497 1 leadersharesdynamic497.htm 497

 

 

 

LeaderShares® Dynamic Yield ETF

 

DYLD

 

 

a series of Two Roads Shared Trust

 

 

PROSPECTUS

June 22, 2021

 

 

www.leadersharesetfs.com

1 (480) 757-4277

 

This Prospectus provides important information about LeaderShares® Dynamic Yield ETF (the “Fund”) that you should know before investing. Please read it carefully and keep it for future reference.

 

These securities have not been approved or disapproved by the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) nor has the SEC passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of this Prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

Shares of the Fund are listed and traded on the New York Stock Exchange (the “NYSE”).

 

 
 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

 

FUND SUMMARY 1
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT INVESTMENT OBJECTIVES, PRINCIPAL INVESTMENT STRATEGIES AND RELATED RISKS 9
Principal And Other Risk Factors 10
Portfolio Holdings Disclosure 21
Cybersecurity 21
MANAGEMENT 22
Investment Adviser 22
Portfolio Managers 22
DETERMINATION OF NET ASSET VALUE 23
HOW TO BUY AND SELL SHARES 24
FREQUENT PURCHASES AND REDEMPTIONS OF FUND SHARES 24
DISTRIBUTION AND SERVICE PLAN 25
DIVIDENDS, OTHER DISTRIBUTIONS AND TAXES 25
FUND SERVICE PROVIDERS 26
OTHER INFORMATION 27
FINANCIAL HIGHLIGHTS 27
PRIVACY NOTICE 28
 
 

FUND SUMMARY – LeaderShares® Dynamic Yield ETF

 

Investment Objective: The Fund seeks current income.

 

Fees and Expenses of the Fund: This table describes the fees and expenses that you may pay if you buy, hold and sell shares of the Fund. You may pay other fees, such as brokerage commissions and other fees to financial intermediaries, which are not reflected in the table and Example below.

 

Annual Fund Operating Expenses

(expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)

 
Management Fee(1) 0.75%
Distribution (12b-1)and Service Fees 0.00%
Other Expenses 0.00%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses 0.75%
(1)The Fund’s adviser provides investment advisory service, and pays most of the Fund’s operating expenses (except all brokerage fees and commissions, taxes, borrowing costs (such as dividend expense on securities sold short and interest), fees and expenses of other investment companies in which the Fund may invest, or extraordinary expenses such as litigation) in return for a “unitary fee.”

 

Example: This Example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other funds.

 

The Example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated and then sell all of your shares at the end of those periods. The Example also assumes that your investment has a 5% return each year and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based upon these assumptions your costs would be:

 

1 Year 3 Years
$77 $240

 

Portfolio Turnover: The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in higher taxes when Fund shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the Example, affect the Fund’s performance.

 

Principal Investment Strategies: The Fund will be an actively managed exchange traded fund (“ETF”) that normally invests, directly or indirectly, at least 80% of its net assets, including any borrowings for investment purposes, in a diversified portfolio of fixed income instruments. The Fund is not managed relative to an index and has broad flexibility to allocate its assets across different types of securities and sectors of the fixed income markets. The principal investments of the Fund include corporate bonds, U.S. government and agency securities, private debt, foreign sovereign bonds, convertible securities, bank loans, asset-backed securities, mortgage-backed securities, and cash equivalent instruments. The Fund may also invest in other investment companies, including other exchange-traded funds.

 

The Fund may invest in fixed income instruments with fixed or adjustable (floating) rates. The Fund does not seek to maintain any particular weighted average maturity or duration, and may invest in fixed income instruments of any maturity or duration. The Fund will invest in both investment grade and below investment grade (often referred to as “high yield” or “junk” bonds) securities. The Fund will typically invest a substantial portion of the Fund’s investments in securities of issuers with a range of credit ratings. The Fund may invest up to 50% of its net assets in high yield securities. The Fund may invest without limit in U.S. and non-U.S. dollar-denominated securities of U.S. and foreign issuers, including investing up to 20% of its net assets in issuers located in emerging market countries.

 

The number of sectors in which the Fund will be invested at any time may vary based upon market and economic conditions and other factors. During periods that Redwood Investment Management, LLC (the “Adviser”) identifies as above average risk, such as when risk of loss in the non-Treasury bond sectors are elevated or when significant market disruption occurs, the Fund may invest up to 100% of its net assets in U.S. government securities of the same maturity.

 

The Fund’s top-down investment process is driven by a quantitative model process that incorporates various fundamental and technical inputs to help the Adviser determine the most attractive sectors and segments of the bond market from a risk-reward perspective. The Adviser utilizes its quantitative research models to seek to identify when the opportunities for yield from increased credit risk and/or duration risk is sufficient to compensate for the relative risk of those exposures as compared to lower credit risk and/or shorter duration risk, and when to take more defensive positions if the yield premium relative to risk is less attractive due to greater risk of loss or downside volatility. The strategy seeks to capture higher yields when the Adviser’s research indicates the risk of significant drawdown (or loss in value) is low and moves to a more defensive position when its research indicates the risk of significant drawdown (or loss in value) is high. The Adviser also considers the convexity of the Fund’s portfolio, which measures the sensitivity of a bond’s price to its yield as interest rates fluctuate and takes into account the price impact of pre-payment risk of bonds. Factors that the models and the Adviser take into account include trends in interest rates, credit spreads, and the relative strength of various bond market sectors such as treasuries, investment grade corporate, non-investment grade corporate, mortgage-backed, asset-backed and sovereign debt.

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The Fund may also invest in various types of derivatives, including futures, options, credit default swaps, total return swaps and repurchase agreements. The Fund may use derivatives as a substitute for making direct investments in underlying instruments or to reduce certain exposures. Derivative instruments (marked-to-market) will be counted toward the 80% policy discussed above to the extent such investments have economic characteristics similar to fixed income instruments.

 

Although the Fund normally does not engage in any direct borrowing, leverage is inherent in the derivatives it trades. While Federal law limits bank borrowings to one-third of a fund’s assets (which includes the borrowed amount), the use of derivatives is not limited in the same manner. Federal law generally requires the Fund to segregate or “earmark” liquid assets or otherwise cover the market exposure of its derivatives. Leverage magnifies exposure to the swings in prices of the reference asset underlying a derivative and results in increased volatility, which means the Fund will generally have the potential for greater gains, as well as the potential for greater losses, than a fund that does not use derivatives.

 

The relative risk across different sectors and segments of the fixed income market is assessed and baskets of representative securities within each such sector and segment are identified to implement the desired risk exposures. The Fund will sell a portfolio holding when the quantitative model outputs indicate a more attractive investment is available or when a change in risk exposure is desired by the Adviser.

 

The Fund may engage in active and frequent trading. The Fund’s portfolio turnover will vary based on the frequency and magnitude of changes in risks in the fixed income market. The frequency with which the Fund will re-balance its underlying holdings is not pre-determined and will occur when changes to the Fund’s portfolio risk exposures are made by the Adviser, which are currently anticipated to occur between zero to four times in any given calendar year, although there is no limit to the number of re-balancings in a single year and the number may vary from year to year.

 

Principal Investment Risks. As with all funds, there is the risk that you could lose money through your investment in the Fund. The Fund is not intended to be a complete investment program but rather one component of a diversified investment portfolio. An investment in the Fund is not guaranteed to achieve its investment objective; is not a deposit with a bank; is not insured, endorsed or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other government agency; and is subject to investment risks. The value of your investment in the Fund, as well as the amount of return you receive on your investment, may fluctuate significantly. You may lose part or all of your investment in the Fund or your investment may not perform as well as other similar investments. Many factors affect the Fund’s net asset value and performance. As with any fund, there is no guarantee that the Fund will achieve its goal. Each risk summarized below is a principal risk of investing in the Fund and different risks may be more significant at different times depending upon market conditions or other factors.

 

Management Risk. The Fund’s investment strategies may not result in an increase in the value of your investment or in overall performance equal to other similar investment vehicles having similar investment strategies. Management risk includes the risk that the quantitative model used by the Adviser may not perform as expected, particularly in volatile markets.

 

Market Risk. Overall market risk may affect the value of individual instruments in which the Fund invests. The Fund is subject to the risk that the securities markets will move down, sometimes rapidly and unpredictably, based on overall economic conditions and other factors, which may negatively affect the Fund’s performance. Factors such as domestic and foreign
(non-U.S.) economic growth and market conditions, real or perceived adverse economic or political conditions, inflation, changes in interest rate levels, lack of liquidity in the bond or other markets, volatility in the equities market or other securities markets or adverse investor sentiment affect the securities market and political events affect the securities markets. Securities markets also may experience long periods of decline in value. When the value of the Fund’s investments goes down, your investment in the Fund decreases in value and you could lose money.

 

Local, state, regional, national or global events such as war, acts of terrorism, the spread of infectious illness or other public health issues, recessions, or other events could have a significant impact on the Fund and its investments and could result in decreases to the Fund’s net asset value. Political, geopolitical, natural and other events, including war, terrorism, trade disputes, government shutdowns, market closures, natural and environmental disasters, epidemics, pandemics and other public health crises and related events and governments’ reactions to such events have led, and in the future may lead, to economic uncertainty, decreased economic activity, increased market volatility and other disruptive effects on U.S. and global economies and markets. Such events may have significant adverse direct or indirect effects on the Fund and its investments. For example, a widespread health crisis such as a global pandemic could cause substantial market volatility, exchange trading suspensions and closures, impact the ability to complete redemptions, and affect Fund performance. A health crisis may exacerbate other pre-existing political, social and economic risks. In addition, the increasing interconnectedness of markets around the world may result in many markets being affected by events or conditions in a single country or region or events affecting a single or small number of issuers.

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Fixed Income Securities Risk. When the Fund invests in fixed income securities, the value of your investment in the Fund will fluctuate with changes in interest rates. Typically, a rise in interest rates causes a decline in the value of fixed income securities or derivatives owned by the Fund. In general, the market price of fixed income securities with longer maturities will increase or decrease more in response to changes in interest rates than shorter-term securities. Risks associated with rising interest rates are heightened given that interest rates in the U.S. currently remain near historic lows. Other risk factors include credit risk (the debtor may default) and prepayment risk (the debtor may pay its obligation early, reducing the amount of interest payments). These risks could affect the value of a particular investment by the Fund, possibly causing the Fund’s share price and total return to be reduced and fluctuate more than other types of investments. The fixed-income securities market can be susceptible to increases in volatility and decreases in liquidity. Liquidity may decline unpredictably in response to overall economic conditions or credit tightening. For example, a general rise in interest rates may cause investors to move out of fixed income securities on a large scale, which could adversely affect the price and liquidity of fixed income securities and could also result in increased redemptions for the Fund.

 

Active Trading Risk. A higher portfolio turnover due to active and frequent trading will result in higher transaction and brokerage costs associated with the turnover which may reduce the Fund’s return, unless the securities traded can be bought and sold without corresponding commission costs. Active trading of securities may also increase the Fund’s realized capital gains and losses, which may affect the taxes you pay as a Fund shareholder.

 

Asset Allocation Risk. Asset allocation risk is the risk that the selection by a manager of a fund in which the Fund invests and the allocation of the Fund’s assets among the various asset classes and market segments will cause the Fund to underperform other funds with similar investment objectives. The Fund’s investment in any one fund or asset class may exceed 25% of the Fund’s total assets, which may cause it to be subject to greater risk than a more diversified fund.

 

Authorized Participant Concentration Risk. To the extent that authorized participants are unable or otherwise unavailable to proceed with creation and/or redemption orders and no other authorized participant is able to create or redeem in their place, shares may trade at a discount to net asset value (“NAV”) and may face delisting.

 

Bank Loan Risk. The Fund’s investments in secured and unsecured participations in bank loans and assignments of such loans may create substantial risk. In making investments in such loans, which are made by banks or other financial intermediaries to borrowers, the Fund will depend primarily upon the creditworthiness of the borrower for payment of principal and interest.

 

Cash Positions Risk. The Fund may hold a significant position in cash and/or cash equivalent securities. When the Fund’s investment in cash or cash equivalent securities increases, the Fund may not participate in market advances or declines to the same extent that it would if the Fund were more fully invested.

 

Common Stock Risk. The stock (i.e., equity) market can be volatile. The prices of stocks can fall rapidly in response to developments affecting a specific company or industry, or to changing economic, political or market conditions.

 

Convertible Securities Risk. The market value of a convertible security performs like that of a regular debt security; that is, if market interest rates rise, the value of a convertible security usually falls. In addition, convertible securities are subject to the risk that the issuer will not be able to pay interest or dividends when due, and their market value may change based on changes in the issuer’s credit rating or the market’s perception of the issuer’s creditworthiness. Since it derives a portion of its value from the common stock into which it may be converted, a convertible security is also subject to the same types of market and issuer risks that apply to the underlying common stock.

 

Counterparty Credit Risk. The Fund may enter into various types of derivative contracts. Many of these derivative contracts will be privately negotiated in the over-the-counter market. These contracts also involve exposure to credit risk, since contract performance depends in part on the financial condition of the counterparty. The stability and liquidity of many derivative transactions depends in large part on the creditworthiness of the parties to the transactions. If a counterparty to such a transaction defaults, exercising contractual rights may involve delays or costs for the Fund. Furthermore, there is a risk that a counterparty could become the subject of insolvency proceedings, and that the recovery of securities and other assets from such counterparty will be delayed or be of a value less than the value of the securities or assets originally entrusted to such counterparty. If a privately negotiated over-the-counter contract calls for payments by the Fund, the Fund must be prepared to make such payments when due. In addition, if a counterparty’s creditworthiness declines, the Fund may not receive payments owed under the contract, or such payments may be delayed under such circumstances and the value of agreements with such counterparty can be expected to decline, potentially resulting in losses to the Fund. The Adviser considers factors such as counterparty credit ratings and financial statements among others when determining whether a counterparty is creditworthy. The Adviser regularly monitors the creditworthiness of each counterparty with which the Fund enters into a transaction. In addition, the Fund may enter into swap agreements that involve a limited number of counterparties, which may increase the Fund’s exposure to counterparty risk.

 

Credit Risk. The risk that the Fund could lose money if the issuer or guarantor of a fixed income security is unwilling or unable to make timely payments to meet its contractual obligations on investment held by the Fund. Changes in the credit rating of a debt security held by the Fund could have a similar effect.

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Credit Spread Risk. The risk that credit spreads (or the difference in yield between securities that is due to differences in their credit quality) may increase when the market expects lower-grade bonds to default more frequently. Widening credit spreads may quickly reduce the market values of lower-rated securities.

 

Currency Risk. The risk that foreign (non-U.S.) currencies will decline in value relative to the U.S. dollar and adversely affect the value of the Fund’s investments in foreign (non-U.S.) currencies or in securities that trade in, and receive revenues in, or in derivatives that provide exposure to, foreign (non-U.S.) currencies.

 

Cybersecurity Risk. There is risk to the Fund of an unauthorized breach and access to fund assets, customer data (including private shareholder information), or proprietary information, or the risk of an incident occurring that causes the Fund, the investment adviser, custodian, transfer agent, distributor and other service providers and financial intermediaries to suffer data breaches, data corruption or lose operational functionality. Successful cyber-attacks or other cyber-failures or events affecting the Fund or its service providers may adversely impact the Fund or its shareholders.

 

Derivatives Risk. The derivative instruments in which the Fund may invest, including futures, options, credit default swaps, total return swaps, repurchase agreements and other similar instruments, may be more volatile than other instruments and may be subject to unanticipated market movements, which are potentially unlimited. The risks associated with investments in derivatives also include leverage liquidity, interest rate, market, credit and management risks, mispricing or improper valuation. Changes in the market value of a derivative may not correlate perfectly with the underlying asset, rate or index, and the Fund could lose more than the principal amount invested. In addition, if a derivative is being used for hedging purposes there can be no assurance given that each derivative position will achieve a perfect correlation with the security or currency against which it is being hedged, or that a particular derivative position will be available when sought by the portfolio manager.

 

Emerging Markets Risk. Investing in emerging markets involves not only the risks described herein with respect to investing in foreign securities, but also other risks, including exposure to economic structures that are generally less diverse and mature, and to political systems that can be expected to have less stability, than those of developed countries. The typically small size of the markets may also result in a lack of liquidity and in price volatility of these securities. Emerging markets are riskier than more developed markets because they tend to develop unevenly and may never fully develop. Investments in emerging markets may be considered speculative and share the risks of foreign developed markets but to a greater extent. Emerging markets are more likely to experience hyperinflation and currency devaluations, which adversely affect returns to U.S. investors. In addition, many emerging financial markets have far lower trading volumes and less liquidity than developed markets, which may result in increased price volatility of emerging market investments. The legal remedies for investors in emerging markets may be more limited than the remedies available in the U.S., and the ability of U.S. authorities (e.g., SEC and the U.S. Department of Justice) to bring actions against bad actors may be limited.

 

ETF Structure Risks. The Fund is structured as an ETF and as a result is subject to special risks, including:

  • Not Individually Redeemable. Shares are not individually redeemable and may be redeemed by the Fund at NAV only in large blocks known as “Creation Units.” You may incur brokerage costs purchasing enough shares to constitute a Creation Unit.
  • Trading Issues. Trading in shares on the NYSE (the “Exchange”) may be halted due to market conditions or for reasons that, in the view of the Exchange, make trading in shares inadvisable, such as extraordinary market volatility. There can be no assurance that shares will continue to meet the listing requirements of the Exchange. An active trading market for the Fund’s shares may not be developed or maintained. If the Fund’s shares are traded outside a collateralized settlement system, the number of financial institutions that can act as authorized participants that can post collateral on an agency basis is limited, which may limit the market for the Fund’s shares.
  • Market Price Variance Risk. The market prices of shares will fluctuate in response to changes in NAV and supply and demand for shares and will include a “bid-ask spread” charged by the exchange specialists, market makers or other participants that trade the particular security. There may be times when the market price and the NAV vary significantly. This means that shares may trade at a discount or premium to NAV. If a shareholder purchases shares at a time when the market price is at a premium to the NAV or sells shares at a time when the market price is at a discount to NAV, the shareholder may sustain losses if the shares are sold at a price that is less than the price paid by the shareholder for the shares.
oIn times of market stress, such as what was experienced during the COVID-19 pandemic, market makers may step away from their role market making in shares of ETFs and in executing trades, which can lead to differences between the market value of Fund shares and the Fund’s net asset value.
oThe market price for the Fund’s shares may deviate from the Fund’s net asset value, particularly during times of market stress, with the result that investors may pay significantly more or significantly less for Fund shares than the Fund’s net asset value, which is reflected in the bid and ask price for Fund shares or in the closing price.
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oWhen all or a portion of an ETFs underlying securities trade in a market that is closed when the market for the Fund’s shares is open, there may be changes from the last quote of the closed market and the quote from the Fund’s domestic trading day, which could lead to differences between the market value of the Fund’s shares and the Fund’s net asset value.
oIn stressed market conditions, the market for the Fund’s shares may become less liquid in response to the deteriorating liquidity of the Fund’s portfolio. This adverse effect on the liquidity of the Fund’s shares may, in turn, lead to differences between the market value of the Fund’s shares and the Fund’s net asset value.

 

Fluctuation of Net Asset Value Risk. Unlike conventional ETFs, the Fund is not an index fund. The Fund is actively managed and does not seek to replicate the performance of a specified Index. The NAV of the Fund’s shares will generally fluctuate with changes in the market value of the Fund’s holdings. The market prices of the shares will generally fluctuate in accordance with changes in NAV as well as the relative supply of and demand for the shares on the Exchange. The Adviser cannot predict whether the shares will trade below, at or above their NAV. Price differences may be due, in large part, to the fact that supply and demand forces at work in the secondary trading market for the shares will be closely related to, but not identical to, the same forces influencing the prices of the Fund’s holdings trading individually or in the aggregate at any point in time. Actively managed ETFs have a limited trading history and, therefore, there can be no assurance as to whether and/or the extent to which the shares will trade at premiums or discounts to NAV.

 

Foreign (Non-U.S.) Investment Risk. Foreign (non-U.S.) securities present greater investment risks than investing in the securities of U.S. issuers and may experience more rapid and extreme changes in value than the securities of U.S. companies, due to less information about foreign (non-U.S.) companies in the form of reports and ratings than about U.S. issuers; different accounting, auditing and financial reporting requirements; smaller markets; nationalization; expropriation or confiscatory taxation; currency blockage; or political changes or diplomatic developments. Foreign (non-U.S.) securities may also be less liquid and more difficult to value than securities of U.S. issuers.

 

Futures Contract Risk. Futures contracts are subject to the same risks as the underlying investments that they represent, but also may involve risks different from, and possibly greater than, the risks associated with investing directly in the underlying investments. Investments in futures contracts involve additional costs, may be more volatile than other investments and may involve a small initial investment relative to the risk assumed. In connection with the Fund’s use of futures contracts, if the value of investments is incorrectly forecasted, the Fund might have been in a better position if the Fund had not entered into the contract. Because the futures utilized by the Fund are standardized and exchange traded, where the exchange serves as the ultimate counterparty for all contracts, the primary credit risk on futures contracts is the creditworthiness of the exchange itself. Futures are also subject to market risk, interest rate risk (in the case of futures contracts relating to income producing securities) and index tracking risk (in the case of stock index futures).

 

Gap Risk. The Fund is subject to the risk that a stock price or derivative value will change dramatically from one level to another with no trading in between and/or before the Fund can exit the investment. Usually such movements occur when there are adverse news announcements, which can cause a stock price or derivative value to drop substantially from the previous day’s closing price. Trading halts may lead to gap risk.

 

High Yield Risk. Investment in or exposure to high yield (lower rated or below investment grade) debt instruments (also known as “junk bonds”) may involve greater levels of interest rate, credit, liquidity and valuation risk than for higher rated instruments. High yield debt instruments are considered predominantly speculative and are higher risk than investment grade instruments with respect to the issuer’s continuing ability to make principal and interest payments and, therefore, such instruments generally involve greater risk of default or price changes than higher rated debt instruments.

 

Index Risk. If a derivative is linked to the performance of an index, it will be subject to the risks associated with changes in that index.

 

Investment Companies and Exchange-Traded Funds Risks. When the Fund invests in other investment companies, including ETFs, it will bear additional expenses based on its pro rata share of the other investment company’s or ETF’s operating expenses, including the management fees of the investment company or ETF in addition to those paid by the Fund. The risk of owning an investment company or ETF generally reflects the risks of owning the underlying investments the investment company or ETF holds. The Fund also will incur brokerage costs when it purchases and sells ETFs.

 

Issuer-Specific Risk. The value of a specific security can be more volatile than the market as a whole and may perform worse than the market as a whole.

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Leveraging Risk. The use of certain derivatives may increase leveraging risk and adverse changes in the value or level of the underlying asset, rate, or index may result in a loss substantially greater than the amount paid for the derivative. The use of leverage may exaggerate any increase or decrease in the net asset value, causing the Fund to be more volatile and small changes in the value of the underlying instrument may produce disproportionate losses to the Fund. The use of leverage may increase expenses and increase the impact of a Fund’s other risks. The use of leverage may cause the Fund to liquidate portfolio positions when it may not be advantageous to do so in order to satisfy its obligations, to meet additional margin requirements or to meet collateral segregation requirements or regulatory requirements resulting in increased volatility of returns. Leverage, including borrowing, may cause the Fund to be more volatile than if the Fund had not been leveraged.

 

LIBOR Risk. The Fund may invest in securities and other instruments whose interest payments are determined by references to the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”). The United Kingdom Financial Conduct Authority, which regulates LIBOR, announced that after 2021 it will cease its active encouragement of banks to provide the quotations needed to sustain LIBOR. There is currently no definitive information regarding the future utilization of LIBOR or of any particular replacement rate. There are obstacles to converting certain longer-term securities and transactions to a new benchmark and the effectiveness of one alternative reference rate versus multiple alternative reference rates in new or existing financial instruments and products has not been determined. The transition process may lead to increased volatility and illiquidity in markets that currently rely on LIBOR to determine interest rates. The unavailability of LIBOR presents risks to the Fund, including the risk that any pricing or adjustments to the Fund’s investments resulting from a substitute or alternate reference rate may adversely affect the Fund’s performance and/or net asset value. The utilization of an alternative reference rate, or the transition process to an alternative reference rate, may adversely affect the fund’s performance. It remains uncertain how such changes would be implemented and the effects such changes would have on the Fund, including any negative effects on the

 

Fund’s liquidity and valuation of the Fund’s investments, issuers of instruments in which the Fund invests and financial markets generally.

 

Liquidity Risk. Liquidity risk exists when particular investments of the Fund would be difficult to purchase or sell, possibly preventing the Fund from selling such illiquid securities at an advantageous time or price, or possibly requiring the Fund to dispose of other investments at unfavorable times or prices in order to satisfy its obligations. In the past, in stressed markets, certain types of securities suffered periods of illiquidity if disfavored by the market. These risks may increase during periods of market turmoil, such as that experienced in 2020 with COVID-19, and could have a negative effect on the Fund’s performance.

 

Market Events Risk. There has been increased volatility, depressed valuations, decreased liquidity and heightened uncertainty in the financial markets during the past several years, including what was experienced in 2020. These conditions may continue, recur, worsen or spread. The U.S. government and the Federal Reserve, as well as certain foreign governments and central banks, have taken steps to support financial markets, including by keeping interest rates at historically low levels. This and other government intervention may not work as intended, particularly if the efforts are perceived by investors as being unlikely to achieve the desired results. The U.S. government and the Federal Reserve may reduce market support activities. Such reduction, including interest rate increases, could negatively affect financial markets generally, increase market volatility and reduce the value and liquidity of securities in which the Fund invests. Policy and legislative changes in the United States and in other countries may also continue to contribute to decreased liquidity and increased volatility in the financial markets. The impact of these changes on the markets, and the practical implications for market participants, may not be fully known for some time.

 

Model Risk. The Fund will use model-based strategies that, while historically effective, may not be successful on an ongoing basis or could contain unknown errors, which may result in a decline in the value of the Fund’s shares. Any imperfections or limitations in a model could affect the ability of the manager to implement strategies. By necessity, models make simplifying assumptions that limit their efficacy. Models relying on historical market data can fail to predict future market events. Further, the data used in models may be inaccurate and/or it may not include the most recent information about a company or a security. In addition, the model may not adequately take into account certain factors, the data used in the model may be inaccurate, or the computer programming used to create quantitative models might contain one or more errors. Such errors might never be detected, or might be detected only after the Fund has sustained a loss (or reduced performance) related to such errors. Moreover, during periods of increased volatility or changing market conditions, the commonality of portfolio holdings and similarities between strategies of quantitative managers may amplify losses. An increasing number of market participants may rely on models that are similar to those used by the Adviser, which may result in a substantial number of market participants taking the same action with respect to an investment. Should one or more of these other market participants begin to divest themselves of one or more portfolio holdings, the Fund could suffer significant losses. In addition, changes in underlying market conditions can adversely affect the performance of a model.

 

Mortgage-Backed and Asset-Backed Securities Risk. The risk of investing in mortgage-backed and other asset-backed securities, including prepayment risk, extension risk, interest rate risk, market risk and management risk. Mortgage-backed securities include caps and floors, inverse floaters, mortgage dollar rolls, private mortgage pass-through securities, resets and stripped mortgage securities. A systemic and persistent increase in interest rate volatility may also negatively impact a number of the Fund’s mortgage-backed and asset-backed securities holdings. The Fund will invest less than 25% of its net assets in asset-backed securities or mortgage-backed securities that are below-investment grade.

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New Fund Risk. The Fund is recently formed. Investors bear the risk that the Fund may not grow to or maintain economically viable size, not be successful in implementing its investment strategy, and may not employ a successful investment strategy, any of which could result in the Fund being liquidated at any time without shareholder approval and/or at a time that may not be favorable for certain shareholders. Such a liquidation could have negative tax consequences for shareholders.

 

Odd Lot Pricing Risk. Bonds may be purchased and held as smaller sized bond positions known as “odd lots”. Pricing services generally value such securities based on bid prices for larger institutional sized bond positions known as “round lots”; and such round lot prices may reflect more favorable pricing than odd lot holdings. The Fund may purchase securities suitable for its investment strategies in odd lots. Special valuation considerations may apply with respect to the Fund’s odd-lot positions, as the Fund may receive different prices when it sells such positions than it would receive for sales of institutional round lot positions. The Fund may fair value a particular bond if the Adviser does not believe that the round lot value provided by the independent pricing service reflects fair value of the Fund’s holding. There can be no assurance that the Fund’s valuation procedures will result in pricing data that is completely congruent with prices that the Fund might obtain on the open market.

 

Portfolio Turnover Risk. The Fund may experience high portfolio turnover, including investments made on a shorter-term basis, which may lead to increased Fund expenses that may result in lower investment returns. A higher portfolio turnover may result in higher transactional and brokerage costs. High portfolio turnover may also result in higher short-term capital gains taxable to shareholders.

 

Prepayment and Extension Risk. Many types of fixed income securities are subject to prepayment risk. Prepayment occurs when the issuer of a fixed income security can repay principal prior to the security’s maturity. Fixed income securities subject to prepayment can offer less potential for gains during a declining interest rate environment and similar or greater potential for loss in a rising interest rate environment and accordingly, a decline in the Fund’s net asset value. In addition, the potential impact of prepayment features on the price of a fixed income security can be difficult to predict and result in greater volatility. On the other hand, rising interest rates could cause prepayments of the obligations to decrease, extending the life of mortgage- and asset-backed securities with lower payment rates. This is known as extension risk and may increase the Fund’s sensitivity to rising rates and its potential for price declines.

 

Regulatory Risk. Changes in the laws or regulations of the United States or other countries, including any changes to applicable tax laws and regulations, could impair the ability of the Fund to achieve its investment objective and could increase the operating expenses of the Fund. For example, the SEC recently adopted regulations that, upon effectiveness, will subject activities of mutual funds trading certain derivative instruments to additional regulation, which may increase the operating expenses of the Fund and impair the Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective.

 

Sector Risk. The risk that if the Fund invests a significant portion of its total assets in certain issuers within the same economic sector, an economic, business or political development or natural or other event, including war, terrorism, natural and environmental disasters, epidemics, pandemics and other public health crisis, adversely affecting that sector may affect the value of the Fund’s investments more than if the Fund’s investments were not so concentrated.

 

Swap Risk. Swap agreements are subject to the risk that the counterparty to the swap will default on its obligation to pay the Fund and the risk that the Fund will not be able to meet its obligations to pay the counterparty to the swap. In addition, there is the risk that a swap may be terminated by the Fund or the counterparty in accordance with its terms. If a swap were to terminate, the Fund may be unable to implement its investment strategies and the Fund may not be able to seek to achieve its investment objective.

 

U.S. Government Securities Risk. The U.S. government is not obligated to provide financial support to its agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises if it is not obligated to do so by law. Certain U.S. government securities purchased by the Fund may not be backed by the full faith and credit of the United States. It is possible that the issuers of such securities will not have the funds to meet their payment obligations in the future.

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Valuation Risk. The sale price that the Fund could receive for a portfolio security may differ from the Fund’s valuation of the security, particularly for securities that trade in low volume or volatile markets or that are valued using a fair value methodology. In addition, the value of the securities in the Fund’s portfolio may change on days when shareholders will not be able to purchase or sell the Fund’s shares.

 

Variable or Floating Rate Securities Risk. Variable and floating rate securities generally are less sensitive to interest rate changes but may decline in value if their interest rates do not rise as much, or as quickly, as interest rates in general. Floating rate securities will not generally increase in value if interest rates decline.

 

Volatility Risk. The Fund’s investments may appreciate or decrease significantly in value over short periods of time. The value of an investment in the Fund’s portfolio may fluctuate due to factors that affect markets generally or that affect a particular industry or sector. The value of an investment in the Fund’s portfolio may also be more volatile than the market as a whole. This volatility may affect the Fund’s net asset value per share, including by causing it to experience significant increases or declines in value over short periods of time. Events or financial circumstances affecting individual investments, industries or sectors may increase the volatility of the Fund.

 

Performance: Because the Fund has only recently commenced investment operations, no performance information is presented for the Fund at this time. In the future, performance information will be presented in this section of this Prospectus. In addition, shareholder reports containing financial and performance information will be available to shareholders semi-annually. Updated performance information is available at no cost by visiting www.leadersharesetfs.com or by calling 1 (480) 757-4277.

 

Investment Adviser: Redwood Investment Management, LLC (the “Adviser”) serves as investment adviser to the Fund.

 

Portfolio Managers: The Fund is managed by a team comprised of Michael T. Messinger, Portfolio Manager and Principal of Redwood and Michael T. Cheung, Portfolio Manager and Head of Quantitative Research. Mr. Messinger and Mr. Cheung have managed the Fund since its inception in June, 2021.

 

Purchase and Sale of Fund Shares: The Fund will issue and redeem shares at NAV only in large blocks of 50,000 shares
(each block of shares is called a “Creation Unit”). Creation Units are issued and redeemed for cash and/or in-kind for securities. Except when aggregated in Creation Units, the shares are not redeemable securities of the Fund.

 

Shares of the Fund are listed for trading on the NYSE and trade at market prices rather than NAV. Individual shares of the Fund may only be purchased and sold in secondary market transactions through a broker or dealer at market price. Because shares trade at market prices, rather than NAV, shares of the Fund may trade at a price that is greater than NAV (i.e., a premium), or less than NAV (i.e., a discount). An investor may incur costs attributable to the difference between the highest price a buyer is willing to pay to purchase shares of the Fund (bid) and the lowest price a seller is willing to accept for shares of the Fund (ask) when buying or selling shares in the secondary market (the “bid-ask spread”). Recent information including information about the Fund’s NAV, market price, premiums and discounts, and bid-ask spreads is included on the Fund’s website at www.leadersharesetfs.com.

 

Tax Information: The Fund’s distributions generally will be taxable at ordinary income or long-term capital gain rates. A sale of shares may result in capital gain or loss.

 

Payments to Broker-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries: If you purchase shares of the Fund through a broker-dealer or other financial intermediary (such as a bank), the Fund and its related companies, including the Adviser, may pay the intermediary for the sale of Fund shares and related services. These payments may create a conflict of interest by influencing the broker-dealer or other intermediary and your salesperson to recommend the Fund over another investment. Ask your salesperson or visit your financial intermediary’s website for more information.

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ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT INVESTMENT OBJECTIVES, PRINCIPAL INVESTMENT STRATEGIES AND RELATED RISKS 

 

This section provides more detailed information about the investment objectives, principal investment strategies and certain risks of investing in the Fund. This section also provides information regarding the Fund’s disclosure of portfolio holdings.

 

Investment Objective: The Fund seeks current income. The Fund’s investment objective may be changed by the Fund’s Board of Trustees upon 60 days, prior written notice to shareholders.

 

Principal Investment Strategies: The Fund will be an actively managed exchange traded fund (“ETF”) that normally invests, directly or indirectly, at least 80% of its net assets, including any borrowings for investment purposes, in a diversified portfolio of fixed income instruments. The Fund is not managed relative to an index and has broad flexibility to allocate its assets across different types of securities and sectors of the fixed income markets. The principal investments of the Fund include corporate bonds, U.S. government and agency securities, private debt, foreign sovereign bonds, convertible securities, bank loans, asset-backed securities, mortgage-backed securities, and cash equivalent instruments. The Fund may also invest in other investment companies, including other exchange-traded funds.

 

The Fund may invest in fixed income instruments with fixed or adjustable (floating) rates. The Fund does not seek to maintain any particular weighted average maturity or duration, and may invest in fixed income instruments of any maturity or duration. The Fund will invest in both investment grade and below investment grade (often referred to as “high yield” or “junk” bonds) securities. The Fund will typically invest a substantial portion of the Fund’s investments in securities of issuers with a range of credit ratings. The Fund may invest up to 50% of its net assets in high yield securities. The Fund may invest without limit in U.S. and non-U.S. dollar-denominated securities of U.S. and foreign issuers, including investing up to 20% of its net assets in issuers located in emerging market countries.

 

The number of sectors in which the Fund will be invested at any time may vary based upon market and economic conditions and other factors. During periods that the Adviser identifies as above average risk, such as when risk of loss in the non-Treasury bond sectors are elevated or when significant market disruption occurs, the Fund may invest up to 100% of its net assets in
U.S. government securities of the same maturity.

 

The Fund’s top-down investment process is driven by a quantitative model process that incorporates various fundamental and technical inputs to help the Adviser determine the most attractive sectors and segments of the bond market from a risk-reward perspective. The Adviser utilizes its quantitative research models to seek to identify when the opportunities for yield from increased credit risk and/or duration risk is sufficient to compensate for the relative risk of those exposures as compared to lower credit risk and/or shorter duration risk, and when to take more defensive positions if the yield premium relative to risk is less attractive due to greater risk of loss or downside volatility. The strategy seeks to capture higher yields when the Adviser’s research indicates the risk of significant drawdown (or loss in value) is low and moves to a more defensive position when its research indicates the risk of significant drawdown (or loss in value) is high. The Adviser also considers the convexity of the Fund’s portfolio, which measures the sensitivity of a bond’s price to its yield as interest rates fluctuate and takes into account the price impact of pre-payment risk of bonds. Factors that the models and the Adviser take into account include trends in interest rates, credit spreads, and the relative strength of various bond market sectors such as treasuries, investment grade corporate, non-investment grade corporate, mortgage-backed, asset-backed and sovereign debt.

 

The Fund may also invest in various types of derivatives, including futures, options, credit default swaps, total return swaps and repurchase agreements. The Fund may use derivatives as a substitute for making direct investments in underlying instruments or to reduce certain exposures. The Fund may also use derivatives to “hedge” against market volatility and other risks. Derivative instruments (marked-to-market) will be counted toward the 80% policy discussed above to the extent such investments have economic characteristics similar to fixed income instruments.

 

Although the Fund normally does not engage in any direct borrowing, leverage is inherent in the derivatives it trades. While Federal law limits bank borrowings to one-third of a fund’s assets (which includes the borrowed amount), the use of derivatives is not limited in the same manner. Federal law generally requires the Fund to segregate or “earmark” liquid assets or otherwise cover the market exposure of its derivatives. Leverage magnifies exposure to the swings in prices of the reference asset underlying a derivative and results in increased volatility, which means the Fund will generally have the potential for greater gains, as well as the potential for greater losses, than a fund that does not use derivatives.

 

The relative risk across different sectors and segments of the fixed income market is assessed and baskets of representative securities within each such sector and segment are identified to implement the desired risk exposures. The Fund will sell a portfolio holding when the quantitative model outputs indicate a more attractive investment is available or when a change in risk exposure is desired by the Adviser.

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The Fund may engage in active and frequent trading. The Fund’s portfolio turnover will vary based on the frequency and magnitude of changes in risks in the fixed income market. The frequency with which the Fund will re-balance its underlying holdings is not pre-determined and will occur when changes to the Fund’s portfolio risk exposures are made by the Adviser, which are currently anticipated to occur between zero to four times in any given calendar year, although there is no limit to the number of re-balancings in a single year and the number may vary from year to year.

 

Principal And Other Risk Factors 

 

As with all funds, there is the risk that you could lose money through your investment in the Fund. An investment in the Fund is not guaranteed to achieve its investment objective; is not a deposit with a bank; is not insured, endorsed or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other government agency; and is subject to investment risks. The Adviser can not guarantee that the Fund will achieve its objectives. The value of your investment in the Fund, as well as the amount of return you receive on your investment, may fluctuate significantly. You may lose part or all of your investment in the Fund or your investment may not perform as well as other similar investments. The Fund is not intended to be a complete investment program but rather one component of a diversified investment portfolio. Many factors affect the Fund’s net asset value and performance. It is important that investors closely review and understand these risks before making an investment in the Fund. Additional information regarding the principal and certain other risks of investing in the Fund.is provided below The Fund’s Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”), which is incorporated by reference into this Prospectus, includes more information about the Fund and its investments and risks. The risks described in this Prospectus (and in the SAI) are not intended to include every potential risk of investing in the Fund. The Fund could be subject to additional risks because the types of investments it makes may change over time. The following section provides additional information regarding certain of the principal risks identified under “Principal Risk Factors” in the Fund’s summary along with additional risk information.

 

Active Trading Risk. A higher portfolio turnover may result in higher transactional and brokerage costs associated with the turnover which may reduce the Fund’s return, unless the instruments traded can be bought and sold without corresponding commission costs. Active trading of instruments may also increase the Fund’s realized capital gains or losses, which may affect the taxes you pay as a Fund shareholder.

 

Asset Allocation Risk. Asset allocation risk is the risk that the selection by a manager of a fund in which the Fund invests and the allocation of the Fund’s assets among the various asset classes and market segments will cause the Fund to underperform other funds with similar investment objectives. The Fund’s investment in any one fund or asset class may exceed 25% of the Fund’s total assets, which may cause it to be subject to greater risk than a more diversified fund.

 

Authorized Participant Concentration Risk. To the extent that authorized participants are unable or otherwise unavailable to proceed with creation and/or redemption orders and no other authorized participant is able to create or redeem in their place, shares may trade at a discount to NAV and may face delisting.

 

Bank Loan Risk. The Fund’s investments in secured and unsecured participations in bank loans and assignments of such loans may create substantial risk. In making investments in such loans, which are made by banks or other financial intermediaries to borrowers, the Fund will depend primarily upon the creditworthiness of the borrower for payment of principal and interest. If the Fund does not receive scheduled interest or principal payments on such indebtedness, the Fund’s share price could be adversely affected. The Fund may invest in loan participations that are rated by a NRSRO or are unrated, and may invest in loan participations of any credit quality, including “distressed” companies with respect to which there is a substantial risk of losing the entire amount invested. In addition, certain bank loans in which the Fund may invest may be illiquid and, therefore, difficult to value and/or sell at a price that is beneficial to the Fund.

 

Cash Positions Risk. The Fund may hold a significant position in cash and/or cash equivalent securities. When the Fund’s investment in cash or cash equivalent securities increases, the Fund may not participate in market advances or declines to the same extent that it would if the Fund were more fully invested.

 

Cash Redemption Risk. The Fund may pay out of its redemption proceeds in cash rather than through the in-kind delivery of portfolio securities. The Fund may be required sell portfolio securities in order to obtain the cash needed to distribute redemption proceeds. This may cause the Fund to recognize a capital gain that it might not have incurred if it had made a redemption in-kind. As a result, the Fund may pay out higher annual capital gains distributions than if the in-kind redemption process was used. Only certain institutional investors known as Authorized Participants who have entered into an agreement with the Fund’s distributor may redeem shares from the Fund directly; all other investors buy and sell shares at market prices on an exchange.

 

Common Stock Risk. The stock (i.e., equity) market can be volatile. The prices of stocks can fall rapidly in response to developments affecting a specific company or industry, or to changing economic, political or market conditions. The prices of stocks can fall rapidly in response to developments affecting a specific company or industry, or to changing economic, political or market conditions.

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Convertible Securities Risk. Convertible securities include fixed income securities that may be exchanged or converted into a predetermined number of the issuer’s common stock at the option of the holder during a specified period. The market value of a convertible security performs like that of a regular debt security; that is, if market interest rates rise, the value of a convertible security usually falls. In addition, convertible securities are subject to the risk that the issuer will not be able to pay interest or dividends when due, and their market value may change based on changes in the issuer’s credit rating or the market’s perception of the issuer’s creditworthiness. Since it derives a portion of its value from the common stock into which it may be converted, a convertible security is also subject to the same types of market and issuer risks that apply to the underlying common stock. Convertible securities subject the Fund to the risks associated with both fixed-income securities and equity securities. If a convertible security’s investment value is greater than its conversion value, its price likely increase when interest rates fall and decrease when interest rates rise. If the conversion value exceeds the investment value, the price of the convertible security will tend to fluctuate directly with the price of the underlying equity security.

 

Counterparty Credit Risk. The stability and liquidity of repurchase agreements, swap transactions, forwards and over-the-counter derivative transactions depend in large part on the creditworthiness of the parties to the transactions. The Fund may enter into various types of derivative contracts. Many of these derivative contracts will be privately negotiated in the over-the-counter market. These contracts also involve exposure to credit risk, since contract performance depends in part on the financial condition of the counterparty. The stability and liquidity of many derivative transactions depends in large part on the creditworthiness of the parties to the transactions. If a counterparty to such a transaction defaults, exercising contractual rights may involve delays or costs for the Fund. Furthermore, there is a risk that a counterparty could become the subject of insolvency proceedings and that the recovery of securities and other assets from such counterparty will be delayed or be of a value less than the value of the securities or assets originally entrusted to such counterparty. If a privately negotiated over-the-counter contract calls for payments by the Fund, the Fund must be prepared to make such payments when due. In addition, if a counterparty’s creditworthiness declines, the Fund may not receive payments owed under the contract, or such payments may be delayed under such circumstances and the value of agreements with such counterparty can be expected to decline, potentially resulting in losses to the Fund. The Adviser considers factors such as counterparty credit ratings and financial statements among others when determining whether a counterparty is creditworthy. The Adviser regularly monitors the creditworthiness of each counterparty with which the Fund enters into a transaction. In addition, the Fund may enter into swap agreements that involve a limited number of counterparties, which may increase the Fund’s exposure to counterparty risk.

 

Transactions in certain types of swaps (including credit default swaps) are also required to be centrally cleared (“cleared derivatives”). In a transaction involving cleared derivatives, the Fund’s counterparty is a clearing house, rather than a bank or broker. Since the Fund is not a member of clearing houses and only members of a clearing house (“clearing members”) can participate directly in the clearing house, the Fund will hold cleared derivatives through accounts at clearing members. In cleared derivatives positions, the Fund will make payments (including margin payments) to and receive payments from a clearing house through their accounts at clearing members. Clearing members guarantee performance of their clients’ obligations to the clearing house. In contrast to bilateral derivatives transactions, following a period of advance notice to the Fund, clearing members generally can require termination of existing cleared derivatives transactions at any time and increases in margin above the margin that it required at the beginning of a transaction. Clearing houses also have broad rights to increase margin requirements for existing transactions and to terminate transactions. Any such increase or termination could interfere with the ability of the Fund to pursue its investment strategy. Also, the Fund is subject to execution risk if it enters into a derivatives transaction that is required to be cleared (or that the Adviser expects to be cleared), and no clearing member is willing or able to clear the transaction on the Fund’s behalf. While the documentation in place between the Fund and its clearing members generally provides that the clearing members will accept for clearing all transactions submitted for clearing that are within credit limits specified by the clearing members in advance, the Fund could be subject to this execution risk if the Fund submits for clearing transactions that exceed such credit limits, if the clearing house does not accept the transactions for clearing, or if the clearing members do not comply with their agreement to clear such transactions. In that case, the transaction might have to be terminated, and the Fund could lose some or all of the benefit of any increase in the value of the transaction after the time of the transaction. In addition, new regulations could, among other things, restrict the Fund’s ability to engage in, or increase the cost to the Fund of, derivatives transactions, for example, by making some types of derivatives no longer available to the Fund or increasing margin or capital requirements. If the Fund is not able to enter into a particular derivatives transaction, the Fund’s investment performance and risk profile could be adversely affected as a result.

 

In addition, the Fund may use counterparties located in jurisdictions outside the United States. Such local counterparties are subject to the laws and regulations in non-U.S. jurisdictions that are designed to protect their customers in the event of their insolvency. However, the practical effect of these laws and their application to the Fund’s assets are subject to substantial limitations and uncertainties. Because of the large number of entities and jurisdictions involved and the range of possible factual scenarios involving the insolvency of a counterparty, it is impossible to generalize about the effect of their insolvency on the Fund and its assets. Shareholders should assume that the insolvency of any counterparty would result in a loss to the Fund, which could be material. If the Fund obtains exposure to one or more investment funds indirectly through the use of one or more total return swaps, those investments will be subject to counterparty risk.

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Credit Risk. The risk that issuers or guarantors of a fixed income security cannot or will not make payments on the securities and other investments held by the Fund, resulting in losses to the Fund. Changes in the credit rating of a debt security or of the issuer of a debt security held by a Fund could have a similar effect. The credit quality of securities held by the Fund may be lowered if an issuer’s financial condition changes, which may lower their value and may affect their liquidity. Generally, the lower the credit rating of a security, the greater the risk that the issuer of the security will default on its obligation. High quality securities are generally believed to have relatively low degrees of credit risk. The Fund intends to enter into financial transactions with counterparties that are creditworthy at the time of the transactions. There is always the risk that the Adviser’s analysis of creditworthiness is incorrect or may change due to market conditions. To the extent that the Fund focuses its transactions with a limited number of counterparties, it will be more susceptible to the risks associated with one or more counterparties.

 

Credit Spread Risk. The risk that credit spreads (or the difference in yield between securities that is due to differences in their credit quality) may increase when the market expects lower-grade bonds to default more frequently. Widening credit spreads may quickly reduce the market values of lower-rated securities.

 

Currency Risk. The risk that foreign (non-U.S.) currencies will decline in value relative to the U.S. dollar and adversely affect the value of the Fund’s investments in foreign (non-U.S.) currencies or in securities that trade in, and receive revenues in, or in derivatives that provide exposure to, foreign (non-U.S.) currencies. Currency risk may be particularly high to the extent that the Fund invests in foreign (non-U.S.) currencies or engages in foreign currency transactions that are economically tied to emerging market countries.

 

Cybersecurity Risk. There is risk to the Fund of an unauthorized breach and access to fund assets, customer data (including private shareholder information), or proprietary information, or the risk of an incident occurring that causes the Fund, the Adviser, administrator, custodian, transfer agent, distributor and other service providers and financial intermediaries (collectively “Service Providers”) to suffer data breaches, data corruption or lose operational functionality. Successful cyber-attacks or other cyber-failures or events affecting the Fund, or its Service Providers may adversely impact the Fund or its shareholders. Because information technology (“IT”) systems and digital data underlie most of the Fund’s operations, the Fund and its Service Providers are exposed to the risk that their operations and data may be compromised as a result of internal and external cyber-failures, breaches or attacks (“Cyber Risk”). This could occur as a result of malicious or criminal cyber-attacks. Cyber-attacks include actions taken to: (i) steal or corrupt data maintained online or digitally, (ii) gain unauthorized access to or release confidential information, (iii) shut down the Fund or Service Provider website through denial-of-service attacks, or (iv) otherwise disrupt normal business operations. Events arising from human error, faulty or inadequately implemented policies and procedures or other systems failures unrelated to any external cyber-threat may have effects similar to those caused by deliberate cyber-attacks. See “Cybersecurity” below for additional risks related to potential cybersecurity breaches.

 

Derivatives Risk. The Fund may invest in derivatives, which are financial instruments whose value is typically based on the value of a security, index or other instrument. These instruments include futures, options, credit default swaps, total return swaps, repurchase agreements and other similar instruments and may be subject to unanticipated market movements, which are potentially unlimited. Derivatives may also include customized baskets or options (which may incorporate other securities directly and also various derivatives including common stock, options, and futures) structured as agreed upon by a counterparty, as well as specially structured types of mortgage- and asset-backed securities whose value is often linked to commercial and residential mortgage portfolios. The Fund’s use of derivative instruments involves risks different from, and possibly greater than, the risks associated with investing directly in securities and other more traditional investments, and certain derivatives may create a risk of loss greater than the amount invested.

 

Investing for hedging purposes or to increase the Fund’s return may result in certain additional transaction costs that may reduce the Fund’s performance. The Fund may use a variety of currency hedging techniques to attempt to hedge exchange rate risk or gain exposure to a particular currency. When used for hedging purposes, no assurance can be given that each derivative position will achieve a perfect correlation with the investment against which it is being hedged. Because the markets for certain derivative instruments are relatively new, suitable derivatives transactions may not be available in all circumstances for risk management or other purposes and there can be no assurance that a particular derivative position will be available when sought by the Adviser or that such techniques will be utilized by the Adviser.

 

The market value of derivative instruments and securities may be more volatile than that of other instruments, and each type of derivative instrument may have its own special risks, including the risk of mispricing or improper valuation of derivatives and the inability of derivatives to correlate perfectly with underlying assets, rates, and indices. Many derivatives, in particular privately negotiated derivatives, are complex and often valued subjectively. Improper valuations can result in increased cash payment requirements to counterparties or a loss of value to the Fund. The value of derivatives may not correlate perfectly, or at all, with the value of the assets, reference rates or indices they are designed to closely track.

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Derivatives are subject to a number of other risks, including liquidity risk (the possibility that the derivative may be difficult to purchase or sell and the Adviser may be unable to initiate a transaction or liquidate a position at an advantageous time or price), leverage risk
(the possibility that adverse changes in the value or level of the underlying asset, reference rate or index can result in loss of an amount substantially greater than the amount invested in the derivative), interest rate risk (some derivatives are more sensitive to interest rate changes and market price fluctuations), and counterparty risk (the risk that a counterparty may be unable to perform according to a contract, and that any deterioration in a counterparty’s creditworthiness could adversely affect the instrument). In addition, because derivative products are highly specialized, investment techniques and risk analyses employed with respect to investments in derivatives are different from those associated with stocks and bonds. Finally, the Fund’s use of derivatives may cause the Fund to realize higher amounts of short-term capital gains (generally taxed at ordinary income tax rates) than if the Fund had not used such instruments. Derivative instruments are also subject to the risk that the market value of an instrument will change to the detriment of the Fund. If the Adviser inaccurately forecast the values of securities, currencies or interest rates or other economic factors in using derivatives, the Fund might have been in a better position if it had not entered into the transaction at all. Some strategies involving derivative instruments can reduce the risk of loss, but they can also reduce the opportunity for gain or result in losses by offsetting favorable price movements in other investments held by the Fund. The Fund may also have to buy or sell a security at a disadvantageous time or price because regulations require funds to maintain offsetting positions or asset coverage in connection with certain derivatives transactions.

 

The SAI provides a more detailed description of the types of derivative instruments in which the Fund may invest and their associated risks.

 

Emerging Markets Risk. To the extent the Fund invests in emerging market securities, the risks associated with foreign (non-U.S.) investment risk may be particularly high. The Fund’s investments in emerging market countries are subject to all of the risks of foreign investing generally and have additional heightened risks due to a lack of established legal, political, business and social frameworks to support securities markets. These risks include less social, political and economic stability; smaller securities markets with low or nonexistent trading volume and greater illiquidity and price volatility; more restrictive national policies on foreign investment, including restrictions on investment in issuers or industries deemed sensitive to national interests; less transparent and established taxation policies; less developed regulatory or legal structures governing private and foreign investment; more pervasiveness of corruption and crime; less financial sophistication, creditworthiness and/or resources possessed by, and less government regulation of, the financial institutions and issuers with which the Fund transacts; less government supervision and regulation of business and industry practices, stock exchanges, brokers and listed companies than in the U.S.; greater concentration in a few industries resulting in greater vulnerability to regional and global trade conditions; higher rates of inflation and more rapid and extreme fluctuations in inflation rates; greater sensitivity to interest rate changes; increased volatility in currency exchange rates and potential for currency devaluations and/or currency controls; greater debt burdens relative to the size of the economy; more delays in settling portfolio transactions and heightened risk of loss from share registration and custody practices; and less assurance that recent favorable economic developments will not be slowed or reversed by unanticipated economic, political or social events in such countries. Because of these risk factors, the Fund’s investments in developing market countries are subject to greater price volatility and illiquidity than investments in developed markets. Governments of emerging market countries may own or control parts of the private sector. Accordingly, government actions could have a significant impact on economic conditions. Certain emerging market countries require governmental approval prior to investments by foreign persons, limit the amount of investment by foreign persons in a particular sector and/or company, limit the investment by foreign persons to a specific class of securities of an issuer that may have less advantageous rights than a domestically available class, require foreign investors to maintain a trading account with only one licensed securities company in the relevant market and/or impose additional taxes on foreign investors. These may contribute to the illiquidity of the relevant securities market, as well as create inflexibility and uncertainty as to the trading environment. The legal remedies for investors in emerging markets may be more limited than the remedies available in the U.S., and the ability of U.S. authorities (e.g., SEC and the U.S. Department of Justice) to bring actions against bad actors may be limited.

 

Energy Sector Risk. The Fund may invest in the energy sector, which is comprised of energy, industrial, consumer, infrastructure and logistics companies, and will therefore be susceptible to adverse economic, environmental, business, regulatory or other occurrences affecting that sector. The energy markets have experienced significant volatility in recent periods, including a historic drop in crude oil and natural gas prices in April 2020 attributable to the significant decrease in demand for oil and other energy commodities as a result of the slowdown in economic activity due to the COVID-19 pandemic as well as price competition among key oil-producing countries. The low price environment caused financial hardship for energy companies and has led to, and may continue to lead to, energy companies defaulting on debt and filing for bankruptcy. The energy markets may continue to experience stress and relatively high volatility for a prolonged period. The energy sector has historically experienced substantial price volatility. At times, the performance of these investments may lag the performance of other sectors or the market as a whole. Companies operating in the energy sector are subject to specific risks, including, among others, fluctuations in commodity prices; reduced consumer demand for commodities such as oil, natural gas or petroleum products; reduced availability of natural gas or other commodities for transporting, processing, storing or delivering; slowdowns in new construction; extreme weather or other natural disasters; and threats of attack by terrorists on energy assets. Additionally, energy sector companies are subject to substantial government regulation and changes in the regulatory environment for energy companies may adversely impact their profitability. Over time, depletion of natural gas reserves and other energy reserves may also affect the profitability of energy companies. The new presidential administration could significantly impact the regulation of United States financial markets and dramatically alter existing trade, tax, energy and infrastructure policies, among others. The Fund cannot predict whether federal financial regulatory agencies will take any action to adopt new regulations or provide guidance that will adversely impact the energy industry. In addition, the new administration has recently announced several initiatives aimed at addressing climate change. It is unclear how these initiatives could impact the Fund’s investments.

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ETF Structure Risks. The Fund is structured as an ETF and as a result is subject to the special risks, including:

  • Not Individually Redeemable. Shares are not individually redeemable and may be redeemed by the Fund at NAV only in large blocks known as “Creation Units.” You may incur brokerage costs purchasing enough shares to constitute a Creation Unit.
  • Trading Issues. Trading in shares on the Exchange may be halted due to market conditions or for reasons that, in the view of the Exchange, make trading in shares inadvisable, such as extraordinary market volatility. There can be no assurance that shares will continue to meet the listing requirements of the Exchange. An active trading market for the Fund’s shares may not be developed or maintained. If the Fund’s shares are traded outside a collateralized settlement system, the number of financial institutions that can act as authorized participants that can post collateral on an agency basis is limited, which may limit the market for the Fund’s shares.
  • Market Price Variance Risk. The market prices of shares will fluctuate in response to changes in NAV and supply and demand for shares and will include a “bid-ask spread” charged by the exchange specialists, market makers or other participants that trade the particular security. There may be times when the market price and the NAV vary significantly and you may pay more than NAV when buying shares on the secondary market, and you may receive less than NAV when you sell those shares. This means that shares may trade at a discount or premium to NAV. If a shareholder purchases shares at a time when the market price is at a premium to the NAV or sells shares at a time when the market price is at a discount to NAV, the shareholder may sustain losses if the shares are sold at a price that is less than the price paid by the shareholder for the shares. In times of market stress, such as what was experienced during the COVID-19 pandemic, market makers may step away from their role market making in shares of ETFs and in executing trades, which can lead to differences between the market value of Fund shares and the Fund’s net asset value. The market price for the Fund’s shares may deviate from the Fund’s net asset value, particularly during times of market stress, with the result that investors may pay significantly more or significantly less for Fund shares than the Fund’s net asset value, which is reflected in the bid and ask price for Fund shares or in the closing price. When all or a portion of an ETF’s underlying securities trade in a market that is closed when the market for the Fund’s shares is open, there may be changes from the last quote of the closed market and the quote from the Fund’s domestic trading day, which could lead to differences between the market value of the Fund’s shares and the Fund’s net asset value. In stressed market conditions, the market for the Fund’s shares may become less liquid in response to the deteriorating liquidity of the Fund’s portfolio. This adverse effect on the liquidity of the Fund’s shares may, in turn, lead to differences between the market value of the Fund’s shares and the Fund’s net asset value.

Financial Sector Risk. The financial sector can be significantly affected by changes in interest rates, government regulation, the rate of defaults on corporate, consumer and government debt, the availability and cost of capital, and the impact of more stringent capital requirements. The Fund may be adversely affected by events or developments negatively impacting the financial sector.

 

Fixed Income Securities Risk. Fixed income securities held by the Fund are subject to interest rate risk, call risk, prepayment and extension risk, credit risk, duration risk and liquidity risk, which are more fully described below. In addition, current market conditions may pose heightened risks for fixed income securities. Current interest rates have been at or near historic lows in recent years, and therefore there is a risk that interest rates will rise. Future increases in interest rates could result in less liquidity and greater volatility of fixed income securities. The Fund may lose money if short-term or long-term interest rates rise sharply in a manner not anticipated by Fund management. Moreover, new regulations applicable to and changing business practices of financial intermediaries restricting their market marking activities for certain fixed income securities, which may reduce the liquidity and increase the volatility for such fixed income securities. The fixed-income securities market can be susceptible to increases in volatility and decreases in liquidity. Liquidity may decline unpredictably in response to overall economic conditions or credit tightening. For example, a general rise in interest rates may cause investors to move out of fixed income securities on a large scale, which could adversely affect the price and liquidity of fixed income securities and could also result in increased redemptions for the Fund.

·Call Risk. During periods of declining interest rates, a bond issuer may “call,” or repay, its high yielding bonds before their maturity dates. The Fund would then be forced to invest the unanticipated proceeds at lower interest rates, resulting in a decline in its income.
·Credit Risk. Fixed income securities are generally subject to the risk that the issuer may be unable to make principal and interest payments when they are due. There is also the risk that the securities could lose value because of a loss of confidence in the ability of the borrower to pay back debt. Lower rated fixed income securities involve greater credit risk, including the possibility of default or bankruptcy.
·Duration Risk. Longer-term securities may be more sensitive to interest rate changes. Given the recent, historically low interest rates and the potential for increases in those rates, a heightened risk is posed by rising interest rates to longer-term fixed income securities. Effective duration estimates price changes for relatively small changes in rates.
·Interest Rate Risk. Fixed income securities are subject to the risk that the securities could lose value because of interest rate changes. For example, bonds tend to decrease in value if interest rates rise. Fixed income securities with longer maturities sometimes offer higher yields, but are subject to greater price shifts as a result of interest rate changes than fixed income securities with shorter maturities.
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·Liquidity Risk. Trading opportunities are more limited for fixed income securities that have not received any credit ratings, have received ratings below investment grade or are not widely held. These features make it more difficult to sell or buy a security at a favorable price or time. Consequently, the Fund may have to accept a lower price to sell a security, sell other securities to raise cash or give up an investment opportunity, any of which could have a negative effect on its performance. Infrequent trading of securities may also lead to an increase in their price volatility. Liquidity risk also refers to the possibility that the Fund may not be able to sell a security or close out an investment contract when it wants to. If this happens, the Fund will be required to hold the security or keep the position open, and it could incur losses.
·Prepayment and Extension Risk. Many types of fixed income securities are subject to prepayment risk. Prepayment occurs when the issuer of a fixed income security can repay principal prior to the security’s maturity. Fixed income securities subject to prepayment can offer less potential for gains during a declining interest rate environment and similar or greater potential for loss in a rising interest rate environment and accordingly, a decline in the Fund’s net asset value. In addition, the potential impact of prepayment features on the price of a fixed income security can be difficult to predict and result in greater volatility. On the other hand, rising interest rates could cause prepayments of the obligations to decrease, extending the life of mortgage- and asset-backed securities with lower payment rates. This is known as extension risk and may increase the Fund’s sensitivity to rising rates and its potential for price declines.
·Variable and Floating Rate Securities. Variable and floating rate securities generally are less sensitive to interest changes but may decline in value if their interest rates do not rise as much, or as quickly, as interest rates in general. Floating rate securities will not generally increase in value if interest rates decline.

 

Fluctuation of Net Asset Value Risk. The NAV of the Fund’s shares will generally fluctuate with changes in the market value of the Fund’s holdings. The market prices of the shares will generally fluctuate in accordance with changes in NAV as well as the relative supply of and demand for the shares on the Exchange. The Adviser cannot predict whether the shares will trade below, at or above their NAV. Price differences may be due, in large part, to the fact that supply and demand forces at work in the secondary trading market for the shares will be closely related to, but not identical to, the same forces influencing the prices of the Fund’s holdings trading individually or in the aggregate at any point in time. In addition, unlike conventional ETFs, the Fund is not an index fund. The Fund is actively managed and does not seek to replicate the performance of a specified index. Actively managed ETFs have a limited trading history and, therefore, there can be no assurance as to whether and/or the extent to which the shares will trade at premiums or discounts to NAV.

 

Foreign (Non-U.S.) Investment Risk. Foreign (non-U.S.) securities present greater investment risks than investing in the securities of U.S. issuers and may experience more rapid and extreme changes in value than the securities of U.S. companies, due to less stringent foreign securities regulations and less information about foreign (non-U.S.) companies in the form of reports and ratings than about U.S. issuers; different accounting, auditing and financial reporting requirements; smaller markets; nationalization; expropriation or confiscatory taxation; currency blockage; or political, financial, social and economic events (including, for example, military confrontations, war and terrorism) or diplomatic developments. To the extent that the Fund invests a significant portion of its assets in a specific geographic region, the Fund will generally have more exposure to regional economic risks associated with foreign investments. Foreign (non-U.S.) securities may also be less liquid and more difficult to value than securities of U.S. issuers. In addition, foreign markets may have greater volatility than domestic markets and foreign securities may be less liquid and harder to value than domestic securities. Certain foreign markets may rely heavily on particular industries or foreign capital and are more vulnerable to diplomatic developments, the imposition of economic sanctions against a particular country or countries, organizations, entities and/or individuals, changes in international trading patterns, trade barriers, and other protectionist or retaliatory measures. International trade barriers or economic sanctions against foreign countries, organizations, entities and/or individuals may adversely affect the Fund’s foreign holdings or exposures.

 

Foreign securities involve special risks and costs, which are considered by the Adviser in evaluating the creditworthiness of issuers and making investment decisions for the Fund. Foreign securities fluctuate in price because of political, financial, social and economic events in foreign countries (including, for example, military confrontations, war and terrorism). A foreign security could also lose value because of more or less stringent foreign securities regulations and less stringent accounting and disclosure standards. In addition, foreign markets may have greater volatility than domestic markets and foreign securities may be less liquid and harder to value than domestic securities.

 

Foreign securities, and in particular foreign debt securities, are sensitive to changes in interest rates. In addition, investment in the securities of foreign governments involves the risk that foreign governments may default on their obligations or may otherwise not respect the integrity of their obligations. The performance of investments in securities denominated in a foreign currency also will depend, in part, on the strength of the foreign currency against the U.S. dollar and the interest rate environment in the country issuing the currency. Absent other events which otherwise could affect the value of a foreign security (such as a change in the political climate or an issuer’s credit quality), appreciation in the value of the foreign currency generally results in an increase in value of a foreign currency-denominated security in terms of U.S. dollars. A decline in the value of the foreign currency relative to the U.S. dollar generally results in a decrease in value of a foreign currency-denominated security. Additionally, many countries throughout the world are dependent on a healthy U.S. economy and are adversely affected when the U.S. economy weakens, or its markets decline.

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Investment in foreign securities may involve higher costs than investment in U.S. securities, including higher transaction and custody costs as well as the imposition of additional taxes by foreign governments. Foreign investments also may involve risks associated with the level of currency exchange rates, less complete financial information about the issuers, less market liquidity, more market volatility and political instability. Future political and economic developments, the possible imposition of withholding taxes on dividend income, the possible seizure or nationalization of foreign holdings, the possible establishment of exchange controls or freezes on the convertibility of currency, trade restrictions (including tariffs) or the adoption of other governmental restrictions might adversely affect an investment in foreign securities. Additionally, foreign banks and foreign branches of domestic banks may be subject to less stringent reserve requirements and to different accounting, auditing and recordkeeping requirements.

 

While the Fund’s investments may, if permitted, be denominated in foreign currencies, the portfolio securities and other assets held by the Fund or underlying funds are valued in U.S. dollars. Price fluctuations may occur in the dollar value of foreign securities because of changing currency exchange rates or, in the case of hedged positions, because the U.S. dollar declines in value relative to the currency hedged. Currency exchange rates may fluctuate significantly over short periods of time causing a Fund’s or underlying fund’s NAV to fluctuate as well. Currency exchange rates can be affected unpredictably by the intervention or the failure to intervene by U.S. or foreign governments or central banks, or by currency controls or political developments in the United States or abroad. To the extent that a Fund or underlying fund is invested in foreign securities while also maintaining currency positions, it may be exposed to greater combined risk. The net currency positions of the Fund or underlying funds may expose them to risks independent of their securities positions.

 

The Fund may operate in euros and/or may hold euros and/or euro-denominated bonds and other obligations. The euro requires participation of multiple sovereign states forming the Euro zone and is therefore sensitive to the credit and general economic and political positions of each such state, including, each state’s actual and intended ongoing engagement with and/or support for the other sovereign states then forming the European Union (“EU”), in particular those within the Euro zone. Changes in these factors might materially and adversely impact the value of securities in which a Fund or underlying fund has invested.

 

In addition, voters in the United Kingdom (“UK”) approved withdrawal from the EU and the UK withdrew from the EU on January 31, 2020. Securities issued by companies domiciled in the UK could be subject to changing regulatory and tax regimes. Banking and financial services companies that operate in the UK or EU could be disproportionately impacted by those actions. Other countries may seek to withdraw from the EU and/or abandon the euro, the common currency of the EU, which could exacerbate market and currency volatility and negatively impact the Fund’s investments in securities issued by companies located in EU countries.

 

A number of countries in Europe have suffered terror attacks, and additional attacks may occur in the future. Ukraine has experienced ongoing military conflict; this conflict may expand and military attacks could occur in Europe. Europe has also been struggling with mass migration from the Middle East and Africa. Recent and upcoming European elections could, depending on the outcomes, further call into question the future direction of the EU. The ultimate effects of these events and other socio-political or geopolitical issues are not known but could profoundly affect global economies and markets. The impact of these actions, especially if they occur in a disorderly fashion, is not clear, but could be significant and far-reaching. Whether or not the Fund invests in securities of issuers located in Europe or with significant exposure to European issuers or countries, these events could negatively affect the value and liquidity of the Fund’s investments.

 

Futures Contract Risk. The successful use of futures contracts draws upon the Adviser’s skill and experience with respect to such instruments and is subject to special risk considerations. The primary risks associated with the use of futures contracts, which may adversely affect the Fund’s NAV and total return are (a) the imperfect correlation between the change in market value of the instruments held by the Fund and the price of the forward or futures contract; (b) possible lack of a liquid secondary market for a forward or futures contract and the resulting inability to close a forward or futures contract when desired; (c) losses caused by unanticipated market movements, which are potentially unlimited; (d) the Adviser’s inability to predict correctly the direction of securities prices, interest rates, currency exchange rates and other economic factors; (e) the possibility that the counterparty will default in the performance of its obligations; and (f) if the Fund has insufficient cash, it may have to sell securities from its portfolio to meet daily variation margin requirements, and the Fund may have to sell securities at a time when it may be disadvantageous to do so. The Fund could be unable to recover assets held at the futures clearing broker, even assets directly traceable to the Fund from the futures clearing broker in the event of a bankruptcy of the broker. A futures clearing broker is required to segregate customer funds pursuant to the Commodities Exchange Act and the regulations of the U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”). However, in the unlikely event of the broker’s bankruptcy, there is no equivalent of the Securities Investors Protection Corporation insurance as is applicable in the case of securities broker dealers’ bankruptcies.

 

Gap Risk. The Fund is subject to the risk that a stock price or derivative value will change dramatically from one level to another with no trading in between and/or before the Fund can exit the investment. Usually such movements occur when there are adverse news announcements, which can cause a stock price or derivative value to drop substantially from the previous day’s closing price. For example, the price of a stock can drop from its closing price one night to its opening price the next morning. The difference between the two prices is the gap. Trading halts may lead to gap risk.

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Hedging Transactions Risk. The Adviser may employ various hedging techniques. The success of the Fund’s hedging strategy will be subject to the Adviser’s ability to correctly assess the degree of correlation between the performance of the instruments used in the hedging strategy and the performance of the investments in the portfolio being hedged. Since the characteristics of many securities change as markets change or time passes, the success of the Fund’s hedging strategy will also be subject to the Adviser’s ability to continually recalculate, readjust, and execute hedges in an efficient and timely manner. Investing for hedging purposes or to increase the Fund’s return may result in certain additional transaction costs.

 

Hedging against a decline in the value of a portfolio position does not eliminate fluctuations in the values of those portfolio positions or prevent losses if the values of those positions decline. Rather, it establishes other positions designed to gain from those same declines, thus seeking to moderate the decline in the portfolio position’s value. Such hedging transactions also limit the opportunity for gain if the value of the portfolio position should increase. For a variety of reasons, the Adviser may not seek to establish a perfect correlation between such hedging instruments and the portfolio holdings being hedged. Such imperfect correlation may prevent the Fund from achieving the intended hedge or expose the Fund to risk of loss. In addition, it is not possible to hedge fully or perfectly against any risk, and hedging entails its own costs. The Adviser may determine, in its sole discretion, not to hedge against certain risks and certain risks may exist that cannot be hedged. Furthermore, the Adviser may not anticipate a particular risk so as to hedge against it effectively. Hedging transactions also limit the opportunity for gain if the value of a hedged portfolio position should increase.

 

High Yield Risk. Investment in or exposure to high yield (lower rated) debt instruments (also known as “junk bonds”) may involve greater levels of interest rate, credit, liquidity and valuation risk than for higher rated instruments. High yield debt instruments are considered predominantly speculative and are higher risk than investment grade instruments with respect to the issuer’s continuing ability to make principal and interest payments and, therefore, such instruments generally involve greater risk of default or price changes than higher rated debt instruments. An economic downturn or period of rising interest rates could adversely affect the value of these securities and market for these securities and reduce market liquidity (liquidity risk). Less active markets can diminish the Fund’s ability to obtain accurate market quotations when valuing portfolio securities and thereby give rise to valuation risk. If the issuer of a security is in default with respect to interest or principal payments, the issuer’s security could lose its entire value. Furthermore, the transaction costs associated with the purchase and sale of high yield debt instruments may vary greatly depending on a number of factors and may adversely affect the Fund’s performance.

 

Index Risk. If a derivative is linked to the performance of an index, it will be subject to the risks associated with changes in that index. If the index changes, the Fund could receive lower interest payments or experience a reduction in the value of the derivative to below what the Fund paid. Certain indexed securities, including inverse securities (which move in an opposite direction to the index), may create leverage, to the extent that they increase or decrease in value at a rate that is a multiple of the changes in the applicable index.

 

Investment Companies and Exchange-Traded Funds Risk. When the Fund invests in other investment companies, including ETFs, it will bear additional expenses based on its pro rata share of the other investment company’s or ETF’s operating expenses, including the management fees of the investment company or ETF in addition to those paid by the Fund. The risk of owning an investment company or ETF generally reflects the risks of owning the underlying investments the investment company or ETF holds. The Fund also will incur brokerage costs when it purchases and sells ETFs. The Fund may invest in in inverse ETFs, which may result in increased volatility and will magnify the Fund’s losses or gains. During periods of market volatility, inverse ETFs may not perform as expected.

 

Issuer-Specific Risk. The value of a specific security or option can be more volatile than the market as a whole and may perform worse than the market as a whole. The value of large cap securities, as represented by the S&P 500 Index, can be more volatile than smaller cap securities due to differing market reactions to adverse issuer, political, regulatory, market, or economic developments.

 

Leveraging Risk. The use of leverage, such as borrowing for investment purposes and derivative instruments, will magnify the Fund’s gains or losses. The use of certain derivatives may increase leveraging risk and adverse changes in the value or level of the underlying asset, rate, or index may result in a loss substantially greater than the amount paid for the derivative. The use of leverage may exaggerate any increase or decrease in the net asset value, causing a Fund to be more volatile and small changes in the value of the underlying instrument may produce disproportionate losses to the Fund. The use of leverage may increase expenses and increase the impact of the Fund’s other risks. The use of leverage may cause the Fund to liquidate portfolio positions when it may not be advantageous to do so in order to satisfy its obligations, to meet additional margin requirements or to meet collateral segregation requirements or regulatory requirements resulting in increased volatility of returns. Leverage, including borrowing, may cause the Fund to be more volatile than if the Fund had not been leveraged.

 

LIBOR Risk. The Fund may invest in securities and other instruments whose interest payments are determined by references to the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”). According to various reports, certain financial institutions, commencing as early as 2005 and throughout the global financial crisis, routinely made artificially low submissions in the LIBOR setting process, which have subsequently resulted in investigations and fines. These developments may have adversely affected the interest rates on securities whose interest payments were determined by reference to LIBOR. Any future similar developments could, in turn, reduce the value of such securities owned by the Fund.

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The United Kingdom Financial Conduct Authority, which regulates LIBOR, announced that after 2021 it will cease its active encouragement of banks to provide the quotations needed to sustain LIBOR. As a result, plans are underway to phase out the use of LIBOR by the end of 2021. Alternatives to LIBOR are in development in many major financial markets. For example, the U.S. Federal Reserve has begun publishing a Secured Overnight Financing Rate (SOFR), a broad measure of secured overnight U.S. Treasury repo rates, as a possible replacement for U.S. dollar LIBOR. However, there is currently no definitive information regarding the future utilization of LIBOR or of any particular replacement rate. There are obstacles to converting certain longer term securities and transactions to a new benchmark and the effectiveness of one alternative reference rate versus multiple alternative reference rates in new or existing financial instruments and products has not been determined. In addition, it is expected that market participants will amend financial instruments referencing LIBOR to include fallback provisions and other measures that contemplate the discontinuation of LIBOR or other similar market disruption events, but neither the effect of the transition process nor the viability of such measures is known. As market participants transition away from LIBOR, LIBOR’s usefulness may deteriorate, which could occur prior to the end of 2021. The transition process may lead to increased volatility and illiquidity in markets that currently rely on LIBOR to determine interest rates. In 2017, the United Kingdom’s Financial Conduct Authority warned that LIBOR may cease to be available or appropriate for use by 2021. The unavailability of LIBOR presents risks to the Fund, including the risk that any pricing or adjustments to the Fund’s investments resulting from a substitute or alternate reference rate may adversely affect the Fund’s performance and/or NAV. The utilization of an alternative reference rate, or the transition process to an alternative reference rate, may adversely affect the fund’s performance It remains uncertain how such changes would be implemented and the effects such changes would have on the Fund, including any negative effects on the Fund’s liquidity and valuation of the Fund’s investments, issuers of instruments in which the Fund invests and financial markets generally.

 

Liquidity Risk. There is risk that the Fund may not be able to pay redemption proceeds within the time periods described in this Prospectus because of unusual market conditions, an unusually high volume of redemption requests, legal restrictions impairing its ability to sell particular securities or close derivative positions at an advantageous market price or other reasons. Certain portfolio securities may be less liquid than others, which may make them difficult or impossible to sell at the time and the price that the Fund would like or difficult to value. The Fund may have to lower the price, sell other securities instead or forgo an investment opportunity. In addition, less liquid securities may be more difficult to value and markets may become less liquid when there are fewer interested buyers or sellers or when dealers are unwilling or unable to make a market for certain securities. Recently, dealers have generally been less willing to make markets for fixed income securities. Any of these events could have a negative effect on fund management or performance. Funds with principal investment strategies that involve investments in securities of companies with smaller market capitalizations, foreign securities, Rule 144A securities, derivatives (e.g., swap contracts) or securities with substantial market and/or credit risk tend to have the greatest exposure to liquidity risk. In the past, in stressed markets, certain types of securities, suffered periods of illiquidity if disfavored by the market. All of these risks may increase during periods of market turmoil, such as that experienced in 2020 with COVID-19, and could have a negative effect on the Fund’s performance.

 

Management Risk. The Fund’s investment strategies may not result in an increase in the value of your investment or in overall performance equal to other similar investment vehicles having similar investment strategies. Management risk includes the risk that the quantitative model used by the Adviser may not perform as expected, particularly in volatile markets. The net asset value for the Fund changes daily based on the performance of the securities and derivatives in which it invests. The Adviser’s judgment about the attractiveness, value and potential appreciation of particular securities and derivatives in which the Fund invests may prove to be incorrect and may not produce the desired results. Additionally, the Adviser may have conflicts of interest that could interfere with its management of the Fund’s portfolio. For example, the Adviser or its affiliates may manage other investment funds or have other clients that may be similar to, or overlap with, the investment objective and strategy of the Fund, creating potential conflicts of interest when making decisions regarding which investments may be appropriate for the Fund and other clients. Further information regarding conflicts of interest is available in the SAI.

 

Market Events Risk. There has been increased volatility, depressed valuations, decreased liquidity and heightened uncertainty in the financial markets during the past several years, including what was experienced in 2020. These conditions are an inevitable part of investing in capital markets and may continue, recur, worsen or spread. The U.S. government and the Federal Reserve, as well as certain foreign governments and central banks, have taken steps to support financial markets, including by keeping interest rates at historically low levels. This and other government intervention may not work as intended, particularly if the efforts are perceived by investors as being unlikely to achieve the desired results. The U.S. government and the Federal Reserve may reduce market support activities. Such reduction, including interest rate increases, could negatively affect financial markets generally, increase market volatility and reduce the value and liquidity of securities in which the Fund invests. Policy and legislative changes in the United States and in other countries may also continue to contribute to decreased liquidity and increased volatility in the financial markets. The impact of these changes on the markets, and the practical implications for market participants, may not be fully known for some time. COVID-19 has resulted in travel restrictions, closed international borders, enhanced health screenings at ports of entry and elsewhere, disruption of and delays in healthcare service preparation and delivery, prolonged quarantines, cancellations, business and school closings, supply chain disruptions, and lower consumer demand, as well as general concern and uncertainty. The impact of COVID-19, and other infectious illness outbreaks that may arise in the future, could adversely affect the economies of many nations or the entire global economy, individual issuers and capital markets in ways that cannot necessarily be foreseen.

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Market Risk. Overall market risk may affect the value of individual instruments in which the Fund invests. The Fund is subject to the risk that the securities markets will move down, sometimes rapidly and unpredictably, based on overall economic conditions and other factors, which may negatively affect the Fund’s performance. Factors such as domestic and foreign (non-U.S.) economic growth and market conditions, real or perceived adverse economic or political conditions, inflation, changes in interest rate levels, lack of liquidity in the markets, volatility in the securities markets, adverse investor sentiment affect the securities markets and political events affect the securities markets. Securities markets also may experience long periods of decline in value. When the value of the Fund’s investments goes down, your investment in the Fund decreases in value and you could lose money.

 

Equity securities generally have greater price volatility than fixed income securities, although under certain market conditions fixed income securities may have comparable or greater price volatility. During a general downturn in the securities markets, multiple asset classes may decline in value simultaneously. Adverse market conditions may be prolonged and may not have the same impact on all types of securities. Different sectors of the market and different security types may react differently to such developments. Changes in value may be temporary or may last for extended periods. The Fund may experience a substantial or complete loss on any individual security. Even when securities markets perform well, there is no assurance that the investments held by the Fund will increase in value along with the broader market. Market factors, such as the demand for particular portfolio securities, may cause the price of certain portfolio securities to fall while the prices of other securities rise or remain unchanged.

 

Local, state, regional, national or global events such as war, acts of terrorism, the spread of infectious illness or other public health issues, recessions, or other events could have a significant impact on the Fund and its investments and could result in decreases to the Fund’s net asset value. Political, geopolitical, natural and other events, including war, terrorism, trade disputes, government shutdowns, market closures, natural and environmental disasters, epidemics, pandemics and other public health crises and related events and governments’ reactions to such events have led, and in the future may lead, to economic uncertainty, decreased economic activity, increased market volatility and other disruptive effects on U.S. and global economies and markets. Such events may have significant adverse direct or indirect effects on the Fund and its investments. For example, a widespread health crisis such as a global pandemic could cause substantial market volatility, exchange trading suspensions and closures, impact the ability to complete redemptions, and affect Fund performance. A health crisis may exacerbate other pre-existing political, social and economic risks. In addition, the increasing interconnectedness of markets around the world may result in many markets being affected by events or conditions in a single country or region or events affecting a single or small number of issuers.

 

Model Risk. The Fund will use model-based strategies that, while historically effective, may not be successful on an ongoing basis or could contain unknown errors, which may result in a decline in the value of the Fund’s shares. Any imperfections or limitations in a model could affect the ability of the manager to implement strategies. By necessity, models make simplifying assumptions that limit their efficacy. Models relying on historical market data can fail to predict future market events. Further, the data used in the models may be inaccurate and/or it may not include the most recent information about a company or a security. In addition, the model may not adequately take into account certain factors, the data used in the model may be inaccurate, or the computer programming used to create quantitative models might contain one or more errors. Such errors might never be detected, or might be detected only after the Fund has sustained a loss (or reduced performance) related to such errors. Moreover, during periods of increased volatility or changing market conditions, the commonality of portfolio holdings and similarities between strategies of quantitative managers may amplify losses. An increasing number of market participants may rely on models that are similar to those used by the Adviser, which may result in a substantial number of market participants taking the same action with respect to an investment. Should one or more of these other market participants begin to divest themselves of one or more portfolio holdings, the Fund could suffer significant losses. In addition, changes in underlying market conditions can adversely affect the performance of a model.

 

Mortgage-Backed and Asset-Backed Securities Risk. The risk of investing in mortgage-backed and other asset-backed securities, including prepayment risk, extension risk, interest rate risk, market risk and management risk as discussed under Fixed Income Securities Risk above. Mortgage-backed securities include caps and floors, inverse floaters, mortgage dollar rolls, private mortgage pass-through securities, resets and stripped mortgage securities. With respect to prepayment risk, if interest rates fall, the underlying debt may be repaid early, reducing the value of the Fund’s investments. On the other hand, if interest rates rise, the duration of the securities may be extended, making them more sensitive to changes in interest rates. Furthermore, fewer prepayments may be made, which would cause the average bond maturity to rise, increasing the potential for the Fund to lose money. The value of mortgage-backed and asset-backed securities may be considerably affected by changes in interest rates, the market’s perception of issuers, declines in the value of collateral, and the creditworthiness of the parties involved. Those securities that are guaranteed as to timely payment of interest and principal by a government entity, are not guaranteed as to market price, which will fluctuate. The ability of the Fund to successfully utilize these instruments may depend on the ability of the Fund’s Adviser to forecast interest rates and other economic factors correctly.

 

New Fund Risk. The Fund is recently formed. Investors bear the risk that the Fund may not grow to or maintain economically viable size, not be successful in implementing its investment strategy, and may not employ a successful investment strategy, any of which could result in the Fund being liquidated at any time without shareholder approval and/or at a time that may not be favorable for certain shareholders. Such a liquidation could have negative tax consequences for shareholders.

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Odd Lot Pricing Risk. Bonds may be purchased and held as smaller sized bond positions known as “odd lots”. Pricing services generally value such securities based on bid prices for larger institutional sized bond positions known as “round lots”; and such round lot prices may reflect more favorable pricing than odd lot holdings. The Fund may purchase securities suitable for its investment strategies in odd lots. Special valuation considerations may apply with respect to the Fund’s odd-lot positions, as the Fund may receive different prices when it sells such positions than it would receive for sales of institutional round lot positions. The Fund may fair value a particular bond if the Adviser does not believe that the round lot value provided by the independent pricing service reflects fair value of the Fund’s holding. There can be no assurance that the Fund’s valuation procedures will result in pricing data that is completely congruent with prices that the Fund might obtain on the open market.

 

Portfolio Turnover Risk. The Fund may experience high portfolio turnover, including investments made on a shorter-term basis, which may lead to increased Fund expenses that may result in lower investment returns. A higher portfolio turnover may result in higher transactional and brokerage costs. High portfolio turnover may also result in higher short-term capital gains taxable to shareholders.

 

Regulatory Risk. Changes in the laws or regulations of the United States or other countries, including any changes to applicable tax laws and regulations, could impair the ability of the Fund to achieve its investment objective and could increase the operating expenses of mutual funds trading certain derivative instruments to regulation by the CFTC, including additional disclosure and operational obligations. The SEC recently adopted regulations that, upon effectiveness, will subject activities of mutual funds trading certain derivative instruments to additional regulation, which may increase the operating expenses of the Fund and impair the Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective.

 

Sector Risk. The risk that if the Fund invests a significant portion of its total assets in certain issuers within the same economic sector, an economic, business or political development or natural or other event, including war, terrorism, natural and environmental disasters, epidemics, pandemics and other public health crisis adversely affecting that sector may affect the value of the Fund’s investments more than if the Fund’s investments were not so concentrated.

  • Financials Sector Risk. The financials sector includes companies in the banks, capital markets, diversified financials, and insurance industry groups. Performance of companies in the financials sector may be adversely impacted by many factors, including, among others, changes in government regulations, economic conditions, and interest rates, credit rating downgrades, and decreased liquidity in credit markets. The extent to which the Fund may invest in a company that engages in securities-related activities or banking is limited by applicable law. The impact of changes in capital requirements and recent or future regulation of any individual financial company, or of the financials sector as a whole, cannot be predicted. In recent years, cyber-attacks and technology malfunctions and failures have become increasingly frequent in this sector and have caused significant losses to companies in this sector, which may negatively impact the Fund.
  • Industrials Sector Risk. The industrials sector includes companies in the commercial and professional services and transportation industry groups, including companies engaged in the business of human capital management, business research and consulting, air freight and logistics, airlines, maritime shipping and transportation, railroads and trucking, transportation infrastructure, and aerospace and defense. The value of securities issued by companies in the industrials sector may be adversely affected by supply and demand changes related to their specific products or services and industrials sector products in general. The products of manufacturing companies may face obsolescence due to rapid technological developments and frequent new product introduction. Global events and changes in government regulations, economic conditions and exchange rates may adversely affect the performance of companies in the industrials sector. Companies in the industrials sector may be adversely affected by liability for environmental damage and product liability claims. The industrials sector may also be adversely affected by changes or trends in commodity prices, which may be influenced by unpredictable factors. Companies in the industrials sector, particularly aerospace and defense companies, may also be adversely affected by government spending policies because companies in this sector tend to rely to a significant extent on government demand for their products and services.
  • Information Technology Sector Risk. The information technology sector includes companies in the software and services, technology hardware and equipment and semiconductors and semiconductor equipment industry groups. Information technology companies face intense competition, both domestically and internationally, which may have an adverse effect on their profit margins. Like other technology companies, information technology companies may have limited product lines, markets, financial resources or personnel. The products of information technology companies may face obsolescence due to rapid technological developments, frequent new product introduction, unpredictable changes in growth rates and competition for the services of qualified personnel. Companies in the information technology sector are heavily dependent on patent and intellectual property rights. The loss or impairment of these rights may adversely affect the profitability of these companies.
  • Insurance Sector Risk. The Fund may hold a significant investment in the insurance sector. Insurance companies’ profits are affected by many factors, including interest rate movements, the imposition of premium rate caps, competition and pressure to compete globally. Certain types of insurance companies may also be affected by weather catastrophes and other disasters and mortality rates. In addition, although the industry is currently subject to extensive regulation, companies in this industry may be adversely affected by increased governmental regulation or tax law changes in the future.
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  • Retail Sector Risk. The Fund may hold a significant investment in the retail sector. Retail and related industries can be significantly affected by the performance of the domestic and international economy, consumer confidence and spending, intense competition, changes in demographics, and changing consumer tastes and preferences. In addition, the impact of any epidemic, pandemic or natural disaster, or widespread fear that such events may occur, could negatively affect the global economy and, in turn, negatively affect companies in the retail sector. A recent example is the negative impact on the retail sector of the aggressive measures taken worldwide by governments in response to COVID-19, including closing borders, restricting international and domestic travel, and the imposition of prolonged quarantines of large populations, and by businesses, including changes to operations and reducing staff.

 

Swap Risk. Swap agreements are subject to the risk that the counterparty to the swap will default on its obligation to pay the Fund and the risk that the Fund will not be able to meet its obligations to pay the counterparty to the swap. In addition, there is the risk that a swap may be terminated by the Fund or the counterparty in accordance with its terms. If a swap were to terminate, the Fund may be unable to implement its investment strategies and the Fund may not be able to seek to achieve its investment objective.

  • Credit Default Swaps Risk. A credit default swap enables an investor to buy or sell protection against a credit event with respect to an issuer. Credit default swaps involve risks because they are difficult to value, are highly susceptible to liquidity and credit risk, and generally pay a return to the party that has paid the premium only in the event of an actual default by the issuer of the underlying obligation (as opposed to a credit downgrade or other indication of financial difficulty). The Fund bears the loss of the amount expected to be received under a swap agreement in the event of the default or bankruptcy of a swap agreement counterparty.
  • Total Return Swaps Risk. A total return swap is a contract in which one party agrees to make periodic payments to another party based on the change in market value of the assets underlying the contract, which may include a specified security, basket of securities, or securities indices during the specified period, in return for periodic payments based on a fixed or variable interest rate or the total return from other underlying assets. Total return swap agreements may be used to obtain exposure to a security or market without owning or taking physical custody of such security or investing directly in such market. Total return swap agreements may effectively add leverage to the Fund’s portfolio because, in addition to its total net assets, the Fund would be subject to investment exposure on the notional amount of the swap. The primary risks associated with total returns swaps are credit risks (if the counterparty fails to meet its obligations) and market risk (if there is no liquid market for the agreement or unfavorable changes occur to the underlying asset).

U.S. Government Securities Risk. Treasury obligations may differ in their interest rates, maturities, times of issuance and other characteristics. Obligations of U.S. Government agencies and authorities are supported by varying degrees of credit but generally are not backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government. No assurance can be given that the U.S. Government will provide financial support to its agencies and authorities if it is not obligated by law to do so. In addition, the value of U.S. Government securities may be affected by changes in the credit rating of the U.S. Government.

 

Valuation Risk. The sale price the Fund could receive for a security may differ from the Fund’s valuation of the security, particularly for securities that trade in low volume or volatile markets, or that are valued using a fair value methodology. Because portfolio securities of the Fund may be traded on non-U.S. exchanges, and non-U.S. exchanges may be open on days when the Fund does not price its shares, the value of the securities in the Fund’s portfolio may change on days when shareholders will not be able to purchase or sell the Fund’s shares.

 

Volatility Risk. The Fund’s investments may appreciate or decrease significantly in value over short periods of time. The value of an investment in the Fund’s portfolio may fluctuate due to factors that affect markets generally or that affect a particular industry or sector. The value of an investment in the Fund’s portfolio may also be more volatile than the market as a whole. This volatility may affect the Fund’s net asset value per share, including by causing it to experience significant increases or declines in value over short periods of time. Events or financial circumstances affecting individual investments, industries or sectors may increase the volatility of the Fund.

 

Additional Information About Risks: The Fund’s SAI, which is incorporated by reference into this Prospectus, includes more information about the Fund and its investments and risks. The risks described in this Prospectus (and in the SAI) are not intended to include every potential risk of investing in the Fund. The Fund could be subject to additional risks because the types of investments it makes may change over time.

 

Portfolio Holdings Disclosure: A description of the Fund’s policies and procedures regarding the release of portfolio holdings information is available in the Fund’s SAI. Shareholders may request portfolio holdings schedules at no charge by calling
1 (480) 757-4277.

 

Cybersecurity: The computer systems, networks and devices used by the Fund and its service providers to carry out routine business operations employ a variety of protections designed to prevent damage or interruption from computer viruses, network failures, computer and telecommunication failures, infiltration by unauthorized persons and security breaches. Despite the various protections utilized by the Fund and its service providers, systems, networks, or devices potentially can be breached. The Fund and its shareholders could be negatively impacted as a result of a cybersecurity breach. The Fund and the Adviser have limited ability to prevent or mitigate cybersecurity incidents affecting third-party Service Providers.

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Cybersecurity breaches can include unauthorized access to systems, networks, or devices; infection from computer viruses or other malicious software code; and attacks that shut down, disable, slow, or otherwise disrupt operations, business processes, or website access or functionality. Cybersecurity breaches may cause disruptions and impact the Fund’s business operations, potentially resulting in financial losses; interference with the Fund’s ability to calculate its NAV; impediments to trading; the inability of the Fund, the Adviser, and other service providers to transact business; prevention of Fund investors from purchasing, redeeming or exchanging shares or receiving distributions; violations of applicable privacy and other laws; regulatory fines, penalties, reputational damage, reimbursement or other compensation costs, or additional compliance costs; as well as the inadvertent release of confidential information.

 

Similar adverse consequences could result from cybersecurity breaches affecting issuers of securities in which the Fund invests; counterparties with which the Fund engages in transactions; governmental and other regulatory authorities; exchange and other financial market operators, banks, brokers, dealers, insurance companies, and other financial institutions (including financial intermediaries and service providers for the Fund’s shareholders); and other parties. In addition, substantial costs may be incurred by these entities in order to prevent any cybersecurity breaches in the future.

 

 

MANAGEMENT 

 

Investment Adviser 

 

Redwood Investment Management, LLC (“Redwood” or the “Adviser”), with principal offices at 4110 N. Scottsdale Rd., Suite 125, Scottsdale, AZ, 85251, serves as the investment adviser for the Fund. In addition to advising the Fund, Redwood provides discretionary investment advice to certain individuals, high net worth individuals, pension and profit sharing plans, trusts, estates, corporations, other investment advisory firms, affiliated registered investment companies and a pooled investment vehicle. Redwood also serves as a sub-advisor to other investment advisers. Subject to the supervision of the Fund’s Board of Trustees, the Adviser is responsible for managing the Fund’s investments, executing transactions and providing related administrative services and facilities under an Investment Advisory Agreement between the Fund and the Adviser. As of May 30, 2021, the Adviser had approximately $2.09 billion in assets under management.

 

The Adviser has entered into an investment advisory agreement with the Fund. Under the agreement, the Adviser is entitled to receive an annual management fee equal to 0.75% of the Fund’s average daily net assets. The Fund’s management fee is a “unitary” fee that includes all operating expenses payable by a Fund, except for brokerage fees and commissions, taxes, borrowing costs (such as dividend expenses on securities sold short and interest), fees and expenses of other investment companies in which the Fund may invest, and such extraordinary or non-recurring expenses as may arise, including litigation expenses.

 

A discussion regarding the basis for the Board of Trustees’ approval of the investment advisory agreement will be available in the first annual or semi-annual report of the Fund.

 

Portfolio Managers 

 

Michael T. Messinger

 

Mr. Messinger is a Portfolio Manager and Principal at Redwood with eighteen years of experience in financial services. Mr. Messinger is responsible for overseeing the development, implementation, and live risk management of Redwood’s investment strategies. Prior to launching Redwood in 2010, he served as a Regional Vice President for RiverSource Investments (now known as Columbia Management) from 2007 to 2010. Mr. Messinger also worked as a marketer with ING’s investment management and insurance divisions from 2003 to 2007. Mr. Messinger began his career with UBS Wealth Management in 2000. Mr. Messinger holds a Bachelor’s degree in Finance from the University of Arizona.

 

Michael T. Cheung

 

Mr. Cheung is a Portfolio Manager and Senior Quantitative Analyst at Redwood. He has been with Redwood since 2013, and conducts research and macro analysis on current and prospective investments. His primary focus is on research, development, and testing of systematic investment strategies. He is also responsible for proprietary research software design and development, having experience working with a variety of programming languages and database structures. Mr. Cheung brings several years of quantitative investing experience, previously positioned as a head trader at a proprietary equities trading desk, responsible for overseeing both automated and discretionary trading systems. Prior to joining Redwood, Mr. Cheung was a quantitative trader at Coastal Trade Securities, LLC from 2010 to 2012 and at Agoge Capital, LLC from 2012 to 2013. Mr. Cheung studied quantitative economics and mathematics at the University of California, Irvine.

 

The Fund’s SAI provides additional information about each Portfolio Manager’s compensation, other accounts managed by each Portfolio Manager, and each Portfolio Manager’s ownership of Fund shares.

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DETERMINATION OF NET ASSET VALUE 

 

The net asset value (“NAV”) of the Fund’s shares is determined at the close of regular trading on the NYSE (normally 4:00 p.m. Eastern Time) on each day the NYSE is open. NAV is computed by determining the aggregate market value of all assets of the Fund, less its liabilities, divided by the total number of shares outstanding ((assets-liabilities)/number of shares = NAV). The NYSE is closed on weekends and New Year’s Day, Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, Presidents’ Day, Good Friday, Memorial Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day and Christmas Day. The NAV takes into account the expenses and fees of the Fund, including management, administration, and distribution fees, which are accrued daily.

 

Generally, the Fund’s securities are valued each day at the last quoted sales price on each security’s primary exchange. Securities traded or dealt in upon one or more securities exchanges (whether domestic or foreign) for which market quotations are readily available and not subject to restrictions against resale shall be valued at the last quoted sales price on the primary exchange or, in the absence of a sale on the primary exchange, at the mean between the current bid and ask prices on such exchange. Securities primarily traded in the National Association of Securities Dealers’ Automated Quotation System (“NASDAQ”) National Market System for which market quotations are readily available shall be valued using the NASDAQ Official Closing Price. Securities that are not traded or dealt in any securities exchange (whether domestic or foreign) and for which over-the-counter market quotations are readily available generally shall be valued at the last sale price or, in the absence of a sale, at the mean between the current bid and ask price on such over-the- counter market. Debt securities not traded on an exchange may be valued at prices supplied by a pricing agent(s) based on broker or dealer supplied valuations or matrix pricing, a method of valuing securities by reference to the value of other securities with similar characteristics, such as rating, interest rate and maturity.

 

If market quotations are not readily available, securities will be valued at their fair market value as determined using the “fair value” procedures approved by the Board. Fair value pricing involves subjective judgments and it is possible that the fair value determined for a security may be materially different than the value that could be realized upon the sale of that security. The fair value prices can differ from market prices when they become available or when a price becomes available. The Board has delegated execution of these procedures to a fair value team composed of one or more representatives from each of the (i) Trust, (ii) administrator, and
(iii) Adviser. The team may also enlist third party consultants such as an audit firm or financial officer of a security issuer on an as-needed basis to assist in determining a security-specific fair value. The Board reviews and considers the determinations reached by the fair value committee in ratifying the fair value committee’s application of the fair valuation methodologies employed.

 

The Fund may use independent pricing services to assist in calculating the value of the Fund’s securities. In addition, market prices for foreign securities are not determined at the same time of day as the NAV for the Fund. Because the Fund may invest in securities primarily listed on foreign exchanges, and these exchanges may trade on weekends or other days when the Fund does not price its shares, the value of some of the Fund’s portfolio securities may change on days when Authorized Participants (“APs”) will not be able to purchase or redeem Fund shares.

 

In computing the NAV, the Fund values foreign securities held by the Fund at the latest closing price on the exchange in which they are traded immediately prior to closing of the NYSE. Prices of foreign securities quoted in foreign currencies are translated into U.S. dollars at current rates. If events materially affecting the value of a security in the Fund’s portfolio, particularly foreign securities, occur after the close of trading on a foreign market but before the Fund prices its shares, the security will be valued at fair value. For example, if trading in a portfolio security is halted and does not resume before the Fund calculates its NAV, the Adviser may need to price the security using the Fund’s fair value pricing guidelines. The determination of fair value involves subjective judgments. As a result, using fair value to price a security may result in a price materially different from the prices used by other funds to determine net asset value, or from the price that may be realized upon the actual sale of the security.

 

With respect to any portion of the Fund’s assets that are invested in one or more open-end management investment companies registered under the 1940 Act, the Fund’s net asset value is calculated based upon the net asset values of those open-end management investment companies, and the prospectuses for these companies explain the circumstances under which those companies will use fair value pricing and the effects of using fair value pricing.

 

Premium/Discount Information

 

Most investors will buy and sell shares of the Fund in secondary market transactions through brokers at market prices and the Fund’s shares will trade at market prices. The market price of shares of the Fund may be greater than, equal to, or less than NAV. Market forces of supply and demand, economic conditions and other factors may affect the trading prices of shares of the Fund.

 

Information regarding the intraday value of shares of the Fund, also known as the “indicative optimized portfolio value” (“IOPV”), may be disseminated every 15 seconds throughout each trading day by the securities exchange on which the Fund’s shares are listed or by market data vendors or other information providers. The IOPV is based on the current market value of the Fund’s securities, including cash required to be deposited in exchange for a Creation Unit. The IOPV is generally determined by using both current market quotations and price quotations obtained from broker-dealers and other market intermediaries that may trade in the Fund’s portfolio securities. The IOPV may not reflect the exact composition of the Fund’s current portfolio of securities at a particular point in time or the best possible valuation of the Fund’s current portfolio. As a result, the IOPV should not be confused with the NAV, which is computed only once a day. Information regarding how often the shares of the Fund traded at a price above (at a premium to) or below (at a discount to) the NAV of the Fund during the past four calendar quarters, when available, can be found at www.leadersharesetfs.com.

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HOW TO BUY AND SELL SHARES 

 

Shares of the Fund are listed for trading on the Exchange under the symbol DYLD. Share prices are reported in dollars and cents per Share. Shares can be bought and sold on the secondary market throughout the trading day like other publicly traded shares, and shares typically trade in blocks of less than a Creation Unit. There is no minimum investment required. Shares may only be purchased and sold on the secondary market when the Exchange is open for trading. The Exchange is open for trading Monday through Friday and is closed on weekends and the following holidays, as observed: New Year’s Day, Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, Presidents’ Day, Good Friday, Memorial Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day and Christmas Day.

 

When buying or selling shares through a broker, you will incur customary brokerage commissions and charges, and you may pay some or all of the spread between the bid and the offered price in the secondary market on each leg of a round trip (purchase and sale) transaction.

 

APs may acquire shares directly from the Fund, and APs may tender their shares for redemption directly to the Fund, at NAV per Share only in large blocks, or Creation Units, of 50,000 shares. Purchases and redemptions directly from the Fund must follow the Fund’s procedures, which are described in the SAI.

 

The Fund may liquidate and terminate at any time without shareholder approval.

 

Share Trading Prices

 

The approximate value of shares of the Fund, an amount representing on a per share basis the sum of the current market price of the securities accepted by the Fund in exchange for shares of the Fund and an estimated cash component will be disseminated every 15 seconds throughout the trading day through the facilities of the Consolidated Tape Association. This approximate value should not be viewed as a “real-time” update of the NAV per share of the Fund because the approximate value may not be calculated in the same manner as the NAV, which is computed once a day, generally at the end of the business day. The Fund is not involved in, or responsible for, the calculation or dissemination of the approximate value of the shares, and the Fund does not make any warranty as to the accuracy of these values.

 

Book Entry

 

Shares are held in book entry form, which means that no stock certificates are issued. The Depository Trust Company (“DTC”) or its nominee is the record owner of all outstanding shares of the Fund and is recognized as the owner of all shares for all purposes.

 

Investors owning shares are beneficial owners as shown on the records of DTC or its participants. DTC serves as the securities depository for all shares. Participants in DTC include securities brokers and dealers, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations and other institutions that directly or indirectly maintain a custodial relationship with DTC. As a beneficial owner of shares, you are not entitled to receive physical delivery of stock certificates or to have shares registered in your name, and you are not considered a registered owner of shares. Therefore, to exercise any right as an owner of shares, you must rely upon the procedures of DTC and its participants. These procedures are the same as those that apply to any other securities that you hold in book entry or “street name” form.

 

 

FREQUENT PURCHASES AND REDEMPTIONS OF FUND SHARES 

 

The Fund’s shares can only be purchased and redeemed directly from the Fund in Creation Units by APs, and the vast majority of trading in the Fund’s shares occurs on the secondary market. Because the secondary market trades do not directly involve the Fund, it is unlikely those trades would cause the harmful effects of market timing, including dilution, disruption of portfolio management, increases in the Fund’s trading costs and the realization of capital gains. With regard to the purchase or redemption of Creation Units directly with the Fund, to the extent effected in-kind (i.e., for securities), those trades do not cause the harmful effects that may result from frequent cash trades. To the extent trades are effected in whole or in part in cash, those trades could result in dilution to the Fund and increased transaction costs, which could negatively impact the Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective. However, direct trading by APs is critical to ensuring that the Fund’s shares trade at or close to NAV. The Fund also employs fair valuation pricing to minimize potential dilution from market timing. In addition, the Fund imposes transaction fees on purchases and redemptions of Fund shares to cover the custodial and other costs incurred by the Fund in effecting trades. These fees increase if an investor substitutes cash in part or in whole for securities, reflecting the fact that the Fund’s trading costs increase in those circumstances. Given this structure, the Trust has determined that it is not necessary to adopt policies and procedures to detect and deter market timing of the Fund’s shares.

 

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DISTRIBUTION AND SERVICE PLAN 

 

The Fund has adopted a distribution and service plan (“Plan”) pursuant to Rule 12b-1 under the 1940 Act. Under the Plan, the Fund is authorized to pay distribution fees to the distributor and other firms that provide distribution and shareholder services (“Service Providers”). If a Service Provider provides these services, the Fund may pay fees at an annual rate not to exceed 0.25% of average daily net assets, pursuant to Rule 12b-1 under the 1940 Act.

 

No distribution or service fees are currently paid by the Fund, and there are no current plans to impose these fees. In the event Rule 12b-1 fees were charged, over time they would increase the cost of an investment in the Fund.

 

Additional Compensation to Financial Intermediaries: Northern Lights Distributors, LLC, the Fund’s distributor, its affiliates, and the Fund’s Adviser or its affiliates may, at their own expense and out of their own legitimate profits, provide additional cash payments to financial intermediaries who sell shares of the Fund, including affiliates of the Adviser. Financial intermediaries include brokers, financial planners, banks, insurance companies, retirement or 401(k) plan administrators and others. These payments are generally made to financial intermediaries that provide shareholder or administrative services, or marketing support. Marketing support may include access to sales meetings, sales representatives and financial intermediary management representatives, inclusion of the Fund on a sales list, including a preferred or select sales list, or other sales programs. These payments also may be made as an expense reimbursement in cases where the financial intermediary provides shareholder services to Fund shareholders.

 

 

DIVIDENDS, OTHER DISTRIBUTIONS AND TAXES 

 

Unlike interests in conventional mutual funds, which typically are bought and sold from and to the fund only at closing NAVs, the Fund’s shares are traded throughout the day in the secondary market on a national securities exchange on an intra-day basis and are created and redeemed in-kind and/or for cash in Creation Units at each day’s next calculated NAV. In-kind arrangements are designed to protect ongoing shareholders from the adverse effects on the Fund’s portfolio that could arise from frequent cash redemption transactions. In a conventional mutual fund, redemptions can have an adverse tax impact on taxable shareholders if the mutual fund needs to sell portfolio securities to obtain cash to meet net fund redemptions. These sales may generate taxable gains for the ongoing shareholders of the mutual fund, whereas the shares’ in-kind redemption mechanism generally will not lead to a tax event for the Fund or its ongoing shareholders.

 

Ordinarily, dividends from net investment income, if any, are declared and paid monthly by the Fund. The Fund distributes its net realized capital gains, if any, to shareholders annually.

 

Distributions in cash may be reinvested automatically in additional whole shares only if the broker through whom you purchased shares makes such option available.

 

Taxes

 

As with any investment, you should consider how your investment in shares will be taxed. The tax information in this Prospectus is provided as general information. You should consult your own tax professional about the tax consequences of an investment in shares.

 

Unless your investment in shares is made through a tax-exempt entity or tax-deferred retirement account, such as an individual retirement account, you need to be aware of the possible tax consequences when:

  • The Fund makes distributions,
  • You sell your shares listed on the Exchange, and
  • You purchase or redeem Creation Units.

Taxes on Distributions

 

As stated above, dividends from net investment income, if any, ordinarily are declared and paid monthly by the Fund. The Fund may also pay a special distribution at the end of a calendar year to comply with U.S. federal tax requirements. Distributions from the Fund’s net investment income, including net short-term capital gains, if any, are taxable to you as ordinary income, except that the Fund’s dividends attributable to its “qualified dividend income” (i.e., dividends received on stock of most domestic and certain foreign corporations with respect to which the Fund satisfies certain holding period and other restrictions), if any, generally are subject to U.S. federal income tax for non-corporate shareholders who satisfy those restrictions with respect to their Fund shares at the rate for net capital gain -- a maximum of 20%. In addition, a 3.8% Medicare tax may also apply. A part of the Fund’s dividends also may be eligible for the dividends-received deduction allowed to corporations -- the eligible portion may not exceed the aggregate dividends the Fund receives from domestic corporations subject to U.S. federal income tax (excluding REITs) and excludes dividends from foreign corporations -- subject to similar restrictions.

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In general, your distributions are subject to U.S. federal income tax when they are paid, whether you take them in cash or reinvest them in the Fund (if that option is available). Distributions reinvested in additional shares of the Fund through the means of a dividend reinvestment service, if available, will be taxable to shareholders acquiring the additional shares to the same extent as if such distributions had been received in cash. Distributions of net long-term capital gains, if any, in excess of net short-term capital losses are taxable as long-term capital gains, regardless of how long you have held the shares.

 

Distributions in excess of the Fund’s current and accumulated earnings and profits are treated as a tax-free return of capital to the extent of and in reduction of your basis in the shares and as capital gain thereafter. A distribution will reduce the Fund’s NAV per Share and may be taxable to you at ordinary income or capital gain rates (as described above) even though, from an investment standpoint, the distribution may constitute a return of capital.

 

By law, the Fund is required to withhold 24% of your distributions and redemption proceeds if you have not provided the Fund with a correct Social Security number or other taxpayer identification number and in certain other situations.

 

Taxes on Exchange-Listed Share Sales

 

Any capital gain or loss realized upon a sale of shares is generally treated as long-term capital gain or loss if the shares have been held for more than one year and as short-term capital gain or loss if the shares have been held for one year or less. The ability to deduct capital losses from sales of shares may be limited.

 

Taxes on Purchase and Redemption of Creation Units

 

An AP who exchanges securities for Creation Units generally will recognize a gain or a loss equal to the difference between the market value of the Creation Units at the time of the exchange and the sum of the exchanger’s aggregate basis in the securities surrendered plus any Cash Component (as defined in the SAI) it pays. An AP who exchanges Creation Units for securities will generally recognize a gain or loss equal to the difference between the exchanger’s basis in the Creation Units and the sum of the aggregate market value of the securities received plus any cash equal to the difference between the NAV of the shares being redeemed and the value of the securities. The Internal Revenue Service (“Service”), however, may assert that a loss realized upon an exchange of securities for Creation Units cannot be deducted currently under the rules governing “wash sales” or for other reasons. Persons exchanging securities should consult their own tax advisors with respect to whether wash sale rules apply and when a loss might be deductible.

 

Any capital gain or loss realized upon redemption of Creation Units is generally treated as long-term capital gain or loss if the shares have been held for more than one year and as short-term capital gain or loss if the shares have been held for one year or less.

 

If you purchase or redeem Creation Units, you will be sent a confirmation statement showing how many shares you purchased or sold and at what price. See “Tax Status” in the SAI for a description of the requirement regarding basis determination methods applicable to Share redemptions and the Fund’s obligation to report basis information to the Service.

 

The foregoing discussion summarizes some of the possible consequences under current U.S. federal income tax law of an investment in the Fund. It is not a substitute for personal tax advice. Consult your personal tax advisor about the potential tax consequences of an investment in the shares under all applicable tax laws. See “Tax Status” in the SAI for more information.

 

 

FUND SERVICE PROVIDERS 

 

Gemini Fund Services, LLC is the Fund’s administrator and fund accountant. It has its principal office at 4221 North 203rd Street, Suite 100, Elkhorn, Nebraska 68022, and is primarily in the business of providing administrative, fund accounting and transfer agent services to retail and institutional mutual funds. It is an affiliate of the Distributor.

 

Brown Brothers Harriman & Co., 50 Post Office Square, Boston, MA 02110, is the Fund’s custodian and transfer agent.

 

Northern Lights Distributors, LLC (the “Distributor”), 4221 North 203rd Street, Suite 100, Elkhorn, Nebraska 68022, is the distributor for the shares of the Fund. The Distributor is a registered broker-dealer and member of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (“FINRA”).

 

Blank Rome LLP, 1271 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020, serves as legal counsel to the Trust.

 

Grant Thornton LLP, Two Commerce Square, 2001 Market Street, Suite 700, Philadelphia, PA 19103, serves as the Fund’s independent registered public accounting firm, providing services including (i) audit of annual financial statements, (ii) review of certain documents to be filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission and (iii) other audit related and tax services including preparation of the Fund’s tax returns.

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OTHER INFORMATION

 

Investment by Other Investment Companies

 

The SEC has granted an exemptive order to the Adviser and the Trust permitting, among other relief, registered investment companies and unit investment trusts that enter into an agreement with the Trust (“Investing Funds”) to invest in the Fund beyond the limits set forth in Section 12(d)(1) of the 1940 Act, subject to certain terms and conditions. Pursuant to recently enacted SEC rules, the Investing Funds may rely on the exemptive order to make such investments until January 19, 2022. Section 12(d)(1) of the 1940 Act restricts investments by registered investment companies and companies relying on Section 3(c)(1) or Section 3(c)(7) of the 1940 Act in the securities of other investment companies.

 

Continuous Offering

 

The method by which Creation Units of shares are created and traded may raise certain issues under applicable securities laws. Because new Creation Units of shares are issued and sold by the Fund on an ongoing basis, a “distribution,” as such term is used in the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), may occur at any point. Broker-dealers and other persons are cautioned that some activities on their part may, depending on the circumstances, result in their being deemed participants in a distribution in a manner which could render them statutory underwriters and subject them to the prospectus delivery requirement and liability provisions of the Securities Act.

 

For example, a broker-dealer firm or its client may be deemed a statutory underwriter if it takes Creation Units after placing an order with the Distributor, breaks them down into constituent shares and sells the shares directly to customers or if it chooses to couple the creation of a supply of new shares with an active selling effort involving solicitation of secondary market demand for shares. A determination of whether one is an underwriter for purposes of the Securities Act must take into account all the facts and circumstances pertaining to the activities of the broker-dealer or its client in the particular case, and the examples mentioned above should not be considered a complete description of all the activities that could lead to a characterization as an underwriter.

 

Broker-dealer firms should also note that dealers who are not “underwriters” but are effecting transactions in shares, whether or not participating in the distribution of shares, are generally required to deliver a prospectus. This is because the prospectus delivery exemption in Section 4(3) of the Securities Act is not available in respect of such transactions as a result of Section 24(d) of the 1940 Act. As a result, broker-dealer firms should note that dealers who are not “underwriters” but are participating in a distribution (as contrasted with engaging in ordinary secondary market transactions) and thus dealing with the shares that are part of an overallotment within the meaning of Section 4(3)(C) of the Securities Act, will be unable to take advantage of the prospectus delivery exemption provided by Section 4(3) of the Securities Act. For delivery of prospectuses to exchange members, the prospectus delivery mechanism of Rule 153 under the Securities Act is only available with respect to transactions on a national exchange.

 

Dealers effecting transactions in the shares, whether or not participating in this distribution, are generally required to deliver a Prospectus. This is in addition to any obligation of dealers to deliver a Prospectus when acting as underwriters.

 

Householding: To reduce expenses, the Fund mails only one copy of the prospectus and each annual and semi-annual report
(or, if applicable, each notice of electronic accessibility thereof) to those addresses shared by two or more accounts. If you wish to receive individual copies of these documents, please call the Fund at 1 (480) 757-4277 on days the Fund is open for business or contact your financial institution. The Fund will begin sending you individual copies thirty days after receiving your request.

 

 

FINANCIAL HIGHLIGHTS 

 

Because the Fund has not commenced investment operations as of the date of this Prospectus, no financial highlights are available for the Fund at this time. In the future, financial highlights will be presented in this section of the Prospectus.

 

27
 

PRIVACY NOTICE 

 

FACTS WHAT DOES TWO ROADS SHARED TRUST DO WITH YOUR
PERSONAL INFORMATION
Why? Financial companies choose how they share your personal information.  Federal law gives consumers the right to limit some but not all sharing.  Federal law also requires us to tell you how we collect, share, and protect your personal information.  Please read this notice carefully to understand what we do.
What?

THE TYPES OF PERSONAL INFORMATION WE COLLECT AND SHARE DEPENDS ON THE PRODUCT OR SERVICE THAT YOU HAVE WITH US. THIS INFORMATION CAN INCLUDE:

  • Social Security number and income
  • Account transactions and transaction history
  • Investment experience and purchase history

When you are no longer our customer, we continue to share your information as described in this notice.

How? All financial companies need to share customers’ personal information to run their everyday business.  In the section below, we list the reasons financial companies can share their customers’ personal information; the reason Two Roads Shared Trust chooses to share and whether you can limit this sharing.

 

Reasons we can share your personal information Does Two Roads
Shared Trust share?
Can you limit
this sharing?

For our everyday business purposes –

such as to process your transactions, maintain your account(s), respond to court orders and legal investigations, or report to
credit bureaus

YES NO

For our marketing purposes –

to offer our products and services to you

NO We do not share
For joint marketing with other financial companies NO We do not share

For our affiliates’ everyday business purposes –

information about your transactions and experiences

NO We do not share

For our affiliates’ everyday business purposes –

information about your creditworthiness

NO We do not share
For our affiliates to market to you NO We do not share
For nonaffiliates to market to you NO We do not share
     

 

Questions? Call 1-631-490-4300
28
 

What we do

How does Two Roads Shared Trust protect my personal information?

To protect your personal information from unauthorized access and use, we use security measures that comply with federal law.

 

These measures include computer safeguards and secured files and buildings.

 

Our service providers are held accountable for adhering to strict policies and procedures to prevent any misuse of your nonpublic personal information.

How does Two Roads Shared Trust collect my personal information?

We collect your personal information, for example, when you

  • open an account or give us contact information
  • provide account information or give us your income information
  • make deposits or withdrawals from your account

We also collect your personal information from other companies.

Why can’t I limit all sharing?

Federal law gives you the right to limit only

  • sharing for affiliates’ everyday business purposes – information about your creditworthiness
  • affiliates from using your information to market to you
  • sharing for nonaffiliates to market to you

State laws and individual companies may give you additional rights to limit sharing

 

Definitions

Affiliates

Companies related by common ownership or control. They can be financial and nonfinancial companies.

  • Two Roads Shared Trust has no affiliates.
Nonaffiliates

Companies not related by common ownership or control. They can be financial and nonfinancial companies.

  • Two Roads Shared Trust does not share with nonaffiliates so they can market to you.
Joint marketing

A formal agreement between nonaffiliates financial companies that together market financial products or services to you.

  • Two Roads Shared Trust does not jointly market.

 

 

29
 

LeaderShares® Dynamic Yield ETF

 

Adviser

Redwood Investment Management, LLC

4110 N. Scottsdale Rd., Suite 125

Scottsdale, AZ 85251

Distributor

Northern Lights Distributors, LLC

4221 North 203rd Street, Suite 100 Elkhorn, NE 68022

Custodian & Transfer Agent

Brown Brothers Harriman & Co.

50 Post Office Square

Boston, MA 02110

Legal Counsel

Blank Rome LLP

1271 Avenue of the Americas

New York, NY 10020

Administrator

Gemini Fund Services, LLC

4221 North 203rd Street, Suite 100

Elkhorn, NE 68022

Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

Grant Thornton LLP

Two Commerce Square

2001 Market Street, Suite 700

Philadelphia, PA 19103

 

Additional information about the Fund is included in the Fund’s SAI dated June 22, 2021. The SAI is incorporated into this Prospectus by reference (i.e., legally made a part of this Prospectus). The SAI provides more details about the Fund’s policies and management. Additional information about the Fund’s investments will be available in the Fund’s annual and semi-annual reports to shareholders. In the Fund’s annual report, you will find a discussion of the market conditions and investment strategies that significantly affected the Funds performance during its last fiscal year.

 

To obtain a free copy of the SAI and the annual and semi-annual reports to shareholders, when available, or other information about the Fund, or to make shareholder inquiries about the Fund, please call 1 (480) 757-4277. The SAI, annual and semi-annual reports and other information relating to the Fund can be found, free of charge, at www.leadersharesetfs.com. You may also write to:

 

 

LeaderShares® Dynamic Yield ETF

c/o Gemini Fund Services, LLC

P.O. Box 541150

Omaha, Nebraska 68154

 

Reports and other information about the Fund is available on the EDGAR Database on the SEC’s Internet site at http://www.sec.gov. Copies of the information may be obtained, after paying a duplicating fee, by electronic request at the following E-mail address: publicinfo@sec.gov .

 

 

Investment Company Act File # 811-22718

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LeaderShares® Dynamic Yield ETF

 

DYLD

 

a series of Two Roads Shared Trust

 

 

STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

June 22, 2021

 

Listed and traded on:

NYSE

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”) is not a prospectus and should be read in conjunction with the Prospectus of the LeaderShares® Dynamic Yield ETF (the “Fund”) dated June 22, 2021 (the “Prospectus”). The Prospectus is hereby incorporated by reference, which means it is legally part of this document. You can obtain copies of the Prospectus, annual or semi-annual reports without charge by contacting the Fund’s Distributor, Northern Lights Distributors, LLC, 4221 North 203rd Street, Suite 100, Elkhorn, Nebraska 68022 or by calling 1(480) 757-4277. You may also obtain the Prospectus by visiting the website at www.leadersharesetfs.com.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

THE FUND 1
TYPES OF INVESTMENTS, STRATEGIES AND RELATED RISKS 2
INVESTMENT RESTRICTIONS 37
POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR DISCLOSURE OF
PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS
39
MANAGEMENT 40
CONTROL PERSONS AND PRINCIPAL HOLDERS 46
INVESTMENT ADVISER 46
THE DISTRIBUTOR 47
PORTFOLIO MANAGERS 48
ALLOCATION OF PORTFOLIO BROKERAGE 49
PORTFOLIO TURNOVER 50
OTHER SERVICE PROVIDERS 50
DESCRIPTION OF SHARES 51
ANTI-MONEY LAUNDERING PROGRAM 52
PURCHASE, REDEMPTION AND PRICING OF SHARES 52
TAX STATUS 78
INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM 83
LEGAL COUNSEL 83
FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 83
APPENDIX A – PROXY VOTING POLICIES AND PROCEDURES A-1
APPENDIX B – DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES RATINGS B-1

 

 

 
 

THE FUND

 

The Fund is a series of Two Roads Shared Trust, a Delaware statutory trust organized on June 8, 2012 (the “Trust”). The Trust is registered as an open-end management investment company, currently consisting of twenty-four separate active portfolios. The Trust is governed by its Board of Trustees (the “Board” or “Trustees”). The Fund may issue an unlimited number of shares of beneficial interest. All shares of the Fund have equal rights and privileges. Each share of the Fund is entitled to one vote on all matters as to which shares are entitled to vote. In addition, each share of the Fund is entitled to participate equally with other shares (i) in dividends and distributions declared by such Fund and (ii) on liquidation to its proportionate share of the assets remaining after satisfaction of outstanding liabilities. Shares of the Fund are fully paid, non-assessable and fully transferable when issued and have no pre-emptive, conversion or exchange rights. Fractional shares have proportionately the same rights, including voting rights, as are provided for a full share.

 

The Fund is a “diversified” series of the Trust, meaning that the Fund is subject to diversification requirements of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (the “1940 Act”), which generally limit investments, as to 75% of a fund’s total assets, to no more than 5% in securities in a single issuer and 10% of an issuer’s voting securities.

 

The Fund’s investment objective, restrictions and policies are more fully described herein and in the Prospectus. The Board may launch other series and offer shares of a new fund under the Trust at any time.

 

Under the Trust’s Agreement and Declaration of Trust, each Trustee will continue in office until the termination of the Trust or his/her earlier death, incapacity, resignation or removal. Shareholders can remove a Trustee to the extent provided by the 1940 Act and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder. Vacancies may be filled by a majority of the remaining Trustees, except insofar as the 1940 Act may require the election by shareholders. As a result, normally no annual or regular meetings of shareholders will be held unless matters arise requiring a vote of shareholders under the Agreement and Declaration of Trust or the 1940 Act.

 

The Fund will issue and redeem Shares at net asset value (“NAV”) only in aggregations of 50,000 Shares (a “Creation Unit”). The Fund will issue and redeem Creation Units principally in exchange for an in-kind deposit of a basket of designated securities (the “Deposit Securities”), together with the deposit of a specified cash payment (the “Cash Component”), plus a transaction fee. The Fund is expected to be approved for listing, subject to notice of issuance, on the New York Stock Exchange (the “Exchange”). The Fund’s Shares will trade on the Exchange at market prices that may be below, at, or above the Fund’s NAV. In the event of the liquidation of the Fund, a share split, reverse split or the like, the Trust may revise the number of Shares in a Creation Unit.

 

The Fund reserves the right to offer creations and redemptions of Shares for cash. In addition, Shares may be issued in advance of receipt of Deposit Securities subject to various conditions, including a requirement to maintain on deposit with the Trust cash equal to up to 115% of the market value of the missing Deposit Securities. In each instance of such cash creations or redemptions, transaction fees, may be imposed and may be higher than the transaction fees associated with in-kind creations or redemptions. See PURCHASE, REDEMPTION AND PRICING OF SHARES below.

 

Exchange Listing and Trading

 

In order to provide additional information regarding the indicative value of Shares of the Fund, the Exchange or a market data vendor will disseminate every 15 seconds through the facilities of the Consolidated Tape Association or other widely disseminated means an updated “intraday indicative value” (“IIV”) for the Fund as calculated by an information provider or market data vendor. The Trust is not involved in or responsible for any aspect of the calculation or dissemination of the IIV and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the IIV.

 

 

1
 

TYPES OF INVESTMENTS, STRATEGIES AND RELATED RISKS

 

The investment objective of the Fund and the description of its principal investment strategies are set forth under “Additional Information about Principal Investment Strategies and Related Risks” in the Prospectus. The Fund’s investment objective is not a fundamental policy and may be changed without the approval of a majority of the outstanding voting securities of the Fund (as such term is defined in the 1940 Act). The Fund is an actively-managed exchange-traded fund (“ETF”) and does not seek to replicate the performance of a specified index.

 

The Fund has adopted a non-fundamental investment policy in accordance with Rule 35d-1 under the 1940 Act to invest, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of the value of its assets, including any borrowings for investment purposes, in a diversified portfolio of fixed income instruments. The Fund will provide its shareholders with at least 60 days’ prior written notice of any change in such policy. For these purposes, “net assets” is measured at the time of purchase.

 

The following pages contain more detailed information about the types of instruments in which the Fund may invest directly or indirectly as a principal or non-principal investment strategy. These instruments include other strategies Redwood Investment Management, LLC (the “Adviser”) employs in pursuit of the Fund’s investment objective and a summary of related risks.

 

Adviser Risks

If the Adviser to the Fund manages more money in the future, including money raised in this offering, such additional funds could affect its performance or trading strategies. Also, the Adviser manages other accounts. This increases the competition for the same trades which the Fund makes. There is no assurance that the Fund’s trading will generate the same results as any other accounts managed by the Adviser.

Borrowing

While the Fund does not anticipate doing so, other than for cash management, the Fund may borrow money for investment purposes. Borrowing for investment purposes is one form of leverage. Leveraging investments, by purchasing securities with borrowed money, is a speculative technique that increases investment risk, but also increases investment opportunity. Because substantially all of the Fund’s assets will fluctuate in value, whereas the interest obligations on borrowings may be fixed, the NAV per share of the Fund will increase more when the Fund’s portfolio assets increase in value and decrease more when the Fund’s portfolio assets decrease in value than would otherwise be the case. Moreover, interest costs on borrowings may fluctuate with changing market rates of interest and may partially offset or exceed the returns on the borrowed funds. Under adverse conditions, the Fund might have to sell portfolio securities to meet interest or principal payments at a time when investment considerations would not favor such sales. The Fund may use leverage during periods when the Adviser believes that the Fund’s investment objective would be furthered.

The Fund may also borrow money to facilitate management of the Fund’s portfolio by enabling the Fund to meet redemption requests when the liquidation of portfolio instruments would be inconvenient or disadvantageous. Such borrowing is not for investment purposes and will be repaid by the Fund promptly. As required by the 1940 Act, the Fund must maintain continuous asset coverage (total assets, including assets acquired with borrowed funds, less liabilities exclusive of borrowings) of 300% of all amounts borrowed. If, at any time, the value of the Fund’s assets should fail to meet this 300% coverage test, the Fund, within three days (not including Sundays and holidays), will reduce the amount of the Fund’s borrowings to the extent necessary to meet this 300% coverage requirement. Maintenance of this percentage limitation may result in the sale of portfolio securities at a time when investment considerations otherwise indicate that it would be disadvantageous to do so.

In addition to the foregoing, the Fund is authorized to borrow money as a temporary measure for extraordinary or emergency purposes in amounts not in excess of 5% of the value of the Fund’s total assets. Borrowings for extraordinary or emergency purposes are not subject to the foregoing 300% asset coverage requirement. 

2
 

Certificates of Deposit and Bankers’ Acceptances

The Fund may invest in certificates of deposit and bankers’ acceptances, which are considered to be short-term money market instruments.

Certificates of deposit are receipts issued by a depository institution in exchange for the deposit of funds. The issuer agrees to pay the amount deposited plus interest to the bearer of the receipt on the date specified on the certificate. The certificate usually can be traded in the secondary market prior to maturity. Bankers’ acceptances typically arise from short-term credit arrangements designed to enable businesses to obtain funds to finance commercial transactions.

Generally, an acceptance is a time draft drawn on a bank by an exporter or an importer to obtain a stated amount of funds to pay for specific merchandise. The draft is then “accepted” by a bank that, in effect, unconditionally guarantees to pay the face value of the instrument on its maturity date. The acceptance may then be held by the accepting bank as an earning asset or it may be sold in the secondary market at the going rate of discount for a specific maturity. Although maturities for acceptances can be as long as 270 days, most acceptances have maturities of six months or less.

Commercial Paper

The Fund may purchase commercial paper. Commercial paper consists of short-term (usually from 1 to 270 days) unsecured promissory notes issued by corporations in order to finance their current operations. See Appendix B for more information on ratings assigned to commercial paper. It may be secured by letters of credit, a surety bond or other forms of collateral. Commercial paper is usually repaid at maturity by the issuer from the proceeds of the issuance of new commercial paper. As a result, investment in commercial paper is subject to the risk the issuer cannot issue enough new commercial paper to satisfy its outstanding commercial paper, also known as rollover risk. Commercial paper may become illiquid or may suffer from reduced liquidity in certain circumstances. Like all fixed income securities, commercial paper prices are susceptible to fluctuations in interest rates. If interest rates rise, commercial paper prices will decline. The short-term nature of a commercial paper investment makes it less susceptible to interest rate risk than many other fixed income securities because interest rate risk typically increases as maturity lengths increase. Commercial paper tends to yield smaller returns than longer-term corporate debt because securities with shorter maturities typically have lower effective yields than those with longer maturities. As with all fixed income securities, there is a chance that the issuer will default on its commercial paper obligation.

Corporate Debt Securities

Corporate debt securities are typically fixed-income securities issued by businesses to finance their operations, but may also include bank loans to companies. Notes, bonds, debentures and commercial paper are the most common types of corporate debt securities. The primary differences between the different types of corporate debt securities are their maturities and secured or un-secured status. Commercial paper has the shortest term and is usually unsecured. The broad category of corporate debt securities includes debt issued by domestic or foreign companies of all kinds, including those with small-, mid- and large-capitalizations. Corporate debt may be rated investment-grade or below investment-grade and may carry variable or floating rates of interest.

Because of the wide range of types, and maturities, of corporate debt securities, as well as the range of creditworthiness of its issuers, corporate debt securities have widely varying potentials for return and risk profiles. For example, commercial paper issued by a large established domestic corporation that is rated investment-grade may have a modest return on principal, but carries relatively limited risk. On the other hand, a long-term corporate note issued by a small foreign corporation from an emerging market country that has not been rated may have the potential for relatively large returns on principal, but carries a relatively high degree of risk.

Corporate debt securities carry both credit risk and interest rate risk. Credit risk is the risk that the Fund could lose money if the issuer of a corporate debt security is unable to pay interest or repay principal when it is due. Some corporate debt securities that are rated below investment-grade are generally considered speculative because they present a greater risk of loss, including default, than higher quality debt securities. The credit risk of a particular

3
 

issuer’s debt security may vary based on its priority for repayment. For example, higher ranking (senior) debt securities have a higher priority than lower ranking (subordinated) securities. This means that the issuer might not make payments on subordinated securities while continuing to make payments on senior securities. In addition, in the event of bankruptcy, holders of higher-ranking senior securities may receive amounts otherwise payable to the holders of more junior securities. Interest rate risk is the risk that the value of certain corporate debt securities will tend to fall when interest rates rise. In general, corporate debt securities with longer duration tend to fall more in value when interest rates rise than corporate debt securities with shorter duration.

Cyber Security Risk

The Fund and its service providers may be prone to operational and information security risks resulting from breaches in cyber security. A breach in cyber security refers to both intentional and unintentional events that may cause the Fund to lose proprietary information, suffer data corruption, or lose operational capacity. Breaches in cyber security include, among other behaviors, stealing or corrupting data maintained online or digitally, denial of service attacks on websites, the unauthorized release of confidential information or various other forms of cyber-attacks. Cyber security breaches affecting the Fund or its Adviser, custodian, transfer agent, intermediaries and other third-party service providers may adversely impact the Fund. For instance, cyber security breaches may interfere with the processing of shareholders transactions, impact the Fund’s ability to calculate its NAVs, cause the release of private shareholder information or confidential business information, impede trading, subject the Fund to regulatory fines or financial losses and/or cause reputational damage. The Fund may also incur additional costs for cyber security risk management purposes. Similar types of cyber security risks are also present for issuers of securities in which the Fund may invest, which could result in material adverse consequences for such issuers and may cause the Fund’s investment in such companies to lose value.

Depositary Receipts

Sponsored and unsponsored American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”) are receipts issued by an American bank or trust company evidencing ownership of underlying securities issued by a foreign (non-U.S.) issuer. ADRs, in registered form, are designed for use in U.S. securities markets. In addition to the investment risks associated with the underlying issuer, ADRs expose the Fund to additional risks associated with the non-uniform terms that apply to ADR programs, credit exposure to the depository bank and to the sponsors and other parties with whom the depository bank establishes the program, currency risk and liquidity risk. Unsponsored ADRs may be created without the participation of the foreign (non-U.S.) issuer. Holders of these ADRs generally bear all the costs of the ADR facility, whereas foreign (non-U.S.) issuers typically bear certain costs in a sponsored ADR. The bank or trust company depositary of an unsponsored ADR may be under no obligation to distribute shareholder communications received from the foreign (non-U.S.) issuer or to pass through voting rights. Many of the risks described below regarding foreign securities apply to investments in ADRs.

Global Depositary Receipts (“GDRs”) are receipts issued by non-U.S. financial institutions evidencing ownership of underlying foreign or U.S. securities and are usually denominated in foreign currencies. GDRs may not be denominated in the same currencies as the securities they represent. Generally, GDRs are designed for use in the foreign securities markets.

Derivative Instruments

The Fund may purchase and write call and put options on securities, securities indices and foreign (non-U.S.) currencies, and enter into futures contracts and use options on futures contracts as further described below. The Fund may also enter into swap agreements with respect to foreign (non-U.S.) currencies, interest rates and securities indices. The Fund may use these techniques to hedge against changes in interest rates, foreign (non-U.S.) currency exchange rates or securities prices or to attempt to achieve investment returns as part of its overall investment strategies. The Fund may also purchase and sell options relating to foreign (non-U.S.) currencies for purposes of increasing exposure to a foreign (non-U.S.) currency or to shift exposure to foreign (non-U.S.) currency fluctuations from one country to another. The Fund will segregate or “earmark” assets determined to be liquid by the Adviser in accordance with procedures established by the Board (or, as permitted by applicable regulation, enter into certain offsetting positions) to cover its obligations under options, futures, and swaps to avoid leveraging the portfolio of the Fund as described below.

4
 

The Fund considers derivative instruments to consist of securities or other instruments whose value is derived, at least in part, from or related to the price or value of another instrument or asset or the level of an index, such as the S&P 500 Index, or indices, and not to include those securities whose payment of principal and/or interest depends upon cash flows from underlying assets, such as mortgage-related or asset-backed securities. The value of some derivative instruments in which the Fund invests may be particularly sensitive to changes in prevailing interest rates, and, like the other investments of the Fund, the ability of the Fund to successfully utilize these instruments may depend in part upon the ability of the Adviser to correctly forecast interest rates and other economic factors. If the adviser incorrectly forecasts such factors and has taken positions in derivative instruments contrary to prevailing market trends, the Fund could be exposed to the risk of loss. In addition, while the use of derivatives for hedging purposes can reduce losses, it can also reduce or eliminate gains, and hedges are sometimes subject to imperfect matching between the derivative and security it is hedging, which means that a hedge might not be effective. The Fund might not employ any of the strategies described above, and no assurance can be given that any strategy used will succeed. A decision as to whether, when and how to utilize derivative instruments involves skill and judgment, and even a well-conceived derivatives strategy may be unsuccessful. The use of derivative instruments involves brokerage fees and/or other transaction costs.

Investment in futures-related and commodity-linked derivatives may subject the Fund to additional risks, and in particular may subject the Fund to greater volatility than investments in traditional securities. The value of futures-related and commodity-linked derivative instruments may be affected by changes in overall market movements, commodity index volatility, changes in interest rates or factors affecting a particular industry or commodity, such as drought, floods, weather, livestock disease, embargoes, tariffs, and international economic, political and regulatory developments. In order to qualify for the special tax treatment available to regulated investment companies under the Code, the Fund must, among other things, derive at least 90% of its gross income each taxable year from certain specified types of investments. It is currently unclear which types of commodities-linked derivatives fall within these specified investment types. As a result, if the Fund’s investment in commodities-linked derivatives were to exceed a certain threshold, the Fund could fail to qualify for the special tax treatment available to regulated investment companies under the Code.

Some forms of derivative instruments, such as exchange-traded futures and certain options, are traded on regulated exchanges. These types of derivative instruments are standardized contracts for which market quotations are published daily Non-standardized derivative instruments, on the other hand, tend to be more specialized or complex, and may be harder to value. While derivative instruments may be useful for investment and hedging, they also carry additional risks. Some derivative instruments have the effect of leverage on the Fund, meaning that a small investment in derivative instruments could have a potentially large impact on the Fund’s returns. The use of derivative instruments involve risks different from, and/or possibly greater than, the risks associated with investing directly in the underlying assets or references. The use of derivative instruments is a highly specialized activity that involves investment techniques and risks different from those associated with ordinary securities transactions. The Fund may choose not to invest in derivative instruments because of their cost, limited availability or any number of other reasons deemed relevant by the Adviser.

Regulatory Risks of Derivative Use

The U.S. government has enacted legislation that provides for new regulation of the derivatives market. The Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) has recently adopted a new rule relating to a registered investment company’s use of derivatives and related instruments that will require the Fund to observe more stringent asset coverage and related requirements than previously imposed by the 1940 Act, which could adversely affect the value or performance of the Fund. The European Union (and some other countries) are implementing similar requirements, which will affect the Fund when it enters into a derivatives transaction with a counterparty organized in that country or otherwise subject to that country’s derivatives regulations. Because these regulations are new and evolving (and some of the rules are not yet final), their impact remains unclear. These regulations could limit or impact the Fund’s ability to invest in derivatives and other instruments, limit the Fund’s ability to employ certain strategies that use derivatives and adversely affect the Fund’s performance, efficiency in implementing its strategy, liquidity and ability to pursue its investment objectives.

5
 

Effective in 2013, the Commodities Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”) rules require advisers to certain registered investment companies to register with the CFTC as a commodity pool operators (“CPO”) if their investment companies are unable to meet certain trading and marketing limitations. The Fund’s Adviser has claimed relief from registration as a CPO. However, it is possible that the Adviser may be required to register as a CPO in the future and comply with any applicable reporting, disclosure or other regulatory requirements. Compliance with CFTC regulatory requirements will increase Fund expenses. Other potentially adverse regulatory initiatives could also develop.

It is also possible that additional government regulation of various types of derivative instruments, including futures, options and swap agreements, may limit or prevent the Fund from using such instruments as a part of its investment strategy, and could ultimately prevent the Fund from being able to achieve its investment objective. It is impossible to fully predict the effects of past, present or future legislation and regulation in this area, but the effects could be substantial and adverse. It is possible that legislative and regulatory activity could limit or restrict the ability of the Fund to use certain instruments as a part of its investment strategy. Limits or restrictions applicable to the counterparties with which the Fund may engage in derivative transactions could also prevent the Fund from using certain instruments.

There is a possibility of future regulatory changes altering, perhaps to a material extent, the nature of an investment in the Fund or the ability of the Fund to continue to implement its investment strategy. The futures, options and swaps markets are subject to comprehensive statutes, regulations, and margin requirements. In addition, the SEC, CFTC and the exchanges are authorized to take extraordinary actions in the event of a market emergency, including, for example, the implementation or reduction of speculative position limits, the implementation of higher margin requirements, the establishment of daily price limits and the suspension of trading. The regulation of futures, options and swaps transactions in the U.S. is a rapidly changing area of law and is subject to modification by government and judicial action.

In 2010, the U.S. government enacted legislation that provides for new regulation of the derivatives market, including clearing, margin, reporting and registration requirements. The CFTC and certain futures exchanges have also established limits, referred to as “position limits,” on the maximum net long or net short positions which any person may hold or control in particular options and futures contracts. All positions owned or controlled by the same person or entity, even if in different accounts, may be aggregated for purposes of determining whether the applicable position limits have been exceeded. Thus, even if the Fund does not intend to exceed applicable position limits, it is possible that different clients managed by the Adviser and its affiliates may be aggregated for this purpose. The trading decisions of the Adviser may have to be modified and positions held by the Fund may have to be liquidated in order to avoid exceeding such limits. The modification of investment decisions or the elimination of open positions, if it occurs, may adversely affect the profitability of the Fund.

The SEC has in the past adopted interim rules requiring reporting of all short positions on securities above a certain de minimis threshold and may adopt rules requiring monthly and/or enhanced public disclosure in the future. In addition, other non-U.S. jurisdictions where the Fund may trade have adopted reporting requirements. If the Fund’s securities short positions or its strategy become generally known, it could have a significant effect on the Adviser’s ability to implement its investment strategy. In particular, it would make it more likely that other investors could cause a “short squeeze” in the securities held short by the Fund forcing the Fund to cover its positions at a loss. Such reporting requirements may also limit the Adviser’s ability to access management and other personnel at certain companies where the Adviser seeks to take a short position. In addition, if other investors engage in copycat behavior by taking positions in the same issuers as the Fund, the cost of borrowing securities to sell short could increase drastically and the availability of such securities to the Fund could decrease drastically. Such events could make the Fund unable to execute its investment strategy. In addition, the SEC recently proposed additional restrictions on short sales. If the SEC were to adopt additional restrictions regarding short sales, they could restrict the Fund’s ability to engage in short sales of securities in certain circumstances, and the Fund may be unable to execute its investment strategy as a result.

The SEC and regulatory authorities in other jurisdictions may adopt (and in certain cases, have adopted) bans on short sales of certain securities in response to market events. Bans on short selling may make it

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impossible for the Fund to execute certain investment strategies and may have a material adverse effect on the Fund’s ability to generate returns.

Equity Securities

Equity securities include common stocks, preferred stocks and securities convertible into common stocks, such as convertible bonds, warrants, rights and options. The value of equity securities varies in response to many factors, including the activities and financial condition of individual companies, the business market in which individual companies compete and general market and economic conditions. Equity securities fluctuate in value, often based on factors unrelated to the value of the issuer of the securities, and such fluctuations can be significant.  

Common Stock

Common stock represents an equity (ownership) interest in a company, and usually possesses voting rights and earns dividends. Dividends on common stock are not fixed but are declared at the discretion of the issuer. Common stock generally represents the riskiest investment in a company. In addition, common stock generally has the greatest appreciation and depreciation potential because increases and decreases in earnings are usually reflected in a company’s stock price.

Convertible Securities

Convertible securities include fixed income securities that may be exchanged or converted into a predetermined number of shares of the issuer’s underlying common stock at the option of the holder during a specified period. Convertible securities may take the form of convertible preferred stock, convertible bonds or debentures, units consisting of “usable” bonds and warrants or a combination of the features of several of these securities. Convertible securities are senior to common stocks in an issuer’s capital structure but are usually subordinated to similar non-convertible securities. While providing a fixed-income stream (generally higher in yield than the income derivable from common stock but lower than that afforded by a similar nonconvertible security), a convertible security also gives an investor the opportunity, through its conversion feature, to participate in the capital appreciation of the issuing company depending upon a market price advance in the convertible security’s underlying common stock.

Preferred Stock

Preferred stock is a class of stock that has features of debt because it generally entitles the holder to periodic payments at a fixed rate of return. Preferred stock has a preference over common stock as to the payment of dividends and the recovery of investment should a company be liquidated, although preferred stock is usually junior to any outstanding debt of the issuer. Preferred stock typically does not possess voting rights and its market value may change based on changes in interest rates.

The fundamental risk of investing in common and preferred stock is the risk that the value of the stock might decrease. Stock values fluctuate in response to the activities of an individual company or in response to general market and/or economic conditions. Historically, common stocks have provided greater long-term returns and have entailed greater short-term risks than preferred stocks, fixed income securities and money market investments. The market value of all securities, including common and preferred stocks, is based upon the market’s perception of value and not necessarily the book value of an issuer or other objective measures of a company’s worth. Preferred stock may be subject to more fluctuations in market value, due to changes in market participants’ perceptions of the issuer’s ability to continue to pay dividends, than debts of the same issuer. A preferred stock may be considered either debt or equity, depending on the economic characteristics exhibited by such preferred stock.

Warrants

Warrants are options to purchase common stock at a specific price (usually at a premium above the market value of the optioned common stock at issuance) valid for a specific period of time. Warrants may have a life

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ranging from less than one year to twenty years, or they may be perpetual. However, most warrants have expiration dates after which they are worthless. In addition, a warrant is worthless if the market price of the common stock does not exceed the warrant’s exercise price during the life of the warrant. Warrants have no voting rights, pay no dividends, and have no rights with respect to the assets of the corporation issuing them. The percentage increase or decrease in the market price of the warrant may tend to be greater than the percentage increase or decrease in the market price of the optioned common stock.

Fixed Income Securities

There is normally an inverse relationship between the market value of securities sensitive to prevailing interest rates and actual changes in interest rates. In other words, an increase in interest rates produces a decrease in market value. The longer the remaining maturity (and duration) of a security, the greater will be the effect of interest rate changes on the market value of that security. Changes in the ability of an issuer to make payments of interest and principal and in the markets’ perception of an issuer’s creditworthiness will also affect the market value of the fixed income securities of that issuer. Obligations of issuers of fixed income securities (including municipal securities) are subject to the provisions of bankruptcy, insolvency, and other laws affecting the rights and remedies of creditors, such as the Federal Bankruptcy Reform Act of 1978. In addition, the obligations of municipal issuers may become subject to laws enacted in the future by Congress, state legislatures, or referenda extending the time for payment of principal and/or interest, or imposing other constraints upon enforcement of such obligations or upon the ability of municipalities to levy taxes. Changes in the ability of an issuer to make payments of interest and principal and in the market’s perception of an issuer’s creditworthiness will also affect the market value of the fixed income securities of that issuer. The possibility exists, therefore, that, the ability of any issuer to pay, when due, the principal of and interest on its fixed income securities may become impaired.

Yields on fixed income securities are dependent on a variety of factors, including the general conditions of the money market and other fixed income securities markets, the size of a particular offering, the maturity of the obligation and the rating of the issue. An investment in the Fund will be subjected to risk even if all fixed income securities in the Fund’s portfolio are paid in full at maturity. All fixed income securities, including U.S. Government securities, can change in value when there is a change in interest rates or the issuer’s actual or perceived creditworthiness or ability to meet its obligations.

The corporate fixed income securities include corporate bonds and notes and short-term investments such as commercial paper and variable rate demand notes. Commercial paper (short-term promissory notes) is issued by companies to finance their or their affiliate’s current obligations and is frequently unsecured. Variable and floating rate demand notes are unsecured obligations redeemable upon not more than 30 days’ notice. These obligations include master demand notes that permit investment of fluctuating amounts at varying rates of interest pursuant to a direct arrangement with the issuer of the instrument. The issuer of these obligations often has the right, after a given period, to prepay the outstanding principal amount of the obligations upon a specified number of days’ notice. These obligations generally are not traded, nor generally is there an established secondary market for these obligations. To the extent a demand note does not have a 7-day or shorter demand feature and there is no readily available market for the obligation, it is treated as an illiquid security.

Fixed income securities are subject to a variety of risks, such as interest rate risk, income risk, call/prepayment risk, inflation risk, credit risk and (in the case of foreign securities) country and currency risk.

Foreign (non-U.S.) Currency Transactions

The Fund may engage in foreign (non-U.S.) currency transactions, including foreign (non-U.S.) currency forward contracts, options, swaps, and other strategic transactions in connection with investments in securities of non-U.S. companies. The Fund will conduct their foreign (non-U.S.) currency exchange transactions either on a spot (i.e., cash) basis at the spot rate prevailing in the foreign (non-U.S.) currency exchange market or through forward contracts to purchase or sell foreign (non-U.S.) currencies.

The Fund may enter into forward foreign (non-U.S.) currency exchange contracts (forward contracts) in order to protect against possible losses on foreign (non-U.S.) investments resulting from adverse changes in the relationship between the U.S. dollar and foreign (non-U.S.) currencies, as well as to increase exposure to a foreign (non-U.S.)

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currency or to shift exposure to foreign (non-U.S.) currency fluctuations from one country to another. A forward contract is an obligation to purchase or sell a specific currency for an agreed price on a future date which is individually negotiated and privately traded by currency traders and their customers. Although foreign (non-U.S.) exchange dealers often do not charge a fee for conversion, they do realize a profit based on the difference (spread) between the price at which they are buying and selling various currencies. However, forward contracts may limit the potential gains which could result from a positive change in such currency relationships. The Fund will segregate or “earmark” assets determined to be liquid by the Adviser in accordance with procedures established by the Board, to cover the Fund’s obligations under forward foreign (non-U.S.) currency exchange contracts entered into for non-hedging purposes.

The Fund may purchase and write put and call options on foreign (non-U.S.) currencies for the purpose of protecting against declines in the U.S. dollar value of foreign (non-U.S.) portfolio securities and against increases in the U.S. dollar cost of foreign (non-U.S.) securities to be acquired. As with other kinds of options, however, the writing of an option on foreign (non-U.S.) currency will constitute only a partial hedge, up to the amount of the premium received, and the Fund could be required to purchase or sell foreign (non-U.S.) currencies at disadvantageous exchange rates, thereby incurring losses. The purchase of an option on foreign (non-U.S.) currency may constitute an effective hedge against fluctuation in exchange rates although, in the event of rate movements adverse to the Fund’s position, the Fund may forfeit the entire amount of the premium plus related transaction costs.

The Fund may enter into interest rate swaps on either an asset-based or liability-based basis, depending on whether it is hedging its assets or its liabilities, and will usually enter into interest rate swaps on a net basis (i.e., the two payment streams are netted out, with the Fund receiving or paying, as the case may be, only the net amount of the two payments). The net amount of the excess, if any, of the Fund’s obligations over its entitlement with respect to each interest rate swap will be calculated on a daily basis and an amount of cash or other liquid assets (marked to market daily) having an aggregate net asset value at least equal to the accrued excess will be segregated or “earmarked.” The Adviser will monitor the creditworthiness of all counterparties on an ongoing basis. If there is a default by the other party to such a transaction, the Fund will have contractual remedies pursuant to the agreements related to the transaction. There is no limit on the amount of interest rate swap transactions that may be entered into by the Fund, subject to the segregation requirement described above. These transactions may in some instances involve the delivery of securities or other underlying assets by the Fund or its counterparty to collateralize obligations under the swap. Under the documentation currently used in those markets, the risk of loss with respect to interest rate swaps is limited to the net amount of the payments that the Fund is contractually obligated to make. If the other party to an interest rate swap that is not collateralized defaults, the Fund would risk the loss of the net amount of the payments that it contractually is entitled to receive.

While the Adviser is authorized to hedge against currency risk, it is not required to do so. The Adviser may choose not to hedge currency exposure.

 Foreign (Non-U.S.) Investments – General

To the extent consistent with its investment objective and strategies, the Fund may invest in foreign securities, including bonds and other fixed-income securities of foreign issuers. Foreign fixed-income securities may include eurodollar convertible securities, which are fixed-income securities that are issued in U.S. dollars outside the United States and are convertible into or exchangeable for equity securities of the same or a different issuer.

Investment in foreign securities involves special risks. These include market risk, interest rate risk and the risks of investing in securities of foreign issuers and of companies whose securities are principally traded outside the United States on foreign exchanges or foreign over-the-counter markets and in investments denominated in foreign currencies. Market risk involves the possibility that security prices will decline over short or even extended periods. The markets tend to be cyclical, with periods of generally rising prices and periods of generally declining prices. These cycles will affect the value of the Fund to the extent that it invests in foreign securities. The holdings of the Fund, to the extent that it invests in fixed-income securities, will be sensitive to changes in interest rates and the interest rate environment. Generally, the prices of bonds and debt securities fluctuate inversely with interest rate changes. In addition, the performance of investments in securities denominated in a foreign currency will depend on the strength of the foreign currency against the U.S. dollar and the interest rate environment in the country issuing the currency. Absent other events which could otherwise affect the value of a foreign security (such as a change in

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the political climate or an issuer’s credit quality), appreciation in the value of the foreign currency generally can be expected to increase the value of a foreign currency-denominated security in terms of U.S. dollars. A rise in foreign interest rates or decline in the value of the foreign currency relative to the U.S. dollar generally can be expected to depress the value of a foreign currency-denominated security.

There are other risks and costs involved in investing in foreign securities which are in addition to the usual risks inherent in domestic investments. Investment in foreign securities involves higher costs than investment in U.S. securities, including higher transaction and custody costs as well as the imposition of additional taxes by foreign governments. Foreign investments also involve risks associated with the level of currency exchange rates, less complete financial information about the issuers, less market liquidity, more market volatility and political instability. Future political and economic developments, the possible imposition of withholding taxes on dividend income, the possible seizure or nationalization of foreign holdings, the possible establishment of exchange controls, or the adoption of other governmental restrictions might adversely affect an investment in foreign securities. Additionally, foreign banks and foreign branches of domestic banks are subject to less stringent reserve requirements, and to different accounting, auditing and recordkeeping requirements. Also, the legal remedies for investors may be more limited than the remedies available in the United States. Additionally, many countries throughout the world are dependent on a healthy U.S. economy and are adversely affected when the U.S. economy weakens or its markets decline. For example, the decline in the U.S. subprime mortgage market quickly spread throughout global credit markets, triggering a liquidity crisis that affected fixed-income and equity markets around the world.

European countries can be affected by the significant fiscal and monetary controls that the European Economic and Monetary Union (“EMU”) imposes for membership. Europe’s economies are diverse, its governments are decentralized, and its cultures vary widely. Several European Union (“EU”) countries, including Greece, Ireland, Italy, Spain and Portugal, have faced budget issues, some of which may have negative long-term effects for the economies of those countries and other EU countries. There is continued concern about national-level support for the euro and the accompanying coordination of fiscal and wage policy among EMU member countries. Member countries are required to maintain tight control over inflation, public debt, and budget deficit to qualify for membership in the EMU. These requirements can severely limit the ability of EMU member countries to implement monetary policy to address regional economic conditions.

On January 31, 2020, the United Kingdom (“UK”) left the EU. This departure, commonly referred to as “Brexit,” commenced a transition period during which the EU and UK will negotiate and agree on the nature of their future relationship. There is significant market uncertainty regarding Brexit’s ramifications, and the range and potential implications of possible political, regulatory, economic, and market outcomes are difficult to predict. This uncertainty may affect other countries in the EU and elsewhere, and may cause volatility within the EU, triggering prolonged economic downturns in certain countries within the EU. In addition, Brexit may create additional and substantial economic stresses for the UK, including a contraction of the UK economy and price volatility in UK stocks, decreased trade, capital outflows, devaluation of the British pound, wider corporate bond spreads due to uncertainty and declines in business and consumer spending as well as foreign direct investment. Brexit may also adversely affect UK-based financial firms that have counterparties in the EU or participate in market infrastructure (trading venues, clearing houses, settlement facilities) based in the EU. As a result, the Fund may be exposed to volatile trading markets and significant and unpredictable currency fluctuations over a short period of time, and potentially lower economic growth in the UK, Europe and globally. Securities issued by companies domiciled in the UK could be subject to changing regulatory and tax regimes. Banking and financial services companies that operate in the UK or EU could be disproportionately impacted by these actions. Further insecurity in EU membership or the abandonment of the euro could exacerbate market and currency volatility and negatively impact the Fund’s investments in securities issued by companies located in EU countries. The impact of these actions, especially if they occur in a disorderly fashion, is not clear but could be significant and far-reaching, and the resulting market volatility may have an adverse effect on the performance of the Fund.

Many non-governmental issuers, and even certain governments, have defaulted on, or been forced to restructure, their debts; many other issuers have faced difficulties obtaining credit or refinancing existing obligations; financial institutions have in many cases required government or central bank support, have needed to raise capital, and/or have been impaired in their ability to extend credit; and financial markets in Europe and elsewhere have experienced extreme volatility and declines in asset values and liquidity. These difficulties may continue, worsen or spread

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within and without Europe. Responses to the financial problems by European governments, central banks and others, including austerity measures and reforms, may not work, may result in social unrest and may limit future growth and economic recovery or have other unintended consequences. Further defaults or restructurings by governments and others of their debt could have additional adverse effects on economies, financial markets and asset valuations around the world. In addition, one or more countries may abandon the euro, the common currency of the EU, and/or withdraw from the EU. The impact of these actions, especially if they occur in a disorderly fashion, is not clear but could be significant and far-reaching.

To the extent consistent with its investment objectives and strategies, the Fund (or the underlying funds) may invest in foreign debt, including the securities of foreign governments. Several risks exist concerning such investments, including the risk that foreign governments may default on their obligations, may not respect the integrity of such debt, may attempt to renegotiate the debt at a lower rate, and may not honor investments by U.S. entities or citizens.

Although the Fund may invest in securities denominated in foreign currencies, its portfolio securities and other assets are valued in U.S. dollars. Currency exchange rates may fluctuate significantly over short periods of time causing, together with other factors, the Fund’s NAV to fluctuate as well. Currency exchange rates can be affected unpredictably by the intervention or the failure to intervene by U.S. or foreign governments or central banks, or by currency controls or political developments in the United States or abroad. To the extent that the Fund’s total assets, adjusted to reflect the Fund’s net position after giving effect to currency transactions, are denominated in the currencies of foreign countries, the Fund will be more susceptible to the risk of adverse economic and political developments within those countries.

Dividends and interest payable on the Fund’s foreign portfolio securities may be subject to foreign withholding taxes. To the extent such taxes are not offset by credits or deductions allowed to investors under U.S. federal income tax law, they may reduce the net return to the shareholders.

The Fund’s income and, in some cases, capital gains from foreign stocks and securities will be subject to applicable taxation in certain of the countries in which it invests, and treaties between the United States and such countries may not be available in some cases to reduce the otherwise applicable tax rates.

The Fund also is subject to the possible imposition of exchange control regulations or freezes on the convertibility of currency. In addition, the use of forward currency exchange contracts with other instruments, the net currency positions of the Fund may expose it to risks independent of its securities positions. Although the net long and short foreign currency exposure of the Fund will not exceed its total asset values, to the extent that the Fund is fully invested in foreign securities while also maintaining currency positions, it may be exposed to greater risk than it would have if it did not maintain the currency positions.

The Fund’s foreign securities are generally held outside the United States in the primary market for the securities in the custody of certain eligible foreign banks and trust companies, as permitted under the 1940 Act (“foreign sub-custodians”). Settlement practices for foreign securities may differ from those in the United States. Some countries have limited governmental oversight and regulation of industry practices, stock exchanges, depositories, registrars, brokers and listed companies, which increases the risk of corruption and fraud and the possibility of losses to the Fund. In particular, under certain circumstances, foreign securities may settle on a delayed delivery basis, meaning that the Fund may be required to make payment for securities before the Fund has actually received delivery of the securities or deliver securities prior to the receipt of payment. Typically, in these cases, the Fund will receive evidence of ownership in accordance with the generally accepted settlement practices in the local market entitling the Fund to deliver payment at a future date, but there is a risk that the security will not be delivered to the Fund or that payment will not be received, although the Fund and its foreign sub-custodians take reasonable precautions to mitigate this risk.

Foreign markets also have different clearance and settlement procedures, and in certain markets there have been times when settlements have been unable to keep pace with the volume of securities transactions, making it difficult to conduct such transactions. Such delays in settlement could result in temporary periods when a portion of the assets of the Fund remain uninvested and no return is earned on such assets. The inability of the Fund to make intended security purchases or sales due to settlement problems could result in missed attractive investment opportunities, losses to the underlying fund due to subsequent declines in value of the portfolio securities or, if the

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Fund has entered into a contract to sell the securities, possible liability to the purchaser. Losses can also result from lost, stolen or counterfeit securities; defaults by brokers and banks; failures or defects of the settlement system; or poor and improper record keeping by registrars and issuers.

Share blocking refers to a practice in certain foreign markets under which an issuer’s securities are blocked from trading at the custodian or sub-custodian level for a specified number of days before and, in certain instances, after a shareholder meeting where a vote of shareholders takes place. The blocking period can last up to several weeks. Share blocking may prevent the underlying funds from buying or selling securities during this period, because during the time shares are blocked, trades in such securities will not settle. It may be difficult or impossible to lift blocking restrictions, with the particular requirements varying widely by country.

The Fund may invest a significant percentage of its assets in the securities of issuers located in geographic regions with securities markets that are highly developed, liquid and subject to extensive regulation, including Japan. In recent years, Japan’s economic growth has been substantially below the level of earlier decades, and its economy has experienced periods of recession. Similar to many European countries, Japan is experiencing a deterioration of its competitiveness. Although Japan is attempting to reform its political process and deregulate its economy to address the situation, there is no guarantee that these efforts will succeed.

Japan’s economy is heavily dependent upon international trade, and is especially sensitive to trade barriers and disputes. Domestic or foreign trade sanctions or other protectionist measures may also adversely impact Japan’s economy. In particular, Japan relies on large imports of agricultural products, raw materials and fuels. Increases in the price of crude oil, a substantial rise in other commodity prices, or a fall-off in Japan’s manufactured exports, may affect Japan’s economy adversely. Additionally, slowdowns in the economies of key trading partners such as the United States, China and countries in Southeast Asia could have a negative impact on the Japanese economy.

The Japanese yen has fluctuated widely at times and any increase in its value may cause a decline in exports that could weaken the economy. The Japanese yen may also be affected by currency volatility elsewhere in Asia, particularly Southeast Asia. The Japanese securities markets are less regulated than the U.S. markets. Evidence has emerged from time to time of distortion of market prices to serve political or other purposes. Shareholders’ rights also are not always enforced.

Japan has had territorial disputes and/or defense issues with China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, among others. In the past several years, Japan’s relationship with North Korea has been especially strained because of increased nuclear and military activity by North Korea. Japan’s disputes with neighboring countries have the potential to cause uncertainty in the Japanese markets and affect the overall Japanese economy in times of crisis. In addition, Japan is vulnerable to earthquakes, volcanoes and other natural disasters. The March 2011 earthquakes and tsunami in Japan have caused volatility in the Japanese securities markets. The longstanding impact of these natural disasters, however, remains unclear.

Japan is located in a part of the world that has historically been prone to natural disasters such as earthquakes, volcanos, and tsunamis and is economically sensitive to environmental events. Any such event could result in a significant adverse impact on the Japanese economy.

High Yield Securities

Credit Quality

Credit quality of non-investment grade securities can change suddenly and unexpectedly, and even recently-issued credit ratings may not fully reflect the actual risks posed by a particular high-yield security.

Greater Risk of Loss

These securities are regarded as predominately speculative. There is a greater risk that issuers of lower-rated securities will default than issuers of higher-rated securities. Issuers of lower-rated securities generally are less creditworthy and may be highly indebted, financially distressed, or bankrupt. These

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issuers are more vulnerable to real or perceived economic changes, political changes or adverse industry developments. In addition, high yield securities are frequently subordinated to the prior payment of senior indebtedness. If an issuer fails to pay principal or interest on securities held by the Fund, the Fund would experience a decrease in income and a decline in the market value of its investments.

Liquidity

There may be no established secondary or public market for investments in lower-rated securities. Such securities are frequently traded in markets that may be relatively less liquid than the market for higher-rated securities. In addition, relatively few institutional purchasers may hold a major portion of an issue of lower-rated securities at times. As a result, the Fund may be required to sell investments at substantial losses or retain them indefinitely when an issuer’s financial condition is deteriorating.

New Legislation

Future legislation may have a possible negative impact on the market for high yield, high risk bonds. As an example, in the late 1980’s, legislation required federally-insured savings and loan associations to divest their investments in high yield, high risk bonds. New legislation, if enacted, could have a material negative effect on the Fund’s investments in lower-rated securities.

Sensitivity to Interest Rate and Economic Changes

The income and market value of lower-rated securities may fluctuate more than higher-rated securities. Although non-investment grade securities tend to be less sensitive to interest rate changes than investment grade securities, non-investment grade securities are more sensitive to short-term corporate, economic and market developments. During periods of economic uncertainty and change, the market price of the investments in lower-rated securities may be volatile. The default rate for high yield bonds tends to be cyclical, with defaults rising in periods of economic downturn.

Valuation Difficulties

It is often more difficult to value lower-rated securities than higher-rated securities. If an issuer’s financial condition deteriorates, accurate financial and business information may be limited or unavailable. In addition, the lower-rated investments may be thinly traded and there may be no established secondary market. Because of the lack of market pricing and current information for investments in lower-rated securities, valuation of such investments is much more dependent on judgment than is the case with higher-rated securities.

High yield, high risk investments may include the following:

Convertible Securities

These are bonds or preferred stock that may be converted to common stock.

Distressed Securities

An investment in distressed securities may involve a substantial degree of risk. These instruments, which involve loans, loan participations, bonds, notes, non-performing and sub-performing mortgage loans typically are unrated, lower-rated, in default or close to default. Many of these instruments are not publicly traded, and may become illiquid. The prices of such instruments may be extremely volatile. Securities of distressed companies are generally more likely to become worthless than the securities of more financially stable companies. Valuing such instruments may be difficult, and the Fund may lose all of its investment, or it may be required to accept cash or securities with a value less than the Fund’s original investment. Issuers of distressed securities are typically in a weak financial condition and may default, in which case the Fund may lose its entire investment.

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Loan Participations and Assignments

These are participations in, or assignments of all or a portion of loans to corporations or to governments, including governments of less developed countries (“LDCs”).

Pay-in-kind bonds

These are bonds which allow the issuer, at its option, to make current interest payments on the bonds either in cash or in additional bonds. These bonds are typically sold without registration under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), usually to a relatively small number of institutional investors.

Preferred Stock

These are stocks that generally pay a dividend at a specified rate and have preference over common stock in the payment of dividends and in liquidation.

Securities issued in connection with Reorganizations and Corporate Restructurings

In connection with reorganizing or restructuring of an issuer, an issuer may issue common stock or other securities to holders of its fixed income securities. The Fund may hold such common stock and other securities even if it does not invest in such securities.

Straight fixed income securities

These include bonds and other debt obligations that bear a fixed or variable rate of interest payable at regular intervals and have a fixed or resettable maturity date. The particular terms of such securities vary and may include features such as call provisions and sinking funds.

Zero-coupon debt securities

These do not pay periodic interest but are issued at a discount from their value at maturity. When held to maturity, their entire return equals the difference between their issue price and their maturity value.

Zero-fixed-coupon debt securities

These are zero-coupon debt securities that convert on a specified date to periodic interest-paying debt securities.

Illiquid and Restricted Securities

Pursuant to Rule 22e-4 under the 1940 Act, the Fund may invest up to 15% of its net assets in illiquid investments. An illiquid investment is an investment that the Fund reasonably expects cannot be sold or disposed of in current market conditions within 7 calendar days or less without the sale or disposition significantly changing the market value of the investment. Illiquid investments include securities that are illiquid by virtue of the absence of a readily available market (e.g., because trading in the security is suspended or because market makers do not exist or will not entertain bids or offers) or legal or contractual restrictions on resale (e.g., because they have not been registered under the Securities Act). Illiquid investments include: repurchase agreements and time deposits with a notice or demand period of more than seven days; interest rate; currency, mortgage and credit default swaps; interest rate caps; floors and collars; municipal leases; certain restricted securities, such as those purchased in a private placement of securities, unless it is determined, based upon a review of the trading markets for a specific restricted security, that such restricted security is liquid; and certain over-the-counter options. Securities that have legal or contractual restrictions on resale but have a readily available market are not considered illiquid for purposes of this limitation.

 

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With respect to the Fund, repurchase agreements subject to demand are deemed to have a maturity equal to the notice period. Foreign (non-U.S.) securities that are freely tradable in their principal markets are not considered to be illiquid.

 

Restricted and other illiquid investments may be subject to the potential for delays on resale and uncertainty in valuation. The Fund might be unable to dispose of illiquid investments promptly or at reasonable prices and might thereby experience difficulty in satisfying redemption requests from shareholders. The Fund might have to register restricted securities in order to dispose of them resulting in additional expense and delay. Adverse market conditions could impede such a public offering of securities. To the extent an investment held by the Fund is deemed to be an illiquid investment or a less liquid investment, the Fund will be exposed to a greater liquidity risk.

 

In October 2016, the SEC adopted a new liquidity risk management rule, Rule 22e-4 under the 1940 Act, requiring open-end funds, such as the Fund, to establish a liquidity risk management program and to enhance disclosures regarding fund liquidity. As required by Rule 22e-4, the Trust has implemented a liquidity risk management program and related procedures to identify illiquid investments pursuant to Rule 22e-4. If the limitation on illiquid investments is exceeded, other than by a change in market values, the condition will be reported to the Board and, when required, to the SEC. The rule may impact the Fund’s performance and ability to achieve its investment objective.

A large institutional market exists for certain securities that are not registered under the Securities Act, including foreign (non-U.S.) securities. The fact that there are contractual or legal restrictions on resale to the general public or to certain institutions may not be indicative of the liquidity of such investments. Rule 144A under the Securities Act allows such a broader institutional trading market for securities otherwise subject to restrictions on resale to the general public. Rule 144A establishes a “safe harbor” from the registration requirements of the Securities Act for resale of certain securities to qualified institutional buyers. Rule 144A has produced enhanced liquidity for many restricted securities, and market liquidity for such securities may continue to expand as a result of this regulation and the consequent existence of the PORTAL system, which is an automated system for the trading, clearance and settlement of unregistered securities of domestic and foreign (non-U.S.) issuers sponsored by the Financial Industry Regulatory, Inc.

Under the current guidelines of the staff of the SEC, illiquid investments are also considered to include, among other securities, purchased OTC options, certain cover for OTC options, repurchase agreements with maturities in excess of seven days, and certain securities whose disposition is restricted under federal securities law.

Under guidelines adopted by the Trust’s Board, the Fund’s Adviser may determine that particular Rule 144A securities, and commercial paper issued in reliance on the private placement exemption from registration afforded by Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act, are liquid even though they are not registered. A determination of whether such a security is liquid or not is a question of fact. In making this determination, the Adviser will consider, as it deems appropriate under the circumstances and among other factors: (1) the frequency of trades and quotes for the security; (2) the number of dealers willing to purchase or sell the security; (3) the number of other potential purchasers of the security; (4) dealer undertakings to make a market in the security; (5) the nature of the security (e.g., debt or equity, date of maturity, terms of dividend or interest payments, and other material terms) and the nature of the marketplace trades (e.g., the time needed to dispose of the security, the method of soliciting offers, and the mechanics of transfer); and (6) the rating of the security and the financial condition and prospects of the issuer. In the case of commercial paper, the Adviser will also determine that the paper (1) is not traded flat or in default as to principal and interest, and (2) is rated in one of the two highest rating categories by at least two Nationally Recognized Statistical Rating Organizations (“NRSROs”) or, if only one NRSRO rates the security, by that NRSRO, or, if the security is unrated, the Adviser determines that it is of equivalent quality.  

Rule 144A securities and Section 4(a)(2) commercial paper that have been deemed liquid as described above will continue to be monitored by the Adviser to determine if the security is no longer liquid as the result of changed conditions. Investing in Rule 144A securities or Section 4(a)(2) commercial paper could have the effect of increasing the amount of the Fund’s assets invested in illiquid securities if institutional buyers are unwilling to purchase such securities.

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Insured Bank Obligations

The Fund may invest in insured bank obligations. The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) insures the deposits of federally insured banks and savings and loan associations (collectively referred to as “banks”), currently up to $250,000. The Fund may purchase bank obligations, which are fully insured as to principal by the FDIC. Currently, to remain fully insured as to principal, these investments must be limited to $250,000 per bank; if the principal amount and accrued interest together exceed $250,000, the excess principal and accrued interest will not be insured. Insured bank obligations may have limited marketability.

Lending Portfolio Securities

For the purpose of achieving income, the Fund may lend its portfolio securities, provided (1) the loan is secured continuously by collateral consisting of U.S. Government securities or cash or cash equivalents (cash, U.S. Government securities, negotiable certificates of deposit, bankers’ acceptances or letters of credit) maintained on a daily mark-to-market basis in an amount at least equal to the current market value of the securities loaned, (2) the Fund may at any time call the loan and obtain the return of securities loaned, (3) the Fund will receive any interest or dividends received on the loaned securities, and (4) the aggregate value of the securities loaned will not at any time exceed one-third of the total assets of the Fund.

As with other extensions of credit, there are risks that collateral could be inadequate in the event of the borrower failing financially, which could result in actual financial loss, and risks that recovery of loaned securities could be delayed, which could result in interference with portfolio management decisions or exercise of ownership rights. The Fund will be responsible for the risks associated with the investment of cash collateral, including the risk that the Fund may lose money on the investment or may fail to earn sufficient income to meet its obligations to the borrower. In addition, the Fund may lose its right to vote its shares of the loaned securities at a shareholders meeting if the Adviser does not recall or does not timely recall the loaned securities, or if the borrower fails to return the recalled securities in advance of the record date for the meeting.

Securities lending involves counterparty risk, including the risk that the loaned securities may not be returned or returned in a timely manner and/or a loss of rights in the collateral if the borrower or the lending agent defaults or fails financially. This risk is increased when the Fund’s loans are concentrated with a single or limited number of borrowers. There are no limits on the number of borrowers to which the Fund may lend securities and the Fund may lend securities to only one or a small group of borrowers. In addition, under the Securities Lending Agreement, loans may be made to affiliates of the Custodian, as identified in the Securities Lending Agreement.

LIBOR Risk

The Fund may invest in securities and other instruments whose interest payments are determined by references to the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”). According to various reports, certain financial institutions, commencing as early as 2005 and throughout the global financial crisis, routinely made artificially low submissions in the LIBOR setting process, which have subsequently resulted in investigations and fines. These developments may have adversely affected the interest rates on securities whose interest payments were determined by reference to LIBOR. Any future similar developments could, in turn, reduce the value of such securities owned by the Fund.

The United Kingdom Financial Conduct Authority, which regulates LIBOR, announced that after 2021 it will cease its active encouragement of banks to provide the quotations needed to sustain LIBOR. As a result, plans are underway to phase out the use of LIBOR by the end of 2021. Alternatives to LIBOR are in development in many major financial markets. For example, the U.S. Federal Reserve has begun publishing a Secured Overnight Financing Rate (SOFR), a broad measure of secured overnight U.S. Treasury repo rates, as a possible replacement for U.S. dollar LIBOR. However, there is currently no definitive information regarding the future utilization of LIBOR or of any particular replacement rate. There are obstacles to converting certain longer term securities and transactions to a new benchmark and the effectiveness of one alternative reference rate versus multiple alternative reference rates in new or existing financial instruments and products has not been determined. In addition, it is expected that market participants will amend financial instruments referencing LIBOR to include fallback provisions and other measures that contemplate the discontinuation of LIBOR or other similar market disruption events, but neither the effect of the transition process nor the viability of such measures is known. As market participants transition away from LIBOR, LIBOR’s usefulness may deteriorate, which could occur prior to the end of 2021. The

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transition process may lead to increased volatility and illiquidity in markets that currently rely on LIBOR to determine interest rates. The unavailability of LIBOR presents risks to the Fund, including the risk that any pricing or adjustments to the Fund’s investments resulting from a substitute or alternate reference rate may adversely affect the Fund’s performance and/or NAV. The utilization of an alternative reference rate, or the transition process to an alternative reference rate, may adversely affect the fund’s performance. It remains uncertain how such changes would be implemented and the effects such changes would have on the Fund, including any negative effects on the Fund's liquidity and valuation of the Fund's investments, issuers of instruments in which the Fund invests and financial markets generally.

Margin Deposits and Cover Requirements

Margin Deposits for Futures Contracts

Unlike the purchase or sale of portfolio securities, no price is paid or received by the Fund upon the purchase or sale of a futures contract. Initially, the Fund will be required to deposit with the broker an amount of cash or cash equivalents, known as initial margin, based on the value of the contract. The nature of initial margin in futures transactions is different from that of margin in securities transactions in that futures contract margin does not involve the borrowing of funds by the customer to finance the transactions. Rather, the initial margin is in the nature of a performance bond or good faith deposit on the contract which is returned to the Fund upon termination of the futures contract, assuming all contractual obligations have been satisfied. Subsequent payments, called variation margin, to and from the broker, will be made on a daily basis as the price of the underlying instruments fluctuates, making the long and short positions in the futures contract more or less valuable, a process known as “marking to the market.” For example, when the Fund has purchased a futures contract and the price of the contract has risen in response to a rise in the price of the underlying instruments, that position will have increased in value and the Fund will be entitled to receive from the broker a variation margin payment equal to that increase in value. Conversely, where the Fund has purchased a futures contract and the price of the futures contract has declined in response to a decrease in the underlying instruments, the position would be less valuable and the Fund would be required to make a variation margin payment to the broker. At any time prior to expiration of the futures contract, the Adviser may elect to close the position by taking an opposite position, subject to the availability of a secondary market, which will operate to terminate the Fund’s position in the futures contract. A final determination of variation margin is then made, additional cash is required to be paid by or released to the Fund, and the Fund realizes a loss or gain.

Cover Requirements for Forward Contracts, Swap Agreements, Options, Futures and Options on Futures

The Fund will comply with guidelines established by the SEC with respect to coverage of forwards, futures, swaps and options. These guidelines may, in certain instances, require segregation by the Fund of cash or liquid securities with its custodian or a designated sub-custodian to the extent the Fund’s obligations with respect to these strategies are not otherwise “covered” through ownership of the underlying security, financial instrument or currency or by other portfolio positions or by other means consistent with applicable regulatory policies. Segregated assets cannot be sold or transferred unless equivalent assets are substituted in their place or it is no longer necessary to segregate them. As a result, there is a possibility that segregation of a large percentage of the Fund’s assets could impede portfolio management or the Fund’s ability to meet redemption requests or other current obligations.

For example, when entering into a futures contract that will be cash settled, the Fund will cover (and mark-to-market on a daily basis) liquid assets that, when added to the amounts deposited with a futures commission merchant as margin, are equal to the mark-to-market amount, if any, owed by the Fund on the futures contract. When entering into a futures contract that does not need to be settled in cash, the Fund will maintain with its custodian (and mark to market on a daily basis) liquid assets that, when added to the amounts deposited with a futures commission merchant as margin, are equal to the full notional value of the contract. Alternatively, the Fund may “cover” its position by purchasing an option on the same futures contract with a strike price as high or higher than the price of the contract held by the Fund or by entering into an agreement that enables the Fund to settle such futures contracts in cash.

To the extent the Fund writes credit default swaps, the Fund will segregate or “earmark” cash or assets determined to be liquid by the Fund in accordance with procedures established by the Fund’s Board, or enter into offsetting positions, with a value at least equal to the full notional amount of the swap (minus any amounts owed to the Fund). Such segregation or “earmarking” will ensure that the Fund has assets available to satisfy its obligations with respect

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to the transaction and will limit any potential leveraging of the Fund’s portfolio. Also, the Fund does not invest more than 25% of its assets in contracts with any one counterparty.

Master-Limited Partnerships

The Fund may invest in Master-Limited Partnerships (“MLPs”). An MLP is an entity that, if it satisfies a qualifying income test described below, receives partnership taxation treatment under the Code. The interests or “units” of an MLP are traded on securities exchanges like shares of corporate stock. A typical MLP consists of a general partner and limited partners; however, some entities receiving partnership taxation treatment under the Code are established as limited liability companies. The general partner manages the partnership; has an ownership stake in the partnership (typically a 2% general partner equity interest and additional common units and subordinated units); and in many cases is eligible to receive an incentive distribution. The limited partners provide capital to the partnership, have a limited (if any) role in the operation and management of the partnership, and are entitled to receive cash distributions with respect to their units. An MLP typically pays an established minimum quarterly distribution to common unit holders, as provided under the terms of its partnership agreement.

Common units have arrearage rights in distributions to the extent that the MLP fails to make minimum quarterly distributions. Once the MLP distributes the minimum quarterly distribution to common units, subordinated units then are entitled to receive distributions of up to the minimum quarterly distribution, but have no arrearage rights. At the discretion of the general partner, any distributable cash that exceeds the minimum quarterly distribution that the MLP distributed to the common and subordinated units is then distributed to both common and subordinated units, typically on a pro rata basis. Incentive distributions are often paid to the general partner such that as the distribution to limited partnership interests increases, the general partner may receive a proportionately larger share of the total distribution. Incentive distributions are designed to encourage the general partner, who controls and operates the partnership, to maximize the partnership’s cash flow and increase distributions to the limited partners.

To qualify as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, an MLP must receive at least 90% of its income from qualifying sources such as interest, dividends, real estate rents, gain from the sale or disposition of real property, income and gain from certain mineral or natural resources activities, income and gain from the transportation or storage of certain fuels, and, in certain circumstances, income and gain from commodities or futures, forwards and options with respect to commodities, and gain from the sale or other disposition of a capital asset held for the production of such income. Mineral or natural resources activities include exploration, development, production, mining, processing, refining, marketing and transportation (including pipelines), of oil and gas, minerals, geothermal energy, fertilizer, timber or industrial source carbon dioxide. Currently, most MLPs operate in the energy, natural resources, or real estate sectors. The Fund anticipates that a substantial portion of the MLP entities in which the Fund invests will be engaged primarily in the energy sector. The Fund may, however, invest in MLP entities in any sector of the economy. Due to their federal income tax treatment as partnerships, MLPs generally do not pay income taxes, but investors holding interests in MLPs are generally subject to tax on their shares of the MLPs’ income and gains.

Holders of an MLP’s units are exposed to a remote possibility of liability for all of the obligations of that MLP in the event that a court determines that the rights of the unit holders to take certain action under the limited partnership agreement would constitute “control” of the business of that MLP, or if a court or governmental agency determines that the MLP is conducting business in a state without complying with the limited partnership statute of that state.

Certain MLPs in which the Fund may invest depend upon their parent or sponsor entities for the majority of their revenues. If their parent or sponsor entities were to fail to make such payments or satisfy their obligations, the revenues and cash flows of such MLPs and the ability of such MLPs to make distributions to unit holders, such as the Fund, would be adversely affected.

MLP Tax Risk

Much of the benefit that the Fund may derive from its investment in equity securities of MLPs is a result of MLPs generally being treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Partnerships do not pay U.S. federal income tax at the partnership level. Rather, each partner is allocated a share of the partnership’s income, gains, losses, deductions and expenses. A change in current tax law or a change in the underlying business mix of a given

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MLP could result in an MLP being treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, which would result in the MLP being required to pay U.S. federal income tax (as well as state and local income taxes) on its taxable income. The classification of an MLP as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes would have the effect of reducing the amount of cash available for distribution by the MLP. If any MLP in which the Fund invests were treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, it could result in a reduction of the value of the Fund’s investment in the MLP and lower income to the Fund. To the extent a distribution received by the Fund from an MLP is treated as a return of capital, the Fund’s adjusted tax basis in the interests of the MLP will be reduced, which may increase the Fund’s taxable income upon the sale of the interests in the MLP or upon subsequent distributions in respect of such interests. 

Money Market Fund Investments

Certain money market funds in which the Fund may invest may operate as “institutional money market funds” under Rule 2a-7 of the 1940 Act and must calculate their NAV per share to the fourth decimal place (e.g., $1.0000) reflecting market-based values of the money market fund’s holdings. Because the share price of these money market funds will fluctuate, when the Fund sells its shares they may be worth more or less than what the Fund originally paid for them. The Fund could also lose money if the money market fund holds defaulted securities or as a result of adverse market conditions. These money market funds may impose a “liquidity fee” upon the redemption of their shares or may temporarily suspend the ability to redeem shares if the money market fund’s liquidity falls below the required minimums because of market conditions or other factors.

These measures may result in an investment loss or prohibit the Fund from redeeming shares when the Adviser would otherwise redeem shares. If a liquidity fee is imposed or redemptions are suspended, an investing Fund may have to sell other investments at less than opportune times to raise cash to meet shareholder redemptions or for other purposes. The Adviser, as a result of imposition of liquidity fees or suspension of redemptions, or the potential risk of such actions, may determine not to invest the Fund’s assets in a money market fund when it otherwise would, and may potentially be forced to invest in more expensive, lower-performing investments.

Imposition of a liquidity fee or temporary suspension of redemptions is at the discretion of a money market fund’s board of directors or trustees; however, they must impose a liquidity fee or suspend redemptions if they determine it would be in the best interest of the money market fund. Such a determination may conflict with the interest of the Fund.

The Fund may also invest in money market funds that invest at least 99.5% of their assets in U.S. government securities and operate as “government money market funds” under Rule 2a-7. Government money market funds may seek to maintain a stable price of $1.00 per share and are generally not required to impose liquidity fees or temporarily suspend redemptions. However, government money market funds typically offer materially lower yields than other money market funds with fluctuating share prices.

The Fund could lose money invested in a money market fund. An investment in a money market fund, including a government money market fund, is not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) or any other government agency. A money market fund’s sponsor has no legal obligation to provide financial support to the money market fund, and you should not expect that the sponsor or any person will provide financial support to a money market fund at any time.

In addition to the fees and expenses that the Fund directly bears, the Fund indirectly bears the fees and expenses of any money market funds in which it invests. By investing in a money market fund, the Fund will be exposed to the investment risks of the money market fund in direct proportion to such investment. The money market fund may not achieve its investment objective. The Fund, through its investment in the money market fund, may not achieve its investment objective. To the extent the Fund invests in instruments such as derivatives, the Fund may hold investments, which may be significant, in money market fund shares to cover its obligations resulting from the Fund’s investments in derivatives. Money market funds are subject to comprehensive regulations. The enactment of new legislation or regulations, as well as changes in interpretation and enforcement of current laws, may affect the manner of operation, performance and/or yield of money market funds.

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The value of money market instruments may be affected by changing interest rates and by changes in the credit ratings of the investments. An investment in a money market fund is not insured or guaranteed by the FDIC or any other government agency. It is possible to lose money by investing in a money market fund. The SEC has adopted money market fund reform intended to address potential systemic risks associated with money market funds and to improve transparency for money market fund investors. The money market fund reforms may impact the structure, operations and return potential of the money market funds in which the Fund invests.

Mortgage Pass-Through Securities

Interests in pools of mortgage pass-through securities differ from other forms of fixed income securities (which normally provide periodic payments of interest in fixed amounts and the payment of principal in a lump sum at maturity or on specified call dates). Instead, mortgage pass-through securities provide monthly payments consisting of both interest and principal payments. In effect, these payments are a “pass-through” of the monthly payments made by the individual borrowers on the underlying residential mortgage loans, net of any fees paid to the issuer or guarantor of such securities. Unscheduled payments of principal may be made if the underlying mortgage loans are repaid or refinanced or the underlying properties are foreclosed, thereby shortening the securities’ weighted average life. Some mortgage pass-through securities (such as securities guaranteed by Ginnie Mae) are described as “modified pass-through securities.” These securities entitle the holder to receive all interest and principal payments owed on the mortgage pool, net of certain fees, on the scheduled payment dates regardless of whether the mortgagor actually makes the payment.

The principal governmental guarantor of mortgage pass-through securities is Ginnie Mae. Ginnie Mae is authorized to guarantee, with the full faith and credit of the U.S. Treasury, the timely payment of principal and interest on securities issued by lending institutions approved by Ginnie Mae (such as savings and loan institutions, commercial banks and mortgage bankers) and backed by pools of mortgage loans. These mortgage loans are either insured by the Federal Housing Administration or guaranteed by the Veterans Administration. A “pool” or group of such mortgage loans is assembled and after being approved by Ginnie Mae, is offered to investors through securities dealers.

Mortgage-backed securities issued by the Federal National Mortgage Association (“FNMA”) include FNMA Guaranteed Mortgage Pass-Through Certificates, which are solely the obligations of FNMA and are not backed by or entitled to the full faith and credit of the United States, except as described below, but are supported by the right of the issuer to borrow from the U.S. Treasury. FNMA is a stockholder-owned corporation chartered under an Act of the U.S. Congress. FNMA certificates are guaranteed as to timely payment of the principal and interest by FNMA. Mortgage-related securities issued by the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“FHLMC”) include FHLMC Mortgage Participation Certificates. FHLMC is a corporate instrumentality of the United States, created pursuant to an Act of Congress. FHLMC certificates are not guaranteed by the United States or by any Federal Home Loan Banks and do not constitute a debt or obligation of the United States or of any Federal Home Loan Bank. FHLMC certificates entitle the holder to timely payment of interest, which is guaranteed by FHLMC. FHLMC guarantees either ultimate collection or timely payment of all principal payments on the underlying mortgage loans. When FHLMC does not guarantee timely payment of principal, FHLMC may remit the amount due on account of its guarantee of ultimate payment of principal after default.

From time to time, proposals have been introduced before Congress for the purpose of restricting or eliminating federal sponsorship of FNMA and FHLMC. The Trust cannot predict what legislation, if any, may be proposed in the future in Congress with regard to such sponsorship or which proposals, if any, might be enacted. Such proposals, if enacted, might materially and adversely affect the availability of government guaranteed mortgage-backed securities and the Fund’s liquidity and value.

There is risk that the U.S. government will not provide financial support to its agencies, authorities, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises. The Fund may purchase U.S. government securities that are not backed by the full faith and credit of the United States, such as those issued by FNMA and FHLMC. The maximum potential liability of the issuers of some U.S. government securities held by the Fund may greatly exceed their current resources, including their legal right to support from the U.S. Treasury. It is possible that these issuers will not have the funds to meet their payment obligations in the future.

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The volatility and disruption that impacted the capital and credit markets during late 2008 and into 2009 have led to increased market concerns about FHLMC’s and FNMA’s ability to withstand future credit losses associated with securities held in their investment portfolios, and on which they provide guarantees, without the direct support of the federal government. On September 7, 2008, both FHLMC and FNMA were placed under the conservatorship of the Federal Housing Finance Agency (“FHFA”).

Under the plan of conservatorship, the FHFA has assumed control of, and generally has the power to direct, the operations of FHLMC and FNMA, and is empowered to exercise all powers collectively held by their respective shareholders, directors and officers, including the power to: (1) take over the assets of and operate FHLMC and FNMA with all the powers of the shareholders, the directors, and the officers of FHLMC and FNMA and conduct all business of FHLMC and FNMA; (2) collect all obligations and money due to FHLMC and FNMA; (3) perform all functions of FHLMC and FNMA which are consistent with the conservator’s appointment; (4) preserve and conserve the assets and property of FHLMC and FNMA; and (5) contract for assistance in fulfilling any function, activity, action or duty of the conservator. In addition, in connection with the actions taken by the FHFA, the U.S. Treasury Department (the “Treasury”) entered into certain preferred stock purchase agreements with each of FHLMC and FNMA which established the Treasury as the holder of a new class of senior preferred stock in each of FHLMC and FNMA, which stock was issued in connection with financial contributions from the Treasury to FHLMC and FNMA.

The conditions attached to the financial contribution made by the Treasury to FHLMC and FNMA and the issuance of this senior preferred stock placed significant restrictions on the activities of FHLMC and FNMA. FHLMC and FNMA must obtain the consent of the Treasury to, among other things: (i) make any payment to purchase or redeem its capital stock or pay any dividend other than in respect of the senior preferred stock issued to the Treasury, (ii) issue capital stock of any kind, (iii) terminate the conservatorship of the FHFA except in connection with a receivership, or (iv) increase its debt beyond certain specified levels. In addition, significant restrictions were placed on the maximum size of each of FHLMC’s and FNMA’s respective portfolios of mortgages and mortgage-backed securities, and the purchase agreements entered into by FHLMC and FNMA provide that the maximum size of their portfolios of these assets must decrease by a specified percentage each year. The future status and role of FHLMC and FNMA could be impacted by (among other things): the actions taken and restrictions placed on FHLMC and FNMA by the FHFA in its role as conservator; the restrictions placed on FHLMC’s and FNMA’s operations and activities as a result of the senior preferred stock investment made by the Treasury; market responses to developments at FHLMC and FNMA; and future legislative and regulatory action that alters the operations, ownership, structure and/or mission of these institutions, each of which may, in turn, impact the value of, and cash flows on, any mortgage-backed securities guaranteed by FHLMC and FNMA, including any such mortgage-backed securities held by the Fund.

As a result of the economic recession that commenced in the United States in 2008, there is a heightened risk that the receivables and loans underlying the asset-backed securities purchased by the Fund may suffer greater levels of default than was historically experienced.

Commercial banks, savings and loan institutions, private mortgage insurance companies, mortgage bankers and other secondary market issuers also create pass-through pools of conventional residential mortgage loans. Such issuers may, in addition, be the originators and/or servicers of the underlying mortgage loans as well as the guarantors of the mortgage pass-through securities.

 Caps and Floors

The underlying mortgages that collateralize the Adjustable Rate Mortgage Securities (“ARMs”) in which the Fund may invest will frequently have caps and floors which limit the maximum amount by which the loan rate to the residential borrower may change up or down: (1) per reset or adjustment interval, and (2) over the life of the loan. Some residential mortgage loans restrict periodic adjustments by limiting changes in the borrower’s monthly principal and interest payments rather than limiting interest rate changes. These payment caps may result in negative amortization. The value of mortgage securities in which the Fund invests may be affected if market interest rates rise or fall faster and farther than the allowable caps or floors on the underlying residential mortgage loans. Additionally, even though the interest rates on the underlying residential mortgages are adjustable, amortization and prepayments may occur, thereby causing

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the effective maturities of the mortgage securities in which the Fund invests to be shorter than the maturities stated in the underlying mortgages.

Inverse Floaters

Inverse floaters constitute a class of mortgage-backed securities with a coupon rate that moves inversely to a designated index, such as LIBOR (London Interbank Offered Rate) or 11th District Cost of Funds Index (“COFI”). Inverse floaters have coupon rates that typically change at a multiple of the changes of the relevant index rate. Any rise in the index rate (as a consequence of an increase in interest rates) causes a drop in the coupon rate on an inverse floater while any drop in the index rate causes an increase in the coupon rate of an inverse floater. In some circumstances, the coupon on an inverse floater could decrease to zero. In addition, like most other fixed income securities, the value of inverse floaters will decrease as interest rates increase and their average lives will extend. Inverse floaters exhibit greater price volatility than the majority of mortgage-backed securities. In addition, some inverse floaters display extreme sensitivity to changes in prepayments. As a result, the yield to maturity of an inverse floater is sensitive not only to changes in interest rates but also to changes in prepayment rates on the related underlying mortgage assets. As described above, inverse floaters may be used alone or in tandem with interest-only stripped mortgage instruments.

Mortgage Dollar Rolls

The Fund may enter into mortgage dollar rolls with a bank or a broker-dealer. A mortgage dollar roll is a transaction in which the Fund sells mortgage-related securities for immediate settlement and simultaneously purchases the same type of securities for forward settlement at a discount. While the Fund begins accruing interest on the newly purchased securities from the purchase or trade date, it is able to invest the proceeds from the sale of its previously owned securities, which will be used to pay for the new securities, in money market investments until a future settlement date. The use of mortgage dollar rolls is a speculative technique involving leverage, and is considered to be a form of borrowing

Private Mortgage Pass-Through Securities

Private mortgage pass-through securities, also known as “non-agency mortgage securities”, are structured similarly to the Ginnie Mae, FNMA and FHLMC mortgage pass-through securities and are issued by United States and foreign (non-U.S.) private issuers such as originators of and investors in mortgage loans, including savings and loan associations, mortgage banks, commercial banks, investment banks and special purpose subsidiaries of the foregoing. These securities usually are backed by a pool of conventional fixed-rate or adjustable-rate mortgage loans. Since private mortgage pass-through securities typically are not guaranteed by an entity having the credit status of Ginnie Mae, FNMA and FHLMC, such securities generally are structured with one or more types of credit enhancement.

Mortgage assets often consist of a pool of assets representing the obligations of a number of different parties. There are usually fewer properties in a pool of assets backing commercial mortgage-backed securities than in a pool of assets backing residential mortgage-backed securities; hence they may be more sensitive to the performance of fewer mortgage assets. To lessen the effect of failures by obligors on underlying assets to make payments, those securities may contain elements of credit support, which fall into two categories: (i) liquidity protection and (ii) protection against losses resulting from ultimate default by an obligor on the underlying assets. Liquidity protection refers to the provision of advances, generally by the entity administering the pool of assets, to ensure that the receipt of payments on the underlying pool occurs in a timely fashion. Protection against losses resulting from default ensures ultimate payment of the obligations on at least a portion of the assets in the pool. This protection may be provided through guarantees, insurance policies or letters of credit obtained by the issuer or sponsor from third parties, through various means of structuring the transaction or through a combination of such approaches. The degree of credit support provided for each issue is generally based on historical information respecting the level of credit risk associated with the underlying assets. Delinquencies or losses in excess of those anticipated could adversely affect the return on an investment in a security. The Fund will not pay any fees for credit support, although the existence of credit support may increase the price of a security.

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Resets

The interest rates paid on the ARMs in which the Fund may invest generally are readjusted or reset at intervals of one year or less to an increment over some predetermined interest rate index. There are two main categories of indices: those based on U.S. Treasury securities and those derived from a calculated measure, such as a cost-of-funds index or a moving average of mortgage rates. Commonly utilized indices include the one-year and five-year constant maturity Treasury Note rates, the three-month Treasury Bill rate, the 180-day Treasury Bill rate, rates on longer-term Treasury securities, the National Median Cost of Funds, the one-month or three-month London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”), the prime rate of a specific bank, or commercial paper rates. Some indices, such as the one-year constant maturity Treasury Note rate, closely mirror changes in market interest rate levels. Others tend to lag changes in market rate levels and tend to be somewhat less volatile.

Stripped Mortgage Securities

Stripped mortgage securities may be issued by federal agencies, or by private originators of, or investors in, mortgage loans, including savings and loan associations, mortgage banks, commercial banks, investment banks and special purpose subsidiaries of the foregoing. Stripped mortgage securities usually are structured with two classes that receive different proportions of the interest and principal distribution of a pool of mortgage assets. A common type of stripped mortgage security will have one class receiving some of the interest and most of the principal from the mortgage assets, while the other class will receive most of the interest and the remainder of the principal. In the most extreme case, one class will receive all of the interest (the interest-only or “IO” class), while the other class will receive all of the principal (the principal-only or “PO” class). PO classes generate income through the accretion of the deep discount at which such securities are purchased, and, while PO classes do not receive periodic payments of interest, they receive monthly payments associated with scheduled amortization and principal prepayment from the mortgage assets underlying the PO class. The yield to maturity on a PO or an IO class security is extremely sensitive to the rate of principal payments (including prepayments) on the related underlying mortgage assets. A slower than expected rate of principal payments may have an adverse effect on a PO-class security’s yield to maturity. If the underlying mortgage assets experience slower than anticipated principal repayment, the Fund may fail to fully recoup its initial investment in these securities. Conversely, a rapid rate of principal payments may have a material adverse effect on an IO-class security’s yield to maturity. If the underlying mortgage assets experience greater than anticipated prepayments of principal, an Fund may fail to fully recoup its initial investment in these securities.

The Fund may purchase stripped mortgage securities for income, or for hedging purposes to protect the Fund’s portfolio against interest rate fluctuations. For example, since an IO class will tend to increase in value as interest rates rise, it may be utilized to hedge against a decrease in value of other fixed income securities in a rising interest rate environment.

Over-the-Counter Instruments

The trading of over-the-counter instruments subjects the Fund to a variety of risks including: (1) counterparty risk; (2) basis risk; (3) interest rate risk; (4) settlement risk; (5) legal risk; and (6) operational risk. Counterparty risk is the risk that the Fund’s counterparties might default on their obligation to pay or perform generally on their obligations. The over-the-counter markets and some foreign (non-U.S.) markets are “principals’ markets.” That means that performance of the contract is the responsibility only of the individual firm or member on the other side of the trade and not any exchange or clearing corporation. Such “counterparty risk” is accentuated for contracts with longer maturities where events may intervene to prevent settlement, or where the Fund has concentrated its transactions with a single or small group of counterparties. Basis risk is the risk attributable to the movements in the spread between the derivative contract price and the future price of the underlying instrument. Interest rate risk is the general risk associated with movements in interest rates. Settlement risk is the risk that a settlement in a transfer system does not take place as expected. Legal risk is the risk that a transaction proves unenforceable in law or because it has been inadequately documented. Operational risk is the risk of unexpected losses arising from deficiencies in a firm’s management information, support and control systems and procedures. Transactions in over-the-counter derivatives may involve other risks as well, as there is no exchange market on which to close out an

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open position. It may be impossible to liquidate an existing position, to assess the value of a position or to assess the exposure to risk.

Recent Market Events.

The Fund could lose money over short periods due to short-term market movements and over longer periods during more prolonged market downturns. The value of a security or other instrument may decline due to changes in general market conditions, economic trends or events that are not specifically related to the issuer of the security or other instrument, or factors that affect a particular issuer or issuers, country, group of countries, region, market, industry, group of industries, sector or asset class. During a general market downturn, multiple asset classes may be negatively affected. Changes in market conditions and interest rates generally do not have the same impact on all types of securities and instruments.

Stresses associated with the 2008 financial crisis in the United States and global economies peaked approximately a decade ago, but periods of unusually high volatility in the financial markets and restrictive credit conditions, sometimes limited to a particular sector or a geography, continue to recur. Some countries, including the United States, have adopted and/or are considering the adoption of more protectionist trade policies, a move away from the tighter financial industry regulations that followed the financial crisis, and/or substantially reducing corporate taxes. The exact shape of these policies is still being considered, but the equity and debt markets may react strongly to expectations of change, which could increase volatility, especially if the market’s expectations are not borne out. A rise in protectionist trade policies, and the possibility of changes to some international trade agreements, could affect the economies of many nations in ways that cannot necessarily be foreseen at the present time. In addition, geopolitical and other risks, including environmental and public health, may add to instability in world economies and markets generally. Economies and financial markets throughout the world are becoming increasingly interconnected. As a result, whether or not the Fund invests in securities of issuers located in or with significant exposure to countries experiencing economic, political and/or financial difficulties, the value and liquidity of the Fund’s investments may be negatively affected by such events.

COVID-19 has resulted in travel restrictions, closed international borders, enhanced health screenings at ports of entry and elsewhere, disruption of and delays in healthcare service preparation and delivery, prolonged quarantines, cancellations, business and school closings, supply chain disruptions, and lower consumer demand, as well as general concern and uncertainty. The impact of COVID-19, and other infectious illness outbreaks that may arise in the future, could adversely affect the economies of many nations or the entire global economy, individual issuers and capital markets in ways that cannot necessarily be foreseen. In addition, as a possible consequence of the measures taken in response to the spread of COVID-19 and the resulting market disruptions, volatility and liquidity concerns, the Fund may have difficulty in complying with the distribution requirements necessary for the Fund to maintain its status as a regulated investment company under the Internal Revenue Code.

Repurchase Agreements

The Fund may enter into repurchase agreements. In a repurchase agreement, an investor (such as the Fund) purchases a security (known as the “underlying security”) from a securities dealer or bank. Any such dealer or bank must be deemed creditworthy by the Adviser. At that time, the bank or securities dealer agrees to repurchase the underlying security at a mutually agreed upon price on a designated future date. The repurchase price may be higher than the purchase price, the difference being income to the Fund, or the purchase and repurchase prices may be the same, with interest at an agreed upon rate due to the Fund on repurchase. In either case, the income to the Fund generally will be unrelated to the interest rate on the underlying securities. Repurchase agreements must be “fully collateralized,” in that the market value of the underlying securities (including accrued interest) must at all times be equal to or greater than the repurchase price. Therefore, a repurchase agreement can be considered a loan collateralized by the underlying securities.

Repurchase agreements are generally for a short period of time, often less than a week, and will generally be used by the Fund to invest excess cash or as part of a temporary defensive strategy. Repurchase agreements that do not provide for payment within seven days will be treated as illiquid securities. In the event of a bankruptcy or other default by the seller of a repurchase agreement, the Fund could experience both delays in liquidating the underlying security and losses. These losses could result from: (a) possible decline in the value of the underlying security while the Fund is seeking to enforce its rights under the repurchase agreement; (b) possible reduced levels of income or lack of access to income during this period; and (c) expenses of enforcing its rights.

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Securities of Other Investment Companies

The Fund may invest in securities of other investment companies (“underlying funds”). As a result, the Fund may be subject to the risks of the securities and other instruments described below through its own direct investments and indirectly through investments in these underlying funds. The Fund’s investments in an underlying portfolio of ETFs, mutual funds and closed-end funds involve certain additional expenses and certain tax results, which would not be present in a direct investment in the underlying funds.

 

Closed-End Investment Companies

The Fund may invest its assets in “closed-end” investment companies (or “closed-end funds”), subject to the investment restrictions set forth below. Pursuant to recently enacted SEC rules, the Fund and any “affiliated persons,” as defined by the 1940 Act, must comply with certain conditions in order to purchase more than 3% of the total outstanding securities of any underlying fund, however, if the underlying investment company and/or the Fund has received an order for exemptive relief from the SEC in connection with such purchases, the Fund may rely on such relief to make such purchases until January 19, 2022, so long as the underlying investment company and the Fund take appropriate steps to comply with any conditions in such order. Shares of closed-end funds are typically offered to the public in a one-time initial public offering by a group of underwriters who retain a spread or underwriting commission of between 4% or 6% of the initial public offering price. Such securities are then listed for trading on an exchange such as the New York Stock Exchange, the American Stock Exchange, the National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation System (commonly known as “NASDAQ”) and, in some cases, may be traded in other over-the-counter markets. Because the shares of closed-end funds cannot be redeemed upon demand to the issuer like the shares of an open-end investment company (such as the Fund), investors seek to buy and sell shares of closed-end funds in the secondary market.

The Fund generally will purchase shares of closed-end funds only in the secondary market. The Fund will incur normal brokerage costs on such purchases similar to the expenses the Fund would incur for the purchase of securities of any other type of issuer in the secondary market. The Fund may, however, also purchase securities of a closed-end fund in an initial public offering when, in the opinion of the Adviser, based on a consideration of the nature of the closed-end fund’s proposed investments, the prevailing market conditions and the level of demand for such securities, they represent an attractive opportunity for growth of capital. The initial offering price typically will include a dealer spread, which may be higher than the applicable brokerage cost if the Fund purchased such securities in the secondary market.

The shares of many closed-end funds, after their initial public offering, frequently trade at a price per share, which is less than the net asset value per share, the difference representing the “market discount” of such shares. This market discount may be due in part to the investment objective of long-term appreciation, which is sought by many closed-end funds, as well as to the fact that the shares of closed-end funds are not redeemable by the holder upon demand to the issuer at the next determined net asset value but rather are subject to the principles of supply and demand in the secondary market. A relative lack of secondary market purchasers of closed-end fund shares also may contribute to such shares trading at a discount to their net asset value.

The Fund may invest in shares of closed-end funds that are trading at a discount to net asset value or at a premium to net asset value. There can be no assurance that the market discount on shares of any closed-end fund purchased by the Fund will ever decrease. In fact, it is possible that this market discount may increase and the Fund may suffer realized or unrealized capital losses due to further decline in the market price of the securities of such closed-end funds, thereby adversely affecting the net asset value of the Fund’s shares. Similarly, there can be no assurance that any shares of a closed-end fund purchased by the Fund at a premium will continue to trade at a premium or that the premium will not decrease subsequent to a purchase of such shares by the Fund.

Closed-end funds may issue senior securities (including preferred stock and debt obligations) for the purpose of leveraging the closed-end fund’s common shares in an attempt to enhance the current return to such closed-end fund’s common shareholders. The Fund’s investment in the common shares of closed-end funds that are financially leveraged may create an opportunity for greater total return on its investment, but at the same time

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may be expected to exhibit more volatility in market price and net asset value than an investment in shares of investment companies without a leveraged capital structure.

Open-End Investment Companies

The Fund may invest in shares of open-end investment companies. Pursuant to recently enacted SEC rules, the Fund and any “affiliated persons,” as defined by the 1940 Act, must comply with certain conditions in order to purchase more than 3% in the aggregate of the total outstanding securities of any underlying fund, however, if the underlying investment company and/or the Fund has received an order for exemptive relief from the SEC in connection with such purchases, the Fund may rely on such relief to make such purchases until January 19, 2022, so long as the underlying investment company and the Fund take appropriate steps to comply with any conditions in such order. Accordingly, when affiliated persons hold shares of any of the underlying funds, the Fund’s ability to invest fully in shares of those funds is restricted, and the Adviser must then, in some instances, select alternative investments that would not have been its first preference. The 1940 Act also provides that an underlying fund whose shares are purchased by the Fund will not be obligated to redeem shares held by the Fund in an amount exceeding 1% of the underlying fund’s outstanding securities during any period of less than 30 days. Shares held by the Fund in excess of 1% of an underlying fund’s outstanding securities therefore, will be considered not readily marketable securities, which, together with other such securities, may not exceed 15% of any Fund’s total assets. Under certain circumstances an underlying fund may determine to make payment of a redemption by the Fund wholly or partly by a distribution in kind of securities from its portfolio, in lieu of cash, in conformity with the rules of the SEC. In such cases, the Fund may hold securities distributed by an underlying fund until the Adviser determines that it is appropriate to dispose of such securities.

Investment decisions by the investment advisers of the underlying funds are made independently of the Fund and its Adviser. Therefore, the investment adviser of one underlying fund may be purchasing shares of the same issuer whose shares are being sold by the Adviser of the Fund. The result would be an indirect expense to the Fund without accomplishing any investment purpose.

Exchange Traded Funds

ETFs are typically passively managed funds that track their related index and have the flexibility of trading like a security. They are managed by professionals and provide the investor with diversification, cost and tax efficiency, liquidity, marginability, are useful for hedging, have the ability to go long and short, and some provide quarterly dividends. Additionally, some ETFs are unit investment trusts (UITs) that have two markets. The primary market is where institutions swap “creation units” in block-multiples of 50,000 shares for in-kind securities and cash in the form of dividends. The secondary market is where individual investors can trade as little as a single share during trading hours on the exchange. This is different from open-ended mutual funds that are traded after hours once the net asset value (NAV) is calculated. ETFs share many similar risks with open-end and closed-end funds.

ETFs are shares issued by investment companies that are traded like traditional equity securities on a national stock exchange or the NASDAQ National Market System. An investment in an ETF generally represents the same primary risks as an investment in a conventional fund (i.e., one that is not exchange traded) that has the same investment objectives, strategies and policies. The price of an ETF can fluctuate within a wide range, and the Fund could lose money investing in an ETF if the prices of the securities owned by the ETF go down. In addition, ETFs are subject to the following risks that do not apply to conventional open-end mutual funds: (i) the market price of the ETF’s shares may trade at a discount to their net asset value; (ii) an active trading market for an ETF’s shares may not develop or be maintained; or (iii) trading of an ETF’s shares may be halted if the listing exchange’s officials deem such action appropriate, the shares are de-listed from the exchange, or the activation of market-wide “circuit breakers” (which are tied to large decreases in stock prices) halts stock trading generally.

ETF shares are not individually redeemable from the ETF, except upon termination of the ETF. To redeem from the ETF, an investor must accumulate enough ETF shares to reconstitute a creation unit. Upon redemption of a creation unit, an investor will receive securities underlying the ETF and cash identical to the portfolio deposit

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required of an investor wishing to purchase a creation unit that day. The Fund may sell ETF shares through a broker dealer.

The price of an ETF’s shares is derived from and based upon the securities held by the ETF. Accordingly, the level of risk involved in the purchase or sale of an ETF is similar to the risk involved in the purchase or sale of traditional common stock, with the exception that the pricing mechanism for ETFs generally is based on a basket of stocks. Disruptions in the markets for the securities underling ETFs purchased or sold by the Fund could result in losses on ETFs.

Business Development Companies

Business development companies (“BDCs”) are regulated under the 1940 Act and are taxed as regulated investment companies (“RICs”) under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”). BDCs typically operate as publicly traded private equity firms that invest in early stage to mature private companies and small public companies. BDCs realize operating income when their investments are sold off, and therefore maintain complex organizational, operational, tax and compliance requirements, and must distribute at least 90% of their taxable earnings as dividends. Additionally, a BDC’s expenses are not direct expenses paid by Fund shareholders and are not used to calculate the Fund’s net asset value.

Securities Options

The Fund may purchase and write (i.e., sell) put and call options. Such options may relate to particular securities or stock indices, and may or may not be listed on a domestic or foreign (non-U.S.) securities exchange and may or may not be issued by the Options Clearing Corporation. Options trading is a highly specialized activity that entails greater than ordinary investment risk. Options may be more volatile than the underlying instruments, and therefore, on a percentage basis, an investment in options may be subject to greater fluctuation than an investment in the underlying instruments themselves.

A call option for a particular security gives the purchaser of the option the right to buy, and the writer (seller) the obligation to sell, the underlying security at the stated exercise price at any time prior to the expiration of the option, regardless of the market price of the security. The premium paid to the writer is in consideration for undertaking the obligation under the option contract. A put option for a particular security gives the purchaser the right to sell the security at the stated exercise price at any time prior to the expiration date of the option, regardless of the market price of the security.

Stock index options are put options and call options on various stock indices. In most respects, they are identical to listed options on common stocks. The primary difference between stock options and index options occurs when index options are exercised. In the case of stock options, the underlying security, common stock, is delivered. However, upon the exercise of an index option, settlement does not occur by delivery of the securities comprising the index. The option holder who exercises the index option receives an amount of cash if the closing level of the stock index upon which the option is based is greater than, in the case of a call, or less than, in the case of a put, the exercise price of the option. This amount of cash is equal to the difference between the closing price of the stock index and the exercise price of the option expressed in dollars times a specified multiple. A stock index fluctuates with changes in the market value of the stocks included in the index. For example, some stock index options are based on a broad market index, such as the Standard & Poor’s 500® Index or the Value Line Composite Index or a narrower market index, such as the Standard & Poor’s 100®. Indices may also be based on an industry or market segment, such as the NYSE ARCA Oil and Gas Index or the Computer and Business Equipment Index. Options on stock indices are currently traded on the Chicago Board Options Exchange, the New York Stock Exchange, the American Stock Exchange, the Pacific Stock Exchange, the Philadelphia Stock Exchange and the NASDAQ PHLX.

The Fund’s obligation to sell an instrument subject to a call option written by it, or to purchase an instrument subject to a put option written by it, may be terminated prior to the expiration date of the option by the Fund’s execution of a closing purchase transaction, which is effected by purchasing on an exchange an option of the same series (i.e., same underlying instrument, exercise price and expiration date) as the option previously written. A closing purchase transaction will ordinarily be effected to realize a profit on an outstanding option, to prevent an underlying instrument from being called, to permit the sale of the underlying instrument or to permit the writing of a new option

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containing different terms on such underlying instrument. The cost of such a liquidation purchase plus transactions costs may be greater than the premium received upon the original option, in which event the Fund will have incurred a loss in the transaction. There is no assurance that a liquid secondary market will exist for any particular option. An option writer unable to effect a closing purchase transaction will not be able to sell the underlying instrument or liquidate the assets held in a segregated account, as described below, until the option expires or the optioned instrument is delivered upon exercise. In such circumstances, the writer will be subject to the risk of market decline or appreciation in the instrument during such period.

If an option purchased by the Fund expires unexercised, the Fund realizes a loss equal to the premium paid. If the Fund enters into a closing sale transaction on an option purchased by it, the Fund will realize a gain if the premium received by the Fund on the closing transaction is more than the premium paid to purchase the option, or a loss if it is less. If an option written by the Fund expires on the stipulated expiration date or if the Fund enters into a closing purchase transaction, it will realize a gain (or loss if the cost of a closing purchase transaction exceeds the net premium received when the option is sold). If an option written by the Fund is exercised, the proceeds of the sale will be increased by the net premium originally received and the Fund will realize a gain or loss.

Certain Risks Regarding Options

There are several risks associated with transactions in options. For example, there are significant differences between the securities and options markets that could result in an imperfect correlation between these markets, causing a given transaction not to achieve its objectives. In addition, a liquid secondary market for particular options, whether traded over-the-counter or on an exchange, may be absent for reasons which include the following: there may be insufficient trading interest in certain options; restrictions may be imposed by an exchange on opening transactions or closing transactions or both; trading halts, suspensions or other restrictions may be imposed with respect to particular classes or series of options or underlying securities or currencies; unusual or unforeseen circumstances may interrupt normal operations on an exchange; the facilities of an exchange or the Options Clearing Corporation may not at all times be adequate to handle current trading value; or one or more exchanges could, for economic or other reasons, decide or be compelled at some future date to discontinue the trading of options (or a particular class or series of options), in which event the secondary market on that exchange (or in that class or series of options) would cease to exist, although outstanding options that had been issued by the Options Clearing Corporation as a result of trades on that exchange would continue to be exercisable in accordance with their terms.

Successful use by the Fund of options on stock indices will be subject to the ability of the Adviser to correctly predict movements in the directions of the stock market. This requires different skills and techniques than predicting changes in the prices of individual securities. In addition, the Fund’s ability to effectively hedge all or a portion of the securities in its portfolio, in anticipation of or during a market decline, through transactions in put options on stock indices, depends on the degree to which price movements in the underlying index correlate with the price movements of the securities held by the Fund. Inasmuch as the Fund’s securities will not duplicate the components of an index, the correlation will not be perfect. Consequently, the Fund bears the risk that the prices of its securities being hedged will not move in the same amount as the prices of its put options on the stock indices. It is also possible that there may be a negative correlation between the index and the Fund’s securities that would result in a loss on both such securities and the options on stock indices acquired by the Fund.

The hours of trading for options may not conform to the hours during which the underlying securities are traded. To the extent that the options markets close before the markets for the underlying securities, significant price and rate movements can take place in the underlying markets that cannot be reflected in the options markets. The purchase of options is a highly specialized activity that involves investment techniques and risks different from those associated with ordinary portfolio securities transactions. The purchase of stock index options involves the risk that the premium and transaction costs paid by the Fund in purchasing an option will be lost as a result of unanticipated movements in prices of the securities comprising the stock index on which the option is based.

There is no assurance that a liquid secondary market on an options exchange will exist for any particular option, or at any particular time, and for some options no secondary market on an exchange or elsewhere may exist. If

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the Fund is unable to close out a call option on securities that it has written before the option is exercised, the Fund may be required to purchase the optioned securities in order to satisfy its obligation under the option to deliver such securities. If the Fund is unable to effect a closing sale transaction with respect to options on securities that it has purchased, it would have to exercise the option in order to realize any profit and would incur transaction costs upon the purchase and sale of the underlying securities.

Options on Futures Contracts

The Fund may purchase and sell options on the same types of futures in which it may invest. Options on futures are similar to options on underlying instruments except that options on futures give the purchaser the right, in return for the premium paid, to assume a position in a futures contract (a long position if the option is a call and a short position if the option is a put), rather than to purchase or sell the futures contract, at a specified exercise price at any time during the period of the option. Upon exercise of the option, the delivery of the futures position by the writer of the option to the holder of the option will be accompanied by the delivery of the accumulated balance in the writer’s futures margin account which represents the amount by which the market price of the futures contract, at exercise, exceeds (in the case of a call) or is less than (in the case of a put) the exercise price of the option on the futures contract. Purchasers of options who fail to exercise their options prior to the exercise date suffer a loss of the premium paid.

Dealer Options

The Fund may engage in transactions involving dealer options as well as exchange-traded options. Certain additional risks are specific to dealer options. While the Fund might look to a clearing corporation to exercise exchange-traded options, if the Fund were to purchase a dealer option it would need to rely on the dealer from which it purchased the option to perform if the option were exercised. Failure by the dealer to do so would result in the loss of the premium paid by the Fund as well as loss of the expected benefit of the transaction.

Exchange-traded options generally have a continuous liquid market while dealer options may not. Consequently, the Fund may generally be able to realize the value of a dealer option it has purchased only by exercising or reselling the option to the dealer who issued it. Similarly, when the Fund writes a dealer option, the Fund may generally be able to close out the option prior to its expiration only by entering into a closing purchase transaction with the dealer to whom the Fund originally wrote the option.

While the Fund will seek to enter into dealer options only with dealers who will agree to and which are expected to be capable of entering into closing transactions with the Fund, there can be no assurance that the Fund will at any time be able to liquidate a dealer option at a favorable price at any time prior to expiration. Unless the Fund, as a covered dealer call option writer, is able to effect a closing purchase transaction, it will not be able to liquidate securities (or other assets) used as cover until the option expires or is exercised. In the event of insolvency of the other party, the Fund may be unable to liquidate a dealer option. With respect to options written by the Fund, the inability to enter into a closing transaction may result in material losses to the Fund. For example, because the Fund must maintain a secured position with respect to any call option on a security it writes, the Fund may not sell the assets, which it has segregated to secure the position while it is obligated under the option. This requirement may impair the Fund’s ability to sell portfolio securities at a time when such sale might be advantageous.

The Staff of the SEC has taken the position that purchased dealer options are illiquid securities. The Fund may treat the cover used for written dealer options as liquid if the dealer agrees that the Fund may repurchase the dealer options they have written for a maximum price to be calculated by a predetermined formula. In such cases, the dealer option would be considered illiquid only to the extent the maximum purchase price under the formula exceeds the intrinsic value of the option. Accordingly, the Fund will treat dealer options as subject to the Fund’s limitation on illiquid securities. If the SEC changes its position on the liquidity of dealer options, the Fund will change their treatment of such instruments accordingly.

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Spread Transactions

The Fund may purchase covered spread options from securities dealers. These covered spread options are not presently exchange-listed or exchange-traded. The purchase of a spread option gives the Fund the right to put securities that it owns at a fixed dollar spread or fixed yield spread in relationship to another security that the Fund does not own, but which is used as a benchmark. The risk to the Fund, in addition to the risks of dealer options described above, is the cost of the premium paid as well as any transaction costs. The purchase of spread options will be used to protect the Fund against adverse changes in prevailing credit quality spreads, i.e., the yield spread between high quality and lower quality securities. This protection is provided only during the life of the spread options.

Short Sales

The Fund may employ “short selling” for both (1) investment purposes and (2) for defensive purposes as a hedging strategy. For investment purposes, when the Adviser believes that particular index, company or sector is relatively overvalued, the Fund may sell a security short with the expectation that it can be repurchased at a lower price, thus generating a gain for the Fund. For defensive purposes, when the Adviser believes that a security or group of securities in the Fund is susceptible to a decline in value, the Fund may sell a security short with the expectation any decline in value of the security sold short will serve to offset some of the decline in value suffered by the Fund’s portfolio of securities. A short sale strategy is different than a long-only strategy because it consists of selling borrowed shares in the hope that they can be bought back later at a lower price.

The Fund may sell securities short involving the use of derivative instruments and to offset potential declines in long positions in similar securities. A short sale is a transaction in which the Fund sells a security it does not own or have the right to acquire (or that it owns but does not wish to deliver) in anticipation that the market price of that security will decline.

When the Fund makes a short sale, the broker-dealer through which the short sale is made must borrow the security sold short and deliver it to the party purchasing the security. The Fund is required to make a margin deposit in connection with such short sales; the Fund may have to pay a fee to borrow particular securities and will often be obligated to pay over any dividends and accrued interest on borrowed securities.

If the price of the security sold short increases between the time of the short sale and the time the Fund covers its short position, the Fund will incur a loss; conversely, if the price declines, the Fund will realize a capital gain. Any gain will be decreased, and any loss increased, by the transaction costs described above. The successful use of short selling may be adversely affected by imperfect correlation between movements in the price of the security sold short and the securities being hedged.

To the extent the Fund sells securities short, it will provide collateral to the broker-dealer and (except in the case of short sales “against the box”) will maintain additional asset coverage in the form of cash, U.S. government securities or other liquid securities with its custodian in a segregated account in an amount at least equal to the difference between the current market value of the securities sold short and any amounts required to be deposited as collateral with the selling broker (not including the proceeds of the short sale). The Fund does not intend to enter into short sales (other than short sales “against the box”) if immediately after such sales the aggregate of the value of all collateral plus the amount in such segregated account exceeds 50% of the value of the Fund’s net assets. This percentage may be varied by action of the Board. A short sale is "against the box" if at all times during which the short position is open, the Fund owns at least an equal amount of the securities or securities convertible into, or exchangeable without further consideration for, securities of the same issue as the securities that are sold short. Short sales "against the box" may protect the Fund against the risk of losses in the value of a portfolio security because any decline in value of the security should be wholly or partially offset by a corresponding gain in the short position. Any potential gains in the security, however, would be wholly or partially offset by a corresponding loss in the short position. Short sales that are not "against the box" involve a form of investment leverage, and the amount of the Fund's loss on a short sale is potentially unlimited.

Short sales create a risk that the Fund will be required to close the short position by buying the security at a time when the security has appreciated in value, thus resulting in a loss to the Fund. A short position in a security poses

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more risk than holding the same security long. Because a short position loses value as the security’s price increases, the loss on a short sale is theoretically unlimited.

To the extent that the Fund uses short sales as a hedging technique, the Fund is subject to correlation risk. Specifically, the correlation between the security sold short and the hedged security may be imperfect, reducing the expected benefit to the Fund of a short sale, or there may be no correlation at all. It is possible that the market value of the securities the Fund holds in long positions will decline at the same time that the market value of the securities the Fund has sold short increases, thereby increasing the Fund’s potential volatility.

In addition, any gain on a short sale is decreased, and any loss is increased, by the amount of any payments, such as lender fees, replacement of dividends or interest that the Fund may be required to make with respect to the borrowed securities. Market factors may prevent the Fund from closing out a short position at the most desirable time or at a favorable price. The lender of the borrowed securities may require the Fund to return the securities on short notice, which may require the Fund to purchase the borrowed securities at an unfavorable price, resulting in a loss. You should be aware that any strategy that includes selling securities short could suffer significant losses. If the Fund is required to cover its short positions in securities at the same time other short-sellers are trying to borrow or buy such securities, a “short squeeze” could occur, causing the stock price to rise and making it more likely that the Fund will have to cover its short positions at an unfavorable price. In addition, if the Fund’s securities short positions or its strategy become generally known as a result of required disclosure obligations or otherwise, it could have a significant effect on the Adviser’s ability to implement its investment strategy. In particular, it would make it more likely that other investors could cause a “short squeeze” in the securities held short by the Fund forcing the Fund to cover its positions at a loss. Short selling will also result in higher transaction costs (such as interest and dividends), which reduce the Fund’s return, and may result in higher taxes.

Structured Notes, Bonds and Debentures

Typically, the value of the principal and/or interest on these instruments is determined by reference to changes in the value of specific currencies, interest rates, commodities, indexes or other financial indicators (the “Reference”) or the relevant change in two or more References. The interest rate or the principal amount payable upon maturity or redemption may be increased or decreased depending upon changes in the applicable Reference. The terms of the structured securities may provide that in certain circumstances no principal is due at maturity and, therefore, may result in the loss of the Fund’s entire investment. The value of structured securities may move in the same or the opposite direction as the value of the Reference, so that appreciation of the Reference may produce an increase or decrease in the interest rate or value of the security at maturity. In addition, the change in interest rate or the value of the security at maturity may be a multiple of the change in the value of the Reference so that the security may be more or less volatile than the Reference, depending on the multiple. Consequently, structured securities may entail a greater degree of market risk and volatility than other types of debt obligations.

Swaps

The swap market has grown substantially in recent years with a large number of banks and investment banking firms acting both as principals and as agents utilizing standardized swap documentation. As a result, the swap market has become relatively liquid in comparison with the markets for other similar instruments that are traded in the over-the-counter market. The Fund’s Adviser, under the supervision of the Board, is responsible for determining and monitoring the liquidity of the Fund’s transactions in swap agreements. The use of equity swaps is a highly specialized activity that involves investment techniques and risks different from those associated with ordinary portfolio securities transactions.

Credit Default Swaps

In a credit default swap, one party makes a stream of payments to another party in exchange for the right to receive a specified return in the event of a default by a third party, typically an emerging country, on its obligation. The Fund may use credit default swaps to provide a measure of protection against defaults of sovereign issuers (i.e., to reduce risk where the Fund owns or has exposure to the sovereign issuer) and may use credit default swaps to take an active long or short position with respect to the likelihood of a particular issuer’s default. In connection with these agreements, cash or liquid securities may be set aside as collateral by the

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Fund’s custodian in accordance with the terms of the swap agreement. The Fund earns interest on cash set aside as collateral. Swaps are marked to market daily based upon quotations from market makers and the change in value, if any, is recorded as unrealized gain or loss. These financial instruments are not actively traded on financial markets. The values assigned to these instruments are based upon the best available information and because of the uncertainty of the valuation, these values may differ significantly from the values that would have been realized had a ready market for these instruments existed, and the differences could be material. Payments received or made at the end of the measurement period are recorded as realized gain or loss. Entering into these agreements involves, to varying degrees, elements of credit, market, and documentation risk. Such risks involve the possibility that there will be no liquid market for these agreements, that the counterparty to the agreements may default on its obligation to perform or disagree as to the meaning of contractual terms in the agreements, and that there may be unfavorable changes in interest rates.

The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd-Frank Act”) and related regulatory developments requires the clearing and exchange-trading of certain interest rate swaps and credit default swaps. The Dodd-Frank Act will ultimately require the clearing of many additional types of OTC derivative instruments that the CFTC and SEC recently defined as “swaps” including non-deliverable foreign (non-U.S.) exchange forwards, OTC foreign (non-U.S.) exchange options and swaptions. Mandatory exchange-trading and clearing will take place on a phased-in basis based on type of market participant and CFTC approval of contracts for central clearing. In addition, on a phased in basis, derivatives will be subject to margin requirements and swap dealers will potentially be required to collect margin from the Fund with respect to such derivatives. The Adviser will continue to monitor developments in this area, particularly to the extent regulatory changes affect the Fund’s ability to enter into swap agreements.

Swap Agreements

Swap agreements are typically two-party, uncleared contracts entered into primarily by institutional investors for periods ranging from a day to more than one year. In a standard “swap” transaction, two parties agree to exchange the returns (or differentials in rates of return) earned or realized on particular predetermined investments or instruments. The gross returns to be exchanged or “swapped” between the parties are calculated with respect to a “notional amount,” i.e., the return on or increase in value of a particular dollar amount invested in a “basket” of securities representing a particular index. Most swap agreements entered into by the Fund calculate the obligations of the parties to the agreement on a “net basis.” Consequently, the Fund’s current obligations (or rights) under a swap agreement will generally be equal only to the net amount to be paid or received under the agreement based on the relative values of the positions held by each party to the agreement (the “net amount”). Payments may be made at the conclusion of a swap agreement or periodically during its term. Swap agreements often do not involve the delivery of securities or other underlying assets. Accordingly, if a swap is entered into on a net basis, if the other party to a swap agreement defaults, the Fund’s risk of loss consists of the net amount of payments that the Fund is contractually entitled to receive, if any. The net amount of the excess, if any, of the Fund’s obligations over its entitlements with respect to a swap agreement entered into on a net basis will be accrued daily and an amount of cash or liquid asset having an aggregate NAV at least equal to the accrued excess will be maintained in an account with the Fund’s custodian that satisfies the 1940 Act. The Fund will also establish and maintain such accounts with respect to its total obligations under any swaps that are not entered into on a net basis. Obligations under swap agreements so covered will not be construed to be “senior securities” for purposes of the Fund’s investment restriction concerning senior securities. Because most swap agreements are two-party contracts and may have terms of greater than seven days, swap agreements may be considered to be illiquid for the Fund’s illiquid investment limitations. The Fund will not enter into any swap agreement unless the Adviser believes that the other party to the transaction is creditworthy. The Fund bears the risk of loss of the amount expected to be received under a swap agreement in the event of the default or bankruptcy of a swap agreement counterparty.

The Fund may enter into a swap agreement in circumstances where the Adviser believes that it may be more cost effective or practical than buying the underlying securities or a futures contract or an option on such securities. The counterparty to any swap agreement will typically be a bank, investment banking firm or broker/dealer. The counterparty will generally agree to pay the Fund the amount, if any, by which the notional amount of the swap agreement would have increased in value had it been invested in the particular stocks, futures contracts or other underlying assets represented in the index, plus the dividends that would have been

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received on those instruments. The Fund will agree to pay to the counterparty a floating rate of interest on the notional amount of the swap agreement plus the amount, if any, by which the notional amount would have decreased in value had it been invested in such stocks, futures contracts or other underlying assets. Therefore, the return to the Fund on any swap agreement should be the gain or loss on the notional amount plus dividends on the stocks less the interest paid by the Fund on the notional amount.

The Fund may enter into total return swap agreements. Total return swap agreements are contracts in which one party agrees to make periodic payments based on the change in market value of underlying assets, which may include a specified security, futures contract, basket of securities or futures contracts, defined portfolios of bonds, loans and mortgages, or securities indices during the specified period, in return for periodic payments based on a fixed or variable interest rate or the total return from other underlying assets. Total return swap agreements may be used to obtain exposure to a security, commodity or market without owning or taking physical custody of such security, commodity or market. Total return swap agreements may effectively add leverage to the Fund’s portfolio because, in addition to its total net assets, the Fund would be subject to investment exposure on the notional amount of the swap. Total return swaps are a mechanism for the user to accept the economic benefits of asset ownership without utilizing the balance sheet. The other leg of the swap, usually the London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR), is spread to reflect the non-balance sheet nature of the product. Total return swaps can be designed with any underlying asset agreed between two parties. Typically no notional amounts are exchanged with total return swaps. Total return swap agreements entail the risk that a party will default on its payment obligations to the Fund thereunder. Swap agreements also entail the risk that the Fund will not be able to meet its obligation to the counterparty. Generally, the Fund will enter into total return swaps on a net basis (i.e., the two payment streams are netted out with the Fund receiving or paying, as the case may be, only the net amount of the two payments).

Temporary Defensive Position

In anticipation of or in response to adverse market, economic, political or other conditions, the Fund may take temporary defensive positions (up to 100% of its assets) in cash, cash equivalents and short term U.S. government securities. If the Fund were to take a temporary defensive position, it may be unable for a time to achieve its investment objective.

Time Deposits and Variable Rate Notes

The Fund may invest in fixed time deposits, whether or not subject to withdrawal penalties. The commercial paper obligations which the Fund may buy are unsecured and may include variable rate notes. The nature and terms of a variable rate note (i.e., a “Master Note”) permit the Fund to invest fluctuating amounts at varying rates of interest pursuant to a direct arrangement between the Fund as lender, and the issuer, as borrower. It permits daily changes in the amounts borrowed. The Fund has the right at any time to increase, up to the full amount stated in the note agreement, or to decrease the amount outstanding under the note. The issuer may prepay at any time and without penalty any part of or the full amount of the note. The note may or may not be backed by one or more bank letters of credit. Because these notes are direct lending arrangements between the Fund and the issuer, it is not generally contemplated that they will be traded; moreover, there is currently no secondary market for them. Except as specifically provided in the Prospectus, there is no limitation on the type of issuer from whom these notes may be purchased; however, in connection with such purchase and on an ongoing basis, the Adviser will consider the earning power, cash flow and other liquidity ratios of the issuer, and its ability to pay principal and interest on demand, including a situation in which all holders of such notes made demand simultaneously. Variable rate notes are subject to the Fund’s investment restriction on illiquid securities unless such notes can be put back to the issuer on demand within seven days.

Trading in Futures Contracts

A futures contract provides for the future sale by one party and purchase by another party of a specified amount of a specific financial instrument (e.g., units of a stock index) for a specified price, date, time and place designated at the time the contract is made. Brokerage fees are incurred when a futures contract is bought or sold and margin deposits must be maintained. Entering into a contract to buy is commonly referred to as buying or purchasing a contract or

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holding a long position. Entering into a contract to sell is commonly referred to as selling a contract or holding a short position.

Unlike when the Fund purchases or sells a security, no price would be paid or received by the Fund upon the purchase or sale of a futures contract. Upon entering into a futures contract, and to maintain the Fund’s open positions in futures contracts, the Fund would be required to deposit with its futures broker in a segregated account an amount of cash, U.S. Government securities, suitable money market instruments, or other liquid securities, known as “initial margin.”

The margin required for a particular futures contract is set by the exchange on which the contract is traded, and may be significantly modified from time to time by the exchange during the term of the contract. Futures contracts are customarily purchased and sold on margins that may range upward from less than 5% of the value of the contract being traded.

If the price of an open futures contract changes (by increase in underlying instrument or index in the case of a sale or by decrease in the case of a purchase) so that the loss on the futures contract reaches a point at which the margin on deposit does not satisfy margin requirements, the broker will require an increase in the margin. However, if the value of a position increases because of favorable price changes in the futures contract so that the margin deposit exceeds the required margin, the broker will pay the excess to the Fund.

These subsequent payments, called “variation margin,” to and from the futures broker, are made on a daily basis as the price of the underlying assets fluctuate making the long and short positions in the futures contract more or less valuable, a process known as “marking to the market.” The Fund expects to earn interest income on its margin deposits.

Although certain futures contracts, by their terms, require actual future delivery of and payment for the underlying instruments, in practice most futures contracts are usually closed out before the delivery date. Closing out an open futures contract purchase or sale is effected by entering into an offsetting futures contract sale or purchase, respectively, for the same aggregate amount of the identical underlying instrument or index and the same delivery date. If the offsetting purchase price is less than the original sale price, the Fund realizes a gain; if it is more, the Fund realizes a loss. Conversely, if the offsetting sale price is more than the original purchase price, the Fund realizes a gain; if it is less, the Fund realizes a loss. The transaction costs must also be included in these calculations. There can be no assurance, however, that the Fund will be able to enter into an offsetting transaction with respect to a particular futures contract at a particular time. If the Fund is not able to enter into an offsetting transaction, the Fund will continue to be required to maintain the margin deposits on the futures contract.

For example, one contract in the Financial Times Stock Exchange 100 Index future is a contract to buy 25 pounds sterling multiplied by the level of the UK Financial Times 100 Share Index on a given future date. Settlement of a stock index futures contract may or may not be in the underlying instrument or index. If not in the underlying instrument or index, then settlement will be made in cash, equivalent over time to the difference between the contract price and the actual price of the underlying asset at the time the stock index futures contract expires.

The Fund’s futures contracts may be subject to periods of illiquidity because of market conditions, regulatory considerations and other reasons. For example, commodity exchanges limit fluctuations in certain futures contract prices during a single day by regulations referred to as “daily limits.” During a single day, no trades may be executed at prices beyond the daily limit. Once the price of a futures contract for a particular commodity has increased or decreased by an amount equal to the daily limit, positions in the commodity futures contracts can neither be taken nor liquidated unless the traders are willing to effect trades at or within the limit. Futures contract prices have occasionally moved the daily limit for several consecutive days with little or no trading. Such market conditions could prevent the Fund from promptly liquidating its futures contracts.

United States Government Agency

The Fund may invest in securities issued by United States Government Agencies. These consist of fixed income securities issued by agencies and instrumentalities of the United States Government, including the various types of

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instruments currently outstanding or which may be offered in the future. Agencies include, among others, the Federal Housing Administration, Government National Mortgage Association (“GNMA”), Export-Import Bank of the United States, Maritime Administration, and General Services Administration. Instrumentalities include, for example, each of the Federal Home Loan Banks, the National Bank for Cooperatives, FHLMC, the Farm Credit Banks, FNMA, and the United States Postal Service. These securities are either: (i) backed by the full faith and credit of the United States government (e.g., United States Treasury Bills); (ii) guaranteed by the United States Treasury (e.g., GNMA mortgage-backed securities); (iii) supported by the issuing agency’s or instrumentality’s right to borrow from the United States Treasury (e.g., FNMA Discount Notes); or (iv) supported only by the issuing agency’s or instrumentality’s own credit (e.g., Tennessee Valley Association).

Treasury obligations may differ in their interest rates, maturities, times of issuance and other characteristics. No assurance can be given that the U.S. Government will provide financial support to its agencies and authorities if it is not obligated by law to do so. In addition, the value of U.S. Government securities may be affected by changes in the credit rating of the U.S. Government.

Government-related guarantors (i.e., not backed by the full faith and credit of the United States Government) include FNMA and FHLMC. FNMA is a government-sponsored corporation owned entirely by private stockholders. It is subject to general regulation by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development. FNMA purchases conventional (i.e., not insured or guaranteed by any government agency) residential mortgages from a list of approved seller/servicers which include state and federally chartered savings and loan associations, mutual savings banks, commercial banks and credit unions and mortgage bankers. Pass-through securities issued by FNMA are guaranteed as to timely payment of principal and interest by FNMA but are not backed by the full faith and credit of the United States Government.

FHLMC was created by Congress in 1970 for the purpose of increasing the availability of mortgage credit for residential housing. It is a government-sponsored corporation formerly owned by the twelve Federal Home Loan Banks and now owned entirely by private stockholders. FHLMC issues Participation Certificates (“PC’s”), which represent interests in conventional mortgages from FHLMC’s national portfolio. FHLMC guarantees the timely payment of interest and ultimate collection of principal, but PCs are not backed by the full faith and credit of the United States Government. Commercial banks, savings and loan institutions, private mortgage insurance companies, mortgage bankers and other secondary market issuers also create pass-through pools of conventional residential mortgage loans. Such issuers may, in addition, be the originators and/or servicers of the underlying mortgage loans as well as the guarantors of the mortgage-related securities. Pools created by such nongovernmental issuers generally offer a higher rate of interest than government and government-related pools because there are no direct or indirect government or agency guarantees of payments in the former pools. However, timely payment of interest and principal of these pools may be supported by various forms of insurance or guarantees, including individual loan, title, pool and hazard insurance and letters of credit. The insurance and guarantees are issued by governmental entities, private insurers and the mortgage poolers.

Mortgage-backed securities issued by FNMA include FNMA Guaranteed Mortgage Pass-Through Certificates, which are solely the obligations of FNMA and are not backed by or entitled to the full faith and credit of the United States, except as described below, but are supported by the right of the issuer to borrow from the U.S. Treasury. FNMA is a stockholder-owned corporation chartered under an Act of the U.S. Congress. FNMA certificates are guaranteed as to timely payment of the principal and interest by FNMA. Mortgage-related securities issued by FHLMC include FHLMC Mortgage Participation Certificates. FHLMC is a corporate instrumentality of the United States, created pursuant to an Act of Congress. FHLMC certificates are not guaranteed by the United States or by any Federal Home Loan Banks and do not constitute a debt or obligation of the United States or of any Federal Home Loan Bank. FHLMC certificates entitle the holder to timely payment of interest, which is guaranteed by FHLMC. FHLMC guarantees either ultimate collection or timely payment of all principal payments on the underlying mortgage loans. When FHLMC does not guarantee timely payment of principal, FHLMC may remit the amount due on account of its guarantee of ultimate payment of principal after default.

From time to time, proposals have been introduced before Congress for the purpose of restricting or eliminating federal sponsorship of FNMA and FHLMC. The Trust cannot predict what legislation, if any, may be proposed in the future in Congress with regard to such sponsorship or which proposals, if any, might be enacted. Such proposals,

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if enacted, might materially and adversely affect the availability of government guaranteed mortgage-backed securities and the Fund’s liquidity and value.

There is risk that the U.S. government will not provide financial support to its agencies, authorities, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises. A Fund may purchase U.S. government securities that are not backed by the full faith and credit of the United States, such as those issued by FNMA and FHLMC. The maximum potential liability of the issuers of some U.S. government securities held by a Fund may greatly exceed their current resources, including their legal right to support from the U.S. Treasury. It is possible that these issuers will not have the funds to meet their payment obligations in the future.

The volatility and disruption that impacted the capital and credit markets during late 2008 and into 2009 have led to increased market concerns about FHLMC’s and FNMA’s ability to withstand future credit losses associated with securities held in their investment portfolios, and on which they provide guarantees, without the direct support of the federal government. On September 7, 2008, both FHLMC and FNMA were placed under the conservatorship of the Federal Housing Finance Agency (“FHFA”).

Under the plan of conservatorship, the FHFA has assumed control of, and generally has the power to direct, the operations of FHLMC and FNMA, and is empowered to exercise all powers collectively held by their respective shareholders, directors and officers, including the power to: (1) take over the assets of and operate FHLMC and FNMA with all the powers of the shareholders, the directors, and the officers of FHLMC and FNMA and conduct all business of FHLMC and FNMA; (2) collect all obligations and money due to FHLMC and FNMA; (3) perform all functions of FHLMC and FNMA which are consistent with the conservator’s appointment; (4) preserve and conserve the assets and property of FHLMC and FNMA; and (5) contract for assistance in fulfilling any function, activity, action or duty of the conservator. In addition, in connection with the actions taken by the FHFA, the U.S. Treasury Department (the “Treasury”) entered into certain preferred stock purchase agreements with each of FHLMC and FNMA which established the Treasury as the holder of a new class of senior preferred stock in each of FHLMC and FNMA, which stock was issued in connection with financial contributions from the Treasury to FHLMC and FNMA.

The conditions attached to the financial contribution made by the Treasury to FHLMC and FNMA and the issuance of this senior preferred stock placed significant restrictions on the activities of FHLMC and FNMA. FHLMC and FNMA must obtain the consent of the Treasury to, among other things: (i) make any payment to purchase or redeem its capital stock or pay any dividend other than in respect of the senior preferred stock issued to the Treasury, (ii) issue capital stock of any kind, (iii) terminate the conservatorship of the FHFA except in connection with a receivership, or (iv) increase its debt beyond certain specified levels. In addition, significant restrictions were placed on the maximum size of each of FHLMC’s and FNMA’s respective portfolios of mortgages and mortgage-backed securities, and the purchase agreements entered into by FHLMC and FNMA provide that the maximum size of their portfolios of these assets must decrease by a specified percentage each year. The future status and role of FHLMC and FNMA could be impacted by (among other things): the actions taken and restrictions placed on FHLMC and FNMA by the FHFA in its role as conservator; the restrictions placed on FHLMC’s and FNMA’s operations and activities as a result of the senior preferred stock investment made by the Treasury; market responses to developments at FHLMC and FNMA; and future legislative and regulatory action that alters the operations, ownership, structure and/or mission of these institutions, each of which may, in turn, impact the value of, and cash flows on, any mortgage-backed securities guaranteed by FHLMC and FNMA, including any such mortgage-backed securities held by the Fund. 

United States Government Obligations

The Fund may invest in United States Government Obligations. These consist of various types of marketable securities issued by the United States Treasury, i.e., bills, notes and bonds. Such securities are direct obligations of the United States government and differ mainly in the length of their maturity. Treasury bills, the most frequently issued marketable government security, have a maturity of up to one year and are issued on a discount basis.

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Receipts

Interests in separately traded interest and principal component parts of U.S. government obligations that are issued by banks or brokerage firms and are created by depositing U.S. government obligations into a special account at a custodian bank. The custodian holds the interest and principal payments for the benefit of the registered owners of the certificates or receipts. The custodian arranges for the issuance of the certificates or receipts evidencing ownership and maintains the register. Treasury Receipts (“TRs”) and Separately Traded Registered Interest and Principal Securities (“STRIPS”) are interests in accounts sponsored by the U.S. Treasury. Receipts are sold as zero coupon securities.

U.S. Government Zero Coupon Securities

STRIPS and receipts are sold as zero coupon securities, that is, fixed income securities that have been stripped of their unmatured interest coupons. Zero coupon securities are sold at a (usually substantial) discount and redeemed at face value at their maturity date without interim cash payments of interest or principal. The amount of this discount is accreted over the life of the security, and the accretion constitutes the income earned on the security for both accounting and tax purposes. Because of these features, the market prices of zero coupon securities are generally more volatile than the market prices of securities that have similar maturity but that pay interest periodically. Zero coupon securities are likely to respond to a greater degree to interest rate changes than are non-zero coupon securities with similar maturity and credit qualities.

U.S. Treasury Obligations

U.S. Treasury obligations consist of bills, notes and bonds issued by the U.S. Treasury and separately traded interest and principal component parts of such obligations that are transferable through the federal book-entry system known as STRIPS and TRs.

When-Issued, Forward Commitments and Delayed Settlements

The Fund may purchase and sell securities on a when-issued, forward commitment or delayed settlement basis. In this event, the Custodian (as defined under the section entitled “Custodian”) will segregate liquid assets equal to the amount of the commitment in a separate account. Normally, the Custodian will set aside portfolio securities to satisfy a purchase commitment. In such a case, the Fund may be required subsequently to segregate additional assets in order to assure that the value of the account remains equal to the amount of the Fund’s commitment. It may be expected that the Fund’s net assets will fluctuate to a greater degree when it sets aside portfolio securities to cover such purchase commitments than when it sets aside cash.

The Fund does not intend to engage in these transactions for speculative purposes but only in furtherance of its investment objectives. Because the Fund will segregate liquid assets to satisfy its purchase commitments in the manner described, the Fund’s liquidity and the ability of the Adviser to manage them may be affected in the event the Fund’s forward commitments, commitments to purchase when-issued securities and delayed settlements ever exceeded 15% of the value of its net assets.

The Fund will purchase securities on a when-issued, forward commitment or delayed settlement basis only with the intention of completing the transaction. If deemed advisable as a matter of investment strategy, however, the Fund may dispose of or renegotiate a commitment after it is entered into, and may sell securities it has committed to purchase before those securities are delivered to the Fund on the settlement date. In these cases the Fund may realize a taxable capital gain or loss. When the Fund engages in when-issued, forward commitment and delayed settlement transactions, it relies on the other party to consummate the trade. Failure of such party to do so may result in the Fund incurring a loss or missing an opportunity to obtain a price credited to be advantageous.

The market value of the securities underlying a when-issued purchase, forward commitment to purchase securities, or a delayed settlement and any subsequent fluctuations in their market value is taken into account when determining the market value of the Fund starting on the day the Fund agrees to purchase the securities. The Fund

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does not earn interest on the securities it has committed to purchase until it has paid for and delivered on the settlement date.

INVESTMENT RESTRICTIONS

 

The Fund has adopted the following investment restrictions that may not be changed without approval by a “majority of the outstanding shares” of the Fund, which, as used in this SAI, means the vote of the lesser of (a) 67% or more of the shares of the Fund represented at a meeting, if the holders of more than 50% of the outstanding shares of the Fund are present or represented by proxy, or (b) more than 50% of the outstanding shares of the Fund. The Fund may not:

1. Issue senior securities, except as otherwise permitted under the 1940 Act, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder;

2. Borrow money, except (a) from a bank, provided that immediately after such borrowing there is an asset coverage of 300% for all borrowings of the Fund; or (b) from a bank or other persons for temporary purposes only, provided that such temporary borrowings are in an amount not exceeding 5% of the Fund’s total assets at the time when the borrowing is made. This limitation does not preclude the Fund from entering into reverse repurchase transactions, provided that the Fund has an asset coverage of 300% for all borrowings and repurchase commitments of the Fund pursuant to reverse repurchase transactions;

3. Purchase securities on margin, participate on a joint or joint and several basis in any securities trading account, or underwrite securities. (Does not preclude the Fund from obtaining such short-term credit as may be necessary for the clearance of purchases and sales of its portfolio securities, and except to the extent that the Fund may be deemed an underwriter under the Securities Act, by virtue of disposing of portfolio securities);

4. Purchase or sell real estate or interests in real estate. This limitation is not applicable to investments in marketable securities that are secured by or represent interests in real estate. This limitation does not preclude the Fund from investing in mortgage-related securities or investing in companies engaged in the real estate business or that have a significant portion of their assets in real estate (including real estate investment trusts);

5. Invest more than 25% of the market value of its assets in the securities of companies engaged in any one industry or group of industries. (Does not apply to investment in the securities of the U.S. Government, its agencies or instrumentalities.);

6. Purchase or sell commodities (unless acquired as a result of ownership of securities or other investments) or commodity futures contracts, except that the Fund may purchase and sell futures contracts and options to the full extent permitted under the 1940 Act, sell foreign currency contracts in accordance with any rules of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission, invest in securities or other instruments backed by commodities, and invest in companies that are engaged in a commodities business or have a significant portion of their assets in commodities; or

7. Make loans to others, except that the Fund may, in accordance with its investment objective and policies, (i) lend portfolio securities, (ii) purchase and hold debt securities or other debt instruments, including but not limited to loan participations and sub-participations, assignments, and structured securities, (iii) make loans secured by mortgages on real property, (iv) enter into repurchase agreements, (v) enter into transactions where each loan is represented by a note executed by the borrower, and (vi) make time deposits with financial institutions and invest in instruments issued by financial institutions. For purposes of this limitation, the term “loans” shall not include the purchase of a portion of an issue of publicly distributed bonds, debentures or other securities.

 

If a restriction on the Fund’s investments is adhered to at the time an investment is made, a subsequent change in the percentage of Fund assets invested in certain securities or other instruments of the Fund’s investment portfolio, resulting from changes in the value of the Fund’s total assets, will not be considered a violation of the restriction; provided, however, that the asset coverage requirement applicable to borrowings shall be maintained in the manner contemplated by applicable law.

 

With respect to fundamental investment limitation 2 above, if the Fund’s asset coverage falls below 300%, the Fund will reduce borrowing within 3 days in order to ensure that the Fund has 300% asset coverage.

 

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With respect to Fundamental Investment Restriction #5, if the Fund invests in one or more investment companies that concentrates its investments in a particular industry, the Fund will examine its other investment company holdings to ensure that the Fund is not indirectly concentrating its investments in a particular industry.

 

Although fundamental investment restriction #7 reserves for the Fund the ability to make loans, there is no present intent to loan money or portfolio securities and additional disclosure will be provided if such a strategy is implemented in the future.

 

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR DISCLOSURE OF PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS

 

The Trust has adopted policies and procedures that govern the disclosure of the Fund’s portfolio holdings. These policies and procedures are designed to ensure that such disclosure is in the best interests of the Fund’s shareholders.

It is the Trust’s policy to: (1) ensure that any disclosure of portfolio holdings information is in the best interest of Trust shareholders; (2) protect the confidentiality of portfolio holdings information; (3) have procedures in place to guard against personal trading based on the information; and (4) ensure that the disclosure of portfolio holdings information does not create conflicts between the interests of the Trust’s shareholders and those of the Trust’s affiliates.

The Fund’s portfolio holdings are, or will be, disclosed on the Fund’s website at www.leadersharesetfs.com each day the Fund is open for business. The Fund’s portfolio holdings information will also generally be provided for dissemination through the facilities of the National Securities Clearing Corporation (“NSCC”) and/or other fee-based subscription services to NSCC members and/or subscribers to those other fee-based subscription services, including Authorized Participants (as defined below), and to entities that publish and/or analyze such information in connection with the process of purchasing or redeeming Creation Units or trading shares of the Fund in the secondary market. This information typically reflects the Fund’s anticipated holdings as of the next Business Day.

The Fund discloses its portfolio holdings by mailing its annual and semi-annual reports to shareholders approximately two months after the end of the fiscal year and semi-annual period. The Fund also discloses its portfolio holdings reports on Form N-CSR and Form N-PORT two months after the end of each quarter/semi-annual period.

The Fund may choose to make portfolio holdings available to rating agencies such as Lipper, Morningstar or Bloomberg earlier and more frequently on a confidential basis.

Under limited circumstances, as described below, the Fund’s portfolio holdings may be disclosed to, or known by, certain third parties in advance of their posting on the Fund’s website or their filing with the SEC on Form N-CSR or Form N-PORT, as applicable. In each case, a determination has been made by the Trust’s Chief Compliance Officer that such advance disclosure is supported by a legitimate business purpose of the Fund and that the recipient is subject to a duty to keep the information confidential.

· The Adviser. Personnel of the Adviser, including personnel responsible for managing the Fund’s portfolio, may have full daily access to Fund portfolio holdings since that information is necessary in order for the Adviser to provide management, administrative, and investment services to the Fund. As required for purposes of analyzing the impact of existing and future market changes on the prices, availability, demand and liquidity of such securities, as well as for the assistance of the portfolio managers in the trading of such securities, Adviser personnel may also release and discuss certain portfolio holdings with various broker-dealers.

· Gemini Fund Services, LLC is the fund accountant, administrator and custody administrator for the Fund; therefore, its personnel have full daily access to the Fund’s portfolio holdings since that information is necessary in order for them to provide the agreed-upon services for the Trust.

· Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. (“BBH”) is custodian for the Fund; therefore, its personnel have full daily access to the Fund’s portfolio holdings since that information is necessary in order for them to provide the agreed-upon services for the Trust.

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· Grant Thornton LLP is the Fund’s independent registered public accounting firm; therefore, its personnel have access to the Fund’s portfolio holdings in connection with auditing of the Fund’s annual financial statements and providing assistance and consultation in connection with SEC filings.  

· Blank Rome LLP is counsel to the Fund; therefore, its personnel have access to the Fund’s portfolio holdings in connection with review of the Fund’s annual and semi-annual shareholder reports and SEC filings.

Additions to List of Approved Recipients. The ’Trust’s Chief Compliance Officer is the person responsible, and whose prior approval is required, for any disclosure of the Fund’s portfolio securities at any time or to any persons other than those described above. In such cases, the recipient must have a legitimate business need for the information in connection with the operation or administration of the Fund, as determined by the Trust’s Chief Compliance Officer, and must be subject to a duty to keep the information confidential. There are no ongoing arrangements in place with respect to the disclosure of portfolio holdings. In no event shall the Fund, the Adviser, or any other party receive any direct or indirect compensation in connection with the disclosure of information about the Fund’s portfolio holdings.

Compliance With Portfolio Holdings Disclosure Procedures. The ’Trust’s Chief Compliance Officer will report periodically to the Board with respect to compliance with the Fund’s portfolio holdings disclosure procedures, and from time to time will provide the Board any updates to the portfolio holdings disclosure policies and procedures.

There is no assurance that the Trust’s policies on disclosure of portfolio holdings will protect the Fund from the potential misuse of holdings information by individuals or firms in possession of that information. 

MANAGEMENT

 

The business of the Trust is managed under the direction of the Board in accordance with the Agreement and Declaration of Trust and the Trust’s By-laws (collectively, the “Governing Documents”), which have been filed with the SEC and are available upon request. The Board consists of four individuals, all of whom are not “interested persons” (as defined under the 1940 Act) of the Trust and the Adviser (“Independent Trustees”). Pursuant to the Governing Documents of the Trust, the Trustees shall elect officers including, but not limited to, a President, a Secretary, a Treasurer, and a Chief Compliance Officer. The Board retains the power to conduct, operate and carry on the business of the Trust and has the power to incur and pay any expenses, which, in the opinion of the Board, are necessary or incidental to carry out any of the Trust’s purposes. The Trustees, officers, employees and agents of the Trust, when acting in such capacities, shall not be subject to any personal liability except for his or her own bad faith, willful misfeasance, gross negligence or reckless disregard of his or her duties.

 

Board Leadership Structure. The Board is led by Mark Gersten, who has served as the Chairman of the Board since the Trust was first registered with the SEC in 2012. Under the Trust’s Agreement and Declaration of Trust and By-Laws, the Chairman of the Board is responsible for (a) presiding at Board meetings, (b) calling special meetings on an as-needed basis, and (c) execution and administration of Trust policies, including (i) setting the agendas for Board meetings and (ii) providing information to Board members in advance of each Board meeting and between Board meetings. Generally, the Trust believes it best to have a non-executive Chairman of the Board, who together with the President (principal executive officer), are seen by our shareholders, business partners and other stakeholders as providing strong leadership. The Trust believes that its Chairman, the independent chair of the Audit Committee, and, as an entity, the full Board, provide effective leadership that is in the best interests of the Trust, the Fund and each shareholder.

 

Board Risk Oversight. The Board is comprised entirely of Independent Trustees and has established an Audit Committee with a separate chair. The Board is responsible for overseeing risk management, and the full Board regularly engages in discussions of risk management and receives compliance reports that inform its oversight of risk management from its Chief Compliance Officer at quarterly meetings and on an ad hoc basis, when and if necessary. The Audit Committee considers financial and reporting risk within its area of responsibilities. Generally, the Board believes that its oversight of material risks is adequately maintained through the compliance-reporting chain where the Chief Compliance Officer is the primary recipient and communicator of such risk-related information.

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Trustee Qualifications. Generally, the Trust believes that each Trustee is competent to serve because of their individual overall merits including: (i) experience, (ii) qualifications, (iii) attributes and (iv) skills. Mark Garbin has over 30 years of experience in corporate balance sheet and income statement risk management for large asset managers. Mr. Garbin has extensive derivatives experience and has provided consulting services to alternative asset managers. Mr. Garbin holds both a Chartered Financial Analyst (“CFA”) and Professional Risk Manager (“PRM”) designation and has earned and holds advanced degrees in international business, negotiation and derivatives. Mark Gersten has over 35 years of business experience in the investment management business with a focus on mutual funds and alternative funds. He serves as a member of other mutual fund boards outside of the Fund Complex and possesses a strong understanding of the regulatory framework under which investment companies must operate based on his service to this board and extensive experience administering mutual funds. Mr. Gersten is a certified public accountant and holds an MBA in accounting. Neil Kaufman has over 35 years of experience as a corporate and securities attorney and possesses a deep understanding of the securities industry in general and financial statements in particular. Mr. Kaufman has previously served as the Chairman of a NASDAQ-listed technology company and the Chairman of the Banking & Securities Law committee of the Nassau County Bar Association. Anita Krug has 9 years of experience as an attorney advising investment companies and investment advisory firms, particularly those managing hedge funds. She also has extensive experience as a law professor whose scholarship focuses on investment advisers, hedge funds and mutual funds. The Trust does not believe any one factor is determinative in assessing a Trustee’s qualifications, but that the collective experience of each Trustee makes them well qualified.

 

Trustees and Officers. The Trustees and officers of the Trust, together with information as to their principal business occupations during the past five years and other information, are shown below. The address of each Trustee and Officer is 225 Pictoria Drive, Suite 450, Cincinnati, OH 45246. All correspondence to the Trustees and Officers should be directed to c/o Gemini Fund Services, LLC, P.O. Box 541150, Omaha, Nebraska 68154.

 

 

Independent Trustees *

Name, Address,

Year of Birth

 

Position(s) Held with Registrant

 

Term and Length Served

 

Principal Occupation(s) During Past 5 Years

 

Number of Portfolios Overseen In The Fund Complex**

 

Other Directorships Held During Past 5 Years

 

Mark Garbin

Year of Birth: 1951

 

Trustee

 

Indefinite, Since 2012

 

Managing Principal, Coherent Capital Management LLC (since 2008) 10 Northern Lights Fund Trust (since 2013); Northern Lights Variable Trust (since 2013); Forethought Variable Insurance Trust (since 2013); OHA Mortgage Strategies Fund (offshore), Ltd. (2014 - 2017); iCapital KKR Private Markets Fund (since 2014); and Carlyle Tactical Private Credit Fund (since March 2018)
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Mark D. Gersten

Year of Birth: 1950

 

Chairman, Trustee

Indefinite, Since 2012

 

Independent Consultant (since 2012); Senior Vice President – Global Fund Administration Mutual Funds & Alternative Funds, AllianceBernstein LP (1985 – 2011) 10 Northern Lights Fund Trust (since 2013); Northern Lights Variable Trust (since 2013); iCapital KKR Private Markets Fund (since 2014); previously, Ramius Archview Credit and Distressed Fund (2015-2017); and Schroder Global Series Trust (2012 to 2017)

 Neil M. Kaufman

Year of Birth: 1960

 

Trustee, Audit Committee Chairman

 

Indefinite, Since 2012

 

 

Managing Member, Kaufman McGowan, PLLC (legal services)(Since 2016); Partner, Abrams Fensterman, Fensterman, Eisman, Formato, Ferrara & Wolf, LLP (legal services)(2010-2016) 10 iCapital KKR Private Markets Fund (since 2014)

Anita K. Krug

Year of Birth: 1969

 

Trustee

Indefinite, Since 2012

 

Dean (since 2019) Chicago Kent Law School; Interim Vice Chancellor for Academic Affairs (2018-2019) University of Washington Bothell; Interim Dean (2017-2018), Professor (2016-2019), Associate Professor (2014-2016); and Assistant Professor (2010-2014), University of Washington School of Law 10 iCapital KKR Private Markets Fund (since 2014); Centerstone Investors Trust (since 2016)

 

* Information is as of the date of this SAI.

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** As of the date of this SAI, the Trust was comprised of twenty-four active portfolios managed by seven unaffiliated investment advisers and two affiliated investment advisers. The term “Fund Complex” applies only to those funds that (i) are advised by a common investment adviser or by an investment adviser that is an affiliated person of the investment adviser of any of the other funds in the Trust or (ii) hold themselves out to investors as related companies for purposes of investment and investor services. The Fund does not hold itself out as related to any other series within the Trust, except for the Redwood Managed Volatility Fund, Redwood Managed Volatility Portfolio, Redwood Managed Municipal Income Fund, Redwood AlphaFactor Tactical International Fund, Redwood Systematic Macro Trend (SMarT”) Fund, LeaderShares® AlphaFactor® U.S. Core Equity ETF, LeaderShares® Equity Skew ETF, LeaderShares® Activist Leaders® ETF and LeaderShares® AlphaFactor® Tactical Focused ETF, which are also advised by the Fund’s Adviser.

Officers of the Trust*

 

Name, Address,

Year of Birth

 

Position(s) Held with Registrant

 

Principal Occupation(s) During Past 5 Years

 

Number of Portfolios Overseen In The Fund Complex**

 

Other Directorships Held During Past 5 Years

 

James Colantino

Year of Birth: 1969

 

President

Since Feb. 2017

Treasurer

(2012 to 2017)

 

Senior Vice President (2012-present); Vice President (2004 to 2012); Gemini Fund Services, LLC.

N/A

 

N/A

 

Laura Szalyga

Year of Birth: 1978

 

Treasurer

Since Feb. 2017

 

 

Vice President, Gemini Fund Services, LLC (since 2015); Assistant Vice President, Gemini Fund Services, LLC (2011-2014).

N/A

 

N/A

 

Richard A. Malinowski

Year of Birth: 1983

 

Vice President Since Sep. 2018

Secretary

Since 2013

 

Senior Vice President and Senior Managing Counsel, Gemini Fund Services, LLC (since February 2020); Senior Vice President Legal Administration, Gemini Fund Services, LLC (April 2017 to February 2020); Vice President and Counsel (April 2016-2017) and AVP and Staff Attorney (September 2012 – March 2016).

N/A

 

N/A

 

William B. Kimme

 

Chief Compliance

Senior Compliance Officer, Northern Lights Compliance

N/A

 

N/A

 

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Year of Birth: 1962

 

Officer

Since Inception

Services, LLC (September 2011 - present)

 

 

 

* Information is as of the date of this SAI.

** As of the date of this SAI, the Trust was comprised of twenty-four active portfolios managed by seven unaffiliated investment advisers and two affiliated investment advisers. The term “Fund Complex” applies only to those funds that (i) are advised by a common investment adviser or by an investment adviser that is an affiliated person of the investment adviser of any of the other funds in the Trust or (ii) hold themselves out to investors as related companies for purposes of investment and investor services. The Fund does not hold itself out as related to any other series within the Trust, except for the Redwood Managed Volatility Fund, Redwood Managed Volatility Portfolio, Redwood Managed Municipal Income Fund, Redwood AlphaFactor® Tactical International Fund, Redwood Systematic Macro Trend (“SMarT”) Fund, LeaderShares® AlphaFactor® U.S. Core Equity ETF, LeaderShares® Equity Skew ETF, LeaderShares® Activist Leaders® ETF and LeaderShares® AlphaFactor® Tactical Focused ETF, which are also advised by the Fund’s Adviser.

 

 Audit Committee. The Board has an Audit Committee that consists of all of the Trustees, none of whom is an “interested person” of the Trust within the meaning of the 1940 Act. The Audit Committee’s responsibilities include, among other things: (i) the selection, retention or termination of the Trust’s independent auditors and approval of audit and non-audit services to be provided by the independent auditors; (ii) reviewing with the independent auditors the scope, performance and anticipated cost of their audit; (iii) discussing with the independent auditors certain matters relating to the Trust’s financial statements, including any adjustment to such financial statements recommended by such independent auditors, or any other results of any audit; (iv) reviewing on a periodic basis a formal written statement from the independent auditors with respect to their independence, discussing with the independent auditors any relationships or services disclosed in the statement that may impact the objectivity and independence of the Trust’s independent auditors and recommending that the Board take appropriate action in response thereto to satisfy itself of the auditor’s independence; and (v) considering the comments of the independent auditors and management’s responses thereto with respect to the quality and adequacy of the Trust’s accounting and financial reporting policies and practices and internal controls. The Audit Committee operates pursuant to an Audit Committee Charter.

 

Compensation of Trustees.

 

Effective January 1, 2019, the Trust pays each Independent Trustee a fee of $50,000 per annum, as well as reimbursements for any reasonable expenses incurred attending the meetings, to be paid at the end of each calendar quarter. In addition, the Chairman of the Board receives an additional annual fee of $12,500 and the Chairman of the Audit Committee receives an additional annual fee of $10,000. The Trust also pays each Independent Trustee a fee of $1,000 for each Board meeting (and/or Committee meeting held in connection with such a Board meeting) other than a regularly scheduled meeting (a “Special Meeting”), except that the Audit Committee will permit up to four Special Meetings a year without any additional fees.

No “interested persons” who serves as a Trustee of the Trust will receive any compensation for their services as Trustee. None of the executive officers receive compensation from the Trust. The Trust does not have a bonus, profit sharing, deferred compensation, pension or retirement plan.

 

The table below details the amount of compensation the Trustees received from the Fund Complex during the fiscal year ended October 31, 2020. The Fund had not commenced operation as of that date and thus did not pay Trustee fees.

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Name and Position

 

LeaderShares® Dynamic Yield ETF

Total Compensation From Fund Complex Paid to Trustees**

 

Mark Garbin

 

$0 $20,536.92

Mark Gersten

 

$0 $25,872.95

Neil Kaufman

 

$0 $25,204.40

Anita Krug

 

$0 $20,536.92

 

* Trustees’ fees are allocated equally to each series in the Trust.

** The term “Fund Complex” refers only to the Fund, the Redwood Managed Volatility Fund, Redwood Managed Volatility Portfolio, Redwood Managed Municipal Income Fund, Redwood AlphaFactor® Tactical International Fund, Redwood Systematic Macro Trend (“SMarT”) Fund, LeaderShares® AlphaFactor® U.S. Core Equity ETF, LeaderShares® Equity Skew ETF, LeaderShares® Activist Leaders® ETF, LeaderShares® AlphaFactor® Tactical Focused ETF, Redwood Activist Leaders Fund (liquidated October 30, 2020), and Redwood AlphaFactor Tactical Core Fund (liquidated October 30, 2020), and not to any other series of the Trust. For the fiscal year ended October 31, 2020, the aggregate Independent Trustees’ fee paid by the entire Trust were $222,500.

 

 Trustees’ Ownership of Shares in the Fund. As of December 31, 2020, the Trustees beneficially owned the following amounts in the Fund and the family of investment companies overseen by the Trustees.

 

Name of Trustee

 

Dollar Range of Equity Securities in the Fund*

 

Aggregate Dollar Range of Equity Securities in All Registered Investment Companies Overseen by Trustee in Family of Investment Companies

 

 

Mark Garbin

 

 

None

 

None

 

Mark Gersten

 

 

None

 

$50,001-$100,000

 

Neil Kaufman

 

 

None

 

None

 

Anita Krug

 

 

None

 

None

*As of the date of this SAI, the Fund had not commenced operations and did not have any equity securities outstanding.

 

Management Ownership

 

Because there were no shares of the Fund outstanding as of the date of this SAI, the Trustees and officers, as a group, owned 0% of the Fund’s outstanding shares. As of the date of this SAI the Trustees and officers, as a group, owned less than 1% of the Fund Complex’s outstanding shares.

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CONTROL PERSONS AND PRINCIPAL HOLDERS

 

A principal shareholder is any person who owns (of record or beneficially) 5% or more of the outstanding shares of a fund. A control person is one who owns beneficially or through controlled companies more than 25% of the voting securities of a company or acknowledges the existence of control.

As of the date of this SAI, there were no shares of the Fund outstanding, and no shareholder(s) of record owned 5% or more of the outstanding shares of the Fund.

 

INVESTMENT ADVISER

 

Investment Adviser and Investment Advisory Agreement

 

Redwood Investment Management, LLC (“Adviser” or “Redwood”), located at 4110 N. Scottsdale Rd., Suite 125, Scottsdale, AZ 85251, serves as investment advises to the Fund. Subject to the authority of the Board, the Adviser is responsible for the overall management of the Fund’s business affairs. RIM Holdco, LLC owns 100% of Redwood Investment Management, LLC, and Redwood Investment Holdco, LLC owns 99% of RIM Holdco, LLC. Redwood Investment Holdco, LLC is controlled and majority owned by Michael T. Messinger and related trusts formed by him.

 

Under the investment advisory agreement (the “Investment Advisory Agreement”) with the Trust with respect to the Fund, the Adviser, under the supervision of the Board, agrees to invest the assets of the Fund in accordance with applicable law and the investment objective, policies and restrictions set forth in the Fund’s current Prospectus and Statement of Additional Information, and subject to such further limitations as the Trust may from time to time impose by written notice to the Adviser. The Adviser shall act as the investment adviser to the Fund and, as such shall, (i) obtain and evaluate such information relating to the economy, industries, business, securities markets and securities as it may deem necessary or useful in discharging its responsibilities under the Advisory Agreement, (ii) formulate a continuing program for the investment of the assets of the Fund in a manner consistent with its investment objective, policies and restrictions, and (iii) determine from time to time securities to be purchased, sold, retained or lent by the Fund, and implement those decisions, including the selection of entities with or through which such purchases, sales or loans are to be effected; provided, that the Adviser, will place orders pursuant to its investment determinations either directly with the issuer or with a broker or dealer, and if with a broker or dealer, will attempt to obtain the best price and execution of its orders, and may nevertheless in its discretion purchase and sell portfolio securities from and to brokers who provide the Adviser with research, analysis, advice and similar services and pay such brokers in return a higher commission or spread than may be charged by other brokers, subject to best execution.

 

The Adviser also provides necessary office facilities and personnel for servicing the Fund’s investments, compensates all officers, Trustees and employees of the Trust who are officers, directors or employees of the Adviser, and all personnel of the Fund or the Adviser performing services relating to research, statistical and investment activities.

 

The Investment Advisory Agreement was approved by the Board, including a majority of the Independent Trustees, at a meeting held on June 15, 2021.

 

The Adviser provides investment advisory services and pays most of the Fund’s operating expenses (with certain exceptions) in return for a “unitary” advisory fee from the Fund. For its services to the Fund, the Adviser is entitled to receive an annual fee equal to 0.75% of the Fund’s average daily net assets. The Fund, not the Adviser, pays the following expenses: all brokerage fees and commissions, taxes, borrowing costs (such as dividend expense on securities sold short and interest), fees and expenses of other investment companies in which the Fund may invest, and such extraordinary or non-recurring expenses as may arise, including litigation to which the Fund may be a party and indemnification of the Board of Trustees and officers with respect thereto. Expenses not expressly assumed by the Adviser under the Investment Advisory Agreement are paid by the Fund.

 

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The Investment Advisory Agreement will continue in effect for two years initially and thereafter shall continue from year to year provided such continuance is approved at least annually by (a) a vote of the majority of the Independent Trustees, cast in person at a meeting specifically called for the purpose of voting on such approval and by (b) the majority vote of either all of the Trustees or the vote of a majority of the outstanding shares of the Fund. The Investment Advisory Agreement may be terminated without penalty on 60 days written notice by a vote of a majority of the Trustees, the Adviser, or by holders of a majority of the Fund’s outstanding shares. The Investment Advisory Agreement shall terminate automatically in the event of its assignment. 

   

Codes of Ethics

 

The Trust, the Adviser, and the Distributor each have adopted codes of ethics under Rule 17j-1 under the 1940 Act that govern the personal securities transactions of their board members, officers and employees who may have access to current trading information of the Trust. Under the code of ethics adopted by the Trust (for purposes of this subsection only, the “Code”), the Trustees are permitted to invest in securities that may also be purchased by the Fund.

In addition, the Trust has adopted a separate code of ethics that applies only to the Trust’s executive officers to ensure that these officers promote professional conduct in the practice of corporate governance and management. The purpose behind these guidelines is to promote i) honest and ethical conduct, including the ethical handling of actual or apparent conflicts of interest between personal and professional relationships; ii) full, fair, accurate, timely, and understandable disclosure in reports and documents that a registrant files with, or submits to, the SEC and in other public communications made by the Fund; iii) compliance with applicable governmental laws, rule and regulations; iv) the prompt internal reporting of violations of this Code to an appropriate person or persons identified in the Code; and v) accountability for adherence to the Code. 

Proxy Voting Policies

 

The Board has adopted Proxy Voting Policies and Procedures (“Policies”) on behalf of the Trust, which delegate the responsibility for voting proxies to the Adviser, subject to the Board’s continuing oversight. The Policies require that the Adviser vote proxies received in a manner consistent with the best interests of the Fund and its shareholders. The Policies also require the Adviser to present to the Board, at least annually, the Adviser’s Proxy Voting Policies and a record of each proxy voted by the Adviser on behalf of the Fund, including a report on the resolution of all proxies identified by the Adviser as involving a conflict of interest.

 

Where a proxy proposal raises a material conflict between the Adviser’s or interests and the Fund’s interests, the Adviser will resolve the conflict by voting in accordance with the policy guidelines or at the client’s directive using the recommendation of an independent third party. If the third party’s recommendations are not received in a timely fashion, the Adviser will abstain from voting the securities held by that client’s account. A copy of the Adviser’s proxy voting policies are attached hereto as Appendix A.

 

More information. Information regarding how the Fund voted proxies relating to portfolio securities during the most recent 12-month period ended June 30 is available (1) without charge, upon request, by calling the Fund at (480) 757-4277 and such information will be sent within three business days of receipt of a request; and (2) on the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov.

 

 

THE DISTRIBUTOR

 

Northern Lights Distributors, LLC, located at 4221 North 203rd Street, Suite 100 Elkhorn, Nebraska 68022 (the “Distributor”) serves as the principal underwriter and national distributor for the shares of the Fund pursuant to an ETF Distribution Agreement with the Trust (the “ETF Distribution Agreement”). The Distributor is registered as a broker-dealer under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and each state’s securities laws and is a member of FINRA. The offering of the Fund’s shares is continuous. The ETF Distribution Agreement provides that the Distributor, as agent in connection with the distribution of the Fund’s shares, will use reasonable efforts to facilitate the sale of the Fund’s shares.

 

47
 

The ETF Distribution Agreement provides that, unless sooner terminated, it will continue in effect for two years initially and thereafter shall continue from year to year, subject to annual approval by (a) the Board or a vote of a majority of the outstanding shares, and (b) by a majority of the Trustees who are not interested persons of the Trust or of the Distributor by vote cast in person at a meeting called for the purpose of voting on such approval.

 

The ETF Distribution Agreement may be terminated by the Fund at any time, without the payment of any penalty, by vote of a majority of the entire Board or by vote of a majority of the outstanding shares of the Fund on 60 days written notice to the Distributor, or by the Distributor at any time, without the payment of any penalty, on 60 days written notice to the Fund. The ETF Distribution Agreement will automatically terminate in the event of its assignment.

 

The Distributor may enter into selling agreements with broker-dealers that solicit orders for the sale of shares of the Fund and may allow concessions to dealers that sell shares of the Fund.

 

PORTFOLIO MANAGERS

 

The table below includes details about the type, number, and assets under management for the various types of accounts, and total assets in the accounts with respect to which the advisory fee is based on the performance of the accounts. The information is as of December 31, 2020.

 

Michael T. Messinger

 

Total Other Accounts

By Type

Total Number of Accounts by Account Type

Total Assets By Account Type

(in millions)

Number of Accounts by Type Subject to a Performance Fee

Total Assets By Account Type Subject to a Performance Fee

 (in millions)

Registered Investment Companies 9 $967 0 0
Other Pooled Investment Vehicles 1 $16 0 0
Other Accounts 921 $481 0 0

  

Michael Cheung

 

Total Other Accounts

By Type

Total Number of Accounts by Account Type

Total Assets By Account Type

(in millions)

Number of Accounts by Type Subject to a Performance Fee

Total Assets By Account Type Subject to a Performance Fee

 (in millions)

Registered Investment Companies 9 $967 0 0
Other Pooled Investment Vehicles 1 $15 0 0
Other Accounts 921 $481 0 0

 

Conflicts of Interest

 

The Adviser is controlled by Michael T. Messinger. Many of the Adviser’s clients participate in investment programs that have investment objectives, policies and strategies that are substantially similar to the Fund. Other clients of the Adviser may have differing investment programs, objectives, policies and strategies. In general, when a portfolio manager has responsibility for managing more than one account, potential conflicts of interest may arise. Those conflicts could include preferential treatment of one account over others in terms of allocation of resources or

48
 

of investment opportunities. For instance, the Adviser may receive fees from certain accounts that are higher than the fees it receives from the Fund, or the Adviser could receive performance-based fees on certain accounts. The procedures to address conflicts of interest, if any, are described below.

 

The Adviser attempts to avoid conflicts of interest that may arise as a result of the management of multiple client accounts. From time to time, a portfolio manager may recommend or cause a client to invest in a security or other instrument in which another client of the Adviser has an ownership position. The Adviser has adopted certain procedures intended to treat all client accounts in a fair and equitable manner. To the extent that a portfolio manager seeks to purchase or sell the same security or other instrument for multiple client accounts, the Adviser may aggregate, or bunch, these orders where a portfolio manager deems this to be appropriate and consistent with applicable regulatory requirements. When a bunched order is filled in its entirety, each participating client account will participate at the average share prices for the bunched order. When a bunched order is only partially filled, the securities or other instruments purchased will be allocated on a pro-rata basis to each account participating in the bunched order based upon the initial amount requested for the account, subject to certain exceptions. Each participating account will receive the average share price for the bunched order on the same business day.

 

Compensation

 

As of the date of this SAI, due to Mr. Messinger’s and Mr. Cheung’s ownership interest in the Adviser, they may receive compensation through their ownership interest to the extent that the Adviser distributes any profits or the value of ownership interests increase. Messrs. Messinger and Cheung receive a salary and a discretionary bonus based on the Fund and Redwood performance.

 

Ownership of Securities

 

As of the date of this SAI, no portfolio managers beneficially owned any securities of the Fund.

   

ALLOCATION OF PORTFOLIO BROKERAGE

 

Specific decisions to purchase or sell securities for the Fund are made by the portfolio managers who are employees of the Adviser. The Adviser is authorized by the Trustees to allocate the orders placed by it on behalf of the Fund to brokers or dealers who may, but need not, provide research or statistical material or other services to the Fund or the Adviser for the Fund’s use. Such allocation is to be in such amounts and proportions as the Adviser may determine.

 

In selecting a broker or dealer to execute each particular transaction, the Adviser will take the following into consideration:

  the best net price available;

 

  the reliability, integrity and financial condition of the broker or dealer;

 

  the size of and difficulty in executing the order; and

 

  the value of the expected contribution of the broker or dealer to the investment performance of the Fund on a continuing basis.

 

Brokers or dealers executing a portfolio transaction on behalf of the Fund may receive a commission in excess of the amount of commission another broker or dealer would have charged for executing the transaction if the Adviser determines in good faith that such commission is reasonable in relation to the value of brokerage and research services provided to the Fund. In allocating portfolio brokerage, the Adviser may select brokers or dealers who also provide brokerage, research and other services to other accounts over which the Adviser exercises investment discretion. Some of the services received as the result of Fund transactions may primarily benefit accounts other

49
 

than the Fund, while services received as the result of portfolio transactions effected on behalf of those other accounts may primarily benefit the Fund.

 

PORTFOLIO TURNOVER

 

The Fund’s portfolio turnover rate is calculated by dividing the lesser of purchases or sales of portfolio securities for the fiscal year by the monthly average of the value of the portfolio securities owned by the Fund during the fiscal year. The calculation excludes from both the numerator and the denominator securities with maturities at the time of acquisition of one year or less. High portfolio turnover involves correspondingly greater brokerage commissions and other transaction costs, which will be borne directly by the Fund. A 100% turnover rate would occur if all of the Fund’s portfolio securities were replaced once within a one-year period. 

 

OTHER SERVICE PROVIDERS

 

Fund Administration

 

Gemini Fund Services, LLC, (the “Administrator”), which has its principal office at 80 Arkay Drive, Suite 110, Hauppauge, NY 11788, and is primarily in the business of providing administrative, fund accounting and transfer agent services to retail and institutional mutual funds. The Administrator is an affiliate of the Distributor.

 

Pursuant to an ETF Fund Services Agreement with the Fund, the Administrator provides administrative services to the Fund, subject to the supervision of the Board. The Administrator may provide persons to serve as officers of the Fund. Such officers may be directors, officers or employees of the Administrator or its affiliates.

 

The ETF Fund Services Agreement is dated September 19, 2017. The ETF Fund Services Agreement with respect to the Fund was initially approved by the Board at a meeting held on June 15, 2021. The ETF Fund Services Agreement remains in effect for two years from its initial approval and is subject to annual approval of the Board for one-year periods thereafter. The ETF Fund Services Agreement is terminable by the Board or the Administrator on ninety days’ written notice and may be assigned provided the non-assigning party provides prior written consent. This ETF Fund Services Agreement provides that in the absence of willful misconduct, bad faith or gross negligence on the part of the Administrator or reckless disregard of its obligations thereunder, the Administrator shall not be liable for any action or failure to act in accordance with its duties thereunder.

 

Under the ETF Fund Services Agreement, the Administrator provides facilitating administrative services, including: (i) providing services of persons competent to perform such administrative and clerical functions as are necessary to provide effective administration of the Fund; (ii) facilitating the performance of administrative and professional services to the Fund by others, including the Fund’s Custodian; (iii) preparing, but not paying for, the periodic updating of the Fund’s Registration Statement, Prospectus and Statement of Additional Information in conjunction with Fund counsel, including the printing of such documents for the purpose of filings with the SEC and state securities administrators, and preparing reports to the Fund’s shareholders and the SEC; (iv) preparing in conjunction with Fund counsel, but not paying for, all filings under the securities or “Blue Sky” laws of such states or countries as are designated by the Distributor, which may be required to register or qualify, or continue the registration or qualification, of the Fund and/or its shares under such laws; (v) preparing notices and agendas for meetings of the Board and minutes of such meetings in all matters required by the 1940 Act to be acted upon by the Board; (vi) monitoring sales of Share and ensure that the Shares are properly and duly listed with the applicable securities exchanges; and (vii) monitoring daily and periodic compliance with respect to all requirements and restrictions of the 1940 Act, the Internal Revenue Code and the Prospectuses.

 

The Administrator also provides the Fund with accounting services, including: (i) daily computation of net asset value; (ii) maintenance of security ledgers and books and records as required by the 1940 Act; (iii) production of the Fund’s listing of portfolio securities and general ledger reports; (iv) reconciliation of accounting records; (v) calculation of yield and total return for the Fund; (vi) maintaining certain books and records described in Rule 31a-1 under the 1940 Act, and reconciling account information and balances among the Fund’s custodian and Adviser; (vii) monitoring and evaluating daily income and expense accruals, and sales and redemptions of shares of the Fund;

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and Fund; and (viii) creating the Fund’s daily portfolio composition file (“PCF”), assisting with inputting the PCF into the NSCC system and facilitating any other communications required by the NSCC related to the PCFs.

 

For the services rendered to the Fund by GFS under the ETF Fund Services Agreement, GFS is entitled to receive the greater of an annual minimum fee or an asset based fee, which scales downward based upon net assets for fund administration and fund accounting. GFS is also entitled to reimbursement for any out of pocket expenses. Under the Fund’s unitary management fee, the Adviser pays for the operating expenses of the Fund.

 

Transfer Agent

 

Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. (“BBH”), 50 Post Office Square, Boston, MA 02110, acts as transfer, dividend disbursing, and shareholder servicing agent for the Fund pursuant to written agreement with the Fund (the “Transfer Agent”). Under the agreement, the Transfer Agent is responsible for administering and performing transfer agent functions, dividend distribution, shareholder administration, and maintaining necessary records in accordance with applicable rules and regulations.

 

Custodian

 

BBH (the “Custodian”), serves as the custodian of the Fund’s assets pursuant to a Custodian and Transfer Agent Agreement by and between the Custodian and the Trust on behalf of the Fund. The Custodian’s responsibilities include safeguarding and controlling the Fund’s cash and securities, handling the receipt and delivery of securities, and collecting interest and dividends on the Fund’s investments. Pursuant to the Custodian and Transfer Agent Agreement, the Custodian also maintains original entry documents and books of record and general ledgers; posts cash receipts and disbursements; and records purchases and sales based upon communications from the Adviser. The Fund may employ foreign sub-custodians that are approved by the Board to hold foreign assets.

 

Compliance Officer

 

Northern Lights Compliance Services, LLC (“NLCS”), 4221 North 203rd Street, Suite 100, Elkhorn, NE 68022, an affiliate of GFS and the Distributor, provides a Chief Compliance Officer to the Trust as well as related compliance services pursuant to a consulting agreement between NLCS and the Trust. NLCS’s compliance services consist primarily of reviewing and assessing the policies and procedures of the Trust and its service providers pertaining to compliance with applicable federal securities laws, including Rule 38a-1 under the 1940 Act. For the compliance services rendered to the Fund, the Fund pays NLCS a one-time fee plus an annual asset-based fee, which scales downward based upon net assets. The Fund also pays NLCS for any out-of-pocket expenses.

 

DESCRIPTION OF SHARES

 

Each share of beneficial interest of the Trust has one vote in the election of Trustees. Cumulative voting is not authorized for the Trust. This means that the holders of more than 50% of the shares voting for the election of Trustees can elect 100% of the Trustees if they choose to do so, and, in that event, the holders of the remaining shares will be unable to elect any Trustees.

 

Shareholders of the Trust and any other future series of the Trust will vote in the aggregate and not by series except as otherwise required by law or when the Board determines that the matter to be voted upon affects only the interest of the shareholders of a particular series or classes. Matters such as election of Trustees are not subject to separate voting requirements and may be acted upon by shareholders of the Trust voting without regard to series.

 

The Trust is authorized to issue an unlimited number of shares of beneficial interest. Each share has equal, per-class, dividend, distribution and liquidation rights. There are no conversion or preemptive rights applicable to any shares of the Fund. All shares issued are fully paid and non-assessable.

 

The Trust’s by-laws state that unless the Trust consents in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the sole and exclusive forums for any Shareholder (including a beneficial owner) to bring (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of the Trust; (ii) any action asserting a claim or breach of a fiduciary duty owed by

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any Trustee, officer or employee, if any, of the Trust to the Trust or the Trust’s Shareholders or its beneficial owners; (iii) any action asserting a claim against the Trust, its Trustees, officers or employees, if any, arising pursuant to any provision of the Delaware Statutory Trust Act or the Trust’s Agreement and Declaration of Trust or by-laws; or (iv) any action asserting a claim against the Trust, its Trustees, officers or employees, if any, governed by the internal affairs doctrine shall be a state or federal court located within the State of Delaware. The Trust’s by-laws also state that any person or entity that is a shareholder of the Trust shall be deemed to have notice of and consented to the foregoing provisions of the Trust’s by-laws.

  

ANTI-MONEY LAUNDERING PROGRAM

 

The Trust has established an Anti-Money Laundering Compliance Program (the “Program”) as required by the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (“USA PATRIOT Act”). To ensure compliance with this law, the Trust’s Program provides for the development of internal practices, procedures and controls, designation of anti-money laundering compliance officers, an ongoing training program and an independent audit function to determine the effectiveness of the Program. The Trust’s Secretary serves as its Anti-Money Laundering Compliance Officer.

 

Procedures to implement the Program include, but are not limited to, determining that the Fund’s Distributor, and Transfer Agent have established proper anti-money laundering procedures, reported suspicious and/or fraudulent activity and a complete and thorough review of all new opening account applications. The Trust will not transact business with any person or entity whose identity cannot be adequately verified under the provisions of the USA PATRIOT Act.

 

As a result of the Program, the Trust may be required to “freeze” the account of a shareholder if the shareholder appears to be involved in suspicious activity or if certain account information matches information on government lists of known terrorists or other suspicious persons, or the Trust may be required to transfer the account or proceeds of the account to a governmental agency. 

 

PURCHASE, REDEMPTION AND PRICING OF SHARES

 

Calculation of Share Price

 

As indicated in the Fund’s Prospectus under the heading “Determination of Net Asset Value,” the NAV of the Fund’s shares is determined by dividing the total value of the Fund’s portfolio investments and other assets, less any liabilities, by the total number of shares outstanding of the Fund.

 

 Generally, the Fund’s domestic securities (including underlying ETFs which hold portfolio securities primarily listed on foreign (non-U.S.) exchanges) are valued each day at the last quoted sales price on each security’s primary exchange. Securities traded or dealt in upon one or more securities exchanges for which market quotations are readily available and not subject to restrictions against resale shall be valued at the last quoted sales price on the primary exchange or, in the absence of a sale on the primary exchange, at the mean between the current bid and ask prices on such exchange. Securities primarily traded in the National Association of Securities Dealers’ Automated Quotation System (“NASDAQ”) National Market System for which market quotations are readily available shall be valued using the NASDAQ Official Closing Price. If market quotations are not readily available, securities will be valued at their fair market value as determined in good faith by the Fund’s fair value committee in accordance with procedures approved by the Board and as further described below. Securities that are not traded or dealt in any securities exchange (whether domestic or foreign) and for which over-the-counter market quotations are readily available generally shall be valued at the last sale price or, in the absence of a sale, at the mean between the current bid and ask price on such over-the- counter market.

Certain securities or investments for which daily market quotes are not readily available may be valued, pursuant to guidelines established by the Board, with reference to other securities or indices. Debt securities not traded on an exchange may be valued at prices supplied by a pricing agent(s) based on broker or dealer supplied valuations or matrix pricing, a method of valuing securities by reference to the value of other securities with similar

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characteristics, such as rating, interest rate and maturity. Short-term investments having a maturity of 60 days or less may be generally valued at amortized cost, provided such valuations represent par value.

Exchange traded options are valued at the last quoted sales price or, in the absence of a sale, at the mean between the current bid and ask prices on the exchange on which such options are traded. Futures and options on futures are valued at the settlement price determined by the exchange. Other securities for which market quotes are not readily available are valued at fair value as determined in good faith by the Board or persons acting at their direction. Swap agreements and other derivatives are generally valued daily based upon quotations from market makers or by a pricing service in accordance with the valuation procedures approved by the Board.

Under certain circumstances, the Fund may use an independent pricing service to calculate the fair market value of foreign equity securities on a daily basis by applying valuation factors to the last sale price or the mean price as noted above. The fair market values supplied by the independent pricing service will generally reflect market trading that occurs after the close of the applicable foreign markets of comparable securities or the value of other instruments that have a strong correlation to the fair-valued securities. The independent pricing service will also take into account the current relevant currency exchange rate. A security that is fair valued may be valued at a price higher or lower than actual market quotations or the value determined by other funds using their own fair valuation procedures. Because foreign securities may trade on days when Fund shares are not priced, the value of securities held by the Fund can change on days when Fund shares cannot be redeemed or purchased. In the event that a foreign security’s market quotations are not readily available or are deemed unreliable (for reasons other than because the foreign exchange on which it trades closed before the Fund’s calculation of NAV), the security will be valued at its fair market value as determined in good faith by the Fund’s fair value committee in accordance with procedures approved by the Board as discussed below. In addition, because the Fund may invest in underlying ETFs which hold portfolio securities primarily listed on foreign (non-U.S.) exchanges, and these exchanges may trade on weekends or other days when the underlying ETFs do not price their shares, the value of these portfolio securities may change on days when you may not be able to buy or sell Fund shares.

Investments initially valued in currencies other than the U.S. dollar are converted to U.S. dollars using exchange rates obtained from pricing services. As a result, the NAV of the Fund’s shares may be affected by changes in the value of currencies in relation to the U.S. dollar. The value of securities traded in markets outside the United States or denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar may be affected significantly on a day that the New York Stock Exchange is closed and an investor is not able to purchase, redeem or exchange shares.

Fund shares are valued at the close of regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange (normally 4:00 p.m., Eastern time) (the “NYSE Close”) on each day that the New York Stock Exchange is open. For purposes of calculating the NAV, the Fund normally uses pricing data for domestic equity securities received shortly after the NYSE Close and does not normally take into account trading, clearances or settlements that take place after the NYSE Close. Domestic fixed income and foreign (non-U.S.) securities are normally priced using data reflecting the earlier closing of the principal markets for those securities. Information that becomes known to the Fund or its agents after the NAV has been calculated on a particular day will not generally be used to retroactively adjust the price of the security or the NAV determined earlier that day.

When market quotations are insufficient or not readily available, the Fund may value securities at fair value or estimate their value as determined in good faith by the Board or its designees, pursuant to procedures approved by the Board. Fair valuation may also be used by the Board if extraordinary events occur after the close of the relevant market but prior to the NYSE Close.

Notice to Texas Shareholders

Under section 72.1021(a) of the Texas Property Code, initial investors in the Fund who are Texas residents may designate a representative to receive notices of abandoned property in connection with Fund shares. Texas shareholders who wish to appoint a representative should notify the Trust’s Transfer Agent by writing to the address below to obtain a form for providing written notice to the Trust:

 

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LeaderShares® Dynamic Yield ETF

c/o Gemini Fund Services, LLC

P.O. Box 541150

Omaha, NE 68154

 

Creation Units

 

The Fund sells and redeems Shares in Creation Units on a continuous basis through the Distributor, without a sales load, at the NAV next determined after receipt of an order in proper form on any Business Day. A “Business Day” is any day on which the NYSE is open for business. As of the date of this SAI, the NYSE observes the following holidays: New Year’s Day, Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, Presidents’ Day, Good Friday, Memorial Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day and Christmas Day.

 

A Creation Unit is an aggregation of 50,000 Shares. The Board may declare a split or a consolidation in the number of Shares outstanding of the Fund or Trust, and make a corresponding change in the number of Shares in a Creation Unit.

 

Authorized Participants

 

To purchase or redeem any Creation Units, you must be, or transact through, an Authorized Participant. In order to be an Authorized Participant, you must be either a broker-dealer or other participant (“Participating Party”) in the Continuous Net Settlement System (“Clearing Process”) of the National Securities Clearing Corporation (“NSCC”) or a participant in DTC with access to the DTC system (“DTC Participant”), and you must execute an agreement (“Participant Agreement”) with the Distributor that governs transactions in the Fund’s Creation Units.

 

Investors who are not Authorized Participants but want to transact in Creation Units may contact the Distributor for the names of Authorized Participants. An Authorized Participant may require investors to enter into a separate agreement to transact through it for Creation Units and may require orders for purchases of shares placed with it to be in a particular form. Investors transacting through a broker that is not itself an Authorized Participant and therefore must still transact through an Authorized Participant may incur additional charges. There are expected to be a limited number of Authorized Participants at any one time.

 

Orders must be transmitted by an Authorized Participant by telephone or other transmission method acceptable to the Distributor. Market disruptions and telephone or other communication failures may impede the transmission of orders.

 

Transaction Fees

 

A fixed fee payable to the Custodian is imposed on each creation and redemption transaction regardless of the number of Creation Units involved in the transaction (“Fixed Fee”). Purchases and redemptions of Creation Units for cash or involving cash-in-lieu (as defined below) are required to pay an additional variable charge to compensate the Fund and its ongoing shareholders for brokerage and market impact expenses relating to Creation Unit transactions (“Variable Charge,” and together with the Fixed Fee, the “Transaction Fees”). With the approval of the Board, the Adviser may waive or adjust the Transaction Fees, including the Fixed Fee and/or Variable Charge (shown in the table below), from time to time. In such cases, the Authorized Participant will reimburse the Fund for, among other things, any difference between the market value at which the securities and/or financial instruments were purchased by the Fund and the cash-in-lieu amount, applicable registration fees, brokerage commissions and certain taxes. In addition, purchasers of Creation Units are responsible for the costs of transferring the Deposit Securities to the account of the Fund.

 

Investors who use the services of a broker, or other such intermediary may be charged a fee for such services. The Transaction Fees for the Fund are listed in the table below.

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Fee for In-Kind and Cash Purchases Minimum Additional Variable Charge for Cash Purchases* Maximum Additional Variable Charge for Cash Purchases*
$500 20 bps 200 bps

* As a percentage of the amount invested.

 

The Clearing Process

 

Transactions by an Authorized Participant that is a Participating Party using the NSCC system are referred to as transactions “through the Clearing Process.” Transactions by an Authorized Participant that is a DTC Participant using the DTC system are referred to as transactions “outside the Clearing Process.” The Clearing Process is an enhanced clearing process that is available only for certain securities and only to DTC participants that are also participants in the Continuous Net Settlement System of the NSCC. In-kind (portions of) purchase orders not subject to the Clearing Process will go through a manual clearing process run by DTC. Portfolio Deposits that include government securities must be delivered through the Federal Reserve Bank wire transfer system (“Federal Reserve System”). Fund Deposits that include cash may be delivered through the Clearing Process or the Federal Reserve System. In-kind deposits of securities for orders outside the Clearing Process must be delivered through the Federal Reserve System (for government securities) or through DTC (for corporate securities).

 

Foreign Securities

 

Because the portfolio securities of the Fund may trade on days that the Exchange is closed or are otherwise not Business Days for the Fund, shareholders may not be able to purchase or sell shares of the Fund on the Exchange, on days when the NAV of the Fund could be significantly affected by events in the relevant foreign markets.

 

Purchasing Creation Units

 

Portfolio Deposit

 

The consideration for a Creation Unit generally consists of the Deposit Securities and a Cash Component. Together, the Deposit Securities and the Cash Component constitute the “Portfolio Deposit.” The Cash Component serves the function of compensating for any differences between the net asset value per Creation Unit and the Deposit Securities. Thus, the Cash Component is equal to the difference between (x) the net asset value per Creation Unit of the Fund and (y) the market value of the Deposit Securities. If (x) is more than (y), the Authorized Participant will pay the Cash Component to the Fund. If (x) is less than (y), the Authorized Participant will receive the Cash Component from the Fund.

 

On each Business Day, prior to the opening of business on the Exchange (currently 9:30 a.m., Eastern Time), the Adviser through the Custodian makes available through NSCC the name and amount of each Deposit Security in the current Portfolio Deposit (based on information at the end of the previous Business Day) for the Fund and the (estimated) Cash Component, effective through and including the previous Business Day, per Creation Unit. The Deposit Securities announced are applicable to purchases of Creation Units until the next announcement of Deposit Securities.

 

Payment of any stamp duty or the like shall be the sole responsibility of the Authorized Participant purchasing a Creation Unit. The Authorized Participant must ensure that all Deposit Securities properly denote change in beneficial ownership.

 

Custom Orders and Cash-in-lieu

 

The Fund may, in its sole discretion, permit or require the substitution of an amount of cash (“cash-in-lieu”) to be added to the Cash Component to replace any Deposit Security. The Fund may permit or require cash-in-lieu when, for example, a Deposit Security may not be available in sufficient quantity for delivery or may not be eligible for transfer through the systems of DTC or the Clearing Process. Similarly, the Fund may permit or require cash in lieu of Deposit Securities when, for example, the Authorized Participant or its underlying investor is restricted under

55
 

U.S. or local securities laws or policies from transacting in one or more Deposit Securities. The Fund will comply with the federal securities laws in accepting Deposit Securities including that the Deposit Securities are sold in transactions that would be exempt from registration under the Securities Act. All orders involving cash-in-lieu are considered to be “Custom Orders.”

 

Purchase Orders

 

To order a Creation Unit, an Authorized Participant must submit an irrevocable purchase order to the Distributor.

 

Timing of Submission of Purchase Orders

 

An Authorized Participant must submit an irrevocable purchase order no later than the earlier of (i) 4:00 p.m. Eastern Time or (ii) the closing time of the bond markets and/or the trading session on the Exchange, on any Business Day in order to receive that Business Day’s NAV (“Cut-off Time”). The Cut-off Time for Custom Orders is generally two hours earlier. The Business Day the order is deemed received by the Distributor is referred to as the “Transmittal Date.” An order to create Creation Units is deemed received on a Business Day if (i) such order is received by the Distributor by the Cut-off Time on such day and (ii) all other procedures set forth in the Participant Agreement are properly followed. Persons placing or effectuating custom orders and/or orders involving cash should be mindful of time deadlines imposed by intermediaries, such as DTC and/or the Federal Reserve Bank wire system, which may impact the successful processing of such orders to ensure that cash and securities are transferred by the “Settlement Date,” which is generally the Business Day immediately following the Transmittal Date (“T+1”) for cash and the second Business Day following the Transmittal Date for securities (“T+2”).

 

Orders Using the Clearing Process

 

If available, (portions of) orders may be settled through the Clearing Process. In connection with such orders, the Distributor transmits, on behalf of the Authorized Participant, such trade instructions as are necessary to effect the creation order. Pursuant to such trade instructions, the Authorized Participant agrees to deliver the requisite Portfolio Deposit to the Fund, together with such additional information as may be required by the Distributor. Cash Components will be delivered using either the Clearing Process or the Federal Reserve System.

 

Orders Outside the Clearing Process

 

If the Clearing Process is not available for (portions of) an order, Portfolio Deposits will be made outside the Clearing Process. Orders outside the Clearing Process must state that the DTC Participant is not using the Clearing Process and that the creation of Creation Units will be effected through DTC. The Portfolio Deposit transfer must be ordered by the DTC Participant on the Transmittal Date in a timely fashion so as to ensure the delivery of Deposit Securities (whether standard or custom) through DTC to the Fund account by 11:00 a.m., Eastern time, on T+1. The Cash Component, along with any cash-in-lieu and Transaction Fee, must be transferred directly to the Custodian through the Federal Reserve System in a timely manner so as to be received by the Custodian no later than 12:00 p.m., Eastern Time, on T+1. If the Custodian does not receive both the Deposit Securities and the cash by the appointed time, the order may be canceled. A canceled order may be resubmitted the following Business Day but must conform to that Business Day’s Portfolio Deposit. Authorized Participants that submit a canceled order will be liable to the Fund for any losses incurred by the Fund in connection therewith.

 

Orders involving foreign Deposit Securities are expected to be settled outside the Clearing Process. Thus, upon receipt of an irrevocable purchase order, the Distributor will notify the Adviser and the Custodian of such order. The Custodian , who will have caused the appropriate local sub-custodian(s) of the Fund to maintain an account into which an Authorized Participant may deliver Deposit Securities (or cash -in-lieu), with adjustments determined by the Fund, will then provide information of the order to such local sub-custodian(s). The ordering Authorized Participant will then deliver the Deposit Securities (and any cash-in-lieu) to the Fund’s account at the applicable local sub-custodian. The Authorized Participant must also make available on or before the contractual settlement date, by means satisfactory to the Fund, immediately available or same day funds in U.S. dollars estimated by the Fund to be sufficient to pay the Cash Component and Transaction Fee. When a relevant local market is closed due to local market holidays, the local market settlement process will not commence until the end of the local holiday period. Settlement must occur by 2:00 p.m., Eastern Time, on the contractual settlement date.

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Acceptance of Purchase Order

 

All questions as to the number of shares of each security in the Deposit Securities and the validity, form, eligibility and acceptance for deposit of any securities to be delivered shall be determined by the Fund. The Fund’s determination shall be final and binding.

 

The Fund reserves the absolute right to reject or revoke acceptance of a purchase order transmitted to it by the Distributor if (a) the order is not in proper form; (b) the investor(s), upon obtaining the shares ordered, would own 80% or more of the currently outstanding shares of the Fund; (c) the Deposit Securities delivered do not conform to the Deposit Securities for the applicable date; (d) acceptance of the Deposit Securities would have certain adverse tax consequences to the Fund; (e) the acceptance of the Portfolio Deposit would, in the opinion of counsel, be unlawful; (f) the acceptance of the Portfolio Deposit would otherwise, in the discretion of the Trust, Fund or the Adviser, have an adverse effect on the Trust, Fund or the rights of beneficial owners; or (g) in the event that circumstances outside the control of the Trust, the Distributor and the Adviser make it for all practical purposes impossible to process purchase orders. Examples of such circumstances include acts of God; public service or utility problems resulting in telephone, telecopy or computer failures; fires, floods or extreme weather conditions; market conditions or activities causing trading halts; systems failures involving computer or other informational systems affecting the Trust, the Distributor, DTC, NSCC, the Adviser, the Fund’s Custodian, a sub-custodian or any other participant in the creation process; and similar extraordinary events. The Distributor shall notify an Authorized Participant of its rejection of the order. The Fund, the Custodian, any sub-custodian and the Distributor are under no duty, however, to give notification of any defects or irregularities in the delivery of Portfolio Deposits, and they shall not incur any liability for the failure to give any such notification.

 

Issuance of a Creation Unit

 

Once the Fund has accepted an order, upon next determination of the Fund’s NAV, the Fund will confirm the issuance of a Creation Unit, against receipt of payment, at such NAV. The Distributor will transmit a confirmation of acceptance to the Authorized Participant that placed the order.

 

Except as provided below, a Creation Unit will not be issued until the Fund obtains good title to the Deposit Securities and the Cash Component, along with any cash-in-lieu and Transaction Fee. The delivery of Creation Units will generally occur no later than T+2.

 

In certain cases, Authorized Participants will create and redeem Creation Units on the same trade date. In these instances, the Trust reserves the right to settle these transactions on a net basis.

 

With respect to orders involving foreign Deposit Securities, when the applicable local sub-custodian(s) have confirmed to the Custodian that the Deposit Securities (or cash -in-lieu) have been delivered to the Fund’s account at the applicable local sub-custodian(s), the Distributor and the Adviser shall be notified of such delivery, and the Fund will issue and cause the delivery of the Creation Unit. While, as stated above, Creation Units are generally delivered on T+2, the Fund may settle Creation Unit transactions on a basis other than T+2 in order to accommodate foreign market holiday schedules, to account for different treatment among foreign and U.S. markets of dividend record dates and ex-dividend dates (that is the last day the holder of a security can sell the security and still receive dividends payable on the security), and in certain other circumstances.

 

The Fund may issue a Creation Unit prior to receiving good title to the Deposit Securities, under the following circumstances. Pursuant to the applicable Participant Agreement, the Fund may issue a Creation Unit notwithstanding that (certain) Deposit Securities have not been delivered, in reliance on an undertaking by the relevant Authorized Participant to deliver the missing Deposit Securities as soon as possible, which undertaking is secured by such Authorized Participant’s delivery to and maintenance with the Custodian of collateral having a value equal to at least 115% of the value of the missing Deposit Securities (“Collateral”), as adjusted by time to time by the Adviser. Such Collateral will have a value greater than the NAV of the Creation Unit on the date the order is placed. Such collateral must be delivered no later than 2:00 p.m., Eastern Time, on T+1. The only Collateral that is acceptable to the Fund is cash in U.S. Dollars.

 

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While (certain) Deposit Securities remain undelivered, the Collateral shall at all times have a value equal to at least 115% (as adjusted by the Adviser) of the daily marked-to-market value of the missing Deposit Securities. At any time, the Fund may use the Collateral to purchase the missing securities, and the Authorized Participant will be liable to the Fund for any costs incurred thereby or losses resulting therefrom, whether or not they exceed the amount of the Collateral, including any Transaction Fee, any amount by which the purchase price of the missing Deposit Securities exceeds the market value of such securities on the Transmittal Date, brokerage and other transaction costs. The Trust will return any unused Collateral once all of the missing securities have been received by the Fund. More information regarding the Fund’s current procedures for collateralization is available from the Distributor.

 

Cash Purchase Method

 

When cash purchases of Creation Units are available or specified for the Fund, they will be effected in essentially the same manner as in-kind purchases In the case of a cash purchase, the investor must pay the cash equivalent of the Portfolio Deposit. In addition, cash purchases will be subject to Transaction Fees, as described above.

 

Redeeming a Creation Unit

 

Redemption Basket

 

The consideration received in connection with the redemption of a Creation Unit generally consists of an in-kind basket of designated securities (“Redemption Securities”) and a Cash Component. Together, the Redemption Securities and the Cash Component constitute the “Redemption Basket.”

 

There can be no assurance that there will be sufficient liquidity in Shares in the secondary market to permit assembly of a Creation Unit. In addition, investors may incur brokerage and other costs in connection with assembling a Creation Unit.

 

The Cash Component serves the function of compensating for any differences between the net asset value per Creation Unit and the Redemption Securities. Thus, the Cash Component is equal to the difference between (x) the net asset value per Creation Unit of the Fund and (y) the market value of the Redemption Securities. If (x) is more than (y), the Authorized Participant will receive the Cash Component from the Fund. If (x) is less than (y), the Authorized Participant will pay the Cash Component to the Fund.

 

If the Redemption Securities on a Business Day are different from the Deposit Securities, prior to the opening of business on the Exchange (currently 9:30 a.m., Eastern Time), the Adviser through the Custodian makes available through NSCC the name and amount of each Redemption Security in the current Redemption Basket (based on information at the end of the previous Business Day) for the Fund and the (estimated) Cash Component, effective through and including the previous Business Day, per Creation Unit. If the Redemption Securities on a Business Day are different from the Deposit Securities, all redemption requests that day will be processed outside the Clearing Process.

 

The right of redemption may be suspended or the date of payment postponed: (i) for any period during which the NYSE is closed (other than customary weekend and holiday closings); (ii) for any period during which trading on the NYSE is suspended or restricted; (iii) for any period during which an emergency exists as a result of which disposal of the Shares or determination of the ETF’s NAV is not reasonably practicable; or (iv) in such other circumstances as permitted by the SEC, including as described below.

 

Custom Redemptions and Cash-in-lieu

 

The Fund may, in its sole discretion, permit or require the substitution of cash-in-lieu to be added to the Cash Component to replace any Redemption Security. The Fund may permit or require cash-in-lieu when, for example, a Redemption Security may not be available in sufficient quantity for delivery or may not be eligible for transfer through the systems of DTC or the Clearing Process. Similarly, the Fund may permit or require cash-in-lieu of Redemption Securities when, for example, the Authorized Participant or its underlying investor is restricted under U.S. or local securities law or policies from transacting in one or more Redemption Securities. The Fund will

58
 

comply with the federal securities laws in satisfying redemptions with Redemption Securities, including that the Redemption Securities are sold in transactions that would be exempt from registration under the Securities Act. All redemption requests involving cash-in-lieu are considered to be “Custom Redemptions.”

 

Redemption Requests

 

To redeem a Creation Unit, an Authorized Participant must submit an irrevocable redemption request to the Distributor.

 

An Authorized Participant submitting a redemption request is deemed to represent to the Fund that it has ascertained or has reasonable grounds to believe that as of the time of the contractual settlement date, that (i) it or its customer, as the case may be, owns, will own or have the authority and right to tender for redemption the Creation Unit to be redeemed and can receive the entire proceeds of the redemption, and (ii) all of the Shares that are in the Creation Unit to be redeemed have not been borrowed, loaned or pledged to another party nor are they the subject of a repurchase agreement, securities lending agreement or such other arrangement that would preclude the delivery of such Shares to the Fund on the contractual settlement date. The Fund reserves the absolute right, in its sole discretion, to verify these representations, but will typically require verification in connection with higher levels of redemption activity and/or short interest in the Fund. If the Authorized Participant, upon receipt of a verification request, does not provide sufficient verification of the requested representations, the redemption request will not be considered to be in proper form and may be rejected by the Fund.

 

Timing of Submission of Redemption Requests

 

An Authorized Participant must submit an irrevocable redemption order no later than the Cut-off Time. The Cut-off Time for Custom Orders is generally two hours earlier. The Business Day the order is deemed received by the Distributor is referred to as the “Transmittal Date.” A redemption request is deemed received if (i) such order is received by the Distributor by the Cut-off Time on such day and (ii) all other procedures set forth in the Participant Agreement are properly followed. Persons placing or effectuating Custom Redemptions and/or orders involving cash should be mindful of time deadlines imposed by intermediaries, such as DTC and/or the Federal Reserve System, which may impact the successful processing of such orders to ensure that cash and securities are transferred by the Settlement Date, as defined above.

 

Requests Using the Clearing Process

 

If available, (portions of) redemption requests may be settled through the Clearing Process. In connection with such orders, the Distributor transmits on behalf of the Authorized Participant, such trade instructions as are necessary to effect the redemption. Pursuant to such trade instructions, the Authorized Participant agrees to deliver the requisite Creation Unit(s) to the Fund, together with such additional information as may be required by the Distributor. Cash Components will be delivered using either the Clearing Process or the Federal Reserve System, as described above.

 

Requests Outside the Clearing Process

 

If the Clearing Process is not available for (portions of) an order, Redemption Baskets will be delivered outside the Clearing Process. Orders outside the Clearing Process must state that the DTC Participant is not using the Clearing Process and that the redemption will be effected through DTC. The Authorized Participant must transfer or cause to be transferred the Creation Unit(s) of shares being redeemed through the book-entry system of DTC so as to be delivered through DTC to the Custodian by 10:00 a.m., Eastern Time, on received T+1. In addition, the Cash Component must be received by the Custodian by 12:00 p.m., Eastern Time, on T+1. If the Custodian does not receive the Creation Unit(s) and Cash Component by the appointed times on T+1, the redemption will be rejected, except in the circumstances described below. A rejected redemption request may be resubmitted the following Business Day.

 

Orders involving foreign Redemption Securities are expected to be settled outside the Clearing Process. Thus, upon receipt of an irrevocable redemption request, the Distributor will notify the Adviser and the Custodian. The Custodian will then provide information of the redemption to the Fund’s local sub-custodian(s). The redeeming Authorized Participant, or the investor on whose behalf is acting, will have established appropriate arrangements

59
 

with a broker-dealer, bank or other custody provider in each jurisdiction in which the Redemption Securities are customarily traded and to which such Redemption Securities (and any cash-in-lieu) can be delivered from the Fund’s accounts at the applicable local sub-custodian(s).

 

Acceptance of Redemption Requests

 

All questions as to the number of shares of each security in the Deposit Securities and the validity, form, eligibility and acceptance for deposit of any securities to be delivered shall be determined by the Trust. The Trust’s determination shall be final and binding.

 

Delivery of Redemption Basket

 

Once the Fund has accepted a redemption request, upon next determination of the Fund’s NAV, the Fund will confirm the issuance of a Redemption Basket, against receipt of the Creation Unit(s) at such NAV, any cash-in-lieu and Transaction Fee. A Creation Unit tendered for redemption and the payment of the Cash Component, any cash-in-lieu and Transaction Fee will be effected through DTC. The Authorized Participant, or the investor on whose behalf it is acting, will be recorded on the book-entry system of DTC.

 

The Redemption Basket will generally be delivered to the redeeming Authorized Participant within T+2. Except under the circumstances described below, however, a Redemption Basket generally will not be issued until the Creation Unit(s) are delivered to the Fund, along with the Cash Component, any cash-in-lieu and Transaction Fee.

 

In certain cases, Authorized Participants will create and redeem Creation Units on the same trade date. In these instances, the Trust reserves the right to settle these transactions on a net basis.

 

With respect to orders involving foreign Redemption Securities, the Fund may settle Creation Unit transactions on a basis other than T+2 in order to accommodate foreign market holiday schedules, to account for different treatment among foreign and U.S. markets of dividend record dates and ex-dividend dates (that is the last day the holder of a security can sell the security and still receive dividends payable on the security), and in certain other circumstances. When a relevant local market is closed due to local market holidays, the local market settlement process will not commence until the end of the local holiday period. Listed below are the dates in calendar year 2021 in which the regular holidays in non-U.S. markets may impact Fund settlement. This list is based on information available to the Fund. The list may not be accurate or complete and is subject to change:

  

Market Holiday Date Holiday Name
     
Argentina Friday, January 01, 2021 New Year's Day
Argentina Monday, February 15, 2021 Carnival
Argentina Tuesday, February 16, 2021 Carnival
Argentina Wednesday, March 24, 2021 Memorial Day
Argentina Thursday, April 01, 2021 Holy Thursday
Argentina Friday, April 02, 2021 Good Friday
Argentina Tuesday, May 25, 2021 May Revolution's Day
Argentina Thursday, June 17, 2021 Martin Miguel Guemes Memorial
Argentina Friday, July 09, 2021 Independence Day
Argentina Monday, August 16, 2021 San Martin's Memorial Day
Argentina Monday, October 11, 2021 Respect to Cultural Diversity
Argentina Monday, November 22, 2021 Day of National Sovereignty
Argentina Wednesday, December 08, 2021 Immaculate Conception
Australia Friday, January 01, 2021 New Year's Day
Australia Tuesday, January 26, 2021 Australia Day
Australia Friday, April 02, 2021 Good Friday
Australia Monday, April 05, 2021 Easter Monday
Australia Monday, June 14, 2021 Queen's Birthday
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Australia Friday, December 24, 2021 Christmas Eve
Australia Monday, December 27, 2021 Christmas Day
Australia Tuesday, December 28, 2021 Boxing Day
Australia Friday, December 31, 2021 New Year's Eve
Austria Friday, January 01, 2021 New Year's Day
Austria Wednesday, January 06, 2021 Epiphany
Austria Friday, April 02, 2021 Good Friday
Austria Monday, April 05, 2021 Easter Monday
Austria Thursday, May 13, 2021 Ascension Day
Austria Monday, May 24, 2021 Whit Monday
Austria Thursday, June 03, 2021 Corpus Christi
Austria Tuesday, October 26, 2021 National Day
Austria Monday, November 01, 2021 All Saints' Day
Austria Wednesday, December 08, 2021 Immaculate Conception
Austria Friday, December 24, 2021 Christmas Eve
 Austria Friday, December 31, 2021 New Year's Eve
Bahrain Friday, January 01, 2021 New Year's Day
Bahrain Wednesday, May 12, 2021 Eid-al-Fitr
Bahrain Thursday, May 13, 2021 Eid-al-Fitr
Bahrain Tuesday, July 20, 2021 Eid al-Adha
Bahrain Wednesday, July 21, 2021 Eid al-Adha
Bahrain Thursday, July 22, 2021 Eid al-Adha
Bahrain Tuesday, August 10, 2021 Al Hijri New Year
Bahrain Wednesday, August 18, 2021 Ashoora
Bahrain Thursday, August 19, 2021 Ashoora
Bahrain Tuesday, October 19, 2021 Prophet Mohammad's Birthday
Bahrain Thursday, December 16, 2021 National Day
Bahrain Sunday, December 19, 2021 National Day
Bangladesh Sunday, February 21, 2021 Shaheed / Martyrs Day
Bangladesh Wednesday, March 17, 2021 Birthday Father of the Nation
Bangladesh Wednesday, April 14, 2021 Bengali New Year's Day
Bangladesh Sunday, August 15, 2021 National Mourning Day
Bangladesh Thursday, December 16, 2021 Victory Day
Belgium Friday, January 01, 2021 New Year's Day
Belgium Friday, April 02, 2021 Good Friday
Belgium Monday, April 05, 2021 Easter Monday
Bermuda Friday, January 01, 2021 New Year's Day
Bermuda Friday, April 02, 2021 Good Friday
Bermuda Friday, May 28, 2021 Bermuda Day
Bermuda Monday, June 21, 2021 National Heroes' Day
Bermuda Thursday, July 29, 2021 Emancipation and Somers Day
Bermuda Friday, July 30, 2021 Emancipation and Somers Day
Bermuda Monday, September 06, 2021 Labour Day
Bermuda Thursday, November 11, 2021 Remembrance Day
Bermuda Monday, December 27, 2021 Christmas Day (Observed)
Bermuda Tuesday, December 28, 2021 Boxing Day (Observed)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Friday, January 01, 2021 New Year's Day
Bosnia and Herzegovina Wednesday, January 06, 2021 Orthodox Christmas
Bosnia and Herzegovina Thursday, January 07, 2021 Orthodox Christmas
Bosnia and Herzegovina Monday, March 01, 2021 Independence Day
Bosnia and Herzegovina Monday, April 05, 2021 Easter Monday (Catholic)
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Bosnia and Herzegovina Friday, April 30, 2021 Good Friday (Orthodox)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Monday, May 03, 2021 Easter Monday (Orthodox)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Thursday, May 13, 2021 Eid-al-Fitr
Bosnia and Herzegovina Tuesday, July 20, 2021 Eid-al-Adha/Hajj
Bosnia and Herzegovina Thursday, November 25, 2021 Statehood Day
Botswana Friday, January 01, 2021 New Year's Day
Botswana Friday, April 02, 2021 Good Friday
Botswana Monday, April 05, 2021 Easter Monday
Botswana Friday, May 21, 2021 Ascension Day
Botswana Monday, July 19, 2021 Sir Seretse Khama Day
Botswana Tuesday, July 20, 2021 President's Day
Botswana Thursday, September 30, 2021 Independence Day
Botswana Monday, December 27, 2021 Boxing Day
Brazil Friday, January 01, 2021 New Year's Day
Brazil Monday, February 15, 2021 Carnival
Brazil Tuesday, February 16, 2021 Carnival
Brazil Friday, April 02, 2021 Good Friday
Brazil Wednesday, April 21, 2021 Tiradentes Day
Brazil Thursday, June 03, 2021 Corpus Christi
Brazil Tuesday, September 07, 2021 Independence Day
Brazil Tuesday, October 12, 2021 Our Lady of Aparecida
Brazil Tuesday, November 02, 2021 All Souls' Day
Bulgaria Friday, January 01, 2021 New Year's Day
Bulgaria Wednesday, March 03, 2021 Liberation Day
Bulgaria Friday, April 02, 2021 Good Friday
Bulgaria Monday, April 05, 2021 Easter Monday
Bulgaria Friday, April 30, 2021 Orthodox Good Friday
Bulgaria Monday, May 03, 2021 Easter Monday (Orthodox)
Bulgaria Tuesday, May 04, 2021 Labour Day
Bulgaria Thursday, May 06, 2021 Saint George's Day
Bulgaria Monday, May 24, 2021 Slavic Culture Day
Bulgaria Monday, September 06, 2021 Reunion Day
Bulgaria Wednesday, September 22, 2021 Independence Day
Bulgaria Friday, December 24, 2021 Christmas Eve
Bulgaria Monday, December 27, 2021 Christmas Day (Observed)
Bulgaria Tuesday, December 28, 2021 Second Christmas Day Observed
Canada Friday, January 01, 2021 New Year's Day
Canada Monday, February 15, 2021 Family Day
Canada Friday, April 02, 2021 Good Friday
Canada Monday, May 24, 2021 Victoria Day
Canada Thursday, July 01, 2021 Canada Day
Canada Monday, August 02, 2021 Civic Holiday
Canada Monday, September 06, 2021 Labour Day
Canada Monday, October 11, 2021 Thanksgiving Day
Canada Thursday, November 11, 2021 Remembrance Day
Canada Monday, December 27, 2021 Boxing Day (Observed)
Chile Friday, January 01, 2021 New Year's Day
Chile Friday, April 02, 2021 Good Friday
Chile Friday, May 21, 2021 Navy Day
Chile Monday, June 28, 2021 Saint Pedro and Saint Pablo
Chile Friday, July 16, 2021 Virgin del Carmen Day
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Chile Monday, October 11, 2021 Columbus Day
Chile Monday, November 01, 2021 All Saints' Day
Chile Wednesday, December 08, 2021 Immaculate Conception
Chile Friday, December 31, 2021 New Year's Eve
China Friday, January 01, 2021 New Year's Day
China Thursday, February 11, 2021 Chinese New Year
China Friday, February 12, 2021 Chinese New Year
China Monday, February 15, 2021 Chinese New Year
China Tuesday, February 16, 2021 Chinese New Year
China Wednesday, February 17, 2021 Chinese New Year
China Monday, April 05, 2021 Qing Ming Festival
China Monday, May 03, 2021 Labor Day
China Monday, June 14, 2021 Dragon Boat Festival
China Tuesday, September 21, 2021 Mid-Autumn Festival
China Friday, October 01, 2021 National Day Holidays
China Monday, October 04, 2021 National Day Holidays
China Tuesday, October 05, 2021 National Day Holidays
China Wednesday, October 06, 2021 National Day Holidays
China Thursday, October 07, 2021 National Day Holidays
Colombia Friday, January 01, 2021 New Year's Day
Colombia Monday, January 11, 2021 Epiphany
Colombia Thursday, April 01, 2021 Holy Thursday
Colombia Friday, April 02, 2021 Good Friday
Colombia Monday, May 17, 2021 Ascension Day
Colombia Monday, June 07, 2021 Corpus Christi
Colombia Monday, June 14, 2021 Sacred Heart of Jesus Day
Colombia Monday, July 05, 2021 St. Peter and St. Paul Day
Colombia Tuesday, July 20, 2021 Independence Day
Colombia Monday, August 16, 2021 Assumption of the Virgin Day
Colombia Monday, October 18, 2021 Columbus Day
Colombia Monday, November 01, 2021 All Saints' Day
Colombia Monday, November 15, 2021 Independence of Cartagena
Colombia Wednesday, December 08, 2021 Immaculate Conception
Colombia Friday, December 24, 2021 Christmas Eve
Colombia Friday, December 31, 2021 New Year's Eve
Costa Rica Friday, January 01, 2021 New Year's Day
Costa Rica Thursday, April 01, 2021 Holy Thursday
Costa Rica Friday, April 02, 2021 Good Friday
Costa Rica Monday, May 03, 2021 Labour Day
Costa Rica Monday, July 26, 2021 Anexion of Guanacaste
Costa Rica Monday, August 02, 2021 Virgen de los Angeles Day
Costa Rica Monday, September 13, 2021 Independence Day
Costa Rica Monday, November 29, 2021 Army Abolution
Croatia Friday, January 01, 2021 New Year's Day
Croatia Wednesday, January 06, 2021 Epiphany
Croatia Friday, April 02, 2021 Good Friday
Croatia Monday, April 05, 2021 Easter Monday
Croatia Thursday, June 03, 2021 Corpus Christi
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Croatia Tuesday, June 22, 2021 Day of Antifascist Struggle
Croatia Thursday, August 05, 2021 Victory Day
Croatia Monday, November 01, 2021 All Saints' Day
Croatia Thursday, November 18, 2021 Remembrance Day
Croatia Friday, December 24, 2021 Christmas Eve
Croatia Friday, December 31, 2021 New Year's Eve
Cyprus Friday, January 01, 2021 New Year's Day
Cyprus Wednesday, January 06, 2021 Epiphany
Cyprus Monday, March 15, 2021 Ash Monday
Cyprus Thursday, March 25, 2021 Greek Independence Day
Cyprus Thursday, April 01, 2021 Cyprus National Day
Cyprus Friday, April 02, 2021 Good Friday
Cyprus Monday, April 05, 2021 Easter Monday
Cyprus Friday, April 30, 2021 Orthodox Good Friday
Cyprus Monday, May 03, 2021 Orthodox Easter Monday
Cyprus Tuesday, May 04, 2021 Orthodox Easter Tuesday
Cyprus Monday, June 21, 2021 Pentecost
Cyprus Friday, October 01, 2021 Cyprus Independence Day
Cyprus Thursday, October 28, 2021 National Holiday
Cyprus Friday, December 24, 2021 Christmas Eve
Czech Republic Friday, January 01, 2021 New Year's Day
Czech Republic Friday, April 02, 2021 Good Friday
Czech Republic Monday, April 05, 2021 Easter Monday
Czech Republic Monday, July 05, 2021 Saints Cyril Day
Czech Republic Tuesday, July 06, 2021 Jan Hus Day
Czech Republic Tuesday, September 28, 2021 Statehood Day
Czech Republic Thursday, October 28, 2021 Independence Day
Czech Republic Wednesday, November 17, 2021 Freedom and Democracy Day
Czech Republic Friday, December 24, 2021 Christmas Eve
Denmark Friday, January 01, 2021 New Year's Day
Denmark Thursday, April 01, 2021 Maundy Thursday
Denmark Friday, April 02, 2021 Good Friday
Denmark Monday, April 05, 2021 Easter Monday
Denmark Friday, April 30, 2021 Prayer Day
Denmark Thursday, May 13, 2021 Ascension Day
Denmark Friday, May 14, 2021 Bank Holiday
Denmark Monday, May 24, 2021 Whit Monday
Denmark Friday, December 24, 2021 Christmas Eve
Denmark Friday, December 31, 2021 New Year's Eve
Egypt Thursday, January 07, 2021 Coptic Christmas Day
Egypt Sunday, April 04, 2021 Easter Sunday
Egypt Sunday, April 25, 2021 Sinai Liberation Day
Egypt Monday, May 03, 2021 Sham El Nassim
Egypt Wednesday, May 12, 2021 Eid-al-Fitr
Egypt Thursday, May 13, 2021 Eid-al-Fitr
Egypt Monday, July 19, 2021 Wakfet Arafat
Egypt Tuesday, July 20, 2021 Eid al-Adha
Egypt Wednesday, July 21, 2021 Eid al-Adha
Egypt Thursday, July 22, 2021 Eid al-Adha
Egypt Tuesday, August 10, 2021 Islamic (Hijri) New Year
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Egypt Wednesday, October 06, 2021 Armed Forces Day
Egypt Tuesday, October 19, 2021 Prophet's Birthday
Estonia Friday, January 01, 2021 New Year's Day
Estonia Friday, April 02, 2021 Good Friday
Estonia Monday, April 05, 2021 Easter Monday
Eswatini Friday, January 01, 2021 New Year's Day
Eswatini Friday, April 02, 2021 Good Friday
Eswatini Monday, April 05, 2021 Easter Monday
Eswatini Monday, April 19, 2021 King's Birthday
Eswatini Monday, April 26, 2021 National Flag Day
Eswatini Thursday, May 13, 2021 Ascension Day
Eswatini Thursday, July 22, 2021 King Father's Birthday
Eswatini Monday, September 06, 2021 Somhlolo Day
Eswatini Monday, December 27, 2021 Boxing Day
Eswatini Tuesday, December 28, 2021 Inwcwala Day
Finland Friday, January 01, 2021 New Year's Day
Finland Wednesday, January 06, 2021 Epiphany
Finland Friday, April 02, 2021 Good Friday
Finland Monday, April 05, 2021 Easter Monday
Finland Thursday, May 13, 2021 Ascension Day
Finland Friday, June 25, 2021 Midsummer's Eve
Finland Monday, December 06, 2021 Independence Day
Finland Friday, December 24, 2021 Christmas Eve
Finland Friday, December 31, 2021 New Year's Eve
France Friday, January 01, 2021 New Year's Day
France Friday, April 02, 2021 Good Friday
France Monday, April 05, 2021 Easter Monday
Germany Friday, January 01, 2021 New Year's Day
Germany Friday, April 02, 2021 Good Friday
Germany Monday, April 05, 2021 Easter Monday
Germany Thursday, May 13, 2021 Ascension Day
Germany Monday, May 24, 2021 Whit Monday
Germany Thursday, June 03, 2021 Corpus Christi
Germany Friday, December 24, 2021 Christmas Eve
Germany Friday, December 31, 2021 New Year's Eve
Ghana Friday, January 01, 2021 New Year's Day
Ghana Monday, March 08, 2021 Independence Day
Ghana Friday, April 02, 2021 Good Friday
Ghana Monday, April 05, 2021 Easter Monday
Ghana Monday, May 03, 2021 May Day
Ghana Thursday, May 13, 2021 Eid-al-Fitr
Ghana Tuesday, July 20, 2021 Christmas Eve
Ghana Wednesday, August 04, 2021 Founder Day
Ghana Tuesday, September 21, 2021 Kwame Nkrumah Memorial Day
Ghana Friday, December 03, 2021 Farmers' Day
Ghana Monday, December 27, 2021 Christmas Day (Observed)
Greece Friday, January 01, 2021 New Year's Day
Greece Wednesday, January 06, 2021 Epiphany
Greece Monday, March 15, 2021 Ash Monday
Greece Thursday, March 25, 2021 Independence Day
Greece Friday, April 02, 2021 Good Friday (Catholic Easter)
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Greece Monday, April 05, 2021 Catholic Easter Monday
Greece Friday, April 30, 2021 Good Friday (Orthodox)
Greece Monday, May 03, 2021 Orthodox Easter Monday
Greece Monday, June 21, 2021 Whit Monday
Greece Thursday, October 28, 2021 National Holiday
Greece Friday, December 24, 2021 Christmas Eve
Hong Kong SAR Friday, January 01, 2021 New Year's Day
Hong Kong SAR Thursday, February 11, 2021 Eve of Lunar New Year
Hong Kong SAR Friday, February 12, 2021 Lunar New Year's Day
Hong Kong SAR Monday, February 15, 2021 4th Day of Lunar New Year
Hong Kong SAR Friday, April 02, 2021 Good Friday
Hong Kong SAR Monday, April 05, 2021 Ching Ming Festival
Hong Kong SAR Tuesday, April 06, 2021 Day After Easter Monday
Hong Kong SAR Wednesday, May 19, 2021 Buddha Birthday
Hong Kong SAR Monday, June 14, 2021 Tuen Ng Festival
Hong Kong SAR Thursday, July 01, 2021 Establishment Day
Hong Kong SAR Wednesday, September 22, 2021 Mid-Autumn Festival
Hong Kong SAR Friday, October 01, 2021 National Day
Hong Kong SAR Thursday, October 14, 2021 Chung Yeung Festival
Hong Kong SAR Friday, December 24, 2021 Christmas Eve
Hong Kong SAR Monday, December 27, 2021 Christmas Day (Observed)
Hong Kong SAR Friday, December 31, 2021 New Year's Eve
Hungary Friday, January 01, 2021 New Year's Day
Hungary Monday, March 15, 2021 Revolution Day
Hungary Friday, April 02, 2021 Good Friday
Hungary Monday, April 05, 2021 Easter Monday
Hungary Monday, May 24, 2021 Whit Monday
Hungary Friday, August 20, 2021 St. Stephen's Day
Hungary Monday, November 01, 2021 All Saints' Day
Hungary Saturday, December 11, 2021 Replacement Workday
Hungary Friday, December 24, 2021 Christmas Eve
Iceland Friday, January 01, 2021 New Year's Day
Iceland Thursday, April 01, 2021 Maundy Thursday
Iceland Friday, April 02, 2021 Good Friday
Iceland Monday, April 05, 2021 Easter Monday
Iceland Thursday, April 22, 2021 First Day of Summer
Iceland Thursday, May 13, 2021 Ascension Day
Iceland Monday, May 24, 2021 Whit Monday
Iceland Thursday, June 17, 2021 Independence Day
Iceland Monday, August 02, 2021 Commerce Day
Iceland Friday, December 24, 2021 Christmas Eve
Iceland Friday, December 31, 2021 New Year's Eve
India Tuesday, January 26, 2021 Republic Day
India Friday, February 19, 2021 Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj
India Thursday, April 01, 2021 Annual Closing Of Accounts
India Friday, April 02, 2021 Good Friday
Indonesia Friday, January 01, 2021 New Year's Day
Indonesia Friday, February 12, 2021 Chinese New Year
Indonesia Thursday, March 11, 2021 Ascension Day
Indonesia Friday, March 12, 2021 Mass Leave
Indonesia Friday, April 02, 2021 Good Friday
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Indonesia Wednesday, May 12, 2021 Mass Leave for Idul Fitri
Indonesia Thursday, May 13, 2021 Mass Leave for Idul Fitri
Indonesia Friday, May 14, 2021 Mass Leave for Idul Fitri
Indonesia Monday, May 17, 2021 Mass Leave for Idul Fitri
Indonesia Tuesday, May 18, 2021 Mass Leave for Idul Fitri
Indonesia Wednesday, May 19, 2021 Mass Leave for Idul Fitri
Indonesia Wednesday, May 26, 2021 Buddhist Vesak Day
Indonesia Tuesday, June 01, 2021 Pancasila Day
Indonesia Tuesday, July 20, 2021 Idul Adha
Indonesia Tuesday, August 10, 2021 Islamic New Year
Indonesia Tuesday, August 17, 2021 Independence Day
Indonesia Tuesday, October 19, 2021 Prophet's Birthday
Indonesia Friday, December 24, 2021 Mass Leave for Christmas Day
Indonesia Monday, December 27, 2021 Mass Leave for Christmas Day
Indonesia Friday, December 31, 2021 Stock Exchange Holiday
Ireland Friday, January 01, 2021 New Year's Day
Ireland Wednesday, March 17, 2021 St. Patrick's Day
Ireland Friday, April 02, 2021 Good Friday
Ireland Monday, April 05, 2021 Easter Monday
Ireland Monday, May 03, 2021 Bank Holiday
Ireland Monday, June 07, 2021 Bank Holiday
Ireland Monday, August 02, 2021 Bank Holiday
Ireland Monday, October 25, 2021 Bank Holiday
Ireland Monday, December 27, 2021 Christmas Day (Observed)
Israel Sunday, May 16, 2021 Pentecost (Shavuot) Eve
Israel Monday, May 17, 2021 Shavuot (Pentecost)
Israel Wednesday, September 22, 2021 Sukkot Mid Holiday
Israel Thursday, September 23, 2021 Sukkot Mid Holiday
Israel Sunday, September 26, 2021 Sukkot Mid Holiday
Israel Monday, September 27, 2021 Rejoicing of the Law
Israel Tuesday, September 28, 2021 Simchat Torah
Italy Friday, January 01, 2021 New Year's Day
Italy Friday, April 02, 2021 Good Friday
Italy Monday, April 05, 2021 Easter Monday
Italy Friday, December 24, 2021 Christmas Eve
Italy Friday, December 31, 2021 New Year's Eve
Ivory Coast Friday, January 01, 2021 New Year's Day
Ivory Coast Monday, April 05, 2021 Easter Monday
Ivory Coast Wednesday, May 12, 2021 Aid-el-Fitr
Ivory Coast Thursday, May 13, 2021 Ascension Day
Ivory Coast Monday, May 24, 2021 Whit Monday
Ivory Coast Monday, July 19, 2021 Christmas Eve
Ivory Coast Wednesday, October 20, 2021 Prophet's Birthday
Ivory Coast Monday, November 01, 2021 All Saints' Day
Ivory Coast Monday, November 15, 2021 National Peace Day
Japan Friday, January 01, 2021 New Year's Day
Japan Monday, January 11, 2021 Coming of Age Day
Japan Thursday, February 11, 2021 National Foundation Day
Japan Tuesday, February 23, 2021 Emperor's Birthday
Japan Thursday, April 29, 2021 Showa Day
Japan Monday, May 03, 2021 Constitution Memorial Day
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Japan Tuesday, May 04, 2021 Greenery Day
Japan Wednesday, May 05, 2021 Children's Day
Japan Monday, July 19, 2021 Marine Day
Japan Wednesday, August 11, 2021 Mountain Day
Japan Monday, September 20, 2021 Respect for the Aged Day
Japan Thursday, September 23, 2021 Autumnal Equinox Day
Japan Monday, October 11, 2021 Health and Sports Day
Japan Wednesday, November 03, 2021 Culture Day
Japan Tuesday, November 23, 2021 Labor Thanksgiving Day
Japan Friday, December 31, 2021 Bank Holiday
Jordan Friday, January 01, 2021 New Year's Day
Jordan Wednesday, May 12, 2021 Eid-al-Fitr
Jordan Thursday, May 13, 2021 Eid-al-Fitr
Jordan Friday, May 14, 2021 Eid-al-Fitr
Jordan Tuesday, May 25, 2021 Independence Day
Jordan Monday, July 19, 2021 Eid al-Adha
Jordan Tuesday, July 20, 2021 Eid al-Adha
Jordan Wednesday, July 21, 2021 Eid al-Adha
Jordan Thursday, July 22, 2021 Eid al-Adha
Jordan Monday, August 09, 2021 Hijra New Year
Jordan Monday, October 18, 2021 Prophet's Birthday
Kazakhstan Friday, January 01, 2021 New Year's Day
Kazakhstan Monday, January 04, 2021 New Year's Holiday
Kazakhstan Thursday, January 07, 2021 Orthodox Christmas
Kazakhstan Monday, March 08, 2021 Bridging Holiday
Kazakhstan Monday, March 22, 2021 Nauryz Meyramy Holiday
Kazakhstan Tuesday, March 23, 2021 Nauryz Meyramy Holiday
Kazakhstan Wednesday, March 24, 2021 Nauryz Meyramy Holiday
Kazakhstan Monday, May 03, 2021 Unity Day (Observed)
Kazakhstan Friday, May 07, 2021 Motherland Defenders' Day
Kazakhstan Monday, May 10, 2021 Victory Day
Kazakhstan Tuesday, July 06, 2021 Day of the Capital
Kazakhstan Wednesday, July 21, 2021 Kurban Ait
Kazakhstan Monday, August 30, 2021 Constitution Day
Kazakhstan Wednesday, December 01, 2021 First President Day
Kazakhstan Thursday, December 16, 2021 Independence Day
Kazakhstan Friday, December 17, 2021 Independence Day
Kenya Friday, January 01, 2021 New Year's Day
Kenya Friday, April 02, 2021 Good Friday
Kenya Monday, April 05, 2021 Easter Monday
Kenya Friday, May 14, 2021 Eid-al-Fitr
Kenya Tuesday, June 01, 2021 Madaraka Day
Kenya Tuesday, July 20, 2021 Christmas Eve
Kenya Monday, October 11, 2021 Utamaduni Day
Kenya Wednesday, October 20, 2021 Mashujaa Day
Kenya Monday, December 13, 2021 Jamhuri Day (Observed)
Kuwait Friday, January 01, 2021 New Year's Day
Kuwait Thursday, February 25, 2021 National Day
Kuwait Sunday, February 28, 2021 Liberation Day
Kuwait Thursday, March 11, 2021 Isra and Miraj Holiday
Kuwait Wednesday, May 12, 2021 Eid-al-Fitr
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Kuwait Thursday, May 13, 2021 Eid-al-Fitr
Kuwait Tuesday, July 20, 2021 Eid al-Adha
Kuwait Wednesday, July 21, 2021 Eid al-Adha
Kuwait Thursday, July 22, 2021 Eid al-Adha
Kuwait Tuesday, August 10, 2021 Islamic New Year
Kuwait Tuesday, October 19, 2021 Prophet's Birthday
Latvia Friday, January 01, 2021 New Year's Day
Latvia Friday, April 02, 2021 Good Friday
Latvia Monday, April 05, 2021 Easter Monday
Lithuania Friday, January 01, 2021 New Year's Day
Lithuania Friday, April 02, 2021 Good Friday
Lithuania Monday, April 05, 2021 Easter Monday
Malaysia Friday, January 01, 2021 New Year's Day
Malaysia Thursday, January 28, 2021 Thaipusam
Malaysia Monday, February 01, 2021 Federal Territory Day
Malaysia Friday, February 12, 2021 Chinese New Year
Malaysia Thursday, April 29, 2021 Nuzul Al-Quran
Malaysia Thursday, May 13, 2021 Hari Raya Aidilfitri
Malaysia Friday, May 14, 2021 Hari Raya Aidilfitri
Malaysia Wednesday, May 26, 2021 Wesak Day
Malaysia Monday, June 07, 2021 King's Birthday
Malaysia Tuesday, July 20, 2021 Hari Raya Aidiladha
Malaysia Tuesday, August 10, 2021 Awal Muharram (Maal Hijrah)
Malaysia Tuesday, August 31, 2021 National Day
Malaysia Thursday, September 16, 2021 Malaysia Day
Malaysia Tuesday, October 19, 2021 Prophet Muhamad's Birthday
Malaysia Thursday, November 04, 2021 Deepavali
Mauritius Friday, January 01, 2021 New Year's Day
Mauritius Thursday, January 28, 2021 Thaipoosam Cavadee
Mauritius Monday, February 01, 2021 Abolition of Slavery
Mauritius Friday, February 12, 2021 Chinese Spring Festival
Mauritius Thursday, March 11, 2021 Maha Shivaratree
Mauritius Friday, March 12, 2021 Independence Day
Mauritius Thursday, May 13, 2021 Eid-al-Fitr
Mauritius Monday, September 20, 2021 Ganesh Chaturthi
Mauritius Monday, November 01, 2021 All Saints' Day
Mauritius Friday, December 24, 2021 Christmas Day (Observed)
Mauritius Friday, December 31, 2021 New Year's Eve
Mexico Friday, January 01, 2021 New Year's Day
Mexico Friday, February 05, 2021 Constitution Day
Mexico Monday, March 15, 2021 Benito Juarez Day
Mexico Thursday, April 01, 2021 Holy Thursday
Mexico Friday, April 02, 2021 Good Friday
Mexico Thursday, September 16, 2021 Independence Day
Mexico Tuesday, November 02, 2021 All Souls' Day
Mexico Monday, November 15, 2021 Revolution Day
Morocco Friday, January 01, 2021 New Year's Day
Morocco Friday, May 14, 2021 Eid-al-Fitr
Morocco Wednesday, July 21, 2021 Christmas Eve
Morocco Friday, July 30, 2021 Throne Day
Morocco Friday, August 20, 2021 Revolution Day
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Morocco Wednesday, October 20, 2021 Eid-Al Mawlid Annabaoui
Morocco Thursday, November 18, 2021 Independence Day
Mozambique Friday, January 01, 2021 New Year's Day
Mozambique Wednesday, February 03, 2021 Heroes' Day
Mozambique Friday, April 02, 2021 Good Friday
Mozambique Wednesday, April 07, 2021 Women's Day
Mozambique Friday, June 25, 2021 Independence Day
Mozambique Tuesday, September 07, 2021 Lusaka Peace Agreement Day
Mozambique Monday, October 04, 2021 National Reconciliation Day
Namibia Friday, January 01, 2021 New Year's Day
Namibia Monday, March 22, 2021 Public Holiday
Namibia Friday, April 02, 2021 Good Friday
Namibia Monday, April 05, 2021 Public Holiday
Namibia Tuesday, May 04, 2021 Cassinga Day