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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, DC 20549


FORM 10-K

Annual Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of The Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the Fiscal Year ended December 31, 2021

Commission File Number 0-26589

THE FIRST BANCORP, INC.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
Maine01-0404322
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
223 Main StreetDamariscottaMaine04543
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip code)

(207) 563-3195
Registrant's telephone number, including area code

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 Title of Each ClassTrading SymbolName of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.01 per shareFNLCNASDAQ Global Select Market

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Yes    No

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
Yes    No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Yes    No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).
Yes    No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, non-accelerated filer,
or a smaller reporting company. (Check one):

Large accelerated filer Accelerated filer Non-accelerated filer Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended
transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to
Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.









Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of
the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C.
7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).
Yes    No

State the aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates computed by reference to the price at which the common equity was last sold, or the average bid and asked price of such common equity, as of the last business day of the registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter.
Common Stock: $305,575,402

Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the registrant's classes of common stock as of March 1, 2022
Common Stock: 11,023,421 shares

Documents Incorporated By Reference:
Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Shareholders
to be held on April 27, 2022





























Table of Contents
ITEM 1. Discussion of Business
    115
  

























































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ITEM 1. Discussion of Business

The First Bancorp, Inc. (the "Company") was incorporated under the laws of the State of Maine on January 15, 1985, for the purpose of becoming the parent holding company of The First National Bank of Damariscotta, which was chartered as a national bank under the laws of the United States on May 30, 1864. At the Company's Annual Meeting of Shareholders on April 30, 2008, the Company's name was changed from First National Lincoln Corporation to The First Bancorp, Inc.
On January 14, 2005, the acquisition of FNB Bankshares ("FNB") of Bar Harbor, Maine, was completed, adding seven banking offices and one investment management office in Hancock and Washington counties of Maine. FNB's subsidiary, The First National Bank of Bar Harbor, was merged into The First National Bank of Damariscotta at closing, and from January 31, 2005 until January 28, 2016, the combined banks operated under the name: The First, N.A. On January 28, 2016, the Board of Directors voted to change the Bank's name to First National Bank (the "Bank").
On December 11, 2020, the Bank completed the purchase of a branch at 1B Belmont Avenue in Belfast, Maine, from Bangor Savings Bank ("Bangor Savings"). The branch is one of six branches Bangor Savings acquired from Damariscotta Bank & Trust Company ("DB&T"), and this branch was divested by Bangor Savings to resolve competitive concerns in that market raised by the U.S. Department of Justice's Antitrust Division. As part of the transaction, the Bank acquired approximately $23 million in loans and assumed approximately $19 million in deposits. The transaction value was approximately $25.2 million consisting of the loans, building, equipment, core deposit intangible, and goodwill.
On January 31, 2022 the Bank opened a de novo branch office in Brewer, Maine. The Brewer office raised the Bank's branch location count to eighteen, and is its second branch in Penobscot County.
As of December 31, 2021, the Company's securities consisted of one class of common stock. At that date, there were 10,998,765 shares of common stock outstanding.
The common stock of the Bank is the principal asset of the Company, which has no other subsidiaries. The Bank's capital stock consists of one class of common stock, of which 290,069 shares, par value $2.50 per share, are issued and outstanding. All of the Bank's common stock is owned by the Company.
The Bank emphasizes personal service, and its customers are primarily small businesses and individuals to whom the Bank offers a wide variety of services, including deposit accounts and consumer, commercial and mortgage loans. The Bank continually evolves its processes and adapts to new technologies, but has not made any material changes in its mode of conducting business during the past five years. The banking business in the Bank's market area is subject to modest seasonal fluctuations typically consisting of lower deposits in the winter and spring and higher deposits in the summer and fall. This fluctuation is predictable and has not had a materially adverse effect on the Bank.
In addition to traditional banking services, the Company provides investment management and private banking services through First National Wealth Management, which is an operating division of the Bank. First National Wealth Management offers a comprehensive array of private banking, financial planning, investment management and trust services to individuals, businesses, non-profit organizations and municipalities of varying asset size, and to provide the highest level of personal service. The staff includes investment and trust professionals with extensive experience. In 2019, the Bank introduced First National Investment Services. Through a partnership with a third party provider, First National Investment Services offers additional products such as brokerage, annuity products and certain types of insurance.
The financial services landscape has continued to evolve over the past five years in the Bank's primary market area. While large out-of-state banks have continued to experience local change as a result of activity at the regional and national level, online and mobile banking acceptance has increased and opened the market to new forms of competition. Credit unions have continued to expand their membership and the scope of banking services offered. Non-banking entities such as brokerage houses, mortgage companies and insurance companies are offering very competitive products. Many of these entities and institutions have resources substantially greater than those available to the Bank and in some cases are not subject to the same regulatory restrictions as are the Company and the Bank.
The Company believes that there will continue to be a need for a bank in the Bank's primary market area with local management having decision-making power and emphasizing loans to small and medium-sized businesses and to individuals. The Bank has concentrated on extending business loans to such customers in the Bank's primary market area and to extending investment and trust services to clients with accounts of all sizes. Investment continues to be made in enhancing the Bank’s online and mobile offerings to both enhance service delivery and provide additional channels for customers to conduct business with the Bank. Management also makes decisions based upon, among other things, the knowledge of the Bank's employees regarding the communities and customers in the Bank's primary market area. The individuals employed by the Bank, to a large extent, reside near the branch offices and thus are generally familiar with their communities and customers. This is important in local decision-making and allows the Bank to respond to customer questions and concerns on a timely basis and fosters quality customer service.
The Bank has worked and will continue to work to position itself to be competitive in its market area. The Bank's ability to make decisions close to the marketplace, Management's commitment to providing quality banking products, the caliber of the professional staff, and the community involvement of the Bank's employees are all factors affecting the Bank's ability to be competitive.

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Supervision and Regulation

The Company is a financial holding company within the meaning of the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended (the "BHC Act"), and section 225.82 of Regulation Y issued by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (the "Federal Reserve Board" or "FRB"), and is required to file with the Federal Reserve Board an annual report and other information required pursuant to the BHC Act. The Company is subject to examination by the Federal Reserve Board. Virtually all of the Company's cash revenues are generally derived from dividends paid to the Company by the Bank. These dividends are subject to various legal and regulatory restrictions which are summarized in Note 18 to the accompanying financial statements. The Bank is regulated by the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (the "OCC") and is subject to the provisions of the National Bank Act. As a result, it must meet certain liquidity and capital requirements, which are discussed in the following sections.

General
As a financial holding company, the Company is subject to regulation under the BHC Act and to inspection, examination and supervision by its primary regulator, the FRB. The Company is also subject to the disclosure and regulatory requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, both as administered by the Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC"). As a company with securities listed on the NASDAQ, the Company is subject to the rules of the NASDAQ for listed companies. The Bank is subject to regulation and examination primarily by the OCC and is subject to the regulations of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (the "FDIC").

Bank Holding Company Activities
As a bank holding company ("BHC") that has elected to become a financial holding company pursuant to the BHC Act, we may affiliate with securities firms and insurance companies and engage in other activities that are financial in nature or incidental or complementary to activities that are financial in nature. "Financial in nature" activities include securities underwriting, dealing and market making; sponsoring mutual funds and investment companies; insurance underwriting and agency; merchant banking; and activities that the FRB, in consultation with the Secretary of the U.S. Treasury, determines to be financial in nature or incidental to such financial activity. "Complementary activities" are activities that the FRB determines upon application to be complementary to a financial activity and do not pose a safety and soundness risk.
FRB approval is not generally required for us to acquire a company (other than a bank holding company, bank or savings association) engaged in activities that are financial in nature or incidental to activities that are financial in nature, as determined by the FRB. Prior notice to the FRB may be required, however, if the company to be acquired has total consolidated assets of $10 billion or more. Prior FRB approval is required before we may acquire the beneficial ownership or control of more than 5% of the voting shares or substantially all of the assets of a bank holding company, bank or savings association.
Because we are a financial holding company, if the Bank receives a rating under the Community Reinvestment Act of 1977, as amended (the "CRA"), of less than satisfactory, the Bank and/or the Company will be prohibited, until the rating is raised to satisfactory or better, from engaging in new activities or acquiring companies other than bank holding companies, banks or savings associations, except that we could engage in new activities, or acquire companies engaged in activities, that are closely related to banking under the BHC Act. The Bank's primary regulator, the OCC, issued new CRA rules in June 2020; these rules were rescinded in December 2021. It is anticipated the various regulatory agencies will reconvene jointly to evaluate and propose new CRA guidance, and the Company will monitor those developments. In addition, if the FRB finds that the Bank is not well capitalized or well managed, we would be required to enter into an agreement with the FRB to comply with all applicable capital and management requirements and which may contain additional limitations or conditions. Until corrected, we could be prohibited from engaging in any new activity or acquiring companies engaged in activities that are not closely related to banking under the BHC Act without prior FRB approval. If we fail to correct any such condition within a prescribed period, the FRB could order us to divest our banking subsidiaries or, in the alternative, to cease engaging in activities other than those closely related to banking under the BHC Act.
In determining whether to approve a proposed bank acquisition, federal bank regulators will consider, among other factors, the effect of the acquisition on competition, financial condition, and future prospects including current and projected capital ratios and levels, the competence, experience, and integrity of management and record of compliance with laws and regulations, the convenience and needs of the communities to be served, including the acquiring institution's record of compliance under the CRA, the effectiveness of the acquiring institution in combating money laundering activities and the risk to the stability of the United States banking system.
The Company is a legal entity separate and distinct from the Bank. The primary source of funds to pay dividends on our common stock is dividends from the Bank. Various federal and state statutory provisions and regulations limit the amount of dividends the Bank may pay without regulatory approval. Federal bank regulatory agencies have the authority to prohibit the Bank from engaging in unsafe or unsound practices in conducting its business. The payment of dividends, depending on the financial condition of the Bank, could be deemed an unsafe or unsound practice. The ability of the Bank to pay dividends in the future is currently, and could be further, influenced by bank regulatory policies and capital guidelines.
The Bank is subject to restrictions under federal law that limit the transfer of funds or other items of value from a subsidiary to the Company and any nonbank subsidiaries (including affiliates) in so-called "covered transactions." In general, covered transactions include loans and other extensions of credit, investments and asset purchases, as well as certain other
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transactions involving the transfer of value from a subsidiary bank to an affiliate or for the benefit of an affiliate. Unless an exemption applies, covered transactions by a subsidiary bank with a single affiliate are limited to 10% of the subsidiary bank's capital and surplus and, with respect to all covered transactions with affiliates in the aggregate, to 20% of the subsidiary bank's capital and surplus. Also, loans and extensions of credit to affiliates generally are required to be secured by qualifying collateral. A bank's transactions with its nonbank affiliates are also generally required to be on arm's-length terms.
The FRB has a policy that a BHC is expected to act as a source of financial and managerial strength to each of its subsidiary banks and, under appropriate circumstances, to commit resources to support each such subsidiary bank. This support may be required at times when the BHC may not have the resources to provide the support. The OCC may order an assessment of the BHC if the capital of one of its national bank subsidiaries were to become impaired. If the BHC failed to pay the assessment within three months, the OCC could order the sale of the BHC's holdings of stock in the national bank to cover the deficiency.
In the event of the "liquidation or other resolution" of an insured depository institution, the claims of depositors payable in the United States (including the claims of the FDIC as subrogee of insured depositors) and certain claims for administrative expenses of the FDIC as a receiver will have priority over other general unsecured claims against the institution. If an insured depository institution fails, claims of insured and uninsured U.S. depositors, along with claims of the FDIC, will have priority in payment ahead of unsecured creditors, including the BHC, and depositors whose deposits are solely payable at such insured depository institution's non-U.S. offices.

Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act
The Dodd-Frank Act, enacted on July 21, 2010, resulted in broad changes to the U.S. financial system and was the most significant financial reform legislation enacted since the 1930s. The Dodd-Frank Act has affected, and we expect it will continue to affect, most of our business in some way, either directly through regulation of specific activities or indirectly through regulation of concentration risks, capital and liquidity. A number of reforms to the Dodd-Frank Act were included in S.2155, passed in May 2018, however most were targeted for financial institutions smaller than the Company.
The Dodd-Frank Act established the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (the “CFPB”) to ensure consumers receive clear and accurate disclosures regarding financial products and to protect consumers from hidden fees and unfair or abusive practices. The CFPB concentrated much of its initial rule-making efforts on mortgage lending related topics required under the Act, including ability-to-repay, qualified mortgage standards, mortgage servicing standards, loan originator compensation, high-cost mortgage requirements and appraisal and escrow requirements for higher priced mortgage loans. In October 2015, TILA RESPA Integrated Disclosure ("TRID") requirements went into effect to enhance the disclosures provided by lenders to mortgage loan applicants. In 2018, new rules went into effect for the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act ("HMDA"), expanding its scope and data reporting requirements. We expect that the CFPB will remain focused on the exercise of its rule-making authority through its own examination practices or those of the prudential regulators.
Customer Information Security
The FDIC, the OCC and other bank regulatory agencies have published guidelines (the "Guidelines") establishing standards for safeguarding nonpublic personal information about customers that implement provisions of the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (the "GLBA"). Among other things, the Guidelines require each financial institution, under the supervision and ongoing oversight of its Board of Directors or an appropriate committee thereof, to develop, implement and maintain a comprehensive written information security program designed to ensure the security and confidentiality of customer information, to protect against any anticipated threats or hazards to the security or integrity of such information, and to protect against unauthorized access to or use of such information that could result in substantial harm or inconvenience to any customer.

Protecting the privacy of our customers’ information as well as the security of the Bank’s systems and networks has long been and will continue to be a priority. The Board is committed to maintaining strong and meaningful privacy and security protections for our customers’ information. The Chief Information Officer regularly provides reports to Senior Management and the Board regarding the Company's ongoing assessment of cybersecurity threats and risks, data security programs designed to prevent and detect threats, attacks, incursions and breaches, as well as management, mitigation and remediation of potential, and any actual, cybersecurity and information technology risks and breaches. In addition, the Bank is assessed regularly against robust information security standards and provides training to employees on at least an annual basis. The Audit Committee and Management review reports from the Internal Auditor regarding their evaluation of the Company’s Information Technology department on a regular basis, as well as reports from various configuration and vulnerability assessments. The Bank has not experienced any information security breaches in the past three years. Included in our mitigation strategy is a comprehensive cybersecurity insurance policy. The Board and Management recognize that cybersecurity matters, including expenditure related threats and the impact of incursions or breaches, may implicate the Company's disclosure under SEC rules and regulations, and intend to remain vigilant with respect to the cybersecurity aspects of these obligations.

Privacy
The FDIC, the OCC and other regulatory agencies have published privacy rules pursuant to provisions of the GLBA ("Privacy Rules"). The Privacy Rules, which govern the treatment of nonpublic personal information about consumers by financial
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institutions, require a financial institution to provide notice to customers (and other consumers in some circumstances) about its privacy policies and practices, describe the conditions under which a financial institution may disclose nonpublic personal information to non-affiliated third parties, and provide a method for consumers to prevent a financial institution from disclosing that information to most non-affiliated third parties by "opting-out" of that disclosure, subject to certain exceptions.

USA Patriot Act
The USA Patriot Act of 2001, designed to deny terrorists and others the ability to obtain anonymous access to the U.S. financial system, has significant implications for depository institutions, broker-dealers and other businesses involved in the transfer of money. The USA Patriot Act, together with the implementing regulations of various federal regulatory agencies, have caused financial institutions, including the Bank, to adopt and implement additional, or to amend existing, policies and procedures with respect to, among other things, anti-money laundering compliance, suspicious activity and currency transaction reporting, customer identity verification and customer risk analysis. The statute and its underlying regulations also permit information sharing for counter-terrorist purposes between federal law enforcement agencies and financial institutions, as well as among financial institutions, subject to certain conditions, and require the Federal Reserve Board (and other federal banking regulatory agencies) to evaluate the effectiveness of an applicant in combating money laundering activities when considering applications filed under Section 3 of the BHC Act or under the Bank Merger Act.

The Bank Secrecy Act
The Bank Secrecy Act (the "BSA") requires all financial institutions, including banks and securities broker-dealers, to, among other things, establish a risk-based system of internal controls reasonably designed to prevent money laundering and the financing of terrorism. It includes a variety of recordkeeping and reporting requirements (such as cash and suspicious activity reporting) as well as due diligence/know-your-customer documentation requirements. The Bank has established an anti-money laundering program to comply with the BSA requirements.

The Sarbanes-Oxley Act
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 ("SOX") implements a broad range of corporate governance and accounting measures for public companies (including publicly-held bank holding companies such as the Company) designed to promote honesty and transparency in corporate America and better protect investors from the types of corporate wrongdoings that occurred at Enron and WorldCom, among other companies. SOX's principal provisions, many of which have been implemented through regulations released and policies and rules adopted by the securities exchanges in 2003 and 2004, provide for and include, among other things:
The creation of an independent accounting oversight board;
Auditor independence provisions which restrict non-audit services that accountants may provide to clients;
Additional corporate governance and responsibility measures, including the requirement that the chief executive officer and chief financial officer of a public company certify financial statements;
The forfeiture of bonuses or other incentive-based compensation and profits from the sale of an issuer's securities by directors and senior officers in the twelve-month period following initial publication of any financial statements that later require restatement;
An increase in the oversight of, and enhancement of certain requirements relating to, audit committees of public companies and how they interact with the public company's independent auditors;
Requirements that audit committee members must be independent and are barred from accepting consulting, advisory or other compensatory fees from the issuer;
Requirements that companies disclose whether at least one member of the audit committee is a 'financial expert' (as such term is defined by the SEC), and if not, why not;
Expanded disclosure requirements for corporate insiders, including accelerated reporting of stock transactions by insiders and a prohibition on insider trading during certain blackout periods;
A prohibition on personal loans to directors and officers, except certain loans made by insured financial institutions, such as the Bank, on non-preferential terms and in compliance with bank regulatory requirements;
Disclosure of a code of ethics and filing a Form 8-K in the event of a change or waiver of such code; and
A range of enhanced penalties for fraud and other violations.

The Company complies with the provisions of SOX and its underlying regulations. Management believes that such compliance efforts have strengthened the Company's overall corporate governance structure, and does not believe that such compliance has to date had, or will in the future have, a material impact on the Company's results of operations or financial condition.

Capital Requirements
The OCC has established guidelines with respect to the maintenance of appropriate levels of capital by FDIC-insured banks. The Federal Reserve Board has established substantially identical guidelines with respect to the maintenance of appropriate levels of capital, on a consolidated basis, by BHCs. If a banking organization's capital levels fall below the minimum
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requirements established by such guidelines, a bank or BHC will be expected to develop and implement a plan acceptable to the FDIC or the Federal Reserve Board, respectively, to achieve adequate levels of capital within a reasonable period, and may be denied approval to acquire or establish additional banks or non-bank businesses, merge with other institutions or open branch facilities until such capital levels are achieved. Federal regulations require federal bank regulators to take "prompt corrective action" with respect to insured depository institutions that fail to satisfy minimum capital requirements, and to impose significant restrictions on such institutions. See "Prompt Corrective Action" below.

Leverage Capital Ratio
The regulations of the OCC require national banks to maintain a minimum "Leverage Capital Ratio" or ratio of "Tier 1 Capital" (as defined in the Risk-Based Capital Guidelines discussed in the following paragraphs) to Total Assets of 4.0%. Any bank experiencing or anticipating significant growth is expected to maintain capital well above the minimum levels. The Federal Reserve Board's guidelines impose substantially similar leverage capital requirements on BHCs on a consolidated basis. It is possible that banking regulators may increase minimum capital requirements for banks should economic conditions worsen.

Risk-Based Capital Requirements
OCC regulations also require national banks to maintain minimum capital levels as a percentage of a bank's risk-adjusted assets. A bank's qualifying total capital ("Total Capital") for this purpose may include two components: "Core" (Tier 1) Capital and "Supplementary" (Tier 2) Capital. Core Capital consists primarily of common stockholders' equity, which generally includes common stock, related surplus and retained earnings, certain non-cumulative perpetual preferred stock and related surplus, and minority interests in the equity accounts of consolidated subsidiaries, and (subject to certain limitations) mortgage servicing rights and purchased credit card relationships, less all other intangible assets (primarily goodwill). Supplementary Capital elements include, subject to certain limitations, a portion of the allowance for loan losses, perpetual preferred stock that does not qualify for inclusion in Tier 1 capital, long-term preferred stock with an original maturity of at least 20 years and related surplus, certain forms of perpetual debt and mandatory convertible securities, and certain forms of subordinated debt and intermediate-term preferred stock.
The risk-based capital rules assign the majority of a bank's balance sheet assets and the credit equivalent amounts of the bank's off-balance sheet obligations to one of four risk categories, weighted at 0%, 20%, 50% or 100%, as applicable. A small amount of assets and off-balance sheet obligations are assigned a risk weight above 100%. Applying these risk-weights to each category of the bank's balance sheet assets and to the credit equivalent amounts of the bank's off-balance sheet obligations and summing the totals results in the amount of the bank's total Risk-Adjusted Assets for purposes of the risk-based capital requirements. Risk-Adjusted Assets can either exceed or be less than reported balance sheet assets, depending on the risk profile of the banking organization. Risk-Adjusted Assets for institutions such as the Bank will generally be less than reported balance sheet assets because its retail banking activities include proportionally more residential mortgage loans, many of its investment securities have a low risk weighting and there is a relatively small volume of off-balance sheet obligations.
The risk-based capital regulations require all banks to maintain a minimum ratio of Total Capital to Risk-Adjusted Assets of 8.0%, of which at least one-half (4.0%) must be Core (Tier 1) Capital. For the purpose of calculating these ratios: (i) a banking organization's Supplementary Capital eligible for inclusion in Total Capital is limited to no more than 100% of Core Capital; and (ii) the aggregate amount of certain types of Supplementary Capital eligible for inclusion in Total Capital is further limited. For example, the regulations limit the portion of the allowance for loan losses eligible for inclusion in Total Capital to 1.25% of Risk-Adjusted Assets. The Federal Reserve Board has established substantially identical risk-based capital requirements, which are applied to BHCs on a consolidated basis. The risk-based capital regulations explicitly provide for the consideration of interest rate risk in the overall evaluation of a bank's capital adequacy to ensure that banks effectively measure and monitor their interest rate risk, and that they maintain capital adequate for that risk. A bank deemed by its federal banking regulator to have excessive interest rate risk exposure may be required to maintain additional capital (that is, capital in excess of the minimum ratios discussed above). The Bank believes, based on its level of interest rate risk exposure, that this provision will not have a material adverse effect on it.
On December 31, 2021, the Company's consolidated Total and Tier 1 Risk-Based Capital Ratios were 14.27% and 13.31%, respectively, and its Leverage Capital Ratio was 8.63%. Based on the above figures and accompanying discussion, the Company exceeds all regulatory capital requirements and is considered well capitalized.

Basel III Capital Requirements
In December 2010, the Basel Committee on Bank Supervision (the "BCBS") finalized a set of international guidelines for determining regulatory capital known as "Basel III." These guidelines were developed in response to the financial crisis of 2008 and 2009 and were intended to address many of the weaknesses identified in the banking sector as contributing to the crisis including excessive leverage, inadequate and low quality capital and insufficient liquidity buffers. The Basel III guidelines:
raised the quality of capital so that banks will be better able to absorb losses on a going concern basis;
increased the risk coverage of the capital framework, specifically for trading activities, securitizations, exposures to off-balance sheet vehicles, and counterparty credit exposures arising from derivatives;
raised the level of minimum capital requirements;
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established an international leverage ratio;
developed capital buffers; and
raised standards for the supervisory review process (Pillar 2) and public disclosures (Pillar 3).
In June 2013, the U.S. banking regulators finalized rulemaking to implement the BCBS capital guidelines for U.S. banks, including, among other things:
implement in the United States the Basel III regulatory capital reforms, including those that revise the definition of capital, increase minimum capital ratios, and introduce a minimum Tier 1 common equity ratio of 4.5% and a capital conservation buffer of 2.5% (for a total minimum Tier 1 common equity ratio of 7.0%) and a potential countercyclical buffer of up to 2.5%, which would be imposed by regulators at their discretion if it is determined that a period of excessive credit growth is contributing to an increase in systemic risk;
revise "Basel I" rules for calculating risk-weighted assets to enhance risk sensitivity;
modify the existing Basel II advanced approaches rules for calculating risk-weighted assets to implement Basel III; and
comply with the Dodd-Frank Act provision prohibiting reliance on external credit ratings to support certain investment decisions.
The U.S. banking regulators also approved a final rule to implement changes to the market risk capital rule, which requires banking organizations with significant trading activities to adjust their capital requirements to better account for the market risks of those activities.
The Company's Tier 1 common equity ratio of 13.31% exceeded the fully phased-in minimum ratio of 7.00% by 6.31 percentage points at December 31, 2021.
From time to time, the OCC, the FRB and the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council (the "FFIEC") propose changes and amendments to, and issue interpretations of, risk-based capital guidelines and related reporting instructions. In addition, the FRB has closely monitored capital levels of the institutions it supervises during the ongoing financial disruption, and may require such institutions to modify capital levels based on FRB determinations. Such determinations, proposals or interpretations could, if implemented in the future, affect our reported capital ratios and net risk-adjusted assets.

Prompt Corrective Action
The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act of 1991 ("FDICIA") requires, among other things, that the federal banking regulators take "prompt corrective action" with respect to, and imposes significant restrictions on, any bank that fails to satisfy its applicable minimum capital requirements. FDICIA establishes five capital categories consisting of "well capitalized," "adequately capitalized," "undercapitalized," "significantly undercapitalized" and "critically undercapitalized." Under applicable regulations, a bank that has a Total Risk-Based Capital Ratio of 10.0% or greater, a Tier 1 Risk-Based Capital Ratio of 8.0% or greater and a Leverage Capital Ratio of 5.0% or greater, and is not subject to any written agreement, order, capital directive or prompt corrective action directive to meet and maintain a specific capital level for any capital measure, is deemed to be "well capitalized." A bank that has a Total Risk-Based Capital Ratio of 8.0% or greater, a Tier 1 Risk-Based Capital Ratio of 6.0% or greater and a Leverage Capital Ratio of 4.0% (or 3% for banks with the highest regulatory examination rating that are not experiencing or anticipating significant growth or expansion) or greater and does not meet the definition of a well-capitalized bank is considered to be "adequately capitalized." A bank that has a Total Risk-Based Capital Ratio of less than 8.0% or has a Tier 1 Risk-Based Capital Ratio that is less than 4.0%, except as noted above, or a Leverage Capital Ratio of less than 4.0% is considered "undercapitalized." A bank that has a Total Risk-Based Capital Ratio of less than 6.0%, or a Tier 1 Risk-Based Capital Ratio that is less than 3.0% or a Leverage Capital Ratio that is less than 3.0% is considered to be "significantly undercapitalized," and a bank that has a ratio of tangible equity to total assets equal to or less than 2% is deemed to be "critically undercapitalized." A bank may be deemed to be in a capital category lower than is indicated by its actual capital position if it is determined to be in an unsafe or unsound condition or receives an unsatisfactory examination rating. FDICIA generally prohibits a bank from making capital distributions (including payment of dividends) or paying management fees to controlling stockholders or their affiliates if, after such payment, the bank would be undercapitalized.
Under FDICIA and the applicable implementing regulations, an undercapitalized bank will be (i) subject to increased monitoring by its primary federal banking regulator; (ii) required to submit to its primary federal banking regulator an acceptable capital restoration plan (guaranteed, subject to certain limits, by the bank's holding company) within 45 days of being classified as undercapitalized; (iii) subject to strict asset growth limitations; and (iv) required to obtain prior regulatory approval for certain acquisitions, transactions not in the ordinary course of business, and entries into new lines of business. In addition to the foregoing, the primary federal banking regulator may issue a "prompt corrective action directive" to any undercapitalized institution. Such a directive may (i) require sale or re-capitalization of the bank; (ii) impose additional restrictions on transactions between the bank and its affiliates; (iii) limit interest rates paid by the bank on deposits; (iv) limit asset growth and other activities; (v) require divestiture of subsidiaries; (vi) require replacement of directors and officers; and (vii) restrict capital distributions by the bank's parent holding company. In addition to the foregoing, a significantly undercapitalized institution may not award bonuses or increases in compensation to its senior executive officers until it has submitted an acceptable capital restoration plan and received approval from its primary federal banking regulator.
No later than 90 days after an institution becomes critically undercapitalized, the primary federal banking regulator for the institution must appoint a receiver or, with the concurrence of the FDIC, a conservator, unless the agency, with the concurrence
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of the FDIC, determines that the purpose of the prompt corrective action provisions would be better served by another course of action. FDICIA requires that any alternative determination be "documented" and reassessed on a periodic basis. Notwithstanding the foregoing, a receiver must be appointed after 270 days unless the appropriate federal banking agency and the FDIC certify that the institution is viable and not expected to fail.

Deposit Insurance Assessments
The Bank is a member of the Deposit Insurance Fund ("DIF") maintained by the FDIC. Through the DIF, the FDIC insures the deposits of the Bank up to prescribed limits for each depositor. The DIF was formed March 31, 2006, upon the merger of the Bank Insurance Fund and the Savings Insurance Fund in accordance with the Federal Deposit Insurance Reform Act of 2005 (the "FDIR Act"). The FDIC may terminate a depository institution's deposit insurance upon a finding that the institution's financial condition is unsafe or unsound or that the institution has engaged in unsafe or unsound practices or has violated any applicable rule, regulation, order or condition enacted or imposed by the institution's regulatory agency. The termination of deposit insurance for the Bank could have a material adverse effect on our earnings.
The Bank is subject to deposit insurance assessments to maintain the DIF; these assessments are based on its assets. To determine its deposit insurance assessment base, the Bank computes the base amount of its average consolidated assets less its average tangible equity (defined as the amount of Tier I capital) and the applicable assessment rate. On May 20, 2016, the FDIC’s Board of Directors adopted a final rule that changed the manner in which deposit insurance assessment rates are calculated for established small banks (generally those banks with less than $10 billion of assets that have been insured for at least five years). The rule takes a risk based approach, utilizing the CAMELS rating system, which is a supervisory rating system designed to take into account and reflect financial and operational risks that a bank may face, as one component of the assessment calculation along with seven additional metrics including capital adequacy, asset quality, earnings, brokered deposit reliance, and assets growth rate. Each of the seven metrics and a weighted average of CAMELS component ratings is multiplied by a corresponding pricing multiplier. The sum of these products is added to a uniform amount, with the resulting sum being an institution’s initial base assessment rate (subject to minimum or maximum assessment rates based on a bank’s CAMELS composite rating). Assessments for established small banks with a CAMELS rating of 1 or 2 range from 1.5 to 16 basis points, after adjustments. Assessment rates for established small banks with a CAMELS rating of 3 range from 3 to 30 basis points, after adjustments. Assessment rates for established small banks with a CAMELS composite rating of 4 or 5 range from 11 to 30 basis points, after adjustments. Assessment rates specific to the Bank are calculated quarterly based upon its balance sheet and performance metrics as of the prior quarter end. The FDIC has the power to adjust deposit insurance assessment rates at any time, and the Company is not able to predict the amount or timing of any adjustment.
The Federal Deposit Insurance Act ("FDIA"), as amended by the Federal Deposit Insurance Reform Act and the Dodd-Frank Act, establishes a minimum reserve ratio of the DIF to estimated insured deposits of 1.15% prior to September 2020 and 1.35% thereafter. Further, the Dodd-Frank Act required that, in setting assessments, the FDIC offset the effect of the increase in the minimum reserve ratio from 1.15% to 1.35% on banks with less than $10 billion in assets. To satisfy these requirements, on March 15, 2016, the FDIC’s Board of Directors approved a final rule to increase the DIF’s reserve ratio to the statutorily required minimum ratio of 1.35% of estimated insured deposits. The final rule imposed a 4.5 basis points surcharge on the quarterly insurance assessments of large banks, which became effective on July 1, 2016. The surcharge continued through September 30, 2018, when the reserve ratio reached 1.36% of insured deposits, exceeding the statutorily required minimum reserve ratio of 1.35%. Small banks, such as the Bank, were not required to pay the surcharge. To offset the effect of the increase in the reserve ratio on small banks, those banks received credits for the portion of their assessments that helped to raise the reserve ratio from 1.15% to 1.35%. Credits were to be applied automatically to reduce a small bank’s regular assessment in each quarter that the reserve ratio is at least 1.38%, up to the entire amount of the credit or assessment. For the Bank, credits began to be applied in the third quarter of 2019, and the last of the credits were applied in the first quarter of 2020.
Brokered Deposits and Pass-Through Deposit Insurance Limitations
Under FDICIA, a bank cannot accept brokered deposits unless it either (i) is "Well Capitalized" or (ii) is "Adequately Capitalized" and has received a written waiver from its primary federal banking regulator. For this purpose, "Well Capitalized" and "Adequately Capitalized" have the same definitions as in the Prompt Corrective Action regulations. See "Prompt Corrective Action" above. Banks that are not in the "Well Capitalized" category are subject to certain limits on the rates of interest they may offer on any deposits (whether or not obtained through a third-party deposit broker). Pass-through insurance coverage is not available in banks that do not satisfy the requirements for acceptance of brokered deposits, except that pass-through insurance coverage will be provided for employee benefit plan deposits in institutions which at the time of acceptance of the deposit meet all applicable regulatory capital requirements and send written notice to their depositors that their funds are eligible for pass-through deposit insurance. Industry regulators have recently published changes to the definition of brokered deposits; the Company has reviewed new standards and believes it will have no impact upon its business. The Bank currently accepts brokered deposits.

Real Estate Lending Standards
FDICIA requires the federal bank regulatory agencies to adopt uniform real estate lending standards. The FDIC and the OCC have adopted regulations which establish supervisory limitations on Loan-to-Value ("LTV") ratios in real estate loans by FDIC-
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insured banks, including national banks. The regulations require banks to establish LTV ratio limitations within or below the prescribed uniform range of supervisory limits. The CFPB amended Regulation Z effective January 10, 2014 to implement Ability to Repay and Qualified Mortgage Standards for residential mortgage lending.  The Bank has elected to follow large bank treatment under the rule.  The Bank follows the Ability to Repay rule by making a good faith determination of an applicant’s ability to repay under the terms of the transaction; loans meeting the outlined standards for Qualified Mortgages are identified as such in the Bank’s records.  The CFPB further amended Regulation Z along with amending Regulation X to combine certain disclosures consumers receive when applying for and closing on a mortgage loan under the Truth in Lending Act and Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act.  These amendments became effective October 3, 2015.

Standards for Safety and Soundness
Pursuant to FDICIA the federal bank regulatory agencies have prescribed, by regulation, standards and guidelines for all insured depository institutions and depository institution holding companies relating to: (i) internal controls, information systems and internal audit systems; (ii) loan documentation; (iii) credit underwriting; (iv) interest rate risk exposure; (v) asset growth; and (vi) compensation, fees and benefits. The compensation standards prohibit employment contracts, compensation or benefit arrangements, stock option plans, fee arrangements or other compensatory arrangements that would provide "excessive" compensation, fees or benefits, or that could lead to material financial loss. In addition, the federal bank regulatory agencies are required by FDICIA to prescribe standards specifying: (i) maximum classified assets to capital ratios; (ii) minimum earnings sufficient to absorb losses without impairing capital; and (iii) to the extent feasible, a minimum ratio of market value to book value for publicly-traded shares of depository institutions and depository institution holding companies.

Consumer Protection Provisions
FDICIA also includes provisions requiring advance notice to regulators and customers for any proposed branch closing and authorizing (subject to future appropriation of the necessary funds) reduced insurance assessments for institutions offering "lifeline" banking accounts or engaged in lending in distressed communities. FDICIA also includes provisions requiring depository institutions to make additional and uniform disclosures to depositors with respect to the rates of interest, fees and other terms applicable to consumer deposit accounts.

FDIC Waiver of Certain Regulatory Requirements
The FDIC issued a rule, effective on September 22, 2003, that includes a waiver provision which grants the FDIC Board of Directors extremely broad discretionary authority to waive FDIC regulatory provisions that are not specifically mandated by statute or by a separate regulation.

Impact of Monetary Policy
Our business and earnings are affected significantly by the fiscal and monetary policies of the federal government and its agencies. We are particularly affected by the policies of the FRB, which regulates the supply of money and credit in the United States. Among the instruments of monetary policy available to the FRB are (a) conducting open market operations in United States government securities, (b) changing the discount rates of borrowings of depository institutions, (c) imposing or changing reserve requirements against depository institutions' deposits, and (d) imposing or changing reserve requirements against certain borrowings by banks and their affiliates. These methods are used in varying degrees and combinations to directly affect the availability of bank loans and deposits, as well as the interest rates charged on loans and paid on deposits. The policies of the FRB may have a material effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. The nature of future monetary policies and the effect of such policies on the future business and earnings of the Company and the Bank cannot be predicted. See Item 7 - Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and Item 1A - Risk Factors, regarding the Bank's net interest margin and the effect of interest rate volatility on future earnings.

Human Capital
At December 31, 2021, the Company had 269 employees and full-time equivalency of 267 employees. Most employees live and work in the State of Maine, along with a limited number of remote employees working outside of Maine.

Talent Acquisition: To effectively operate, the Company requires employees with a variety of skill sets including customer service delivery, analytical ability, leadership, sales acumen and technical expertise. To attract and retain employees the Company offers a combination of competitive pay and benefits. Eligible full time employees and part time employees who are scheduled to work at least 30 hours per week are provided a flexible benefit plan which includes group life, health, short and long-term disability insurance. Other benefits include paid vacation, paid sick and personal time and a 401K defined contribution plan for eligible employees. The Company participates in annual salary surveys to ensure wages are competitive in the local market, and since 1994 has offered a comprehensive, annual incentive compensation plan to all employees.

Professional Development: Employee development is emphasized and extensive training and development opportunities are provided. Opportunities made available to employees may include participation in industry seminars, industry certificate programs, and advanced industry education at regional or national banking schools. The Company has also developed an in-
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house program targeted to the development of future leaders. Managers conduct periodic coaching meetings with all employees to review progress towards annual goals, and identify areas of opportunity or performance improvement. Formal performance evaluations are conducted semi-annually. A Development Associate position was recently added to our Education & Training department.

Employee Engagement: The Company recognizes that employees who are involved in, enthusiastic about and committed to their work and workplace contribute meaningfully to the success of the Company. The Company solicits employee feedback through a confidential web portal and periodically surveys employees various topics of interest. A recent such survey asked general questions about communications and more specific questions about communication with or from the CEO; the survey enjoyed a high rate of response and was overwhelmingly positive.

Succession Planning: The Company views succession planning as a priority and incorporates it into the strategic planning process. Succession plans are updated annually for all management roles, and leverage the Company's various development programs to clearly identify both short and long-term successors for each position.

Company Website
The Company maintains a website accessed via https://investors.thefirst.com where it makes available, free of charge, its annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, as well as all Section 16 reports on Forms 3, 4, and 5, as soon as reasonably practicable after such reports are electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. The Company's reports filed with, or furnished to, the SEC are also available at the SEC's website at www.sec.gov. Information contained on the Company's website does not constitute a part of this report. Beginning with the third quarter of 2018, the Company adopted inline XBRL. Interactive reports for our 10-K and 10-Q filings are available in iXBRL format at www.sec.gov.




ITEM 1A. Risk Factors
The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones the Company faces. Additional risks and uncertainties that we are unaware of, or that we currently deem immaterial, also may become important factors that affect us and our business. If any of these risks were to materialize, our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
Risk Associated With Our Business
Our operations, business, and financial condition have been and may continue to be impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic.
The COVID-19 outbreak, which evolved into a worldwide pandemic, has had a myriad of adverse impacts upon society as a whole. The spread of COVID-19 has caused illness, quarantines, cancellation of events and travel, business and school shutdowns, reduction in business activity and financial transactions, supply chain interruptions and overall economic and financial market instability. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, Federal, State and Local governments have taken preventative or protective actions, such as imposing restrictions on travel and business operations, advising or requiring individuals to limit or forgo their time outside of their homes, and ordering temporary closures of businesses that have been deemed to be non-essential. The initial restrictions and other consequences of the pandemic resulted in significant adverse effects for many different types of businesses, including, among others, those in the retail sales, travel, hospitality and food and beverage industries, and resulted in a significant number of layoffs and furloughs of employees nationwide and in the markets in which we operate. The initial restrictions have been largely lifted nationally and within the Company's operating footprint. While substantial progress towards vaccination has been made, an increase in virus spread or infection rates, or the emergence of new variants of the virus could result in restrictions being re-implemented with negative impacts on economic activity.
Ongoing effects of COVID-19 on the broader economy and the markets that we serve remain uncertain, as are the ultimate length of any remaining restrictions described above or any accompanying effects. Federal Reserve action to lower the Federal Funds rate at the outset of the pandemic has had limited impact to date on our interest income and, therefore, earnings, financial condition and results of operations. Additional impacts of COVID-19 on our business could be widespread and material, and may include, or exacerbate, among other consequences, the following:

employees contracting COVID-19
unavailability of key personnel necessary to conduct our business activities
disruption resulting from having a significant percentage of employees work remotely
repeated or sustained closures of our branch lobbies
declines in demand for loans and other banking services
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reduced consumer spending due to job losses or other impacts of the virus
adverse conditions in financial markets may have a negative impact on our investment portfolio
adverse economic conditions result in a slowdown in municipal tax collections potentially impacting municipal loans, investments, and deposit balances
decline in credit quality of our loan portfolio leading to increased provisions for loan losses
declines in the value of loan collateral, including residential and commercial real estate
decline in the liquidity of borrowers and guarantors impairing their ability to honor financial commitments
actions of governmental entities to limit business activities

The significant contribution of tourism and hospitality businesses to the State of Maine's overall economy, and the Company's primary market areas in particular, may result in a disproportionate effect relative to other regions. These factors, together or in combination with other events or occurrences related to COVID-19 that may not yet be known or anticipated, may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We are subject to credit risk and may incur losses if loans are not repaid.
There are inherent risks associated with our lending activities. These risks include, among other things, the impact of changes in interest rates and changes in the economic conditions in the markets where we operate as well as those across the United States and abroad. Increases in interest rates and/or weakening economic conditions could adversely impact the ability of borrowers to repay outstanding loans and the value of the collateral securing these loans. Other changes in the values of underlying collateral securing loans could pose additional risk if the collateral must be relied upon for repayment in the event of a loan default. We seek to mitigate the risks inherent in our loan portfolio by adhering to specific underwriting practices. Although we believe that our underwriting criteria are appropriate for the various kinds of loans we make, we may incur losses on loans that meet our underwriting criteria, and these losses may exceed the amounts set aside as reserves in our allowance for loan losses.
Our loan portfolio includes commercial, commercial real estate and commercial construction loans that may have higher risks than other types of loans.
Our commercial, commercial real estate, and commercial construction loans at December 31, 2021 and 2020 were $920.1 million and $783.7 million, or 55.9% and 53.0% of total loans, respectively. Commercial and commercial real estate loans generally carry larger loan balances and can involve a greater degree of financial and credit risk than other loans. As a result, banking regulators continue to give greater scrutiny to lenders (such as the bank) with a high concentration or a high growth rate of commercial real estate loans in their portfolios, and such lenders are expected to implement stricter underwriting criteria, internal controls, risk management policies and portfolio stress testing, as well as higher capital levels and loss allowances. The increased financial and credit risk associated with these types of loans are a result of several factors, including the concentration of principal in a limited number of loans and borrowers, the size of loan balances, the effects of general economic conditions on income-producing properties, the potential illiquidity of the real estate collateral securing such losses, and the increased difficulty of evaluating and monitoring these types of loans.
Regulators have the right to require banks to maintain elevated levels of capital or liquidity due to commercial real estate loan concentrations, and could do so, especially if there is a downturn in our local real estate markets. In addition, when underwriting a commercial or industrial loan, we may take a security interest in commercial real estate, and, in some instances upon a default by the borrower, we may foreclose on and take title to the property, which results in the incurrence of tax and other maintenance costs and which may lead to potential financial risks for us under applicable environmental laws. If hazardous substances were discovered on any of these properties, we may be liable to governmental agencies or third parties for the costs of remediation of the hazard, as well as for personal injury and property damage. Many environmental laws can impose liability regardless of whether the accused lender knew of, or had been responsible for, the contamination.
Furthermore, the repayment of loans secured by commercial real estate is typically dependent upon the successful operation of the related real estate or commercial project. If the cash flows from the project are reduced, a borrower's ability to repay the loan may be impaired. This cash flow shortage may result in the failure to make loan payments. In such cases, we may be compelled to modify the terms of the loan. In addition, the nature of these loans is such that they are generally less predictable and more difficult to evaluate and monitor. As a result, repayment of these loans may, to a greater extent than residential loans, be subject to adverse conditions in the real estate market or the broader economy.

Our allowance for loan losses may be insufficient and require additional provision from earnings.
The Bank maintains an allowance for loan losses based on, among other things, national and regional economic conditions, historical loss experience and delinquency trends. We make various assumptions and judgments about the collectability of our loan portfolio, including the creditworthiness of borrowers and the value of the real estate and other assets serving as collateral for the repayment of loans. In determining the size of the allowance for loan losses, we rely on our experience and our evaluation of economic conditions. However, we cannot predict loan losses with certainty, and we cannot provide assurance that charge-offs in future periods will not exceed the allowance for loan losses. If, as a result of general economic conditions, previously incorrect assumptions or an increase in defaulted loans, we determine that additional increases in the allowance for
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loan losses are necessary, we will incur additional provision expenses. In addition, regulatory agencies review the Bank's allowance for loan losses and may require additions to the allowance based on their judgment about information available to them at the time of their examination. Management could also decide that the allowance for loan losses should be increased. If charge-offs in future periods exceed the allowance for loan losses, we will need additional provisions to increase the allowance for loan losses. Furthermore, growth in the loan portfolio would generally lead to an increase in the provision for loan losses. Finally, our industry is the midst of a methodology change in the calculation of the allowance for loan losses. The incurred loss model presently in use will be replaced by a current expected credit loss model (“CECL”). The effective implementation date of CECL for the Company had been January 1, 2020. In October 2019, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") approved an amendment to ASU 2016-13, the CECL standard, whereby the effective date of ASU 2016-13 was delayed for companies that qualify as a Smaller Reporting Companies ("SRC"). The Company qualifies as an SRC and as such our effective implementation date for CECL is now January 1, 2023. Substantial progress towards a formal estimate of a required allowance for credit losses to meet the CECL standard has been made, and the Company expects that a modest increase in the level may be necessary. As allowed by CECL implementation rules, any such day one increase will be a one-time capital event with an option to phase-in over three years for regulatory capital purposes, and is not presently expected to materially and adversely impact the Company’s earnings upon adoption.
Increases in the allowance for loan losses typically result in a decrease in net income and capital, and may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. See the section captioned "Credit Risk Management and Allowance for Loan Losses" in Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, located elsewhere in this report, for further discussion related to our process for determining the appropriate level of the allowance for loan losses.
The Maine foreclosure process can be lengthy and add additional losses for the Bank.
Residential foreclosures in Maine occur through the judicial system. Under ideal circumstances, it can take as little as six months to foreclose on a Maine property; however, if the borrower contests the foreclosure or the court delays the foreclosure, the process may take up to two years, or longer in some instances. In 2009, the Maine Legislature passed "An Act to Preserve Home Ownership and Stabilize the Economy by Preventing Unnecessary Foreclosures." This law provides for mediation of foreclosure of residential mortgages and borrowers may choose mediation in which parties must attend mediation sessions and evaluate foreclosure alternatives in good faith. This law also provides that issues such as reinstatement of the mortgage, modification of the loan and restructuring of the mortgage debt are to be addressed at these mediation sessions. Given the uncertain timeframe related to foreclosure in Maine, the Bank can incur additional legal fees and other costs, such as payment of property taxes and insurance, if the foreclosure process is extended. In addition, the value of the property may further decline if the borrower fails to maintain the property in good order or market conditions worsen during this extended period.
Our level of troubled debt restructured ("TDR") has improved but a modest level of risk remains.
We work with homeowners and other borrowers who face difficulty on a case by case basis. In each case when a loan is modified, Management determines it is in the Bank's best interest to work with the borrower with modified terms rather than to proceed to foreclosure. Once a loan is classified as a TDR, however, it remains classified as a TDR until the balance is fully repaid, whether or not the loan is performing under the modified terms. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, banking regulators released guidance in March 2020 that allowed qualifying loan modifications to be exempt from TDR status. Subsequently the CARES Act passed in March 2020 and the Supplemental Appropriations Act passed in December 2020 extended similar exemptions to TDR reporting for qualified loan modifications.
As of December 31, 2021, there were 60 loans with an outstanding balance of $8.3 million that have been restructured. This represents a reduction of 14 loans and $3.2 million in balances from the 74 loans with a value of $11.5 million in TDR status as of December 31, 2020. As of December 31, 2021, 39 loans with an aggregate balance of $6.4 million were performing under the modified terms, one loan with an aggregate balance of $3,000 was more than 30 days past due and accruing and 20 loans with an aggregate balance of $1.9 million were on nonaccrual. As a percentage of aggregate outstanding balances, 77.2% were performing under the modified terms, 0.04% were more than 30 days past due and accruing and 22.7% were on nonaccrual. Although a large percentage of TDRs are performing, the full collection of principal and interest on some TDRs may not occur, which could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
Changes in interest rates could adversely affect our net interest income and profitability.
Our earnings and cash flows are largely dependent upon our net interest income. Net interest income is the difference between interest income earned on interest-earning assets, such as loans and securities, and interest expense paid on interest-bearing liabilities, such as deposits and borrowed funds. Interest rates are highly sensitive to many factors that are beyond our control, including general economic conditions, demand for loans, securities and deposits, and policies of various governmental and regulatory agencies and, in particular, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. Changes in monetary policy, including changes in interest rates, could influence not only the interest we receive on loans and securities and the amount of interest we pay on deposits and borrowings, but such changes could also affect
our ability to originate loans and obtain deposits;
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the fair value of our financial assets and liabilities; and
the average duration of our loans and securities that are collateralized by mortgages.
If the interest rates paid on deposits and other borrowings increase at a faster rate than the interest rates received on loans and other investments, our net interest income, and therefore our earnings, could be adversely affected. Earnings could also be adversely affected if the interest rates received on loans and other investments fall more quickly than the interest rates paid on deposits and other borrowings. If interest rates decline, our higher-rate loans and investments may be subject to prepayment risk, which could negatively impact our net interest margin. Conversely, if interest rates increase, our loans and investments may be subject to extension risk, which could negatively impact our net interest margin as well. Any substantial, unexpected or prolonged change in market interest rates could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. See Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk, located elsewhere in this report, for further discussion related to our management of interest rate risk.
The value of our investment portfolio may be negatively affected by changes in interest rates and disruptions in securities markets.
Volatile market conditions may detrimentally affect the value of securities held in our portfolio due to the perception of heightened credit and liquidity risks. There can be no assurance that the declines in market value associated with these disruptions will not result in other than temporary impairments of these assets, which would lead to accounting charges that could have a material adverse effect on our net income and capital levels. Our mortgage-backed bond portfolio may be subject to extension risk as interest rates rise, extending the average life of the bonds. As of December 31, 2021, we had $320.6 million and $370.0 million in available for sale and held to maturity investment securities, respectively. Numerous factors, including lack of liquidity for re-sales of certain investment securities, absence of reliable pricing information for investment securities, adverse changes in business climate, adverse actions by regulators, rising interest rates, or unanticipated changes in the competitive environment could have a negative effect on our investment portfolio in future periods. If an impairment charge is significant enough it could affect the ability of the Bank to renew funding. This could have a material adverse effect on our liquidity and the Bank's ability to upstream dividends to the Company and for the Company to then pay dividends to shareholders. It could also negatively impact our regulatory capital ratios and result in our not being classified as "well-capitalized" for regulatory purposes.
Illiquidity could impair our ability to fund operations and jeopardize our financial condition.
Liquidity is essential to our business. An inability to raise funds through traditional deposits, brokered deposit renewals or rollovers, secured or unsecured borrowings, the sale of securities or loans or other sources could have a substantial negative effect on our liquidity. Our access to funding sources in amounts adequate to finance our activities could be impaired by factors that affect us specifically or the financial services industry or the economy in general, or could be available only under terms which are unacceptable to us. We rely primarily on commercial and retail deposits and, to a lesser extent, brokered deposit renewals and rollovers, advances from the Federal Home Loan Bank of Boston (the "FHLB") and other secured and unsecured borrowings to fund our operations. Factors that could detrimentally impact our access to liquidity sources include a decrease in the level of our business activity as a result of a downturn in the markets in which our loans are concentrated, adverse regulatory action against us, changes in market interest rates or increased competition for funding within our market. Disruptions in the capital markets or interest rate changes may make the terms of wholesale funding sources less favorable and may make it difficult for us to sell securities when needed to provide additional liquidity. In addition, if we fall below the FDIC's thresholds to be considered "well capitalized", we will be unable to continue to roll over or renew brokered funds, and the interest rate we pay on deposits would be subject to restrictions. As a result, there is a risk that our cost of funding will increase or we will not have sufficient funds to meet our obligations when they become due.
Loss of lower-cost funding sources could lead to margin compression and decrease net interest income.
Checking and savings, NOW, and money market deposit account balances and other forms of customer deposits can decrease when customers perceive alternative investments, such as the stock market, as providing a better risk/return tradeoff. If customers move money out of bank deposits and into other investments, we could lose a relatively low-cost source of funds, increasing our funding costs and reducing our net interest income and net income. Advances from the FHLB are currently a relatively low-cost source of funding. The availability of qualified collateral on the Bank's balance sheet determines the level of advances available from FHLB and a deterioration in quality in the Bank's loan portfolio can adversely impact the availability of this source of funding, which could increase our funding costs and reduce our net interest income.
The soundness of other financial institutions could adversely affect us.
Our ability to engage in routine funding transactions could be adversely affected by the actions and commercial soundness of other financial institutions. Financial services companies are interrelated as a result of trading, clearing, counterparty, or other relationships. We have exposure to many different industries and counterparties, and we routinely execute transactions with counterparties in the financial services industry, including brokers and dealers, commercial banks, investment banks, mutual and hedge funds, and other institutional clients. As a result, defaults by, or even rumors or questions about, one or more
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financial services companies, or the financial services industry generally, have led to market-wide liquidity problems and could lead to losses or defaults by us or by other institutions. In addition, many of these transactions expose us to credit risk in the event of default of our counterparty or client. Further, our credit risk may be exacerbated when the collateral held by us cannot be realized or is liquidated at prices not sufficient to recover the full amount of the loan or derivative exposure due us. There is no assurance that any such losses would not materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Lack of loan demand may adversely impact net interest income.
Loan demand in the Bank's market area may be limited during periods of weak economic conditions. This could have the greatest impact on the commercial loan portfolio. In addition, in order to reduce the Bank's exposure to interest rate risk, the Bank may sell residential mortgages to the secondary market that have been refinanced by borrowers seeking to take advantage of lower interest rates. Should this happen, net interest income may be negatively impacted if loans are replaced by lower-yielding investment securities or if the balance sheet is allowed to shrink.
A decline in real estate values in our primary market area could adversely impact results of operations and financial condition.
Most of the Bank's lending is in Mid-Coast and Eastern Maine. As a result of this geographic concentration, a significant broad-based deterioration in economic conditions in this area of Northern New England could have a material adverse impact on the quality of the Bank's loan portfolio, and could result in a decline in the demand for our products and services and, accordingly, could negatively impact our results of operations. Such a decline in economic conditions could impair borrowers' ability to pay outstanding principal and interest on loans when due and, consequently, adversely affect the cash flows of our business. The Bank's loan portfolio is largely secured by real estate collateral. A substantial portion of the real and personal property securing the loans in the Bank's portfolio is located in Mid-Coast and Eastern Maine. Conditions in the real estate market in which the collateral for the Bank's loans is located strongly influence the level of the Bank's non-performing loans, the potential or actual amounts realized from real estate collateral in the event of default, and ultimately the results of operations.
Our investment management activities are dependent on the value of investment securities which may lead to revenue fluctuations.
First National Wealth Management is the investment management arm of the Bank, operating under trust powers granted by the OCC in the Bank's charter. First National Wealth Management provides trustee, investment management and custody services for individual, municipal and business clients, predominantly in the Bank's market area. First National Wealth Management's revenues are directly tied to the asset values of the investments it manages for clients, and these may be adversely affected by a decline in the market value of these investments caused by fluctuations in the bond and stock markets.
We are dependent upon the services of our management team, and if we are unable to retain the services of our management team, our business may suffer.
Our future success and profitability are substantially dependent upon the management and banking abilities of our senior executives. Changes in key personnel may be disruptive to our business and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. We believe that our future results will also depend in part upon our attracting and retaining highly skilled and qualified management. The current employment landscape includes a very low national and local unemployment rate, upward wage pressures, and increased workplace flexibility brought about by remote work options. Competition for the best people in most activities in which we are engaged can be intense, and we may not be able to retain or hire the people we want and/or need. In order to attract and retain qualified employees, we must compensate such employees at market levels. Typically, those levels have caused employee compensation to be our greatest expense. If we are unable to continue to attract and retain qualified employees, or do so at increased rates necessary to maintain our competitive position, our performance, including our competitive position, could suffer, and, in turn, have a material adverse effect on us. Although we have incentive compensation plans aimed, in part, at long-term employee retention, the unexpected loss of services of one or more of our key personnel could still occur, and such events may have a material adverse effect on us because of the loss of the employee's skills, knowledge of our market, and years of industry experience, and the difficulty of promptly finding qualified replacement personnel for our talented executives and/or relationship managers.
Our internal control systems are inherently limited and may fail or be circumvented.
We face the risk that the design of our controls and procedures, including those intended to mitigate the risk of fraud by employees or outsiders, may prove to be inadequate or may be circumvented, thereby causing delays in detection of errors or inaccuracies in data and information. Although Management regularly reviews and updates our internal controls, disclosure controls and procedures, and corporate governance policies and procedures, the Company's systems of internal controls, disclosure controls and corporate governance policies and procedures are inherently limited. The inherent limitations of our system of internal controls include the use of judgment in decision-making that can be faulty; breakdowns can occur because of human error; and controls can be circumvented by individual acts or by collusion of two or more people. The design of any system of controls is based in part upon certain assumptions about the likelihood of future events, and any design may not
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succeed in achieving its stated goals under all potential future conditions. Because of the inherent limitations of a cost-effective control system, misstatements due to error or fraud may occur and may not be detected, which may have an adverse effect on the Company's business, results of operations or financial condition. While the Company is not aware of any such events, remediation of any identified limitations may be ineffective in improving internal controls.
We continually encounter technological change that may be difficult (costly) to keep up with.
The financial services industry is continually undergoing technological change with frequent introductions of new technology-driven products and services. The effective use of technology increases efficiency and enables financial institutions to better serve customers and to reduce costs. Our future success depends, in part, upon our ability to address the needs of our customers by using technology to provide products and services that will satisfy customer demands, as well as to create additional efficiencies in our operations. Our largest competitors have substantially greater resources to invest in technological improvements. We may not be able to effectively implement new technology-driven products and services or be successful in marketing these products and services to our customers. Failure to successfully keep pace with technological change affecting the financial services industry, and increased costs due to efforts to keep pace with change, could have a material adverse effect on us. To date, there has been no material adverse effect on our business or operations due to failure of keeping pace with technological change.
We are subject to security, transactional and operational risks relating to the use of technology that could damage our reputation and our business.
We rely heavily on communications and information systems to conduct our business, serving both internal and customer constituencies, and substantial investment has been made in these systems in recent years. Any failure, interruption or breach in security of these systems could result in failures or disruptions in our customer relationship management, general ledger, deposit, loan, and other systems. While we have in place policies and procedures, security applications and fraud mitigation applications designed to prevent or limit the effect of failure, interruption, fraud attack or security breach of or affecting our information systems, there can be no assurance that any such failures, interruptions, fraud attacks or security breaches will not occur or, if they do occur, that they will be adequately and promptly addressed. Fraud attacks targeting customer-controlled devices, plastic payment card terminals, and merchant data collection points provide another source of potential loss, possibly through no fault of our own. The occurrence of any failures, interruptions or security breaches of information systems used to process customer transactions could damage our reputation, result in a loss of customer business, subject us to additional regulatory scrutiny, or expose us to civil litigation and possible financial liability and/or substantial remediation or recovery costs, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. To date, there has been no material adverse effect on our business or operations due to these risks.
Our information systems may experience an interruption or breach in security.
We rely heavily on communications, information systems (both internal and provided by third parties) and the internet to conduct our business. Our business is dependent on our ability to process and monitor large numbers of daily transactions in compliance with legal, regulatory and internal standards and specifications. In addition, a significant portion of our operations relies heavily on the secure processing, storage and transmission of personal and confidential information, such as the personal information of our customers and clients. Our use of and reliance on, and the risks associated with, such operations are likely to increase in the future as we continue to increase mobile capabilities and other internet-based product offerings and expand our internal usage of web-based products and third-party hosted applications.
In the event of a failure, interruption or breach of our information systems and business operations, we may be unable to avoid impact to our customers and business. Other U.S. financial service institutions and companies have reported breaches in the security of their websites or other systems and have experienced significant distributed denial-of-service attacks, some of which involved sophisticated and targeted attacks intended to disable or degrade service, or sabotage systems. Other potential attacks have attempted to obtain unauthorized access to confidential information or destroy data, often through the introduction of computer viruses or malware, cyberattacks and other means. To date, none of these efforts has had a material adverse effect on our business or operations. However, our costs of preventing, detecting, and addressing such threats or attacks continue to increase. Such security attacks can originate from a wide variety of sources, including persons who are involved with organized crime or who may be linked to terrorist organizations or hostile foreign governments. Those same parties may also attempt to fraudulently induce employees, customers or other users of our systems to disclose sensitive information in order to gain access to our data or funds or those of our customers or clients. The Bank regularly works with a third party information security consultant to review and test various systems, and has an ongoing information security training program for employees. Despite these efforts our security systems may not be able to protect our information systems from similar attacks due to the rapid evolution and creation of sophisticated cyberattacks. We are also subject to the risk that our employees, without authorization, may intercept and transmit confidential or proprietary information. An interception, misuse or mishandling of personal, confidential or proprietary information being sent to or received from a customer or third party could result in legal liability, remediation costs, regulatory action and reputational harm.

The First Bancorp - 2021 Form 10-K - Page 14






We also have risk related to data or security breaches affecting other companies. Under Federal banking regulations, if a consumer’s debit card is compromised, the liability for unauthorized transactions falls primarily on the issuing financial institution, not on the consumer or the company which experienced the data or security breach. Since the introduction of EMV or Chip cards, we have had the ability to charge back fraudulent transactions to the acquiring merchant if that merchant does not have an EMV capable terminal.  In the normal course of business the Bank issues EMV/Chip debit cards to its customers to keep this risk as low as possible.  However fraud can still occur online or using fallback transactions, creating potential risk for this type of liability.
We are subject to claims and litigation that may impact our earnings and/or our reputation.
From time to time, customers, vendors or other parties may make claims and take legal action against us. Whether any particular claims and legal actions are founded or unfounded, if such claims and legal actions are not resolved in a manner favorable to us, they may result in financial liability and/or adversely affect the market perception of the Bank and its products and services. Any financial liability or reputational damage could have a material adverse effect on our business, which, in turn, could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. We maintain reserves for certain claims when deemed appropriate based upon our assessment that a loss is probable, consistent with applicable accounting guidance. At any given time we may have legal actions asserted against us in various stages of litigation. Resolution of a legal action can often take years. We are also involved, from time to time, in other reviews, investigations and proceedings (both formal and informal) by governmental and self-regulatory agencies regarding our business, including, among other things, accounting and operational matters, certain of which may result in adverse judgments, settlements, fines, penalties, injunctions or other relief. The number of and risk associated with these investigations and proceedings has increased in recent years with regard to many firms in the financial services industry due to changes to the consumer protection laws provided for by the Dodd-Frank Act, the creation of the CFPB, and the uncertainty as to whether federal pre-emption of certain state consumer laws remains intact for federally chartered financial institutions like the Bank. A weakening of federal pre-emption could increase our compliance and operational costs and risks since the Bank is a national bank, and we could face new state and local regulation and enforcement activity. There have also been a number of highly publicized cases involving fraud or misconduct by employees in the financial services industry in recent years, and we face the risk that employee misconduct could occur. It is not always possible to deter or prevent employee misconduct, and the precautions we take to prevent and detect this activity may not be effective in all cases. Any financial liability for which we have not adequately maintained reserves or insurance coverage, and/or any damage to our reputation from such claims and legal actions, could have a material adverse effect on us.
Damage to our reputation could significantly harm our businesses.
Our ability to attract and retain customers, clients, investors and highly-skilled management and employees is impacted by our reputation. Significant harm to our reputation can arise from adverse financial market developments, employee misconduct, actual or perceived unethical behavior, litigation or regulatory outcomes, failing to deliver minimum or required standards of service and quality, compliance failures, disclosure of confidential information, and the activities of our clients, customers and counterparties, including vendors and cyber attacks. Actions by the financial services industry generally or by certain members or individuals in the industry could also significantly adversely affect our reputation. We could also suffer significant reputational harm if we fail to properly identify and manage potential conflicts of interest. The actual or perceived failure to adequately address conflicts of interest could affect the willingness of clients to deal with us, which could adversely affect our businesses.
Our recent results may not be indicative of our future results.
We may not be able to sustain our historical rate of growth, and may not even be able to grow our business at all. In addition, our recent growth may distort some of our historical financial ratios and statistics. Various factors, such as economic conditions, regulatory and legislative considerations and competition, may also impede our ability to expand our market presence. If we were to experience a significant decrease or reversal in our historical rate of growth, our results of operations and financial condition may be adversely affected due to a high percentage of our operating costs being fixed expenses.

Risks Associated With Our Industry

Our business has been and may continue to be adversely affected by conditions in the financial markets and economic conditions generally and by increased regulation.

The onset of COVID-19 in the United States in early 2020 quickly plunged the US economy into its first recession since the Great Recession of 2008-2009. COVID-19 resulted in a broad-based economic slowdown as governments at all levels implemented measures to protect public health that resulted in curtailment of activity across many sectors of the general economy. Unemployment initially rose to record levels and unprecedented levels of monetary stimulus from the Federal Reserve and fiscal stimulus from the Federal government were enacted. While many sectors of the economy have recovered, uncertainty remains regarding the ultimate economic impact of COVID-19 and the response to the pandemic.
The First Bancorp - 2021 Form 10-K - Page 15






To date the impact of COVID-19 on our loan portfolio has been limited, but some level of uncertainty remains. Progress towards prevention and treatment of COVID-19 has seen restrictions lifted and near normal economic activity return. Increased demand for goods coupled with supply chain disruptions have resulted in inflationary pressures that may require increased monetary policy response. COVID-19 has gone through several mutations over the past year including the now prevalent Omicron strain. Further mutations of the virus could disrupt the economic recovery with consequent negative impacts on our loan portfolio, and our operating results. Future disruptions, particularly those that impact the State of Maine's tourism and hospitality industries, or have negative events in the financial markets, that cause adverse changes in payment patterns, leading to increases in delinquencies and default rates, may impact our charge-offs and provision for credit losses. As the severity level of any disruption increases, it is more likely to exacerbate the adverse effects of difficult market conditions on us and others in the financial services industry.
Economic risks are not limited to the United States.
Negative economic events in other parts of the world may have a negative impact on the US economy. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic is worldwide. The European Union (“EU”) has been hit hard by the virus outbreak with fewer stimulus options available to the European Central Bank ("ECB") to assist its general economy. Asian countries have generally been impacted to a lesser extent than the US or EU to date, but have nevertheless experienced a slowdown in the pace of economic growth. A sustained slowdown in the EU or strategic Asian countries, including China, could have negative implications for the both the global and US economies. The United Kingdom's ("UK") break from the EU in January 2021 created new trading rules, the impacts of which continue to evolve and manifest themselves. Geopolitical disruptions such as recent actions in Eastern Europe could also threaten the global economy. A severe market reaction to any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our liquidity, financial condition, results of operations, and ability to meet regulatory requirements.

Reforms to London Interbank Offered Rate ("LIBOR") and other potential replacement indices or alternatives, and related uncertainty, may adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.

In July 2017, the U.K. Financial Conduct Authority announced that after 2021 it will no longer require banks to submit rates for LIBOR. The U.S Federal Reserve formed the Alternative Reference Rate Committee ("ARRC") to develop a LIBOR alternative. ARRC recommended the Secured Overnight Funding Rate ("SOFR") as a replacement for LIBOR, and a market for SOFR based transactions has developed along with related protocols. In November 2020, the administrator of LIBOR announced that it would cease to publish one week and two month US Dollar (USD) LIBOR settings immediately after December 31, 2021, and remaining USD LIBOR tenors after June 30, 2023. US banking regulators have required new contracts written subsequent to December 31, 2021 to utilize a reference rate other than LIBOR. The Company and Bank have adopted the one month and three month tenors of SOFR published by the Chicago Mercantile Exchange as replacement reference rates for LIBOR; our various counterparties have indicated SOFR is a suitable replacement. Contracts in place prior to December 31, 2021 are expected to be addressed and appropriate amendments executed in the latter half of 2022. This timeline could be hastened in the event the pending discontinuance of LIBOR quotes is found to have a material, adverse effect on the value of, return on and trading market for our financial assets and liabilities that are based on or are linked to LIBOR, including our hedge contracts, or our financial condition or results of operations. In addition, we cannot assure that we and other market participants will adequately be prepared for the final discontinuation of LIBOR or other benchmarks, and such discontinuation may have an unpredictable impact on our contracts and/or cause significant disruption to financial markets that are relevant to our business, which may have a material, adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations.
We operate in a highly regulated environment and may be adversely affected by changes in law and regulations.
Bank holding companies and nationally chartered banks operate in a highly regulated environment and are subject to supervision and examination by various regulatory agencies. The cost of compliance with regulatory requirements may adversely affect our results of operations or financial condition. Federal and state laws and regulations govern numerous matters including: changes in the ownership or control of banks and bank holding companies; maintenance of adequate capital and the financial condition of a financial institution; permissible types, amounts and terms of extensions of credit and investments; permissible non-banking activities; the required level of reserves against deposits; and restrictions on dividend payments. These and other restrictions limit the manner in which we may conduct our business and obtain financing. If we fail to meet minimum regulatory capital guidelines and other regulatory requirements, our financial condition would be materially and adversely affected. Our failure to maintain the status of "well-capitalized" under our regulatory framework could affect the confidence of our customers in us, thus compromising our competitive position, or could cause our regulators to take corrective or other supervisory action.



The First Bancorp - 2021 Form 10-K - Page 16






The Dodd-Frank Act created the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau and tightened capital standards, and will continue to result in new laws and regulations that are expected to increase our costs of operations.
The Dodd-Frank Act has significantly changed the current bank regulatory structure and affected the lending, deposit, investment, trading and operating activities of financial institutions and their holding companies. The CFPB has broad rule-making authority for a wide range of consumer protection matters that apply to all banks and savings institutions, including the authority to prohibit "unfair, deceptive or abusive" acts and practices. The CFPB's authority to prescribe rules governing the provision of consumer financial products and services could result in rules and regulations that reduce the profitability of such products or services, or impose new disclosure or substantive requirements on us that could increase the cost to us of providing such products and services. The Dodd-Frank Act also weakens the federal pre-emption rules that have been applicable to national banks and federal savings associations, and gives state attorneys general the ability to enforce federal consumer protection laws, which could increase our operating costs.
Basel III Capital Rules may limit future activity.
In June 2013 the Federal Reserve Board finalized rules that substantially amended the regulatory risk-based capital rules applicable to us. These rules implement the Basel III regulatory capital reforms and changes required by the Dodd-Frank Act. Phase-in of the rules started in 2015 and was completed in 2019. The Company and the Bank complied with the fully phased requirements well in advance of the completion date and continued to do so as of December 31, 2021.
In addition, in a weak economic environment, bank regulators may impose capital requirements that are more stringent than those required by applicable existing regulations. The application of more stringent capital requirements could result in lower returns on equity, require the raising of more capital, or result in adverse regulatory actions or other consequences if we are unable to comply with such requirements. Implementation of changes to asset risk weightings for risk-based capital calculations, items included or deducted in calculating regulatory capital, or additional capital conservation buffers could result in management modifying our business strategy and could limit our ability to make distributions, including paying dividends or repurchasing our shares, or to grow the Bank's business.
Significant competition in the financial services industry may impact our results.
We face substantial competition in all areas of our operations from a variety of different competitors, many of which are larger and have more financial resources than we do. We compete with other providers of financial services such as commercial and savings banks, savings and loan associations, credit unions, money market and mutual funds, mortgage companies, asset managers, insurance companies and a wide array of other local, regional and national institutions which offer financial services. Mergers between financial institutions within Maine and in nearby states have added competitive pressure. If we are unable to compete effectively, we will lose market share and our income generated from loans, deposits, and other financial products will decline.
Risks Associated With Our Common Stock
There may not be a robust trading market for our common stock.
Although our common stock is traded on the NASDAQ Global Select market and is part of the Russell 2000 Index, the trading volume of the common stock has historically not been substantial. For the year ended December 31, 2021, the average monthly trading volume of our common stock was 356,686 shares, or approximately 3.25% of the average number of our outstanding common shares. Due to the limited trading volume in our common stock, the intraday spread between bid and ask prices of the shares can be quite high. There can be no assurance that a more robust, active or economical trading market for our common stock will develop. The market value and liquidity of our common stock may, as a result, be adversely affected.
The price of our common stock may fluctuate.
The price of our common stock on the NASDAQ Global Select Market constantly changes. Price fluctuations may or may not track the general direction of equity markets, and could be significant. We expect the market price of our common stock will continue to fluctuate. Holders of our common stock will be subject to the risk of volatility and significant changes in prices. Our common stock price can fluctuate as a result of many factors which are beyond our control, including:

quarterly fluctuations in our operating and financial results;
operating results that vary from the expectations of investors;
changes in expectations as to our future financial performance, including financial estimates;
events negatively impacting the financial services industry which result in a general decline for the industry;
new laws or regulations or new interpretations of existing laws or regulations applicable to our business;
changes in accounting standards, policies, guidance, interpretations or principles;
general domestic economic and market conditions; and
declines in bank stock prices driven by macro-economic concerns.
The First Bancorp - 2021 Form 10-K - Page 17






In addition, recently the stock market generally has experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations, and industry factors and general economic and political conditions and events, such as economic slowdowns or recessions, actual or anticipated interest rate changes or credit loss trends, could also cause our stock price to decrease regardless of our operating results.
The inability to receive dividends from the Bank would negatively affect our ability to pay dividends to shareholders.
The Company is a legal entity separate and distinct from the Bank. With the exception of cash raised from debt and equity issuances, we receive substantially all of our cash flow from dividends from the Bank. These dividends are the principal source of funds to pay dividends on our common stock. Federal banking law and regulations limit the amount of dividends that the Bank can pay. For further information on the regulatory restrictions on the payment of dividends by the Bank, see "Supervision and Regulation" in Item 1. In the event the Bank is unable to pay dividends to the Company or such dividends were to be restricted or reduced, we may not be able to service debt, pay obligations or pay dividends on our common stock. Our right to participate in a distribution of assets upon the Bank's liquidation or reorganization would be subject to the prior claims of the Bank's creditors.
If we do not manage our capital position strategically, our return on equity could be lower compared to our competitors as a result of our high level of capital.
If we are unable to strategically use our excess capital, or to successfully continue capital management programs, such as stock repurchase programs or quarterly dividends to our shareholders, then our goal of generating a return on average equity that is competitive and increasing earnings per share and book value per share without assuming undue risk, could be delayed or may not be attained. Failure to achieve a competitive return on average equity might decrease investments in our common stock and might cause our common stock to trade at lower prices.
We may issue additional equity securities or engage in other transactions which dilute our book value or affect the priority of the common stock, which may adversely affect the market price of our common stock.
Our Board of Directors may determine from time to time that we need to raise additional capital by issuing additional shares of our common stock or other securities. Except pursuant to the rules of the NASDAQ Stock Market, we are not restricted from issuing additional shares of common stock, including securities that are convertible into or exchangeable for, or that represent the right to receive, common stock to the extent of our authorized but unissued capital stock. Because our decision to issue securities in any future offering will depend on market conditions and other factors beyond our control, we cannot predict or estimate the amount, timing or nature of any future offerings, or the prices at which such offerings may be effected. Such offerings could be dilutive to common shareholders or reduce the market price of our common stock. Holders of our common stock are not entitled to preemptive rights or protection against dilution. New investors also may have rights, preferences and privileges that are senior to, and that adversely affect, our then-current common shareholders. We may attempt to increase our capital resources or, if our or the Bank's capital ratios fall below the required minimums, we could be forced to raise additional capital, by making offerings of debt or preferred equity securities, including medium-term notes, trust preferred securities, senior or subordinated notes and preferred stock. Upon liquidation, holders of shares of our preferred stock and lenders with respect to other borrowings would receive distributions of our available assets prior to the holders of our common stock. Our Board of Directors is authorized to issue one or more series of preferred stock from time to time without any action on the part of our shareholders (except as may be required under NASDAQ Stock Market rules). Our Board of Directors also has the power, without shareholder approval (except as may be required under NASDAQ Stock Market rules), to set the terms of any such series of preferred stock that may be issued, including voting rights, dividend rights and preferences over our common stock with respect to dividends or upon our dissolution, winding-up and liquidation and other terms. If we issue preferred stock in the future that has a preference over our common stock with respect to the payment of dividends or upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, or if we issue preferred stock with voting rights that dilute the voting power of our common stock, the rights of holders of our common stock and the market price of our common stock could be adversely affected.
Potential acquisitions may disrupt our business and dilute shareholder value.
Acquiring other banks, businesses, or branches involves various risks commonly associated with acquisitions, including:
potential exposure to unknown or contingent liabilities of the target;
exposure to potential asset quality issues of the target;
difficulty and expense of integrating the operations and personnel of the target;
potential disruption to our business;
potential diversion of Management's time and attention;
the possible loss of key employees and customers of the target;
difficulty in estimating the value of the assets and liabilities of the target; and
potential changes in banking or tax laws or regulations that may affect the target.
Merger or acquisition discussions and, in some cases, negotiations may take place and future mergers or acquisitions involving cash, debt or equity securities may occur at any time. Acquisitions typically involve the payment of a premium over book and
The First Bancorp - 2021 Form 10-K - Page 18






market values, and, therefore, some dilution of our tangible book value and net income per common share may occur in connection with any future transaction. Furthermore, failure to realize the expected revenue increases, cost savings, increases in geographic or product presence, and/or other projected benefits from an acquisition could have a material adverse effect on us.


ITEM 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

None

ITEM 2. Properties

The principal office of the Company and the Bank is located in Damariscotta, Maine. The Bank operates 18 full-service banking offices in five counties in the Mid-Coast, Eastern and Down East regions of Maine:
Lincoln CountyKnox CountyWaldo CountyHancock CountyWashington County
Boothbay HarborCamden
Belfast
Bar HarborEastport
DamariscottaRockland Park StreetBlue HillCalais
WaldoboroRockland Union StreetPenobscot CountyEllsworth 
WiscassetRockportBangor Northeast Harbor
  Brewer (Jan. 2022)Southwest Harbor

First National Wealth Management, the investment management and trust division of the Bank, operates from our locations in Bangor, Bar Harbor, Ellsworth and Damariscotta. The Bank also maintains an Operations Center in Damariscotta. The Company owns all of its locations except for the land under the Southwest Harbor drive-up facility, the land under the Belfast branch, and the Brewer branch. Long-term land leases are in place for the Southwest Harbor and Belfast locations and an operating lease is in place for Brewer. The Company also owns undeveloped land in Belfast. Management believes that the Bank's current facilities are suitable and adequate in light of its current needs and its anticipated needs over the near term.


ITEM 3. Legal Proceedings

There are no material pending legal proceedings to which the Company or the Bank is a party or to which any of their properties are subject, other than routine litigation incidental to the business of the Bank. None of these proceedings is expected to have a material effect on the financial condition of the Company or of the Bank.


ITEM 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.

ITEM 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Shareholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

The last transaction in the Company's stock on NASDAQ during 2021 was on December 31 at $31.40 per share. There are no warrants outstanding with respect to the Company's common stock and the Company has no securities outstanding which are convertible into common equity.












The First Bancorp - 2021 Form 10-K - Page 19






Repurchase of Shares and Use of Proceeds

The Company made the following repurchases of its common stock during the year ended December 31, 2021:
MonthShares PurchasedAverage Price Per ShareTotal shares purchased as part of publicly announced repurchase plansMaximum number of shares that may be purchased under the plans
January 20215,776 $24.40 — — 
February 20211,175 25.10 — — 
March 20211,606 28.70 — — 
April 2021— — — — 
May 2021580 29.53 — — 
June 2021 (net of forfeitures)174 29.87 — — 
July 2021 (net of forfeitures)441 29.06 — — 
August 2021— — — — 
September 2021— — — — 
October 2021— — — — 
November 2021— — — — 
December 2021— — — — 
9,752 $27.78 — — 

Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities

None




















The First Bancorp - 2021 Form 10-K - Page 20






Securities Authorized for Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans

The following table lists the amount and weighted-average exercise price of securities authorized for issuance under equity compensation plans:
 Number of securities to be issued upon exercise of outstanding options, warrants and rightsWeighted-average exercise price of outstanding options, warrants and rightsNumber of securities remaining available for future issuance under equity compensation plans
Plan category
Equity compensation plans approved by security holders— $— 359,811 
Equity compensation plans not approved by security holders— — — 
Total— $— 359,811 

Performance Graph

Set forth below is a line graph comparing the five-year cumulative total return of $100.00 invested in the Company's common stock ("FNLC"), assuming reinvestment of all cash dividends and retention of all stock dividends, with a comparable amount invested in the Standard & Poor's 500 Index ("S&P 500") and the NASDAQ Combined Bank Index ("NASD Bank"). The NASD Bank index is a capitalization-weighted index designed to measure the performance of all NASDAQ stocks in the banking sector.

fnlc-20211231_g1.jpg


 201620172018201820202021
FNLC100.00 85.30 85.47 102.67 90.80 117.37 
S&P 500100.00 121.82 116.47 153.13 181.30 233.29 
NASD Bank100.00 105.46 88.41 109.96 101.71 145.36 

The First Bancorp - 2021 Form 10-K - Page 21






ITEM 6. No Required Information

ITEM 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

The First Bancorp, Inc. (the "Company" or "The First Bancorp") was incorporated in the State of Maine on January 15, 1985, and is the parent holding company of First National Bank (the "Bank"). On January 28, 2016, the Board of Directors voted to change the Bank's name to First National Bank from The First, N.A.
The Company generates almost all of its revenues from the Bank, which was chartered as a national bank under the laws of the United States on May 30, 1864. The Bank, which has eighteen offices along coastal and eastern Maine, emphasizes personal service to the communities it serves, concentrating primarily on small businesses and individuals.
The Bank offers a wide variety of traditional banking services and derives the majority of its revenues from net interest income – the spread between what it earns on loans and investments and what it pays for deposits and borrowed funds. While net interest income typically increases as earning assets grow, the spread can vary up or down depending on the level and direction of movements in interest rates. Management believes the Bank has modest exposure to changes in interest rates, as discussed in "Interest Rate Risk Management" elsewhere in Management's Discussion.
Non-interest income is the Bank's secondary source of revenue and includes fees and service charges on deposit accounts and services, interchange from debit cards, income from the sale and servicing of mortgage loans, and income from investment management and private banking services through First National Wealth Management (previously First Advisors), a division of the Bank.

Forward-Looking Statements

This report contains statements that are "forward-looking statements." We may also make written or oral forward-looking statements in other documents we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC"), in our annual reports to shareholders, in press releases and other written materials, and in oral statements made by our officers, directors or employees. You can identify forward-looking statements by the use of the words "believe," "expect," "anticipate," "intend," "estimate," "assume," "outlook," "will," "should," and other expressions that predict or indicate future events and trends and which do not relate to historical matters. You should not rely on forward-looking statements, because they involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors, some of which are beyond the control of the Company. These risks, uncertainties and other factors may cause the actual results, performance or achievements of the Company to be materially different from the anticipated future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements.
Some of the factors that might cause these differences include the following: changes in general national, regional or international economic conditions or conditions affecting the banking or financial services industries or financial capital markets, volatility and disruption in national and international financial markets, government intervention in the U.S. financial system, reductions in net interest income resulting from interest rate volatility as well as changes in the balance and mix of loans and deposits, reductions in the market value of wealth management assets under administration, changes in the value of securities and other assets, reductions in loan demand, changes in loan collectability, default and charge-off rates, changes in the size and nature of the Company's competition, changes in legislation or regulation and accounting principles, policies and guidelines, uncertainties with respect to the nature, the extent and the duration of the COVID-19 pandemic and its consequences (including in our market areas or affecting our customers such as protracted adverse effects on the tourism and hospitality industries), and changes in the assumptions used in making such forward-looking statements. In addition, the factors described under "Risk Factors" in Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K may result in these differences. You should carefully review all of these factors, and you should be aware that there may be other factors that could cause these differences. These forward-looking statements were based on information, plans and estimates at the date of this annual report, and we assume no obligation to update any forward-looking statements to reflect changes in underlying assumptions or factors, new information, future events or other changes.
Although the Company believes that the expectations reflected in such forward-looking statements are reasonable, actual results may differ materially from the results discussed in these forward-looking statements. Readers are also urged to carefully review and consider the various disclosures made by the Company, which attempt to advise interested parties of the factors that affect the Company's business.








The First Bancorp - 2021 Form 10-K - Page 22






Critical Accounting Policies

Management's discussion and analysis of the Company's financial condition and results of operations is based on the consolidated financial statements which are prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. The preparation of such financial statements requires Management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. On an ongoing basis, Management evaluates its estimates, including those related to the allowance for loan losses, fair value of securities, goodwill, the valuation of mortgage servicing rights, derivative financial instruments, and other-than-temporary impairment on securities. Management bases its estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results could differ from the amounts derived from Management's estimates and assumptions under different assumptions or conditions.
Allowance for Loan Losses. Management believes the allowance for loan losses requires the most significant estimates and assumptions used in the preparation of the consolidated financial statements. The allowance for loan losses is based on Management's evaluation of the level of the allowance required in relation to the estimated loss exposure in the loan portfolio. Management regularly evaluates the allowance, typically monthly, to determine the appropriate level by taking into consideration factors such as the size and growth trajectory of the portfolio, quality trends as measured by key indicators, prior loan loss experience in major portfolio segments, local and national business and economic conditions, the results of any stress testing undertaken during the period, and Management's estimation of potential losses. The use of different estimates or assumptions could produce different provisions for loan losses.
Fair Value of Securities. Determining a market price for securities carried at fair value is a critical accounting estimate in the Company's financial statements. Pricing of individual securities is subject to a number of factors including changes in market interest rates, changes in prepayment speeds and assumptions, changes in market tolerance for risk, and any changes in the risk profile of the security. The Company subscribes to a widely recognized, independent pricing service and updates carrying values no less frequently than monthly. It also validates the values provided by the pricing service no less frequently than quarterly by measuring against security prices provided by a secondary source. Results of the validation are reported to the Bank's Asset Liability Committee each quarter and any variances between the two sources above defined thresholds are investigated by management.
Other-Than-Temporary Impairment on Securities. Another significant estimate related to investment securities is the evaluation of other-than-temporary impairments. The evaluation of securities for other-than-temporary impairments is a quantitative and qualitative process, which is subject to risks and uncertainties and is intended to determine whether declines in the fair value of investments should be recognized in current period earnings. The risks and uncertainties include changes in general economic conditions, the issuer's financial condition and/or future prospects, the effects of changes in interest rates or credit spreads and the expected recovery period of unrealized losses. Securities that are in an unrealized loss position are reviewed at least quarterly to determine if other-than-temporary impairment is present based on certain quantitative and qualitative factors and measures. The primary factors considered in evaluating whether a decline in value of securities is other-than-temporary include: (a) the length of time and extent to which the fair value has been less than cost or amortized cost and the expected recovery period of the security, (b) the financial condition, credit rating and future prospects of the issuer, (c) whether the debtor is current on contractually obligated interest and principal payments, (d) the volatility of the securities' market price, (e) the intent and ability of the Company to retain the investment for a period of time sufficient to allow for recovery, which may be at maturity, and (f) any other information and observable data considered relevant in determining whether other-than-temporary impairment has occurred, including the expectation of receipt of all principal and interest when due.
Goodwill. Management utilizes numerous techniques to estimate the value of various assets held by the Company, including methods to determine the appropriate carrying value of goodwill as required under FASB ASC Topic 350 "Intangibles – Goodwill and Other." In addition, goodwill from a purchase acquisition is subject to ongoing periodic impairment tests, which include an evaluation of the ongoing assets, liabilities and revenues from the acquisition and an estimation of the impact of business conditions.
Mortgage Servicing Rights. The valuation of mortgage servicing rights is a critical accounting policy which requires significant estimates and assumptions. The Bank often sells mortgage loans it originates and retains the ongoing servicing of such loans, receiving a fee for these services, generally 0.25% of the outstanding balance of the loan per annum. Mortgage servicing rights are recognized at fair value when they are acquired through the sale of loans, and are reported in other assets. They are amortized into non-interest income in proportion to, and over the period of, the estimated future net servicing income of the underlying financial assets. The rights are subsequently carried at the lower of amortized cost or fair value. Management uses an independent firm which specializes in the valuation of mortgage servicing rights to determine the fair value. The most important assumption is the anticipated loan prepayment rate, and increases in prepayment speed and amount result in lower valuations of mortgage servicing rights. The valuation also includes an evaluation for impairment based upon the fair value of the rights, which can vary depending upon current interest rates and prepayment expectations, as compared to amortized cost. Impairment is determined by stratifying rights by predominant characteristics, such as interest rates and terms. The use of different assumptions could produce a different valuation. All of the assumptions are based on standards the Company believes
The First Bancorp - 2021 Form 10-K - Page 23






would be utilized by market participants in valuing mortgage servicing rights and are consistently derived and/or benchmarked against independent public sources.
Derivative Financial Instruments Designated as Hedges. The Company recognizes all derivatives in the consolidated balance sheets at fair value. On the date a derivative contract is entered into, the derivative is designated as a hedge of either a forecasted transaction or the variability of cash flows to be received or paid related to a recognized asset or liability (“cash flow hedge”), a hedge of the fair value of a recognized asset or liability or of an unrecognized firm commitment (“fair value hedge”), or a held for trading instrument (“trading instrument”). The relationships between hedging instruments and hedged items is formally documented, as is the risk management objectives and strategy for undertaking various hedge transactions. Both at the hedge’s inception and on an ongoing basis, determination is made as to whether the derivatives that are used in hedging transactions are effective in offsetting changes in cash flows or fair values of hedged items. Changes in fair value of a derivative that is effective and that qualifies as a cash flow hedge are recorded in other comprehensive income (loss) and are reclassified into earnings when the forecasted transaction or related cash flows affect earnings. Changes in fair value of a derivative that qualifies as a fair value hedge and the change in fair value of the hedged item are both recorded in earnings and offset each other when the transaction is effective. Those derivatives that are classified as trading instruments, including customer loan swaps, are recorded at fair value with changes in fair value recorded in earnings. Hedge accounting is discontinued when it is determined that the derivative is no longer effective in offsetting changes in the cash flows of the hedged item, that it is unlikely that the forecasted transaction will occur, or that the designation of the derivative as a hedging instrument is no longer appropriate.

Use of Non-GAAP Financial Measures

Certain information in Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and elsewhere in this Report contains financial information determined by methods other than in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America ("GAAP"). Management uses these "non-GAAP" measures in its analysis of the Company's performance and believes that these non-GAAP financial measures provide a greater understanding of ongoing operations and enhance comparability of results with prior periods as well as demonstrating the effects of significant gains and charges in the current period. The Company believes that a meaningful analysis of its financial performance requires an understanding of the factors underlying that performance. Management believes that investors may use these non-GAAP financial measures to analyze financial performance without the impact of unusual items that may obscure trends in the Company's underlying performance. These disclosures should not be viewed as a substitute for operating results determined in accordance with GAAP, nor are they necessarily comparable to non-GAAP performance measures that may be presented by other companies.
In several places in this report, net interest income is presented on a fully taxable equivalent basis. Specifically included in interest income was tax-exempt interest income from certain investment securities and loans. An amount equal to the tax benefit derived from this tax exempt income has been added back to the interest income total, which adjustments increased net interest income accordingly. Management believes the disclosure of tax-equivalent net interest income information improves the clarity of financial analysis, and is particularly useful to investors in understanding and evaluating the changes and trends in the Company's results of operations. Other financial institutions commonly present net interest income on a tax-equivalent basis. This adjustment is considered helpful in the comparison of one financial institution's net interest income to that of another institution, as each will have a different proportion of tax-exempt interest from its earning assets. Moreover, net interest income is a component of a second financial measure commonly used by financial institutions, net interest margin, which is the ratio of net interest income to average earning assets. For purposes of this measure as well, other financial institutions generally use tax-equivalent net interest income to provide a better basis of comparison from institution to institution. The Company follows these practices. The following table provides a reconciliation of tax-equivalent financial information to the Company's consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with GAAP. A Federal income tax rate of 21.0% was used in 2021 and 2020.
 Years ended December 31,
 Dollars in thousands
20212020
Net interest income as presented$66,303 $59,833 
Effect of tax-exempt income2,325 2,336 
Net interest income, tax equivalent$68,628 $62,169 

The Company presents its efficiency ratio using non-GAAP information which is most commonly used by financial institutions. The GAAP-based efficiency ratio is noninterest expenses divided by net interest income plus noninterest income from the Consolidated Statements of Income and Comprehensive Income. The non-GAAP efficiency ratio excludes securities losses from noninterest expenses, excludes securities gains from noninterest income, and adds the tax-equivalent adjustment to net interest income.

The First Bancorp - 2021 Form 10-K - Page 24






The following table provides a reconciliation between the GAAP and non-GAAP efficiency ratio:
 Years ended December 31,
Dollars in thousands20212020
Non-interest expense, as presented$42,148 $39,652 
Net interest income, as presented66,303 59,833 
Effect of tax-exempt income2,325 2,336 
Non-interest income, as presented19,383 18,119 
Effect of non-interest tax-exempt income168 167 
Net securities gains(23)(1,155)
Adjusted net interest income plus non-interest income$88,156 $79,300 
Non-GAAP efficiency ratio47.81 %50.00 %
GAAP efficiency ratio49.19 %50.87 %

The Company presents certain information based upon average tangible common shareholders' equity instead of total average shareholders' equity. The difference between these two measures is the Company's intangible assets, specifically goodwill from prior acquisitions. Management, banking regulators and many stock analysts use the tangible common equity ratio and the tangible book value per common share in conjunction with more traditional bank capital ratios to compare the capital adequacy of banking organizations with significant amounts of goodwill or other intangible assets, typically stemming from the use of the purchase accounting method in accounting for mergers and acquisitions. The following table provides a reconciliation of average tangible common shareholders' equity to the Company's consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with GAAP:
 Years ended December 31,
 Dollars in thousands20212020
Average shareholders' equity as presented$236,564 $219,729 
Less intangible assets (average)(30,962)(29,918)
Average tangible common shareholders' equity$205,602 $189,811 

To provide period-to-period comparison of operating results prior to consideration of credit loss provision and income taxes, the non-GAAP measure of Pre-Tax, Pre-Provision Net Income is presented. The following table provided a reconciliation to Net Income:
Years ended December 31,
Dollars in thousands20212020
Net income, as presented$36,269 $27,129 
Add: provision (credit) for loan losses(375)6,050 
Add: income taxes7,644 5,121 
Pre-tax, pre-provision net income$43,538 $38,300 

Executive Summary

The Company posted record annual earnings in 2021, driven primarily by earning asset growth, which, combined with reduced funding costs from strong local deposit growth, led to increased net interest income. The lift in net interest income was supplemented by growth in non-interest income, stemming primarily from year-over-year increases in debit card revenue and wealth management revenue. Earnings growth was achieved while at the same time realizing year-over-year improvements in asset quality.
Net income for the year ended December 31, 2021 was $36.3 million, up $9.1 million or 33.7% from the $27.1 million posted for the year ended December 31, 2020. Earnings per common share on a fully diluted basis were $3.30 for the year ended December 31, 2021, up $0.82 or 33.1% from the $2.48 posted for the year ended December 31, 2020. Net interest income on a tax-equivalent basis increased $6.5 million or 10.4% for the year ended December 31, 2021 compared to the year ended December 31, 2020, with growth in earning assets primarily responsible for the increase. The Company's net interest margin was 2.95% in 2021, compared to 2.94% in 2020.  
The First Bancorp - 2021 Form 10-K - Page 25






Non-interest income in 2021 was $19.4 million, an increase of $1.3 million or 7.0% from the $18.1 million reported in 2020. This increase was due to year-over-year gains in debit card income and wealth management income; mortgage banking income was essentially flat year-over-year.
Non-interest expense in 2021 was $42.1 million, an increase of $2.5 million or 6.3% from the $39.7 million reported in 2020. This increase was attributable primarily to the recognition of a $2.2 million loss on sales of commercial loans which
occurred in the fourth quarter of 2021; increases in salaries and employee benefit benefits also contributed to the year-to-year change.
Income taxes on operating earnings were $7.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, up $2.5 million from the year ended December 31, 2020.
During 2021, total assets increased $165.9 million or 7.0%, ending the year at $2.527 billion. The loan portfolio increased $170.9 million or 11.6% in 2021, ending the year at $1.648 billion. The investment portfolio was up $6.4 million or 0.9% for the year. On the liability side of the balance sheet, low-cost deposits increased $275.0 million or 25.6%, totaling $1.350 billion as of December 31, 2021. Certificates of deposit decreased $39.4 million or 6.5% from the end of 2020.  Local certificates of deposit (CDs) decreased $17.6 million and wholesale CDs decreased $21.8 million at December 31, 2021 compared to December 31, 2020.
Asset quality continues to be strong and stable. Non-performing loans stood at 0.35% of total loans as of December 31, 2021, improving from the 0.46% level of non-performing loans a year ago. Net chargeoffs were $357,000, or 0.02% of average loans in 2021, down $1.1 million or 0.10% from the year ended December 31, 2020. Past due loans were 0.26% of total loans as of December 31, 2021, down from 0.66% of total loans at December 31, 2020. The allowance for loan losses as a percentage of total loans outstanding stood at 0.94% in 2021, down from 1.10% at December 31, 2020, and above the pre-pandemic level of 0.90% at December 31, 2019. In the fourth quarter of 2021, a block of $14.5 million in commercial loans was sold without recourse to reduce exposures in certain portfolio segments. This reduction, along with continued strong asset quality metrics and improving macro-economic factors, led management to release $2.3 million from the allowance for loan losses in December 2021.
Remaining well capitalized remains a top priority for The First Bancorp, Inc. The Company's total risk-based capital ratio was 14.27% as of December 31, 2021, solidly above the well-capitalized threshold of 10.0% set by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the Federal Reserve Board, and the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency.
The Company's operating ratios remain favorable, with a return on average tangible common equity of 17.64% for the year ended December 31, 2021 compared to 14.29% for the year ended December 31, 2020. Our non-GAAP efficiency ratio continues to be an important component in our overall performance and stood at 47.81% in 2021, improved from the 50.00% posted for 2020.

Results of Operations

Net Interest Income

Net interest income on a tax-equivalent basis increased 10.4% or $6.5 million to $68.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 from the $62.2 million reported for the year ended December 31, 2020, with growth in earning assets responsible for the increase. The Company's net interest margin was 2.95% in 2021, compared to 2.94% in 2020.  
Total interest income on a tax-equivalent basis in 2021 was $79.4 million, a decrease of $49,000 or 0.1% from the $79.5 million posted by the Company in 2020. Total interest expense in 2021 was $10.8 million, a decrease of $6.5 million or 37.6% from the $17.3 million posted by the Company in 2020. Tax-exempt interest income amounted to $8.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, and $8.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2020.

















The First Bancorp - 2021 Form 10-K - Page 26










The following tables present changes in interest income and expense attributable to changes in interest rates, volume, and rate/volume1 for interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities. Tax-exempt income is calculated on a tax-equivalent basis, using a 21.0% Federal income tax rate in 2021 and 2020.
Year ended December 31, 2021 compared to 2020
Dollars in thousandsVolumeRate
Rate/Volume1
Total
Interest on earning assets
Interest-bearing deposits$88 $(58)$(54)$(24)
Investment securities825 (3,811)(157)(3,143)
Loans held for sale(12)16 (7)(3)
Loans6,605 (3,135)(349)3,121 
Total interest income7,506 (6,988)(567)(49)
Interest expense
Deposits1,260 (7,424)(661)(6,825)
Borrowings(375)786 (94)317 
Total interest expense885 (6,638)(755)(6,508)
Change in net interest income$6,621 $(350)$188 $6,459 
1 Represents the change attributable to a combination of change in rate and change in volume.

The following table presents the interest earned on or paid for each major asset and liability category, respectively, for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, as well as the average yield for each major asset and liability category, and the net yield between assets and liabilities. Tax-exempt income has been calculated on a tax-equivalent basis using a 21% Federal income tax rate in 2021 and 2020. Unrecognized interest on non-accrual loans is not included in the amount presented, but the average balance of non-accrual loans is included in the denominator when calculating yields.
 20212020
Dollars in thousandsAmount of interestAverage Yield/RateAmount of interestAverage Yield/Rate
Interest-earning assets
Interest-bearing deposits$72 0.13 %$96 0.32 %
Investment securities16,846 2.42 %19,989 2.99 %
Loans held for sale22 0.98 %25 0.59 %
Loans62,466 3.98 %59,345 4.20 %
Total interest-earning assets79,406 3.41 %79,455 3.75 %
Interest-bearing liabilities
Deposits7,314 0.44 %14,139 0.93 %
Borrowings3,464 1.51 %3,147 1.21 %
Total interest-bearing liabilities10,778 0.57 %17,286 0.97 %
Net interest income$68,628  $62,169  
Interest rate spread2.84 %2.78 %
Net interest margin2.95 %2.94 %

The First Bancorp - 2021 Form 10-K - Page 27






Average Daily Balance Sheets

The following table shows the Company's average daily balance sheets for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020:
 Years ended December 31,
Dollars in thousands20212020
Assets
Cash and cash equivalents$23,655 $20,338 
Interest-bearing deposits in other banks57,208 29,799 
Securities available for sale (includes tax exempt securities of $34,762 in 2021 and $24,408 in 2020)
309,131 324,302 
Securities to be held to maturity (includes tax exempt securities of $251,301 in 2021 and $240,942 in 2020)
376,991 333,198 
Restricted equity securities, at cost9,268 10,326 
Loans held for sale (fair value approximates cost)2,248 4,228 
Loans1,569,398 1,412,221 
Allowance for loan losses(17,013)(13,540)
Net loans1,552,385 1,398,681 
Accrued interest receivable9,150 9,136 
Premises and equipment, net28,904 22,503 
Other real estate owned243 602 
Goodwill30,646 29,808 
Other assets46,227 50,230 
Total Assets$2,446,056 $2,233,151 
Liabilities & Shareholders' Equity  
Demand deposits$307,508 $213,144 
NOW deposits572,091 441,670 
Money market deposits182,000 164,191 
Savings deposits335,677 262,247 
Certificates of deposit561,080 647,614 
Total deposits1,958,356 1,728,866 
Borrowed funds – short term173,717 204,679 
Borrowed funds – long term55,091 55,098 
Dividends payable807 875 
Other liabilities21,521 23,904 
Total Liabilities2,209,492 2,013,422 
Shareholders' Equity:  
Common stock110 109 
Additional paid-in capital66,028 64,564 
Retained earnings171,455 153,470 
Net unrealized gain on securities available for sale1,286 6,253 
Net unrealized loss on cash flow hedging derivative instruments(2,230)(4,534)
Net unrealized loss on securities transferred from available for sale to held to maturity(113)(157)
Net unrealized gain on postretirement benefit costs28 24 
Total Shareholders' Equity236,564 219,729 
Total Liabilities & Shareholders' Equity$2,446,056 $2,233,151 

The First Bancorp - 2021 Form 10-K - Page 28






Non-Interest Income

Non-interest income in 2021 was $19.4 million, an increase of $1.3 million or 7.0% from the $18.1 million reported in 2020. Revenue at First National Wealth Management increased $869,000, debit card income increased $1.1 million, while net gains on securities decreased $1.1 million. Mortgage banking revenue continued to benefit from strong purchase and refinance volume throughout 2021, and was level year-over-year.

Non-Interest Expense

Non-interest expense in 2021 was $42.1 million, an increase of $2.5 million or 6.3% from the $39.7 million reported in 2020. Employee salary and benefit expense increased 3.7% from the prior year and other recurring expense items saw modest year year-over-year changes. Non-recurring items were primarily responsible for the year-to-year change, and included the recognition in 2021 of a $2.2 million loss from commercial loan sales recognized in other operating expenses.

Provision to the Allowance for Loan Losses

The Company's provision to the allowance for loan losses was $(375,000) in 2021 compared to $6.1 million in 2020. The sale of $14.5 million in commercial loans substantially reduced risk exposure in certain segments, which, combined with strong and stable asset quality, led management to release $2.3 million from the allowance for loan losses in December 2021. The allowance for loan losses stood at 0.94% of total loans as of December 31, 2021, compared to 1.10% as of December 31, 2020.
Net loan charge-offs in 2021 were $357,000 or 0.02% of average loans, down $1.1 million from 2020. Non-performing assets stood at 0.23% of total assets as of December 31, 2021 compared to 0.32% of total assets at December 31, 2020. Past-due loans were 0.26% of total loans as of December 31, 2021, down from 0.66% of total loans as of December 31, 2020.

Income Taxes

Income taxes on operating earnings were $7.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, up $2.5 million from 2020.

Net Income

Net income for 2021 was $36.3 million, up 33.7% or $9.1 million from net income of $27.1 million that was posted in 2020. Earnings per share on a fully diluted basis for 2021 were $3.30, up $0.82 or 33.1% from the $2.48 reported for the year ended December 31, 2020.

Key Ratios

Return on average assets in 2021 was 1.48%, up from the 1.21% posted in 2020. Return on average tangible common equity was 17.64% in 2021, compared to 14.29% in 2020. In 2021, the Company's dividend payout ratio (dividends declared per share divided by earnings per share) was 38.14%, compared to 49.20% in 2020. The Company's non-GAAP efficiency ratio – a benchmark measure of the amount spent to generate a dollar of income – was 47.81% in 2021, improved from 50.00% in 2020.

Investment Management and Fiduciary Activities

As of December 31, 2021, First National Wealth Management, the Bank's trust and investment management division, had assets under management or custody with a market value of $1.310 billion, consisting of 1,282 trust accounts, estate accounts, agency accounts, and self-directed individual retirement accounts. This compares to December 31, 2020, when 1,216 accounts with a market value of $1.227 billion were under management or custody.













The First Bancorp - 2021 Form 10-K - Page 29






Assets and Asset Quality

Total assets of $2.527 billion at December 31, 2021 increased 7.0% or $165.9 million from $2.361 billion at December 31, 2020. The investment portfolio, including restricted equity securities, increased $6.4 million or 0.9% over December 31, 2020, and the loan portfolio increased $170.9 million or 11.6%. Year-over-year, average assets were up $212.9 million in 2021 over 2020. Average loans in 2021 were $157.2 million higher than in 2020, and average investments in 2021 were $27.6 million higher than in 2020.
Non-performing assets to total assets stood at 0.23% at December 31, 2021, below the 0.32% of total assets at December 31, 2020.  In general terms, the Company's long-standing approach to working with borrowers and ethical loan underwriting standards helps alleviate some of the payment problems on customers' loans and minimizes actual loan losses, in Management's opinion.
Net chargeoffs in 2021 were $357,000 or 0.02% of average loans outstanding, down $1.1 million from 2020. Residential real estate term loans represent 33.4% of the total loan portfolio, and this loan category generally has a lower level of losses in comparison to other loan types. In 2021, residential mortgages had a recovery ratio of 0.01% compared to a loss ratio of 0.02% for the entire loan portfolio. The Company does not have a credit card portfolio or offer dealer consumer loans, which generally carry more risk and potentially higher losses than other types of consumer credit.
The allowance for loan losses ended 2021 at $15.5 million and stood at 0.94% of total loans outstanding, compared to $16.3 million and 1.10% of total loans outstanding at December 31, 2020. Through eleven months of 2021 a $1.9 million provision for losses had been made. Subsequent to the above mentioned commercial loan sale, $2.3 million was released from the allowance for loan losses in December 2021. This provision and release, coupled with net charge off activity, resulted in the allowance for loan losses decreasing $732,000 or 4.5% from December 31, 2020.

Investment Activities

During 2021, the investment portfolio increased 0.9% to end the year at $696.0 million, compared to $689.5 million at December 31, 2020. Average investments in 2021 were $27.6 million higher than in 2020. As of December 31, 2021, mortgage-backed securities had a carrying value of $315.5 million and a fair value of $314.0 million. Of this total, securities with a fair value of $64.2 million or 20.4% of the mortgage-backed portfolio were issued by the Government National Mortgage Association and securities with a fair value of $249.8 million or 79.6% of the mortgage-backed portfolio were issued by the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation and the Federal National Mortgage Association.
The Company's investment securities are classified into three categories: securities available for sale, securities to be held to maturity and restricted equity securities. Securities available for sale consist primarily of debt securities which Management intends to hold for indefinite periods of time. They may be used as part of the Company's funds management strategy, and may be sold in response to changes in interest rates, prepayment risk and liquidity needs, to increase capital ratios, or for other similar reasons. Securities to be held to maturity consist primarily of debt securities that the Company has acquired solely for long-term investment purposes, rather than for trading or future sale. For securities to be categorized as held to maturity, Management must have the intent and the Company must have the ability to hold such investments until their respective maturity dates. Restricted equity securities consist of investments in the stock of the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston and the Federal Home Loan Bank of Boston; ownership of these securities is required as a condition of the Bank's membership in the respective banks and these shares are not able to be pledged or sold. The Company does not hold trading account securities.
All investment securities are managed in accordance with a written investment policy adopted by the Board of Directors. It is the Company's general policy that investments for either portfolio be limited to government debt obligations, time deposits, and corporate bonds or commercial paper with one of the three highest ratings given by a nationally recognized rating agency. The portfolio is currently invested primarily in U.S. Government sponsored agency securities, mortgage-backed securities, collateralized mortgage obligations, and tax-exempt obligations of states and political subdivisions. The individual securities have been selected to enhance the portfolio's overall yield while not materially adding to the Company's level of interest rate risk.
During the third quarter of 2014, the Company transferred securities with a total amortized cost of $89,780,000 with a corresponding fair value of $89,757,000 from available for sale to held to maturity. The net unrealized loss, net of taxes, on these securities at the date of the transfer was $15,000. The net unrealized holding loss at the time of transfer continues to be reported in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax and is amortized over the remaining lives of the securities as an adjustment of the yield. The amortization of the net unrealized loss reported in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) will offset the effect on interest income of the discount for the transferred securities. The remaining unamortized balance of the net unrealized losses for the securities transferred from available for sale to held to maturity was $87,000, net of taxes, at December 31, 2021. This compares to $133,000, net of taxes at December 31, 2020. These securities were transferred as a part of the Company's overall investment and balance sheet strategies.

The First Bancorp - 2021 Form 10-K - Page 30






The following table sets forth the Company's investment securities at their carrying amounts as of December 31, 2021 and 2020:
Dollars in thousands20212020
Securities available for sale
U.S. Government sponsored agencies$21,899 $22,730 
Mortgage-backed securities254,900 243,406 
State and political subdivisions39,122 39,474 
Asset-backed securities 4,645 7,766 
 320,566 313,376 
Securities to be held to maturity  
U.S. Government sponsored agencies35,600 44,149 
Mortgage-backed securities60,646 53,594 
State and political subdivisions250,544 245,620 
Corporate securities23,250 22,250 
 370,040 365,613 
Restricted equity securities
Federal Home Loan Bank Stock4,328 9,508 
Federal Reserve Bank Stock1,037 1,037 
 5,365 10,545 
Total securities$695,971 $689,534 

The First Bancorp - 2021 Form 10-K - Page 31






The following table sets forth information on the yields and expected maturities of the Company's investment securities as of December 31, 2021. Yields on tax-exempt securities have been computed on a tax-equivalent basis using a tax rate of 21%. Mortgage-backed securities are presented according to their contractual maturity date, while the yield takes into effect intermediate cashflows from repayment of principal which results in a much shorter average life.
 Available For SaleHeld to Maturity
Dollars in thousandsFair ValueYield to maturityAmortized CostYield to maturity
U.S. Government Sponsored Agencies
Due in 1 year or less$— 0.00 %$— 0.00 %
Due in 1 to 5 years— 0.00 %— 0.00 %
Due in 5 to 10 years9,550 1.17 %17,650 1.65 %
Due after 10 years12,349 2.00 %17,950 2.06 %
Total21,899 1.64 %35,600 1.85 %
Mortgage-Backed Securities
Due in 1 year or less— 0.00 %— 0.05 %
Due in 1 to 5 years4,808 3.49 %1,234 2.24 %
Due in 5 to 10 years25,666 2.20 %4,537 2.90 %
Due after 10 years224,426 1.50 %54,875 1.35 %
Total254,900 1.61 %60,646 1.49 %
State & Political Subdivisions
Due in 1 year or less— 0.00 %1,765 5.81 %
Due in 1 to 5 years365 6.15 %10,390 4.69 %
Due in 5 to 10 years17,841 3.96 %136,295 4.36 %
Due after 10 years20,916 3.63 %102,094 3.67 %
Total39,122 3.80 %250,544 4.10 %
Asset-Backed Securities
Due in 1 year or less — 0.00 %— 0.00 %
Due in 1 to 5 years — 0.00 %— 0.00 %
Due in 5 to 10 years — 0.00 %— 0.00 %
Due after 10 years 4,645 0.91 %— 0.00 %
Total 4,645 0.91 %— 0.00 %
Corporate Securities
Due in 1 year or less— 0.00 %750 1.00 %
Due in 1 to 5 years— 0.00 %6,000 5.38 %
Due in 5 to 10 years— 0.00 %16,500 4.25 %
Due after 10 years— 0.00 %— 0.00 %
Total— 0.00 %23,250 4.43 %
 $320,566 1.85 %$370,040 3.48 %

Impaired Securities

The securities portfolio contains certain securities, the amortized cost of which exceeds fair value, which at December 31, 2021 amounted to an unrealized loss of $