F-1/A 1 similarweb-fx1a2.htm F-1/A Document

As Filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on May 3, 2021
Registration No. 333-255262
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
AMENDMENT NO. 2
TO
FORM F-1
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
Similarweb Ltd.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)
State of Israel737098-1543671
(State or Other Jurisdiction of Incorporation or Organization)(Primary Standard Industrial Classification Code Number)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
Similarweb Ltd.
121 Menachem Begin Rd.
Tel Aviv-Yafo 6701203, Israel
+972-3-544-7782
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of Registrant’s principal executive offices)
Similarweb Inc.
35 East 21st Street
New York NY 10010
+1-800-540-1086
(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)
Copies to:
Nicole C. Brookshire
Stephane Levy
David C. Boles
Cooley LLP
55 Hudson Yards
New York, NY 10001
Tel: (212) 479-6000
David S. Glatt
Elad Ziv
Meitar | Law Offices
16 Abba Hillel Road
Ramat Gan, 5250608, Israel
Tel: +972 (3) 610-3100
Chaim Friedland
Ari Fried
Gornitzky & Co.
Vitania Tel Aviv Tower
20 HaHarash Street
Tel Aviv, 6761310, Israel
Tel: +972 (3) 710-9191
Marc Jaffe
Joshua Kiernan
Nathan Ajiashvili
Latham & Watkins LLP
1271 Avenue of the Americas
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (212) 906-1200
Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public:
As soon as practicable after the effective date of this registration statement.
If any of the securities being registered on this form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, check the following box. ☐
If this form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
If this form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
If this form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is an emerging growth company as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act of 1933. Emerging growth company ☒
If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act. ☐
CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE
Title of Each Class of Securities to be RegisteredAmount to be
Registered (1)
Proposed Maximum
Aggregate Offering Price Per Share
Proposed Maximum Aggregate Offering Price (1)(2) Amount of 
Registration Fee (3)
Ordinary shares, NIS 0.01 par value9,125,000$21.00191,625,000$20,907
___________________
(1)Includes 1,125,000 ordinary shares that may be sold upon exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional ordinary shares. See “Underwriting.”
(2)Estimated solely for the purpose of calculating the registration fee pursuant to Rule 457(a) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.
(3)The Registrant previously paid $10,910 of this amount in connection with the initial filing of this Registration Statement.
The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.



The information in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We and the selling shareholder may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and we and the selling shareholder are not soliciting offers to buy these securities in any state where the offer or sale is not permitted.
Subject to completion, dated May 3, 2021
Preliminary prospectus
8,000,000 Ordinary shares
logo1b1.jpg
Similarweb Ltd.
(incorporated in Israel)
This is the initial public offering of Similarweb Ltd.
Prior to this offering, there has been no public market for our ordinary shares. We are selling 7,500,000 ordinary shares and the selling shareholder, our Chief Executive Officer, is selling an additional 500,000 ordinary shares. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares by the selling shareholder. The initial public offering price is expected to be between $19.00 and $21.00 per ordinary share.
We have applied to list the ordinary shares on the New York Stock Exchange, or NYSE, under the symbol “SMWB.”
We are both an “emerging growth company” and a “foreign private issuer” as defined under the U.S. federal securities laws and, as such, may elect to comply with certain reduced public company reporting requirements. See “Summary—Implications of being an emerging growth company and a foreign private issuer.” Investing in our ordinary shares involves risks. See “Risk factors” beginning on page 17 to read about factors you should consider before buying any of our ordinary shares.
Per ShareTotal
Initial public offering price$$
Underwriting discounts and commissions(1)
$$
Proceeds, before expenses, to Similarweb Ltd.$$
Proceeds, before expenses, to the selling shareholder$$
(1)We have agreed to reimburse the underwriters for certain expenses in connection with this offering. See “Underwriting” for additional information regarding underwriter compensation.
We have granted the underwriters an option to purchase up to 1,125,000 additional ordinary shares from us at the public offering price, less the underwriting discounts and commissions, for a period of 30 days after the date of this prospectus.
One or more funds affiliated with ION Crossover Partners, their investment teams and any funds affiliated therewith, or the ION Funds, have indicated an interest in purchasing an aggregate of up to $30.0 million in ordinary shares in this offering at the initial public offering price. Because this indication of interest is not a binding agreement or commitment to purchase, ION Funds or its affiliates could determine to purchase more, less or no ordinary shares in this offering, or the underwriters could determine to sell more, less or no ordinary shares to ION Funds. The underwriters will receive the same discount on any of our ordinary shares purchased by ION Funds as they will from any other shares sold to the public in this offering.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
The underwriters expect to deliver the ordinary shares to purchasers on or about               , 2021.
J.P. MorganCitigroupBarclaysJefferies
Co-Managers
JMP SecuritiesOppenheimer & Co.William Blair
Prospectus dated               , 2021.



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Table of contents
Through and including                    , 2021 (the 25th day after the date of this prospectus), all dealers that effect transaction in these securities, whether or not participating in this offering, may be required to deliver a prospectus. This in addition to the dealer’s obligation to deliver a prospectus when acting as underwriters and with respect to their unsold allotments or subscriptions.
Neither we, the selling shareholder nor the underwriters have authorized anyone to provide information different from that contained in this prospectus, any amendment or supplement to this prospectus or in any free writing prospectus prepared by us or on our behalf. Neither we, the selling shareholder nor the underwriters take any responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any information other than the information in this prospectus, any amendment or supplement to this prospectus and any free writing prospectus prepared by us or on our behalf. Neither the delivery of this prospectus nor the sale of our ordinary shares means that information contained in this prospectus is correct after the date of this prospectus. This prospectus is not an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy these ordinary shares in any circumstances under which such offer or solicitation is unlawful.
For investors outside the United States: Neither we, the selling shareholder nor any of the underwriters have taken any action that would permit this offering or possession or distribution of this prospectus in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required, other than in the United States. You are required to inform yourselves about and to observe any restrictions relating to this offering and the distribution of this prospectus.
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Basis of presentation
Our financial statements have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States, or GAAP. We present our consolidated financial statements in U.S. dollars. Our fiscal year ends on December 31 of each year. Our most recent fiscal year ended on December 31, 2020. Certain monetary amounts, percentages and other figures included elsewhere in this prospectus have been subject to rounding adjustments. Accordingly, figures shown as totals in certain tables or charts may not be the arithmetic aggregation of the figures that precede them, and figures expressed as percentages in the text may not total 100% or, as applicable, when aggregated may not be the arithmetic aggregation of the percentages that precede them.
Trademarks
“Similarweb,” the Similarweb logo and our other registered and common law trade names, trademarks and service marks are the property of Similarweb Ltd. or our subsidiaries. All other trademarks, trade names and service marks appearing in this prospectus are the property of their respective owners. Solely for convenience, the trademarks and trade names in this prospectus may be referred to without the ® and ™ symbols, but such references should not be construed as any indicator that their respective owners will not assert their rights thereto.
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Summary
This summary highlights selected information contained elsewhere in this prospectus. This summary does not contain all the information that you should consider before deciding to invest in our ordinary shares. You should read the entire prospectus carefully, including the “Risk factors,” “Business,” and “Management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations” sections and our consolidated financial statements and notes to those consolidated financial statements before making an investment decision. Unless the context otherwise requires, all references in this prospectus to “Similarweb,” the “Company,” “we,” “our,” “us” or similar terms refer to Similarweb Ltd. and its subsidiaries. References to the "selling shareholder" refer to our Chief Executive Officer, the selling shareholder named in the prospectus.
Overview
Similarweb provides a leading platform for digital intelligence, delivering a trusted, comprehensive and detailed view of the digital world that empowers our customers to be competitive in their markets. Our proprietary technology analyzes billions of digital interactions and transactions every day from millions of websites and apps, and turns these digital signals into actionable insights. With our platform, everyone from business leaders, strategy teams, analysts, marketers, category managers, salespeople and investors can quickly and efficiently discover the best business opportunities, identify potential competitive threats and make critical decisions to capture market share and grow revenues.
Digital is an important growth driver for businesses today. It is quickly becoming the preferred means to find information, communicate, transact, and deliver services. At the same time, digital has lowered the barriers to entry, accelerated the pace of business and increased competition in every market.
In this dynamic environment, businesses now have access to unprecedented amounts of digital data. However, the data generally available to them only relates to the performance of digital properties such as web sites, apps and social media channels, that they own. Businesses have almost no visibility into the broader behaviors of consumers, or the digital performance of competitors, partners and other players. As a result, companies operate with a lack of external visibility, impairing their ability to execute on everything from corporate strategy to day-to-day operations. Digital intelligence cuts through this lack of visibility and gives organizations the means to understand and gain insight from all relevant digital activity, creating significant competitive advantages.
Digital intelligence has become critical for business, but is complex and technically challenging. Online behavior consists of interactions and transactions across many different platforms and channels and happens on a global basis. These digital interactions and transactions generate massive quantities of data, and because of the high velocity of the digital economy, this information quickly becomes out-of-date. As a result of the diversity and scale of data, as well as the need to keep the data current, it is extremely difficult to build and maintain a comprehensive view of all digital activity.
Our digital intelligence solutions collect billions of digital signals in the form of interactions and transactions and transform them into powerful actionable insights. Our platform enables businesses to understand market trends, optimize traffic acquisition, understand the customer-buying journey, grow pipeline and make better investment decisions. Our platform provides critical insights on digital behavior that allows businesses to analyze competition, recognize and defend against emerging threats and monitor competitive strategy and tactics. To win in the digital world, including to defend existing market share and proactively drive future growth, it has become a business imperative to embrace digital intelligence throughout the organization, from senior executives to individual contributors.
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Our platform is comprehensive, reliable and timely. Our intuitive, self-service solutions empower people at all levels and functions in an organization, from entry-level employees up to the C-suite, to make critical decisions to run their businesses. We provide all users with a single unified view of digital activity, allowing everyone to immediately access information, digest insights and make data-driven decisions, without the need for technical specialists such as data scientists, or expensive and time-consuming market research. This ease of use enables adoption of our platform and various solutions across organizations and accelerates the pace of data-driven decision-making within companies.
We believe we are recognized as a standard of measure of the digital world. Our intelligence solutions create a shared understanding of the digital world and are used as fundamental components of the decision-making process for thousands of businesses worldwide. Our insights are frequently referenced publicly by chief executive officers, major publications and accredited research firms to describe trends they are seeing. Our platform has become a prerequisite experience for job opportunities and a notable skill that users highlight on LinkedIn.
We have over a decade of experience collecting and analyzing vast amounts of data. We have committed substantial resources to developing and improving our algorithms to transform the data we ingest into actionable insights for our customers. We analyze a diverse universe of digital signals, and leverage proprietary machine learning and predictive models, built by our dedicated team of researchers, to process the billions of data points we collect. We do not just provide basic data; we also help answer relevant and essential questions such as:
”Which digital banking platform is gaining the most market share in my core geographic markets?”
”Which marketing channels drive the most traffic for travel businesses like mine?”
“Which of my competitor’s products are selling the most on Amazon? What other marketplaces is my competitor using to sell their product?”
“What is the most important factor in my prospect’s buying decision?”
“What does daily digital traffic suggest about the performance of companies in my portfolio against stock market expectations?”
We generate revenue through paid subscription solutions across various pricing tiers based on feature set, geographic coverage and number of users. In addition, we have a free offering that offers access to a wide range of basic services, providing customers with a subset of the robust insights and analytics offered by our feature-rich paid subscriptions. Our free offering drives awareness and enables potential customers to realize the value they can drive from our paid offerings.
We have a highly efficient dual-pronged sales approach with both inbound and outbound sales motions, which includes a global sales force supported by a team of technical and data experts. Our direct sales team engages with our largest customers while our inside sales team engages with our smaller customers. Post-sale, we continually engage with our customers through support services and proactive account management team check-ins, and often upsell customers to new solutions as they see the value in the platform and want to add additional feature sets, geographic coverage, users and categories of digital intelligence solutions. Once a customer starts to realize the value of our platform by deploying one of our solutions in their business, they often significantly increase their usage of our platform.
We sell to companies across a wide range of industries such as retail, consumer packaged goods, travel, consumer finance, consultancies, marketing and advertising agencies, media and publishers, business-to-business software, logistics, payment processors and institutional investors. As of March 31, 2021, we had 2,874 paying customers, including 9 of the top 10 technology organizations, 7 of
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the top 10 financial services organizations, 5 of the top 10 retail organizations, 7 of the top 10 household products organizations and 5 of the top 7 apparel organizations in the Fortune 500. We generated in excess of $100,000 ARR from 16 of these 33 top companies as of March 31, 2021.
Our business has grown rapidly and is capital efficient. For the year ended December 31, 2020, we grew our revenue by 32% compared to the year ended December 31, 2019, while consuming less than $5.0 million of free cash flow. For the three months ended March 31, 2021, we grew our revenue by 43% compared to the three months ended March 31, 2020, while generating $1.9 million of free cash flow. Since inception, we have raised $136.6 million of primary capital and we had $55.4 million and $60.3 million of cash, cash equivalents, short-term investments and restricted deposits as of December 31, 2020 and March 31, 2021, respectively. We generated revenue of $70.6 million and $93.5 million in the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2020, respectively, and $20.6 million and $29.4 million for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2021, respectively. We had negative operating cash flow of $9.7 million and $3.8 million and had negative free cash flow of $11.5 million and $4.9 million in years ended December 31, 2019 and 2020, respectively, generated operating cash flow of $0.5 million and $2.3 million and had positive free cash flow of $0.3 million and $1.9 million in the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2021, respectively. See the section titled “—Non-GAAP financial measures—Free cash flow” for additional information regarding free cash flow, a measure that is not calculated under GAAP. For the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2020 and the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2021, our net loss was $17.7 million, $22.0 million, $6.2 million and $12.1 million, respectively.
Industry background
Digital is now the point of engagement
Over the last two decades, industries have been transformed by an accelerating shift to digital. This trend has spurred innovation and disruption across industries, with digital becoming the primary point of engagement between businesses and their customers, employees and partners worldwide. According to Insider Intelligence, in 2020, U.S. adults spent nearly 8 hours per day consuming digital media across all devices. This daily usage is driven by changes in the way people interact. According to IDC, the number of global daily digital interactions per connected person has increased from 584 in 2015 to 1,426 in 2020. Daily usage is also affected by changes in the way people transact. According to a January 2021 Digital Commerce 360 analysis, U.S. eCommerce penetration has increased from 11% in 2015 to 21% in 2020. Every type of transaction, from the exchange of goods to the exchange of information, is moving online at an accelerated pace.
Digital is the driver of growth
In order to keep pace with the demands of rapidly evolving and growing digital markets, companies have made significant investments in new operational processes and technologies, including a significant reallocation of their investments into data and intelligence to drive informed decision-making. According to IDC, an estimated 65% of global GDP will be digitized by 2022, driving accelerated spending on digital transformation of over $6.8 trillion through 2023. These investments often result in healthier businesses in the long term; according to SAP, over 75% of companies that have undergone digital transformation efforts reported increased profitability.
Digital has driven growth in many aspects of businesses, including optimizing go-to-market functions, commerce, communications and research. This growth has been further amplified by the COVID-19 pandemic, as businesses have fundamentally pivoted their operations to be more digital-driven.
Digital markets are faster moving and more competitive
In the digital world, businesses can enter new markets relatively easily and with low costs. Geography is not a barrier; new entrants do not require storefronts and can easily outsource most corporate functions from human resources to manufacturing. Digital facilitates highly targeted and
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more cost-effective marketing initiatives, meaning that the investment to reach prospective customers is now lower. The result of these digital changes to the business landscape is that consumers have more choices, as digital expands accessible options beyond convenient physical locations to a universe of online alternatives. According to recent global research conducted by Opinium for Verint Systems, customer loyalty and retention are declining, with two-thirds of consumers more likely to switch to competitors that provide better service and experience. Digital transformation is a way to protect market share, with 48% of customers more likely to be loyal to brands that use the latest technology to engage and connect with them, according to the same Verint Systems study.
In order to make rapid strategic pivots, business professionals must be equipped with insights into markets, customers and opportunities derived from timely, comprehensive data. For example, digital marketing professionals cannot operate with data on consumer and purchase intent that is out of date; they need timely insights to make decisions on a daily basis.
Digital intelligence is difficult to generate
Given the velocity and constantly evolving ways that users interact and transact across a multitude of digital channels, getting accurate and actionable timely digital intelligence is incredibly difficult. To deliver digital intelligence, a vast and ever-growing sea of data must be processed and converted into useful insight. In order for insight to be relevant, the data used to derive it needs to be comprehensive, timely, and granular. Once this data is collected, it must be processed via sophisticated analytics and modeling, powered by complex algorithms and advanced data science, in order to be useful. Processing these billions of digital signals, all flowing from a multitude of separate platforms and channels, requires a purpose-built infrastructure that that can scale to the volume of data required. All of these challenges must be solved to deliver an effective digital intelligence solution that is accurate and actionable.
Existing approaches to digital intelligence fall short
Current approaches to digital intelligence have specific limitations:
Not timely. Traditional approaches, such as market research, are typically based on time-consuming data collection methodologies, such as surveys, which tend to deliver data and insight already several months out of date by the time it is published. Alternative digital approaches are faster, but frequently only provide refreshed data on a weekly or monthly cadence. With both approaches, by the time a query is answered, the data provided is often no longer relevant to the business issue at hand. These approaches fail because the pace of change in the digital world means that data and insight often must be available within hours to be useful for critical use cases.
Limited in scope. Many approaches provide data gathered from a single source such as focus groups, surveys, website crawling methods, apps and first-party measurement data or a single channel such as search ads, traffic or social media. Additionally, data sets are often limited to a specific audience, certain geographies or points in time and do not give a comprehensive and historically accurate view of the digital world. A lack of comprehensive data impairs the caliber, fidelity and actionability of insights that can be derived from these data sources.
Difficult to use. Existing approaches frequently provide raw data that requires users to perform complex analyses in order to derive insights. These approaches are not user-friendly and have complicated interfaces that require sophisticated technical know-how from PhDs, data scientists, business analysts and developers to be used effectively, resulting in additional expenses, effort, time and manpower.
Rigid. Existing approaches require users to have structured queries that they want to investigate. These approaches produce narrow outputs, addressing only the specific queries, and do not provide insights into potentially important issues of which the user may not be aware. As
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such, these rigid approaches rely on users to engage in costly and time-intensive discovery, develop questions on narrow hypotheses and query data to address those narrow points, all without offering broad insights.
Siloed. Existing approaches are often designed for specific teams or functions within organizations. This creates a siloed view of digital activity where a privileged few such as senior business leaders have insights from expensive market research or other forms of digital intelligence, while others do not. Without a trusted, holistic and easily accessible view of digital activity, organizations cannot easily align on a unified strategy or operational approaches.
Not actionable. Existing approaches often lack sufficient data granularity from which an organization can derive actionable insights. Existing approaches will frequently provide a snapshot of digital activity, without proactively providing insight about that data that recommends a course of action. For many use cases, lack of comprehensive, timely information limits how actionable the insight is, because the information is stale before it reaches the user. In each of these cases, the value of the digital intelligence is compromised because it cannot be translated into meaningful business activity with impact.
There is a need for actionable digital intelligence solutions
Companies need solutions to turn the vast amount of data in the digital world into actionable insights they can use to run their businesses. They need a unified, trusted view of digital activity covering all industries, geographies, platforms and digital channels. The insights that these solutions provide need to be reliable, timely, granular and comprehensive in order to be actionable. These insights must be delivered in digestible formats so that users from across an organization can draw clear conclusions to improve business outcomes.
Our market opportunity
We believe that our platform provides mission critical insights to operate in a digital-first world and will be used by companies of all sizes across most industries. We estimate that the total addressable market, or TAM, for our platform is approximately $34 billion. We calculate our market opportunity by using the total number of global companies with 100 or more employees, which we determined by referencing independent industry data from the S&P Capital IQ database. We then segment those companies in three cohorts across strategic accounts with 5,000 or more employees, enterprises with 1,000 to 5,000 employees and small and medium sized businesses with 100 to 1,000 employees. We then multiply the number of companies within each cohort by the respective average contract value per customer. The average contract value per customer is calculated by leveraging internal company data on the top two quartiles of spend per customer by employee size and customer vertical. We believe that using the top two quartiles of customer spend within each cohort represents the expansion opportunity available to us within new and existing accounts.
We believe we have the opportunity to increase our penetration within our potential customer base and are addressing a very small portion of our market opportunity today. We expect our market opportunity to continue to expand as multiple secular trends shift towards digitization, including the exponential increase in data, shift to digital commerce and broader acceleration of the digital transformation.
The Similarweb platform
Our solutions help businesses win in the digital world, empowering our users to discover and capture the best business opportunities and proactively respond to emerging threats to the business. These solutions are powered by our proprietary technology that analyzes billions of digital interactions and transactions every day, from millions of websites and apps, and turns these digital signals into actionable insights. Our digital intelligence solutions address the needs of users across entire organizations, from entry-level employees to the C-suite. Our solutions are easy to use and
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integrated into our users’ workflows for seamless adoption and maximum business impact. They provide a unified view of the digital world to power data-driven decision-making. These solutions include:
Digital Research Intelligence. Allows senior leaders, strategy, business intelligence, and consumer insights teams to benchmark performance against competitors and market leaders, analyze trends in the market, conduct deeper research into specific companies and analyze audience behavior.
Digital Marketing. Allows marketing leaders, search engine optimization, or SEO, and content managers, pay-per-click, or PPC, and performance marketers, affiliate marketers and media buyers to understand their competitors’ online acquisition strategies in each marketing channel, including search keyword optimization, affiliate optimization and advertising and media buying strategies, and optimize their own strategies in response.
Shopper Intelligence. Allows digital commerce leadership and category and product managers to analyze a complete view of their customers’ digital journeys, monitor consumer demand, increase brand visibility in the search process and optimize category and product level conversion in the purchase process.
Sales Intelligence. Allows sales management and operations, sales representatives and account management teams to access relevant buying signals and digital insights of their customers in order to generate more leads more quickly, enrich leads automatically, and collaboratively engage with prospects and customers.
Investor Intelligence. Allows portfolio managers, investment professionals, data scientists and research analysts to access an end-to-end view of market, sector or company performance in order to ideate and monitor investment opportunities, forecast market performance and perform due diligence.
We have aggregated data for over ten years and have amassed a quality and quantity of data that is nearly impossible to replicate. Similarweb collects real-time digital signals on virtually every website and app, and analyzes billions of search terms, digital ads, eCommerce product SKUs, articles and content pages across digital platforms, channels, industries and geographies. Through synthesis, modeling and analysis, we transform these digital signals into timely actionable insights.
Our competitive strengths
Timely. We capture digital signals as they occur and provide our customers with timely insights into the digital world that allow them to take action. Within 72 hours of a transaction or interaction, our platform analyzes relevant data and provides actionable insights to our users. In order to be able to make mission critical decisions, our customers rely on the insights they derive from our platform to be timely and relevant. Fresh data enables companies to be flexible and proactive in responding to developing trends and see the impact of their decisions as they occur. These timely insights make us essential in decision-making processes and drive increased usage by our customers.
Comprehensive. Our insights are powered by a comprehensive set of data that is:
Multi-industry. Our data set covers virtually every industry and includes additional granularity on sub-industries and companies, providing our customers with a comprehensive understanding of their market and adjacent competitive landscapes.
Global. Our data set provides global and country-specific views of digital activity helping our customers create strategies across any geography.
Multi-platform. We are able to generate a robust data set by aggregating data from all of the various sources that people use to interact and transact digitally. We collect data across
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desktop, mobile web, iOS and Android, allowing us to provide our customers with a complete picture of digital activity.
Multi-channel. We analyze data across a variety of channels, including direct traffic, organic and paid search, referrals, display banners, video, e-mail and social media. By measuring engagement across digital channels, we are able to deliver deeper and more valuable insights than point solutions that focus on a single channel or subset of channels.
Intuitive. We deliver powerful insights that customers can access through our easy-to-use software. Our platform does not require a complex analytical skill set or technical expertise to derive value; rather we offer a consumer-oriented user interface that is delightful to use and easy to understand. This ease of use means that anyone in an organization can easily leverage our platform to power data-driven decision making.
Proactive. Our platform proactively highlights insights and takeaways in a way that any business user can understand. Our dynamic interface provides all relevant information in a digestible manner, allowing users to have all of the information they need to understand performance and make decisions. Through our machine learning capabilities, we proactively anticipate and deliver relevant data, preventing users from needing to run multiple data queries or know all of the potential questions they need to ask ahead of time. For example, our platform will alert a sales lead to engage a prospective customer based on observation of the right buying signals.
Unified. Our platform provides a unified view of digital intelligence. All members of an organization using our platform can see the same output from the same data set, allowing decision-making processes to become easier as everyone has access to the same data. The democratization of access to the digital insights that our platform provides fosters collaboration across hierarchies and teams within an organization and enables us to be the single source of truth.
Actionable. Our platform not only collects data, but also provides insights that answer relevant questions to help drive critical business decisions. Customers can easily use our API to integrate our data and insights into their own bespoke analytical models. Our platform is built to provide granular data including brand, product or page level engagement critical to creation of actionable insights. Additionally, our platform’s up-to-date data enables businesses to take action on information while it is still relevant. In today’s fast-moving world, our timely, comprehensive data collection and dynamic insight creation enables organizations to optimize decision making without compromising on speed.
Our growth strategy
We intend to drive the growth of our business through the following strategies:
Acquire new customers. We believe there is substantial opportunity to continue to grow our customer base. Leveraging our efficient go-to-market function, we plan to bring new customers across all geographies and industries to our platform. Our platform is broadly applicable, tracking digital activity across approximately 210 industries and 190 countries. As digital intelligence becomes an even greater point of emphasis for companies and investors, we believe we are well positioned to grow our share within our current market, as well as add new customers who previously had not been in the market for digital intelligence solutions.
Expand spend from existing customers. Our large base of customers represents a significant opportunity for future sales expansion. We plan to increase spend from existing customers as they add more solutions to get even more value from our platform. We have seen a consistent land-and-expand trend with our customers as they generate value from using our platform, and subsequently add additional users and use cases to their subscriptions. We strategically deploy
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our sales team to offer support and manage our largest accounts, often helping them identify additional opportunities to derive benefits from our solution.
Continue innovation and technology leadership. Our success is dependent on our ability to sustain innovation and technology leadership in order to maintain our competitive advantage. While we have the most comprehensive offering in the market today, we plan to add new features and functionality to continue to drive deeper insights for our customers. We intend to continue to invest in expanding our product and engineering staff to innovate and develop additional solutions that expand our capabilities and facilitate the extension of our platform to new use cases.
Further democratize access. We plan to expand the functionality and accessibility of our platform, enabling even further adoption among existing and new customers. We plan to continually add new types of insights and features to our platform, expanding potential use cases. We believe that by democratizing access to info and insights even further, our platform will become an even more critical component of the decision-making process for businesses worldwide.
Pursue M&A opportunities. We intend to continue to evaluate strategic acquisitions and investments in businesses and technologies to drive solution and market expansion.
Risk factors summary
Investing in our ordinary shares and our ability to successfully operate our business and execute our growth plan each are subject to numerous and substantial risks. You should carefully consider the risks described in “Risk factors” before deciding to invest in our ordinary shares. If any of these risks actually occurs, our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. In such case, the trading price of our ordinary shares would likely decline, and you may lose all or part of your investment. The following is a summary of some of the principal risks we face:
Our recent growth and rapid technological development make it difficult to forecast our revenue and evaluate our business and future prospects.
We have a history of net losses, we anticipate increasing operating expenses in the future and we may not be able to achieve and, if achieved, maintain profitability.
If we fail to manage our growth effectively, we may be unable to execute our business plan or maintain high levels of service and customer satisfaction.
We may experience quarterly fluctuations in our operating results due to a number of factors, which make our future results difficult to predict and could cause our operating results to fall below expectations or our guidance.
The market and service categories in which we participate are competitive, new and rapidly changing.
If we do not compete effectively with established companies as well as new market entrants, our business, financial condition, revenues, results of operations or cash flows could be harmed.
A reduction or decline in participation in our contributory network and/or increase in the volume of opt-out requests from individuals with respect to our collection of their data, or a decrease in our direct measurement dataset, could lead to a deterioration in the depth, breadth or accuracy of our data and have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, revenues, results of operations or cash flows.
If we are unable to attract new customers and expand subscriptions of current customers, our business, financial condition, revenues, results of operations or cash flows will be adversely
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affected. Any decline in our dollar-based net retention rate would harm our future operating results.
Changes in laws, regulations and public perception concerning data privacy, or changes in the patterns of enforcement of existing laws and regulations, could impact our ability to gather, process, update the data that we use to generate our products and/or provide some or all of our products. Furthermore, our actual or perceived failure to comply with such obligations could harm our business.
If we are not able to introduce new features or solutions successfully and to make enhancements to our solutions, our business and results of operations could be adversely affected.
The recent global coronavirus outbreak could harm our business and results of operations.
Real or perceived errors, failures, vulnerabilities or bugs in our platform could result in a decline in the accuracy of the intelligence we produce and/or cause other problems and harm our business, financial condition, revenues, results of operations or cash flows.
If we or our third-party service providers experience a security breach or unauthorized parties otherwise obtain access to our customers’ data, our data or proprietary information, our platform or our solutions may be perceived as not being secure, our reputation may be harmed, demand for our platform and solutions may be reduced and we may incur significant liabilities.
Any failure to obtain, maintain, protect or enforce our intellectual property rights could impair our competitive position and ability to generate revenues and cause us to lose valuable assets.
Our business may be harmed if we change our methodologies or the scope of information we collect.
Changes in laws and regulations related to the Internet or changes in the Internet infrastructure itself may diminish the demand for our solutions and could harm our business.
Failure to effectively develop and expand our direct sales capabilities could harm our ability to increase the number of organizations using our platform and achieve broader market acceptance of our solutions.
Corporate information
We are an Israeli corporation based in Tel Aviv-Yafo and were incorporated in 2009 under the Israel Companies Law, 5759-1999, or the Companies Law. Our principal executive offices are located at 121 Menachem Begin Rd., Tel Aviv-Yafo 6701203, Israel. Our agent for service of process in the United States is Similarweb, Inc., 35 East 21st Street, 9th Floor, New York, NY 10010. Our website address is www.similarweb.com, and our telephone number is +972-3-544-7782. Information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website does not constitute a part of this prospectus and is not incorporated by reference herein. We have included our website address in this prospectus solely for informational purposes.
Implications of being an emerging growth company and a foreign private issuer
We qualify as an “emerging growth company” pursuant to the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, as amended, or the JOBS Act. An emerging growth company may take advantage of specified exemptions from various requirements that are otherwise applicable generally to U.S. public companies. These provisions include:
an exemption enabling us to include in an initial public offering registration statement only two years of audited financial statements and selected financial data and only two years of related disclosure;
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reduced executive compensation disclosure; and
an exemption from the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, in the assessment of the company’s internal control over financial reporting.
The JOBS Act also permits an emerging growth company such as us to delay adopting new or revised accounting standards until such time as those standards are applicable to private companies. We may choose to take advantage of some but not all of these reduced reporting burdens.
We will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest of:
the last day of our fiscal year during which we have total annual revenue of at least $1.07 billion;
the last day of our fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the closing of this offering;
the date on which we have, during the previous three-year period, issued more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt securities; or
the date on which we are deemed to be a “large accelerated filer” under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, which would occur if the market value of our ordinary shares that are held by non-affiliates exceeds $700.0 million as of the last business day of our most recently completed second fiscal quarter.
In addition, upon the closing of this offering, we will report under the Exchange Act as a “foreign private issuer.” As a foreign private issuer, we may take advantage of certain provisions under the rules that allow us to follow Israeli law for certain corporate governance matters. Even after we no longer qualify as an emerging growth company, as long as we qualify as a foreign private issuer under the Exchange Act, we will be exempt from certain provisions of the Exchange Act that are applicable to U.S. domestic public companies, including:
the sections of the Exchange Act regulating the solicitation of proxies, consents or authorizations in respect of a security registered under the Exchange Act;
the sections of the Exchange Act requiring insiders to file public reports of their share ownership and trading activities and liability for insiders who profit from trades made in a short period of time;
the rules under the Exchange Act requiring the filing with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, of quarterly reports on Form 10-Q containing unaudited financial and other specified information, or current reports on Form 8-K, upon the occurrence of specified significant events; and
Regulation Fair Disclosure, or Regulation FD, which regulates selective disclosures of material information by issuers.
Foreign private issuers, like emerging growth companies, also are exempt from certain more stringent executive compensation disclosure rules. Thus, if we remain a foreign private issuer, even if we no longer qualify as an emerging growth company, we will continue to be exempt from the more stringent compensation disclosures required of public companies that are neither an emerging growth company nor a foreign private issuer.
We may take advantage of these exemptions until such time as we are no longer a foreign private issuer. We are required to determine our status as a foreign private issuer on an annual basis at the end of our second fiscal quarter. We would cease to be a foreign private issuer at such time as more
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than 50% of our outstanding voting securities are held by U.S. residents and any of the following three circumstances applies:
the majority of our executive officers or directors are U.S. citizens or residents;
more than 50% of our assets are located in the United States; or
our business is administered principally in the United States.
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The offering
Ordinary shares offered by us7,500,000 ordinary shares.
Ordinary shares offered by the selling shareholder500,000 ordinary shares.
Ordinary shares to be outstanding after this offering

74,288,156 ordinary shares (or 75,413,156 ordinary shares if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional ordinary shares).
Underwriters’ option to purchase additional ordinary shares


We have granted the underwriters an option for a period of 30 days after the date of this prospectus to purchase up to 1,125,000 additional ordinary shares from us at the public offering price, less underwriting discounts and commissions.
Use of proceeds
We estimate that the net proceeds to us from this offering will be approximately $135.6 million (or $156.5 million if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional ordinary shares), based on the initial public offering price of $20.00 per ordinary share, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of our ordinary shares by the selling shareholder.
The principal purposes of this offering are to obtain additional working capital, facilitate an orderly distribution of shares for the selling shareholder, to create a public market for our ordinary shares and to facilitate our future access to the public equity markets. We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering for general corporate purposes, including sales and marketing, technology development, working capital, operating expenses and capital expenditures. We may also use a portion of the proceeds to acquire or invest in businesses, products, services or technologies; however, we do not have agreements or commitments for any material acquisitions or investments at this time. See “Use of proceeds.”
Dividend policy
We do not currently intend to pay cash dividends on our ordinary shares for the foreseeable future. Our board of directors has sole discretion regarding the declaration and payment of dividends. See “Dividend policy.”
Directed share program
At our request, the underwriters (the "DSP Underwriters") have reserved up to 5% of the ordinary shares for sale at the initial public offering price to persons who are directors, officers, employees, or who are otherwise associated with us through a directed share program. The number of ordinary shares available for sale to the general public will be reduced by the number of directed shares purchased by participants in the program. Any directed shares not purchased will be offered by the underwriters to the general public on the same basis as all other ordinary shares offered. We have agreed to indemnify the DSP Underwriters and their affiliates against certain liabilities and expenses, including liabilities under the Securities Act, in connection with sales of the reserved shares. For additional information, see the section titled “Underwriting.”
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Risk factors
Investing in our ordinary shares involves a high degree of risk. See “Risk factors” and other information included in this prospectus for a discussion of factors you should carefully consider before deciding to invest in our ordinary shares.
Indication of interest
The ION Funds have indicated an interest in purchasing an aggregate of up to $30.0 million in ordinary shares in this offering at the initial public offering price. Because this indication of interest is not a binding agreement or commitment to purchase, ION Funds or its affiliates could determine to purchase more, less or no ordinary shares in this offering, or the underwriters could determine to sell more, less or no ordinary shares to ION Funds. The underwriters will receive the same discount on any of our ordinary shares purchased by ION Funds as they will from any other shares sold to the public in this offering.
Listing
We have applied to list our ordinary shares on NYSE under the symbol “SMWB.”
The number of ordinary shares that will be outstanding after this offering is based on 66,788,156 ordinary shares outstanding as of March 31, 2021 and excludes:
11,439,769 ordinary shares issuable upon the exercise of options or vesting of restricted share units, or RSUs, outstanding under our equity incentive plans as of March 31, 2021 at a weighted average exercise price of $2.22 per ordinary share;
1,495,783 shares of ordinary shares reserved for future issuance under our 2021 Incentive Plan, or 2021 Plan, as well as any future increases, including annual automatic evergreen increases, in the number of shares of ordinary shares reserved for issuance thereunder, and any shares underlying share awards outstanding under our 2012 Incentive Option Plan, or 2012 Plan, that expire or are repurchased, forfeited, canceled, or withheld, as more fully described in the section titled “Management—Equity incentive plans”; and
2,000,000 ordinary shares reserved for issuance under our 2021 Employee Share Purchase Plan, or ESPP, plus any future increases in the number of ordinary shares reserved for issuance thereunder, as more fully described in the section titled “Management—Equity incentive plans.”
Unless otherwise indicated, all information in this prospectus assumes or gives effect to:
no exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase up to 1,125,000 additional ordinary shares;
other than the exercise of options to purchase 500,000 shares by the selling shareholder in connection with this offering, no exercise of the outstanding options or vesting of RSUs described above after March 31, 2021;
the adoption of our amended and restated articles of association prior to the closing of this offering, which will replace our amended and restated articles of association as currently in effect, and which will be effective upon the closing of this offering;
the automatic conversion of all outstanding shares of preferred shares into an aggregate of 50,657,042 ordinary shares, which will occur immediately prior to the closing of this offering, or the Preferred Shares Conversion; and
no purchase of our ordinary shares by certain individuals identified by our officers and directors through the directed share program described under “Underwriting.”
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Summary consolidated financial and other data
The following tables present our summary consolidated statement of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2020 and the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2021, and the summary consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2020 and March 31, 2021. The summary consolidated statement of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2020 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. The consolidated statement of operations data for the year ended December 31, 2018 has been derived from our audited financial statements not included in this prospectus. The summary consolidated statement of operations data for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2021 and the consolidated balance sheet data as of March 31, 2021 have been derived from our unaudited interim consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. The unaudited interim consolidated financial statements have been prepared on the same basis as the audited annual consolidated financial statements and reflect, in the opinion of management, adjustments of a normal, recurring nature that are necessary for a fair statement of the unaudited interim consolidated financial statements. You should read the following summary consolidated financial data set forth below in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes and the information in “Management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations” contained elsewhere in this prospectus. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the full year or any other period in the future.
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Year Ended December 31,Three Months Ended
March 31,
20182019202020202021
(in thousands except share and per share data)
Consolidated statement of operations data
Revenue$51,541 $70,590 $93,486 $20,601 $29,413 
Cost of revenue(1)
23,572 20,512 21,417 5,154 6,273 
Gross profit27,969 50,078 72,069 15,447 23,140 
Operating expenses:
Research and development(1)
16,437 16,212 22,086 4,887 8,984 
Sales and marketing(1)
33,221 38,934 53,690 12,887 19,600 
General and administrative(1)
10,873 11,044 15,967 3,448 6,107 
Total operating expenses60,531 66,190 91,743 21,222 34,691 
Loss from operations(32,562)(16,112)(19,674)(5,775)(11,551)
Finance income (expense), net(769)(1,137)(1,682)(368)(347)
Loss before income taxes(33,331)(17,249)(21,356)(6,143)(11,898)
Provision for income taxes404 458 640 67 216 
Net loss$(33,735)$(17,707)$(21,996)$(6,210)$(12,114)
Deemed dividend to ordinary and preferred shareholders
— — $(825)— — 
Net loss per share attributable to ordinary shareholders, basic and diluted(2)
$(1.32)$(1.58)$(0.45)$(0.78)
Weighted-average shares used in computing net loss per share attributable to ordinary shareholders, basic and diluted(2)
13,427,020 14,442,172 13,871,219 15,467,710 
Pro forma net loss per share attributable to ordinary shareholders, basic and diluted (unaudited)(3)
$(0.35)$(0.18)
Weighted-average shares used in computing pro forma net loss per share attributable to ordinary shareholders, basic and diluted (unaudited)(3)
65,099,214 66,124,752 
(1)Includes share-based compensation costs as follows:
 Year Ended December 31,Three Months Ended
March 31,
20182019202020202021
(in thousands)
Cost of revenue$28 $38 $40 $$30 
Research and development451 452 1,107 103 1,365 
Sales and marketing375 427 821 111 626 
General and administrative712 1,087 2,832 261 861 
(2)See Note 13 to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus for an explanation of the calculations of our basic and diluted loss per ordinary share attributable to ordinary shareholders and the weighted-average number of ordinary shares used in the computation of the per ordinary share amounts.
(3)The pro forma net loss per ordinary share attributable to ordinary shareholders, basic and diluted (unaudited) and the weighted-average number of ordinary shares used to compute pro forma net loss per share attributable to ordinary shareholders, basic and diluted (unaudited) for the year ended December 31, 2020 and the three months ended March 31, 2021
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give effect to the automatic conversion of all outstanding shares of preferred shares into an aggregate of 50,657,042 ordinary shares immediately prior to the closing of this offering.
As of March 31, 2021
Actual
Pro Forma(1)
Pro Forma As
Adjusted(2)(3)(4)
(in thousands)
Consolidated Balance Sheet Data
Cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments$58,335 $58,335 $193,935 
Working capital(5)
(31,858)(31,858)103,742 
Total assets110,112 110,112 245,712 
Total liabilities128,516 128,516 128,516 
Convertible preferred shares135,810 — — 
Total shareholders’ (deficit) equity(154,214)(18,404)117,196 
Total liabilities, convertible preferred shares and shareholders’ (deficit) equity$110,112 $110,112 $245,712 
(1)The pro forma consolidated balance sheet data gives effect to (a) the automatic conversion of all outstanding convertible preferred shares into an aggregate of 50,657,042 ordinary shares, (b) the filing and effectiveness of our amended and restated articles of association, each of which will occur immediately prior to the closing of this offering and (c) the exercise by the selling shareholder of options to purchase 500,000 ordinary shares with an exercise price of $0.0003 per share, in connection with the sale of such shares by the selling shareholder in this offering.
(2)The pro forma as adjusted consolidated balance sheet data gives effect to (a), (b) and (c) above and our receipt of estimated net proceeds from the sale of 7,500,000 ordinary shares that we are offering at an assumed initial public offering price of $20.00 per ordinary share, the midpoint of the estimated price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of ordinary shares by the selling shareholder. Accordingly, there is no impact on the pro forma as adjusted consolidated balance sheet for these shares.
(3)A $1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed initial public offering price of $20.00 per ordinary share, the midpoint of the estimated price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, would increase (decrease) each of cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments, working capital, total assets, and total shareholders’ (deficit) equity and total liabilities, convertible preferred shares and shareholders’ (deficit) equity by $7.0 million, assuming that the number of ordinary shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same, and after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions. Similarly, each increase (decrease) of 1,000,000 shares in the number of ordinary shares offered by us would increase (decrease) each of cash and cash equivalents, working capital, total assets and total shareholders’ (deficit) equity and total liabilities, convertible preferred shares and shareholders’ (deficit) equity by $18.6 million, assuming the assumed initial public offering price of $20.00 per ordinary share remains the same, and after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions.
(4)Pro forma as adjusted cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments and working capital do not give effect to $0.4 million of deferred offering costs that had been paid as of March 31, 2021.
(5)Working capital is defined as current assets less current liabilities.
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Risk factors
An investment in our ordinary shares involves risks. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below, together with the other information contained in this prospectus, including our financial statements and related notes, before making an investment decision. Additional risks not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also impair our business operations. Our business, financial condition, revenues, results of operations or cash flows could be materially and adversely affected by any of these risks. The trading price and value of our ordinary shares could decline due to any of these risks, and you may lose all or part of your investment. This prospectus also contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. See “Special note regarding forward-looking statements.” Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, including the risks faced by us described below and elsewhere in this prospectus.
Risks relating to our business and industry
Our recent growth and rapid technological development make it difficult to forecast our revenue and evaluate our business and future prospects.
While we were founded in 2009 and we launched our platform in 2013, many of the key features of our platform and solutions have only launched in the past few years, and, accordingly, much of our growth has occurred in recent periods. Our recent and rapid growth makes it difficult to evaluate our business, including our ability to forecast our sales and future results of operations, plan our operating expenses and model future growth. If the assumptions that we use to plan our business are incorrect or change, or if we are unable to maintain consistent revenue or growth, our stock price could be volatile, and it may be difficult to achieve and maintain profitability. Furthermore, we operate in an industry that is characterized by rapid technological innovation, intense competition, changing customer needs and frequent introductions of new products, technologies and services. We have encountered and expect to continue to encounter risks and uncertainties frequently experienced by growing companies in rapidly evolving industries, such as the risks and uncertainties described herein. If our assumptions regarding these risks and uncertainties, which we use to plan our business, are incorrect or change, or if we do not address these risks and uncertainties successfully, our operating and financial results could differ materially from our expectations and our business could suffer.
We have a history of net losses, we anticipate increasing operating expenses in the future, and we may not be able to achieve and, if achieved, maintain profitability.
We have incurred net losses of $17.7 million, $22.0 million, $6.2 million and $12.1 million in the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2020 and three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2021, respectively. We expect to continue to incur net losses for the foreseeable future and we may not achieve or maintain profitability in the future. Because the market for the solutions, features and capabilities we offer is rapidly evolving and, we believe, under-penetrated, it is difficult for us to predict our future results of operations or the limits of our market opportunity. We expect our operating expenses will increase significantly over the next several years as we hire additional personnel, expand our operations and infrastructure, both in existing geographies in which we operate as well as new geographical markets, continue to enhance the Similarweb brand and develop and expand our solution offerings, features and capabilities. We also expect our general and administrative expenses to increase as we grow and begin to operate as a public company. These efforts may prove more expensive than we currently anticipate, and we may not succeed in increasing our revenue sufficiently, or at all, to offset these higher expenses. Revenue growth may slow, or revenue may decline for a number of possible reasons, including slowing demand for our solutions or increasing competition. If we fail to increase our revenue as we grow our business, we
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may not achieve profitability, which would cause our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows to suffer.
If we fail to manage our growth effectively, we may be unable to execute our business plan or maintain high levels of service and customer satisfaction.
We have recently experienced, and anticipate that we will continue to experience, a period of rapid growth in our operations and headcount. Our growth has placed, and future growth will place, a significant strain on our management, technical, administrative, operational and financial infrastructure. For example, our headcount has grown by 78% from 388 employees at the end of 2018 to 691 employees as of March 31, 2021. In addition, we continue to expand internationally, successfully opening our Sydney, Australia office in 2020 and we expect to open an office in Germany in 2021. Our success will depend in part on our ability to manage this growth effectively. To manage the expected growth of our operations and personnel, we will need to continue to improve our management, technical, administrative, operational and financial controls and our reporting systems and procedures. We will require significant capital expenditures and the allocation of valuable management resources to grow and change in these areas without undermining our culture, which has been central to our growth so far. Failure to effectively manage our growth could result in difficulty or delays in effectively scaling our platform or solutions, declines in quality or customer satisfaction, increases in costs, difficulties in introducing new features or other operational difficulties.
As we expand our business, it is important that we continue to maintain a high level of customer service and satisfaction. As our paid customer base continues to grow, we will need to expand our account management, customer service and other personnel, our partners and our features. Failure to take appropriate measures to support our customer, user and data growth, may result in declines in quality or user satisfaction, increases in costs, difficulties in introducing new features or other operational difficulties. Any of these difficulties could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
We may experience quarterly fluctuations in our operating results due to a number of factors, which make our future results difficult to predict and could cause our operating results to fall below expectations or our guidance.
Our quarterly operating results have fluctuated in the past and are expected to fluctuate in the future due to a variety of factors, many of which are outside of our control. As a result, our past results may not be indicative of our future performance, and comparing our operating results on a period-to-period basis may not be meaningful. In addition to the other risks described in this prospectus, factors that may affect our quarterly operating results include the following:
our ability to attract and retain customers and grow subscriptions of existing customers;
our ability to price and package our platform and solutions effectively;
pricing pressure as a result of competition or otherwise;
unforeseen costs and expenses, including those related to the expansion of our business and operations;
changes in customers’ budgets and in the timing of their budget cycles and purchasing decisions;
changes in the competitive dynamics of our market, including consolidation among competitors or organizations using our solutions and the introduction of new solutions or solution enhancements;
the amount and timing of payment for operating expenses, particularly research and development, sales and marketing expenses and employee benefit expenses;
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the timing of revenue and expenses related to the development or acquisition of technologies, solutions or businesses;
potential goodwill and intangible asset impairment charges and amortization associated with acquired businesses;
potential restructuring and transaction-related expenses;
the amount and timing of costs associated with recruiting, training and integrating new employees while maintaining our company culture;
seasonal buying patterns for purchasing or renewing subscriptions for digital intelligence solutions;
our ability to manage our existing business and future growth, including increases in the number of users on our platform and the introduction and adoption of our platform in new markets outside of the United States;
foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations; and
general economic and political conditions in our domestic and international markets.
We may not be able to accurately forecast the amount and mix of future subscriptions, revenue and expenses and, as a result, our operating results may fall below our estimates or the expectations of public market analysts and investors. If our revenue or operating results fall below the expectations of investors or securities analysts, or below any guidance we may provide, the price of our ordinary shares could decline.
The market and services categories in which we participate are competitive, new and rapidly changing.
Our platform falls within a new category of business technology in a rapidly evolving market for services, programs and tools used by companies with online presences and their knowledge workers. This market is intensely competitive, fragmented and subject to rapidly changing technology, shifting customer and organizational needs, new market entrants and frequent introductions of new solutions and services.
With respect to our solutions, we compete with market research companies such as GfK Group and Kantar Group, traditional media measurement solutions such as The Nielsen Corporation and comScore, Inc., manual project-based approaches to specific business challenges provided by management consulting companies such as McKinsey & Company, Bain & Company and Accenture plc and media buying and advertising agencies such as WPP plc, Omnicom Group and Interpublic Group. With the introduction of new technologies and new market entrants, we expect competition to intensify in the future. Established companies may not only develop their own communication and collaboration solutions, platforms for software integration and secure repositories of information and data, but also acquire or establish solution integration, distribution or other cooperative relationships with our current competitors. For example, while we currently provide our services and solutions to Google Inc., Amazon.com, Inc. and Microsoft Corporation, among others, they may develop and introduce products that directly or indirectly compete with our solutions.
Moreover, we expect competition to increase in the future both from our existing competitors and from new market entrants, including established technology companies who have not previously entered the market.  New competitors or alliances among competitors may emerge and rapidly acquire significant market share due to factors such as greater brand name recognition, a larger existing customer base, superior solution offerings, a larger or more effective sales organization and significantly greater financial, technical, marketing and other resources and experience. We also compete with companies that offer specific point solutions in the communication, collaboration and
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data use markets, normally focused on specific industries, geographies, specific media or specific use cases, which attempt to address certain of the problems that our solutions address. In addition, with the recent increase in large merger and acquisition transactions in the technology industry, particularly transactions involving cloud-based technologies, there is a greater likelihood that we will compete with other large technology companies in the future. We expect this trend to continue as companies attempt to strengthen or maintain their market positions in an evolving industry. Companies resulting from such consolidations may create more compelling product offerings and be able to offer more attractive pricing options, making it more difficult for us to compete effectively. If we fail to introduce new solutions, develop existing solutions or otherwise fail to meet and address the evolving needs of our market, this could harm our business, financial condition, revenues, results of operations or cash flows.
If we do not compete effectively with established companies as well as new market entrants our business, financial condition, revenues, results of operations or cash flows could be harmed.
Many of our existing competitors have, and some of our potential competitors could have, substantial competitive advantages such as:
greater brand name recognition and longer operating histories;
larger sales and marketing budgets and resources;
greater and/or more diverse data sources and/or access to unique, proprietary data sources;
broader distribution and established relationships with independent software vendors, partners and customers;
access to larger customer bases;
greater customer experience resources and support;
greater resources to make acquisitions;
lower labor and development costs;
larger and more mature intellectual property portfolios; and
substantially greater financial, technical and other resources.
As a result, they may be able to adapt more quickly and effectively to new or changing opportunities, technologies, standards or customer requirements.
In addition, some of our larger competitors have substantially broader offerings and leverage their relationships based on other products or solutions or incorporate functionality into existing products or solutions to gain business in a manner that discourages customers from purchasing our solutions, including through selling at zero or negative margins, solution bundling or closed technology platforms. Potential customers may also prefer to purchase from their existing suppliers rather than a new supplier regardless of solution performance or features. As a result, even if the features of Similarweb are superior, potential customers may not purchase our offerings. Larger competitors may have broader solution lines and market focus and will therefore not be as susceptible to downturns in a particular market. Our competitors may also seek to repurpose their existing offerings to provide software, services, programs and tools used by knowledge workers with subscription models. Further, some current and potential customers, particularly large organizations, have elected, and may in the future elect, to develop or acquire their own software, services, programs and tools used by knowledge workers that would reduce or eliminate the demand for Similarweb.
Conditions in our market could also change rapidly and significantly due to technological advancements, partnering by our competitors or continuing market consolidation, and it is
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uncertain how our market will evolve. New start-up companies that innovate and large competitors that are making significant investments in research and development may invent similar or superior solutions and technologies that compete with Similarweb. These competitive pressures in our market or our failure to compete effectively may result in price reductions, fewer customers, reduced revenue, gross profit and gross margins, increased net losses and loss of market share. Any failure to meet and address these factors could harm our business, financial condition, revenues, results of operations or cash flows.
A reduction or decline in participation in our contributory network and/or increase in the volume of opt-out requests from individuals with respect to our collection of their data, or a decrease in our direct measurement dataset, could lead to a deterioration in the depth, breadth or accuracy of our data and have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, revenues, results of operations or cash flows.
We have a number of sources contributing to the depth, breadth and accuracy of the data on our platform. These include our contributory network consisting of end users who use our business-to-customer, or B2C, products or B2C products of our partners through which we collect anonymized user data, and our “direct measurement data”, consisting of website and app owners who give us access to their Google Analytics or other direct measurement metrics. If we are not able to attract new participants or maintain existing participants in our contributory network or direct measurement dataset, which is collected from websites and apps who provide us access to such data, our ability to effectively gather new data and update and maintain the accuracy of our database could be adversely affected. Additionally, data privacy regulatory changes as well as the introduction of app- and device-level opt-out settings by certain mobile device and operating system providers are making it easier for individuals to opt-out of having their data collected or avoid such collection altogether, which could result in lower rates of B2C product end user adoption and higher rates of opting out, thereby reducing the size and depth of our contributory network. Third-party intermediaries have emerged, and we expect that others will emerge that offer the ability for users to opt out of their personal and other data being collected at scale (i.e., from all platforms and products, including ours and the third-party products with whom we partner for data collection). Consequently, our ability to grow our business may be harmed and our results of operations and financial condition could suffer.
If we are unable to attract new customers and expand subscriptions of current customers, our business, financial condition, revenues, results of operations or cash flows will be adversely affected. Any decline in our dollar-based net retention rate would harm our future operating results.
To increase our revenue and achieve and maintain profitability, we must continue to attract new customers and maintain and grow the subscriptions of existing customers. Our go-to-market efforts are intended to identify and attract prospective customers and convert them into paying customers, including the conversion of paying customers of solutions on the basic plan to higher tier services. In addition, we seek to expand existing customer subscriptions by adding new customers or additional solutions or services, including through expanding the adoption of our platform into other departments within organizations. We do not know whether we will continue to achieve similar client acquisition and subscription growth rates in the future as we have in the past. Numerous factors may impede our ability to add new customers and grow existing customer subscriptions, including our failure to attract and effectively train new marketing, sales and account management personnel despite increasing our sales efforts, to retain and motivate our current marketing, sales and account management personnel, to develop or expand relationships with partners, to successfully deploy new features and capabilities of our solutions and services, to provide quality customer experience or to ensure the effectiveness of our go-to-market programs. Additionally, increasing our sales to large organizations (both existing and prospective users) requires increasingly sophisticated and costly sales and account management efforts targeted at senior
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management and other personnel. If our efforts to sell to organizations are not successful or do not generate additional revenue, our business will suffer.
Our success will depend to a substantial extent on the widespread adoption of our platform and solutions as an alternative to existing or newly emerging solutions. The adoption of software as a service, or SaaS, business software may be slower in industries with heightened data security interests or business practices requiring highly customizable application software. In addition, as our market matures, our solutions evolve, and competitors introduce lower cost or differentiated solutions that are perceived to compete with our platform and solutions, our ability to sell subscriptions for our solutions could be impaired. Similarly, our subscription sales could be adversely affected if organizations or users within these organizations perceive that features incorporated into competitive solutions reduce the need for our solutions or if they prefer to purchase other solutions that are bundled with solutions offered by other companies that operate in adjacent markets and compete with our solutions. As a result of these and other factors, we may be unable to attract new customers, which may have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, revenues, results of operations or cash flows.
Moreover, our business is subscription-based, and therefore our customers are not obligated to and may not renew their subscriptions after their existing subscriptions expire or may renew at a lower price, including if such customers choose to reduce their data access rights under their subscription, reduce the solutions to which they have access, or reduce their number of users. Our subscription agreements typically last for a minimum term of one year and are renewable thereafter. While many of our subscriptions provide for automatic renewal, our customers may opt-out of automatic renewal and customers have no obligation to renew a subscription after the expiration of the term.
In order for us to maintain or improve our results of operations, it is important that our customers renew or expand their subscriptions with us. We cannot accurately predict our renewals and dollar-based net retention rate given the diversity of our customer base, in terms of size, industry and geography. Our renewals and dollar-based net retention rate may decline or fluctuate as a result of a number of factors, many of which are outside our control, including the business strength or weakness of our customers, customer usage, including the ability of our customers to quickly integrate our products into their businesses and continually find new uses for our products within their businesses, customer satisfaction with our products and platform capabilities and customer support, the utility of our platform to cost-effectively integrate with third-party software products, our prices, the capabilities and prices of competing products, mergers and acquisitions affecting our customer base, consolidation of affiliates’ multiple paid business accounts into a single paid business account or loss of business accounts in their entirety, the effects of global economic conditions, or reductions in our customers’ spending on information technology, or IT, solutions or their spending levels generally, perceived security or data privacy risks from the use of our products or changes in regulatory regimes that effect our customers or our ability to sell our products. These factors may also be exacerbated if, consistent with our growth strategy, our customer base continues to grow to encompass larger enterprises, which may also require more sophisticated and costly sales efforts. If our customers do not purchase additional subscriptions and products from us or our customers fail to renew their subscriptions, our revenue may decline and our business, financial condition, revenues, results of operations or cash flows may be harmed.
Our customers may or may not renew their subscriptions as a result of a number of factors, including their satisfaction or dissatisfaction with our solutions, decreases in the number of users at the organization, our pricing or pricing structure, the pricing or capabilities of the products and services offered by our competitors, the effects of economic conditions (including as a result of general economic downturns, including those resulting from global pandemics such as COVID-19) or reductions in our paying customers’ spending levels. In addition, our customers may renew for fewer subscriptions, renew for shorter contract lengths if they were previously on multi-year contracts, or switch to lower cost offerings of our solutions and services. It is difficult to predict attrition rates given our varied customer base of enterprise, mid-market and small business
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customers across many different industries and that are located worldwide. Our attrition rates may increase or fluctuate as a result of a number of factors, including customer dissatisfaction with our solutions, customers’ spending levels, mix of customer base, decreases in the number of users at our customers, competition, pricing increases or changing or deteriorating general economic conditions. If customers do not renew their subscriptions or renew on less favorable terms or fail to add more customers, or if we fail to expand subscriptions of existing customers, our revenue may decline or grow less quickly than anticipated, which would harm our business, financial condition, revenues, results of operations or cash flows.
If we are not able to introduce new features or solutions successfully and to make enhancements to our solutions, our business and results of operations could be adversely affected.
Our ability to attract new customers and increase revenue from existing customers depends in part on our ability to enhance and improve our solutions and to introduce new features and services. To grow our business and remain competitive, we must continue to enhance our solutions and develop features that reflect the constantly evolving nature of technology and our customers' needs. The success of any solutions, enhancements or developments depends on several factors: our anticipation of market changes and demands for solution features, including timely solution introduction, sufficient customer demand, cost effectiveness in our solution development efforts and the proliferation of new technologies that are able to deliver competitive products and solutions at lower prices, more efficiently, more conveniently or more securely. In addition, because our solutions are designed to operate with a variety of systems, applications, data and devices, we will need to continuously modify and enhance our solutions to keep pace with changes in such systems. We may not be successful in developing these modifications and enhancements. Furthermore, the addition of features and solutions to our platform will increase our research and development expenses. Any new features that we develop may not be introduced in a timely or cost-effective manner or may not achieve the market acceptance necessary to generate sufficient revenue to justify the related expenses. It is difficult to predict customer adoption of new features. In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic could have an impact on our plans to offer certain new features, capabilities and enhancements in a timely manner, particularly if we experience impacts to productivity due to our employees or their family members experiencing health issues, if our employees continue to work remotely for extended periods, or if there are increasing delays in the hiring and onboarding of new employees. Such uncertainty limits our ability to forecast our future results of operations and subjects us to a number of challenges, including our ability to plan for and model future growth. If we cannot address such uncertainties and successfully develop new features, enhance our software or otherwise overcome technological challenges and competing technologies, our business and results of operations could be adversely affected.
The recent global coronavirus outbreak could harm our business and results of operations.
In December 2019, a novel coronavirus disease, or COVID-19, was reported in China, in January 2020, the World Health Organization, or WHO, declared it a Public Health Emergency of International Concern, and in March 2020 the WHO declared it a pandemic. This contagious disease outbreak has continued to spread across the globe and is impacting worldwide economic activity and financial markets. In light of the uncertain and rapidly evolving situation relating to the spread of COVID-19, as well as government mandates, we took precautionary measures intended to minimize the risk of the virus to our employees, our customers, our partners and the communities in which we operate, which could negatively impact our business. In response to the pandemic we temporarily closed all of our offices and enabled our entire work force to work remotely. We also suspended all travel worldwide for our employees for non-essential business. In the second quarter of 2020 we reopened select offices, however most of our employees continue to work remotely. Although we continue to monitor the situation and may adjust our current policies as more information and public health guidance become available, temporarily suspending travel and doing business in person may negatively affect our customer success efforts, sales and marketing efforts, challenge our ability to enter into customer contracts in a timely manner, slow down our recruiting
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efforts, or create operational or other challenges, any of which could harm our business and results of operations.
In addition, COVID-19 has disrupted and may continue to disrupt the operations of our customers and technology partners for an indefinite period of time, including as a result of travel restrictions and/or business shutdowns, all of which could negatively impact our business and results of operations. More generally, the COVID-19 outbreak has adversely affected economies and financial markets globally, leading to an economic downturn, which could decrease technology spending and adversely affect demand for our products and harm our business and results of operations. It is possible that continued widespread remote work arrangements may have a negative impact on our operations, the execution of our business plans, the productivity and availability of key personnel and other employees necessary to conduct our business, and on third-party service providers who perform critical services for us, or otherwise cause operational failures due to changes in our normal business practices necessitated by the outbreak and related governmental actions. If a natural disaster, power outage, connectivity issue, or other event occurs that impacts our employees’ ability to work remotely, it may be difficult or, in certain cases, impossible, for us to continue our business for a substantial period of time. The increase in remote working may increase exposure vulnerabilities, resulting in privacy, data protection, data security and fraud risks, and our understanding of applicable legal and regulatory requirements, as well as the latest guidance from regulatory authorities in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic, may be subject to legal or regulatory challenge, particularly as regulatory guidance evolves in response to future developments.
It is not possible at this time to estimate the long-term impact that COVID-19 could have on our business, as the impact will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted.
Real or perceived errors, failures, vulnerabilities or bugs in our platform could result in a decline in the accuracy of the intelligence we produce and/or cause other problems and harm our business, financial condition, revenues, results of operations or cash flows.
The software underlying our platform and solutions is highly technical and complex. Our software has previously contained, and may now or in the future contain, undetected errors, bugs or vulnerabilities. In addition, errors, failures, bugs and vulnerabilities may be contained in the open source software we use to build and operate our solutions or may result from errors in the deployment or configuration of open source software. Some errors in our software may only be discovered after the software has been deployed or may never be generally known. Any errors, failures, bugs or vulnerabilities discovered in our software after it has been deployed, or never generally discovered, could result in a decline in the accuracy of the intelligence we produce for customers, interruptions in platform availability, solution malfunctioning or data breaches, and thereby result in damage to our reputation, adverse effects upon customers, loss of customers and relationships with third parties, loss of revenue or liability for damages. In some instances, we may not be able to identify the cause or causes of these problems or risks within an acceptable period of time.
If we or our third-party service providers experience a security breach or unauthorized parties otherwise obtain access to our customers’ data, our data or proprietary information, our platform or our solutions may be perceived as not being secure, our reputation may be harmed, demand for our platform and solutions may be reduced and we may incur significant liabilities.
Our platform and solutions involve the storage and transmission of anonymized user data, direct measurement data, and confidential data about our customers such as their e-mail address and other information they use to register to use our platform, and security breaches or unauthorized access to our platform and solutions could result in the loss of our or our customers’ confidential data, litigation, indemnity obligations, fines, penalties, disputes, investigations and other liabilities. Any security breach or perceived security breach could also result in media attention and
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reputational harm to our business. We have previously and may in the future become the target of cyber-attacks by third parties seeking unauthorized access to our or our customers’ data or to disrupt our ability to provide our services.
While we have taken steps to put in place a mature security program, a recent independent cybersecurity maturity assessment report graded our security measures and program risky and not mature in certain material respects that we have been in the process of remediating but have not completed. If not remedied, the gaps identified in the report create a greater risk that our security measures could be breached.
While we have taken steps to protect the confidential information to which we have access (including our own valuable, proprietary, and trade secret information), as well as measures to ensure we do not become privy to confidential data beyond the scope of what is required to develop our insights and provide our solutions, our security measures or those of our third-party service providers that store or otherwise process certain of our and our customers’ confidential data on our behalf could be breached or we could suffer a loss of our or our customers’ confidential data. Our ability to monitor our third-party service providers’ data security may be limited. Cyber-attacks, computer malware, viruses, social engineering (including spear phishing and ransomware attacks) and general hacking have become more prevalent in our industry, particularly against cloud services. In addition, intentional or accidental actions or inactions by employees or other third parties with authorized access to our networks may result in the exposure of vulnerabilities that may be exploited or expose us to liability. Third parties may also conduct attacks designed to temporarily deny customers access to our cloud services. If we experience any breaches of security measures or sabotage or otherwise suffer unauthorized use or disclosure of, or access to, personal information, financial account information or other confidential information it could disrupt normal business operations, require us to spend material resources to investigate or correct the breach and to prevent future security breaches and incidents, expose us to legal liabilities, including litigation, regulatory enforcement, and indemnity obligations, and adversely affect our business, financial condition, revenues, results of operations or cash flows, and we might be required to expend significant capital and resources to address these problems. We may not be able to remedy any problems caused by hackers or other similar actors in a timely manner, or at all. Because techniques used to obtain unauthorized access or to sabotage systems change frequently and generally are not recognized until after they are launched against a target, we and our service providers may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate preventative measures. If a breach of security or other data security incident occurs or is perceived to have occurred, the perception of the effectiveness of our security measures and reputation could be harmed and we could lose current and potential customers, even if the security breach were to also affect one or more of our competitors. Further, concerns about practices with regard to the collection, use, disclosure or security of personal information, financial account information or other confidential information, even if unfounded, could damage our reputation and adversely affect our results of operations.
Because there are many different security breach techniques and such techniques continue to evolve, we may be unable to anticipate attempted security breaches, react in a timely manner or implement adequate preventative measures. Third parties may also conduct attacks designed to temporarily deny users access to our cloud services. Any security breach or other security incident, or the perception that one has occurred, could result in a loss of user confidence in the security of our platform and damage to our brand, reduce the demand for our solutions, disrupt normal business operations, require us to spend material resources to investigate or correct the breach and to prevent future security breaches and incidents, expose us to legal liabilities, including litigation, regulatory enforcement, and indemnity obligations, and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. These risks are likely to increase as we continue to grow and process, store, and transmit increasingly large amounts of data.
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We also process, store and transmit our own data as part of our business and operations. This data may include confidential or proprietary information. There can be no assurance that any security measures that we or our third-party service providers have implemented will be effective against current or future security threats. While we have developed systems and processes to protect the integrity, confidentiality and security of our and our customers’ data, our security measures or those of our third-party service providers could fail and result in unauthorized access to or disclosure, modification, misuse, loss or destruction of such data.
We use third-party technology and systems in a variety of contexts, including, without limitation, employee email, content delivery to customers, back-office support, credit card processing and other functions. Although we have developed systems and processes that are designed to protect customer data and prevent data loss and other security breaches, including systems and processes designed to reduce the impact of a security breach at a third-party service provider, such measures cannot provide absolute security.
Additionally, we cannot be certain that our insurance coverage will be adequate for data security liabilities actually incurred, will cover any indemnification claims against us relating to any incident, will continue to be available to us on economically reasonable terms, or at all, or that any insurer will not deny coverage as to any future claim. The successful assertion of one or more large claims against us that exceed available insurance coverage, or the occurrence of changes in our insurance policies, including premium increases or the imposition of large deductible or co-insurance requirements, could adversely affect our reputation, business, financial condition, revenues, results of operations or cash flows.
If we fail to maintain and improve our methods and technologies, or anticipate new methods or technologies, for data collection, organization and cleansing, competing products and services could surpass ours in depth, breadth or accuracy of our insights or in other respects.
Current or future competitors may seek to develop new methods and technologies for more efficiently gathering, cataloging or updating business information, which could allow a competitor to create a product comparable or superior to ours, or that takes substantial market share from us or that creates or maintains databases to produce insights at a lower cost than we experience. We can expect continuous improvements in computer hardware, network operating systems, programming tools, programming languages, operating systems, data matching, data filtering, data analysis tools and other technologies and the use of the internet. These improvements, as well as changes in customer preferences or regulatory requirements, may require changes in the technology used to gather and process our data. Our future success will depend, in part, upon our ability to:
internally develop and implement new and competitive technologies;
use leading third-party technologies effectively; and
respond to advances in data collection and cataloging and creating insights.
If we fail to respond to changes in data technology and analysis to create insights, competitors may be able to develop solutions that will take market share from us, and the demand for our solutions, the delivery of our solutions or our market reputation could be adversely affected.
If we are not able to obtain and maintain comprehensive and reliable data to generate our insights, we could experience reduced demand for our solutions.
Our success depends on our clients’ confidence in the depth, breadth and reliability of our insights, which are based on our data. The task of establishing and maintaining reliable data is challenging and expensive. The depth, breadth and reliability of our data differentiates us from our competitors. If our data, including the data we obtain from third parties and our data extraction, cleaning and insights, are not current, sufficiently accurate, comprehensive or reliable, it would
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increase the likelihood of negative customer experiences, which in turn would reduce the likelihood of customers renewing or upgrading their subscriptions and harm our reputation, making it more difficult to obtain new customers. In addition, if we are no longer able to maintain a high level of reliability for our insights, we may face legal claims by our customers which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, revenues, results of operations or cash flows.
Our business may be harmed if we change our methodologies or the scope of information we collect.
We have in the past and may in the future change our data collection and aggregation methodologies, the algorithms we use to generate our estimated insights, or the scope and volume of information we collect. Such changes may result from identified deficiencies in current methodologies, development of more advanced methodologies, changes in our business plans or in industry standards or regulatory requirements, changes in technology used by websites, browsers, mobile applications, servers or media for which we generate estimated insights, integration of acquired companies or expressed or perceived needs of our customers, potential customers or partners. Any such changes or perceived changes, or our inability to accurately or adequately communicate to our customers and the media such changes and the potential implications of such changes on the data we have published or will publish in the future, may result in customer dissatisfaction, particularly if certain information is no longer collected or information collected in future periods is not comparable with information collected in prior periods, or if our estimated insights for future periods become incompatible or otherwise differ from the estimated insights we provided for prior periods. As a result of future methodology changes, some of our customers may decide not to continue buying our products or services which would negatively affect our revenues and financial results, and/or to publicly air their dissatisfaction with the methodological changes made by us, which may damage our brand and harm our reputation.
Failure to effectively develop and expand our direct sales capabilities could harm our ability to increase the number of organizations using our platform and achieve broader market acceptance of our solutions.
Our ability to increase our customer base and achieve broader market acceptance of our solutions and platform capabilities will depend to a significant extent on our ability to expand our sales and marketing organization. We plan to continue expanding our direct sales force, both in existing geographies in which we operate and new international markets. We also plan to dedicate significant resources to our sales and marketing programs and to training our sales force. All of these efforts will require us to invest significant financial and other resources, including in channels in which we have limited or no experience to date. Our business and results of operations will be harmed if our sales and marketing efforts do not generate significant increases in revenue or increases in revenue that are smaller than anticipated. We may not achieve anticipated revenue growth from expanding our sales force if we are unable to hire, develop, integrate and retain talented and effective sales personnel, if our new and existing sales personnel, on the whole, are unable to achieve desired productivity levels in a reasonable period of time, or if our sales and marketing programs are not effective. We believe that there is significant competition for sales personnel with the skills and technical knowledge that we require. Our ability to achieve revenue growth will depend, in large part, on our success in recruiting, training and retaining sufficient numbers of sales personnel to support our growth.
We have experienced rapid growth in recent periods and our recent growth rates may not be indicative of our future growth.
We have experienced rapid growth in recent periods. Our revenue was $70.6 million and $93.5 million for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2020, respectively, representing annual growth of 32%. Our revenue was $20.6 million and $29.4 million for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and March 31, 2021, respectively, representing period over period growth of 43%. Our historical revenue growth should not be considered indicative of our future performance. In future
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periods, we may not be able to sustain revenue growth consistent with recent periods, or at all. Further, as we operate in a new and rapidly changing category of services, widespread acceptance and use of our digital intelligence generally and our solutions is critical to our future growth and success. We believe our revenue growth depends on several factors, including, but not limited to, our ability to:
attract new users and customers;
provide excellent service to our users and customers;
grow or maintain our net revenue retention, or NRR, and expand the usage of our solutions within the organizations already using our solutions;
minimize the cancellation of paid subscriptions for our solutions or the reduction in the scope or price for our solutions by our customers;
maintain and grow our available data sources in order to adequately meet the needs of our solution development;
introduce and grow the adoption of our solutions in new markets outside of the markets in which we currently operate;
improve the performance and capabilities of our platform and solutions through research and development;
drive traffic to our online platform, convert traffic to free offerings and convert users of our free offerings to paid subscriptions;
convert customers and organizations utilizing our free offering to higher tier services;
deal with concerns related to actual or perceived security breaches, reliability, outages or other defects related to our platform;
adequately expand our sales force and otherwise scale our operations as a business;
comply with existing and new applicable laws and regulations, primarily in the area of data privacy and protection;
effectively price our solutions to attract and retain users while achieving and maintaining profitability;
successfully compete against new and existing market players; and
increase global awareness of our brand.
If we are unable to accomplish these tasks, our revenue growth would be harmed. In addition, we expect to continue to expend substantial financial and other resources on:
our sources of data;
our technology infrastructure, including systems architecture, scalability, availability, performance and security;
our sales and marketing organization to engage our existing and prospective customers, increase brand awareness and drive adoption of our solutions;
solution development, including investments in our solution development team and the development of new solutions and new functionalities for our platform as well as investments in further optimizing our existing solutions, research, algorithms and infrastructure;
acquisitions or strategic investments;
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international expansion; and
general administration, including increased legal and accounting expenses associated with being a public company, such as insurance for our directors and officers.
These investments may not result in increased revenue growth in our business. If we are unable to maintain or increase our revenue at a rate sufficient to offset the expected increase in our costs, our business, financial condition, revenues, results of operations or cash flows will be harmed, and we may not be able to achieve or maintain profitability over the long term.
We rely upon third-party providers of cloud-based infrastructure to host our solutions. Any disruption in the operations of these third-party providers, limitations on capacity or interference with our use could adversely affect our business, financial condition, revenues, results of operations or cash flows.
We outsource substantially all of the infrastructure relating to our cloud solution to third-party hosting services, such as Amazon Web Services, or AWS. Customers of our cloud-based solutions need to be able to access our platform at any time, without interruption or degradation of performance, and in some cases we need to provide them with service-level commitments with respect to uptime. Our cloud-based solutions depend on protecting the virtual cloud infrastructure hosted by third-party hosting services by maintaining its configuration, architecture, features and interconnection specifications, as well as the information stored in these virtual data centers, which is transmitted by third-party internet service providers. Any limitation on the capacity of our third-party hosting services could impede our ability to onboard new customers or expand the usage of our existing customers, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, revenues, results of operations or cash flows. In addition, any incident affecting our third-party hosting services’ infrastructure that may be caused by cyber-attacks, natural disasters, fire, flood, severe storm, earthquake, power loss, telecommunications failures, terrorist or other attacks, regional epidemics or global pandemics such as COVID-19 and other similar events beyond our control could negatively affect our cloud-based solutions. A prolonged service disruption affecting our cloud-based solution for any of the foregoing reasons would negatively impact our ability to serve our customers and could damage our reputation with current and potential customers, expose us to liability, cause us to lose customers or otherwise harm our business. We may also incur significant costs for using alternative equipment or taking other actions in preparation for, or in reaction to, events that damage the third-party hosting services we use.
AWS provides the cloud computing infrastructure that we use to host our platform, manage data, mobile application, and many of the internal tools we use to operate our business. We have a long-term commitment with AWS through June 30, 2023 and our agreement with AWS is not terminable for convenience by either party. Our platform, mobile application and internal tools use computing, storage capabilities, bandwidth and other services provided by AWS. Any significant disruption of, limitation of our access to, or other interference with our use of AWS would negatively impact our operations and could seriously harm our business. In addition, any transition of the cloud services currently provided by AWS to another cloud services provider would require significant time and expense and could disrupt or degrade delivery of our platform. Our business relies on the availability of our platform for our customers, and we may lose customers if they are not able to access our platform or encounter difficulties in doing so. The level of service provided by AWS could affect the availability or speed of our platform, which may also impact the usage of, and our customers’ satisfaction with, our platform and could seriously harm our business and reputation. If AWS increases pricing terms, terminates or seeks to terminate our contractual relationship, establishes more favorable relationships with our competitors, or changes or interprets its terms of service or policies in a manner that is unfavorable with respect to us, our business, financial condition, revenues, results of operations or cash flows may be harmed.
In addition, we rely on hardware and infrastructure purchased or leased from third parties and software licensed from third parties to operate critical business functions. Our business would be
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disrupted if any of this third-party hardware, software and infrastructure becomes unavailable on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. Furthermore, delays or complications with respect to the transition of critical business functions from one third-party product to another, or any errors or defects in third-party hardware, software or infrastructure could result in errors in our solutions or a failure of our platform, which could harm our business and results of operations.
In the event that our service agreements with our third-party hosting services or providers are terminated, or there is a lapse of service, delay in service, elimination of services or features that we utilize, interruption of internet service provider connectivity or damage to such facilities, we could experience interruptions in access to our platform as well as significant delays and additional expense in arranging or creating new facilities and services and/or re-architecting our cloud solution for deployment on a different cloud infrastructure service provider, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, revenues, results of operations or cash flows.
Our data collection methodology depends in part on the ability to distribute products used for data collection through third-party platforms and stores, and if we lose access to those platforms or stores or if we or our partners are otherwise restricted from distributing products through those platforms or stores, our business could suffer.
Our platform and solutions depend in part on the ability to obtain data for our contributory network through browser extensions, mobile apps and other products distributed through third-party online platforms and stores such as Chrome Web Store, Google Play and the Apple App Store. These include our own browser extension and mobile app products, and products distributed by third parties with whom we collaborate and into which products we integrate our data collection tools. We continuously look to seek out and enter into relationships with new partners for the integration of our data collection tools into their products, and the availability and quality of this data is important to the continued functioning and development of our products and the performance of our obligations to customers. We may have difficulty finding and entering into agreements with new partners, and/or maintaining current relationships with existing partners. Failure to find and enter into agreements with new partners, and/or to maintain current relationships with existing partners, could result in inadequate data for our ongoing and future product requirements.
The third-party platforms and stores through which our products and partner products are distributed issue rules and guidelines governing their use, which include provisions that are often more restrictive than the requirements of applicable data privacy laws. These platforms and stores frequently modify these rules, and often enforce them in an inconsistent manner. Accordingly, there is an ongoing risk that these third-party platforms may remove our browser extension and mobile app products or our partners’ products from their stores, issue warnings necessitating modifications to the products or prevent a specific product owner or developer from distributing any of its products through their stores. These warnings and removals can result in interruptions and delays in the collection of data for our contributory network, in the need to allocate resources and incur costs for the modification of our products, in the suspension or termination of our partnerships with third parties and the cessation of integration of our data collection tools with those third parties' products, and in harm to our reputation. Any of these effects could negatively impact the functionality of, or require us to make changes to, our products and solutions, which would need to occur quickly to avoid interruptions in service for our customers.
Furthermore, our business, cash flows or results of operations may be harmed if any platform or store through which we or our partners distribute products we use for data collection changes, limits or discontinues our access to its platform or store; modifies its terms of service or other policies, including fees charged or restrictions on us or our partners; changes or limits how customer information is accessed by us or our partners; changes or limits how we can use customer information and other data collected through the platforms or stores; or experiences disruptions of its technology, services or business generally.
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We depend on third parties for data that is critical to our business, and our business could suffer if we cannot continue to obtain reliable data from these suppliers or if third parties place additional restrictions on our use of such data.
We rely on third-party data sources for traffic and engagement information related to the websites and apps for which we generate estimated insights and metrics, demographics about the people that use such platforms, and related information about digital trends. We continuously look to seek out and enter into relationships with new suppliers for data in order to enrich our data sources, and the availability and quality of this data is important to the continued functioning and development of our products and the fulfillment of our obligations to customers. Failure to find and enter into agreements with new partners, and/or to maintain current relationships with existing partners, could result in inadequate data for our ongoing and future product requirements. Our data suppliers may increase restrictions on our use of such data, fail to adhere to our quality control, privacy or security standards, or otherwise satisfactorily perform services, increase the price they charge us for the data or refuse to license the data to us. Additional restrictions on third-party data could limit our ability to include that data in certain solutions, which could lead to decreased commercial opportunities for certain solutions as well as loss of customers, obligations to provide refunds, or liability to our customers. To comply with any additional restrictions, we may be required to implement certain additional technological and manual controls that could put pressure on our cost structure and could affect our pricing. If our partners do not apply rigorous standards to their data collection methodology and actions, notwithstanding our best efforts, we may receive third-party data that is inaccurate, defective, or delayed, or which does not meet our compliance standards or the requirements of applicable data privacy laws and regulations. If third-party information is not available to us on commercially reasonable terms, or is found to be inaccurate or otherwise unsuitable for our needs, it could lead to costly and time-consuming contractual disputes or harm our products, our reputation and our business and financial performance.
If we fail to maintain and enhance our brand, our ability to expand the number of organizations using our solutions will be impaired, our reputation may be harmed, and our business, financial condition, revenues, results of operations or cash flows may suffer.
Our future success depends upon our ability to create and maintain brand recognition and a reputation for delivering easy and efficient solution. A failure by us to build our brand and deliver on these expectations could harm our reputation and damage our ability to attract and retain consumers, which could adversely affect our business. We also believe that developing and maintaining awareness of our brand is critical to achieving widespread acceptance of our platform and solutions and is an important element in attracting new customers and users to our platform. Furthermore, we believe that the importance of brand recognition will increase as competition in our market increases. Successful promotion of our brand will depend largely on the effectiveness of our marketing efforts and on our ability to ensure that Similarweb remains high-quality, reliable and useful at competitive prices, as well as with respect to our free offering.
As our market becomes increasingly competitive, increasing awareness of our platform may become more difficult and expensive. Brand promotion activities may not yield increased revenue, and even if they do, any increased revenue may not offset the expenses we incur in building our brand. If we fail to successfully promote and maintain our brand, or incur substantial expenses in an unsuccessful attempt to promote and maintain our brand, we may fail to attract new customers and users or grow or maintain our retention rates to the extent necessary to realize a sufficient return on our brand-building efforts, and our business, financial condition, revenues, results of operations or cash flows could suffer.
In addition, independent industry analysts often provide reviews of our solutions, as well as the solutions offered by our competitors, and perception of the relative value of our platform in the marketplace may be significantly influenced by these reviews. If these reviews are negative, or less positive as compared to those of our competitors’ solutions, our brand may be harmed.
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We offer free trials and a free offering of our platform to drive awareness of our solutions and encourage usage and adoption. If these marketing strategies fail to lead to users purchasing paid subscriptions, our ability to grow our revenue will be adversely affected.
To encourage awareness, usage, familiarity and adoption of our platform and solutions, we offer free trials and a free offering of our platform. Our marketing strategy depends in part on users of our free trial and free tier versions of our platform convincing others within their organizations to use our solutions and to become paying customers. These strategies may not be successful in leading users to purchase our solutions. Many customers of our free tier may not lead to others within their organization purchasing and deploying our platform and solutions. To the extent that users do not become, or we are unable to successfully attract paying customers, we will not realize the intended benefits of these marketing strategies and our ability to grow our revenue will be adversely affected.
Because our success depends, in part, on our ability to expand sales internationally, our business will be susceptible to risks associated with international operations.
We currently maintain offices and have sales personnel outside of Israel in the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Japan and Australia, and we intend to expand our international operations by developing a sales presence in Germany in 2021 and in other international markets. In the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2020, our non-U.S. revenue was 57.8% and 55.7% of our total revenue, respectively. We expect to continue to expand our international operations, which may include opening offices in new jurisdictions and providing our solutions in additional languages. Any additional international expansion efforts that we are undertaking and may undertake may not be successful. In addition, conducting international operations subjects us to new risks, some of which we have not generally faced in Israel, the United States or other countries where we currently operate. These risks include, among other things:
unexpected costs and errors in the localization of our platform and solutions, including translation into foreign languages and adaptation for local culture, practices and regulatory requirements;
lack of familiarity and burdens of complying with foreign laws, legal standards, privacy and cybersecurity standards, regulatory requirements, tariffs and other barriers, and the risk of penalties to our customers and individual members of management or employees if our practices are deemed to not be in compliance;
practical difficulties of enforcing intellectual property rights in countries with varying laws and standards and reduced or varied protection for intellectual property rights in some countries;
an evolving legal framework and additional legal or regulatory requirements for data privacy and cybersecurity, which may necessitate the establishment of systems to maintain data in local markets, requiring us to invest in additional data centers and network infrastructure, and the implementation of additional employee data privacy documentation (including locally-compliant data privacy notice and policies), all of which may involve substantial expense and may cause us to need to divert resources from other aspects of our business, all of which may adversely affect our business;
unexpected changes in regulatory requirements, taxes, trade laws, tariffs, export quotas, custom duties or other trade restrictions;
difficulties in managing systems integrators and technology partners;
differing technology standards;
different pricing environments, longer sales cycles, longer accounts receivable payment cycles and difficulties in collecting accounts receivable;
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increased financial accounting and reporting burdens and complexities;
difficulties in managing and staffing international operations including the proper classification of independent contractors and other contingent workers, differing employer/employee relationships and local employment laws;
increased costs involved with recruiting and retaining an expanded employee population outside Israel and the United States through cash and equity-based incentive programs and unexpected legal costs and regulatory restrictions in issuing our shares to employees outside the United States;
global political and regulatory changes that may lead to restrictions on immigration and travel for our employees outside Israel, the United States and our other office locations;
fluctuations in exchange rates that may decrease the value of our foreign-based revenue;
potentially adverse tax consequences, including the complexities of foreign value added tax (or other tax) systems, and restrictions on the repatriation of earnings; and
permanent establishment risks and complexities in connection with international payroll, tax and social security requirements for international employees.
Additionally, operating in international markets also requires significant management attention and financial resources. We cannot be certain that the investment and additional resources required in establishing operations in other countries will produce desired levels of revenue or profitability.
Compliance with laws and regulations applicable to our global operations also substantially increases our cost of doing business in foreign jurisdictions. We have limited experience in marketing, selling and supporting our platform outside of Israel and the United States. Our limited experience in operating our business internationally increases the risk that any potential future expansion efforts that we may undertake will not be successful. If we invest substantial time and resources to expand our international operations and are unable to do so successfully and in a timely manner, our business, financial condition, revenues, results of operations or cash flows will suffer. We may be unable to keep current with changes in government requirements as they change from time to time. Failure to comply with these regulations could harm our business. In many countries, it is common for others to engage in business practices that are prohibited by our internal policies and procedures or other regulations applicable to us. Although we have implemented policies and procedures designed to ensure compliance with these laws and policies, there can be no assurance that all of our employees, contractors, partners and agents will comply with these laws and policies. Violations of laws or key control policies by our employees, contractors, partners or agents could result in delays in revenue recognition, financial reporting misstatements, enforcement actions, reputational harm, disgorgement of profits, fines, civil and criminal penalties, damages, injunctions, other collateral consequences or the prohibition of the importation or exportation of our solutions and could harm our business, financial condition, revenues, results of operations or cash flows.
Our international sales and operations subject us to additional risks and costs, including the ability to engage with customers in new geographies, exposure to foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations, that can adversely affect our business, financial condition, revenues, results of operations or cash flows.
We derive a significant portion of revenue from our customers in Israel and the United States. We are continuing to expand our international operations as part of our growth strategy. However, there are a variety of risks and costs associated with our international sales and operations, which include making investments prior to the proven adoption of our solutions, the cost of conducting our business internationally and hiring and training international employees and the costs associated with complying with local law. Furthermore, we cannot predict the rate at which our
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platform and solutions will be accepted in international markets by potential customers. We currently have sales and/or customer support personnel outside Israel and the United States in the United Kingdom, France, Japan and Australia, and have started the process of establishing a sales presence in Germany; however, our sales organization outside Israel and the United States is substantially smaller than our Israeli and U.S. sales organization. We believe our ability to attract new customers to subscribe to our platform or to attract existing customers to renew or expand their use of our platform is directly correlated to the level of engagement we obtain with the customer. To the extent we are unable to effectively engage with non-Israeli and non-U.S. customers due to our limited sales force capacity, we may be unable to effectively grow in international markets.
As our international operations expand, our exposure to the effects of fluctuations in currency exchange rates grows. While we have primarily transacted with customers U.S. dollars and Euros and vendors in New Israeli Shekels, or NIS, historically, we expect to continue to expand the number of transactions with our customers that are denominated in foreign currencies in the future. However, a significant portion of our operating expenses, consisting principally of personnel-related costs, office and occupancy related costs and certain other operating expenses, are denominated in NIS. In each of the year ended December 31, 2020 and the three months ended March 31, 2021, approximately 44% of our expenses were denominated in NIS. As a result, we are exposed to exchange rate risks that may materially and adversely affect our financial results. Additionally, fluctuations in the value of the U.S. dollar, Euros and/or NIS and foreign currencies may make our subscriptions more expensive for international customers, which could harm our business. Additionally, we incur expenses for employee compensation and other operating expenses at our non-Israeli and non-U.S. locations in the local currency for such locations. Fluctuations in the exchange rates between the U.S. dollar, Euros and/or NIS and other currencies could result in an increase to the U.S. dollar, Euros and/or NIS equivalent of such expenses. These fluctuations could cause our results of operations to differ from our expectations or the expectations of our investors. Additionally, such foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations could make it more difficult to detect underlying trends in our business and results of operations.
We currently maintain a program to hedge transactional exposures in foreign currencies. We may continue to use derivative instruments, such as foreign currency forward and option contracts, to hedge certain exposures to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates. The use of such hedging activities may not offset any or more than a portion of the adverse financial effects of unfavorable movements in foreign exchange rates over the limited time the hedges are in place. Moreover, the use of hedging instruments may introduce additional risks if we are unable to structure effective hedges with such instruments.
We have limited experience with respect to determining the optimal prices for our solutions.
We have limited experience in determining the optimal pricing and packaging of our solutions, and we may need to change our pricing model from time to time. Demand for our platform and solutions is sensitive to price, and current or prospective customers may choose not to subscribe or renew or upgrade their subscriptions due to costs. Further, certain of our competitors offer, or may in the future offer, lower-priced or free solutions or services that compete with our solutions and services or may bundle functionality compatible with our solutions and services and offer a broader range of solutions and services. Similarly, certain competitors may use marketing strategies that enable them to acquire customers more rapidly or at a lower cost than us, or both. As we expand to additional international markets, we may find that pricing and packaging appropriate in our current market is not acceptable to prospective customers in certain new markets. In addition, if our mix of features and capabilities on our solutions changes, we develop additional versions for specific use cases or additional premium versions, then we may need or choose to revise our pricing.
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If we fail to offer a high-quality customer experience, our business and reputation will suffer.
While we have designed our platform to be easy to adopt and use, once organizations and customers begin using our platform, those organizations and customers rely on our support services to resolve any technical, administrative or other issues. High-quality customer education and experience has been key to the adoption of our platform, for the conversion of individuals, teams and organizations on our trial version into paying customers, expansion of accounts, and for growth or maintenance of our retention rates. The importance of a high-quality customer experience will increase as we expand our business and pursue new customers. For example, if we do not help customers on our platform quickly resolve issues and provide effective ongoing customer experience at the individual, team and organizational levels, our ability to convert organizations and customers on our trial version into paying customers will suffer and our reputation with existing or potential customers will be harmed. Further, our sales are highly dependent on our business reputation and on positive recommendations from existing individuals, teams and organizations using our platform and solutions. Any failure to maintain a high-quality customer experience, or a market perception that we do not maintain a high-quality customer experience, could harm our reputation, our ability to sell our solutions to existing and prospective customers, and our business, financial condition, revenues, results of operations or cash flows.
In addition, as we continue to grow our operations and reach a larger and increasingly global customer base, we need to be able to provide efficient customer support that meets the needs of organizations using our solutions globally at scale, which puts additional pressure on our support organization. If we are unable to provide efficient solution support globally at scale, including through the use of third-party contractors and self-service support, our ability to grow our operations may be harmed and we may need to hire additional support personnel, which could harm our business, financial condition, revenues, results of operations or cash flows.
Our business could be negatively affected by changes in search engine algorithms and dynamics or other traffic-generating arrangements.
We rely on internet search engines and digital distribution channels, including through the purchase of keywords and the indexing of our public-facing directory pages and other web pages, to generate a significant portion of the traffic to our website. Search engines frequently update and change the logic that determines the placement and display of results of a customer’s search, such that the purchased or algorithmic placement of links to our website can be negatively affected. Pricing and operating dynamics for these traffic sources can change rapidly, both technically and competitively. Moreover, a search engine could, for competitive or other purposes, alter its search algorithms or results, which could cause a website to place lower in search query results or inhibit participation in the search query results. If a major search engine changes its algorithms or results in a manner that negatively affects the search engine ranking, paid or unpaid, of our website, if competitive dynamics impact the costs or effectiveness of search engine optimization, or if search engine marketing or other traffic-generating arrangements in a negative manner, our business and financial performance would be adversely affected.
Our financial results may fluctuate due to increasing variability in our sales cycles as a substantial portion of our sales efforts are targeted at large organizations.
We sell and our strategy is to continue to sell subscriptions of our platform to our varied customer base of enterprise, mid-market and small business customers, as well as governments, non-profits, educational institutions and individuals with our Investor Intelligence solutions. Selling to individuals and small-to-medium businesses may involve greater credit risk and uncertainty, as well as lower retention rates and limited interaction with our sales and other personnel. Conversely, sales to enterprise customers may entail longer sales cycles and more significant selling efforts. The average length of our sales cycle is approximately a month for small-to-medium businesses and approximately three months for enterprise customers. We plan our expenses based on certain assumptions about the length and variability of our sales cycle based upon historical trends for sales
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and conversion rates associated with our existing customers. If we are successful in expanding our customer base to include more enterprise customers, our sales cycles may lengthen and become less predictable, which, in turn, may adversely affect our financial results. Factors that may influence the length and variability of our sales cycle include:
the need to educate prospective customers about the uses and benefits of our platform and solutions;
the discretionary nature of purchase and budget cycles and decisions;
the competitive nature of evaluation and purchasing processes;
evolving functionality demands;
announcements of planned introductions of new solutions, features or functionality by us or our competitors; and
lengthy and multi-faceted purchasing approval processes.
If there are changes in the mix of customers and organizations that purchase our platform and solutions, our gross margins and operating results could be adversely affected, and fluctuations increasing the variability in our sales cycles could negatively affect our financial results. In addition, our quarterly operating results have fluctuated in the past and are expected to fluctuate in the future due to a variety of factors, many of which are outside of our control. As a result, our past results may not be indicative of our future performance and comparing our operating results on a period-to-period basis may not be meaningful.
Because we recognize subscription revenue over the subscription term, downturns or upturns in new sales and renewals or changes to pricing are not immediately reflected in full in our results of operations.
We recognize revenue from subscriptions to our platform on a straight-line basis over the term of the contract subscription period beginning on the date access to our platform is granted, provided all other revenue recognition criteria have been met. Our subscription arrangements generally have contractual terms requiring advance payment for annual or quarterly periods. As a result, much of the revenue we report each quarter is the recognition of deferred revenue from recurring subscriptions entered into during previous quarters. Consequently, a decline in new or renewed recurring subscription contracts in any one quarter will not be fully reflected in revenue in that quarter but will negatively affect our revenue in future quarters. Accordingly, the effect of significant downturns in new or renewed sales of our recurring subscriptions are not reflected in full in our results of operations until future periods. Similarly, an increase in the pricing of our subscription contracts would not be reflected in full in our results of operations until future periods. Our subscription model also makes it difficult for us to rapidly increase our revenue through additional sales in any period, as revenue from new customers is typically recognized over the applicable subscription term. By contrast, a majority of our costs are expensed as incurred, which could result in our recognition of more costs than revenue in the earlier portion of the subscription term, and we may not attain profitability in any given period.
Seasonality may cause fluctuations in our sales and results of operations.
Historically, we have experienced seasonality in new customer bookings, as we typically enter into a higher percentage of subscription agreements with new customers and renewals with existing customers in the fourth quarter of the year. We believe that this results from the procurement, budgeting and deployment cycles of many of our customers, particularly our enterprise customers. We expect that this seasonality will continue to affect our bookings and our results of operations in the future and might become more pronounced as we continue to target larger enterprise customers.
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Future acquisitions, strategic investments, partnerships, or alliances could be difficult to identify and integrate, divert the attention of key management personnel, disrupt our business, dilute stockholder value and harm our results of operations and financial condition.
We may in the future seek to acquire or invest in, businesses, solutions, or technologies that we believe could complement Similarweb or expand its breadth, enhance our technical capabilities, or otherwise offer growth opportunities. The pursuit of potential acquisitions may divert the attention of management and cause us to incur various expenses in identifying, investigating and pursuing suitable acquisitions, whether or not they are consummated. Any acquisition, investment or business relationship may result in unforeseen operating difficulties and expenditures. In addition, we have limited experience in acquiring other businesses. If we acquire additional businesses, we may not be able to integrate successfully the acquired personnel, operations and technologies or effectively manage the combined business following the acquisition. Specifically, we may not successfully evaluate or utilize the acquired technology or personnel, or accurately forecast the financial impact of an acquisition transaction, including accounting charges. Moreover, the anticipated benefits of any acquisition, investment or business relationship may not be realized or we may be exposed to unknown risks or liabilities.
We may not be able to find and identify desirable acquisition targets or we may not be successful in entering into an agreement with any one target. Acquisitions could also result in dilutive issuances of equity securities or the incurrence of debt, which could harm our results of operations. In addition, if an acquired business fails to meet our expectations, our business, financial condition, revenues, results of operations or cash flows may suffer.
Our corporate culture has contributed to our success, and if we cannot maintain this culture as we grow, we could lose the innovative approach, creativity and teamwork fostered by our culture and our business could be harmed.
We believe that an important contributor to our success has been our corporate culture, which creates an environment that drives and perpetuates our strategy to create a better, more productive way to work and focuses on the development of our employees. As we continue to grow, including across multiple geographies or following acquisitions, and develop the infrastructure of a public company, we may find it difficult to preserve our corporate culture, which could reduce our ability to innovate, create and operate effectively. In turn, the failure to preserve our culture could adversely affect our business, financial condition, revenues, results of operations or cash flows by negatively affecting our ability to attract, recruit, integrate and retain employees, continue to perform at current levels and effectively execute our business strategy.
If we fail to retain and motivate members of our management team or other key employees or fail to attract additional qualified personnel to support our operations, our business and future growth prospects would be harmed.
Our success and future growth depend largely upon the continued services of our executive officers as well as our other key employees in the areas of research and development and sales and marketing functions. From time to time, there may be changes in our executive management team or other key employees resulting from the hiring or departure of these personnel. Our executive officers and other key employees are employed on an at-will basis, which means that these personnel could terminate their employment with us at any time. The loss of one or more of our executive officers, or the failure by our executive team to effectively work with our employees and lead our company, could harm our business. We also are dependent on the continued service of our existing software engineers because of the complexity of our solutions and platform capabilities.
In addition, to execute our growth plan, we must attract and retain highly qualified personnel. Competition for these personnel is intense, especially data scientists and for engineers experienced in designing and developing SaaS applications and experienced sales professionals, and such competition often results in increasing wages, especially in Israel, where most of our research and
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development positions are located, and in the United States, where we have a significant presence. We also engage a team of developers in the Ukraine in order to benefit from the significant pool of talent that is more readily available in such market. If we are unable to attract such personnel in cities where we are located, we may need to hire in other locations which may add to the complexity and costs of our business operations. From time to time, we have experienced, and we expect to continue to experience, difficulty in hiring and retaining employees with appropriate qualifications. Many of the companies with which we compete for experienced personnel have greater resources than we have. If we hire employees from competitors or other companies, their former employers may attempt to assert that these employees or we have breached their legal obligations, resulting in a diversion of our time and resources. In addition, prospective and existing employees often consider the value of the equity awards they receive in connection with their employment. If the perceived value of our equity awards declines, experiences significant volatility, or increases such that prospective employees believe there is limited upside to the value of our equity awards, it may adversely affect our ability to recruit and retain key employees. If we fail to attract new personnel or fail to retain and motivate our current personnel, our business and future growth prospects would be harmed.
We have a credit facility secured by substantially all of our assets under which we have borrowed and may in the future borrow additional amount; any indebtedness thereunder could adversely affect our financial position and our ability to raise additional capital and prevent us from fulfilling our obligations under our obligations.
On December 30, 2020, we entered into a Loan and Security Agreement, or the LSA, with Silicon Valley Bank, or SVB. The credit facility has an available borrowing capacity of the (a) lesser of (i) $50 million, which capacity will increase to $75 million upon consummation of our initial public offering or (ii) the amount available under the borrowing base, minus (b) the outstanding principal balance of any advances made under the credit facility. The borrowing base is the product of a (a) monthly recurring revenue, as defined in the LSA, multiplied by (b) an advance rate as set forth in the LSA. As of March 31, 2021, we had total outstanding indebtedness of approximately $30.0 million consisting of outstanding borrowings under the LSA. This and future indebtedness incurred under the LSA may:
limit our ability to borrow additional funds for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions, or other general business purposes;
require us to use a portion of our cash flow from operations to make debt service payments instead of other purposes, thereby reducing the amount of cash flow available for future working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions, or other general business purposes;
expose us to the risk of increased interest rates as following the consummation of our initial public offering borrowings under the LSA are subject to interest at the greater of (i) a floating per annum rate equal to 0.25% above the prime rate, or (ii) a fixed per annum rate equal to 3.50%, also paid on a monthly basis;
limit our flexibility to plan for, or react to, changes in our business and industry;
increase our vulnerability to the impact of adverse economic, competitive and industry conditions; and
increase our cost of borrowing.
The credit facility is secured by substantially all of our assets. In addition, the LSA contains, and the agreements governing our future indebtedness may contain, restrictive covenants that may limit our ability to engage in activities that may be in our long-term best interest. These restrictive covenants include, among others, financial reporting requirements and limitations on indebtedness, liens, mergers, consolidations, liquidations and dissolutions, sales of assets, dividends and other restricted payments, investments (including acquisitions) and transactions with affiliates. Our failure
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to comply with those covenants could result in an event of default which, if not cured or waived, could result in the acceleration of substantially all of our debt. Under the LSA, we are also required to maintain liquidity of at least $35 million.
Our failure to raise additional capital or generate cash flows necessary to expand our operations and invest in new technologies in the future could reduce our ability to compete successfully and harm our results of operations.
Historically, we have funded our operations and capital expenditures primarily through equity issuances, borrowings under our credit facilities and cash payments from our customers. Although we currently anticipate that our existing cash and cash equivalents and cash flow from operations will be sufficient to meet our cash needs for the foreseeable future, we may require additional financing, and we may not be able to obtain debt or equity financing on favorable terms, if at all. If we raise equity financing to fund operations or on an opportunistic basis, our shareholders may experience significant dilution of their ownership interests. If we need additional capital and cannot raise it on acceptable terms, or at all, we may not be able to, among other things:
develop new features, capabilities and enhancements;
continue to expand our solution development, sales and marketing organizations;
expand internationally;
hire, train and retain employees;
respond to competitive pressures or unanticipated working capital requirements; or
pursue acquisition opportunities.
Risks relating to our intellectual property and technology
Any failure to obtain, maintain, protect or enforce our intellectual property rights could impair our competitive position and ability to generate revenues and cause us to lose valuable assets.
Our success depends to a significant degree on our ability to obtain, maintain, protect and enforce our intellectual property rights, including those in our proprietary technology, know-how and brand. We rely on a combination of trademark, trade secret, patent, copyright and other intellectual property laws, as well as contractual restrictions, and confidentiality procedures to establish and protect our intellectual property rights. However, the steps we take to obtain, maintain, protect and enforce our intellectual property rights may be inadequate to prevent infringement, misappropriation, dilution or other violation of our intellectual property rights.
We will not be able to protect our intellectual property rights if we are unable to enforce our rights or if we do not detect unauthorized use of our intellectual property rights. Policing unauthorized use of our know-how, technology and intellectual property is difficult, costly, time-consuming and may not be effective. Despite our precautions, it may be possible for unauthorized third parties to copy our solutions and platform capabilities and use information that we regard as proprietary to create solutions that compete with ours. If we fail to protect our intellectual property rights adequately, our competitors and other third parties may gain access to our proprietary technology and develop and commercialize substantially identical solutions, services or technologies, which can harm our business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects. In addition, defending our intellectual property rights might entail significant expense. Any patents, registered trademarks, or other intellectual property rights that we have or may obtain may be challenged or circumvented by others or invalidated or held unenforceable through administrative processes, including opposition, cancellation, re-examination, inter partes review, interference and derivation proceedings and equivalent proceedings in foreign jurisdictions or litigation.
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Circumstances outside our control could also pose a threat to our intellectual property rights. For example, patent, trademark, copyright, trade secret and other intellectual property protection may not be available to us in every country in which our solutions are available. In addition, the laws of some foreign countries may not be as protective of intellectual property rights as those in the United States, and mechanisms for enforcement of intellectual property rights may be inadequate. As we expand, our international activities, our exposure to unauthorized copying and use of our solutions and platform capabilities and proprietary information will likely increase. Moreover, policing unauthorized use of our technologies, trade secrets, and intellectual property may be difficult, expensive, and time-consuming, particularly in foreign countries where the laws may not be as protective of intellectual property rights as those in the United States and where mechanisms for enforcement of intellectual property rights may be weak. Changes in the law or adverse court rulings may also negatively affect our ability to prevent others from using our technology.
We enter into confidentiality and invention assignment agreements with our employees and consultants and enter into confidentiality agreements with other third parties with whom we share our confidential information, including suppliers and other partners. However, we cannot guarantee that we have entered into such agreements with every party that has or may have had access to our proprietary information, know-how and trade secrets. These agreements may not effectively grant all necessary rights to any inventions that may have been developed by the employees or consultants party thereto. Moreover, no assurance can be given that these agreements will be effective in controlling access to, distribution, use, misuse, misappropriation, reverse engineering or disclosure of our proprietary information, know-how, trade secrets and our confidential information or provide an adequate remedy in the event of unauthorized use of our proprietary information, know-how or trade secrets or unauthorized access, use or disclosure of our confidential information. Some of the provisions of our agreements that protect us against unauthorized use, copying, transfer, and disclosure of our platform, may be unenforceable under the laws of certain jurisdictions and foreign countries. Further, these agreements may not prevent our competitors from independently developing technologies that are substantially equivalent or superior to our solutions and platform capabilities. Unauthorized parties may also attempt to copy or obtain and use our technology to develop applications with the same functionality as our solutions. Additionally, these agreements may be breached, and we may not have adequate remedies for any such breach. Any unauthorized disclosure or use of our trade secrets or other confidential proprietary information could make it more expensive to do business, thereby harming our operating results.
The value of our intellectual property could diminish if others assert rights in or ownership of our trademarks and other intellectual property rights, or trademarks that are similar to our trademarks. We may be unable to successfully resolve these types of conflicts to our satisfaction. We may also be required to spend significant resources to monitor, protect and enforce our intellectual property rights. Litigation may be necessary in the future to enforce our intellectual property rights and to protect our trade secrets. Litigation brought to protect and enforce our intellectual property rights could be costly, time-consuming, and distracting to management, and could result in the impairment or loss of portions of our intellectual property. Further, our efforts to enforce our intellectual property rights may be met with defenses, counterclaims, and countersuits attacking the validity and enforceability of our intellectual property rights, and if such defenses, counterclaims or countersuits are successful, we could lose valuable intellectual property rights. Our inability to protect our proprietary technology against unauthorized copying or use, as well as any costly litigation or diversion of our management’s attention and resources, could delay further sales or the implementation of our solutions and platform capabilities, impair the functionality of our solutions and platform capabilities, delay introductions of new solutions, result in our substituting inferior or more costly technologies into our solutions, or injure our reputation.
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We may become subject to intellectual property disputes, which are costly and may subject us to significant liability and increased costs of doing business.
We may become subject to intellectual property disputes. Our success depends, in part, on our ability to develop and commercialize our solutions and services without infringing, misappropriating, diluting or otherwise violating the intellectual property rights of third parties. However, we may not be aware that our solutions or services are infringing, misappropriating, diluting or otherwise violating third-party intellectual property rights and such third parties may bring claims alleging such infringement, misappropriation, dilution or violation. Lawsuits are time-consuming and expensive to resolve, and they divert management’s time and attention. Companies in the software industry are often required to defend against litigation claims based on allegations of infringement, misappropriation, dilution or other violations of intellectual property rights. Third parties may assert intellectual property claims against us, and we may be subject to liability, required to enter into costly license agreements, or required to rebrand or redesign our solutions and/or prevented from selling some of our solutions if third parties successfully oppose or challenge our trademarks or successfully claim that we infringe, misappropriate or otherwise violate their trademarks or other intellectual property rights. Our technologies may not be able to withstand any third-party claims against their use. In addition, many companies have the capability to dedicate substantially greater resources to enforce their intellectual property rights and to defend claims that may be brought against them. We do not currently have a large patent portfolio, which could prevent us from deterring patent infringement claims through our own patent portfolio, and our competitors and others may now and in the future have significantly larger and more mature patent portfolios than we have. There also may be pending patent applications, of which we are not aware, that may result in issued patents, which could be alleged to be infringed by our current or future technologies or solutions. Any litigation may also involve patent holding companies or other adverse patent owners that have no relevant solution revenue, and therefore, our patent applications may provide little or no deterrence as we would not be able to assert them against such entities or individuals. If a third party is able to obtain an injunction preventing us from accessing such third-party intellectual property rights, or if we cannot license or develop alternative technology for any infringing aspect of our business, we would be forced to limit or stop sales of our solutions and platform capabilities or cease business activities related to such intellectual property.
Although we carry general liability insurance, our insurance may not cover potential claims of this type or may not be adequate to indemnify us for all liability that may be imposed. There is a risk that our operations, platforms and services may infringe or otherwise violate, or be alleged to infringe or otherwise violate, the intellectual property rights of third parties. We cannot predict the outcome of lawsuits and cannot ensure that the results of any such actions will not have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. Any intellectual property litigation to which we might become a party, or for which we are required to provide indemnification, regardless of the merit of the claim or our defenses, may require us to do one or more of the following:
cease selling or using solutions or services that incorporate the intellectual property rights that we allegedly infringe, misappropriate, dilute or violate;
make payment of substantial royalty or license fees, lost profits or other damages;
make substantial payments for legal fees, settlement payments or other costs or damages;
indemnify our platform users or third-party service providers;
obtain a license, which may not be available on reasonable terms or at all, to sell or use the relevant technology; or
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redesign or rebrand our allegedly infringing solutions to avoid infringement, misappropriation, dilution or violation of third-party intellectual property rights, which could be costly, time-consuming or impossible.
Any of the foregoing could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
Even if the claims do not result in litigation or are resolved in our favor, these claims, and the time and resources necessary to resolve them, could divert the resources of our management and harm our business and operating results. Moreover, there could be public announcements of the results of hearings, motions or other interim proceedings or developments and if securities analysts or investors perceive these results to be negative, it could have a substantial adverse effect on the price of our ordinary shares. We expect that the occurrence of infringement claims is likely to grow as the market for our platform and solutions grows. Accordingly, our exposure to damages resulting from infringement claims could increase and this could further exhaust our financial and management resources.
We may become subject to claims for remuneration or royalties for assigned service invention rights by our employees, which could result in litigation and would adversely affect our business.
A significant portion of our intellectual property is developed in Israel and has been developed by our employees in the course of their employment for us. Under the Israeli Patents Law, 5727-1967, or the Patents Law, inventions conceived by an employee in the course and as a result of or arising from his or her employment with a company are regarded as “service inventions,” which belong to the employer, absent a specific agreement between the employee and employer giving the employee service invention rights. The Patents Law also provides that if there is no such agreement between an employer and an employee, the Israeli Compensation and Royalties Committee, or the Royalties Committee, a body constituted under the Patents Law, shall determine whether the employee is entitled to remuneration for his or her inventions. Case law clarifies that the right to receive consideration for “service inventions” can be waived by the employee and that in certain circumstances, such waiver does not necessarily have to be explicit. The Royalties Committee will examine, on a case-by-case basis, the general contractual framework between the parties, applying interpretation rules of the general Israeli contract laws. Further, the Royalties Committee has not yet determined one specific formula for calculating this remuneration, but rather uses the criteria specified in the Patents Law. Although we generally enter into assignment-of-invention agreements with our employees pursuant to which such individuals assign to us all rights to any inventions created in the scope of their employment or engagement with us, we may face claims demanding remuneration in consideration for assigned inventions. As a consequence of such claims, we could be required to pay additional remuneration or royalties to our current and former employees, or be forced to litigate such claims, which could negatively affect our business.
We use open source software, which could negatively affect our ability to offer our solutions and subject us to litigation or other actions.
We use software licensed to us by third-party authors under “open source” licenses in connection with the development or deployment of our proprietary platform and solutions and expect to continue to use open source software in the future. Some open source licenses contain express requirements, which may be triggered under certain circumstances, that licensees make available source code for modifications or derivative works created, or prohibit such modifications or derivative works from being licensed for a fee. Although we monitor our use of open source software to avoid subjecting our platform to such requirements, there are uncertainties regarding the proper interpretation of and compliance with open source licenses, and there is a risk that such licenses could be construed in a manner that imposes unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our ability to use such open source software, and consequently to develop, provide or distribute our proprietary platform and solutions. We may from time to time face claims from third parties claiming ownership of, or seeking to enforce the terms of, an open source license, including by
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demanding release of source code for the open source software, derivative works or our proprietary source code that was developed using or that is distributed with such open source software. These claims could also result in litigation and could require us to make our proprietary software source code freely available, require us to devote additional research and development resources to re-engineer our platform, seek costly licenses from third parties or otherwise incur additional costs and expenses, any of which could result in reputational harm and would have a negative effect on our business and operating results.
In addition, if the license terms for the open source software we utilize change, we may be forced to reengineer our platform or incur additional costs to comply with the changed license terms or to replace the affected open source software. Further, use of certain open source software can lead to greater risks than use of third-party commercial software, as open source licensors generally do not provide support, warranties or controls on the origin or quality of the software or indemnification for third-party infringement claims. To the extent that our platform depends upon the successful operation of open source software, any undetected errors or defects in open source software that we use could prevent the deployment or impair the functionality of our systems and injure our reputation. In addition, the public availability of such software may make it easier for others to compromise our platform. Additionally, although use of open source software has historically been free, recently several open source providers have begun to charge license fees for use of their software. If our current open source providers were to begin to charge for these licenses or increase their license fees significantly, this would increase our research and development costs and have a negative impact on our results of operations and financial condition. Any of these risks could be difficult to eliminate or manage and, if not addressed, could have an adverse effect on our business and operating results.
Indemnity provisions in various agreements potentially expose us to substantial liability for intellectual property infringement and other losses.
Our agreements with our platform customers and other third parties may include indemnification or other provisions under which we agree to indemnify or otherwise be liable to them for losses suffered or incurred as a result of claims of intellectual property infringement, damages caused by us to property or persons, or other liabilities relating to or arising from our platform, solutions or other acts or omissions. For some of our larger customers, we sometimes negotiate additional indemnification for breaches of our obligations, representations or warranties in the subscription agreement, gross negligence or willful misconduct, breaches of confidentiality, losses related to security incidents, breach of the data processing addendum or violations of applicable law. The term of these contractual provisions often survives termination or expiration of the applicable agreement. Large indemnity payments or damage claims from contractual breach could harm our business, financial condition, revenues, results of operations or cash flows.
From time to time, third parties may assert intellectual property infringement claims against our platform customers. These claims may require us to initiate or defend protracted and costly litigation on behalf of our customers, regardless of the merits of these claims. If any of these claims succeed, we may be forced to pay damages on behalf of our customers or may be required to obtain costly licenses from third parties for the platform or solutions they use or modify our platform or solutions to be non-infringing or resolve a claim of infringement. If we cannot obtain all necessary licenses on commercially reasonable terms or made such modifications to avoid a claim, our customers may be forced to stop using our platform or solutions. Further, our customers may require us to indemnify or otherwise be liable to them for breach of confidentiality or failure to implement adequate security measures with respect to their data stored, transmitted or processed by our employees, platform or solutions. Although we normally contractually limit our liability with respect to such obligations, we may still incur substantial liability related to them. Any dispute with a customer with respect to such obligations could have adverse effects on our relationship with that customer and other current and prospective customers, reduce demand for our platform or solutions and harm our revenue, business and operating results.
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Risks relating to regulatory compliance and legal matters
Changes in laws, regulations and public perception concerning data privacy and cybersecurity, or changes in the patterns of enforcement of existing laws and regulations, could impact our ability to gather, process, update the data that we use to generate our solutions and/or provide some or all of our solutions. Furthermore, our actual or perceived failure to comply with such obligations could harm our business.
Our ability to operate our business and provide our services relies heavily on the collection and use of information. In recent years, there has been an increase in attention to and regulation of data protection and data privacy across the globe. We are subject to a variety of laws, directives and regulations relating to the collection, use, retention, security, disclosure, transfer and other processing of personal data, such as the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation, or GDPR,the California Consumer Privacy Act, or CCPA,and the California Privacy Rights Act, or CPRA (which is expected to take effect on July 1, 2023). Other data privacy or data protection laws or regulations are under consideration in other jurisdictions, including in Israel, where we are incorporated. Laws such as these give rise to an increasingly complex set of compliance obligations on us. These laws impose restrictions on our ability to gather data we require in order to provide our products to our customers.
These laws set out extensive compliance requirements, including providing detailed disclosures about how personal data is collected and processed, demonstrating that an appropriate legal basis is in place or otherwise exists to justify data processing activities; granting new rights for data subjects in regard to their personal data (including the right to be “forgotten” and the right to data portability), as well as enhancing current rights (e.g., data subject access requests); introducing the obligation to notify data protection regulators or supervisory authorities (and in certain cases, affected individuals) of significant data breaches; defining requirements in connection with pseudonymized (i.e., key-coded) data; imposing limitations on retention of personal data; maintaining a record of data processing; and complying with the principle of accountability and the obligation to demonstrate compliance through policies, procedures, trainings and audits.
Concern regarding our use of the personal data we collect could keep prospective customers from subscribing to our services or could limit our ability to maintain and grow our contributory network. Industry-wide incidents or incidents with respect to our practices, including misappropriation of third-party information, security breaches, or changes in industry standards, regulations, or laws, could deter people from using the B2C products that we rely upon to grow and maintain our contributory network, or from using the internet, our solutions and/or our B2C products, which could harm our business.
In addition, the processes we use to anonymize data or to clean data such as by identifying and removing potentially personal data from URLs may prove to be insufficient under applicable data protection laws.
We also receive data from third-party vendors (e.g., other data providers). We are ultimately unable to verify with complete certainty the source of such data, how it was received, and that such information was collected and is being shared with us in compliance with all applicable data privacy laws and contractual obligations. Furthermore, we use third-party service providers some of which process personal data on our behalf. We are ultimately unable to verify the extent to which these service providers comply with applicable data privacy laws and contractual obligations regarding their processing of personal data.
We maintain policies concerning the collection, processing, use and retention of information, including personal data and, where appropriate, we publicly post documentation regarding our practices concerning the collection, processing, use and disclosure of data. Although we endeavor to comply with our policies, we may at times fail to do so or be subject to a claim alleging our
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failure to do so. Any such non-compliance can subject us to potential governmental action or third-party claims.
Given the nature of our business and the fact that we do not always have a direct relationship with the relevant data subject, it can be difficult for us to ensure that individuals are aware of such policies at the point of data collection. As such, we may be subject to complaints from individuals or regulators for failing to meet the necessary transparency obligations under applicable data privacy laws. The publication of our privacy policy and other documentation that provide promises and assurances about privacy and security can subject us to potential state and federal action in the United States and elsewhere if they are found to be deceptive, unfair, or misrepresentative of our actual practices. Any failure by us, our suppliers or other parties with whom we do business to comply with this documentation or with federal, state, or local laws in the United States or international regulations, could result in proceedings against us by governmental entities or others. In many jurisdictions, enforcement actions and consequences for noncompliance are rising. In the United States, these include enforcement actions in response to rules and regulations promulgated under the authority of federal agencies and state attorneys general and legislatures and consumer protection agencies. In addition, privacy advocates and industry groups have regularly proposed, and may propose in the future, self-regulatory standards with which we must legally comply or that contractually apply to us. If we fail to follow these security standards even if no user information is compromised, we may incur significant fines or experience a significant increase in costs.
Certain of our activities could be found by a government or regulatory authority to be noncompliant or become noncompliant in the future with one or more data protection or data privacy laws, even if we have implemented and maintained a strategy that we believe to be compliant. For example, we process some personal data collected in the EU pursuant to the legitimate interest provision under the GDPR. However, regulators may disagree with our application of this basis for data collection and processing and find that our data collection and processing has violated the GDPR or find that we have not sufficiently justified use of the provision.
Certain data privacy laws impose sanctions for violations. For example, GDPR imposes a reprimand, a temporary or definitive ban on processing and a fine of up to €20 million or 4% of the business’s total annual worldwide turnover. Furthermore, new interpretations of existing data protection laws or regulations could be inconsistent with our interpretations, increase our compliance burden, make it more difficult to comply and/or increase our risk of regulatory investigations and fines. For example, we are subject to complex and evolving regulatory requirements regarding the collection and use of personal data, including recently enacted and upcoming state laws such as the CCPA, the CPRA, the Consumer Data Protection Act in Virginia and pending bills that may pass in other jurisdictions, related to collection and selling of personal data.
Complying with applicable data protection laws may cause us to incur substantial operational costs or require us to change our business practices. Despite our efforts to bring practices into compliance with these laws, we may not be successful in our efforts to achieve compliance either due to internal or external factors such as resource allocation limitations or a lack of vendor cooperation. Non-compliance could result in proceedings against us by governmental entities, users, data subjects or others. We may also experience difficulty retaining or obtaining new European or multi-national users due to the legal requirements, compliance cost, potential risk exposure, and uncertainty for these entities, and we may experience significantly increased liability with respect to these users pursuant to the terms set forth in our engagements with them.
Additionally, many U.S. state legislatures have adopted legislation that regulates how businesses operate online, including measures relating to privacy, data security, data breaches, and data brokers. Laws in all 50 states require businesses to provide notice to users whose personally identifiable information has been disclosed as a result of a data breach. The laws are not consistent, and compliance in the event of a widespread data breach is costly. States are also constantly amending existing laws, requiring attention to frequently changing regulatory requirements. For
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example, under the CCPA, the California Attorney General can seek an injunction and civil penalties up to $7,500 per intentional violation and $2,500 per other violation. Such data privacy laws in the states may increase our compliance costs and potential liability. More recently, on November 3, 2020, California voters passed the CPRA into law, which will take effect in January 2023 and will significantly modify the CCPA, resulting in further uncertainty and requiring us to incur additional costs and expenses in an effort to comply. The CPRA also creates a new state agency that will be vested with authority to implement and enforce the CCPA and the CPRA. Furthermore, additional states have passed or introduced pending legislation, which marks the beginning of a trend toward more stringent United States privacy legislation, which could increase our potential liability and adversely affect our business.
Because the interpretation and application of privacy and data protection laws along with contractually imposed industry standards are uncertain, it is possible that these laws may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent with our existing data processing practices or the features of our solutions and platform capabilities. If so, in addition to the possibility of fines, lawsuits, regulatory investigations, imprisonment of company officials and public censure, other claims and penalties, significant costs for remediation and damage to our reputation, we could be required to fundamentally change our business activities and practices or modify our solutions and platform capabilities, any of which could have an adverse effect on our business. Any inability to adequately address privacy and security concerns, even if unfounded, or comply with applicable privacy and data security laws, regulations, and policies, could result in additional cost and liability to us, damage our reputation, inhibit sales and adversely affect our business. Furthermore, the costs of compliance with, and other requirements imposed by, the laws, regulations, and policies that are applicable to the businesses of our users may limit the use and adoption of, and reduce the overall demand for, our solutions. Privacy and data security concerns, whether valid or not valid, may inhibit market adoption of our solutions, particularly in certain industries and foreign countries. If we are not able to adjust to changing laws, regulations, and standards related to the internet, our business may be harmed. Future legal requirements could reduce demand for our services, require us to take on more onerous obligations in our contracts, restrict our ability to store, transfer and process personal and other data or, in some cases, impact our ability to offer our services in certain locations, to deploy our solutions, to reach current and prospective customers, or to derive insights from data globally.
Recent legal developments in Europe have created complexity and uncertainty regarding transfers of personal data from the European Economic Area (“EEA”) to the United States. Most recently, on July 16, 2020, in a case known as Schrems II, the Court of Justice of the European Union (“CJEU”) invalidated the EU-US Privacy Shield Framework under which personal data could be transferred from the EEA to U.S. entities who had self-certified under the Privacy Shield scheme. While the CJEU upheld the adequacy of the standard contractual clauses (a standard form of contract approved by the European Commission as an adequate personal data transfer mechanism, and potential alternative to the Privacy Shield), it made clear that reliance on them alone may not necessarily be sufficient in all circumstances. Use of the standard contractual clauses must now be assessed on a case-by-case basis taking into account the legal regime applicable in the destination country, in particular applicable surveillance laws and rights of individuals and additional measures and/or contractual provisions may need to be put in place, however, the nature of these additional measures is currently uncertain. There are few viable alternatives to the standard contractual clauses, and the law in this area remains dynamic. These recent developments require us to review and amend the legal mechanisms by which we make and/or receive personal data transfers to/in the United States. As supervisory authorities issue further guidance on personal data export mechanisms, including supplementary measures for standard contractual clauses to remain a valid data transfer mechanism , and/or start taking enforcement action, we could suffer additional costs, complaints and/or regulatory investigations or fines, and/or if we are otherwise unable to transfer personal data between and among countries and regions in which we operate, it could affect the manner in which we provide our solutions, the geographical location or segregation of our relevant
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systems and operations, may reduce demand for our solutions from companies subject to European data protection laws and could adversely affect our financial results.
Compliance with any of the foregoing laws and regulations (including as subsequently interpreted) can be costly and can delay or impede the development of new products or services. We may incur substantial fines if we violate any laws or regulations relating to the collection or use of personal data. Such penalties may be in addition to any civil litigation claims by users and data subjects. Our actual or alleged failure to comply with applicable privacy or data security laws, regulations, and policies, or to protect personal data, could result in legal actions by private actors, enforcement actions by governmental entities and significant penalties against us, which could result in negative publicity or costs, subject us to claims or other remedies, and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Changes in laws and regulations related to the Internet or changes in the Internet infrastructure itself may diminish the demand for our solutions and could harm our business.
The future success of our business depends upon the continued use of the Internet as a primary medium for commerce, communication, and business applications. Federal or state governments in the United States, or foreign government bodies or agencies have in the past adopted, and may in the future adopt, laws or regulations affecting the use of the Internet as a commercial medium. The adoption of any laws or regulations that could reduce the growth, popularity, or use of the Internet, including laws or practices limiting Internet neutrality, could decrease the supply of data upon which our business model relies, which would increase our cost of doing business and harm our results of operations. Changes in these laws or regulations could require us to modify our platform and solutions, or certain aspects of our solutions, in order to comply with these changes. In addition, government agencies or private organizations have imposed and may impose additional taxes, fees, or other charges for accessing the Internet or commerce conducted via the Internet. These laws or charges could limit the growth of Internet-related commerce or communications or result in reductions in the demand for Internet-based solutions such as ours. In addition, the use of the Internet as a business tool could be harmed due to delays in the development or adoption of new standards and protocols to handle increased demands of Internet activity, security, reliability, cost, ease-of-use, accessibility and quality of service. Further, we depend on the quality of our customers’ access to the Internet. Certain features of our platform require significant bandwidth and fidelity to work effectively. Internet access is frequently provided by companies that have significant market power that could take actions that degrade, disrupt or increase the cost of customer access to our platform, which would negatively impact our business. The performance of the Internet and its acceptance as a business tool has been harmed by “viruses,” “worms” and similar malicious programs and the Internet has experienced a variety of outages and other delays as a result of damage to portions of its infrastructure. If the use of the Internet is adversely affected by these issues, demand for our platform and solutions could decline.
Changes in regulation or enhanced enforcement of existing laws and regulation regarding the practice of automated data collection could increase our exposure to legal action such as financial penalties. Furthermore, website proprietors could assert claims for breach of their terms and conditions and/or increase their use of technological barriers to protect against automated data collection, which may impact our ability to gather data from a range of sources.
Our business relies in large part on the practice of automated data collection to gather data from third-party websites, and any limitation on our ability to collect data this way could significantly diminish the value of our services and cause us to lose clients and revenue. Such automated data collection creates various legal risks including intellectual property right infringement, breach of contract and infringement of certain laws directed to protect against unauthorized access to computer material such as the United Kingdom Computer Misuse Act 1990 and the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act, or CFAA. Shifts in the legal enforcement and public perception of automated data collection could significantly impact our ability to gather data this way.
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Our collection via this method is limited to publicly available information. However, many third-party websites may seek to restrict our ability to utilize these data collection methods to collect information from their websites both through operational or technological measures as well as through legal action. Any such restriction on our use, whether due to operational or technological measures deployed by third parties or to legal actions, would reduce the amount of data we acquire and could therefore negatively affect our products and therefore our business. In addition, we would likely need to invest considerable resources and suffer potential business interruption in identifying and acquiring the same or similar data through alternate means.
We may also automatically collect and gather data from third-party websites that upon discovering our practice will send us a letter demanding that we stop such practice. If we continue to collect data, we may face claims of breach of the website’s terms or violations of other laws. Specifically, the CFAA and the Computer Misuse Act 1990 impose liability on individuals or entities that intentionally access a computer without authorization or exceed authorized access. In some jurisdictions, the CFAA has been successfully used to hold companies liable for exceeding their authorized access where the company continues to collect data from another company’s website despite the company demanding they stop or terminating the governing terms of service. The core issue of whether the CFAA applies to violations of demand letters or standard terms and conditions is currently before the Supreme Court of the United States, or the Court, in a case titled Van Buren v. United States. We cannot accurately predict the outcome of this case, but if the Court holds that a company can rely on the CFAA to enforce violations of a demand letter or its terms and conditions, our ability to obtain data could be significantly impacted.
The classification of the actionable insights we provide to customers or the data we acquire and process as material non-public information, or MNPI, could result in a significant increase in the cancellation or non-renewal of customer agreements and could therefore adversely impact our business.
Information may be considered MNPI for securities law purposes due to various factors including whether that information is obtained in an unlawful manner. The SEC is increasingly focusing on the use of alternative data, or data sets comprised of information about a particular company that is published by sources outside of the company, which can provide unique and timely insights into investment opportunities such as the data we provide as part of our investor intelligence solution. Specifically, the SEC is focusing on whether investment funds have received MNPI from an alternative data vendor and on whether the fund has and enforces policies and procedures designed to address the MNPI and other risks posed by the use of alternative data. To date, there is little case law or regulatory guidance with respect to the classification of alternative data as MNPI. In light of this heightened regulatory focus and legal uncertainty, current and potential investment fund and other customers are conducting rigorous due diligence reviews of our data acquisition processes and regulatory compliance both at the on-boarding stage and subsequently on an ongoing basis. We cannot guaranty that our data acquisition processes and regulatory compliance efforts will be sufficient to meet the requirements of existing or potential customers or regulatory standards. Failure to meet those requirements or standards could result in an increase in the cancellation or non-renewal of customer agreements and negatively affect our revenues.
Furthermore, if the actionable insights we provide to customers, especially to purchasers of our investor intelligence solutions, or the data we acquire and process were to be classified as MNPI by securities regulators, including the SEC, many of those customers would most likely cease to purchase that solution. In that event we would likely need to invest considerable resources and suffer potential business interruption in making changes to our solutions to remove the relevant information deemed to be MNPI.
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We are subject to anti-corruption, anti-bribery and similar laws, and non-compliance with such laws can subject us to criminal penalties or significant fines and harm our business and reputation.
We are subject to  the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, or the FCPA, the U.S. domestic bribery statute contained in 18 U.S.C. § 201, the U.S. Travel Act, the USA PATRIOT Act, the U.K. Bribery Act 2010, Chapter 9 (sub-chapter 5) of the Israeli Penal Law, 1977, the Israeli Prohibition on Money Laundering Law–2000 and other anti-corruption, anti-bribery and anti-money laundering laws in countries in which we conduct activities. Anti-corruption and anti-bribery laws have been enforced aggressively in recent years and are interpreted broadly and prohibit companies, their officers, directors, employees and business partners, including agents from promising, authorizing, making, offering, or providing anything of value to recipients in the public or private sector for the purposes of influencing official decisions or obtaining or retaining business, or otherwise obtaining favorable treatment. The FCPA further requires us to make and keep books, records and accounts that accurately reflect transactions and dispositions of assets and to maintain a system of internal accounting controls. The UK Bribery Act 2010 also prohibits “commercial” bribery not involving government officials, and accepting bribes, and requires companies to implement adequate procedures to prevent bribery. Our efforts to comply with these laws, including with respect to the screening of customers and vendors, are ongoing. As we increase our international sales and business, our risks under these laws may increase. Noncompliance with these laws could subject us to investigations, sanctions, settlements, prosecution, other enforcement actions, disgorgement of profits, significant fines, damages, other civil and criminal penalties or injunctions, adverse media coverage and other consequences. Any investigations, actions or sanctions could harm our business, financial condition, revenues, results of operations or cash flows.
In addition, we currently use third parties to sell access to our platform and conduct business on our behalf abroad. We and such third-party intermediaries, have direct or indirect interactions with officials and employees of government agencies or state-owned or affiliated entities, and we can be held liable for the corrupt or other illegal activities of such future third-party intermediaries, and our employees, representatives, contractors, partners and agents, even if we do not explicitly authorize such activities. While we have policies, internal controls and procedures to address compliance with anti-corruption laws, there is a risk that our employees, agents, or business partners may take actions in violation of our policies and applicable law, for which we may be ultimately held responsible. Any such improper actions or allegations of such acts could subject us to significant sanctions, including civil or criminal fines and penalties, disgorgement of profits, injunctions and debarment from government contracts, as well as related stockholder lawsuits and other remedial measures, all of which could adversely affect our reputation, business, financial condition, revenues, results of operations or cash flows.
Any violation of the FCPA or other applicable anti-corruption laws or anti-money laundering laws could also result in whistleblower complaints, adverse media coverage, investigations, loss of export privileges, severe criminal or civil sanctions, suspension or debarment from U.S. government contracts, any of which could have a materially adverse effect on our reputation, business, results of operations and prospects.
Our international operations require us to comply with trade restrictions, such as economic sanctions laws and regulations of the United States and applicable international jurisdictions.
Our business must be conducted in compliance with applicable economic and trade sanctions laws and regulations, such as those administered and enforced by the U.S. Department of Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control, the U.S. Department of State, the U.S. Department of Commerce, the Israeli Ministry of Finance, and other relevant authorities. Such laws and regulations restrict or prohibit the export or provision of certain products and services to certain countries, regions, governments, and persons targeted by sanctions.
Our global operations expose us to the risk of violating, or being accused of violating, economic and trade sanctions laws and regulations. Our failure to comply with these laws and regulations
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may expose us to reputational harm as well as significant penalties, including criminal fines, imprisonment, civil fines, disgorgement of profits, injunctions and debarment from government contracts, as well as other remedial measures. Investigations of alleged violations can be expensive and disruptive. Despite our compliance efforts and activities we cannot assure compliance by our employees or representatives for which we may be held responsible, and any such violation could materially adversely affect our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations.
We believe that we operate within the structures of applicable trade restrictions. However, we cannot predict the nature, scope or effect of future regulatory requirements to which our operations might become subject. We also cannot predict the manner in which existing laws might be administered or interpreted. Future regulations could limit the countries in which some of our products may be developed, exported or sold, or could restrict our access to, or increase the cost of obtaining, products from foreign sources. The occurrence of any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Action by governments to restrict access to our solutions in their countries or to require us to disclose or provide access to information in our possession could harm our business, financial condition, revenues, results of operations or cash flows.
Similarweb depends on the ability of our customers to access the Internet and our platform could be blocked or restricted in some countries for various reasons. Further, it is possible that governments of one or more foreign countries may seek to limit access to or certain features of ours in their countries, or impose other restrictions that may affect the availability of our platform, or certain features of our platform, in their countries for an extended period of time or indefinitely. In addition, governments in certain countries may seek to restrict or prohibit access to Similarweb.com if they consider us to be in violation of their laws and may require us to disclose or provide access to information in our possession. If we fail to anticipate developments in the law, or fail for any reason to comply with relevant law, our website could be further blocked or restricted and we could be exposed to significant liability that could harm our business. In the event that access to Similarweb.com is restricted, in whole or in part, in one or more countries or our competitors are able to successfully penetrate geographic markets that we are restricted from accessing, our ability to grow or maintain our NRR may be adversely affected, we may not be able to maintain or grow our revenue as anticipated and our business, financial condition, revenues, results of operations or cash flows could be adversely affected.
Sales to government entities and highly regulated organizations are subject to a number of challenges and risks.
We sell, and may sell in the future, to U.S. federal, state and local, as well as foreign, governmental agency customers, as well as to customers in highly regulated industries such as financial services, telecommunications and healthcare. Sales to such entities are subject to a number of challenges and risks. Selling to such entities can be highly competitive, expensive and time-consuming, often requiring significant upfront time and expense without any assurance that these efforts will generate a sale. Government contracting requirements may change and in doing so restrict our ability to sell into the government sector until we have attained the required certification. Government demand and payment for our solutions are affected by public sector budgetary cycles and funding authorizations, with funding reductions or delays adversely affecting public sector demand for our solutions.
Further, governmental and highly regulated entities may demand contract terms that differ from our standard arrangements and are less favorable than terms agreed with private sector customers. Such entities may have statutory, contractual, or other legal rights to terminate contracts with us or our partners for convenience or for other reasons. Any such termination may adversely affect our ability to contract with other government customers as well as our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations.
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Risks relating to being a public company
Our management team has limited experience managing a public company.
Most members of our management team have limited experience managing a publicly traded company, interacting with company investors and complying with increasingly complex laws pertaining to public companies in the United States. Our management team may not successfully or efficiently manage the transition to being a public company subject to significant regulatory oversight and reporting obligations under the federal securities laws and the continuous scrutiny of securities analysts and investors. These new obligations and constituents will require significant attention from our senior management, particularly from our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, and could divert their attention away from the day-to-day management of our business, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, revenues, results of operations or cash flows.
If we fail to maintain an effective system of disclosure controls and internal control over financial reporting, our ability to produce timely and accurate financial statements or comply with applicable regulations could be impaired.
Ensuring that we have adequate internal financial and accounting controls and procedures in place to produce accurate financial statements on a timely basis is a costly and time-consuming effort that needs to be re-evaluated frequently. The rapid growth of our operations and the planned initial public offering has created a need for additional resources within the accounting and finance functions due to the increasing need to produce timely financial information and to ensure the level of segregation of duties customary for a U.S. public company. We continue to reassess the sufficiency of finance personnel in response to these increasing demands and expectations.
Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of our financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. Our management does not expect that our internal control over financial reporting will prevent or detect all errors and all fraud. A control system, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurance that the control system’s objectives will be met. Because of the inherent limitations in all control systems, no evaluation of controls can provide absolute assurance that misstatements due to error or fraud will not occur or that all control issues and instances of fraud, if any, within our company will have been detected.
We expect to expend significant resources in developing the necessary documentation and testing procedures required by Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. We cannot be certain that the actions we will be taking to improve our internal controls over financial reporting will be sufficient, or that we will be able to implement our planned processes and procedures in a timely manner. In addition, if we are unable to produce accurate financial statements on a timely basis, investors could lose confidence in the reliability of our financial statements, which could cause the market price of our ordinary shares to decline and make it more difficult for us to finance our operations and growth.
We will incur increased costs as a result of operating as a public company, and our management will be required to devote substantial time to new compliance initiatives and corporate governance practices.
As a public company, and particularly after we are no longer an emerging growth company, we will incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company. SOX, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and the listing requirements of the NYSE and other applicable securities rules and regulations impose various requirements on public companies, including establishment and maintenance of effective disclosure and financial controls and
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corporate governance practices. Our management and other personnel will need to devote a substantial amount of time to these compliance initiatives. Moreover, these rules and regulations will increase our legal and financial compliance costs and will make some activities more time-consuming and costly. For example, we expect that these rules and regulations may make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance and could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified members of our board.
We are evaluating these rules and regulations and cannot predict or estimate the amount of additional costs we may incur or the timing of such costs. These rules and regulations are often subject to varying interpretations, in many cases due to their lack of specificity, and, as a result, their application in practice may evolve over time as new guidance is provided by regulatory and governing bodies. This could result in continuing uncertainty regarding compliance matters and higher costs necessitated by ongoing revisions to disclosure and governance practices.
We are not currently required to comply with the rules of the SEC implementing Section 404 of SOX and therefore are not required to make a formal assessment of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting for that purpose. Upon becoming a publicly traded company, we will be required to comply with the SEC’s rules implementing Sections 302 and 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, which will require management to certify financial and other information in our annual reports and provide an annual management report on the effectiveness of control over financial reporting. Though we will be required to disclose material changes in internal control over financial reporting on an annual basis, we will not be required to make our first annual assessment of our internal control over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404 until the year following our first annual report required to be filed with the SEC. Additionally, while we remain an emerging growth company, we will not be required to include an attestation report on internal control over financial reporting issued by our independent registered public accounting firm. To achieve compliance with Section 404 within the prescribed period, we will be engaged in a process to document and evaluate our internal control over financial reporting, which is both costly and challenging. In this regard, we will need to continue to dedicate internal resources, potentially engage outside consultants and adopt a detailed work plan to assess and document the adequacy of internal control over financial reporting, continue steps to improve control processes as appropriate, validate through testing that controls are functioning as documented and implement a continuous reporting and improvement process for internal control over financial reporting. We currently have limited accounting personnel and we have begun the process of evaluating the adequacy of our accounting personnel staffing level and other matters related to our internal control over financial reporting. Despite our efforts, there is a risk that we will not be able to conclude, within the prescribed timeframe or at all, that our internal control over financial reporting is effective as required by Section 404. If we identify one or more material weaknesses once we are a public company, it could result in an adverse reaction in the financial markets due to a loss of confidence in the reliability of our financial statements. As a result, the market price of our ordinary shares could be negatively affected, and we could become subject to investigations by the stock exchange on which our securities are listed, the SEC or other regulatory authorities, which could require additional financial and management resources.
Changes in existing financial accounting standards or practices may harm our results of operations.
Changes in existing accounting rules or practices, new accounting pronouncements rules, or varying interpretations of current accounting pronouncements practice could harm our results of operations or the manner in which we conduct our business. Further, such changes could potentially affect our reporting of transactions completed before such changes are effective.
GAAP is subject to interpretation by the Financial Accounting Standards Board, or FASB, the SEC and various bodies formed to promulgate and interpret appropriate accounting principles. A change in these principles or interpretations could have a significant effect on our reported financial results and could affect the reporting of transactions completed before the announcement
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of a change. In particular, in February 2016, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Codification, or ASC, 842, which supersedes the lease accounting guidance in ASC 840, Leases. The core principle of ASC 842 requires lessees to apply a dual approach, classifying leases as either finance or operating leases based on the principle of whether or not the lease is effectively a financed purchase by the lessee. This classification will determine whether lease expense is recognized based on an effective interest method or on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease. A lessee is also required to record a right-of-use asset and a lease liability for all leases with a term of greater than 12 months regardless of their classification. As an “emerging growth company,” we are allowed under the JOBS Act to delay adoption of new or revised accounting pronouncements applicable to public companies until such pronouncements are made applicable to private companies. We have elected to take advantage of this extended transition period under the JOBS Act with respect to ASC 842, which will result in ASC 842 becoming effective for us beginning on January 1, 2022 unless we choose to adopt it earlier. Any difficulties in implementing these pronouncements or other new pronouncements promulgated by the FASB, the SEC or similar bodies could cause us to fail to meet our financial reporting obligations, which could result in regulatory discipline and harm investors’ confidence in us.
We are evaluating the impact that the adoption of ASC 842 will have on our consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
If our estimates or judgments relating to our critical accounting policies prove to be incorrect, our results of operations could be adversely affected.
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in our consolidated financial statements and related notes. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, as provided in the section titled “Management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations.” The results of these estimates form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets, liabilities and equity, and the amount of revenue and expenses that are not readily apparent from other sources. Significant assumptions and estimates used in preparing our consolidated financial statements include those related to revenue recognition, provision for income taxes, uncertain tax positions, share-based compensation including the estimation of fair value of our ordinary shares, internal-use software costs, purchase price allocation on acquisitions including the determination of useful lives and contingent liabilities. Our results of operations may be adversely affected if our assumptions change or if actual circumstances differ from those in our assumptions, which could cause our results of operations to fall below the expectations of securities analysts and investors, resulting in a decline in the trading price of our ordinary shares.
Risks relating to taxes
We may be classified as a passive foreign investment company, which could result in adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to U.S. Holders of our ordinary shares.
We would be classified as a passive foreign investment company, or PFIC, for any taxable year if, after the application of certain look-through rules, either: (i) 75% or more of our gross income for such year is “passive income” (as defined in the relevant provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended), or (ii) 50% or more of the value of our assets (generally determined on the basis of a quarterly average) during such year is attributable to assets that produce or are held for the production of passive income. Based on the estimated composition of our income, assets and operations, we do not believe that we were classified as a PFIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes for the taxable year ended December 31, 2020. The determination of whether we are classified as a PFIC is a factual determination that must be made annually after the close of each taxable year. Moreover, this determination will depend on, among other things, the composition of our income and assets, as well as the value of our assets (which for purposes of the PFIC determination may
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fluctuate with our market capitalization). The United States Internal Revenue Service, or IRS, or a court may disagree with our expectations. Therefore, there can be no assurance that we were not a PFIC for our 2020 taxable year or will not be classified as a PFIC in the current taxable year or in the future. Certain adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences could apply to a U.S. Holder (as defined in “Material income tax considerations—Material U.S. federal income tax considerations for U.S. holders”) if we are treated as a PFIC for any taxable year during which such U.S. Holder (defined below) holds our ordinary shares, including (1) the treatment of all or a portion of any gain on disposition of our ordinary shares as ordinary income, (2) the application of an interest charge with respect to such gain and certain dividends and (3) compliance with certain reporting requirements.
If a United States person is treated as owning at least 10% of the value or voting power of our ordinary shares, such holder may be subject to adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences.
Depending upon the aggregate value and voting power of our ordinary shares that United States persons are treated as owning (directly, indirectly or constructively), we could be treated as a controlled foreign corporation. If a United States person is treated as owning (directly, indirectly, or constructively) at least 10% of the value or voting power of our ordinary shares, such person may be treated as a “United States shareholder” with respect to each “controlled foreign corporation” in our group (if any). Because our group includes a U.S. subsidiary, certain of our non-U.S. subsidiaries will be treated as controlled foreign corporations (regardless of whether or not we are treated as a controlled foreign corporation). A United States shareholder of a controlled foreign corporation may be required to report annually and include in its U.S. taxable income its pro rata share of “Subpart F income,” “global intangible low-taxed income,” and investments of earnings in “United States property” by controlled foreign corporations, regardless of whether we make any distributions of profits or income of a controlled foreign corporation to such United States shareholder. Failure to comply with these reporting obligations may subject a United States shareholder to significant monetary penalties and may prevent the statute of limitations with respect to such shareholder’s U.S. federal income tax return for the year for which reporting was due from starting. An individual that is a United States shareholder with respect to a controlled foreign corporation generally would not be allowed certain tax deductions or foreign tax credits that would be allowed to a United States shareholder that is a U.S. corporation. We cannot provide any assurances that we will assist investors in determining whether we are or any of our non-U.S. subsidiaries is treated as a controlled foreign corporation or whether any investor is treated as a United States shareholder with respect to any such controlled foreign corporation or furnish to any United States shareholders information that may be necessary to comply with the aforementioned reporting and tax paying obligations. The IRS has provided limited guidance on situations in which investors may rely on publicly available information to comply with their reporting and taxpaying obligations with respect to foreign-controlled controlled foreign corporations. A United States investor should consult its advisors regarding the potential application of these rules to an investment in our ordinary shares.
Changes in tax laws or regulations in the various tax jurisdictions we are subject to that are applied adversely to us or our paid customers could increase the costs of our solutions and harm our business.
New income, sales, use or other tax laws, statutes, rules, regulations, or ordinances could be enacted at any time. Those enactments could harm our domestic and international business operations, and our business, results of operations and financial condition. Further, existing tax laws, statutes, rules, regulations, or ordinances could be interpreted, changed, modified, or applied adversely to us. These events could require us or our paid customers to pay additional tax amounts on a prospective or retroactive basis, as well as require us or our paid customers to pay fines and/or penalties and interest for past amounts deemed to be due. If we raise our prices to offset the costs of these changes, existing and potential future paid customers may elect not to purchase our solutions in the future. Additionally, new, changed, modified, or newly interpreted or applied tax laws could
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increase our paid customers’ and our compliance, operating and other costs, as well as the costs of our solutions. Further, these events could decrease the capital we have available to operate our business. Any or all of these events could harm our business, financial condition, revenues, results of operations or cash flows.
Additionally, the application of U.S. federal, state, local and non-U.S. tax laws to services provided electronically is unclear and continuously evolving. Existing tax laws, statutes, rules, regulations, or ordinances could be interpreted or applied adversely to us, possibly with retroactive effect, which could require us or our paid customers to pay additional tax amounts, as well as require us or our paid customers to pay fines or penalties, as well as interest for past amounts. If we are unsuccessful in collecting such taxes due from our paid customers, we could be held liable for such costs, thereby adversely affecting our results of operations and harming our business.
As a multinational organization, we may be subject to taxation in several jurisdictions around the world with increasingly complex tax laws, the application of which can be uncertain. The amount of taxes we pay in these jurisdictions could increase substantially as a result of changes in the applicable tax principles, including increased tax rates, new tax laws, or revised interpretations of existing tax laws and precedents, which could harm our liquidity and results of operations. Our existing corporate structure and intercompany arrangements have been implemented in a manner we believe is in compliance with current prevailing tax laws. In addition and in accordance with the domestic statute of limitation provisions, the authorities in these jurisdictions could review our tax returns and impose additional tax, interest and penalties, and the authorities could claim that various withholding requirements apply to us or our subsidiaries or assert that benefits of tax treaties are not available to us or our subsidiaries, any of which could harm us and our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
The tax benefits that may be available to us will require us to meet various conditions and may be terminated or reduced in the future, which could increase our costs and taxes.
We may be eligible for certain tax benefits provided to a “Preferred Technological Enterprise” under the Israeli Law for the Encouragement of Capital Investments, 5719-1959, referred to as the Investment Law. However, we have not yet examined our eligibility due to the irrelevance of the Investment Law to us in light of our current loss-making status. In order to be eligible for the tax benefits for a “Preferred Technological Enterprise” we must meet certain conditions stipulated in the Investment Law and its regulations, as amended. If we increase our activities outside of Israel through acquisitions, for example, our expanded activities might not be eligible for inclusion in future Israeli tax benefit programs. See the section titled “Material income tax considerations—Israeli tax considerations—Law for the encouragement of capital investments, 5719-1959.”
Our results of operations may be harmed if we are required to collect sales or other related taxes for subscriptions to our solutions in jurisdictions where we have not historically done so.
The application of indirect taxes (such as sales and use tax, VAT, GST, business tax and gross receipt tax) to businesses that transact online, such as ours, is a complex and evolving area. An increasing number of states have considered or adopted laws that attempt to impose tax collection obligations on out-of-state companies. Following the U.S. Supreme Court decision in South Dakota v. Wayfair, Inc., states are now free to levy taxes on sales of goods and services based on an “economic nexus,” regardless of whether the seller has a physical presence in the state. As a result, it may be necessary to reevaluate whether our activities give rise to sales, use and other indirect taxes as a result of any nexus in those states in which we are not currently registered to collect and remit taxes. A successful assertion by one or more states requiring us to collect taxes where we presently do not do so, could result in substantial tax liabilities, including taxes on past sales, as well as penalties and interest. Additionally, we may need to assess our potential tax collection and remittance liabilities based on existing economic nexus laws’ dollar and transaction thresholds. We continue to analyze our exposure for such taxes and liabilities including the need to provide to loss contingencies resulting from these potential taxes and liabilities. The application of existing, new, or future laws, whether
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in the U.S. or internationally, could harm our business. There have been, and will continue to be, substantial ongoing costs associated with complying with the various indirect tax requirements in the numerous markets in which we conduct or will conduct business.
It is possible, however, that we could face sales tax or VAT audits and that our liability for these taxes could exceed our estimates as state tax authorities could still assert that we are obligated to collect additional tax amounts from our paid customers and remit those taxes to those authorities. We could also be subject to tax audits in states and international jurisdictions for which we have not accrued tax liabilities. A successful assertion that we should be collecting additional sales or other taxes on our services in jurisdictions where we have not historically done so and do not accrue for sales taxes could result in substantial tax liabilities for past sales, discourage organizations from subscribing to our solutions, or otherwise harm our business, financial condition, revenues, results of operations or cash flows.
Our international operations may subject us to potential adverse tax consequences.
We are expanding our international operations to better support our growth into international markets. Our corporate structure and associated transfer pricing policies contemplate future growth in international markets, and consider the functions, risks and assets of the various entities involved in intercompany transactions. The amount of taxes we pay in different jurisdictions may depend on the application of the tax laws of the various jurisdictions, including the United States, to our international business activities, changes in tax rates, new or revised tax laws or interpretations of existing tax laws and policies, and our ability to operate our business in a manner consistent with our corporate structure and intercompany arrangements. The taxing authorities of the jurisdictions in which we operate may challenge our methodologies for pricing intercompany transactions pursuant to our intercompany arrangements or disagree with our determinations as to the income and expenses attributable to specific jurisdictions. If such a challenge or disagreement were to occur, and our position was not sustained, we could be required to pay additional taxes, interest and penalties, which could result in one-time tax charges, higher effective tax rates, reduced cash flows and lower overall profitability of our operations. Our financial statements could fail to reflect adequate reserves to cover such a contingency.
The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, or the Tax Act, makes broad and complex changes to the U.S. tax code including, among other things, changes to U.S. federal tax rates, imposes additional limitations on the deductibility of interest, has both positive and negative changes to the utilization of future net operating loss, or NOL, carryforwards, allows for the expensing of certain capital expenditures, and puts into effect the migration from a “worldwide” system of taxation to a territorial system. We completed our accounting with respect to the Tax Act in 2018 and did not make any measurement-period adjustments.
The enactment of legislation implementing changes in taxation of international business activities, the adoption of other corporate tax reform policies, or changes in tax legislation or policies could impact our future financial position and results of operations.
Corporate tax reform, base-erosion efforts and tax transparency continue to be high priorities in many tax jurisdictions where we have business operations. As a result, policies regarding corporate income and other taxes in numerous jurisdictions are under heightened scrutiny and tax reform legislation is being proposed or enacted in a number of jurisdictions.
In 2015, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, or OECD, released various reports under its Base Erosion and Profit Shifting, or BEPS, action plan to reform international tax systems and prevent tax avoidance and aggressive tax planning. These actions aim to standardize and modernize global corporate tax policy, including cross-border taxes, transfer-pricing documentation rules and nexus-based tax incentive practices which in part are focused on challenges arising from the digitalization of the economy. The reports have a very broad scope including, but not limited to, neutralizing the effects of hybrid mismatch arrangements, limiting
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base erosion involving interest deductions and other financial payments, countering harmful tax practices, preventing the granting of treaty benefits in inappropriate circumstances and imposing mandatory disclosure rules. It is the responsibility of OECD members to consider how the BEPS recommendations should be reflected in their national legislation. Many countries are beginning to implement legislation and other guidance to align their international tax rules with the OECD's BEPS recommendations, for example, by signing up to the Multilateral Convention to Implement Tax Treaty Related Measures to Prevent BEPS, or MLI, which currently has been signed by over 95 jurisdictions, including Israel who signed and ratified the MLI on September 13, 2018. The MLI implements some of the measures that the BEPS initiative proposes to be transposed into existing treaties of participating states. Such measures include the inclusion in tax treaties of one, or both, of a “limitation-on-benefit,” or LOB, rule and a “principle purposes test,” or PPT, rule. The application of the LOB rule or the PPT rule could deny the availability of tax treaty benefits (such as a reduced rate of withholding tax) under tax treaties. There are likely to be significant changes in the tax legislation of various OECD jurisdictions during the period of implementation of BEPS. Such legislative initiatives may materially and adversely affect our plans to expand internationally and may negatively impact our financial condition, tax liability, results of operations and could increase our administrative efforts.
Risks relating to our ordinary shares and the offering
Our share price may be volatile, and you may lose all or part of your investment.
The initial public offering price for the ordinary shares sold in this offering will be determined by negotiation between us, the selling shareholder and representatives of the underwriters. This price may not reflect the market price of our ordinary shares following this offering and the price of our ordinary shares may decline. In addition, the market price of our ordinary shares could be highly volatile and may fluctuate substantially as a result of many factors, including:
actual or anticipated fluctuations in our revenue growth or results of operations;
changes in our net retention rates;
variance in our financial performance from the expectations of market analysts;
announcements by us or our direct or indirect competitors of significant business developments, changes in service provider relationships, acquisitions or expansion plans;
our involvement in litigation;
our sale of ordinary shares or other securities in the future;
market conditions in our industry;
changes in key personnel;
the trading volume of our ordinary shares;
changes in the estimation of the future size and growth rate of our markets; and
general economic and market conditions.
In addition, the stock markets have experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations. Broad market and industry factors may materially harm the market price of our ordinary shares, regardless of our operating performance. In the past, following periods of volatility in the market price of a company’s securities, securities class action litigation has often been instituted against that company. If we were involved in any similar litigation, we could incur substantial costs and our management’s attention and resources could be diverted.
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The concentration of our share ownership with insiders will likely limit your ability to influence corporate matters, including the ability to influence the outcome of director elections and other matters requiring shareholder approval.
Our executive officers, directors, current 5% or greater shareholders and affiliated entities together beneficially owned approximately 71.4% of our ordinary shares outstanding as of March 31, 2021. As a result, these shareholders, acting together, will have control over most matters that require approval by our shareholders, including matters such as, the appointment and dismissal of directors, approval of certain related party transactions, including the terms of compensation of our directors and chief executive officer, capital increases, amendments to our articles of associations, approval of significant corporate transactions and declarations of dividends. Corporate action might be taken even if other shareholders oppose them. This concentration of ownership could also have the effect of delaying or preventing a change of control of us that other shareholders may view as beneficial.
The ION Funds have indicated an interest in purchasing an aggregate of up to $30.0 million in ordinary shares in this offering at the initial public offering price. Because this indication of interest is not a binding agreement or commitment to purchase, ION Funds or its affiliates could determine to purchase more, less or no ordinary shares in this offering, or the underwriters could determine to sell more, less or no ordinary shares to ION Funds. The underwriters will receive the same discount on any of our ordinary shares purchased by ION Funds as they will from any other shares sold to the public in this offering.
There has been no prior public market for our ordinary shares, and an active trading market may not develop.
Prior to this offering, there has been no public market for our ordinary shares. The initial public offering price per ordinary share will be determined by agreement among us, the selling shareholder, and the representatives of the underwriters and may not be indicative of the price at which shares of our ordinary shares will trade in the public market after this offering. Additionally, an active trading market may not develop following the closing of this offering or, if developed, may not be sustained. The lack of an active market may impair your ability to sell your shares at the time you wish to sell them or at a price that you consider reasonable. An inactive market may also impair our ability to raise capital by selling ordinary shares and may impair our ability to acquire other companies by using our shares as consideration.
If we do not meet the expectations of equity research analysts, if they do not publish research or reports about our business or if they issue unfavorable commentary or downgrade our ordinary shares, the price of our ordinary shares could decline.
The trading market for our ordinary shares will rely in part on the research and reports that equity research analysts publish about us and our business. The analysts’ estimates are based upon their own opinions and are often different from our estimates or expectations. If our results of operations are below the estimates or expectations of public market analysts and investors, the price of our ordinary shares could decline. Moreover, the price of our ordinary shares could decline if one or more securities analysts downgrade our ordinary shares or if those analysts issue other unfavorable commentary or cease publishing reports about us or our business.
We are an “emerging growth company,” and the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to “emerging growth companies” may make our ordinary shares less attractive to investors.
We are an “emerging growth company” as defined in the JOBS Act. Under the JOBS Act, emerging growth companies can delay adopting new or revised accounting standards until such time as those standards apply to private companies. We have elected to use this extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards that have different effective dates for public and private companies until the earlier of the date we (i) are no longer an emerging growth company or (ii) affirmatively and irrevocably opt out of the extended transition period provided in
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the JOBS Act. As a result, our financial statements may not be comparable to companies that comply with new or revised accounting pronouncements as of public company effective dates. While we have elected to use this extended transition period, to date we have not delayed the adoption of any applicable accounting standards.
For as long as we continue to be an emerging growth company, we also intend to take advantage of certain other exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies including, but not limited to, including (i) presenting only limited selected financial data, (ii) not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of SOX, (iii) not being required to comply with any requirement that may be adopted by the PCAOB regarding mandatory audit firm rotation or a supplement to the auditor’s report providing additional information about the audit and the financial statements, (iv) reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation and (v) exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. As a result, the information we provide shareholders will be different than the information that is available with respect to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies. We cannot predict if investors will find our ordinary shares less attractive because we will rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our ordinary shares less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our ordinary shares and our stock price may be more volatile.
We will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest of (i) the last day of the year in which we have total annual gross revenue of $1.07 billion or more; (ii) the last day of the year following the fifth anniversary of the date of the closing of this offering; (iii) the date on which we have issued more than $1.0 billion in nonconvertible debt during the previous three years; or (iv) the date on which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer under the rules of the SEC.
We will be a foreign private issuer and, as a result, we will not be subject to U.S. proxy rules and will be subject to Exchange Act reporting obligations that, to some extent, are more lenient and less frequent than those of a U.S. domestic public company.
Upon the closing of this offering, we will report under the Securities and Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, as a non-U.S. company with foreign private issuer status. Because we qualify as a foreign private issuer under the Exchange Act, we are exempt from certain provisions of the Exchange Act that are applicable to U.S. domestic public companies, including (1) the sections of the Exchange Act regulating the solicitation of proxies, consents or authorizations in respect of a security registered under the Exchange Act, (2) the sections of the Exchange Act requiring insiders to file public reports of their share ownership and trading activities and liability for insiders who profit from trades made in a short period of time and (3) the rules under the Exchange Act requiring the filing with the SEC of quarterly reports on Form 10-Q containing unaudited financial and other specified information, although we are subject to Israeli laws and regulations with regard to certain of these matters and intend to furnish comparable quarterly information on Form 6-K. In addition, foreign private issuers are not required to file their annual report on Form 20-F until 120 days after the end of each fiscal year, while U.S. domestic issuers that are accelerated filers are required to file their annual report on Form 10-K within 75 days after the end of each fiscal year and U.S. domestic issuers that are large accelerated filers are required to file their annual report on Form 10-K within 60 days after the end of each fiscal year. Foreign private issuers are also exempt from Regulation FD, which is intended to prevent issuers from making selective disclosures of material information. As a result of all of the above, you may not have the same protections afforded to shareholders of a company that is not a foreign private issuer.
We may lose our foreign private issuer status in the future, which could result in significant additional costs and expenses.
As discussed above, we are a foreign private issuer, and therefore, we are not required to comply with all of the periodic disclosure and current reporting requirements of the Exchange Act. The
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determination of foreign private issuer status is made annually on the last business day of an issuer’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, and, accordingly, the next determination will be made with respect to us on June 30, 2021. In the future, we would lose our foreign private issuer status if (1) more than 50% of our outstanding voting securities are owned by U.S. residents and (2) a majority of our directors or executive officers are U.S. citizens or residents, or we fail to meet additional requirements necessary to avoid loss of foreign private issuer status. If we lose our foreign private issuer status, we will be required to file with the SEC periodic reports and registration statements on U.S. domestic issuer forms, which are more detailed and extensive than the forms available to a foreign private issuer. We will also have to mandatorily comply with U.S. federal proxy requirements, and our officers, directors and principal shareholders will become subject to the short-swing profit disclosure and recovery provisions of Section 16 of the Exchange Act. In addition, we will lose our ability to rely upon exemptions from certain corporate governance requirements under the listing rules of the NYSE. As a U.S. listed public company that is not a foreign private issuer, we will incur significant additional legal, accounting and other expenses that we will not incur as a foreign private issuer.
As we are a “foreign private issuer” and intend to follow certain home country corporate governance practices, our shareholders may not have the same protections afforded to shareholders of companies that are subject to all NYSE corporate governance requirements.
As a foreign private issuer, we have the option to follow certain home country corporate governance practices rather than those of the NYSE, provided that we disclose the requirements we are not following and describe the home country practices we are following. We intend to rely on this “foreign private issuer exemption” with respect to the NYSE rules for shareholder meeting quorums, NYSE rules requiring shareholder approval and NYSE rules regarding the composition of the nominating/corporate governance committee. We may in the future elect to follow home country practices with regard to other matters. As a result, our shareholders may not have the same protections afforded to shareholders of companies that are subject to all NYSE corporate governance requirements.
The market price of our ordinary shares could be negatively affected by future sales of our ordinary shares.
After this offering, there will be 74,288,156 ordinary shares outstanding (or 75,413,156 ordinary shares if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional ordinary shares). Sales by us or our shareholders of a substantial number of ordinary shares in the public market following this offering, or the perception that these sales might occur, could cause the market price of our ordinary shares to decline or could impair our ability to raise capital through a future sale of, or pay for acquisitions using, our equity securities. Of our issued and outstanding shares, all the ordinary shares sold in this offering will be freely transferable, except for any shares acquired by our “affiliates,” as that term is defined in Rule 144 under the Securities Act.
We, the selling shareholder, our executive officers and directors and the holders of substantially all of our outstanding ordinary shares, have agreed with the underwriters that, subject to limited exceptions, for a period of 180 days after the date of this prospectus, we and they will not directly or indirectly offer, pledge, sell, contract to sell, grant any option to purchase or otherwise dispose of any ordinary shares or any securities convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for ordinary shares, or in any manner transfer all or a portion of the economic consequences associated with the ownership of ordinary shares, or cause a registration statement covering any ordinary shares to be filed except for the ordinary shares offered in this offering, without the prior written consent of J.P. Morgan Securities LLC, who may, in their sole discretion and at any time without notice, release all or any portion of the ordinary shares subject to these lock-up agreements, provided that:
for any (i) employee of the Company with a title below vice president, (ii) contractor of the Company, (iii) former employee of the Company or (iv) former contractor of the Company, each determined by the Company as of the day of the early lock-up release described below, or
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collectively, the Early Release Employee Group, the lock-up period shall expire with respect to a number of shares equal to 25% of the ordinary shares and other securities (including vested shares and vested equity awards, including such shares and equity awards that are held by any trust for the direct or indirect benefit of the holder or of an immediate family member of the holder) owned by such employee or contractor on the date of the prospectus, on the 91st day after the date of the prospectus, or the Early Release Date; and
for any lock-up party not a member of the Early Release Employee Group, subject to compliance with applicable securities laws, including without limitation Rule 144 as promulgated by the SEC under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the lock-up period shall expire with respect to a number of shares equal to 25% of the ordinary shares and other securities (including vested shares and vested equity awards, including such shares and equity awards that are held by any trust for the direct or indirect benefit of the holder or of an immediate family member of the holder) owned by such lock-up party on the date of the prospectus; provided the last reported closing price of our ordinary shares on the NYSE is at least 25% greater than the initial public offering price of the ordinary shares to the public as set forth on the prospectus for at least 5 trading days out of any 10 consecutive full trading day period ending on or after 91st day after the date of the prospectus.
As of March 31, 2021, we had 195,783 shares available for future grants under our 2012 Plan and 11,439,769 ordinary shares that were subject to outstanding share options and restricted share units, or RSUs. Of this amount, 5,779,624 were vested and exercisable as of March 31, 2021. Substantially all of the outstanding share options and RSUs are subject to the lock-up pursuant to the terms of our equity incentive plans and will be available for sale starting 180 days after the date of this prospectus if not released earlier. We intend to file a registration statement on Form S-8 under the Securities Act registering the shares under our equity incentive plans. Subject to the lock-up, shares included in such registration statement will be available for sale in the public market immediately after such filing, subject to vesting provisions, except for shares held by affiliates who will have certain restrictions on their ability to sell. See “Shares eligible for future sale.”
Participation in this offering by ION Funds could reduce the public float for our ordinary shares.
The ION Funds have indicated an interest in purchasing an aggregate of up to $30.0 million in ordinary shares in this offering at the initial public offering price. Because this indication of interest is not a binding agreement or commitment to purchase, ION Funds or its affiliates could determine to purchase more, less or no ordinary shares in this offering, or the underwriters could determine to sell more, less or no ordinary shares to ION Funds. The underwriters will receive the same discount on any of our ordinary shares purchased by ION Funds as they will from any other shares sold to the public in this offering.
If ION Funds are allocated all or a portion of the shares in which it has indicated an interest in this offering or is allocated more shares it has indicated an interest in this offering, and ION Funds purchase any such shares, such purchase could reduce the available public float for our shares if ION Funds hold these shares long-term.
You will experience immediate and substantial dilution in the net tangible book value of the ordinary shares you purchase in this offering.
The initial public offering price of our ordinary shares substantially exceeds the net tangible book value per ordinary share immediately after this offering. Therefore, if you purchase our ordinary shares in this offering, you will suffer, as of March 31, 2021 immediate dilution of $18.46 per ordinary share or $18.21 per ordinary share if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional ordinary shares, in net tangible book value after giving effect to the sale of ordinary shares in this offering at an assumed initial public offering price of $20.00 per ordinary share, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus. In addition, you will experience further dilution to the extent that our ordinary shares are issued upon
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the vesting of any share awards under our equity incentive plans. If outstanding options to purchase our ordinary shares are exercised in the future, you will experience additional dilution. See “Dilution.”
We have broad discretion over the use of proceeds we receive in this offering and may not apply the proceeds in ways that increase the value of your investment.
Our management will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds from this offering and, as a result, you will have to rely upon the judgment of our management with respect to the use of these proceeds. Our management may spend a portion or all of the net proceeds in ways that not all shareholders approve of or that may not yield a favorable return. The failure by our management to apply these funds effectively could harm our business, financial condition, revenues, results of operations or cash flows.
We do not expect to pay any dividends in the foreseeable future.
We do not anticipate paying any dividends in the foreseeable future. We currently intend to retain future earnings, if any, to finance operations and expand our business. Consequently, investors who purchase ordinary shares in this offering may be unable to realize a gain on their investment except by selling sell such shares after price appreciation, which may never occur.
Our board of directors has sole discretion whether to pay dividends. If our board of directors decides to pay dividends, the form, frequency and amount will depend upon our future operations and earnings, capital requirements and surplus, general financial condition, contractual restrictions and other factors that our directors may deem relevant. The Companies Law, imposes restrictions on our ability to declare and pay dividends. See “Description of share capital and articles of association—Dividend and liquidation rights” for additional information. In addition, we are subject to a restriction on paying dividends pursuant to our LSA with SVB.
Payment of dividends may also be subject to Israeli withholding taxes. See “Material income tax considerations—Israeli tax considerations” for additional information.
Our amended and restated articles of association provide that unless we consent to an alternate forum, the federal district courts of the United States shall be the exclusive forum of resolution of any claims arising under the Securities Act, which may impose additional litigation costs on our shareholders.
Our amended and restated articles of association provide that, unless we consent otherwise, the federal district courts of the United States shall be the exclusive forum for the resolution of any claims arising under the Securities Act (for the sake of clarification, this provision does not apply to causes of action arising under the Exchange Act). While this provision of our amended and restated articles of association does not restrict the ability of our shareholders to bring claims under the Securities Act, nor does it affect the remedies available thereunder if such claims are successful, we recognize that it may limit shareholders' ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that they find favorable and may increase certain litigation costs which may discourage the filing of claims under the Securities Act against the Company, its directors and officers. However, the enforceability of similar forum provisions in other companies’ organizational documents has been challenged in legal proceedings and there is uncertainty as to whether courts would enforce the exclusive forum provisions in our amended and restated articles of association. If a court were to find the choice of forum provision contained in our amended and restated articles of association to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
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Risks relating to our incorporation and location in Israel
Conditions in Israel could materially and adversely affect our business.
Our principal executive offices and research and development facilities are located in Israel (Middle East) and therefore may be influenced by regional instability and extreme military tension. Accordingly, political, economic and military conditions in Israel and the surrounding region could directly affect our business. Any armed conflicts, political instability, terrorism, cyberattacks or any other hostilities involving Israel or the interruption or curtailment of trade between Israel and its present trading partners could affect adversely our operations. Ongoing and revived hostilities in the Middle East or other Israeli political or economic factors, could harm our operations and solution development and cause any future sales to decrease.
Our commercial insurance does not cover losses that may occur as a result of events associated with war and terrorism. Although the Israeli government currently covers the reinstatement value of direct damages that are caused by terrorist attacks or acts of war, we cannot assure you that this government coverage will be maintained or that it will sufficiently cover our potential damages. Any losses or damages incurred by us could have a material adverse effect on our business. Any armed conflicts or political instability in the region would likely negatively affect business conditions and could harm our results of operations.
Further, in the past, the State of Israel and Israeli companies have been subjected to economic boycotts. Several countries still restrict business with the State of Israel and with Israeli companies. These restrictive laws and policies may have an adverse impact on our operating results, financial condition or the expansion of our business. A campaign of boycotts, divestment and sanctions has been undertaken against Israel, which could also adversely impact our business.
In addition, many Israeli citizens are obligated to perform several days, and in some cases more, of annual military reserve duty each year until they reach the age of 40 (or older, for reservists who are military officers or who have certain occupations) and, in the event of a military conflict, may be called to active duty. In response to increases in terrorist activity, there have been periods of significant call-ups of military reservists. It is possible that there will be military reserve duty call-ups in the future. Our operations could be disrupted by such call-ups, which may include the call-up of members of our management. Such disruption could materially adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
It may be difficult to enforce a U.S. judgment against us, our officers and directors named in this prospectus in Israel or the United States, or to assert U.S. securities laws claims in Israel or serve process on our officers and directors.
Not all of our directors or officers are residents of the United States and most of their and our assets are located outside the United States. Service of process upon us or our non-U.S. resident directors and officers and enforcement of judgments obtained in the United States against us or our non-U.S. our directors and executive officers may be difficult to obtain within the United States. We have been informed by our legal counsel in Israel that it may be difficult to assert claims under U.S. securities laws in original actions instituted in Israel or obtain a judgment based on the civil liability provisions of U.S. federal securities laws. Israeli courts may refuse to hear a claim based on a violation of U.S. securities laws against us or our non-U.S. officers and directors because Israel may not be the most appropriate forum to bring such a claim. In addition, even if an Israeli court agrees to hear a claim, it may determine that Israeli law and not U.S. law is applicable to the claim. If U.S. law is found to be applicable, the content of applicable U.S. law must be proved as a fact, which can be a time-consuming and costly process. Certain matters of procedure will also be governed by Israeli law. There is little binding case law in Israel addressing the matters described above. Israeli courts might not enforce judgments rendered outside Israel, which may make it difficult to collect on judgments rendered against us or our non-U.S. officers and directors.
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Moreover, an Israeli court will not enforce a non-Israeli judgment if it was given in a state whose laws do not provide for the enforcement of judgments of Israeli courts (subject to exceptional cases), if its enforcement is likely to prejudice the sovereignty or security of the State of Israel, if it was obtained by fraud or in the absence of due process, if it is at variance with another valid judgment that was given in the same matter between the same parties, or if a suit in the same matter between the same parties was pending before a court or tribunal in Israel at the time the foreign action was brought. For more information, see “Enforceability of civil liabilities.”
Your rights and responsibilities as our shareholder will be governed by Israeli law, which may differ in some respects from the rights and responsibilities of shareholders of U.S. corporations.
We are incorporated under Israeli law. The rights and responsibilities of holders of our ordinary shares are governed by our amended and restated articles of association to be effective upon the closing of this offering and the Companies Law. These rights and responsibilities differ in some respects from the rights and responsibilities of shareholders in typical U.S. corporations. In particular, pursuant to the Companies Law each shareholder of an Israeli company has to act in good faith and in a customary manner in exercising his or her rights and fulfilling his or her obligations toward the Company and other shareholders and to refrain from abusing his or her power in the Company, including, among other things, in voting at the general meeting of shareholders, on amendments to a company’s articles of association, increases in a company’s authorized share capital, mergers and certain transactions requiring shareholders’ approval under the Companies Law. In addition, a controlling shareholder of an Israeli company or a shareholder who knows that it possesses the power to determine the outcome of a shareholder vote or who has the power to appoint or prevent the appointment of a director or officer in the Company, or has other powers toward the Company has a duty of fairness toward the Company. However, Israeli law does not define the substance of this duty of fairness. There is little case law available to assist in understanding the implications of these provisions that govern shareholder behavior.
Provisions of Israeli law and our amended and restated articles of association to be effective upon the closing of this offering may delay, prevent or make undesirable an acquisition of all or a significant portion of our shares or assets.
Provisions of Israeli law and our amended and restated articles of association to be effective upon the closing of this offering could have the effect of delaying or preventing a change in control and may make it more difficult for a third party to acquire us or our shareholders to elect different individuals to our board of directors, even if doing so would be considered to be beneficial by some of our shareholders, and may limit the price that investors may be willing to pay in the future for our ordinary shares. Among other things:
Israeli corporate law regulates mergers and requires that a tender offer be effected when more than a specified percentage of shares in a company are purchased;
Israeli corporate law does not provide for shareholder action by written consent, thereby requiring all shareholder actions to be taken at a general meeting of shareholders;
our amended and restated articles of association to be effective upon the closing of this offering divide our directors into three classes, each of which is elected once every three years;
our amended and restated articles of association to be effective upon the closing of this offering generally require a vote of the holders of a majority of our outstanding ordinary shares entitled to vote present and voting on the matter at a general meeting of shareholders (referred to as simple majority); however, the amendment of a limited number of provisions, such as (i) the provision empowering our board of directors to determine the size of the board, (ii) the provision setting forth the procedures and the requirements that must be met in order for a shareholder to require us to include a matter on the agenda for a general meeting of our shareholders, (iii) the provisions relating to the election and removal of members of our board
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of directors and empowering our board of directors to fill vacancies on the board, and (iv) the provision dividing our directors into three classes, requires a vote of the holders of 65% of our outstanding ordinary shares entitled to vote at a general meeting;
our amended and restated articles of association to be effective upon the closing of this offering do not permit a director to be removed except by a vote of the holders of at least 65% of our outstanding shares entitled to vote at a general meeting of shareholders; and
our amended and restated articles of association to be effective upon the closing of this offering provide that director vacancies may be filled by our board of directors.
Further, Israeli tax considerations may make potential transactions undesirable to us or to some of our shareholders whose country of residence does not have a tax treaty with Israel granting tax relief to such shareholders from Israeli tax. With respect to mergers, Israeli tax law allows for tax deferral in certain circumstances but makes the deferral contingent on the fulfillment of numerous conditions, including a holding period of two years from the date of the transaction during which certain sales and dispositions of shares of the participating companies are restricted.
Our amended and restated articles of association provide that unless the Company consents otherwise, the Tel Aviv District Court (Economic Division) shall be the sole and exclusive forum for substantially all disputes between the Company and its shareholders under the Companies Law and the Israeli Securities Law, which could limit its shareholders' ability to brings claims and proceedings against, as well as obtain favorable judicial forum for disputes with the Company, its directors, officers and other employees.
Unless we consent otherwise, the Tel Aviv District Court (Economic Division) shall be the exclusive forum for (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of the Company, (ii) any action asserting a claim of breach of fiduciary duty owed by any director, officer or other employee of the Company to the Company or the Company’s shareholders, or (iii) any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the Companies Law or the Israeli Securities Law. This exclusive forum provision is intended to apply to claims arising under Israeli Law and would not apply to claims brought pursuant to the Securities Act or the Exchange Act or any other claim for which federal courts would have exclusive jurisdiction. Such exclusive forum provision in our amended and restated articles of association will not relive the Company of its duties to comply with federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder, and shareholders of the Company will not be deemed to have waived the Company’s compliance with these laws, rules and regulations. This exclusive forum provision may limit a shareholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum of its choosing for disputes with the Company or its directors or other employees which may discourage lawsuits against the Company, its directors, officers and employees. However, there is uncertainty as to whether courts would enforce the exclusive forum provisions in our amended and restated articles of association. If a court were to find the choice of forum provision contained in our amended and restated articles of association to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
General risk factors
The estimates of market opportunity and forecasts of market growth included in this prospectus may prove to be inaccurate, and even if the market in which we compete achieves the forecasted growth, our business could fail to grow at similar rates, if at all.
The estimates of market opportunity and forecasts of market growth included in this prospectus may prove to be inaccurate. Market opportunity estimates and growth forecasts included in this prospectus, including those we have generated ourselves, are subject to significant uncertainty and are based on assumptions and estimates that may not prove to be accurate, including the risks
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described herein. Even if the market in which we compete achieves the forecasted growth, our business could fail to grow at similar rates, if at all.
The variables that go into the calculation of our market opportunity are subject to change over time, and there is no guarantee that any particular number or percentage of addressable customers or companies covered by our market opportunity estimates will purchase our solutions at all or generate any particular level of revenue for us. Any expansion in our market depends on a number of factors, including the cost, performance and perceived value associated with our platform and those of our competitors. Even if the market in which we compete meets the size estimates and growth forecasted in this prospectus, our business could fail to grow at similar rates, if at all. Our growth is subject to many factors, including our success in implementing our business strategy, which is subject to many risks and uncertainties. Accordingly, the forecasts of market growth included in this prospectus should not be taken as indicative of our future growth.
We may be subject to liability claims if we breach our contracts and our insurance may be inadequate to cover our losses.
We are subject to numerous obligations in our contracts with organizations using our solutions. Despite the procedures, systems and internal controls we have implemented to comply with our contracts, we may breach these commitments, whether through a weakness in these procedures, systems and internal controls, negligence or the willful act of an employee or contractor. Our insurance policies, including our errors and omissions insurance, may be inadequate to compensate us for the potentially significant losses that may result from claims arising from breaches of our contracts, disruptions in our services, failures or disruptions to our infrastructure, catastrophic events and disasters or otherwise. Further, our insurance may not cover all claims made against us and defending a suit, regardless of its merit, could be costly and divert management’s attention. In addition, such insurance may not be available to us in the future on economically reasonable terms, or at all.
We may be subject to litigation for a variety of claims, which could harm our reputation and adversely affect our business, financial condition, revenues, results of operations or cash flows.
In the ordinary course of business, we may be involved in and subject to litigation for a variety of claims or disputes and receive regulatory inquiries. These claims, lawsuits and proceedings could include labor and employment, wage and hour, commercial, data privacy, antitrust, alleged securities law violations or other investor claims and other matters. The number and significance of these potential claims and disputes may increase as our business expands. Any claim against us, regardless of its merit, could be costly, divert management’s attention and operational resources and harm our reputation. As litigation is inherently unpredictable, we cannot assure you that any potential claims or disputes will not have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, revenues, results of operations or cash flows. Any claims or litigation, even if fully indemnified or insured, could make it more difficult to compete effectively or to obtain adequate insurance in the future.
In addition, we may be required to spend significant resources to monitor and protect our contractual, property and other rights, including collection of payments and fees. Litigation has been and may be necessary in the future to enforce such rights. Such litigation could be costly, time consuming distracting to management and could result in the impairment or loss of our rights. Furthermore, our efforts to enforce our rights may be met with defenses, counterclaims and countersuits attacking the validity and enforceability of such rights. Our inability to protect our rights as well as any costly litigation or diversion of our management’s attention and resources, could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, revenues, results of operations or cash flows or injure our reputation.
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Catastrophic events may disrupt our business.
In addition to and as evidenced by the COVID-19 global pandemic, natural disasters or other catastrophic events may cause damage or disruption to our operations, international commerce and the global economy, and thus could harm our business. We have our headquarters and a large employee presence in Tel Aviv, Israel, which is located in a considerably volatile area of the world, as further described above in the section “Risks relating to our incorporation and location in Israel.” In the event of a major earthquake, hurricane, or catastrophic event such as fire, power loss, telecommunications failure, cyber-attack, war or terrorist attack, we may be unable to continue our operations and may endure system interruptions, reputational harm, delays in our application development, lengthy interruptions to our platform, breaches of data security and loss of critical data, all of which could harm our business, financial condition, revenues, results of operations or cash flows. Acts of terrorism could also cause disruptions to the Internet or the economy as a whole. In addition, the insurance we maintain would likely not be adequate to cover our losses resulting from disasters or other business interruptions.
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Special note regarding forward-looking statements
This prospectus contains estimates and forward-looking statements, principally in the sections entitled “Prospectus summary,” “Risk factors,” “Use of proceeds,” “Dividend policy,” “Management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations” and “Business.” In some cases, these forward-looking statements can be identified by words or phrases such as “may,” “might,” “will,” “could,” “would,” “should,” “expect,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “seek,” “believe,” “estimate,” “predict,” “potential,” “continue,” “contemplate,” “possible” or similar words. Statements regarding our future results of operations and financial position, growth strategy and plans and objectives of management for future operations, including, among others, expansion in new and existing markets, are forward-looking statements.
Our estimates and forward-looking statements are mainly based on our current expectations and estimates of future events and trends which affect or may affect our business, operations and industry. Although we believe that these estimates and forward-looking statements are based upon reasonable assumptions, they are subject to numerous risks and uncertainties.
These forward-looking statements are subject to a number of known and unknown risks, uncertainties, other factors and assumptions, including the risks described in “Risk factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus, regarding, among other things:
our expectations regarding our revenue, expenses and other operating results;
our ability to acquire new customers and successfully retain existing customers;
our ability to increase usage of our solutions and upsell and cross sell additional solutions;
our ability to achieve or sustain profitability;
anticipated trends, growth rates, and challenges in our business and in the markets in which we operate;
future investments in our business, our anticipated capital expenditures and our estimates regarding our capital requirements;
the costs and success of our sales and marketing efforts and our ability to promote our brand;
our reliance on key personnel and our ability to identify, recruit and retain skilled personnel;
our ability to effectively manage our growth, including continued international expansion;
our ability to protect our intellectual property rights and any costs associated therewith;
our ability to identify and complete acquisitions that complement and expand our reach and platform;
our ability to comply or remain in compliance with laws and regulations that currently apply or become applicable to our business in Israel, the United States and other jurisdictions where we elect to do business;
the effect of COVID-19 or other public health crises on our business and the global economy;
our ability to compete effectively with existing competitors and new market entrants; and
the growth rates of the markets in which we compete.
You should not rely on forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. We have based the forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus primarily on our current expectations and projections about future events and trends that we believe may affect our business, financial
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condition and operating results. The outcome of the events described in these forward-looking statements is subject to risks, uncertainties and other factors described in the section titled “Risk factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risks and uncertainties emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict all risks and uncertainties that could have an impact on the forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus. The results, events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements may not be achieved or occur, and actual results, events or circumstances could differ materially from those described in the forward-looking statements.
In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based on information available to us as of the date of this prospectus. While we believe that information provides a reasonable basis for these statements, that information may be limited or incomplete. Our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain, and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely on these statements.
The forward-looking statements made in this prospectus relate only to events as of the date on which the statements are made. We undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements made in this prospectus to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this prospectus or to reflect new information or the occurrence of unanticipated events, except as required by law. We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements, and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures or investments.
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Market and industry data
This prospectus contains statistical data, estimates and forecasts that are based on independent industry publications or other publicly available information, as well as other information based on our internal sources. While we believe the industry and market data included in this prospectus are reliable and are based on reasonable assumptions, these data involve many assumptions and limitations, and you are cautioned not to give undue weight to these estimates. We have not independently verified the accuracy or completeness of the data contained in these industry publications and other publicly available information. The industry in which we operate is subject to a high degree of uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors, including those described in the sections titled “Risk factors” and “Special note regarding forward-looking statements.” Among other items, certain of the market research included in this prospectus was published prior to the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic and did not anticipate the virus or the impact it has caused on our industry. We have utilized this pre-pandemic market research in the absence of updated sources. These and other factors could cause results to differ materially from those expressed in the projections and estimates made by the independent third parties and us.
The sources of certain statistical data, estimates and forecasts contained in this prospectus are the following independent industry publications or reports:
Digital Commerce 360: An analysis of U.S. online retail data in 2020, published January 2021.
Insider Intelligence, US adults added 1 hour of digital time in 2020, published January 2021.
International Data Corporation, or IDC, Data Age 2025, sponsored by Seagate with data from IDC Global DataSphere, April 2020 and IDC FutureScape: Worldwide Digital Transformation 2021 Predictions, Oct 2020 | Doc #US46880818.
SAP Center for Business Insight and Oxford Economics, or SAP, Digital Transformation: 4 Ways Leaders Set Themselves Apart, published August 2017.
Verint Systems, Engagement in the Always-on Era: how humans and technology work hand-in-hand to meet rising expectations, published June 2019.
Unless otherwise noted, in this prospectus we cite a source the first time a statement relying upon that source is made, and do not include citations subsequently when that statement is repeated.
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Use of proceeds
We estimate that the net proceeds to us from this offering, after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, will be approximately $135.6 million (or approximately $156.5 million if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional ordinary shares), assuming an initial public offering price of $20.00 per ordinary share, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of ordinary shares by the selling shareholder. See "Principal and selling shareholders."
A $1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed initial public offering price of $20.00 per ordinary share would increase (decrease) the net proceeds to us from this offering by approximately $7.0 million, assuming that the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same and after estimated deducting underwriting discounts and commissions. Each increase (decrease) of 1,000,000 shares in the number of ordinary shares offered by us would increase (decrease) the net proceeds to us from this offering by approximately $18.6 million, assuming that the assumed initial public offering price of $20.00 per ordinary share remains the same and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions. Expenses of this offering will be paid by us.
The principal purposes of this offering are to obtain additional working capital, facilitate an orderly distribution of shares for the selling shareholder, to create a public market for our ordinary shares and to facilitate our future access to the public equity markets. We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering for general corporate purposes, including sales and marketing, technology development, working capital, operating expenses and capital expenditures. We may also use a portion of the proceeds to acquire or invest in businesses, products, services or technologies; however, we do not have agreements or commitments for any material acquisitions or investments at this time.
We will have broad discretion in the way that we use the net proceeds of this offering. Our use of the net proceeds from this offering will depend on a number of factors, including our future revenue and cash generated by operations and the other factors described in “Risk factors.”
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Dividend policy
We do not anticipate paying any dividends in the foreseeable future. We currently intend to retain future earnings, if any, to finance operations and expand our business. Our board of directors has sole discretion whether to pay dividends. If our board of directors decides to pay dividends, the form, frequency and amount will depend upon our future operations and earnings, capital requirements and surplus, general financial condition, contractual restrictions, restrictions under our Credit Facility and other factors that our directors may deem relevant. The Companies Law imposes restrictions on our ability to declare and pay dividends. See “Description of share capital and articles of association—Dividend and liquidation rights” for additional information.
Payment of dividends may be subject to Israeli withholding taxes. See “Material income tax considerations—Israeli tax considerations” for additional information.
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Capitalization
The following table sets forth our cash and cash equivalents and total capitalization as of March 31, 2021, as follows:
on an actual basis;
on a pro forma basis, giving effect to (1) the adoption of our amended and restated articles of association to be effective upon closing of this offering, (2) the Preferred Shares Conversion, as if the Preferred Shares Conversion had occurred on March 31, 2021 and (3) the exercise by the selling shareholder of options to purchase 500,000 ordinary shares with an exercise price of $0.0003 per share, in connection with the sale of such shares by the selling shareholder in this offering; and
on a pro forma as adjusted basis, to give effect to the adjustments described above and reflecting the issuance and sale by us of ordinary shares in this offering at the assumed initial public offering price of $20.00 per ordinary share, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of ordinary shares by the selling shareholder.
You should read this information in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes appearing at the end of this prospectus and the “Management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations” section and other financial information contained in this prospectus.
 As of March 31, 2021
Actual
Pro Forma
Pro Forma
As Adjusted(1)
 (in thousands, except share and per share data)
Cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments$58,335 $58,335 $193,935 
Borrowings under credit facility30,000 30,000 30,000 
Convertible preferred shares, par value NIS 0.01: 51,877,220 shares authorized, actual; no shares authorized, pro forma and pro forma as adjusted; 50,657,042 shares issued and outstanding, actual; no shares issued and outstanding, pro forma and pro forma as adjusted135,810 — — 
Shareholders’ (deficit) equity:
Ordinary shares, par value NIS 0.01: 79,176,826 shares authorized, actual and pro forma; 500,000,000 shares authorized, pro forma as adjusted; 15,633,282 shares issued and 15,631,114 shares outstanding, actual; 66,790,324 shares issued and 66,788,156 shares outstanding, pro forma; 74,290,324 shares issued and 74,288,156 shares outstanding, pro forma as adjusted43 181 204 
Additional paid-in capital29,127 164,799 300,376 
Accumulated other comprehensive income(184)(184)(184)
Accumulated deficit(183,200)(183,200)(183,200)
Total shareholders’ (deficit) equity(154,214)(18,404)117,196 
Total capitalization and indebtedness$11,596 $11,596 $147,196 
(1)Pro forma as adjusted cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments do not give effect to $0.4 million of deferred offering costs that had been paid as of March 31, 2021.
A $1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed initial public offering price of $20.00 per ordinary share, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, would increase (decrease) the pro forma as adjusted amount of each of cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments, total shareholders’ (deficit) equity and total capitalization by approximately $7.0 million, assuming the number of ordinary shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page
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of this prospectus, remains the same and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. An increase (decrease) of 1,000,000 shares in the number of ordinary shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, would increase (decrease) the pro forma as adjusted amount of each of cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments, total shareholders’ (deficit) equity and total capitalization by approximately $18.6 million, assuming an initial public offering price of $20.00 per ordinary share, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions.
The number of ordinary shares that will be outstanding after this offering is based on 66,788,156 ordinary shares outstanding as of March 31, 2021 and excludes:
11,439,769 ordinary shares issuable upon the exercise of options and RSUs outstanding under our equity incentive plans as of March 31, 2021 at a weighted average exercise price of $2.22 per ordinary share;
1,495,783 shares of ordinary shares reserved for future issuance under our 2021 Plan, as well as any future increases, including annual automatic evergreen increases, in the number of shares of ordinary shares reserved for issuance thereunder, and any shares underlying share awards outstanding under our 2012 Plan, that expire or are repurchased, forfeited, canceled, or withheld, as more fully described in the section titled “Management—Equity incentive plans”; and
2,000,000 ordinary shares reserved for issuance under our 2021 ESPP plus any future increases in the number of ordinary shares reserved for issuance thereunder, as more fully described in the section titled “Management—Equity incentive plans.”
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Dilution
If you invest in our ordinary shares in this offering, your ownership interest will be immediately diluted to the extent of the difference between the initial public offering price per ordinary share and the net tangible book value per ordinary share after this offering. Our historical net tangible book value as of March 31, 2021 was $(10.05) per ordinary share. Our historical net tangible book value per ordinary share represents the amount of our total tangible assets less our total liabilities and preferred shares, divided by the number of ordinary shares outstanding as of March 31, 2021.
Our pro forma net tangible book value as of March 31, 2021 was $(21.3) million, or $(0.32) per ordinary share. Pro forma net tangible book value represents the amount of our total tangible assets less our total liabilities, after giving effect to (1) the automatic conversion of our outstanding preferred shares into an aggregate of 50,657,042 ordinary shares as if it had occurred on March 31, 2021 and (2) the exercise by the selling shareholder of options to purchase 500,000 ordinary shares with an exercise price of $0.0003 per share, in connection with the sale of such shares by the selling shareholder in this offering. Our pro forma net tangible book value per ordinary share represents pro forma net tangible book value divided by the number of our ordinary shares outstanding as of March 31, 2021, after giving effect to the pro forma adjustment described above.
After giving effect to (1) and (2) above and the sale by us of 7,500,000 ordinary shares in this offering and 500,000 ordinary shares by the selling shareholder at an assumed initial public offering price of $20.00 per ordinary share, the midpoint of the estimated price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, our pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value as of March 31, 2021 would have been $114.3 million, or $1.54 per ordinary share. This amount represents an immediate increase in pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value of $1.86 per ordinary share to our existing shareholders and an immediate dilution of $18.46 per ordinary share to investors purchasing ordinary shares in this offering. We determine dilution by subtracting the pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per ordinary share after this offering from the initial public offering price per ordinary share paid by investors purchasing ordinary shares in this offering. The following table illustrates this dilution on a per ordinary share basis:
The following table illustrates this dilution on a per share basis:
Assumed initial public offering price per ordinary share
$20.00 
Historical net tangible book value per ordinary share as of March 31, 2021$(10.05)
Increase in net tangible book value per ordinary share
attributable to the pro forma adjustments described above
9.73
Pro forma net tangible book value per ordinary share as of March 31, 2021 before giving effect to this offering(0.32)
Increase in pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per ordinary share attributable to investors purchasing ordinary shares in this offering
1.86
Pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per ordinary share after giving effect to this offering
1.54
Dilution in pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per ordinary share to investors purchasing ordinary shares in this offering
$18.46 
The dilution information discussed above is illustrative only and may change based on the actual initial public offering price and other terms of this offering. A $1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed initial public offering price of $20.00 per ordinary share, the midpoint of the estimated price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, would increase (decrease) our pro forma
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as adjusted net tangible book value per ordinary share after this offering by $0.09 per ordinary share and increase (decrease) the immediate dilution to new investors by $0.91 per ordinary share, in each case assuming the number of ordinary shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same, and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions. Similarly, each increase (decrease) of 1,000,000 shares in the number of ordinary shares offered by us would increase (decrease) our pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value by approximately $0.25 per ordinary share and decrease (increase) the dilution to new investors by approximately $0.25 per ordinary share, assuming the assumed initial public offering price of $20.00 per ordinary share remains the same, and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions.
If the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional ordinary shares in this offering, the pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value after the offering would be $1.79 per ordinary share, the increase in pro forma net tangible book value to existing shareholders would be $2.11 per ordinary share, and the dilution to investors purchasing ordinary shares in this offering would be $18.21 per ordinary share, in each case assuming an initial public offering price of $20.00 per ordinary share, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus.
The following table summarizes, on a pro forma as adjusted basis as of March 31, 2021 after giving effect to (1) the Preferred Shares Conversion and (2) the sale by us of ordinary shares in this offering, the differences between the number of shares purchased from us, the total consideration paid to us in cash and the average price per ordinary share that existing shareholders paid, on the one hand, and investors purchasing ordinary shares in this offering are paying in this offering, on the other hand. The calculation below is based on an assumed initial public offering price of $20.00 per ordinary share, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, before deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.
Shares PurchasedTotal ConsiderationAverage Price Per Share
NumberPercentAmountPercent
Existing shareholders (1)
66,788,156 89.9 %$139,953,000 48.3 %$2.10 
Investors purchasing ordinary shares in this offering7,500,000 10.1 %$150,000,000 51.7 %$20.00 
Total74,288,156 100.0 %$289,953,000 100.0 %
(1)The presentation in this table regarding ownership by existing shareholders does not give effect to any purchases that existing shareholders may make through our directed share program or otherwise in this offering.
Each $1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed initial public offering price of $20.00 per ordinary share, the midpoint of the estimated price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, would increase (decrease) the total consideration paid by investors purchasing ordinary shares in this offering and total consideration paid by all shareholders by approximately $7.0 million, assuming that the number of ordinary shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions. Similarly, each increase (decrease) of 1,000,000 shares in the number of ordinary shares offered by us would increase (decrease) the total consideration paid by investors purchasing ordinary shares in this offering and total consideration paid by all shareholders by $18.6 million, assuming the assumed initial public offering price of $20.00 per ordinary share remains the same, and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions.
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The number of ordinary shares that will be outstanding after this offering is based on 66,788,156 ordinary shares outstanding as of March 31, 2021 and excludes:
11,439,769 ordinary shares issuable upon the exercise of options and RSUs outstanding under our equity incentive plans as of March 31, 2021 at a weighted average exercise price of $2.22 per ordinary share;
1,495,783 shares of ordinary shares reserved for future issuance under our 2021 Plan, as well as any future increases, including annual automatic evergreen increases, in the number of shares of ordinary shares reserved for issuance thereunder, and any shares underlying share awards outstanding under our 2012 Plan, that expire or are repurchased, forfeited, canceled, or withheld, as more fully described in the section titled “Management—Equity incentive plans”; and
2,000,000 ordinary shares reserved for issuance under our ESPP, plus any future increases in the number of ordinary shares reserved for issuance thereunder, as more fully described in the section titled “Management—Equity incentive plans.”
To the extent that any outstanding options or RSUs are exercised or settled, respectively, or new options or RSUs are issued under our share-based compensation plans, or that we issue additional shares in the future, there will be further dilution to investors participating in this offering. If all outstanding options and RSUs under our equity plans as of March 31, 2021 were exercised or settled, respectively, then our existing shareholders, including the holders of these options and RSUs, would own 90.7%, and our investors purchasing ordinary shares in this offering would own 9.3%, of the total number of shares outstanding following the closing of this offering.
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Management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations
You should read the following discussion together with the sections entitled “Summary consolidated financial data” and the consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus. The statements in this discussion regarding industry outlook, our expectations regarding our future performance, planned investments in our expansion into additional geographies, research and development, sales and marketing and general and administrative functions as well as other non-historical statements in this discussion are forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements are subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, including, but not limited to, the risks and uncertainties described in the sections entitled “Risk factors” and “Special note regarding forward-looking statements” included elsewhere in this prospectus. Our actual results may differ materially from those contained in or implied by any forward-looking statements.
Overview
Similarweb provides a leading platform for digital intelligence, delivering a trusted, comprehensive and detailed view of the digital world that empowers our customers to be competitive in their markets. Our proprietary technology analyzes billions of digital interactions and transactions every day from millions of websites and apps and turns these digital signals into actionable insights. With our platform, everyone from business leaders, strategy teams, analysts, marketers, category managers, salespeople and investors can quickly and efficiently discover the best business opportunities, identify potential competitive threats, and make critical decisions to capture market share and grow revenues.
Digital is an important growth driver for businesses today. It is quickly becoming the preferred means to find information, communicate, transact, and deliver services. At the same time, digital has lowered the barriers to entry, accelerated the pace of business and increased competition in every market.
In this dynamic environment, businesses now have access to unprecedented amounts of digital data. However, the data generally available to them only relates to the performance of digital properties such as web sites, apps and social media channels, that they own. Businesses have almost no visibility into the broader behaviors of consumers, or the digital performance of competitors, partners, and other players. As a result, companies operate with a lack of external visibility, impairing their ability to execute on everything from corporate strategy to day-to-day operations. Digital intelligence cuts through this lack of visibility and gives organizations the means to understand and gain insight from all relevant digital activity, creating significant competitive advantages.
Digital intelligence has become critical for business, but is complex and technically challenging. Online behavior consists of interactions and transactions across many different platforms and channels and happens on a global basis. These digital interactions and transactions generate massive quantities of data, and because of the high velocity of the digital economy, this information quickly becomes out-of-date. As a result of the diversity and scale of data, as well as the need to keep the data current, it is extremely difficult to build and maintain a comprehensive view of all digital activity.
Our digital intelligence solutions collect billions of digital signals in the form of interactions and transactions and transform them into powerful actionable insights. Our platform enables businesses to understand market trends, optimize traffic acquisition, understand the customer-buying journey, grow pipeline, and make better investment decisions. Our platform provides critical insights on digital behavior that allows businesses to analyze competition, recognize and defend against
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emerging threats, and monitor competitive strategy and tactics. To win in the digital world, including to defend existing market share and proactively drive future growth, it has become a business imperative to embrace digital intelligence throughout the organization, from senior executives to individual contributors.
Since our founding, we have consistently focused on innovating our platform, allowing us to achieve significant product and financial milestones.
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We generate revenue primarily from SaaS subscriptions, which is comprised of subscription fees from customers utilizing our cloud-based digital intelligence solutions and other subscription-based solutions, such as application programming interface, or API, access, all of which include routine customer support.
Paid subscriptions to our platform are available in five categories of solutions:
Digital Research Intelligence. Provides web traffic research insights, which help companies research markets, companies, and audiences, as well as benchmark their performance against other companies.
Digital Marketing Intelligence. Provides competitive analysis, keyword optimization, affiliate optimization and advertising and media optimization.
Shopper Intelligence. Provides insights to analyze and optimize the purchase funnel and acquisition strategy, monitor consumer demand and leverage on-site search volume and conversion.
Sales Intelligence. Provides insights to drive sales acceleration through lead generation, lead enrichment, sales engagement and fraud detection.
Investor Intelligence. Provides data-driven investing insights for hedge funds, asset managers, banks, venture capital and private equity firms.
We sell subscriptions to these solutions with pricing tiers based on feature set, geographic coverage and the number of users who have access to them. Our subscription agreements typically last for a
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minimum term of one year and are renewable thereafter. Certain customers contract for subscription agreements with multi-year terms. We typically invoice customers in advance for annual increments.
We deploy a highly efficient approach to sales and marketing in order to grow our business. Our sales and marketing teams collaborate to create brand awareness and demand, build a robust sales pipeline and ensure customer success, driving revenue growth. We believe that our sales and marketing model provides us with a competitive advantage because we attract and engage new businesses efficiently and at scale, and we have established a successful upsell motion to grow existing customer accounts.
Our efficient sales organization includes a global sales force, technical, and data experts, and support staff, operating through both an inbound and outbound sales motion. The inbound sales motion accounts for approximately three quarters of our new sales opportunities, where prospective customers display initial interest in our platform by visiting or contacting us through our website. These cost-effective leads are efficiently converted to pipeline opportunities for our sales teams to pursue. We complement this inbound motion with an outbound motion focused on developing sales opportunities with larger targeted accounts, where our sales representatives engage organizations based on a geographic coverage model. In general, large enterprises are covered by our field sales team, and smaller organizations by our inside sales team. We have a team of account managers focused on expanding and retaining our existing customer relationships by helping our customers optimize the value they derive through their usage of our platform and solutions. We continually engage with our customers through support services and proactive account management team check-ins, and often upsell customers to new solutions as they see the value in the platform and want to add additional feature functionality, geographic coverage, users and digital intelligence solutions.
To drive sales, we leverage free offerings that attract and engage prospects’ interest and feature our platform capabilities. Through our website, and through a popular browser extension which we own, we provide free access to a wide range of basic services that provide users with a subset of our robust insights and analytics as well as the opportunity to explore the value they could achieve from our paid offerings. Our free offerings deliver rankings and ratings of websites and apps as of a recent date and act as an entry point for many users who often upgrade to paid subscriptions. In 2020, we attracted nearly 20 million users with these free offerings, resulting in hundreds of thousands of sales leads. While functional and relevant to a broad swath of businesses, our free offerings offer significantly less functionality than our paid solutions, which address specific use cases with robust insights and time series data, with granular details around web traffic, behavior and user journey that can drive business decisions and success. We believe this tiered approach creates champions within organizations who see the value of our solutions, build trust in and connection with our brand, and spread the word organically.
We sell to companies across a wide range of industries such as technology, financial services, retail, household products, apparel and institutional investors. For each of the three months ended March 31, 2021 and the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2020, no single customer generated more than 5% of our revenue. As of March 31, 2021 we had 2,874 customers, including 9 of the top 10 technology organizations, 7 of the top 10 financial services organizations, 5 of the top 10 retail organizations, 7 of the top 10 household products organizations and 5 of the 7 apparel organizations in the Fortune 500. Once a customer starts to realize the value of our platform by deploying one of our solutions in their business, they often significantly increase their usage of our platform.
Our business has grown rapidly and is capital efficient. For the year ended December 31, 2020, we grew our revenue by 32% compared to the year ended December 31, 2019 while consuming less than $5.0 million of free cash flow. For the three months ended March 31, 2021, we grew our revenue by 43% compared to the three months ended March 31, 2020, while generating $1.9
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million of free cash flow. Since inception, we have raised $136.6 million of primary capital and we had $55.4 million and $60.3 million of cash, cash equivalents, short-term investments and restricted deposits as of December 31, 2020 and March 31, 2021, respectively. We generated revenue of $70.6 million and $93.5 million in the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2020, respectively, and $20.6 million and $29.4 million for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2021, respectively. We had negative operating cash flow of $9.7 million and $3.8 million and had negative free cash flow of $11.5 million and $4.9 million in years ended December 31, 2019 and 2020, respectively. We generated positive operating cash flow of $0.5 million and $2.3 million, and had positive free cash flow of $0.3 million and $1.9 million in the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2021, respectively. See the section titled “—Non-GAAP financial measures—Free cash flow” for additional information regarding free cash flow, a measure that is not calculated under GAAP. For the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2020 and the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2021, our net loss was $17.7 million, $22.0 million, $6.2 million and $12.1 million, respectively.
COVID-19
In December 2019, an outbreak of the COVID-19 disease was first identified and began to spread across the globe. In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared the COVID-19 outbreak a global pandemic, impacting many countries around the world, including where our end users and customers are located and where we have larger business operations, including the United States, Israel, the United Kingdom and France. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, government authorities around the world have ordered schools and businesses to close, imposed restrictions on non-essential activities and encouraged people to remain at home while instilling significant limitations on traveling and social gatherings.
In response to the pandemic, in the first quarter of 2020, we temporarily closed all of our offices, enabled our entire work force to work remotely and implemented travel restrictions for non-essential business. In the second quarter of 2020 we reopened select offices, however most of our employees continue to work remotely. The temporary closing of our offices resulted in a decrease of our office-related expenses of $0.3 million in second quarter of 2020. These expenses returned to historical pre-pandemic levels, reflecting a smaller decrease of $0.1 million in each of the third and fourth quarters of 2020. The suspension of non-essential business travel resulted in a decrease of $0.4 million in operating expenses in each of the second, third and fourth quarters of 2020.
The changes we have implemented to date to enable remote working have not materially affected, and are not expected to materially affect, our ability to operate our business. As a result of the global travel restrictions and stay-at-home or similar orders in effect due to the COVID-19 pandemic, our sales and marketing, research and development, and general and administrative expenses declined as a percentage of revenue in the second quarter of 2020. These percentages returned to historical levels beginning in the third quarter of 2020 as demand for our solutions accelerated in the second half of the year.
Prior to the pandemic, the market demand for our solutions was growing at a robust rate, with numerous opportunities for long-term growth. While at the end of the first quarter of 2020, we experienced delays in closing of new business as global shelter in place orders were enacted, the pace of our business growth resumed during the second quarter of 2020.
For additional information, see “Risk Factors—Risks relating to our business and industry—The recent global coronavirus outbreak could harm our business and results of operations.”
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Key factors affecting our performance
Acquire new customers
We believe there is substantial opportunity to continue to grow our customer base. We had 2,874 customers as of March 31, 2021, increasing from 2,438 and 2,718 as of December 31, 2019 and 2020, respectively. We plan to increase our investment in sales and marketing in order to drive new customer acquisition. Approximately 60% of our sales and marketing expense has been focused on new customer acquisition and 40% has been focused on customer expansion and retention. We intend to grow our base of both inside and field sales representatives and open additional sales offices, which we believe will drive both geographic and vertical expansion. We believe there is a significant opportunity to expand usage of our platform in the geographies in which we operate. We have made and plan to continue to make significant investments to expand our global operations across North America, EMEA and APAC, including in the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Japan and Australia. In addition, we expect to develop a sales presence in Germany in 2021. We are also investing in self-serve offerings and distribution channels.  Our ability to attract new customers will depend on a number of factors, including the effectiveness and pricing of our solutions, offerings of our competitors, and the effectiveness of our marketing efforts.
We define a customer as a separate legal entity that has an active annual or multi-year subscription with us in the period indicated. A single organization with multiple divisions, segments or subsidiaries is generally counted as a single customer. Users of our free offerings are not included in our customer count.
Expansion from existing customers
Our large base of customers represents a significant opportunity for further sales expansion. Once a customer has purchased a subscription from us, we have historically experienced significant expansion with them over time as they add additional features, geographic coverage, users and digital intelligence solutions. We look at increase in spend from our customers as an indication of the value we provide them over time. As an example, the annual recurring revenue, or ARR, from our top 50 customers as of December 31, 2020 had increased by an average multiple of 12x, as compared to the ARR generated at the time of each such customer’s initial purchase. In addition, as of March 31, 2021, 201 of our customers generated ARR of $100,000 or more, up from 121 and 187 customers as of December 31, 2019 and 2020, respectively, most of whom began initially as smaller customers. The chart below illustrates the percentage of ARR by customer segments broken out by customers who generated ARR of $100,000 or more, between $25,000 and $100,000 and those who generated under $25,000 in ARR. As of March 31, 2021, customers who generate more than $100,000 in ARR represented 49% of our total ARR, as compared to 35% of our total ARR as of March 31, 2017. We define ARR as the annualized subscription revenue we would contractually expect to receive from customers assuming no increases or reductions in their subscriptions.
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A further indication of the propensity of our customer relationships to expand over time is our net dollar-based retention rate, or NRR, which compares our ARR from the same set of customers as of a certain point in time, relative to the same point in time in the previous year ago period. The aggregate NRR for all of our customers has been 99%, 101%, 103%, 103%, 103%, 102%, 101% ,101% and 103% for the quarters ended March 31, 2019, June 30, 2019, September 30, 2019, December 31, 2019, March 31, 2020, June 30, 2020, September 30, 2020 , December 31, 2020 and March 31, 2021, and for customers generating over $100,000 in ARR, our aggregate NRR has been 109%, 113%, 116%, 117%, 115%, 114%, 114%,113%, and 115% over the same time periods. We calculate our NRR as of a period end by starting with the ARR from the cohort of all customers as of 12 months prior to such period-end, or the Prior Period ARR. We then calculate the ARR from these same customers as of the current period-end, or the Current Period ARR. Current Period ARR includes any expansion and is net of contraction or attrition over the last 12 months, but excludes ARR from new customers in the current period. We then divide the Current Period ARR by the Prior Period ARR to arrive at the point-in-time NRR. We then calculate the average of the trailing four quarter point-in-time NRR to arrive at the NRR.
We intend to grow our base of account managers to continue to drive adoption and expansion of additional use cases within our customer base. Our ability to increase sales to existing customers will depend on a number of factors, including our customers’ satisfaction with our solutions, competition, pricing and overall changes in our customers’ spending levels.
Continued innovation and technology leadership
Our success is dependent on our ability to sustain innovation and technology leadership in order to maintain our competitive advantage. We believe that we have built highly differentiated solutions on a platform that will position us to further expand adoption. We intend to continue to invest in expanding our product and engineering staff to innovate and develop additional solutions that increase our capabilities and facilitate the extension of our platform to new use cases. Our future success is dependent on our ability to successfully develop, market and sell existing and new solutions to both new and existing customers.
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Continued investment in growth
We believe that we have a significant market opportunity ahead of us. We intend to continue to investment to support the organic growth and expansion of our business, to increase revenue and to further scale our operations. We plan to open additional international offices, hire sales and marketing employees in additional countries, and expand our presence in countries where we already operate. We expect to incur additional expenses as we expand to support this growth. Our research and development spend will continue to increase as we hire more research and development employees and continue to invest in innovation. Further, we expect to incur additional general and administrative expenses in connection with our transition to a public company. We expect that our cost of revenue and operating expenses will fluctuate over time. We also intend to continue to evaluate strategic acquisitions and investments in businesses and technologies to drive solution and market expansion.
Components of our results of operations
Revenue
We generate revenue primarily from SaaS subscriptions, which is comprised of subscription fees from customers utilizing our cloud-based digital intelligence solutions and other subscription-based solutions, such as API, all of which include routine customer support. Our subscription contracts typically have a term of 12 months and are generally non-cancellable. Customers enter into subscription contracts to gain access to one or more of our five solutions. Subscription revenue is recognized on a ratable basis over the contractual term of the subscription beginning on the date that our services are made available to the customer assuming that all other revenue recognition criteria have been met. Payments received in advance of services being rendered are recorded as deferred revenue in our consolidated balance sheets.
Cost of revenue
Cost of revenue primarily consists of costs related to supporting our cloud-based platform and solutions. These costs include personnel related costs, such as salaries, bonuses and benefits, and share-based compensation, which we collectively refer to as personnel related costs, for employees principally responsible for data acquisition, production engineering, advisory and technical customer support. In addition to these expenses, we incur third-party service provider costs such as payments to our third-party cloud infrastructure provider for hosting our platform, third-party data providers and amortization of internal use software. We allocate overhead costs such as rent, utilities, depreciation and supplies to all departments based on relative headcount. As such, general overhead expenses are reflected in the cost of revenue in addition to each operating expense category. In recent years, we have experienced significant cost of revenue leverage of our data acquisition costs, which has enabled gross margin expansion. We will continue to invest additional resources in our cloud infrastructure and our data acquisition and customer support organizations to expand the capabilities of our solutions. The level and timing of investment in these areas could affect our cost of revenue in the future.
Gross profit and gross margin
Gross profit is revenue less cost of revenue, and gross margin is gross profit as a percentage of revenue. Gross profit has been and will continue to be affected by a variety of factors, including the average sales price of our solutions, volume growth and our ability to leverage our investment in data costs to more customers.
Operating expenses
Our operating expenses consist of research and development, sales and marketing and general and administrative expenses. Personnel-related costs are the most significant component of operating
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expenses and consist of salaries, benefits, bonuses, share-based compensation and sales commissions. Operating expenses also include allocated overhead costs.
Research and development
Our research and development expenses consist primarily of personnel related costs for our engineering, data science, product and design teams. Additional expenses include consulting and professional fees for third-party development resources and third-party licenses for software development tools. We expect our research and development expenses to increase in absolute dollars for the foreseeable future as we continue to dedicate substantial resources to develop, improve and expand our solutions. We also anticipate that research and development expenses will increase as a percentage of revenue in the near-term and then stay consistent or modestly decrease thereafter, as we expect to realize operating leverage in our business.
Sales and marketing
Our sales and marketing expenses consist primarily of personnel related costs for our marketing, sales, account management. Additional expenses include marketing program costs. We expect our sales and marketing expenses will increase on an absolute dollar basis for the foreseeable future as we continue to increase investments to support our growth such as our expanded branding efforts and increase in our inside and field sales and account management teams. We also anticipate that sales and marketing expenses will increase as a percentage of revenue in the near and medium-term.
General and administrative
Our general and administrative expense consists primarily of personnel related costs for our executive, finance, human resources, information technology and legal functions. We expect general and administrative expense to increase on an absolute dollar basis for the foreseeable future as we continue to increase investments to support our growth and as a result of our becoming a public company. We expect general and administrative expenses as a percentage of revenue to increase in the near-term and then stay consistent or modestly decrease thereafter, as we expect to realize operating leverage in our business.
Finance income (expense)
Finance income (expense) consists of interest expense accrued on our indebtedness, net of interest income earned on our cash balances. Finance income (expense) also includes gains and losses incurred from non-designated hedge transactions as well as the impact of currency exchange rate fluctuations resulting from our global operations. We expect finance income (expense) to vary each reporting period depending on the amount of outstanding indebtedness, non-designated hedging transactions, currency exchange rate fluctuations and prevailing interest rates.
We expect interest income will vary in each reporting period depending on our average cash balances during the period and applicable interest rates.
Provision for income taxes
We are subject to taxes in Israel, the United States as well as other tax jurisdictions or countries in which we conduct business. Earnings from our non-U.S. activities are subject to local country income tax. We recognize deferred tax assets and liabilities to reflect the net tax effects of temporary differences between the carrying amounts of our assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and the amounts used for income tax reporting purposes in each jurisdiction. We consider all available evidence, both positive and negative, in assessing the extent to which a valuation allowance should be applied against our net deferred tax assets. Realization of our net deferred tax assets depends upon future earnings, the timing and amount of which are uncertain and, as a result, and due to our history of cumulative losses, we maintain a full valuation allowance on our
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net deferred tax assets in Israel and certain other jurisdictions. Our effective tax rate is affected by tax rates in Israel, the United States and foreign jurisdictions and the relative amounts of income we earn in those jurisdictions, as well as non-deductible expenses, such as share-based compensation, and changes in our valuation allowance.
Results of operations
The following tables summarize key components of our results of operations data and such data as a percentage of total revenue for the periods presented. The period-to-period comparisons of our historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected in the future.
Comparison of the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2021
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20202021
(in thousands)
Revenue$20,601 $29,413 
Cost of revenue5,154 6,273 
Gross profit15,447 23,140 
Operating expenses:
Research and development(1)
4,887 8,984 
Sales and marketing(1)
12,887 19,600 
General and administrative(1)
3,448 6,107 
Total operating expenses21,222 34,691 
Loss from operations(5,775)(11,551)
Finance income (expense), net(368)(347)
Loss before income taxes(6,143)(11,898)
Provision for income taxes67 216 
Net loss$(6,210)$(12,114)
(1)Includes share-based compensation expense as follows:
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20202021
(in thousands)
Cost of revenue$$30 
Research and development1031,365 
Sales and marketing111626
General and administrative261861
Total share-based compensation expense$483 $2,882 
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The following table sets forth our consolidated statements of operations data expressed as a percentage of revenue for the period indicated:
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20202021
(as a percentage of revenue)
Revenue100.0 %100.0 %
Cost of revenue25.0 21.3 
Gross profit75.0 78.7 
Operating expenses:
Research and development23.7 30.5 
Sales and marketing62.6 66.6 
General and administrative16.7 20.8 
Total operating expenses.103.0 117.9 
Loss from operations(28.0)(39.3)
Finance income (expense), net(1.8)(1.2)
Loss before income taxes(29.8)(40.5)
Provision for income taxes0.3 0.7 
Net loss(30.1)%(41.2)%
Revenue
Three Months Ended
March 31,
Period-over-Period
Change
20202021$ Change% Change
(in thousands)
Revenue$20,601 $29,413 $8,812 42.8 %
Total revenue increased by $8.8 million, or 42.8%, for the three months ended March 31, 2021 compared to the three months ended March 31, 2020, primarily due to an increase in our subscription revenue. $4.0 million of that increase was generated from customers in the United States, which increased by 44.2% from $8.9 million in the three months ended March 31, 2020 to $12.9 million in the three months ended March 31, 2021, and an additional $3.3 million of the increase in total revenue was generated from customers in Europe and the United Kingdom, which increased 53.2% from $6.3 million in the three months ended March 31, 2020 to $9.6 million in the three months ended March 31, 2021. We increased the number of paying customers by 19.1% to 2,874 as of March 31, 2021 from 2,413 as of March 31, 2020. The number of customers in the United States increased from 752 as of March 31, 2020 to 836 as of March 31, 2021. The number of customers in Europe and the United Kingdom increased from 835 as of March 31, 2020 to 915 as of March 31, 2021.
Costs of revenue
Three Months Ended
March 31,
Period-over-Period
Change
20202021$ Change% Change
(in thousands)
Cost of revenue.$5,154 $6,273 $1,119 21.7 %
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Total cost of revenue increased by $1.1 million, or 21.7%, for the three months ended March 31, 2021 compared to the three months ended March 31, 2020. Our cost of revenue increased primarily due to an increase of $0.5 million in compensation related to an increase in employee headcount and an increase of $0.4 million in costs related to our third-party hosting services.
Operating expenses
Research and development
Three Months Ended
March 31,
Period-over-Period
Change
20202021$ Change% Change
(in thousands)
Research and development$4,887 $8,984 $4,097 83.8 %
Research and development expenses increased by $4.1 million, or 83.8%, to $9.0 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021, from $4.9 million in the three months ended March 31, 2020. The increase was primarily due to an increase of $2.4 million in compensation related to an increase in employee headcount and an increase of $1.3 million in share-based compensation.
Sales and marketing
Three Months Ended
March 31,
Period-over-Period
Change
20202021$ Change% Change
(in thousands)
Sales and Marketing$12,887 $19,600 $6,713 52.1 %
Sales and marketing expenses increased by $6.7 million, or 52.1%, to $19.6 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021, from $12.9 million in the three months ended March 31, 2020. The increase was primarily due to an increase of $4.6 million in compensation related to an increase in employee headcount, an increase of $0.9 million in commission expense, an increase of $0.6 million in marketing related costs and an increase of $0.5 million in share-based compensation. The increase was partially offset by a decrease of $0.3 million in travel and entertainment expenses, including due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.
General and administrative
Three Months Ended
March 31,
Period-over-Period
Change
20202021$ Change% Change
(in thousands)
General and Administrative$3,448 $6,107 $2,659 77.1 %
General and administrative expenses increased by $2.7 million, or 77.1%, to $6.1 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021, from $3.5 million for the three months ended March 31, 2020. The increase was primarily due to an increase of $1.4 million in compensation related to an increase in employee headcount, an increase of $0.6 million in share-based compensation and an increase of $0.7 million in professional fees and insurance mainly related to various legal, accounting and auditing fees. The increase was partially offset by a decrease of $0.2 million in travel and entertainment expense, including due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.
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Finance income (expense), net
Three Months Ended
March 31,
Period-over-Period
Change
20202021$ Change% Change
(in thousands)
Finance income (expense), net$(368)$(347)$(21)(5.7)%
Finance income (expense), net stayed relatively flat over the periods presented.
Provision for income taxes
Three Months Ended
March 31,
Period-over-Period
Change
20202021$ Change% Change
(in thousands)
Provision for income taxes$67 $216 $149 222 %
Provision for income taxes increased by $0.1 million, to $0.2 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021, from $0.1 million for the three months ended March 31, 2020, representing an effective tax rate of (1)% and (2)% for the three months period ended March 31, 2020 and 2021, respectively.
The following tables summarize key components of our results of operations data and such data as a percentage of total revenue for the periods presented. The period-to-period comparisons of our historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected in the future.
Comparison of the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2020
Year Ended 
December 31,
20192020
(in thousands)
Revenue$70,590 $93,486 
Cost of revenue20,512 21,417 
Gross profit50,078 72,069 
Operating expenses:
Research and development(1)
16,212 22,086 
Sales and marketing(1)
38,934 53,690 
General and administrative(1)
11,044 15,967 
Total operating expenses66,190 91,743 
Loss from operations(16,112)(19,674)
Finance income (expense), net(1,137)(1,682)
Loss before income taxes(17,249)(21,356)
Provision for income taxes458 640 
Net loss$(17,707)$(21,996)
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(1)Includes share-based compensation expense as follows:
Year Ended 
December 31,
20192020
(in thousands)
Cost of revenue$38 $40 
Research and development
452 1,107 
Sales and marketing
427 821 
General and administrative
1,087 2,832 
Total share-based compensation expense$2,004 $4,800 
The following table sets forth our consolidated statements of operations data expressed as a percentage of revenue for the period indicated:
Year Ended 
December 31,
20192020
(as a percentage of revenue)
Revenue100.0%100.0%
Cost of revenue29.1 22.9 
Gross profit70.9 77.1 
Operating expenses:
Research and development
23.0 23.6 
Sales and marketing
55.2 57.4 
General and administrative
15.6 17.1 
Total operating expenses93.8 98.1 
Loss from operations(22.9)(21.0)
Finance income (expense), net(1.6)(1.8)
Loss before income taxes(24.5)(22.8)
Provision for income taxes0.6 0.7 
Net loss(25.1)%(23.5)%
Revenue
Year Ended 
December 31,
Period-over-Period
Change
20192020$ Change% Change
(in thousands)
Revenue$70,590 $93,486 $22,896 32.4%
Total revenue increased by $22.9 million, or 32%, for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to the year ended December 31, 2019, primarily due to an increase in our subscription revenue. $11.6 million of that increase was generated from customers in the United States, which increased by 39% from $29.8 million in 2019 to $41.4 million in 2020, and an additional $7.2 million of the increase in total revenue was generated from customers in Europe and the United Kingdom, which increased 33% from $21.6 million in 2019 to $28.8 million in 2020. We increased the number of paying customers by 11% to 2,718 as of December 31, 2020 from 2,438 as of December 31, 2019. The number of customers in the United States increased from 762 as of December 31, 2019 to 842 as of December 31, 2020. The number of customers in Europe and the United Kingdom increased from 859 as of December 31, 2019 to 940 as of December 31, 2020.
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Costs of revenue
Year Ended 
December 31,
Period-over-Period
Change
20192020$ Change% Change
(in thousands)
Cost of revenue$20,512 $21,417 $905 4.4%
Total cost of revenue increased by $0.9 million, or 4%, for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to the year ended December 31, 2019. Our cost of revenue increased primarily due to an increase of $0.8 million in compensation related to an increase in employee headcount.
Operating expenses
Research and development
Year Ended 
December 31,
Period-over-Period
Change
20192020$ Change% Change
(in thousands)
Research and development$16,212 $22,086 $5,874 36.2%
Research and development expenses increased by $5.9 million, or 36%, to $22.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, from $16.2 million in the year ended December 31, 2019. The increase was primarily due to an increase of $3.7 million in compensation related to an increase in employee headcount, an increase of $0.7 million in share-based compensation and a decrease of $1.1 million in capitalized internal-use software costs, which resulted in higher recognized expenses.
Sales and marketing
Year Ended 
December 31,
Period-over-Period
Change
20192020$ Change% Change
(in thousands)
Sales and marketing$38,934 $53,690 $14,756 37.9%
Sales and marketing expenses increased by $14.8 million, or 38%, to $53.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, from $38.9 million in the year ended December 31, 2019. The increase was primarily due to an increase of $10.2 million in compensation related to an increased headcount, an increase of $2.8 million in commission expense and an increase of $0.4 million in share-based compensation. The increase was partially offset by a decrease of $1.2 million in travel and entertainment expense, including due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.
General and administrative
Year Ended 
December 31,
Period-over-Period
Change
20192020$ Change% Change
(in thousands)
General and administrative
$11,044 $15,967 $4,923 44.6%
General and administrative expenses increased by $4.9 million, or 45%, to $16.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, from $11.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. The increase was primarily due to an increase of $2.0 million in compensation related to an increase in
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headcount, an increase of $1.7 million in share-based compensation, an increase of $0.7 million in professional fees and insurance mainly related to various legal, accounting and auditing fees and an increase of $0.4 million in expenses related to information systems. The increase was partially offset by a decrease of $0.3 million in travel and entertainment expense, including due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.
Finance income (expense), net
Year Ended 
December 31,
Period-over-Period
Change
20192020$ Change% Change
(in thousands)
Finance income (expense), net
$(1,137)$(1,682)$545 47.9%
Finance income (expense), net increased by $0.5 million, or 48%, to $1.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, from $1.1 million in 2019. The increase was primarily due to an increase of $0.3 million of interest expense on our borrowings, which increased from $16.8 million as of December 31, 2019 to $26.8 million as of December 31, 2020 and a decrease of $0.4 million in gains from non-designated hedge transactions. The increase was partially offset by a decrease of $0.2 million in loan fees.
Provision for income taxes
Year Ended 
December 31,
Period-over-Period
Change
20192020$ Change% Change
(in thousands)
Provision for income taxes
$458 $640 $182 39.7%
Provision for income taxes increased by $0.2 million, to $0.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, from $0.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, representing an effective tax rate of (3)% for each of the years.
Quarterly results of operations
The following tables summarize our selected unaudited quarterly consolidated statements of operations data for each of the nine quarters in the period ended March 31, 2021. The information for each of these quarters has been prepared on the same basis as our audited annual consolidated financial statements and reflect, in the opinion of management, all adjustments of a normal, recurring nature that are necessary for the fair statement of the results of operations for these periods. This data should be read in conjunction with our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. Historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the full year or any other period.
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Three Months Ended
March 31,
2019
June 30,
2019
September 30,
2019
December 31,
2019
March 31,
2020
June 30,
2020
September 30,
2020
December 31,
2020
March 31,
2021
(in thousands)
Revenue$15,711 $17,165 $18,465 $19,249 $20,601 $21,890 $24,358 $26,637 $29,413 
Cost of revenue(1)
4,283 4,818 5,522 5,889 5,154 5,262 5,377 5,624 6,273 
Gross profit11,428 12,347 12,943 13,360 15,447 16,628 18,981 21,013 23,140 
Operating Expenses:
Research and development(1)
4,069 3,922 4,093 4,128 4,887 4,830 5,949 6,420 8,984 
Sales and marketing(1)
9,273 9,122 9,639 10,900 12,887 11,905 13,173 15,725 19,600 
General and administrative(1)
2,558 2,676 2,900 2,910 3,448 2,955 4,652 4,912 6,107 
Total operating expenses15,900 15,720 16,632 17,938 21,222 19,690 23,774 27,057 34,691 
Loss from operations(4,472)(3,373)(3,689)(4,578)(5,775)(3,062)(4,793)(6,044)(11,551)
Finance income (expense), net(29)(367)(351)(390)(368)(323)(275)(716)(347)
Loss before income taxes(4,501)(3,740)(4,040)(4,968)(6,143)(3,385)(5,068)(6,760)(11,898)
Provision for income taxes55 51 77 275 67 90 85 398 216 
Net loss$(4,556)$(3,791)$(4,117)$(5,243)$(6,210)$(3,475)$(5,153)$(7,158)$(12,114)
(1)Includes share-based compensation expense as follows:
March 31,
2019
June 30,
2019
September
30,
2019
December
31,
2019
March 31,
2020
June 30,
2020
September
30,
2020
December
31,
2020
March 31,
2021
(in thousands)
Share based compensation costs included above:
Cost of revenues$12 $13 $13 $— $$$$15 $30 
Research and development102 119 139 92 103 103 632 269 1,365 
Sales and marketing106 110 106 105