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9-12-31
Table of Contents


UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
________________________
FORM 10-K
________________________
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021
or
o
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from ____________ to ____________

Commission File Number: 001-00395
 ________________________
ncr-20211231_g1.jpg
NCR CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

________________________
 
Maryland 31-0387920
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 (I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
864 Spring Street NW
Atlanta, GA 30308
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (937445-1936
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.01 per shareNCRNew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
________________________
    Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes  þ    No  o
    Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes  o    No  þ
    Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  þ   No  o
    Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes  þ    No  o
    Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
þ
Accelerated filer
o
Non-accelerated filer
o
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. Yes þ  No  o
    Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes      No  þ
The aggregate market value of voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of as of June 30, 2021, the last business day of NCR Corporation's most recently completed second fiscal quarter, was approximately $6.0 billion.
As of February 11, 2022, there were approximately 135.9 million shares of common stock issued and outstanding.



Table of Contents

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Part III:
Portions of the Registrant’s Definitive Proxy Statement for its Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be filed pursuant to Regulation 14A within 120 days after the Registrant’s fiscal year end of December 31, 2021 are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Report.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
ItemDescriptionPage
PART I
1
1A.
1B.
2
3
4
PART II
5
6
7
7A.
8
9
9A.
9B.
9C.
PART III
10
11
12
13
14
PART IV
15
16

This Report contains trademarks, service marks and registered marks of NCR Corporation and its subsidiaries, and of other companies, as indicated. Unless otherwise indicated, the terms “NCR,” the “Company,” “we,” “us,” and “our” refer to NCR Corporation and its subsidiaries.




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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, pursuant to the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 (the “Act”). Forward-looking statements use words such as “expect,” “anticipate,” “outlook,” “intend,” “plan,” “confident,” “believe,” “will,” “should,” “would,” “potential,” “positioning,” “proposed,” “objective,” “could,” “may,” and words of similar meaning, as well as other words or expressions referencing future events, conditions or circumstances. We intend these forward-looking statements to be covered by the safe harbor provisions for forward-looking statements contained in the Act. Statements that describe or relate to NCR’s plans, goals, intentions, strategies, or financial outlook, and statements that do not relate to historical or current fact, are examples of forward-looking statements. The forward-looking statements in this Annual Report include statements regarding: the Company’s business and financial strategy; the Company’s future plans relating to its workforce talent and diversity, equity and inclusion initiatives; the Company’s plans and ability to manage its business through the COVID-19 pandemic and the impact of the pandemic; expectations regarding cost and non-price revenue synergies; expectations regarding our cash flow generation, cash reserve, liquidity, financial flexibility and impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our employee base; expectations regarding our ability to capitalize on market opportunities; Company revenue and financial growth expectations; and expectations regarding our continued focus on our long-term fundamentals, including, but, not limited to, execution of NCR's recurring revenue strategy and accelerated growth including its transformation to a software platform and payments company focusing on as-a-service offers and its aspirational five-year goals for 2026 (which include annual recurring revenue of 80 percent, annual non-GAAP earnings per share growth of 15 percent, and annual non-GAAP free cash flow of $1 billion). Forward-looking statements are based on our current beliefs, expectations and assumptions, which may not prove to be accurate, and involve a number of known and unknown risks and uncertainties, many of which are out of our control. Forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance, and there are a number of important factors that could cause actual outcomes and results to differ materially from the results contemplated by such forward-looking statements, including those factors listed in Item 1A “Risk Factors” and Item 7 “Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including factors relating to:

Strategy and Technology: transforming our business model; development and introduction of new solutions; competition in the technology industry; integration of acquisitions and management of alliance activities; our multinational operations; and our strategic review announced on February 8, 2022
Business Operations: domestic and global economic and credit conditions; risks and uncertainties from the payments-related business and industry; disruptions in our data center hosting and public cloud facilities; retention and attraction of key employees; defects, errors, installation difficulties or development delays; failure of third-party suppliers; the impact of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic; environmental exposures from historical and ongoing manufacturing activities; and climate change
Data Privacy & Security: impact of data protection, cybersecurity and data privacy including any related issues
Finance and Accounting: our level of indebtedness; the terms governing our indebtedness; incurrence of additional debt or similar liabilities or obligations; access or renewal of financing sources; our cash flow sufficiency to service our indebtedness; interest rate risks; the terms governing our trade receivables facility; the impact of certain changes in control relating to acceleration of our indebtedness, our obligations under other financing arrangements, or required repurchase of our senior unsecured notes; and any lowering or withdrawal of the ratings assigned to our debt securities by rating agencies; our pension liabilities; and write down of the value of certain significant assets
Law and Compliance: protection of our intellectual property; changes to our tax rates and additional income tax liabilities; uncertainties regarding regulations, lawsuits and other related matters; and changes to cryptocurrency regulations
Governance: impact of the terms of our Series A Convertible Preferred (“Series A”) Stock relating to voting power, share dilution and market price of our common stock; rights, preferences and privileges of Series A stockholders compared to the rights of our common stockholders; and actions or proposals from stockholders that do not align with our business strategies or the interests of our other stockholders

Any forward-looking statement speaks only as of the date on which it is made. The Company does not undertake any obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law.
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PART I


All references in this Report to “NCR,” “we,” “us,” “our,” the “Company” or the “registrant” refer to NCR Corporation, a Maryland corporation, and, unless otherwise stated or the context otherwise requires, its consolidated subsidiaries.


Item 1.        BUSINESS
General
General Development of the Business
NCR was originally incorporated in 1884 and is a software- and services-led enterprise technology provider that runs stores, restaurants and self-directed banking for our customers, which includes businesses of all sizes. Our software platform, which runs in the cloud and includes microservices and APIs that integrate with our customers' systems, and our NCR-as-a-Service solutions bring together all of the capabilities and competencies of NCR to power the technology to run our customers’ operations. Our portfolio includes digital first software and services offerings for banking, retailers and restaurants, as well as payments processing and networks, multi-vendor connected device services, automated teller machines (“ATMs”), self-checkout (“SCO”), point of sale (“POS”) terminals and other self-service technologies. We also resell third-party networking products and provide related service offerings in the telecommunications and technology sector. Our solutions are designed to support our transition to becoming a software platform and payments company.

NCR has grown organically, as well as through acquisitions, to add software, services and other capabilities that complement or enhance our existing offer portfolio, including, but not limited to, acquisitions relating to payments and cryptocurrency, digital banking, ATM-as-a-Service, and commerce platform offerings. NCR continuously evaluates potential acquisitions and develops new solutions intended to support the Company’s long-term strategy. In 2021, NCR completed the acquisition, among others, of Cardtronics plc (“Cardtronics”) to accelerate our NCR-as-a-Service strategy adding the Allpoint debit network, which is highly complementary to our payments platform and we expect will enable us to connect retail and bank customers. In early 2022, NCR completed the acquisition of LibertyX, with the goal of enabling NCR to provide a complete digital currency solution, including the ability to buy and sell cryptocurrency, conduct cross-border remittance, and accept digital currency payments across digital and physical channels.

NCR Corporation’s common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange and trades under the symbol “NCR.” NCR is a global company that is headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia.
Operating Segments
In this Report, we categorize our operations into the following segments: Banking, Retail, Hospitality and Telecommunications and Technology (“T&T”). The information required by Item 1 with respect to our reportable segments and financial information regarding our geographic areas and those reportable segments can be found in Item 7 of Part II of this Report under “Revenue and Operating Income by Segment” as well as in Item 8 of Part II of this Report as part of Note 4, “Segment Information and Concentrations”, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements and is incorporated herein by reference.
Effective January 1, 2022, the Company realigned its reportable segments to correspond with changes to its operating model, management structure and organizational responsibilities. The reportable segments effective January 1, 2022 include: Payments & Network, Digital Banking, Self-Service Banking, Retail, and Hospitality. Additionally, effective January 1, 2022, the expenses related to corporate functions that are not specifically attributable to an individual reportable segment along with any immaterial operating segment(s) are included in Corporate & Other.

Our Strategy
In order to provide long-term value to all our stakeholders, we set complementary business goals and financial strategies. NCR is continuing its transition to become a software platform and payments company with a shift to a higher level of recurring revenue. Our business goal is to be a leading enterprise technology provider that runs stores, restaurants and self-directed banking through our software platform and our NCR-as-a-Service solutions. By helping our customers run stores, restaurants and banks better, they have more time to create customer experiences that drive lasting success. In late 2018, we set five-year strategic goals, originally set as 2024 targets. These goals include transitioning our revenue mix so that 80 percent of our total revenue is comprised of software and services, 60 percent of our total revenue is comprised of recurring revenue, and our adjusted EBITDA margin rate increases to 20 percent. Since we were near achieving those goals, in late 2021, we established aspirational five-year goals for 2026, which include annual recurring revenue of 80 percent by 2026, annual non-GAAP diluted earnings per share (“non-GAAP EPS”)(1) growth
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of 15 percent, and annual free cash flow(1) of $1 billion in 2026. Additionally, in February 2022, NCR announced that its Board of Directors approved commencing a comprehensive strategic review, with the assistance of outside advisors, which will evaluate a full range of strategic alternatives available to NCR to enhance value for all shareholders. Additional details are included in Item 7 “Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”

Execution of our business goals and financial strategies is driven by the following key pillars:

Focus on our customers. We encourage our employees to treat every customer as if they are our only customer. If we provide better service and better quality products than our competitors, it is our belief that our customers will likely buy more from NCR. We are increasingly becoming active, strategic advisors to our clients, helping them retool and reinvent their business, and this is reflected in a significant increase in our Net Promoter Score from 14 in 2018 to 48 in 2021. We believe this focus has or will lead to increased access to higher level customer contacts, earlier entrance into the sales cycles, and additional opportunities for upselling and cross-selling as a software- and services- led company.

Take care of our employees. Our employees are the direct face of NCR to our clients. NCR has actively worked to increase employee engagement and satisfaction, as well as to create a culture of performance and innovation focused on software and services.

Bring high-quality, innovative products to market. NCR focuses its research and development investments on elevating product quality and bringing new solutions to market in our key focus areas of digital banking, our next-generation retail architecture, including our NCR EmeraldTM cloud-based point of sale product, our AlohaTM Essentials solution bundle, payments and self-service banking solutions. Additionally, we have placed an increasing priority on improvements in how we go to market with NCR-as-a-Service, as well as how we package and deliver our solutions as all-in-one bundles designed around a software platform, making it easier for our customers to buy and for our teams to sell.

Leverage our brand. We believe NCR has one of the best-known and respected brands in the industries we serve. We consider this to be a strong competitive differentiation with significant equity in our worldwide markets.

(1) With respect to our goals of free cash flow and non-GAAP EPS growth, we are not providing a reconciliation to the respective GAAP measure because we are unable to predict with reasonable certainty the reconciling items that may affect GAAP EPS and Cash flow from operations without unreasonable effort. For our definition of free cash flow, see the financial condition, liquidity and capital resources section within Part II, Item 7 “Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” of this Report. NCR’s non-GAAP EPS is determined by excluding, as applicable, pension mark-to-market adjustments, pension settlements, pension curtailments and pension special termination benefits, as well as other special items, including amortization of acquisition related intangibles and transformation and restructuring activities, from NCR’s GAAP earnings per share. Due to the non-operational nature of these pension and other special items, NCR's management uses this non-GAAP measure to evaluate year-over-year operating performance. NCR believes this measure is useful for investors because it provides a more complete understanding of NCR's underlying operational performance, as well as consistency and comparability with NCR's past reports of financial results.

Products and Services
We are an enterprise technology provider selling a portfolio of digital-first software, as-a-service offers, services, payments and hardware. Our offerings fall into the following categories:
Banking
We offer solutions to customers in the financial services industry that power their digital transformation through software, services and hardware to deliver differentiated experiences for their customers and improve efficiency for the financial institution. NCR's digital banking solutions enable anytime-anywhere convenience for a financial institution’s consumer and business customers. Our account opening software unifies the sales and onboarding experience across digital, branch and call center channels for mid-market community banks and credit unions. We also help financial institutions implement their digital first platform strategy by providing solutions for banking channel services, transaction processing, imaging, and branch services. We also offer credit unions, banks, digital banks, Fintechs, stored-value debit card issuers, and other consumer financial services providers access to our Allpoint retail-based ATM network, providing convenient and surcharge-free cash withdrawal and deposit access to their customers and cardholders. We also provide branding opportunities for financial institutions on our extensive ATM network, providing a cost-effective way for banks to expand their presence and customer service and experience. Our managed services and ATM-as-a-Service help banks run their end-to-end ATM channel, including transaction processing, managing cash and cash delivery, supplies, and telecommunications as well as routine and technical maintenance, positioning NCR as a strategic partner. We augment these solutions by offering a full line of software, services and hardware.
Retail
We offer software-led solutions to customers in the retail industry, leading with digital to connect retail operations end to end to integrate all aspects of a customer’s operations in indoor and outdoor settings from POS, to payments, inventory management, fraud
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and loss prevention applications, loyalty and consumer engagement. These solutions are designed to improve operational efficiency, selling productivity, customer satisfaction and purchasing decisions; provide secure checkout processes and payment systems; and increase service levels. Solutions include retail-oriented technologies such as comprehensive API-point of sale retail software platforms and applications, SCO, other hardware terminals and peripherals, payment processing solutions, consumer engagement solutions like eCommerce and loyalty programs, along with consulting, implementation, support and managed services to meet our customers' needs.
Hospitality
We offer technology solutions to customers in the hospitality industry, including table-service, quick-service and fast casual restaurants of all sizes, that are designed to improve operational efficiency, increase customer satisfaction, streamline order and transaction processing and reduce operating costs. Our portfolio includes cloud-based and cloud-enabled software applications for point-of-sale, back office, payment processing, kitchen production, restaurant management, eCommerce and consumer marketing and loyalty. We also provide hospitality-oriented hardware products such as POS terminals, kitchen display systems, handheld devices, printers and peripherals. And finally, we seek to help reduce the complexities of running restaurants through our services capabilities, including strategic consulting, technology deployment and implementation, support and managed services.

Telecommunications & Technology
We offer managed network and infrastructure services to enterprise clients across all industries via direct relationships with communications service providers and technology manufacturers. Our customers rely on us as a strategic partner to help them reduce complexity, improve cost efficiency, and enable global geographical reach. We deliver expert professional, field, and remote services for modern network technologies including Software-Defined Wide Area Networking, Network Functions Virtualization, Wireless Local Area Networks, Optical Networking, and Cloud Computing.

Target Markets and Distribution Channels

NCR provides solutions to customers of varying sizes in the banking, retail, hospitality and T&T industries.

We provide the technology that helps customers run self-directed banking, which primarily centers around our digital banking and ATM businesses, including software and services, as well as our Allpoint retail-based and surcharge-free ATM network. Our solutions also serve the retail markets through convenience banking products for retailers designed to complement their core businesses. Our financial solutions customers are located throughout the world in both developed and emerging markets. We have historically sold the majority of our Banking segment solutions through a direct sales channel, and have augmented our presence through distributors and value-added resellers.

We provide solutions to the retail and hospitality industries that run the store and run the restaurant including, but not limited to, POS software and hardware, SCO software and hardware, loyalty software, supply chain and payment solutions. We also provide store virtualization, Internet of Things (“IoT”), and micro-services platform solutions to modernize store and restaurant IT infrastructure. Our Retail segment customers include all sizes of food, drug and mass merchandisers, which includes grocery stores, drug stores, and big box retailers, as well as department and specialty retail stores, convenience and fuel retailers across the globe. Our Hospitality segment customers include quick service, table service and fast casual restaurants, small and medium size restaurants across independent restaurant operators, emerging and national chains, and large global brands. Our solutions are sold through a direct sales force and through relationships with value-added resellers, distributors, dealers and other indirect sales channels.

We provide service and support for our products and solutions through services contracts with our customers. We have also established managed services contracts with key customers and continue to pursue additional managed services relationships. We believe that longer term managed services arrangements can help improve the efficiency and performance of a customer’s business, and also increase the strategic and financial importance of its relationship with NCR. We also service competing technologies and third-party products. The primary sales channel for our services is our direct sales teams, which exist across all geographies where we operate around the world. Our services professionals provide these services directly to end customers.

Competition

We face a diverse group of competitors in the banking, retail, hospitality and other industries, including the T&T industry, in which we sell our digital-first portfolio of software, services and hardware. The primary competitive factors can vary by geographic area where we operate around the world, but typically include: value and quality of the solutions or products; total cost of ownership; industry knowledge of the vendor; the vendor’s ability to provide and support a total end-to-end solution; the vendor’s ability to
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integrate new and existing systems; fit of the vendor’s strategic vision with the customer’s strategic direction; and quality of the vendor’s consulting, deployment and support services.

In the financial industry, our Banking segment faces a variety of competitors offering financial services and software including, among others, Fidelity National Information Services, Inc., Fiserv, Inc., Q2 Holdings, Inc., Temenos AG, Infosys Ltd., Alkami Technology, Inc. and ACI Worldwide, Inc. In addition, we face competition from ATM manufacturers including Diebold Nixdorf, Inc., and Hyosung TNS Inc., and ATM network operators including Euronet Worldwide, Inc., as well as regional firms across all geographies where we operate around the world.

In the retail and hospitality industries, our Retail and Hospitality segments face a variety of competitors across all geographies where we operate around the world. Our competitors vary by market segment, product, service offering and geographic area, and include Toshiba Tec Corporation, Flooid, Oracle Corporation, GK Software SE, PAR Technology Corporation, Olo Inc., Aptos, Inc., Lightspeed, Diebold Nixdorf, Inc., Fujitsu Limited, SAP and HP Inc., among others. In addition, we face new competitors including Toast, Inc., Revel Systems, Inc., Square, Inc., and Upserve, Inc., among others.

The primary services competitors are the companies identified above, as well as other regional and local independent services firms across all geographies where we operate around the world. We also face services competition from global enterprise technology companies including IBM Corporation, and CompuCom (owned by Variant Equity Advisors) among others, as these firms continue to focus on services as a core business strategy.

Research and Development

We remain focused on designing and developing solutions that anticipate our customers’ changing technological needs as well as consumer preferences. Our expenses for research and development were $268 million in 2021, $234 million in 2020, and $259 million in 2019. We anticipate that we will continue to have significant research and development expenditures in the future in order to provide a continuing flow of innovative, high-quality products and services and to help maintain and enhance our competitive position. Information regarding the accounting and costs included in research and development activities is included in Note 1, “Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies”, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II of this Report under “Research and Development Costs,” and is incorporated herein by reference.

Patents and Trademarks

NCR seeks patent protection for its innovations (including improvements), associated with its software, services, product, solutions, creations and developments (including hardware), where such protection is likely to provide, especially strategic value to NCR. NCR owns approximately 1,325 patents in the United States and numerous other patents in foreign countries. The foreign patents are generally counterparts of NCR’s United States patents. Many of the patents owned by NCR are licensed to others, and NCR is licensed under certain patents owned by others. As appropriate, NCR looks to monetize its patents to drive additional value from its patent portfolio. NCR also has numerous patent applications pending in the United States and in foreign countries. NCR’s portfolio of patents and patent applications is of significant value to NCR.

NCR has registered certain trademarks, including service marks, in the United States and in foreign countries. NCR considers the “NCR” and NCR logo marks, as well as its other trademarks (including service marks), to have significant value to NCR. Loss of NCR’s right to use the NCR trademark could be material. However, the NCR trademark has been used and owned by NCR for at least 100 years, and NCR expects to maintain its rights in and to the NCR trademark for years to come.

Seasonality

Our sales have been historically seasonal, with lower revenue in the first quarter and higher revenue in the fourth quarter of each year. Such seasonality also causes our working capital cash flow requirements to vary from quarter to quarter depending on variability in the volume, timing and mix of sales. In addition, revenue in the third month of each quarter is typically higher than in the first and second months. However, with the transition of our revenue mix to comprise a higher mix of recurring software and services revenue, we expect that our sales will continue to become more linear over time.

Manufacturing and Raw Materials

In most cases, there are a number of vendors providing the services and producing the parts and components that we utilize. However, there are some services and components that are purchased from single sources due to price, quality, technology or other reasons. In the past, we have been able to obtain an adequate supply of raw materials and components for virtually all materials used
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in the production process. We currently believe we have adequate resources of raw materials and components and that our portfolio of vendors providing services and producing parts has the resources and facilities to overcome most unforeseen interruptions of supply. As of December 31, 2021, NCR leverages a network of internal and third-party partner facilities across the globe to manufacture its products in Manaus, Brazil, Budapest, Hungary, Chennai, India and partner facilities located in Guadalajara, Mexico, Chihuahua, Mexico, and Xiamen, China.
Further information regarding the potential impact of these relationships on our business operations, and regarding sources and availability of raw materials, is also included in Item 1A of this Report under the caption “Business Operations,” and is incorporated herein by reference.

Product Backlog

Backlog includes orders confirmed for products scheduled to be shipped as well as certain professional and transaction services to be provided. Although we believe that the orders included in the backlog are firm, we may allow some orders to be canceled by the customer without penalty. Even when penalties for cancellation are provided for in a customer contract, we may elect to permit cancellation of orders without penalty where management believes it is in our best interests to do so. Further, we have a significant portion of product revenue derived from term-based software license arrangements that include customer termination rights and services revenue that is recurring or transaction based business, which backlog information has not historically been measured. Therefore, we do not believe that our backlog, as of any particular date, is necessarily indicative of revenue for any future period. However, backlog is included as a component of our remaining performance obligation to the extent we determine that the orders are non-cancelable. Refer to Note 1, “Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies”, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II of this Report for additional information on remaining performance obligations.

Risk Management

At the Board of Directors level, NCR has a standing Risk Committee. The Risk Committee assists NCR’s Board of Directors with its oversight of executive management’s responsibilities to design, implement and maintain an effective enterprise risk management (“ERM”) framework for the Company’s overall operational, information security, strategic, reputational, technology, environmental, social and governance (“ESG”), and other risks. The Risk Committee also assists the Board of Directors with its oversight responsibilities for matters relating to diversity, equity and inclusion (“DE&I”), environment, health and safety (“EHS”), sustainability, and the security of our personnel and physical assets. At the management level, NCR's Office of Risk Management and Chief Risk Officer assist NCR and the Risk Committee in fulfilling its objectives relating to ERM, ESG, third-party risk management (“TPRM”) and business continuity planning (BCP). The Company’s Chief Risk Officer is responsible for developing and managing formal ERM, ESG, TPRM and BCP programs designed to identify, assess and respond to material and emerging risks and opportunities that may impact the achievement of the Company’s strategic objectives. NCR has also established an Executive Risk Committee that meets routinely to monitor material risks, opportunities and NCR's response plans thereto.

ESG

At NCR, we remain committed to creating positive change that supports an innovative and sustainable future in a responsible way. Our NCR business strategy directly aligns with the ESG priorities that we established in 2020. NCR’s business strategy to change from a hardware-led to a software-and services-led company offers us a new and different environmental footprint profile. To successfully become a software company, the NCR business strategy is dependent on customer satisfaction and harnessing our culture of innovation. NCR's focus on customer satisfaction is two-fold: we intend to represent the ESG qualities our customers are looking for; and we intend for our employees to fulfill and answer these expectations.

ESG Oversight. NCR is committed to a strong oversight mechanism of ESG issues. NCR’s Board of Directors has direct oversight of ESG activities through its Risk Committee. The Risk Committee and other Board committees oversee components of ESG, including, business ethics and integrity, data protection, privacy and security, our people, DE&I, environmental management, product innovation and management, and supplier responsibility.

Business Ethics and Integrity. Our Code of Conduct sets forth standards designed to uphold our values and foster integrity in our relationships with one another and our valued stakeholders. Our Code of Conduct is available at https://www.ncr.com/company/corporate-governance/code-of-conduct.

All our employees are required to complete Code of Conduct training during the onboarding period. All employees are required to complete annual refresher Code of Conduct training. The Code of Conduct training is revised annually, taking into account the prior year’s compliance matters and the Company’s compliance risks.
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Our Ethics and Compliance Program is responsible for managing the Company’s adherence to the Code of Conduct. Further, our Chief Ethics & Compliance Officer oversees investigations pertaining to fraud, conflicts of interest, violations of laws, and other similar matters, and reports on those activities to one or more Committees of the Board.

Data Protection, Privacy and Security. At NCR, we are proud of our data protection, cybersecurity, and privacy programs. These initiatives receive oversight from the Board’s Risk Committee, as well as several members of our executive leadership team including the Chief Operations Officer, General Counsel, Chief Security Officer, Chief Information Officer, and Chief Technology Officer. NCR’s Chief Information Security Officer and Chief Privacy Officer are responsible for management of these programs. Additional support is provided by our Chief Ethics & Compliance Officer.

NCR supports appropriate privacy protections for those with whom we interact. We foster a culture that values the privacy rights of individuals. Under the direction of NCR’s Chief Privacy Officer, the program offers thought leadership, advice and guidance on privacy practices such as: complying with privacy laws and regulations; designing solutions with privacy in mind; implementing contracts governing intracompany activities; minimizing the collection of data; providing meaningful notice and choice; and safeguarding information. The program is supported by privacy attorneys, privacy program managers within the business, and data protection officers in various locations internationally. Many of these privacy professionals have industry recognized privacy certifications from the International Association of Privacy Professionals.

Under the direction of NCR’s Chief Security Officer and Chief Information Security Officer, the Global Information Security organization is responsible for implementing and maintaining an information security program with the goal to protect information technology resources and protect the confidentiality and integrity of data gathered on our people, partners, customers, and business assets. Also, we employ various information technology and protection methods designed to promote data security including firewalls, intrusion prevention systems, denial of service detection, anomaly-based detection, anti-virus/anti-malware, endpoint encryption and detection and response software, Security Information and Event Management system, identity management technology, security analytics, multi-factor authentication and encryption. To further our commitment to data privacy and cybersecurity: NCR maintains the ISO 27001 certification for certain NCR locations throughout the United States, Europe, and India; third party audits for PCI-DSS, PA-DSS and SSAE-18 SOC2 are conducted for certain service offerings; NCR maintains a robust information security awareness and training program pursuant to which employees are required to complete training within 30 days of hire, as well as an annual refresher course, and NCR performs regular testing to help ensure employees can identify email “phishing” attacks; NCR's corporate insurance policies include certain information security risk policies that cover network security, privacy and cyber events; and we maintain the NCR Privacy Policy that can be found at https://www.ncr.com/privacy.

Our People. At NCR, we believe that investment in our employees has a positive impact on our employees and our customers. We put that into action with several employee development and engagement programs, including those described under the caption “Human Capital Resources” in Item 1 of this Report.

Diversity, Equity and Inclusion (DE&I). NCR believes in the power and value of diversity and strives to build a globally inclusive workplace where all people are treated fairly. We seek to include everyone, lead with empathy, and make our communities better. We encourage IDEAS (Inclusion, Diversity, Equity, Allyship, and Storytelling) and seek to inspire each other to be our authentic selves. The Board of Directors and its Risk Committee have direct oversight of our DE&I activities, including those described under the caption “Human Capital Resources” in Item 1 of this Report.

Environmental Management. We are committed to managing our environmental footprint and protecting the global communities in which we operate. We strive to minimize the environmental impact of our products and operations while also delivering innovative technologies and solutions designed to support businesses and consumers in their efforts to operate responsibly. We also recognize the importance of minimizing our environmental footprint through energy and greenhouse gas (“GHG”) management. That is why we continue to report our Scope 1 and Scope 2 emissions from our global facilities and service operations through the CDP (formerly Carbon Disclosure Project). We complete the annual CDP climate change questionnaire and evaluate our environmental management progress annually to better understand our areas of opportunity to make a true impact.

Our commitment to environmental management extends into our products and operational footprint. Our Brazil, Hungary, and India facilities maintain the ISO 14001 certification. The NCR Global Headquarters in Midtown Atlanta has been awarded two Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (“LEED”) Platinum certifications: 1) Building Design and Construction: Core & Shell and Interior Design; 2) Construction: Commercial Interiors. Our newest office in Belgrade is also LEED certified. Further, as part of our Cardtronics acquisition, the offices in Houston, Texas, and a major facility in Frisco, Texas, each use natural light and energy-efficient LED lighting to reduce energy consumption and are also LEED certified.

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Product Innovation and Management. Delivering solutions and services that provide value to our customers in an environmentally responsible way is critical to NCR’s ongoing success. As such, we strive to develop, and recycle our products in a responsible way. One example of how we are already doing this is that certain of our applications, such as Intelligent Deposit and Self-Service Diagnostic Gateway (“SSDG”), enable our SelfServ ATM customers to better handle the increasing volume – cutting down on costs, maintenance, fuel and materials associated with them.

Supplier Responsibility. We believe in creating positive change responsibly, and our supplier partners play a critical role in bringing that vision to life. We not only expect high quality products and services from our suppliers, we also expect them to conduct their businesses consistent with our Supplier Code of Conduct. Our Supplier Code of Conduct, available at https://www.ncr.com/company/suppliers/manuals-forms-and-templates, sets forth our expectation that our suppliers will meet ethical standards consistent with NCR’s Code of Conduct and policies.

As part of our overall ERM approach, our Third-Party Risk Management (“TPRM”) program is designed to ensure proper risk identification and oversight of NCR’s vendors and includes the following objectives:

Perform risk-based segmentation and prioritization of all existing and new NCR vendors
Perform sanctions screenings on all vendors and anti-bribery, anti-corruption (“ABAC”) screenings on applicable vendors
Perform extended due diligence on identified high risk vendors to include responsible sourcing, business continuity, information security, data privacy, and other reviews as applicable
Perform Financial Risk Assessment on identified high risk vendors

Additionally we take a risk-based approach to supply chain due diligence. We engage with the majority of our largest suppliers on a quarterly basis to identify potential risk exposure. As part of our supplier partner onboarding process, supplier partners are required to certify compliance with International Electrotechnical Commission 62474 standards. NCR requires its supplier partners to maintain compliance with the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (“RoHS”) Directive, Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (“REACH”) Regulation, and other applicable regulations.

Human Capital Resources

General. NCR views taking care of our people as a critical part of our strategy, especially as we adapt to a changing labor market and workforce with different values, demographics and needs specific to our business as we continue to shift to a software platform and payments company. We strive to enable a culture and employment brand that attracts, develops and retains top talent. Our focus relating to investing in our people and talent in 2021 were aligned to three basic areas:

progressing our journey to become an employer of choice
improving HR processes and service delivery
building a high-performing HR organization

Our progress to date includes:

Appointed a new Chief Human Resources Officer and built a new human resources leadership team and support model, including to establish new HR Centers of Excellence to better support and engage our employees around the world and our workforce of the future
Welcomed over 950 University Hires to NCR, including both graduates and interns
Launched new NCR.com Careers Pages
Launched a new Culture Crew, including 80+ Site Engagement Leaders, ambassadors and volunteers
Launched a new HR Central platform making it easier for employees to find information and resources
Examined and took actions on competitive pay supporting workforce changes and our shift to a software platform and payments company, including a targeted global compensation review to drive attraction and retention of talent
Improved certain employee benefit programs
Conducted annual employee engagement surveys that yield an Employee Net Promoter Score (“eNPS”), the results of which are reported directly to the Executive Leadership Team and the Board, leveraged to identify areas of improvement
Designed our compensation programs such that the results of our eNPS scores drive a portion of our executives’ annual compensation
Provided opportunities for continuous education through NCR University, our online education platform for employees
Supported external development with our tuition assistance program, which supports college and graduate-level education programs developing business-critical skills
Conducted regular employee performance reviews to manage, engage and reward our employees

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Our current roadmap for future programs to invest in our people includes:

Upskilling talent in software and sales to enable the workforce of the future
Developing an employee value proposition and brand strategy
Launching a new Leadership Development Program targeted towards top talent
Focusing on internal talent mobility to develop and retain recent hires, including university hires
Reimagining the onboarding experience to ensure all new hires are set up for success
Driving employee engagement and improving eNPS at regional and site levels

On December 31, 2021, NCR had approximately 38,000 employees worldwide. Given the multinational nature of our business, we monitor our global employment footprint. As of December 31, 2021, our employees by geographic region included approximately: 27% in the Asia Pacific and Japan region; 33% in the Europe, Middle East and Africa region; 27% in the Americas, excluding the United States; and 12% in the United States.

Diversity, Equity and Inclusion (DE&I). NCR believes in the power and value of diversity and strives to build a globally inclusive workplace where all people are treated fairly. We seek to include everyone, lead with empathy, and make our communities better. We encourage IDEAS (Inclusion, Diversity, Equity, Allyship, and Storytelling) and seek to inspire each other to be our authentic selves.

We are proud to have three female directors serving on our Board. Additionally, 75% of the Board's committees are chaired by women.

We have been hard at work reviewing our DE&I policies, practices and programs to identify opportunities for new inclusive initiatives.

Our progress to date includes:

Appointed a Vice President, Culture & Employee Experience to further champion an inclusive workplace culture for all
Improved our supplier diversity program that invests in small businesses, as well as minority, women and veteran-owned business enterprises, and appointed a dedicated supplier diversity leader
Continued to provide corporate funding and oversight of our Business Resource Groups to boost engagement and increase opportunities for professional development and networking
Completed a Mentorship Program led by our Black Professionals Forum Business Resource Group designed to provide professional guidance and career coaching

Our current roadmap for future programs includes:

Investing in the development of diverse talent through sponsorship initiatives and targeted development
Publishing NCR’s diversity data
Launching a series of courageous conversations and listening sessions to promote inclusion
Launching a university diversity network to attract, hire, and grow diverse talent
Restructuring and redeploying a council focused on global inclusion with the mission to inspire action that attracts, develops and retains top diverse talent and fosters an inclusive work environment

Government Regulations

NCR is subject to a variety of evolving government laws and regulations, including those related to environmental protection, in the various jurisdictions in which NCR operates or its products are sold, or where our offerings are used, including, for example, privacy and data protection laws, regulations and directives, and anti-corruption laws such as the United States Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and United Kingdom Bribery Act. In addition, though not material to our business taken as a whole, certain parts of NCR’s operating segments are subject to industry-specific laws and regulations. For example our digital banking business is subject to examination by the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council (“FFIEC”); portions of our payments-related business are subject to or contractually obligated to comply with certain anti-money laundering laws and regulations such as the Bank Secrecy Act and their international counterparts; portions of certain businesses NCR recently acquired are customer-facing and may be subject to certain consumer protection requirements such as oversight by the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (“CFPB”) and Federal Trade Commission (“FTC”) and similar state or foreign agencies in the jurisdictions where they operate; and portions of certain businesses NCR recently acquired are subject to a number of foreign, federal and state licensing requirements including
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money transmission, money services and virtual currency, which may be subject to regulatory changes in the future in the jurisdictions where they operate.

Although NCR does not currently expect that compliance with government laws and regulations, including environmental regulations and those designated to address climate risk, will have a material effect upon the capital expenditures, cash flow, financial condition, earnings and competitive position of NCR, its segments or its subsidiaries, it is possible that such compliance could have a material adverse impact on our capital expenditures, cash flow, financial condition, earnings or competitive position, including, but, not limited to, as NCR's Banking or Payments-related businesses grow or change as NCR continues to implement its business strategy. Further, while NCR does not currently expect to incur material capital expenditures related to compliance with such laws and regulations, and while we believe the amounts provided in our Consolidated Financial Statements are adequate in light of the probable and estimable liabilities in this area, there can be no assurances that environmental matters will not lead to a material adverse impact on our capital expenditures, earnings or competitive position. A detailed discussion of the current estimated impacts of compliance issues relating to environmental regulations, particularly the Fox River, Kalamazoo River and Ebina matters, is reported in Item 8 of Part II of this Report as part of Note 10, “Commitments and Contingencies”, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements and is incorporated herein by reference. Further information regarding the potential impact of compliance with governmental laws and regulations is also included in Item 1A of this Report and is incorporated herein by reference.
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Information about our Executive Officers
The Executive Officers of NCR (as of February 25, 2022) are as follows:
NameAgePosition and Offices Held
Frank R. Martire74Executive Chairman
Michael D. Hayford62Chief Executive Officer
Owen J. Sullivan64President and Chief Operating Officer
Timothy C. Oliver 53Senior Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
James M. Bedore62Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary
Adrian Button49Executive Vice President, Product and Service Operations
Daniel W. Campbell61Executive Vice President, NCR Global Sales
Patrice Graves
55
Executive Vice President and Chief Human Resources Officer
Donald W. Layden, Jr.
64
Executive Vice President, President, Payments & Network, Head of Strategy and M&A
Beth A. Potter62Chief Accounting Officer

Set forth below is a description of the background of each of the Executive Officers.
Frank R. Martire is Executive Chairman of NCR, a position he has held since May 2018. Mr. Martire most recently served as Non-Executive Chairman of Fidelity National Information Services, Inc. (“FIS”), a financial services technology company. From 2015 to 2017, he served as Executive Chairman of FIS and from 2009 to 2015 was President and Chief Executive Officer of FIS after its acquisition of Metavante Technologies, Inc. (“Metavante”), a bank technology processing company. Mr. Martire previously served as Chief Executive Officer of Metavante from 2003 to 2009 and President from 2003 to 2008. Prior to that, he was President and Chief Operating Officer of Call Solutions Inc. from 2001 to 2003 and President and Chief Operating Officer, Financial Institution Systems and Services Group, of Fiserv, Inc. from 1991 to 2001. Mr. Martire was a member of the Board of Directors of J. Alexander’s Holdings, Inc. from 2015 to 2021, where he served as Lead Independent Director from 2019 to 2021. Mr. Martire is a member of the Board of Directors of Cannae Holdings, Inc., where he serves as Lead Independent Director. Mr. Martire became a director of NCR on May 31, 2018.

Michael D. Hayford is Chief Executive Officer of NCR, a position he has held since April 2018. Mr. Hayford was most recently Founding Partner of Motive Partners, an investment firm focused on technology-enabled companies that power the financial services industry. From 2009 until his retirement in 2013, Mr. Hayford served as the Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer at Fidelity National Information Services, Inc. (“FIS”), a financial services technology company. Prior to joining FIS, Mr. Hayford was with Metavante Technologies, Inc. (“Metavante”), a bank technology processing company, from 1992 to 2009. He served as the Chief Operating Officer at Metavante from 2006 to 2009 and as the President from 2008 to 2009. From 2007 to 2009, Mr. Hayford also served on the Board of Directors of Metavante. Mr. Hayford was a member of the Board of Directors and the Audit Committee of Endurance International Group Holdings, Inc. from 2013 to 2019, and was a member of the Board of Directors and Chairman of the Audit Committee of West Bend Mutual Insurance Company from 2007 to 2018. Mr. Hayford became a director of NCR on April 30, 2018.

Owen J. Sullivan is President and Chief Operating Officer of NCR. Mr. Sullivan has served as President of NCR since August 2021 and as Chief Operating Officer of NCR since July 2018. Mr. Sullivan was most recently an independent consultant, providing strategic planning, consulting and executive mentoring, and working with and investing alongside private equity firms and other investor groups. Prior to that, Mr. Sullivan was with ManpowerGroup Inc. (“ManpowerGroup”), a workforce and talent management solutions company, from 2003 to 2013. At ManpowerGroup, he served as President of the Specialty Brands and Experis units from 2010 to 2013 and he served as the Chief Executive Officer of the Right Management and Jefferson Wells International, Inc. subsidiaries from 2004 to 2013 and from 2003 to 2010, respectively. Before joining ManpowerGroup, Mr. Sullivan was with Sullivan Advisors, LLC, a provider of strategic planning, consulting and executive mentoring for small to medium-sized businesses from 2001 to 2003. Prior to that, Mr. Sullivan was with Metavante Technologies, Inc., a bank technology processing company, from 1993 to 2001, where he served in various management roles including as the President of Metavante’s Financial Services Group and Enterprise Solutions Group. Mr. Sullivan served as a member of the Board of Directors of Johnson Financial Group, Inc., a bank holding company, where he served as a member of its Wealth Management, Risk and Succession Committees through 2018. Mr. Sullivan is a member of the Board of Directors of Computer Task Group, Incorporated and serves as a member of its Compensation and Audit Committees.

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Timothy C. Oliver is Senior Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of NCR, a position he has held since July 13, 2020. Mr. Oliver most recently served as Chief Financial Officer of Spring Window Fashions, LLC, a consumer goods company, and a member of the company's leadership team, since September 2019. In this role he focused on, among other things, aligning the company's business portfolio and growth initiatives with its finance strategy. From 2011 to 2019, he served as President and Chief Financial Officer of the Goldstein Group Inc. (“GGI”), a privately held conglomerate, and its subsidiary, Alter Trading Corporation (“Alter”), a privately held metal recycler and broker company. Before joining GGI and Alter, he was the Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of MEMC Electronic Materials, Inc., a publicly held technology company (now SunEdison, Inc.), from 2009 to 2011, and Senior Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Metavante Technologies, Inc., a publicly held bank technology processing company, from 2007 to 2009. He also previously served as Vice President and Treasurer of Rockwell Automation, Inc. (“Rockwell Automation”), an industrial automation and digital transformation company, from 2005 to 2007. Before joining Rockwell Automation, he was Vice President for Investor Relations and Financial Planning at Raytheon Company. Mr. Oliver's prior roles included a focus on transforming finance organizations to position companies for growth.

James M. Bedore is Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary of NCR, a position he has held since November 2018. Mr. Bedore oversees the NCR Office of Risk Management, responsible for enterprise risk management, third party risk management and business continuity. Prior to NCR, Mr. Bedore was an attorney in private practice with Reinhart Boerner Van Deuren s.c. from 1985 to 2018, where he was a Shareholder, member of the firm’s Board of Directors and Chair of the firm’s Securities Team, advising clients on a variety of corporate matters including mergers and acquisitions, public securities offerings on behalf of issuers and underwriters, private placements, venture capital, bank and other financing arrangements, securities compliance, reporting and disclosure obligations, corporate governance, shareholder rights and executive compensation.

Adrian Button is NCR’s Executive Vice President, Product and Service Operations, a position he has held since June 2020. From February 2018 to June 2020, Mr. Button served as NCR’s Senior Vice President, Hardware Product Operations. From July 2017 to February 2018, Mr. Button served as NCR’s Senior Vice President, Global Operations. Before he joined NCR, Mr. Button spent 19 years in various management roles with different divisions of General Electric Company (“GE”). Most recently, Mr. Button served from January 2016 to July 2017 as Vice President, Supply Chain, for GE Industrial Solutions, with oversight of the division’s supply chain and service operations across 41 global factories. Prior to that Mr. Button served as Vice President, Turbomachinery, for GE’s Oil & Gas division from January 2014 to December 2016, as General Manager of the Global Operations team for GE’s Oil & Gas division from March 2011 to December 2013, and in other operations and supply chain roles with GE Aviation.

Daniel W. Campbell is NCR’s Executive Vice President, NCR Global Sales, a position he has held since February 2018. Previously, from July 2015 to February 2018, Mr. Campbell served as a Senior Vice President and General Manager at Virtustream, Inc. (“Virtustream”), which he joined after it was acquired by EMC Corporation (“EMC”) in July 2015. With Virtustream, Mr. Campbell led the global sales integration with EMC’s sales organization, built a global strategic alliances and channels organization, and co-launched the Virtustream Storage Cloud, an enterprise-class cloud storage platform. Before joining Virtustream, from April 1998 to July 2015, Mr. Campbell served in a series of sales and management roles of increasing responsibility at EMC, including as Chief Operating Officer, Senior Vice President, Worldwide Sales, Backup and Recovery Systems Divisions, and most recently as Senior Vice President, Global Specialty Sales. Before joining EMC, Mr. Campbell served in various sales and management roles with Sperry, Unisys, Motorola and Wang.

Patrice Graves is Executive Vice President and Chief Human Resources Officer of NCR, a position she has held since June 2021. From June 2020 to April 2021, she was the Vice President and HR Leader for the Americas at DXC Technology Company (“DXC”), an IT services company, where she was instrumental in developing the talent engagement strategy and driving culture change. Prior to that, Ms. Graves was with AECOM Group Inc. (“AECOM”), an infrastructure consulting firm, from November 2015 to June 2020. At AECOM, she served as Executive Vice President, Human Resources, from January 2020 to June 2020 and as Senior Vice President, Human Resources, from November 2015 to January 2020. Prior to DXC and AECOM, Ms. Graves served in HR leadership roles at Raytheon Company and Allied Signal/Honeywell.

Donald W. Layden, Jr., is Executive Vice President, President, Payments & Network, Head of Strategy and M&A, a position he has held since November 2021. From June 2020 to October 2021, Mr. Layden served as Senior Advisor to NCR focusing on strategy and corporate development. Previously, Mr. Layden served as a member of the Board of Directors of Cantaloupe, Inc. (formerly known as USA Technologies, Inc.), a payments and software services company, from April 2019 to May 2020, where he served as the Chair of the Compliance Committee from April 2019 to November 2019. He also served as interim Chief Executive Officer of USA Technologies, Inc. from October 2019 to February 2020, as Non-Executive Chairman from November 2019 to February 2020, and as President and Chief Executive Officer from February 2020 to May 2020. Mr. Layden was a Venture Partner at Baird Venture Partners from December 2011 to September 2021. He also was an of-counsel partner of Quarles & Brady LLP, where he practiced corporate law, from October 2009 to September 2021. Mr. Layden served as a member of the Board of Directors of Firstsource Solutions Limited, a business process management company publicly traded on the National Stock Exchange of India, from April
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2006 to March 2019. He also served as an independent director of Online Resources Corporation, a publicly traded company, from May 2010 to March 2013, when the company was sold to ACI Worldwide, Inc. From November 2009 to November 2011, Mr. Layden served as an Adviser of Warburg Pincus LLC in the Technology, Media and Telecommunications group. From October 2004 to October 2009, Mr. Layden held various positions at Metavante Technologies, Inc. (“Metavante"), a bank technology processing company, including as President of the International Group, and as Senior Executive Vice President of Corporate Development and Strategy, Corporate Secretary and General Counsel. Prior to that, he served at NuEdge Systems LLC as Chief Operating Officer from 2000 to 2002 and as President from 2002 to 2004, when the company was purchased by Metavante.

Beth A. Potter is NCR’s Chief Accounting Officer, a position she has held since November 2019. Ms. Potter has also served as the NCR Corporate Controller since 2011. From March 2007 to 2011, she served as Assistant Controller, and prior to that she served in various other leadership roles supporting NCR’s finance organization.

Available Information
NCR makes available through its website at http://investor.ncr.com, free of charge, the reports it files with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”), including its Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, definitive proxy statements on Schedule 14A and Current Reports on Form 8-K, and all amendments to such reports and schedules, as soon as reasonably practicable after these reports are electronically filed or furnished to the SEC pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the “Exchange Act”). The SEC also maintains a website (http://www.sec.gov) that contains the reports, proxy statements and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file or furnish electronically with the SEC. NCR will furnish, without charge to a security holder upon written request, the Notice of Meeting and Proxy Statement for the 2022 Annual Meeting of Stockholders (the “2022 Proxy Statement”), portions of which are incorporated herein by reference. NCR also will furnish its Code of Conduct at no cost and any other exhibit at cost. Document requests are available by calling or writing to:

NCR—Investor Relations
864 Spring Street NW
Atlanta, GA 30308
Phone: 800-255-5627
E-Mail: investor.relations@ncr.com
Website: http://investor.ncr.com

NCR's website, www.ncr.com, contains a significant amount of information about NCR, including financial and other information for investors. NCR encourages investors to visit its website regularly, as information may be updated and new information may be posted at any time. The contents of NCR's website are not incorporated by reference into this Form 10-K and shall not be deemed “filed” under the Exchange Act.
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Item 1A.    RISK FACTORS

The risks and uncertainties described below could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, could cause actual results to differ materially from our expectations and projections, and could cause the market value of our stock to decline. You should consider these risk factors when reading the rest of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including “Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this document. These risk factors may not include all of the important factors that could affect our business or our industry or that could cause our future financial results to differ materially from historic or expected results or cause the market price of our common stock to fluctuate or decline.

STRATEGY AND TECHNOLOGY

If we are unsuccessful in transforming our business model, our operating results could be negatively impacted. In recent years, we have shifted our business model to become a software- and services-led enterprise provider, focusing on increased software and services revenue, as well as recurring revenue, to enable NCR to become an as-a-Service company. Activating our strategy to create NCR-as-a-Service could negatively impact our revenue and margin as we shift toward increasing recurring revenue. Additionally, this strategy includes the shift away from perpetual license-based products that yield revenue recognized at an earlier point in time to a term license model to include a termination for convenience which could also have a negative impact on our revenue and margin. We expect to continue to spend and may increase our capital expenditures to support our shift to NCR-as-a-Service with the focus on our strategic growth platforms, which are the offerings with the highest growth potential to accelerate the shift. Our success depends on the return on investment generated from the capital expenditures and our ability to continue to execute these strategies, while improving the Company's cost structure. Successful execution of our strategy and the businesses associated with the strategic growth platforms depends on a number of different factors including, among others, developing, deploying and supporting the next generation of digital first software and cloud solutions for the industries we serve; market acceptance of our new and existing software and cloud solutions; successfully expanding the payment processing market; enabling our sales force to use a consultative selling model that better incorporates our comprehensive and new solutions; transforming our services performance, capabilities and coverage to improve efficiency, incorporate remote diagnostic and other technologies and align with and support our new solutions; managing professional services and other costs associated with large solution roll-outs; integrating, and developing and supporting software gained through acquisitions. In addition, we continue to pursue initiatives to expand our customer base by increasing our use of indirect sales channels, and by developing, marketing and selling solutions aimed at the small- to medium-business market. It is not yet certain whether these initiatives will yield the anticipated benefits, or whether our solutions will be compelling and attractive to small- and medium-sized businesses. If we are not successful in growing software and services and expanding our customer base at the rate that we anticipate, implementing and managing these various initiatives and minimizing any resulting loss in productivity, or if the costs to complete these initiatives is higher than anticipated, we may not meet our growth and gross margin projections or expectations, and operating results could be negatively impacted.

If we do not swiftly and successfully develop and introduce new solutions in the competitive, rapidly changing environment in which we do business, our business results may be impacted. The development process for our solutions requires high levels of innovation from our product development teams and suppliers of the components embedded or incorporated in our solutions. We expect to continue to spend and may increase our capital expenditures and allocate these expenditures primarily to our strategic growth platforms. In addition, certain of our solutions, including our cloud solutions, may require us to build, lease or expand, and maintain, infrastructure (such as hosting centers) to support them. The development process can be lengthy and costly, and requires us to commit a significant amount of resources to bring our business solutions to market. In addition, our success may be impacted by safety and security technology and industry standards. We may not be able to anticipate our customers’ needs and technological and industry trends accurately, or to complete development of new solutions efficiently. In addition, contract terms, market conditions or customer preferences may affect our ability to limit, sunset or end-of-life our older products in a timely or cost-effective fashion. If any of these risks materialize, we may be unable to introduce new solutions into the market on a timely basis, if at all, and our business and operating results could be impacted. Likewise, we sometimes make assurances to customers regarding the operability and specifications of new technologies, and our results could be impacted if we are unable to deliver such technologies, or if such technologies do not perform as planned. Once we have developed new solutions, if we cannot successfully market and sell those solutions, our business and operating results could be negatively impacted.

If we do not compete effectively within the technology industry, we will not be successful. We operate in the intensely competitive technology industry. This industry is characterized by rapidly changing technology, disruptive technological innovation, evolving industry standards, frequent new product introductions, price and cost reductions, and increasingly greater commoditization of products making differentiation difficult. Our competitors include other large companies in the information technology industry, such as Fidelity National Information Services Inc., Fiserv, Inc., Temenos AG, Infosys Ltd., Alkami Technology, Inc., HP Inc., Diebold Nixdorf, Inc., Hyosung TNS Inc., Toshiba Tec Corporation, Oracle Corporation, Fujitsu Limited, Q2 Holdings, Inc. and
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ACI Worldwide, Inc., many of which have more financial and technical resources, or more widespread distribution and market penetration for their platforms and service offerings, than we do. We also compete with companies in specific industry segments, such as entry-level ATMs, POS solutions and imaging solutions. In addition, as consumers and customers in the banking, retail and hospitality industry adopt new alternative technologies such as cashless and other streamlined payment services and automated shopping solutions, we may face competition from other technology companies.

Our future competitive performance and market position depend on a number of factors, including our ability to:

execute our NCR-as-a-Service strategy to grow our software and services revenue, as well as our recurring revenue;
improve margin expansion while successfully reacting to competitive product and pricing pressures;
mitigate increases in labor costs, component parts, freight, services and interest rates with price increases;
penetrate and meet the changing competitive requirements and deliverables in developing and emerging markets;
retain our existing key customers and add new customer relationships;
cross-sell additional products and services to our existing customer base;
rapidly and continually design, develop and market, or otherwise maintain and introduce innovative solutions and related products and services for our customers that are competitive in the marketplace;
react on a timely basis to shifts in market demands and technological innovations, including shifts toward the desire of banks and retailers to provide digital-first experience to their customers and the use of mobile devices in transactions and payments;
reduce costs without creating operating inefficiencies or impairing product or service quality;
maintain competitive operating margins;
improve product and service delivery quality; and
effectively market and sell all of our diverse solutions.

Our business and operating performance also could be impacted by external competitive pressures, such as consolidation, increasing price erosion and the entry of new competitors and technologies into our existing product and geographic markets. In addition, our customers sometimes finance our product sales through third-party financing companies, and in the case of customer default, these financing companies may be forced to resell this equipment at discounted prices, competing with us and impacting our ability to sell incremental units. The impact of these product and pricing pressures could include lower customer satisfaction, decreased demand for our solutions, loss of market share and reduction of operating profits.

If we do not successfully integrate acquisitions or effectively manage alliance activities, we may not drive future growth. As part of our overall solutions strategy, we have made, and intend to continue to make, investments in companies, solutions, services and technologies, either through acquisitions, investments, joint ventures or strategic alliances. These activities allow us to further our company strategy and provide us access to new technology or solutions that expand our offerings. Acquisitions and alliance activities inherently involve risks. The risks we may encounter include those associated with:

disruption to our business and the continued successful execution of our company strategy, goals and responsibilities, including but not limited to the Company’s non-GAAP EPS growth, including mix shift to software and services, increase in recurring revenue and free cash flow, as well as the NCR-as-a-Service model, while managing significant transactions;
increased capital and research and development expenses and resource allocation;
assimilation and integration of different business operations, corporate cultures, personnel, infrastructures (such as data centers) and technologies or solutions acquired or licensed, while maintaining quality, and designing and implementing appropriate risk management measures;
retention of key employees and talent associated with the acquired or combined business;
the incurrence of significant transaction fees and costs;
the potential for unknown liabilities within the acquired or combined business that we may not become aware of until after the completion of the acquisition; and
the possibility of conflict with joint venture or alliance partners regarding strategic direction, prioritization of objectives and goals, governance matters or operations.

There is risk that the integration, new technology or solutions, including but not limited to expanded payment processing and entry into ATM-as-a-Service, may not perform as anticipated, may take longer than anticipated and may not meet estimated growth projections or expectations, or investment recipients may not successfully execute their business plans. Further, we may not achieve the projected efficiencies and synergies once we have integrated the business into our operations, which may lead to the impairment or write down of assets, and other additional costs not anticipated at the time of acquisition. In the event that these risks materialize, we may not be able to fully realize the benefit of our investments, and our operating results could be adversely affected.
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Our multinational operations, including in new and emerging markets, expose us to business and legal risks. For the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, the percentage of our revenue from outside of the United States was 49% and 51%, respectively, and we expect our percentage of revenue generated outside the United States to continue to be significant. In addition, we continue to seek to further penetrate existing international markets, and to identify opportunities to enter into or expand our presence in developing and emerging markets. While we believe that our geographic diversity may help to mitigate some risks associated with geographic concentrations of operations, our ability to sell our solutions and manufacture internationally, including in new and emerging markets, is subject to risks, which include, among others:

the impact of ongoing and future economic and credit conditions on the stability of national and regional economies and industries within those economies;
political conditions and local regulations that could adversely affect demand for our solutions, our ability to access funds and resources, or our ability to sell products in these markets;
the impact of a downturn in the global economy, or in regional economies, on demand for our products;
competitive labor markets and increasing wages in markets that we operate in;
currency exchange rate fluctuations that could result in lower demand for our products as well as generate currency translation losses;
limited availability of local currencies to pay vendors, employees and third parties and to distribute funds outside of the country;
changes to global or regional trade agreements that could limit our ability to sell products in these markets;
the imposition of import or export tariffs, taxes, trade policies or import and export controls that could increase the expense of, or limit demand for our products;
changes to and compliance with a variety of laws and regulations that may increase our cost of doing business or otherwise prevent us from effectively competing internationally;
government uncertainty or limitations on the ability to enforce legal rights and remedies, including as a result of new, or changes to, laws and regulations;
reduced protection for intellectual property rights in certain countries;
implementing and managing systems, procedures and controls to monitor our operations in foreign markets;
changing competitive requirements and deliverables in developing and emerging markets;
longer collection cycles and the financial viability and reliability of contracting partners and customers;
managing a geographically dispersed workforce, work stoppages and other labor conditions or issues;
disruptions in transportation and shipping infrastructure; and
the impact of civil unrest relating to war and terrorist activity on the economy or markets in general, or on our ability, or that of our suppliers, to meet commitments.

In addition, as a result of our revenue generated outside of the United States, the amount of cash and cash equivalents that is held by our foreign subsidiaries continues to be significant. After the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017, in general we will not be subject to additional United States taxes if cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments held outside the United States are distributed to the United States in the form of dividends or otherwise. However, we may be subject to foreign withholding taxes, which could be significant.

The strategic review may cause disruption to the business and may fail to result in increasing the value to our shareholders or in the completion of any transaction. On February 8, 2022, NCR announced that its Board of Directors unanimously approved commencing a comprehensive strategic review, with the assistance of outside advisors, which will evaluate a full range of strategic alternatives available to NCR to enhance value for all shareholders. Those strategic alternatives could include a disposition of a material business or assets of the Company, a spin-off, merger or sale of the Company, other structural changes, changes to branding or geographic footprint or other transactions or alternatives. The review may result in near-term disruption to our business and employees as we explore certain alternatives. Additionally, there is no guarantee that the outcome of the strategic review will result in an increase in the share price for our shareholders or in the completion of any transaction.


BUSINESS OPERATIONS

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Our business may be negatively affected by domestic and global economic and credit conditions. Our business is sensitive to the strength of domestic and global economic and credit conditions, particularly as they affect, either directly or indirectly, the financial, retail and hospitality sectors of the economy. Economic and credit conditions are influenced by a number of factors, including political conditions, consumer confidence, unemployment levels, interest rates, tax rates, commodity prices and government actions to stimulate economic growth. The imposition or threat of protectionist trade policies or import or export tariffs, global and regional market conditions and spending trends in the financial, retail and hospitality industries, new tax legislation across multiple jurisdictions, modified or new global or regional trade agreements, uncertainty over further potential changes in Eurozone participation and fluctuations in oil and commodity prices, among other things, have created a challenging and unpredictable environment in which to market the products and services of our various businesses across our different geographies and industries. A negative or unpredictable economic climate could create uncertainty or financial pressures that impact the ability or willingness of our customers to make capital expenditures, thereby affecting their decision to purchase or roll out our products or services or, especially with respect to smaller customers, to pay accounts receivable owed to NCR. Additionally, if customers respond to a negative or unpredictable economic climate by consolidation, it could reduce our base of potential customers. Negative or unpredictable global economic conditions also may have an adverse effect on our customers’ ability to obtain financing for the purchase of our products and services from third party financing companies or on the number of payment processing transactions which could negatively impact our operating results.

We are subject to certain significant risks and uncertainties from the payments-related business and industry. As a part of our overall strategy related to our payments-related business we may be subject to the following risks:

The proliferation of payment options and increasingly frictionless methods of payment other than cash, including credit cards, debit cards, stored-value debit cards, contactless, and mobile payments options, could result in a reduced need for cash in the marketplace and a resulting decline in the usage of our ATMs. The continued growth in electronic payment methods, such as mobile phone payments, contactless payments and card only self-service order and payment terminals could result in a reduced need for cash in the marketplace and ultimately, a decline in the usage of ATMs. New payment technology, such as Venmo, Zelle, Square Cash, Facebook Messenger Payments and virtual currencies such as Bitcoin, or other new payment method preferences by consumers could reduce the general population’s need or demand for cash and negatively impact our ATM transaction volumes in the future.

NCR derives a significant portion of its revenues from ATM and financial services transaction fees, which could be reduced by a decline in the usage of ATMs, the ability to charge cardholders fees to use ATMs and the level of transaction fees received, or a decline in the number of ATMs that are operated by us, whether as a result of changes in consumer spending preferences, global economic conditions, or otherwise. Additionally, should banks or other ATM operators decrease or eliminate the fees they charge to users of their ATMs or otherwise offer free access to their networks, such action would make transactions at our ATMs comparatively more expensive to consumers and could adversely impact transaction volumes and revenue.

The majority of the electronic debit networks over which transactions are conducted require sponsorship by a bank, and the loss of any sponsors and/or the inability to find a replacement may cause disruptions to our operations. In each of the geographic markets, bank sponsorship is required in order to process transactions over certain networks. In all of the markets we serve, ATMs are connected to financial transaction switching networks operated by organizations such as Visa and MasterCard. The rules governing these switching networks require any company sending transactions through these networks to be a bank or a technical service processor that is approved and monitored by a bank. As a result, the operation of the ATM network in all of the markets we serve depends on the ability to secure these “sponsor” arrangements with financial institutions.

Interchange fees may be lowered in some cases at the discretion of the various EFT networks through which transactions are routed, or through potential regulatory changes, thus reducing future revenues and operating profits. Future changes in interchange rates, some of which we have minimal or no control over, could have an adverse impact on our operations and cash flows.

Non-compliance with established EFT network rules and regulations could expose NCR to fines, penalties or other liabilities and could negatively impact results of operations. Additionally, new EFT network rules and regulations could require significant amounts of capital to remain in compliance with such rules and regulations. Transactions are routed over various EFT networks to obtain authorization for cash disbursements and to provide account balances. These networks primarily include Star, Pulse, NYCE, Cirrus (MasterCard), and Plus (Visa) in the United States, and LINK in the United Kingdom, among other networks. EFT networks set the interchange fees that they charge to the financial institutions, as well as the amounts paid to NCR. Additionally, EFT networks, including MasterCard and Visa, establish rules and regulations that ATM providers must comply with in order for member cardholders to use those ATMs. Failure to comply with such rules and regulations could result in penalties and/or fines, which could negatively impact our financial results.

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There is a significant amount of vault cash within our ATMs, which is subject to potential loss due to theft, civil unrest or other events, including natural disasters. Third parties are also relied upon in the various regions to provide NCR with the cash required to operate many of the ATMs. If these third parties were unable or unwilling to provide the necessary cash to operate the ATMs, there would be a need to identify alternative sources of cash to operate the ATMs or we would not be able to operate this business.

The election by our merchant customers not to participate in the surcharge-free network offerings could impact the effectiveness of those offerings, which would negatively impact our financial results. Financial institutions that are members of the Allpoint network pay a fee in exchange for allowing their cardholders to use selected NCR-owned, managed and/or participating ATMs on a surcharge-free basis. The success of the Allpoint network is dependent upon the participation by our merchant customers in that network. In the event a significant number of our merchants elect not to participate in the Allpoint network, the benefits and effectiveness of the network would be diminished, thus potentially causing some of the participating financial institutions to not renew their agreements, terminate early, and/or trigger financial penalties, thereby having a negative impact on our financial results.

The cash-in-transit business exposes NCR to additional risks beyond those experienced from the ownership and operation of ATMs. The cash-in-transit operation in the United Kingdom delivers cash to and collects residual cash from ATMs in that market. The cash-in-transit business exposes NCR to significant risks, including the potential for cash-in-transit losses, employee theft, as well as claims for personal injury, wrongful death, worker’s compensation, punitive damages, and general liability,

Errors or omissions in the settlement of merchant funds or in the vault cash reconciliations could damage relationships with customers and vault cash providers, respectively, and expose NCR to liability. NCR is responsible for maintaining accurate bank account information for certain merchant customers, financial institution customers and vault cash providers and accurate settlements of funds into these accounts based on the underlying transaction activity

In addition, financial and third-party risks related to our cryptocurrency offerings, such as inappropriate access and theft of cryptocurrency assets held by our custodian, insufficient insurance coverage by the custodian to reimburse us for all such losses, the custodian’s failure to maintain effective controls over the custody and settlement services provided to us, the custodian’s inability to purchase or liquidate cryptocurrency holdings, and default on financial or performance obligations by counterparty financial institutions, could materially and adversely affect our financial performance.

Portions of certain businesses NCR recently acquired are customer-facing and expose the Company to additional compliance risks because we may be subject to certain consumer protection requirements such as oversight by the CFPB and FTC and similar state or foreign agencies in the jurisdictions where they operate. Prior to these acquisitions, NCR was primarily a business-to-business company and not directly subject to these broader consumer protection laws and regulations. The Company will also be exposed to additional compliance risks in scope and geography as our payments-related offers expand into new markets, each with their own consumer protection requirements. In addition, the customer-facing nature of our payments-related business subjects the Company to increased risks of disputes with consumers, including litigation and class action litigation, and significant costs to address such matters. The volatility of cryptocurrency markets and the level of consumer understanding of cryptocurrencies may cause this risk to be greater than in more traditional customer-facing businesses. The Company also faces additional risks related to uncertainty in potential future regulation and legal oversight of markets and businesses engaged in products and services relating to blockchain technology, virtual currencies or cryptocurrencies.

Disruptions in our data center hosting and public cloud facilities could adversely affect our business. Our software products are increasingly being offered and provided on a cloud or other hosted basis through data centers operated by the Company or third parties in the United States and other countries. In addition, certain applications and data that we use in our services offerings and our operations may be hosted or stored at such facilities. These facilities may be vulnerable to natural disasters, including those exacerbated by the effects of climate change, telecommunications failures and similar events, or to intentional acts of misconduct, such as security breaches or interference (including by disgruntled employees, former employees or contractors). The occurrence of these events or acts, or any other unanticipated problems, at these facilities could result in damage to or the unavailability of these cloud hosting facilities. Such damage or unavailability could, despite existing disaster recovery and business continuity arrangements, interrupt the availability of our cloud offerings for our customers. We have experienced such interruptions and damage or unavailability could interrupt the availability of applications or data necessary to provide services or conduct critical operations. Interruptions in the availability of our cloud offerings or our ability to service our customers could result in the failure to meet contracted up-time or service levels, which could cause us to issue credits or pay penalties or cause customers to terminate or not renew subscriptions. Interruptions could also expose us to liability claims, negative publicity and the need to engage in costly remediation efforts, any of which could impact our business and reduce our revenue.

If we do not retain key employees, or attract quality new and replacement employees, we may not be able to meet our business objectives. Our employees are vital to our success, including the successful transformation of the Company into a software- and
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services-led business. Therefore, our ability to retain our key business leaders and our highly skilled software development, technical, sales, consulting and other key personnel, including key personnel of acquired businesses, is critical. Maintaining an inclusive culture and work environment is an important factor in attracting employees and retention. The market for highly skilled workers and leaders in our industry is extremely competitive, and we may need to invest significant amounts of cash and equity to attract and retain new employees. We may never realize returns on these investments. Key employees may decide to leave NCR for other opportunities or may be unavailable for health or other reasons. Changes of key business leaders could be disruptive to our business or delay the execution of our strategy, and as a result could cause fluctuation in our stock price. In addition, as our business model evolves, we may need to attract employees with different skill sets, experience and attributes to support that evolution. If we are unable to retain our key personnel, or we are unable to attract highly qualified new and replacement employees by offering competitive compensation, secure work environments, and leadership opportunities now and in the future, our business and operating results could be negatively impacted.

Defects, errors, installation difficulties or development delays could expose us to potential liability, harm our reputation and negatively impact our business. Many of our products are sophisticated and complex, and may incorporate third-party hardware and software. Despite testing and quality control, we cannot be certain that defects or errors will not be found in our products. If our products contain undetected defects or errors, or otherwise fail to meet our customers’ expectations, we could face the loss of customers, liability exposure and additional development costs. If defects or errors delay product installation or make it more difficult, we could experience delays in customer acceptance, or if our products require significant amounts of customer support, it could result in incremental costs to us. In addition, our customers who license and deploy our software may do so in both standard and non-standard configurations in different environments with different computer platforms, system management software and equipment and networking configurations, which may increase the likelihood of technical difficulties. Our products may be integrated with other components or software, and, in the event that there are defects or errors, it may be difficult to determine the origin of such defects or errors. Additionally, damage to, or failure or unavailability of, any significant aspect of our cloud hosting facilities could interrupt the availability of our cloud offerings, which could cause disruption for our customers, and, in turn, their customers, and expose us to liability. If any of these risks materialize, they could result in additional costs and expenses, exposure to liability claims, diversion of technical and other resources to engage in remediation efforts, loss of customers or negative publicity, each of which could negatively impact our business and operating results.

If third party suppliers upon which we rely are not able to fulfill our needs, our ability to timely bring our products to market could be affected. There are a number of vendors providing the services and producing the parts and components that we utilize in or in connection with our products. However, there are some services and components that are licensed or purchased from single sources due to price, quality, technology, functionality or other reasons. For example, we depend on transaction processing services from Accenture, computer chips and microprocessors from Intel and operating systems from Microsoft. Certain parts and components used in the manufacturing of our ATMs and the delivery of many of our retail solutions are also supplied by single sources. In addition, there are a number of key suppliers for our businesses that provide us with critical products for our solutions. If we were unable to secure the necessary services or maintain current demand, including contract manufacturing, parts, software, components or products from a particular vendor, and we had to find an alternative supplier, our new and existing product shipments and solution deliveries, or the provision of contracted services, could be delayed, impacting our business and operating results.

We have, from time to time, formed alliances with third parties that have complementary products, software, services and skills. These alliances represent many different types of relationships, such as outsourcing arrangements to manufacture hardware and subcontract agreements with third parties to perform services and provide products and software to our customers in connection with our solutions. For example, we rely on Jabil Inc. to provide contract manufacturing services for our ATMs and self-service checkout solutions, primarily for our customers in the Americas. We also rely on third parties for cash replenishment services for our ATM products. These alliances introduce risks that we cannot control, such as nonperformance by third parties and difficulties with or delays in integrating elements provided by third parties into our solutions. Lack of information technology infrastructure, shortages in business capitalization, and manual processes and data integrity issues, particularly with smaller suppliers can also create product time delays, inventory and invoicing problems, and staging delays, as well as other operating issues. The failure of third parties to provide high-quality products or services that conform to required specifications or contractual arrangements could impair the delivery of our solutions on a timely basis, create exposure for non-compliance with our contractual commitments to our customers and impact our business and operating results. Also, some of these third parties have access to confidential NCR and customer data, personal data, and sensitive data, the integrity and security of which are of significant importance to the Company.

The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. The impacts of COVID-19, including several emerging variants of COVID-19, have grown throughout the world. The ultimate scale and scope of the COVID-19 pandemic and the pace and degree of recovery are unknown and are expected to continue to adversely impact our business and financial condition for an extended period. The specific impacts of COVID-19 on our
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Company includes, but is not limited to, the following items, each of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations, or otherwise limit our ability to execute our business strategy and financial goals.

Governmental authorities have implemented numerous measures attempting to contain and mitigate the effects of the virus, including travel bans and restrictions, quarantines, shelter in place orders and shutdowns. While we have implemented programs to mitigate the impact of these measures on our results of operations, there can be no assurance that these programs will be successful. There is significant uncertainty regarding such measures and potential future measures.

Our Company and many of our suppliers have faced challenges with workforce safety and availability, labor and wage inflation, a changing workforce, and component availability and supply cost escalations, including materials, labor and freight. Our ability to maintain a safe and cost-effective workforce and supply chain as COVID-19 and its impacts evolve may continue to adversely affect our Company and our suppliers and distributors.

Our manufacturing and distribution facilities are located in areas that have been affected by the pandemic and we have taken measures to try to contain it. Restrictions on our access to our manufacturing facilities or on our support operations or workforce, or similar limitations for our distributors and suppliers, could limit customer demand and/or our capacity to meet customer demand.

The continued spread of COVID-19 could cause delay, or limit the ability of, customers to continue to operate and perform, including in making timely payments to us, or cause a decrease in customer demand or a slowdown in customer expansion. Local governmental restrictions and public perceptions of the risks associated with the COVID-19 pandemic have caused, and may continue to cause, consumers to avoid or limit gatherings in public places or social interactions, which have and could continue to adversely impact the businesses of our customers in the banking, retail and hospitality industries we serve due to physical store closures, the willingness of our customers to make capital expenditures or pay accounts receivable, the ability of our customers to obtain financing for the purchase of our solutions, or the amount of disposable income available to consumers, which may adversely impact the businesses of our customers.

The spread of COVID-19 has caused us to modify our business practices, such as employee work locations and workforce numbers and compensation, and we may take further actions as may be required by government authorities or that we determine are in the best interests of our employees, customers, distributors, suppliers and contractors. Remote talent management and return to work efforts may cause loss of efficiency and negatively impact our company culture and morale.

There is no certainty that measures taken to mitigate the risks posed by the COVID-19 pandemic will be successful, and our ability to perform critical functions could be harmed. As our Company continues to address such challenges, legal disputes, actions or proceedings related to COVID-19 and its impacts may arise. The degree to which COVID-19 affects our financial results and operations will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted, including, but not limited to, the duration and spread of the COVID-19 pandemic or any related emerging variants, their severity, the actions to contain COVID-19 or treat its impact, the continued distribution and the effectiveness of vaccines and boosters on COVID-19, and how quickly and to what extent normal economic and operating conditions resume or continue to resume as COVID-19 variants impact our economy.

Our historical and ongoing manufacturing activities subject us to environmental exposures. Our facilities and operations are subject to a wide range of environmental protection laws, and we have investigatory and remedial activities underway at a number of facilities that we currently own or operate, or formerly owned or operated, to comply, or to determine compliance, with such laws. In addition, our products are subject to environmental laws in a number of jurisdictions. Given the uncertainties inherent in such activities, there can be no assurances that the costs required to comply with applicable environmental laws will not impact future operating results. We have also been identified as a potentially responsible party in connection with certain environmental matters, including the Fox River and Kalamazoo River matters, as further described in Note 10, “Commitments and Contingencies”, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of Part II of this Report; in “Government Regulations” within Item 1 of Part I of this Report; and in “Environmental and Legal Contingencies” within the “Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates” section of “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included in Item 7 of Part II of this Report, and we incorporate such disclosures by reference and make them a part of this discussion of risk factors.

Climate change could negatively impact our business long-term. Global climate change may have an increasingly adverse impact on NCR’s business continuity and our ability to keep our employees safe and provide for our customers. NCR considers potential risks related to weather as part of its operations strategy and has business continuity and disaster recovery plans in place. However, they may not adequately protect us from serious disasters and adverse impacts. In addition, climate change events could have an impact on critical infrastructure in the United States and internationally, which has the potential to disrupt our business, our third-
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party suppliers, or the business of our customers and partners. They may also cause us to experience higher losses, attrition and additional costs to maintain or resume operations.

We have operations all over the world and our sites in California, Texas, Florida, and India are particularly vulnerable to climate change effects. In 2021, the west coast of the United States experienced historic wildfires; a winter storm in Texas led to massive power outages; and multiple hurricanes formed over the gulf coast - all of which caused significant destruction to the affected regions. We anticipate that similar weather events will continue to bring significant annual destruction in vulnerable areas. In India, extreme temperatures and increased cyclones’ frequency could interrupt our business continuity arrangements. The long-term effects of climate change could have significant repercussions for the global economy and cause significant financial and physical damages.

DATA PRIVACY & SECURITY

Data protection, cybersecurity and data privacy issues could negatively impact our business. Our products and services, including our cloud and hosted solutions as well as our payments and networking solutions, facilitate financial and other transactions for the customers in the industries we serve. As a result, we collect, use, transmit and store certain of the transaction, cryptocurrency, private keys, and personal data of our customers and end-users. We also have access to transaction and personal data of our customers and their customers through or in the course of servicing our products or third-party products. Additionally, we collect, use and store personal data of our employees and the personnel of our business partners, such as resellers, suppliers and contractors, in the ordinary course of business. While we have programs and measures in place designed to protect and safeguard this data, and while we have implemented access controls designed to limit the risk of unauthorized use or disclosure by employees and contractors, the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access to this data are complex and changing, as are the underlying objectives of the attacker, like targeted business disruption, financial impact, intellectual property theft, political motives, or sophisticated nation-state sponsored and organized cyber-criminal activity, and may be difficult to detect for long periods of time. An attack, disruption, intrusion, denial of service, theft or other breach, or an inadvertent act by an employee or contractor, could result in unauthorized access to, or disclosure of, this data, resulting in claims, costs and reputational harm that could negatively affect our operating results. We may also detect, or may receive notice from third parties (including governmental agencies) regarding potential vulnerabilities in our information technology systems, our products, or third-party products used in conjunction with our products or our business. In the course of our business activities, NCR contracts with numerous suppliers, vendors and resellers who may experience a cybersecurity, data protection or privacy issue that could negatively affect our operating results. Even if these potential vulnerabilities do not result in a data breach, their existence can adversely affect marketplace confidence and reputation. To the extent such vulnerabilities require remediation, such remedial measures could require significant resources and may not be implemented before such vulnerabilities are exploited. As the landscape evolves, we may also find it necessary to make significant further investments to protect information and infrastructure.

Like most companies, NCR is regularly the subject of attempted cyberattacks, which may involve personal data. To date, the Company is not aware of any that have caused adverse consequences material to the Company. Most such attacks are detected and prevented by the Company’s various information technology and data protections, including but not limited to firewalls, intrusion prevention systems, denial of service detection, anomaly based detection, anti-virus/anti-malware, endpoint encryption and detection and response software, Security Information and Event Management (“SIEM”) system, identity management technology, security analytics, multi-factor authentication and encryption. There can be no assurance that our protections will always be successful.

The Company has established relationships with cybersecurity firms and internal cybersecurity experts, which it engages in connection with certain suspected incidents. The costs arising from those engagements, which depending on the incident may include both investigatory and remedial efforts, have not to date been material to the Company. The Company also regularly undergoes evaluation of its protections against incidents, including both self-assessments and expert third-party assessments, and it regularly enhances those protections, both in response to specific threats and as part of the Company’s efforts to stay current with advances in cybersecurity defense. When the Company experiences a confirmed cybersecurity incident it generally performs root cause analyses and in appropriate instances will implement additional controls based on those analyses. In 2021, Company spending on cybersecurity efforts represented approximately 10% of its overall IT spend. There can be no assurance that the Company or its cybersecurity consultants will be able to prevent or remediate all future incidents or that the cost associated with responding to any such incident will not be significant.

The personal information and other data that we process and store also are subject to data security and data privacy obligations and laws of many jurisdictions, which are growing in complexity and sophistication as data becomes more enriched and technology and the global data protection landscape evolves. These laws may conflict with one another, and many of them are subject to frequent modification and differing interpretations. The laws impose a significant compliance burden and include, for example, the European Union's (“EU”) General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”), the California Consumer Privacy Act and the Brazilian General
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Data Protection Law. Complying with these evolving and varying standards could require significant expense and effort, and could require us to change our business practices or the functionality of our products and services in a manner adverse to our customers and our business. In addition, violations of these laws can result in significant fines, penalties, claims by regulators or other third parties, and damage to our brand and business. The GDPR, for example, includes fines of up to €20 million or up to 4% of the annual global revenues of the infringer for failure to comply, and grants corrective powers to supervisory authorities including the ability to impose a limit on processing of personal data. The laws also cover the transfer of personal, financial and business information, including transfers of employee information between us and our subsidiaries, across international borders.

FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING

Our level of indebtedness could limit our financial and operating activities and adversely affect our ability to incur additional debt to fund future needs. At December 31, 2021, we had approximately $5.62 billion of total indebtedness outstanding, which increased substantially from the prior year due to the acquisition of Cardtronics. At December 31, 2021, we had approximately $894 million of secured revolving credit commitments undrawn and available for borrowing under our senior secured revolving credit facility. Our current level of indebtedness could:

require us to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flow to the payment of principal and interest, thereby reducing the funds available for operations and future business opportunities;

make it more difficult for us to satisfy our obligations with respect to our outstanding debt, including obligations to repurchase our senior unsecured notes under our indentures following the occurrence of certain changes in control;

limit our ability to borrow money or otherwise enter into financing arrangements that would provide us with additional capital if needed for other purposes, including working capital, capital expenditures, debt service requirements, acquisitions and general corporate purposes, on satisfactory terms or at all;

limit our ability to adjust to changing economic, business and competitive conditions;

place us at a competitive disadvantage with competitors who may have less indebtedness or greater access to financing or access to financing on preferential terms;

make us more vulnerable to an increase in interest rates, a downturn in our operating performance or a decline in general economic, business and other conditions; and

make us more susceptible to adverse changes in our credit ratings, which could impact our ability to obtain financing in the future and increase the cost of such financing.

To the extent that we are unable to successfully integrate Cardtronics or achieve the projected efficiencies and synergies of the acquisition, it may materially adversely affect our ability to service the indebtedness. If compliance with our obligations under our debt and other financing agreements materially limits our financial or operating activities, or hinders our ability to adapt to changing industry conditions, we may lose market share, our revenue may decline and our operating results may be negatively affected.

The terms of the documents governing our indebtedness include financial and other covenants that could restrict or limit our financial and business operations. Our credit agreement governing the senior secured facilities and the indentures for our senior unsecured notes include restrictive covenants that, subject to certain exceptions and qualifications, restrict or otherwise limit our ability and the ability of our subsidiaries to, among other things:

incur additional indebtedness;
create liens on, sell or otherwise dispose of, our assets;
engage in certain fundamental corporate changes or changes to our business activities;
make certain investments or material acquisitions;
engage in sale-leaseback or hedging transactions;
repurchase our common stock, pay dividends or make similar distributions on our capital stock;
repay certain indebtedness;
engage in certain affiliate transactions; and
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enter into agreements that restrict our ability to create liens, pay dividends or make loan repayments.

The senior secured credit agreement and the indentures for our senior unsecured notes also contain certain affirmative covenants, and the senior secured credit agreement require us to comply with a leverage ratio that measures our debt relative to our Consolidated EBITDA (as defined in the senior secured credit agreement).

These covenants and restrictions could affect our ability to operate our business and may limit our ability to react to market conditions or take advantage of potential business opportunities as they arise. Additionally, our ability to comply with these covenants may be affected by events beyond our control, including general economic and credit conditions and industry downturns.

If we fail to comply with these covenants and are unable to obtain a waiver or amendment from the applicable debtholders, an event of default would result under the applicable agreements and under other agreements containing related cross-default provisions.

If we fail to comply with these covenants and are unable to obtain a waiver or amendment from the applicable lenders, an event of default would result under these agreements and under other agreements containing related cross-default provisions.

Upon an event of default under the senior secured credit agreement, the administrative agent or the required lenders could, among other things, declare outstanding amounts due and payable, refuse to lend additional amounts to us, or require us to deposit cash collateral in respect of outstanding letters of credit. If we were unable to repay or pay the amounts due, the administrative agent or the lenders could, among other things, proceed against the collateral granted to them to secure such indebtedness, which includes certain of our domestic assets and the equity interests of certain of our domestic and foreign subsidiaries.
Upon an event of default under the indentures for our senior unsecured notes, the related trustee or the holders of our senior unsecured notes could declare all outstanding amounts immediately due and payable.

Despite our current levels of debt, we may still incur substantially more debt, including secured debt, and similar liabilities, which would increase the risks described in these risk factors relating to indebtedness. Although the agreements governing our senior secured credit facilities and our senior unsecured notes include restrictions on our ability to incur additional debt, those agreements do not prohibit us from incurring additional debt or pursuing other financing arrangements. As a result, the amount of additional debt and other obligations that we could incur could be substantial. In addition, certain types of liabilities are not considered “Indebtedness” under our senior secured credit agreement or the indentures governing our senior unsecured notes, and our senior secured credit agreement and indentures do not impose any limitation on the amount of liabilities incurred by our subsidiaries, if any, that are designated as “unrestricted subsidiaries” under our senior secured credit agreement or indentures, as applicable. Accordingly, to the extent permitted under our senior secured credit agreement or indentures, we could incur significant additional debt, liabilities or similar obligations in the future, some of which could constitute secured debt (such as additional debt under our senior secured credit agreement). In addition, if we form or acquire any subsidiaries in the future, those subsidiaries also could incur debt or similar liabilities. If new debt or similar liabilities are added to our current debt levels, the related risks that we now face could increase.

We may, from time to time, seek to opportunistically refinance, amend, reprice and/or otherwise replace any of our debt, obtain additional debt financing or enter into other financing arrangements, reduce or extend our debt, lower our interest payments or the cost of capital available to us under certain types of financing arrangements, or otherwise seek to improve our financial position or the terms of our debt or other financing agreements. These actions may include open market debt repurchases, negotiated repurchases, or other repayments, redemptions or retirements of our debt or other financing arrangements. The amount of debt that may be borrowed or issued, refinanced, and/or repurchased, repaid, redeemed or otherwise retired, if any, will depend on market conditions, trading levels of our debt, our cash position, compliance with our debt covenants and other considerations. Any such actions could impact our financial condition or results of operations.

If we are unable to continue to access or renew financing sources and obtain capital, our ability to maintain and grow our business may be impaired. We use debt and other sources of financing to maintain and grow our business. There can be no assurance that we will be able to renew our senior secured credit facilities after their current maturity dates on acceptable terms, or at all, or that we will be able to obtain additional or replacement financing on acceptable terms or at all. The availability of additional financing will depend on a variety of factors such as market conditions, the general availability of credit, our financial position, our results of operations, and the capacity for additional borrowing or other forms of financing under our existing financing arrangements. If our various financing alternatives were to become limited or unavailable, we may be unable to maintain or grow our business and our operations could be materially adversely affected.
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Our cash flows may not be sufficient to service our indebtedness, and if we are unable to satisfy our obligations under our indebtedness, we may be required to seek other financing alternatives, which may not be successful. Our ability to make timely payments of principal and interest on our debt obligations depends on our ability to generate positive cash flows from operations, which is subject to general economic conditions, competitive pressures and certain financial, business and other factors, which may include factors beyond our control. If our cash flows and capital resources are insufficient to make these payments, we may be required to seek additional financing sources, reduce or delay capital expenditures, sell assets or operations or refinance our indebtedness. These actions could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, we may not be able to take any of these actions, and, even if successful, these actions may not permit us to meet our scheduled debt service obligations. Our ability to restructure or refinance our outstanding indebtedness will depend on, among other things, the condition of the capital markets and our financial condition at such time. There can be no assurance that we will be able to restructure or refinance any of our indebtedness on commercially reasonable terms or at all. If we cannot make scheduled payments on our debt, we will be in default and the outstanding principal and interest on our debt could be declared to be due and payable, in which case we could be forced into bankruptcy or liquidation or required to substantially restructure or alter our business operations or debt obligations.

Borrowings under our senior secured credit facilities bear interest at a variable rate which subjects us to interest rate risk, which could cause our debt service obligations or other costs of capital under our senior secured credit facilities to increase significantly. All of our borrowings under our senior secured credit facilities are priced using variable rates of interest and expose us to interest rate risk. If interest rates increase, our debt service obligations on this variable rate indebtedness would increase even if the amount borrowed were to remain the same. Although we may enter into interest rate swaps or similar instruments to reduce interest rate volatility in connection with our variable rate financing arrangements, we cannot provide assurances that we will be able to do so or that such swaps or instruments will be effective.

The terms governing our trade receivables facility, including the length of term, financial and other covenants, and obligations to remit collections on the sold receivables could restrict or otherwise limit our financial and business operations. During 2021, we amended our trade receivables facility to allow, among other things, one of our wholly-owned, bankruptcy remote special purposes entities (an “SPE”) to sell to PNC and other participating financial institutions an undivided ownership interest in a portion of the trade receivables owned by such SPE, in an amount not to exceed $300 million at any point in time. Our trade receivables facility has a term of two years and contains customary termination events, including termination events that are based on the performance of the pool of receivables, including the pool's satisfaction of certain financial tests relating to the three-month rolling average ratios of defaults, delinquencies, dilution and days' sales outstanding. If we fail to renew our trade receivable facility or a termination event occurs and we are unable to obtain a waiver or amendment from the applicable purchasers, we would be required to continue remitting collections to the purchasers until the facility was terminated, and we would no longer benefit from the liquidity provided to us by the ability to sell our receivables. Such a result could negatively impact the cash that we have available to use in our financial and business operations. A termination event under the trade receivables facility would also result in an event of default or a termination event under other agreements containing related cross-default provisions.

Certain changes in control may result in an acceleration of our indebtedness or our obligations under other financing arrangements, or may require us to repurchase our senior unsecured notes or our Series A Convertible Preferred Stock. Upon the occurrence of a change in control under the applicable indenture governing the applicable senior unsecured notes, holders of those notes may require us to repurchase their notes. On any date during the three months commencing on and immediately following March 16, 2024 and the three months commencing on and immediately following every third anniversary of such date, holders of our Series A Convertible Preferred Stock will have the right to require us to repurchase any or all of our outstanding Series A Convertible Preferred Stock. In addition, upon certain change of control events involving the Company, holders of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock can require us, subject to certain exceptions, to repurchase any or all of their Series A Convertible Preferred Stock.

It is possible that we would not have sufficient funds at the time that we are required to make any such purchase of notes or Series A Convertible Preferred Stock (or both). We cannot assure the holders of the senior unsecured notes and Series A Convertible Preferred Stock that we will have sufficient financial resources, or will be able to arrange financing, to pay the repurchase price in cash with respect to any such notes or Series A Convertible Preferred Stock that holders have requested to be repurchased upon a change in control or scheduled redemption. Our failure to repurchase the senior unsecured notes of a series when required would result in an event of default with respect to such notes which could, in turn, constitute a default under the terms of our other indebtedness, if any. If we are unable to repurchase all shares of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock that holders have requested to be purchased, then we are required to pay dividends on the shares not repurchased at a rate equal to 8.0% per annum, accruing daily from such date until the full purchase price, plus all accrued dividends, are paid in full in respect of such shares of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock.
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In addition, a change in control (i) may constitute an event of default under our senior secured credit agreement that would permit the lenders to accelerate the maturity of the borrowings thereunder and/or terminate the commitments under the senior secured revolving credit facility, (ii) may constitute a termination event under our trade receivables facility that would permit the purchasers to declare the capital they have invested in our receivables to be due and owing and (iii) may require us to make a similar change in control offer to holders of our existing senior unsecured notes.

Certain important corporate events, such as leveraged recapitalization that would increase the level of our indebtedness, may not constitute a change in control under the indentures governing our unsecured notes or the terms of our Series A Convertible Preferred Stock.

A lowering or withdrawal of the ratings assigned to our debt securities by rating agencies may increase our future capital costs and reduce our access to capital. Any rating assigned to our debt could be lowered or withdrawn entirely by a rating agency if, in that rating agency’s judgment, future circumstances relating to the basis of the rating, such as adverse changes, so warrant. Any future lowering of our ratings likely would make it more difficult or more expensive for us to obtain additional debt financing or capital from other financing arrangements.

Our pension liabilities could adversely affect our liquidity and financial condition. At December 31, 2021, our obligation for benefits under our pension plans was $2,987 million and our pension plan assets totaled $2,485 million, which resulted in an underfunded pension obligation of $502 million. While we rebalanced our United States and international plan assets in order to reduce volatility, made several discretionary contributions to our pension plans and have, from time to time, completed de-risking actions, including plan settlements, our remaining underfunded pension obligation continues to require ongoing cash contributions. Our underfunded pension obligation also may be affected by future transfers and settlements relating to our pension plans.

In addition, certain of the plan assets remain subject to financial market risk, and our actuarial and other assumptions underlying our expected future benefit payments, long-term expected rate of return and future funding expectations for our plans depend on, among other things, interest rate levels and trends and capital market expectations. Further volatility in the performance of financial markets, changes in any of these actuarial assumptions (including those described in our “Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates” section of the “Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included in Item 7 of Part II of this Report) or changes in regulations regarding funding requirements could require material increases to our expected cash contributions to our pension plans in future years.

We may be required to write down the value of certain significant assets, which would adversely affect our operating results. We have a number of significant assets on our balance sheet as of December 31, 2021 and the value of these assets can be adversely impacted by factors related to our business and operating performance, as well as factors outside of our control. We recognize deferred tax assets and liabilities based on the differences between the financial statement carrying amounts and the tax basis of assets and liabilities. Our deferred tax assets, net of valuation allowances, totaled approximately $908 million and $1,109 million at December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. We regularly review our deferred tax assets for recoverability and establish a valuation allowance if it is more likely than not that some portion or all of a deferred tax asset will not be realized. If we are unable to generate sufficient future taxable income, if there is a material change in the actual effective tax rates or if there is a change to the time period within which the underlying temporary differences become taxable or deductible, then we could be required to increase our valuation allowance against our deferred tax assets, which could result in a material increase in our effective tax rate.

NCR has previously recorded valuation allowances related to certain deferred tax assets due to the uncertainty of the ultimate realization of the future benefits from those assets. The recorded valuation allowances cover deferred tax assets, primarily tax loss carryforwards and foreign tax credits, in tax jurisdictions where there is uncertainty as to the ultimate realization of those tax losses and credits. If we are unable to generate sufficient future taxable income of the proper source in the time period within which the temporary differences underlying our deferred tax assets become deductible, or before the expiration of our loss and credit carryforwards, additional valuation allowances could be required in the future.



LAW AND COMPLIANCE

Our continuing ability to be a leading software- and services-led enterprise provider could be negatively affected if we do not protect our intellectual property, especially our software. It is critical to our strategy, and the benefits provided by our innovations and technologies, that we are able to protect, leverage and rely on our intellectual property, including our intellectual property rights. We protect our innovations and technologies through intellectual property rights, including patents, copyrights, trademarks
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(including service marks) and trade secrets. To the extent we are not successful in protecting our intellectual property, especially that relate to our software and services, our business could be adversely impacted.

Many of our offerings rely on technologies developed by others, and if we are unable to continue to obtain licenses for such technologies or licenses to substitutes for similar technologies, our business could be adversely impacted.

From time to time, we receive notices and other communications from third parties, including our customers, regarding patents and other intellectual property rights that may pertain to claims from third parties regarding infringement of patents and other intellectual property rights. Whether those claims have merit, they may require significant resources to analyze, address and defend, as appropriate. If an infringement claim is successful and we are required to pay damages, or we are unable to license the infringed item or substitute a similar non-infringing item on a reasonable basis, our business could be adversely impacted.

Changes to our tax rates and additional income tax liabilities could impact profitability. We are a United States based multinational company subject to income taxes in the United States and a significant number of foreign jurisdictions. Our domestic and international tax liabilities are dependent on the distribution of our earnings across different jurisdictions, and our provision for income taxes and cash tax liability could be adversely affected if the distribution of earnings is higher than expected in jurisdictions with higher statutory tax rates.

In addition, changes in United States or foreign tax laws and regulations, which have become more frequent     in recent years, or tax rulings could affect our financial position and results of operations. For example, in light of continuing global fiscal challenges, various levels of government and international organizations such as the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (“OECD”) and EU are increasingly focused on tax reform and other legislative or regulatory action to increase tax revenue and establish minimum levels of corporate income tax. These tax reform efforts, such as the OECD-led Base Erosion and Profit Shifting project (“BEPS”), are designed to ensure that corporate entities are taxed on a larger percentage of their earnings. Although some countries have passed tax laws based on findings from the BEPS project, the final nature, timing and extent of any such tax reforms or other legislative or regulatory actions is unpredictable, and it is difficult to assess their overall effect. Additionally, tax law changes that could significantly reduce or limit our ability to utilize our deferred tax assets could have a material impact on our tax rate and cash tax payments. Any of these potential changes could increase our effective tax rate, increase cash tax payments and adversely impact our financial results.

We are also subject to ongoing audits of our income tax returns in various jurisdictions both in the United States and internationally and could be subject to additional audits focusing on transfer pricing. While we believe that our tax positions will be sustained, the outcomes of such audits could result in the assessment of additional taxes, which could adversely impact our cash flows and financial results.

We face uncertainties with regard to regulations, lawsuits and other related matters. In the normal course of business, we are subject to proceedings, lawsuits, claims and other matters, including, for example, those that relate to the environment, health and safety, labor and employment, employee benefits, import/export compliance, intellectual property, data privacy and security, payments services (such as payment processing and settlement services), cryptocurrency, product liability, commercial disputes and regulatory compliance, among others. Because such matters are subject to many uncertainties, their outcomes are not predictable and we must make certain estimates and assumptions in our financial statements. While we believe that amounts provided in our Consolidated Financial Statements with respect to such matters are currently adequate in light of the probable and estimable liabilities, there can be no assurances that the amounts required to satisfy alleged liabilities from such matters will not impact future operating results. Additionally, we are subject to diverse and complex laws and regulations, including those relating to corporate governance, public disclosure and reporting, environmental safety and the discharge of materials into the environment, product safety, import and export compliance, data privacy and security, antitrust and competition, government contracting, anti-corruption, and labor and human resources, which are rapidly changing and subject to many possible changes in the future. Compliance with these laws and regulations, including changes in accounting standards, taxation requirements, and federal securities laws among others, may create a substantial burden on us, and substantially increase costs to our organization or could have an impact on our future operating results.

We expect new environmental, health, and safety laws and regulations that may affect us, our suppliers, and our customers. Climate change regulation in particular has been the subject of federal regulation in the United States as well as in other jurisdictions around the world. With the change of Presidential administration and President Biden’s goals of “80 percent clean electricity and 50 percent economy-wide carbon emissions reductions by 2030”, a number of proposals related to climate change have been introduced by U.S. Congress members. These proposals all seek to address climate change and range on topic, from proposed legislation on land-use, energy, transportation, adaptation and finance. Such laws or regulations could cause us to incur additional direct costs for compliance, as well as increased indirect costs resulting from our customers, suppliers, or both incurring additional compliance
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costs that are passed on to us. In addition, the SEC is expected to mandate climate-related risk disclosure in the near future, which may impact or prompt us to accelerate our climate change mitigating efforts already underway and may impose additional compliance and disclosure costs.

Additionally, doing business on a worldwide basis requires us and our subsidiaries to comply with the laws and regulations of the U.S. government and various international jurisdictions. For example, our international operations are subject to United States and foreign anti-corruption laws and regulations, such as the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”), which generally prohibits U.S. companies or agents acting on behalf of such companies from making improper payments to foreign officials for the purpose of obtaining or keeping business. Our international operations are also subject to economic sanction programs administered by the U.S. Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”). If we are not in compliance with such laws and regulations, we may be subject to criminal and civil penalties, which may cause harm to our reputation and to our brand and could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Changes to cryptocurrency regulations could impact profitability. The regulation of cryptocurrency is still an evolving area both domestically and internationally, and we expect that we could become subject to additional regulations and licensing requirements, including as a result of the expansion of our cryptocurrency offerings and the increasing number of jurisdictions in which we provide these offerings. The evolving regulatory landscape may require us to make product changes, restrict product offerings in certain jurisdictions, or implement additional and potentially costly controls. If we fail to comply with regulations, requirements, or prohibitions applicable to us, we could face regulatory or other enforcement actions and potential fines and other consequences.

GOVERNANCE

The issuance of shares of our Series A Convertible Preferred Stock reduces the relative voting power of holders of our common stock, and the conversion and sale of those shares would dilute the ownership of such holders and may adversely affect the market price of our common stock. As of December 31, 2021, approximately 0.3 million shares of our Series A Convertible Preferred Stock were outstanding, representing approximately 7% of our outstanding common stock, including the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock on an as-converted basis. Holders of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock are entitled to a cumulative dividend at the rate of 5.5% per annum, which was payable quarterly in arrears and payable in-kind for the first sixteen dividend payments, after which, beginning in the first quarter of 2020, are payable in cash or in-kind at the option of the Company. If we fail to timely declare and pay a dividend, the dividend rate will increase to 8.0% per annum until such time as all accrued but unpaid dividends have been paid in full.

As holders of our Series A Convertible Preferred Stock are entitled to vote, on an as-converted basis, together with holders of our common stock on all matters submitted to a vote of the holders of our common stock, the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock, and the subsequent issuance of additional shares of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock through the payment of in-kind dividends, effectively reduces the relative voting power of the holders of our common stock.

In addition, the conversion of the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock to common stock would dilute the ownership interest of existing holders of our common stock, and any sales in the public market of the common stock issuable upon conversion of the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock would increase the number of shares of our common stock available for public trading, and could adversely affect prevailing market prices of our common stock.

Our Series A Convertible Preferred Stock has rights, preferences and privileges that are not held by, and are preferential to, the rights of our common stockholders, which could adversely affect our liquidity and financial condition, and may result in the interests of the holders of our Series A Convertible Preferred Stock differing from those of our common stockholders. The holders of our Series A Convertible Preferred Stock have the right to receive a liquidation preference entitling them to be paid out of our assets available for distribution to stockholders before any payment may be made to holders of any other class or series of capital stock, an amount equal to the greater of (a) 100% of the liquidation preference thereof plus all accrued dividends or (b) the amount that such holder would have been entitled to receive upon our liquidation, dissolution and winding up if all outstanding shares of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock had been converted into common stock immediately prior to such liquidation, dissolution or winding up.

In addition, dividends on the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock accrue and are cumulative at the rate of 5.5% per annum, payable quarterly in arrears. If we fail to timely declare and pay a dividend, the dividend rate will increase to 8.0% per annum until such time as all accrued but unpaid dividends have been paid in full. The dividends were payable in-kind for the first sixteen dividend payments, after which, beginning in the first quarter of 2020, dividends are payable in cash or in-kind at the option of the Company.

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The holders of our Series A Convertible Preferred Stock also have certain redemption rights or put rights, including the right to require us to repurchase all or any portion of the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock on any date during the three months commencing on and immediately following March 16, 2024 and the three months commencing on and immediately following every third anniversary of such date, at 100% of the liquidation preference thereof plus all accrued but unpaid dividends, and the right, subject to certain exceptions, to require us to repurchase all or any portion of the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock upon certain change of control events at the greater of (a) 100% of the liquidation preference thereof plus all accrued but unpaid dividends and (b) the consideration the holders would have received if they had converted their shares of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock into common stock immediately prior to the change of control event.

These dividend and share repurchase obligations could impact our liquidity and reduce the amount of cash flows available for working capital, capital expenditures, growth opportunities, acquisitions, and other general corporate purposes. Our obligations to the holders of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock could also limit our ability to obtain additional financing or increase our borrowing costs, which could have an adverse effect on our financial condition. The preferential rights could also result in divergent interests between the holders of our Series A Convertible Preferred Stock and holders of our common stock.

We could be subject to actions or proposals from stockholders that do not align with our business strategies or the interests of our other stockholders. While we seek to actively engage with stockholders and consider their views on business, strategy, and environmental, social and governance issues, responding to these stockholders could be costly and time-consuming, disrupt our business and operations, and divert the attention of our Board of Directors and senior management. Uncertainties associated with such activities could interfere with our ability to effectively execute our strategic plan, impact customer retention and long-term growth, and limit our ability to hire and retain personnel. In addition, actions of these stockholders may cause periods of fluctuation in our stock price based on temporary or speculative market perceptions or other factors that do not necessarily reflect the underlying fundamentals and prospects of our business.

Item 1B.    UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.

Item 2.         PROPERTIES

As of December 31, 2021, NCR operated 294 facilities consisting of approximately 6.5 million square feet in 60 countries throughout the world. On a square footage basis, 10% of these facilities are owned and 90% are leased. Within the total facility portfolio, NCR operates 14 research and development and manufacturing facilities totaling 1.3 million square feet, 100% of which is leased. The remaining 5.2 million square feet of space includes office, repair, and warehousing space and other miscellaneous sites, and is 87% leased. NCR also owns or leases 7 land parcels totaling 2.8 million square feet in 3 countries.

NCR is headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Our address at our corporate headquarters is 864 Spring Street Northwest, Atlanta Georgia, 30308, USA.

Item 3.        LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

Information regarding legal proceedings is included in Item 8 of Part II of this Report as part of Note 10, “Commitments and Contingencies”, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements and is incorporated herein by reference.

Item 4.        MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.
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PART II

Item 5.        MARKET FOR THE REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Market Information

NCR common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) and trades under the symbol “NCR”. There were approximately 73,118 holders of NCR common stock as of February 11, 2022.

Dividends

Historically NCR has not paid cash dividends and does not anticipate the payment of cash dividends on NCR common stock in the immediate future. The declaration of dividends is restricted under our senior secured credit facility and the terms of the indentures for our senior unsecured notes, and would be further subject to the discretion of NCR’s Board of Directors.

Stock Performance Graph

The following graph compares the relative investment performance of NCR stock, the Standard & Poor’s MidCap 400 Stock Index, Standard & Poor’s 500 Information Technology Sector and the Standard & Poor’s 500 Stock Index. This graph covers the five-year period from December 31, 2016 through December 31, 2021.

ncr-20211231_g2.jpg
Company / Index(1)
20172018201920202021
NCR Corporation$84 $57 $87 $93 $99 
S&P 500 Stock Index$122 $116 $153 $181 $233 
S&P 500 Information Technology Sector$139 $138 $208 $299 $403 
S&P MidCap 400 Stock Index$116 $103 $130 $148 $185 
(1)In each case, assumes a $100 investment on December 31, 2016, and reinvestment of all dividends, if any.


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Purchase of Company Common Stock

On October 19, 2016, the Board approved a share repurchase program, with no expiration from the date of authorization, for the systematic repurchase of the Company’s common stock to offset the dilutive effects of the Company’s employee stock purchase plan, equity awards and in-kind dividends on the Company’s Series A Convertible Preferred Stock. Availability under this program accrues quarterly based on the average value of dilutive issuances during the quarter.

On March 12, 2017, the Board approved a second share repurchase program that provides for the repurchase of up to $300 million of the Company’s common stock. On July 25, 2018, the Board authorized an incremental $200 million of share repurchases under this program.

No shares were repurchased under these programs during the three months ended December 31, 2021.

As of December 31, 2021, approximately $153 million was available for repurchases under the March 2017 program, and approximately $660 million was available for repurchases under the October 2016 dilution offset program. The timing and amount of repurchases under these programs depend upon market conditions and may be made from time to time in open market purchases, privately negotiated transactions, accelerated stock repurchase programs, issuer self-tender offers or otherwise. The repurchases will be made in compliance with applicable securities laws and may be discontinued at any time.

The Company occasionally purchases vested restricted stock or exercised stock options at the current market price to cover withholding taxes. For the three months ended December 31, 2021, 914,338 shares of vested restricted stock were purchased at an average price of $40.21 per share.

The Company’s ability to repurchase its common stock is restricted under the Company’s senior secured credit facility and terms of the indentures for the Company’s senior unsecured notes, which prohibit certain share repurchases, including during the occurrence of an event of default, and establish limits on the amount that the Company is permitted to use to repurchase shares and make other restricted payments. This amount is calculated using formulas based generally on 50% of the Company’s consolidated net income for the period beginning in the third quarter of 2012 through the end of the most recently ended fiscal quarter, subject to certain other adjustments and deductions, with certain prescribed minimums and its use is subject to customary conditions, including the absence of an event of default. These formulas are described in greater detail in the Company’s senior secured credit facility and the indentures for the Company’s senior unsecured notes, each of which is filed with the SEC.
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Item 6.        Reserved.

None.


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Index to Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (“MD&A”)
Page


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Item 7.    MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (“MD&A”)

This section should be read in conjunction with the audited Consolidated Financial Statements and related Notes included in Item 8 of Part II of this Report. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations contains forward-looking statements. See “Forward-Looking Statements and “Risk Factors in Item 1A of this Annual Report for a discussion of the uncertainties, risks and assumptions associated with these forward-looking statements that could cause future results to differ materially from those reflected in this section.

Our discussion within MD&A is organized as follows:

Overview. This section contains background information on our Company and a summary of significant themes and events during the year as well as strategic initiatives and trends in order to provide context for management’s discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations.

Results of operations. This section contains an analysis of our results of operations presented in the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Operations by comparing the results for the year ended December 31, 2021 to the results for the year ended December 31, 2020. On June 21, 2021, we completed the acquisition of Cardtronics plc (“Cardtronics”), which is included in the Banking segment results. For management's discussion of our results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2020 in comparison with the year ended December 31, 2019, please see our Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on February 26, 2021.

Liquidity and capital resources. This section provides an analysis of our cash flows and a discussion of our contractual obligations at December 31, 2021.

Critical accounting estimates. This section contains a discussion of the accounting policies that we believe are important to our financial condition and results of operations and that require judgment and estimates on the part of management in their application. In addition, all of our significant accounting policies, including critical accounting policies, are summarized in Note 1, “Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies”, in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II of this Report.



OVERVIEW

BUSINESS OVERVIEW

NCR is a software- and services-led enterprise technology provider that runs stores, restaurants and self-directed banking for our customers. Our software platform, which runs in the cloud and includes microservices and APIs that integrate with our customers' systems, and our NCR-as-a-Service solutions bring together all of the capabilities and competencies of NCR to power the technology to run our customers’ operations. We serve customers in the banking, retail, hospitality, and telecommunications and technology (“T&T”) industries. In this Report, we categorize our operations into the following segments: Banking, Retail, Hospitality, and T&T. Each of our segments derives its revenue in each of the sales theaters in which NCR operates.

Effective January 1, 2022, the Company realigned its reportable segments to correspond with changes to its operating model, management structure and organizational responsibilities. The reportable segments effective January 1, 2022 include: Payments & Network; Digital Banking; Self-Service Banking; Retail; and Hospitality. Additionally, effective January 1, 2022, the expenses related to corporate functions that are not specifically attributable to an individual reportable segment along with any immaterial operating segment(s) are included in Corporate & Other.

NCR is a global company that is headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia. NCR’s reputation is founded upon over 137 years of providing quality products, services and solutions to our customers. At the heart of our customer and other business relationships is a commitment to acting responsibly, ethically and with the highest level of integrity. This commitment is reflected in NCR’s Code of Conduct, which is available on the Corporate Governance page of our website.
SIGNIFICANT THEMES AND EVENTS

As more fully discussed in later sections of this MD&A, the following were significant themes and events for 2021.
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Revenue increased 15% from the prior year due to overall growth across the Banking, Retail and Hospitality segments
Software and services revenue represented 73% of total consolidated revenue
Recurring revenue increased 25% from the prior year and comprised 58% of total consolidated revenue
Completed acquisition of Cardtronics on June 21, 2021, the world's largest non-bank ATM operator and services provider, and the acquisition of LibertyX on January 5, 2022, a leading cryptocurrency software provider;
Completed various financing transactions related to the acquisition of Cardtronics, redeemed note due in 2025 to reduce interest expense, and subsequently reduced leverage; and
Announced aspirational five-year goals for 2026, which include annual recurring revenue of 80 percent by 2026, annual non-GAAP earnings per share (“non-GAAP EPS”)(1) growth of 15 percent, and annual free cash flow(1) of $1 billion in 2026

(1) With respect to our goals of free cash flow and non-GAAP EPS growth, we are not providing a reconciliation to the respective GAAP measure because we are unable to predict with reasonable certainty the reconciling items that may affect GAAP EPS and Cash flow from operations without unreasonable effort.. For the definition of non-GAAP EPS, see the Our Strategy section within Item 1 of this Report. For our definition of free cash flow, see the Financial Condition, Liquidity and Capital Resources section later in MD&A.



STRATEGIC INITIATIVES AND TRENDS

In order to provide long-term value to all our stakeholders, we set complementary business goals and financial strategies. NCR is continuing its transition to become a software platform and payments company with a shift to a higher level of recurring revenue. Our business goal is to be a leading enterprise technology provider that runs stores, restaurants and self-directed banking through our software platform and our NCR-as-a-Service solutions. In late 2018, we set five-year strategic goals, originally set as 2024 targets. These included to transition our revenue mix so that 80 percent of our total revenue is comprised of software and services revenue, 60 percent of our total revenue is comprised of recurring revenue, and our adjusted EBITDA margin rate increases to 20 percent. Since we were near achieving those goals, in late 2021, we established aspirational five-year goals for 2026, which include annual recurring revenue of 80 percent by 2026, annual earnings per share (non-GAAP EPS) growth of 15 percent, and annual non-GAAP free cash flow of $1 billion in 2026. Execution of our goals and strategy is driven by the following key pillars: (i) focus on our customers; (ii) take care of our employees; (iii) bring high-quality, innovative products to market; and (iv) leverage our brand.

As we strive to achieve these aspirational five-year goals, we plan to capitalize on opportunities presented by the acquisitions of Cardtronics and LibertyX to accelerate our Payments & Network business as we go to market with a more robust offering in this segment. We also plan to continue to improve our execution to drive solid returns and to transform our business to drive a re-rate of our valuation.

On February 8, 2022, NCR announced that its Board of Directors unanimously approved commencing a comprehensive strategic review, with the assistance of outside advisors, which will evaluate a full range of strategic alternatives available to NCR to enhance value for all shareholders. Those strategic alternatives could include a disposition of a material business or assets of the Company, a spin-off, merger or sale of the Company, other structural changes, changes to branding or geographic footprint or other transactions or alternatives. The Board has not set a timetable for the conclusion of its review of strategic alternatives. NCR does not intend to comment further on the strategic review process unless and until NCR has determined that further disclosure is beneficial or required by law. Shareholders are advised that there can be no certainty that the strategic review will result in a transaction, or if a transaction is pursued that such a transaction will be completed.

Cybersecurity Risk Management

Similar to most companies, NCR and its customers are subject to more frequent and increasingly sophisticated cybersecurity attacks. The Company maintains cybersecurity risk management policies and procedures including disclosure controls, which it regularly evaluates for updates, for handling and responding to cybersecurity events. These policies and procedures include internal notifications and engagements and, as necessary, cooperation with law enforcement. Personnel involved in handling and responding to cybersecurity events periodically undertake tabletop exercises to simulate an event. Our internal notification procedures include notifying the applicable Company attorneys, which, depending on the level of severity assigned to the event, may include direct notice to, among others, the Company’s General Counsel, Ethics & Compliance Officer, and Chief Privacy Officer. Company attorneys support efforts to evaluate the materiality of any incidents, determine whether notice to third parties such as customers or vendors is required, determine whether any prohibition on insider trading is appropriate, and assess whether disclosure to stockholders or governmental filings, including with the SEC, are required. Our internal notification procedures also include notifying various NCR Information Technology Services managers, subject matter experts in the Company’s software department and Company leadership, depending on the level of severity assigned to the event.
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For further information on potential risks and uncertainties see Item 1A “Risk Factors.”

IMPACTS FROM THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC

We continue to navigate through the challenging times presented by COVID-19 with a sharp focus on and goal of safeguarding our employees, helping our customers and managing impacts on our supply chain. Despite the unprecedented environment, our teams are executing at a high level and we are advancing our strategy.

The COVID-19 pandemic is complex and continues to evolve, including the latest Omicron variant. While it is difficult to project the long-term impact of the pandemic, we expect it will negatively impact our business at least in the short-term. The ultimate impact on our overall financial condition and operating results will depend on the currently unknowable duration and severity of the pandemic, supply chain challenges and cost escalations including materials, labor and freight, and any additional governmental and public actions taken in response. We continue to evaluate the long-term impact that COVID-19 may have on our business model. There can be no assurance that the measures we have taken or will take will completely offset the negative impact of COVID-19.

For further information on the risks posed to our business from the COVID-19 pandemic, refer to Item 1A of this Form 10-K.


RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Key Strategic Financial Metrics

The following tables show our key strategic financial metrics for the years ended December 31, the relative percentage that those amounts represent to total revenue, and the change in those amounts year-over-year. The software and services revenue and recurring revenue metrics below include the results of operations of Cardtronics for the period from the date of acquisition, June 21, 2021 to December 31, 2021.

Software and services revenue as a percentage of total revenue

Percentage of Total RevenueIncrease (Decrease)
(in millions)2021202020192021202020192021 v 20202020 v 2019
Software & Services$5,204 $4,452 $4,528 72.7 %71.7 %65.5 %17 %(2)%
Hardware$1,952 $1,755 $2,387 27.3 %28.3 %34.5 %11 %(26)%
Total Revenue$7,156 $6,207 $6,915 100.0 %100.0 %100.0 %15 %(10)%

Recurring revenue as a percentage of total revenue

Percentage of Total RevenueIncrease (Decrease)
(in millions)2021202020192021202020192021 v 20202020 v 2019
Recurring revenue (1)
$4,166 $3,338 $3,182 58.2 %53.8 %46.0 %25 %%
All other products and services$2,990 $2,869 $3,733 41.8 %46.2 %54.0 %%(23)%
Total Revenue$7,156 $6,207 $6,915 100.0 %100.0 %100.0 %15 %(10)%

(1) Recurring revenue includes all revenue streams from contracts where there is a predictable revenue pattern that will occur at regular intervals with a relatively high degree of certainty. This includes hardware and software maintenance revenue, cloud revenue, payment processing revenue, and certain professional services arrangements as well as term-based software license arrangements that include customer termination rights.

Net income (loss) from continuing operation and adjusted EBITDA(1) as a percentage of total revenue

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Percentage of Total RevenueIncrease (Decrease)
(in millions)2021202020192021202020192021 v 20202020 v 2019
Total Revenue$7,156 $6,207 $6,915 100.0 %100.0 %100.0 %15 %(10)%
Net income (loss) from continuing operations$97 $(7)$614 1.4 %(0.1)%8.9 %n/m(101)%
Adjusted EBITDA (1)
$1,244 $896 $1,058 17.4 %14.4 %15.3 %39 %(15)%


(1) NCR's management uses the non-GAAP measure adjusted EBITDA because it provides useful information to investors as an indicator of strength and performance of the Company's ongoing business operations, including funding discretionary spending such as capital expenditures, strategic acquisitions, and other investments. NCR determines adjusted EBITDA based on GAAP net income (loss) from continuing operations attributable to NCR plus interest expense, net; plus income tax expense (benefit); plus depreciation and amortization; plus stock-based compensation expense; plus other income (expense); plus pension mark-to-market adjustments, pension settlements, pension curtailments and pension special termination benefits and other special items, including amortization of acquisition-related intangibles, restructuring charges, among others. Refer to the table below for the reconciliations of net income (loss) from continuing operations (GAAP) to adjusted EBITDA (non-GAAP).

In millions202120202019
Net income (loss) from continuing operations (GAAP)$97 $(7)$614 
Pension mark-to-market adjustments(118)34 75 
Transformation and restructuring costs66 234 58 
Acquisition-related amortization of intangibles132 81 86 
Acquisition-related (gains) costs98 (6)
Internal reorganization and IP transfer— — (37)
Loss on debt extinguishment42 20 — 
Interest expense238 218 197 
Interest income(8)(8)(4)
Depreciation and amortization (excluding acquisition-related amortization of intangibles)357 275 232 
Income tax expense (benefit)186 (53)(273)
Stock-based compensation expense154 108 107 
Adjusted EBITDA (non-GAAP)$1,244 $896 $1,058 





Consolidated Results

The following table shows our results for the years December 31, the relative percentage that those amounts represent to revenue, and the change in those amounts year-over-year.

Percentage of Revenue (1)
Increase (Decrease)
(in millions)2021202020192021202020192021 v 20202020 v 2019
Product revenue$2,193 $2,005 $2,681 30.6 %