches 23%, the process is repeated iteratively until no component stock s breaches the 23% weight cap.
(v) The sum of the component stocks with weight greater than 4.8% cannot exceed 50% of the total index weight. These caps are set to allow for a buffer below the 5% limit.
(vi) If the rule in step (v) is breached, all the component stocks are ranked in descending order of their float-adjusted market capitalization weights and the first component stock that causes the 50% limit to be breached has its weight reduced to 4.6%.
(vii) This excess weight is equally redistributed to all component stocks with weights below 4.6%. This process is repeated iteratively until step (v) is satisfied.
(viii) Index share amounts are assigned to each component stock to arrive at the weights calculated above.  Since index shares are assigned based on prices one business day prior to rebalancing, the actual weight of each component stock at the rebalancing differs somewhat from these weights due to market movements.
(ix) If necessary, the reweighting process may take place more than once prior to the close on the last business day of March, June, September or December to ensure conformity with all diversification requirements.
Each Select Sector Index is calculated using the same methodology utilized by S&P Dow Jones Indices in calculating the S&P 500® Index, using a base-weighted aggregate methodology. The daily calculation of each Select Sector Index is computed by dividing the total market value of the companies in the Select Sector Index by a number called the index divisor.
The Index Compilation Agent at any time may determine that a Component Stock which has been assigned to one Select Sector Index has undergone such a transformation in the composition of its business, and should be removed from that Select Sector Index and assigned to a different Select Sector Index. In the event that the Index Compilation Agent notifies S&P Dow Jones Indices that a Component Stock’s Select Sector Index assignment should be changed, S&P Dow Jones Indices will disseminate notice of the change following its standard procedure for announcing index changes and will implement the change in the affected Select Sector Indices on a date no less than one week after the initial dissemination of information on the sector change to the maximum extent practicable. It is not anticipated that Component Stocks will change sectors frequently.
Component Stocks removed from and added to the S&P 500® Index will be deleted from and added to the appropriate Select Sector Index on the same schedule used by S&P Dow Jones Indices for additions and deletions from the S&P 500® Index insofar as practicable.
 
P-12
RBC Capital Markets, LLC

 
 
Barrier Booster Notes
Linked to the Lesser Performing of Two
Exchange Traded Funds,
Due February 28, 2023
Royal Bank of Canada
 
The S&P 500® Index
The S&P 500® Index (the “SPX”) is intended to provide an indication of the pattern of common stock price movement. The calculation of the level of the SPX is based on the relative value of the aggregate market value of the common stocks of 500 companies as of a particular time compared to the aggregate average market value of the common stocks of 500 similar companies during the base period of the years 1941 through 1943.
S&P calculates the SPX by reference to the prices of the constituent stocks of the SPX without taking account of the value of dividends paid on those stocks. Effective with the September 2015 rebalance, consolidated share class lines will no longer be included in the SPX. Each share class line will be subject to public float and liquidity criteria individually, but the company’s total market capitalization will be used to evaluate each share class line. This may result in one listed share class line of a company being included in the SPX while a second listed share class line of the same company is excluded.
Computation of the SPX
While S&P currently employs the following methodology to calculate the SPX, no assurance can be given that S&P will not modify or change this methodology in a manner that may affect the Payment at Maturity.
Historically, the market value of any component stock of the SPX was calculated as the product of the market price per share and the number of then outstanding shares of such component stock. In March 2005, S&P began shifting the SPX halfway from a market capitalization weighted formula to a float-adjusted formula, before moving the SPX to full float adjustment on September 16, 2005. S&P’s criteria for selecting stocks for the SPX did not change with the shift to float adjustment. However, the adjustment affects each company’s weight in the SPX.
Under float adjustment, the share counts used in calculating the SPX reflect only those shares that are available to investors, not all of a company’s outstanding shares. Float adjustment excludes shares that are closely held by control groups, other publicly traded companies or government agencies.
In September 2012, all shareholdings representing more than 5% of a stock’s outstanding shares, other than holdings by “block owners,” were removed from the float for purposes of calculating the SPX. Generally, these “control holders” will include officers and directors, private equity, venture capital and special equity firms, other publicly traded companies that hold shares for control, strategic partners, holders of restricted shares, ESOPs, employee and family trusts, foundations associated with the company, holders of unlisted share classes of stock, government entities at all levels (other than government retirement/pension funds) and any individual person who controls a 5% or greater stake in a company as reported in regulatory filings. However, holdings by block owners, such as depositary banks, pension funds, mutual funds and ETF providers, 401(k) plans of the company, government retirement/pension funds, investment funds of insurance companies, asset managers and investment funds, independent foundations and savings and investment plans, will ordinarily be considered part of the float.
Treasury stock, stock options, equity participation units, warrants, preferred stock, convertible stock, and rights are not part of the float. Shares held in a trust to allow investors in countries outside the country of domicile, such as depositary shares and Canadian exchangeable shares are normally part of the float unless those shares form a control block.
For each stock, an investable weight factor (“IWF”) is calculated by dividing the available float shares by the total shares outstanding. Available float shares are defined as the total shares outstanding less shares held by control holders. This calculation is subject to a 5% minimum threshold for control blocks. For example, if a company’s officers and directors hold 3% of the company’s shares, and no other control group holds 5% of the company’s shares, S&P would assign that company an IWF of 1.00, as no control group meets the 5% threshold. However, if a company’s officers and directors hold 3% of the company’s shares and another control group holds 20% of the company’s shares, S&P would assign an IWF of 0.77, reflecting the fact that 23% of the company’s outstanding shares are considered to be held for control. As of July 31, 2017, companies with multiple share class lines are no longer eligible for inclusion in the SPX. Constituents of the SPX prior to July 31, 2017 with multiple share class lines will be grandfathered in and continue to be included in the SPX. If a constituent company of the SPX reorganizes into a multiple share class line structure, that company will remain in the SPX at the discretion of the S&P Index Committee in order to minimize turnover.
The SPX is calculated using a base-weighted aggregate methodology. The level of the SPX reflects the total market value of all 500 component stocks relative to the base period of the years 1941 through 1943. An indexed number is used to represent the results of this calculation in order to make the level easier to use and track over time. The actual total market value of the component stocks during the base period of the years 1941 through 1943 has been set to an indexed level of 10. This is often indicated by the notation 1941-43 = 10. In practice, the daily calculation of the SPX is computed by dividing the total market value of the component stocks by the “index
 
P-13
RBC Capital Markets, LLC

 
 
Barrier Booster Notes
Linked to the Lesser Performing of Two
Exchange Traded Funds,
Due February 28, 2023
Royal Bank of Canada
 
divisor.” By itself, the index divisor is an arbitrary number. However, in the context of the calculation of the SPX, it serves as a link to the original base period level of the SPX. The index divisor keeps the SPX comparable over time and is the manipulation point for all adjustments to the SPX, which is index maintenance.
Index Maintenance
Index maintenance includes monitoring and completing the adjustments for company additions and deletions, share changes, stock splits, stock dividends, and stock price adjustments due to company restructuring or spinoffs. Some corporate actions, such as stock splits and stock dividends, require changes in the common shares outstanding and the stock prices of the companies in the SPX, and do not require index divisor adjustments.
To prevent the level of the SPX from changing due to corporate actions, corporate actions which affect the total market value of the SPX require an index divisor adjustment. By adjusting the index divisor for the change in market value, the level of the SPX remains constant and does not reflect the corporate actions of individual companies in the SPX. Index divisor adjustments are made after the close of trading and after the calculation of the SPX’s closing level.
Changes in a company’s total shares outstanding of 5% or more due to public offerings are made as soon as reasonably possible. Other changes of 5% or more (for example, due to tender offers, Dutch auctions, voluntary exchange offers, company stock repurchases, private placements, acquisitions of private companies or non-index companies that do not trade on a major exchange, redemptions, exercise of options, warrants, conversion of preferred stock, notes, debt, equity participations, at-the-market stock offerings or other recapitalizations) are made weekly, and are generally announced on Fridays for implementation after the close of trading the following Friday (one week later). If a 5% or more share change causes a company’s IWF to change by five percentage points or more, the IWF is updated at the same time as the share change. IWF changes resulting from partial tender offers are considered on a case-by-case basis.
 
P-14
RBC Capital Markets, LLC

 
 
Barrier Booster Notes
Linked to the Lesser Performing of Two
Exchange Traded Funds,
Due February 28, 2023
Royal Bank of Canada
 
Historical Information for the Energy Select Sector SPDR® Fund
The graph below sets forth the information relating to the historical performance of the XLE. In addition, below the graph is a table setting forth the intra-day high, intra-day low and period-end closing share prices of the XLE. The information provided in this table is for the four calendar quarters of 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017 and for the period from January 1, 2018 through February 1, 2018.
We obtained the information regarding the historical performance of the XLE in the chart below from Bloomberg Financial Markets.
We have not independently verified the accuracy or completeness of the information obtained from Bloomberg Financial Markets. The historical performance of this Reference Asset should not be taken as an indication of its future performance, and no assurance can be given as to the Final Level of this Reference Asset. We cannot give you assurance that the performance of this Reference Asset will result in any positive return on your initial investment.

Period-Start
Date
 
Period-End
Date
 
High Intra-Day Price of this
Reference Asset ($)
 
Low Intra-Day Price of this
Reference Asset ($)
 
Period-End Closing Price of
this Reference Asset ($)
1/1/2013
 
3/31/2013
 
80.13
 
72.00
 
79.32
4/1/2013
 
6/30/2013
 
83.95
 
73.53
 
78.36
7/1/2013
 
9/30/2013
 
85.74
 
78.35
 
82.88
10/1/2013
 
12/31/2013
 
88.53
 
81.33
 
88.51
1/1/2014
 
3/31/2014
 
89.59
 
81.78
 
89.06
4/1/2014
 
6/30/2014
 
101.51
 
88.24
 
100.10
7/1/2014
 
9/30/2014
 
100.96
 
90.06
 
90.62
10/1/2014
 
12/31/2014
 
91.05
 
72.51
 
79.16
1/1/2015
 
3/31/2015
 
82.42
 
71.70
 
77.58
4/1/2015
 
6/30/2015
 
83.65
 
74.58
 
75.16
7/1/2015
 
9/30/2015
 
75.32
 
58.74
 
61.20
10/1/2015
 
12/31/2015
 
71.93
 
58.22
 
60.55
1/1/2016
 
3/31/2016
 
64.27
 
49.94
 
61.92
4/1/2016
 
6/30/2016
 
70.26
 
59.94
 
68.24
7/1/2016
 
9/30/2016
 
71.94
 
64.58
 
70.61
10/1/2016
 
12/31/2016
 
78.45
 
67.00
 
75.32
1/1/2017
 
3/31/2017
 
76.81
 
67.87
 
69.90
4/1/2017
 
6/30/2017
 
71.49
 
63.64
 
64.92
7/1/2017
 
9/29/2017
 
68.90
 
61.81
 
68.48
10/1/2017
 
12/29/2017
 
72.71
 
66.36
 
72.26
1/1/2018
 
2/1/2018
 
78.39
 
72.40
 
75.62
PAST PERFORMANCE IS NOT INDICATIVE OF FUTURE RESULTS.
 
P-15
RBC Capital Markets, LLC

 
 
Barrier Booster Notes
Linked to the Lesser Performing of Two
Exchange Traded Funds,
Due February 28, 2023
Royal Bank of Canada
 
Historical Information for the Financial Select Sector SPDR® Fund
The graph below sets forth the information relating to the historical performance of the XLF. In addition, below the graph is a table setting forth the intra-day high, intra-day low and period-end closing share prices of the XLF. The information provided in this table is for the four calendar quarters of 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017 and for the period from January 1, 2018 through February 1, 2018.
We obtained the information regarding the historical performance of the XLF in the chart below from Bloomberg Financial Markets.
We have not independently verified the accuracy or completeness of the information obtained from Bloomberg Financial Markets. The historical performance of this Reference Asset should not be taken as an indication of its future performance, and no assurance can be given as to the Final Level of this Reference Asset. We cannot give you assurance that the performance of this Reference Asset will result in any positive return on your initial investment.
Period-Start
Date
 
Period-End
Date
 
High Intra-Day Price of this
Reference Asset ($)
 
Low Intra-Day Price of this
Reference Asset ($)
 
Period-End Closing Price of
this Reference Asset ($)
1/1/2013
 
3/31/2013
 
15.00
 
13.60
 
14.77
4/1/2013
 
6/30/2013
 
16.52
 
14.42
 
15.83
7/1/2013
 
9/30/2013
 
17.00
 
15.70
 
16.18
10/1/2013
 
12/31/2013
 
17.75
 
15.83
 
17.75
1/1/2014
 
3/31/2014
 
18.38
 
16.65
 
18.14
4/1/2014
 
6/30/2014
 
18.62
 
17.21
 
18.47
7/1/2014
 
9/30/2014
 
19.39
 
17.93
 
18.81
10/1/2014
 
12/31/2014
 
20.41
 
17.50
 
20.08
1/1/2015
 
3/31/2015
 
20.21
 
18.59
 
19.58
4/1/2015
 
6/30/2015
 
20.54
 
19.42
 
19.80
7/1/2015
 
9/30/2015
 
20.80
 
15.04
 
18.40
10/1/2015
 
12/31/2015
 
20.28
 
17.86
 
19.31
1/1/2016
 
3/31/2016
 
19.10
 
15.86
 
18.28
4/1/2016
 
6/30/2016
 
19.43
 
17.31
 
18.54
7/1/2016
 
9/30/2016
 
20.01
 
18.00
 
19.30
10/1/2016
 
12/31/2016
 
23.86
 
19.12
 
23.25
1/1/2017
 
3/31/2017
 
25.29
 
22.86
 
23.73
4/1/2017
 
6/30/2017
 
25.02
 
22.90
 
24.67
7/1/2017
 
9/29/2017
 
25.86
 
23.80
 
25.86
10/1/2017
 
12/29/2017
 
28.32
 
25.81
 
27.91
1/1/2018
 
2/1/2018
 
30.32
 
27.79
 
30.02
PAST PERFORMANCE IS NOT INDICATIVE OF FUTURE RESULTS.
 
P-16
RBC Capital Markets, LLC

 
 
Barrier Booster Notes
Linked to the Lesser Performing of Two
Exchange Traded Funds,
Due February 28, 2023
Royal Bank of Canada
 
SUPPLEMENTAL DISCUSSION OF
U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSEQUENCES
The following disclosure supplements, and to the extent inconsistent supersedes, the discussion in the product prospectus supplement dated January 11, 2016 under “Supplemental Discussion of U.S. Federal Income Tax Consequences.”
Under Section 871(m) of the Code, a “dividend equivalent” payment is treated as a dividend from sources within the United States. Such payments generally would be subject to a 30% U.S. withholding tax if paid to a non-U.S. holder. Under U.S. Treasury Department regulations, payments (including deemed payments) with respect to equity-linked instruments (“ELIs”) that are “specified ELIs” may be treated as dividend equivalents if such specified ELIs reference an interest in an “underlying security,” which is generally any interest in an entity taxable as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes if a payment with respect to such interest could give rise to a U.S. source dividend. However, the IRS has issued guidance that states that the U.S. Treasury Department and the IRS intend to amend the effective dates of the U.S. Treasury Department regulations to provide that withholding on dividend equivalent payments will not apply to specified ELIs that are not delta-one instruments and that are issued before January 1, 2019. Based on our determination that the Notes are not delta-one instruments, non-U.S. holders should not be subject to withholding on dividend equivalent payments, if any, under the Notes. However, it is possible that the Notes could be treated as deemed reissued for U.S. federal income tax purposes upon the occurrence of certain events affecting the Reference Assets or the Notes, and following such occurrence the Notes could be treated as subject to withholding on dividend equivalent payments. Non-U.S. holders that enter, or have entered, into other transactions in respect of the Reference Assets or the Notes should consult their tax advisors as to the application of the dividend equivalent withholding tax in the context of the Notes and their other transactions. If any payments are treated as dividend equivalents subject to withholding, we (or the applicable withholding agent) would be entitled to withhold taxes without being required to pay any additional amounts with respect to amounts so withheld.
SUPPLEMENTAL PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION (CONFLICTS OF INTEREST)
We expect that delivery of the Notes will be made against payment for the Notes on or about February 28, 2018, which is the third (3rd) business day following the Pricing Date (this settlement cycle being referred to as “T+3”). See “Plan of Distribution” in the prospectus dated January 8, 2016. For additional information as to the relationship between us and RBCCM, please see the section “Plan of Distribution—Conflicts of Interest” in the prospectus dated January 8, 2016.
We expect to deliver the Notes on a date that is greater than two business days following the trade date. Under Rule 15c6-1 of the Exchange Act, trades in the secondary market generally are required to settle in two business days, unless the parties to any such trade expressly agree otherwise. Accordingly, purchasers who wish to trade the Notes more than two business days prior to the original issue date will be required to specify alternative settlement arrangements to prevent a failed settlement.
In the initial offering of the Notes, they will be offered to investors at a purchase price equal to par, except with respect to certain accounts as indicated on the cover page of this document.
The value of the Notes shown on your account statement may be based on RBCCM’s estimate of the value of the Notes if RBCCM or another of our affiliates were to make a market in the Notes (which it is not obligated to do). That estimate will be based upon the price that RBCCM may pay for the Notes in light of then prevailing market conditions, our creditworthiness and transaction costs. For a period of approximately 12 months after the issue date of the Notes, the value of the Notes that may be shown on your account statement may be higher than RBCCM’s estimated value of the Notes at that time. This is because the estimated value of the Notes will not include the underwriting discount and our hedging costs and profits; however, the value of the Notes shown on your account statement during that period may be a higher amount, reflecting the addition of RBCCM’s underwriting discount and our estimated costs and profits from hedging the Notes. This excess is expected to decrease over time until the end of this period. After this period, if RBCCM repurchases your Notes, it expects to do so at prices that reflect their estimated value.
We may use this terms supplement in the initial sale of the Notes. In addition, RBCCM or another of our affiliates may use this terms supplement in a market-making transaction in the Notes after their initial sale. Unless we or our agent informs the purchaser otherwise in the confirmation of sale, this terms supplement is being used in a market-making transaction.
No Prospectus (as defined in Directive 2003/71/EC (as amended, the “Prospectus Directive”)) will be prepared in connection with these Notes. Accordingly, these Notes may not be offered to the public in any member state of the European Economic Area (the “EEA”), and any purchaser of these Notes who subsequently sells any of these Notes in any EEA member state must do so only in accordance with the requirements of the Prospectus Directive, as implemented in that member state.
The Notes are not intended to be offered, sold or otherwise made available to, and should not be offered, sold or otherwise made available to, any retail investor in the EEA. For these purposes, the expression “offer" includes the communication in any form and by any means of sufficient information on the terms of the offer and the Notes to be offered so as to enable an investor to decide to purchase or subscribe the Notes, and a “retail investor” means a person who is one (or more) of: (a) a retail client, as defined in point (11) of Article 4(1) of Directive 2014/65/EU (as amended, “MiFID II”); or (b) a customer, within the meaning of Insurance Distribution Directive 2016/97/EU, as amended, where that customer would not qualify as a professional client as defined in point (10) of Article 4(1)
 
P-17
RBC Capital Markets, LLC

 
 
Barrier Booster Notes
Linked to the Lesser Performing of Two
Exchange Traded Funds,
Due February 28, 2023
Royal Bank of Canada
 
of MiFID II; or (c) not a qualified investor as defined in the Prospectus Directive. Consequently, no key information document required by Regulation (EU) No 1286/2014 (as amended, the “PRIIPs Regulation”) for offering or selling the Notes or otherwise making them available to retail investors in the EEA has been prepared, and therefore, offering or selling the Notes or otherwise making them available to any retail investor in the EEA may be unlawful under the PRIIPs Regulation.

STRUCTURING THE NOTES
The Notes are our debt securities, the return on which is linked to the performance of the Reference Assets. As is the case for all of our debt securities, including our structured notes, the economic terms of the Notes reflect our actual or perceived creditworthiness at the time of pricing. In addition, because structured notes result in increased operational, funding and liability management costs to us, we typically borrow the funds under these Notes at a rate that is more favorable to us than the rate that we might pay for a conventional fixed or floating rate debt security of comparable maturity. Using this relatively lower implied borrowing rate rather than the secondary market rate, is a factor that is likely to reduce the initial estimated value of the Notes at the time their terms are set. Unlike the estimated value included in this terms supplement or in the final pricing supplement, any value of the Notes determined for purposes of a secondary market transaction may be based on a different funding rate, which may result in a lower value for the Notes than if our initial internal funding rate were used.
In order to satisfy our payment obligations under the Notes, we may choose to enter into certain hedging arrangements (which may include call options, put options or other derivatives) on the issue date with RBCCM or one of our other subsidiaries. The terms of these hedging arrangements take into account a number of factors, including our creditworthiness, interest rate movements, the volatility of the Reference Assets, and the tenor of the Notes. The economic terms of the Notes and their initial estimated value depend in part on the terms of these hedging arrangements.
The lower implied borrowing rate is a factor that reduces the economic terms of the Notes to you. The initial offering price of the Notes also reflects the underwriting commission and our estimated hedging costs. These factors result in the initial estimated value for the Notes on the Pricing Date being less than their public offering price. See “Selected Risk Considerations—The Initial Estimated Value of the Notes Will Be Less than the Price to the Public” above.
 
 
P-18
RBC Capital Markets, LLC