10-K 1 cenxform10k_20111231.htm ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2011 cenxform10k_20111231.htm


 
 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C.  20549
 
FORM 10-K
 
x ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE
SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2011
 
OR
 
o TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE
SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
Commission File Number 1-34474
 
CENTURY ALUMINUM COMPANY
 
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
13-3070826
(State or other jurisdiction of
(IRS Employer Identification No.)
Incorporation or organization)
 
   
2511 Garden Road
93940
Building A, Suite 200
(Zip Code)
Monterey, California
 
(Address of registrant’s principal offices)
 
 
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code:  (831) 642-9300
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
Title of each class:
 
Name of each exchange on which registered:
Common Stock, $0.01 par value per share
 
NASDAQ Stock Market LLC
Preferred Stock Purchase Rights
 
(NASDAQ Global Select Market)
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:  None
 
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.Yes x  No ¨
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.Yes ¨  No x
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes x  No ¨
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate website, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).     Yes  x    No ¨

 
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of the registrant’s knowledge, in a definitive proxy or information statement incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.   ¨
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company.  See the definition of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large Accelerated Filer
x
Accelerated Filer
¨
Non-Accelerated Filer
(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
¨
Smaller Reporting Company
¨
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).   Yes ¨  No x
 
Based upon the closing price of the registrant’s common stock on the NASDAQ Global Select Market on June 30, 2011, the approximate aggregate market value of the common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately $885,000,000.  As of January 31, 2012, 88,844,327 shares of common stock of the registrant were issued and outstanding.
 
Documents Incorporated by Reference:
 
All or a portion of Items 10 through 14 in Part III of this Form 10-K are incorporated by reference to the Registrant’s definitive proxy statement on Schedule 14A, which will be filed within 120 days after the close of the fiscal year covered by this report on Form 10-K, or if the Registrant’s Schedule 14A is not filed within such period, will be included in an amendment to this Report on Form 10-K which will be filed within such 120 day period.
 





 
PAGE
 
PART I
 
1
13
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PART II
 
26
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31
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48
111
111
111
 
PART III
 
112
112
112
112
112
 
PART IV
 
113
 
122
 

 
 




 
PART I
 
 
 
Item 1.  Business
 
Century Aluminum Company is a Delaware corporation with our principal executive offices located at 2511 Garden Road, Building A, Suite 200, Monterey, California 93940.
 
Throughout this Form 10-K, and unless expressly stated otherwise or as the context otherwise requires, "Century Aluminum Company," "Century Aluminum," "Century," the “Company,” "we," "us," and "our" refer to Century Aluminum Company and its subsidiaries.
 
 
Available Information
 
Additional information about Century may be obtained from our website, which is located at www.centuryaluminum.com.  Our website provides access to filings we have made through the EDGAR filing system of the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”), including our annual, quarterly and current reports filed on Forms 10-K, 10-Q and 8-K, respectively, our code of ethics that applies to all employees and ownership reports filed on Forms 3, 4 and 5 after December 16, 2002 by our directors, executive officers and beneficial owners of more than 5% of our outstanding common stock. These filings are also available on the SEC website at www.sec.gov.  In addition, we will make available free of charge copies of our Forms 10-K, Forms 10-Q, and Forms 8-K upon request.  A copy of the code of ethics is available on our website.  Requests for these documents can be made by contacting our Investor Relations Department by mail at: 2511 Garden Road, Building A, Suite 200, Monterey, CA 93940, or by phone at: (831) 642-9300.  Information contained in our website is not incorporated by reference in, and should not be considered a part of, this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
 
 
FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
 
This annual report includes forward-looking statements, which are subject to the “safe harbor” created by section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. We may make forward-looking statements in our SEC filings, press releases, news articles, earnings presentations and when we are speaking on behalf of the Company. Forward-looking statements can be identified by the fact that they do not strictly relate to historical or current facts. Often, they include the words “believe,” “expect,” “target,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “plan,” “seek,” “estimate,” “potential,” “project,” or words of similar meaning, or future or conditional verbs such as “will,” “would,” “should,” “could,” “might,” or “may.”
 
Forward-looking statements in this annual report, for example, include statements about the following subjects, among other things:
 

·
Our business objectives, strategies and initiatives, the growth of our business and our competitive position and prospects;
·
Our assessment of significant economic, financial, political and other factors and developments that may affect our results, including currency risks;
·
Our assessment of the aluminum market, aluminum prices, aluminum financing, inventories and warehousing arrangements and other similar matters;
·
Aluminum prices and their effect on our financial position and results of operations;
·
Future construction investment and development of our facility in Helguvik, Iceland, including our discussions and arbitration regarding power purchase agreements, future capital expenditures, the costs of completion or cancellation, production capacity and the sources of funding for the facility;
·
Our hedging and other strategies to mitigate risk and their potential effects;
·
Estimates relating to the costs and time necessary to restore our facility in Hawesville, KY to full stable operations following the restart of its previously curtailed potline;



 
 

·
Our curtailed operations, including the potential restart of curtailed operations, and potential curtailment of other domestic assets;
·
Our procurement of electricity, alumina, carbon products and other raw materials and our assessment of pricing and other terms relating thereto;
·
Estimates of our pension and other postemployment liabilities and future payments, deferred income tax assets and property plant and equipment impairment, environmental liabilities and other contingent liabilities and contractual commitments;
·
Changes in, or the elimination of, the retiree medical benefit plans and programs of certain of our subsidiaries and their effect on our financial position and results of operation;
·
Critical accounting policies and estimates, the impact or anticipated impact of recent accounting pronouncements or changes in accounting principle;
·
Our anticipated tax liabilities, benefits or refunds;
·
Negotiations with our unionized workforce;
·
Our assessment of the ultimate outcome of outstanding litigation and environmental matters and liabilities relating thereto;
·
Compliance with laws and regulations and the effect of future laws and regulations;
·
The costs and effects and our evaluation of and strategies with respect to legal and regulatory actions, investigations and similar matters;
·
Discussions with the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation regarding our Ravenswood facility;
·
Our capital resources, projected financing sources and projected uses of capital; and
·
Our debt levels and intentions to incur or repay debt in the future.

 
We believe the expectations reflected in our forward-looking statements are reasonable, based on information available to us on the date of this annual report. However, all forward-looking statements are subject to many risks and uncertainties, including those described under Item 1A, “Risk Factors,” and we cannot guarantee our future performance or results of operations, and you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements.  Although we undertake no obligation to revise or update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law, you are advised to consult any additional disclosures we make in our quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, annual report on Form 10-K and current reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC.  See Item 1, “Business - Available Information.”

 
 
Overview
 
We produce primary aluminum.  Aluminum is an internationally traded commodity, and its price is effectively determined on the London Metal Exchange (the “LME”).  Our primary aluminum facilities produce standard grade and value-added primary aluminum products.  Our current primary aluminum rated production capacity is 785,000 metric tons per year (“mtpy”), of which approximately 170,000 mtpy remained curtailed as of December 31, 2011.  We restarted approximately 49,000 mtpy of curtailed capacity at our Hawesville facility during 2011.  We produced approximately 602,000 metric tons of primary aluminum in 2011. 
 
Our primary aluminum capacity includes our facility in Grundartangi, Iceland (“Grundartangi”) with rated capacity of 260,000 mtpy; our facility in Hawesville, Kentucky (“Hawesville”) with rated capacity of 244,000 mtpy; a 49.7% interest in a facility in Mt. Holly, South Carolina (“Mt. Holly”) that provides us with rated capacity of 111,000 mtpy; and our facility in Ravenswood, West Virginia (“Ravenswood”), currently curtailed, with rated capacity of 170,000 mtpy.  We are constructing a primary aluminum facility in Helguvik, Iceland (the “Helguvik project”) which is currently contemplated to have a rated capacity of up to 360,000 mtpy.  In addition to our primary aluminum assets, we have a 40% stake in Baise Haohai Carbon Co., Ltd. (“BHH”), a carbon anode and cathode facility located in China.  The BHH facility has an annual anode production capacity of up to 180,000 mtpy and an annual graphitization capacity of up to 20,000 mtpy and supplies a portion of the anodes used in our Grundartangi facility.



 
 
In light of its high relative operating cost structure, as of December 31, 2011, all operations at Ravenswood remained curtailed.  We restarted the curtailed potline at our Hawesville facility in 2011.  With the full restart of the curtailed potline at Hawesville, our annualized operating rated production capacity of primary aluminum increased to approximately 615,000 mtpy.
 
We have continued investing in the Helguvik project.  During 2011, project activity and spending remained at modest levels.  We plan to restart major construction activity if we are able to successfully resolve of ongoing discussions with the contracted power suppliers for the project.  See “Electrical Power Supply Agreements.”
 
Primary Aluminum Facilities:
 
Facility
Location
Operational
Rated Capacity (mtpy) (4)
Ownership Percentage
Grundartangi
Grundartangi, Iceland
1998
260,000
100%
Hawesville (1)
Hawesville, Kentucky, USA
1970
244,000
100%
Ravenswood (2)
Ravenswood, West Virginia, USA
1957
170,000
100%
Mt. Holly (3)
Mt. Holly, South Carolina, USA
1980
224,000
49.7%

(1)
As of December 31, 2011, with the restart of the curtailed potline, the Hawesville facility is fully operational.
(2)
In February 2009, we curtailed all operations at the Ravenswood facility.  We may in the future restart the curtailed operations upon the realization of several objectives, including a new power agreement which would provide for flexibility in Ravenswood’s cost structure under adverse industry conditions as well as a new labor agreement.
(3)
Alcoa holds the remaining 50.3% ownership interest and is the operator.  Century’s share of Mt. Holly’s capacity is approximately 111,000 mtpy.
(4)
The rated capacity refers to the rated capacity of the technology used in the construction of the facility.  The actual production capacity of a facility may significantly exceed the rated capacity through production efficiencies, increased amperage and other similar measures.

 
Joint Venture Facility:
 
Facility
Location
Type
Capacity
Ownership Percentage
Baise Haohai Carbon Co., Ltd (1)
Guangxi Zhuang, China
Carbon anode, cathode and graphitized products
180,000 mtpy anode; 20,000 mtpy cathode/graphitized products
40%

(1)
Guangxi Qiangqiang Carbon Co., Ltd. holds the remaining 60% ownership interest and is the operator of this facility.
 
Our current long-term strategic objectives are to: (a) optimize our existing assets by managing costs and improving safety, productivity and efficiency; (b) expand our primary aluminum business by constructing, investing in or acquiring additional capacity that offers favorable returns; and (c) pursue upstream opportunities in bauxite mining, alumina refining and the production of other key raw materials.  The following table shows our primary aluminum shipment volumes since 2006.
 



 
 
 
Recent Developments
 
Information on our recent developments is available in Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included herein.
 
Competition
 
The market for primary aluminum is global, and demand for aluminum varies widely from region to region.  We compete with U.S. and international companies in the aluminum industry primarily in the areas of price, quality and service.  In addition, aluminum competes with materials such as steel, copper, carbon fiber, composites, plastic and glass, each of which may be substituted for aluminum in certain applications.
 
Our Hawesville plant is located adjacent to its largest customer.  This location allows Hawesville to deliver a portion of its production in molten form, at a cost savings to both parties, providing a competitive advantage over other potential suppliers. We believe that Hawesville also has a competitive advantage in that it currently is the largest producer of high purity aluminum in North America.
 
Customer Base
 
In 2011, we derived approximately 80% of our consolidated sales from our three major customers: Glencore International (together with its subsidiaries, “Glencore”), Southwire Company (“Southwire”), and BHP Billiton.  Additional information about the revenues and percentage of sales to these major customers is available in Note 20 Business Segments of the consolidated financial statements included herein.  We currently have long-term primary aluminum sales or tolling contracts with each of these customers.  More information about these contracts is available under “Forward Physical Delivery Agreements” in Note 16 Forward delivery contracts and financial instruments of the consolidated financial statements included herein.



 
 
Financial Information about Segments and Geographic Areas
 
We operate in one reportable segment, primary aluminum.  Additional information about our primary aluminum segment and certain geographic information is available in Note 20 Business Segments to the consolidated financial statements included herein.  For a description of certain risks attendant to our operations, see Item 1A, “Risk Factors.”
 
Energy, Key Supplies and Raw Materials
 
We consume the following key supplies and raw materials in the primary aluminum reduction process:
 
 
electricity
carbon anodes
liquid pitch
 
alumina
cathode blocks
calcined petroleum coke
 
aluminum fluoride
natural gas
silicon carbide
 
Electrical power, alumina, carbon anodes and labor are the principal components of cost of goods sold.  These components together represented over 80% of our 2011 cost of goods sold.  We have long-term contracts to attempt to ensure the future availability of many of our cost components.  For a description of certain risks attendant to our raw material supplies and labor, see Item 1A, “Risk Factors.”

Long-term Supply Contracts
 
Alumina Supply Agreements
 
A summary of our alumina supply agreements is provided below.  Grundartangi does not have long-term alumina supply agreements because this facility primarily tolls alumina provided by BHP Billiton and Glencore into primary aluminum.
 
In 2011, 10,500 metric tons of primary aluminum was produced at Grundartangi outside of such toll agreements, using alumina purchased on a spot basis.

Facility
Supplier
Term
Pricing
Mt. Holly
Trafigura AG
Through December 31, 2013
Variable, LME-based
Hawesville
Glencore
Through December 31, 2014
Variable, LME-based



 
 
Electrical Power Supply Agreements
 
We use significant amounts of electricity in the aluminum production process.  A summary of our long-term power supply agreements is provided below.

 
Facility
 
Supplier
 
Term
 
Pricing
Ravenswood (1)
Appalachian Power Company
Through June 30, 2012
Based on published tariff, with provisions for pricing based on the LME price for primary aluminum
Mt. Holly (2)
South Carolina Public Service Authority (“Santee Cooper”)
Through December 31, 2015
Fixed price, with fuel cost adjustment clause
Hawesville (3)
Big Rivers Energy Corporation (“Big Rivers”)
Through December 31, 2023
Cost-based
Grundartangi (4)
Landsvirkjun
Through 2019 - 2036
Variable rate based on the LME price for primary aluminum
Orkuveita Reykjavíkur (“OR”)
HS Orka hf (“HS”)
Helguvik (4)(5)
OR
Approximately 25 years from the dates of each phase of power delivery under the respective power agreements
Variable rate based on the LME price for primary aluminum
 
HS

(1)
All operations at the Ravenswood facility are presently curtailed.  Appalachian Power supplies all of Ravenswood’s power requirements.  Effective July 2006, the Public Service Commission of the State of West Virginia (the “PSC”) approved a special rate mechanism in connection with an increase in the applicable tariff rates.  Under the special rate mechanism, Ravenswood may be excused from or may defer the payment of the increase in the tariff rate if aluminum prices as quoted on the LME fall below pre-determined levels.  In June 2011, the PSC extended the special rate mechanism through June 2012.
(2)
In 2010, Santee Cooper amended the Mt. Holly power contract to provide power through 2015 priced at rates fixed under currently published schedules, subject to adjustments to cover Santee Cooper’s fuel costs with early termination provisions to allow Mt. Holly to terminate the power contract early, in whole or in part, without penalty, if the LME falls below certain negotiated levels.
(3)
Century Aluminum of Kentucky, our wholly owned subsidiary (“CAKY”) entered into an arrangement (the “Big Rivers Agreement”) toprovide power for Hawesville’s full production capacity requirements (approximately 482 megawatts (“MW”)) with pricing based on the provider’s cost of production.  The Big Rivers Agreement is take-or-pay for Hawesville’s energy requirements at full production.  Under the terms of the Big Rivers agreement, any power not consumed by Hawesville will be made available for sale and we will receive credits for actual power sales up to our cost for that power.  
(4)
The first stage of power under the Helguvikpower supply agreement with OR (approximately 47.5MW) became available in the fourth quarter of 2011.  This power is currently being utilized at Grundartangi.  
(5)
HS and OR have alleged that certain conditions for the delivery of power under the Helguvik power supply agreements have not yet been satisfied.  We are in discussions with HS and OR with respect to the satisfaction of these conditions.  See “—Primary Aluminum Facilities — Helguvik project — Power Supply Agreements” and Item 1A, “Risk Factors — If we are unable to procure a reliable source of power the Helguvik project may not be feasible.”


 

 
Labor Agreements
 
Our labor costs at Ravenswood and Hawesville are subject to the terms of labor contracts with the United Steel, Paper and Forestry, Rubber, Manufacturing, Energy, Allied Industrial and Service Workers International Union (“USWA”) which generally have provisions for annual fixed increases in hourly wages and benefits adjustments.  The five labor unions represented at Grundartangi operate under a labor contract that establishes wages and work rules for covered employees.  The employees at Mt. Holly are employed by Alcoa and are not unionized.  A summary of key labor agreements is provided below.

Facility
Organization
Term
Hawesville
USWA
Through March 31, 2015
Ravenswood (1)
USWA
Expired August 31, 2010
Grundartangi (2)
Icelandic labor unions
Through December 31, 2014

(1)
We are in discussions with the USWA regarding a new labor contract, but are unable to predict the outcome of such discussions at this time.  See Item 1A, “Risk Factors — Union disputes could raise our production costs or impair our production operations.”
(2)
In April 2010, Nordural Grundartangi ehf entered into a new labor agreement with the five labor unions representing approximately 84% of Grundartangi’s work force.  The wage terms of the labor agreement expired in January 2011.  In September 2011, we reached an agreement on revised wage terms under our existing labor agreement with these labor unions.  The labor agreement in its entirety expires on December 31, 2014

 
Pricing
 
Our operating results are highly sensitive to changes in the price of primary aluminum, electrical power, raw materials and supplies used in production.  As a result, we try to mitigate the effects of fluctuations in primary aluminum, electrical power, raw material and supply prices using various fixed-price commitments and financial instruments.  We purchase alumina for our U.S. facilities and electrical power at Grundartangi at prices indexed to the price of primary aluminum; this mechanism provides a “natural hedge” in the pricing of some of our largest production costs.  In addition, in recent years, we have purchased primary aluminum put option contracts to protect our downside price risk exposure for a significant portion of our domestic production.
 
Generally, we price our products at an indexed or “market” price, in which the customer pays an agreed-upon premium over the LME price or other market indices.
 
Grundartangi derives most of its revenues from tolling arrangements whereby it converts alumina provided by its customers into primary aluminum for a fee based on the LME price for primary aluminum.  Grundartangi's revenues are subject to market price risk associated with the LME price for primary aluminum; however, because Grundartangi tolls alumina for its customers, it is not exposed to fluctuations in the price of alumina for its tolling production.  Grundartangi’s tolling revenues include a premium based on the European Union (“EU”) import duty for primary aluminum.  Any decreases in the EU import duty could have a negative impact on Grundartangi’s revenues.
 
Primary Aluminum Facilities
 
Grundartangi
 
The Grundartangi facility located in Grundartangi, Iceland, is owned and operated by our subsidiary, Nordural Grundartangi ehf.  Grundartangi is our most modern and lowest cost facility.  Operations began in 1998 and production capacity has expanded to its current annual rated production capacity of 260,000 mtpy.  In 2011, Grundartangi produced almost 278,000 metric tons of primary aluminum, seven percent above its rated production capacity.


 

 
Grundartangi operates under various long-term agreements with the Government of Iceland, local municipalities, and Faxafloahafnir sf (which operates the harbor at Grundartangi and is jointly owned by several municipalities).  These agreements include: (a) an investment agreement which establishes Grundartangi's tax status and the Government's obligations to grant certain permits; (b) a reduction plant site agreement by which Grundartangi leases the property; and (c) a harbor agreement by which Grundartangi is granted access to the port at Grundartangi through 2020, subject to renewal at its option.
 
Tolling Agreements.  Grundartangi has long-term tolling agreements for most of its production capacity with BHP Billiton and Glencore.  The tolling counterparties provide alumina and receive primary aluminum in return for tolling fees that are based on the LME price of primary aluminum.  See Note 16 Forward delivery contracts and financial instruments in the consolidated financial statements included herein for more information about these agreements.
 
Direct Sales. In 2011, Grundartangi produced approximately 10,500 metric tons of primary aluminum outside of the tolling agreements, using alumina purchased on a spot basis.
 
Power. Grundartangi purchases power from Landsvirkjun, HS and OR under various long-term contracts due to expire between 2019 and 2036. The power delivered to Grundartangi is priced at rates based on the LME price for primary aluminum and is produced from hydroelectric and geothermal sources.
 
Employees.  Our employees at Grundartangi are represented by five labor unions that operate under a labor contract through December 31, 2014.  See “Long-term Supply Contracts - Labor Agreements” above.
 
Hawesville
 
Hawesville is owned and operated by Century Aluminum of Kentucky, our wholly owned subsidiary.  Hawesville is located adjacent to the Ohio River near Hawesville, Kentucky and began operations in 1970.  Hawesville has five reduction potlines with an annual rated production capacity of 244,000 metric tons.
 
Four of Hawesville's potlines are specially configured and operated to produce high purity primary aluminum and have an annual rated production capacity of approximately 195,000 metric tons, making it the largest producer of high purity primary aluminum in North America.  The average purity level of primary aluminum produced by these potlines is 99.9%, compared to standard-purity aluminum which is approximately 99.7%.  High purity primary aluminum is sold at a premium to standard-purity aluminum.  Hawesville’s specially configured facility provides the high-conductivity metal required by Hawesville’s largest customer, Southwire, for its electrical wire and cable products as well as for certain aerospace applications.
 
In December 2010, we announced plans to restart a potline at our Hawesville facility that had been curtailed in March 2009.  Restarting the curtailed potline brought Hawesville essentially to full production capacity by December 31, 2011.  Hawesville's slower than anticipated return to full stable operations following the restart of the curtailed potline in 2011 resulted in lower than expected domestic production for the year.  In addition, the plant experienced reduced production efficiencies and higher costs related to the unstable conditions which prevailed during the majority of the year.  Though the plant has essentially returned to full production, we expect that Hawesville’s operations will continue to be negatively impacted by production inefficiencies through the first quarter of 2012.



 
 

 
Metal Sales Agreement.  Hawesville has an aluminum sales contract with Southwire (the “Southwire Metal Agreement”).  The Southwire Metal Agreement extends through December 2013.  The price for molten aluminum delivered to Southwire is variable and is determined by reference to the U.S. Midwest Market Price. Under the contract, Hawesville supplies between 220 and 240 million pounds (approximately 100,000 to 109,000 metric tons) of high-conductivity molten aluminum annually to Southwire’s adjacent wire and cable manufacturing facility.  In addition, we have contracted with Glencore to sell all primary aluminum we produce in the U.S., less existing agreements and high purity sales, through December 2012 (the “Glencore Sweep Agreement”).  The Glencore Sweep Agreement provides for variable pricing determined by reference to the U.S. Midwest Market Price.  More information on the Southwire Metal Agreement and Glencore Sweep Agreement is available under “Primary Aluminum Sales Contracts” in Note 16 Forward delivery contracts and financial instruments of the consolidated financial statements included herein.
 
Alumina.  Hawesville receives its alumina supply from Glencore under our long-term alumina purchase agreement.  
 
Power.  Kenergy, a subsidiary of Big Rivers, provides Hawesville’s electrical power under the Big Rivers Agreement.  The Big Rivers Agreement provides for long-term cost-based power through December 31, 2023.  See Long-term Supply Contracts - Electrical Power Supply Agreements above for additional information.
 
CAKY has a contingent obligation to repay E.ON related to the unwind of a previous power agreement, subject to certain conditions.  See Note 6 Debt for additional information about the contingent obligation.  
 
Employees.  The bargaining unit employees at Hawesville are represented by the USWA.  The collective bargaining agreement, which covers all of the represented hourly employees at Hawesville, expires in March 2015.
 
Mt. Holly
 
Mt. Holly, located in Mt. Holly, South Carolina, was built in 1980 and is the most recently constructed aluminum reduction facility in the United States.  The facility consists of two potlines with a total rated production capacity of 224,000 mtpy and casting equipment used to cast molten aluminum into standard-grade ingot, extrusion billet and other value-added primary aluminum products. Value-added primary aluminum products are sold at a premium to standard-grade primary aluminum.  Our 49.7% interest represents approximately 111,000 mtpy of the facility’s annual production capacity.
 
Our interest in Mt. Holly is held through our subsidiary, Berkeley Aluminum, Inc. (“Berkeley”). Under the Mt. Holly ownership structure, we hold an undivided 49.7% interest in the property, plant and equipment comprising the aluminum reduction operations at Mt. Holly and an equivalent share in the general partnership responsible for the operation and maintenance of the facility.  Alcoa owns the remaining 50.3% interest in Mt. Holly and an equivalent share of the operating partnership.  Under the terms of the operating partnership, Alcoa is responsible for operating and maintaining the facility.  Each owner supplies its own alumina for conversion to primary aluminum and is responsible for its proportionate share of operational and maintenance costs.
 
Metal Sales Agreements.  We have a contract to sell to Glencore 20,400 mtpy of primary aluminum through December 31, 2013, produced at Mt. Holly or Hawesville at a price determined by reference to the U.S. Midwest Market Price, subject to an agreed cap and floor as applied to the U.S. Midwest Premium (the “Glencore Metal Agreement”).  Under the Glencore Sweep Agreement, any additional primary aluminum produced in the U.S. (including Mt. Holly), less existing agreements and high purity sales, will be sold to Glencore at variable pricing determined by reference to the U.S. Midwest Market Price.  More information on the Glencore Metal Agreement and Glencore Sweep Agreement is available under “Primary Aluminum Sales Contracts” in Note 16 Forward delivery contracts and financial instruments of the consolidated financial statements included herein.



 
 

 
Alumina.  Substantially all of our alumina requirements for Mt. Holly are provided by Trafigura AG under an agreement that extends through 2013.  The pricing for alumina under our contract with Trafigura is variable and based on the LME price for primary aluminum.
 
Power.  Mt. Holly purchases all of its power requirements from Santee Cooper under a take-or-pay service agreement that runs through 2015. See Long-term Supply Contracts - Electrical Power Supply Agreements above for additional information.
 
Employees.  The employees at Mt. Holly are employed by Alcoa and are not unionized.
 
Ravenswood
 
The Ravenswood facility is owned and operated by our subsidiary, Century Aluminum of West Virginia, Inc.  Built in 1957, Ravenswood has four potlines with a production capacity of 170,000 metric tons.  The facility is located adjacent to the Ohio River near Ravenswood, West Virginia.
 
In February 2009, we conducted an orderly curtailment of the plant operations at Ravenswood.  We may restart the curtailed operations upon the realization of several objectives, including a new power agreement which would provide for flexibility in Ravenswood’s cost structure under adverse industry conditions as well as a new labor agreement.
 
Legislation has been passed in West Virginia that gives us the ability to enter into discussions with the public service commission in regard to an enabling power contract for the curtailed plant.  We are currently engaged in discussions with the utility as well as the labor union.  Until those discussions are further progressed it is not possible to predict when or if a restart of the plant might occur.
 
Power.  Appalachian Power Company (“APCo”) supplies all of Ravenswood’s power requirements under an agreement at prices set forth in published tariffs, which are subject to change.  In July 2006, the Public Service Commission of the State of West Virginia approved a special rate mechanism in connection with an increase in the applicable tariff rates.  Under the special rate mechanism, Ravenswood may be excused from or may defer the payment of the increase in the tariff rate if aluminum prices as quoted on the LME fall below pre-determined levels.  
 
Employees.  The bargaining unit employees at Ravenswood represented by the USWA were under a labor agreement that expired in August 2010.  Negotiations for a new labor agreement are ongoing.
 
Amendments to retiree medical benefits.  As of January 1, 2011, CAWV no longer provides retiree medical benefits to active salaried CAWV personnel or any other personnel who retired prior to November 1, 2010.  CAWV has made no commitments as to the future status of retiree medical benefits for hourly personnel who are currently covered by an active medical program.
 
 
Helguvik project
 
The Helguvik project site is located approximately 30 miles from the city of Reykjavik, Iceland and is owned and would be operated through our Nordural Helguvik ehf subsidiary.  This site provides a flat location and existing harbor, as well as proximity to the international airport, the capital and other industry.

 
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We commenced construction of the Helguvik project in June 2008.  We significantly reduced construction activity and spending on the project in late 2008 in response to the global financial crisis and deterioration of Icelandic economic and political conditions.  Construction activity and spending on the project remains significantly curtailed pending confirmation from the contracted power suppliers that they will be able to deliver the required power per an agreed schedule.  See “Long-term Supply Contracts – Electrical Power Supply Agreements” and Item 1A, “Risk Factors – If we are unable to procure a reliable source of power the Helguvik project may not be feasible.”  We are working to complete the activities required for a full restart of construction activity at Helguvik as soon as we have resolution of the power supply issues.  Capitalized costs for the project through December 31, 2011 were approximately $138 million, withapproximately $13 million incurred during 2011.  
 
See Item 1A, “Risk Factors – Construction at our Helguvik smelter site is under review.  Substantial delay in the completion of this project may increase its cost and impose other risks to completion that are not foreseeable at this time” and “If we are unable to procure a reliable source of power the Helguvik project may not be feasible.”
 
Power Supply Agreements.  Nordural Helguvik has signed electrical power supply agreements with HS and OR to supply power to the Helguvik smelter.  Each of HS and OR have alleged that certain conditions to the delivery of power under the power supply agreements have not been satisfied.    The first stage of power under the OR power purchase agreement (approximately 47.5 MW) became available in the fourth quarter of 2011.  This power is being utilized at Grundartangi until the first stage of the Helguvik project has been completed.  No other power is currently available under either power purchase agreement. 
 
Helguvik Investment Agreement.  An Enabling Act for an Investment Agreement with the Government of Iceland for Helguvik, which governs certain meaningful aspects of the project such as the fiscal regime, was approved in April 2009 by the Icelandic Parliament.  In July 2009, the European Surveillance Authority approved the Investment Agreement and in August 2009 Nordural Helguvik ehf and the Icelandic Minister of Industry executed the agreement.  Among other things, the Investment Agreement includes a commitment by the Government of Iceland to assist us in obtaining necessary regulatory approvals for completion of the Helguvik project.
 
 
Environmental Impact Assessment.  In October 2007, Nordural received a positive opinion from the Icelandic Planning Agency on the Environmental Impact Assessment (“EIA”) for the proposed Helguvik smelter.
 
 
Transmission Agreement. Nordural Helguvik entered into a transmission agreement with Landsnet hf (“Landsnet”) to provide an electrical power transmission system to the Helguvik project.  Landsnet is the company responsible for operating and managing Iceland’s transmission system.  As a result of delays in construction of the Helguvik project, the parties are currently in discussions with respect to the timeline for construction of the transmission system.
 
Operating License. In September 2008, the Environmental Agency of Iceland issued an Operating License for the Helguvik smelter project.  The license authorizes production of up 250,000 mtpy.
 
Other agreements.  We have also entered into a site and harbor agreement with respect to the Helguvik project.

 
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Joint Venture Facility
 
Baise Haohai Carbon Company, Ltd.
 
In 2008, we entered into a joint venture agreement whereby we acquired a 40% stake in Baise Haohai Carbon Co., Ltd. (“BHH”), a carbon anode and cathode facility located in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of south China.  The BHH facility has an anode production capacity of 180,000 mtpy and a cathode baking and graphitization capacity of 20,000 mtpy.  Construction of the facility was completed in 2008.
 
We paid $27.6 million for the investment and loaned BHH an additional $9.4 million.  Through December 2011, BHH has repaid $6.2 million on the loan.  Our investment in the joint venture is accounted for using the equity method of accounting with results of operations reported on a one-quarter lag.
 
Anode agreement.  BHH provides anodes to Grundartangi under a long-term agreement through 2012, renewable through December 31, 2015.

 
 
 
Environmental Matters
 
We are subject to various environmental laws and regulations both in the U.S. and in other countries.  We have spent, and expect to spend, significant amounts for compliance with those laws and regulations.  In addition, some of our past manufacturing activities have resulted in environmental consequences which require remedial measures.  Under certain environmental laws, which may impose liability regardless of fault, we may be liable for the costs of remediation of contaminated property, including our current and formerly owned or operated properties or adjacent areas, or for the amelioration of damage to natural resources. We believe, based on currently available information, that our current environmental liabilities are not likely to have a material adverse effect on Century.  However, we cannot predict the requirements of future environmental laws and future requirements at current or formerly owned or operated properties or adjacent areas.  Such future requirements may result in unanticipated costs or liabilities which may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations or liquidity.  More information concerning our environmental contingencies can be found in Item 3 Legal Proceedings and in Note 15 Commitments and contingencies to the consolidated financial statements included herein.
 
 
Intellectual Property
 
We own or have rights to use a number of patents or patent applications relating to various aspects of our operations. We do not consider our business to be materially dependent on any of these patents or patent applications.
 
 
Employees
 
As of December 31, 2011, we employed approximately 1,300 employees.

 
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Item 1A.  Risk Factors
 
The following describes certain of the risks and uncertainties we face that could cause our future results to differ materially from our current results and from those anticipated in our forward-looking statements.  These risk factors should be considered together with the other risks and uncertainties described in Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and elsewhere herein.  This list of significant risk factors is not all-inclusive or necessarily in order of importance.
 
The cyclical nature of the aluminum industry causes variability in our earnings and cash flows.
 
Our operating results depend on the market for primary aluminum, which is a highly cyclical commodity with prices that are affected by global demand and supply, political and economic conditions and other related factors.  For example, aluminum warehouse inventory levels were at or near historically high levels in 2010 and 2011, which may cause primary aluminum prices to fall as such inventory enters the market.  Historically, aluminum prices have been volatile, and we expect such volatility to continue.
 
Declines in primary aluminum prices reduce our earnings and cash flows.  If the price we realize for our products falls below our cost of production, we may choose or be forced to curtail operations to fund our operations.  There can be no assurance that we will be able to take actions necessary to curtail operations, if these steps are required.  Future downturns in aluminum prices may significantly reduce the amount of cash available to meet our obligations and fund our long-term business strategies and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial conditions, results of operations and liquidity.
 
Disruptions to our raw material and electricity supply arrangements could increase our production costs.
 
Our business depends upon the adequate supply of alumina, electricity, aluminum fluoride, calcined petroleum coke, pitch, finished carbon anodes and cathodes and other raw materials at competitive prices.  Disruptions to the supply of these production inputs could occur for a variety of reasons, including disruptions of production at a particular supplier’s facility or power plant, as applicable.  For some of these production inputs, such as power and anode supply, we rely on a single or limited number of suppliers.
 
Any disruption may require us to purchase these products on the spot market on less favorable terms than under our current agreements due to the limited number of suppliers of these products or other market conditions.  In addition, we may not be able to obtain alumina in the future at prices that are based on the LME.  Because we sell our products based on the LME price for primary aluminum, we would not be able to pass on any increased costs of raw material that are not linked to the LME price to our customers.  A disruption in our materials or electricity supply may adversely affect our operating results if we are unable to secure alternate supplies of materials at comparable prices.
 
Certain of our alumina and electricity supply contracts contain “take-or-pay” obligations.
 
We have obligations under certain contracts to take-or-pay for specified quantities of alumina and electricity over the term of those contracts regardless of our operating requirements.  Our financial position and results of operations may therefore be adversely affected by the market price for alumina and electric power even if we were to curtail unprofitable production capacity (or delay construction of new capacity) as we will continue to incur costs under these contracts to meet or settle our contractual take-or-pay obligations.  If we were unable to use such electrical power or raw materials in our operations or sell them at prices consistent with or greater than our contract costs, we could incur significant losses under these contracts.  In addition, these commitments may also limit our ability to take advantage of favorable changes in the market prices for electricity or raw materials and may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, results of operations and liquidity.

 
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Increases in electricity costs adversely affect our business.
 
Electricity represents our single largest operating cost. As a result, the availability of electricity at economic prices is critical to the profitability of our operations.  Portions of the contracted cost of the electricity supplied to Mt. Holly and all of Hawesville’s electricity costs vary with the supplier’s costs.  An increase in these costs would increase the price these facilities pay for electricity.  Costs under the Hawesville and Mt. Holly electricity contracts have substantially increased in recent years with rising fuel prices.  As these contracts have take-or-pay type provisions, the financial position, results of operations and cash flows of Hawesville and Mt. Holly may be adversely affected by the price for electric power even if we curtail unprofitable production capacity.  Significant increases in electricity costs at any of our operations may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and liquidity.
 
Losses caused by disruptions in our supply of power would adversely affect our operations.
 
We use large amounts of electricity to produce primary aluminum.  Any loss of power which reduces the amperage to our equipment or causes an equipment shutdown would result in a reduction in the volume of molten aluminum produced, and prolonged losses of power may result in the hardening or “freezing” of molten aluminum in the pots where it is produced, which could require an expensive and time consuming restart process.  Interruptions in the supply of electrical power to our facilities can be caused by a number of circumstances, including unusually high demand, blackouts, equipment or transformer failure, human error, malicious acts, natural disasters or other catastrophic events.  See “Unpredictable events, including natural disasters, dangerous weather conditions, terrorist attacks and political unrest, may adversely affect our ability to conduct business.” At several of our facilities, an alternative supply of power in the event of a disruption may not be feasible.  If such a condition were to occur, we may lose production for a prolonged period of time and incur significant losses. 
 
We operate our plants at close to peak amperage.  Accordingly, even partial failures of high voltage equipment could affect our production.  We maintain property and business interruption insurance to mitigate losses resulting from catastrophic events, but are required to pay significant amounts under the deductible provisions of those insurance policies.  In addition, the coverage under those policies may not be sufficient to cover all losses, or may not cover certain events.  Certain of our insurance policies do not cover any losses that may be incurred if our suppliers are unable to provide power during periods of unusually high demand.  Certain losses or prolonged interruptions in our operations may trigger a default under certain of our outstanding indebtedness and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, results of operations and liquidity.
 
International operations expose us to political, regulatory, currency and other related risks.
 
We receive a significant portion of our revenues from our international operations, primarily in Iceland.  These operations expose us to risks, including unexpected changes in foreign laws and regulations, political and economic instability, challenges in managing foreign operations, increased costs to adapt our systems and practices to those used in foreign countries, taxes, export duties, currency restrictions, tariffs and other trade barriers, and the burdens of complying with a wide variety of foreign laws.  Changes in foreign laws and regulations are generally beyond our ability to control, influence or predict and future adverse changes in these laws could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and liquidity.
 
In addition, we may be exposed to fluctuations in currency exchange rates and, as a result, an increase in the value of foreign currencies relative to the U.S. dollar could increase our operating expenses which are denominated and payable in those currencies. As we continue to explore other opportunities outside the U.S., including the Helguvik project, our currency risk with respect to the Icelandic Krona and other foreign currencies will significantly increase.

 
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If economic, financial and political conditions in Iceland were to deteriorate, our financial position and results of operations could be adversely impacted.
 
Iceland is important to our business.  Disruptions in Iceland’s economic, financial and political systems have decreased the stability of Iceland’s economy and financial markets and made cash management activities in Iceland more challenging.  For example, the Icelandic government and the Central Bank of Iceland are restricting the free transfer of funds outside of Iceland and, specifically, foreign currency within and outside of Iceland.  While we are currently exempt from these foreign currency rules, we cannot control further actions by the Central Bank of Iceland which might restrict our ability to transfer funds through the Icelandic banking system and outside of Iceland. While we currently maintain essentially all of our Icelandic operating funds in accounts outside of Iceland, and are receiving substantially all of our customer payments in such accounts, a portion of our funds remain in the Icelandic banks to meet local working capital requirements. In addition, as payables become due in Iceland, we must transfer funds through the Icelandic banking system. If economic, financial or political conditions in Iceland deteriorate, or if counterparties and lenders become unwilling to engage in normal banking relations with and within Iceland, our ability to operate our Grundartangi smelter, including paying vendors, processing payroll and receiving payments, as well as our ability to complete the Helguvik project could be adversely impacted, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and liquidity.
 
Curtailment of unprofitable aluminum production at our U.S. facilities could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and liquidity.
 
Curtailing unprofitable production to reduce our operating costs requires us to incur substantial expense, both at the time of the curtailment and on an ongoing basis. Our facilities are subject to contractual and other fixed costs that continue even if we curtail operations at these facilities. These costs reduce the cost saving advantages of curtailing unprofitable aluminum production. In addition, the prospect of these costs and our joint ownership of certain of our operations limit our flexibility to curtail unprofitable production.
 
If we are unable to realize the intended effects of any production curtailment, including at our currently curtailed Ravenswood facility, or if any production curtailment does not achieve sufficient reduction in operating expenses, we may have to seek bankruptcy protection for some or all of our U.S. subsidiaries and/or may be forced to divest some or all of our U.S. subsidiaries.  If we were to seek bankruptcy protection for these subsidiaries, we would face additional risks.  Such action could cause concern among our customers and suppliers generally, distract our management and our other employees and subject us to increased risks of lawsuits.  Other negative consequences could include negative publicity, which could have a material negative impact on the trading price of our securities and negatively affect our ability to raise capital in the future.
 
Any curtailments of our U.S. operations, or actions taken to seek bankruptcy protection or divest some or all of our U.S. subsidiaries, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and liquidity.
 
We require substantial resources to pay our operating expenses and fund our capital expenditures.
 
We require substantial resources to pay our operating expenses and fund our capital expenditures, including construction at our Helguvik smelter site and the investment programs at our Grundartangi and Hawesville smelters.  In addition, if we were to resume operations at our Ravenswood smelter, we would incur substantial capital expenditures, working capital funding and operating expenses.  If we are unable to generate funds from our operations to pay our operating expenses and fund our capital expenditures and other obligations, our ability to continue to meet these cash requirements in the future could require substantial liquidity and access to sources of funds, including from capital and credit markets.  Changes in global economic conditions, including material cost increases and decreases in economic activity, and the success of plans to manage costs, inventory and other important elements of our business, may significantly impact our ability to generate funds from operations.  If, among other factors, primary aluminum prices were to decline, our costs are higher than contemplated, we suffer unexpected production outages, or Icelandic laws change and either increase our tax obligations or limit our access to cash flow from our Icelandic operations, we would need to identify additional sources of liquidity.  

 
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If funding is not available when needed, or is available only on unacceptable terms, we may be unable to respond to competitive pressures, take advantage of market opportunities or fund operations, capital expenditure or other obligations, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and liquidity.
 
Our business and growth prospects may be negatively impacted by past or future reductions in our capital expenditures or curtailment of production capacity.
 
In response to the global economic downturn and related disruptions in the financial markets, in 2008 and 2009 we curtailed significant production capacity and reduced capital expenditures.  Certain of these assets remain curtailed or delayed, including our Ravenswood smelter and the development of our Helguvik smelter.  Our ability to take advantage of improved market conditions may be constrained by these earlier curtailments, capital expenditure restrictions and other similar actions, and the long-term value of our business could be adversely impacted.  Our position in relation to our competitors may also deteriorate.  We may also be required to address commercial and political issues in relation to our reductions in capital expenditures or operational curtailment in certain of the jurisdictions in which we operate.  In addition, if we do not eventually resume operations at Ravenswood, we may be required to recognize a loss related to all or a portion of the assets of this facility.  Any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and liquidity.
 
Construction at our Helguvik smelter site has been significantly curtailed.  Substantial delay in the completion of this project may increase its cost and impose other risks to completion that are not foreseeable at this time.
 
Nordural Helguvik ehf, our indirect, wholly owned subsidiary, has significantly curtailed construction activity and spending at our Helguvik project in response to the recent global economic conditions, Icelandic economic and political conditions and ongoing discussions with the power companies contracted to provide power to the Helguvik project.  See “If we are unable to procure a reliable source of power, the Helguvik project may not be feasible,” and “If economic and political conditions in Iceland deteriorate further, our financial position and results of operations could be adversely impacted.”  Nordural Helguvik cannot be certain when or if it will restart major construction and engineering activities or ultimately complete the Helguvik project or, if completed, that the Helguvik smelter would operate in a profitable manner.  We will not realize any return on our significant investment in the Helguvik project until we are able to commence Helguvik operations in a profitable manner.  If we fail to achieve operations at Helguvik, we may have to recognize a loss on our investment, which would have a material adverse impact on our future earnings.
 
If we decide to proceed with the Helguvik project, this project is subject to various contractual approvals and conditions.  Many of the contractual arrangements related to the Helguvik project have time periods for performance.  The delay in restarting major construction and completing the Helguvik project has caused Nordural Helguvik to renegotiate and extend, or undertake to renegotiate and extend, existing contractual commitments, including with respect to power, transmission, technology, equipment and construction.  There can be no assurance that the contractual arrangements and conditions, including extensions,  necessary to proceed with construction of the Helguvik project will be obtained or satisfied on a timely basis or at all.  In addition, such approvals or extensions may be subject to conditions that are unfavorable or make the project impracticable or less attractive from a financial standpoint.  Even if we receive the necessary approvals and extensions on terms that we determine are acceptable, the construction of this project is a complex undertaking. There can be no assurance that we will be able to complete the project within our projected budget and schedule.  To successfully execute this project, we will also need to procure a reliable source of power, arrange additional financing and either enter into tolling arrangements or secure a supply of alumina as well as other raw materials.  In addition, unforeseen technical difficulties could increase the cost of the project, delay the project or render the project infeasible.

 
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We intend to finance our future capital expenditures from future capital raising, available cash and cash flow from operations.  We may be unable to raise additional capital, or do so on attractive terms, due to a number of factors, including a lack of demand, poor economic conditions, interruptions in the capital markets, unfavorable interest rates or our financial condition or credit rating at the time.   If additional capital resources are unavailable, we may further curtail construction and development activities.
 
Further delay in the completion of the project or increased costs could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and liquidity.
 
If we are unable to procure a reliable source of power, the Helguvik project may not be feasible.
 
The Helguvik project will require generation and transmission of a substantial amount of electricity to power the smelter.  Nordural Helguvik has entered into agreements with two providers of geothermal power, HS and OR.  Each of HS and OR has alleged that certain conditions to the delivery of power under the power agreements have not yet been satisfied.  If we are unable to reach agreement with each of HS and OR, we may have to seek alternative sources of power, incur substantially increased power costs or further curtail construction activities of the Helguvik project.  Due to the limited number of Icelandic power providers with resources sufficient to provide power to the Helguvik project (only three are currently in operation in Iceland), we may find it difficult or impossible to procure additional sources of power if HS and OR do not perform under their existing agreements and may be unable to complete construction of the smelter.  If we agree to pay increased prices for power or substantially delay or are unable to complete the Helguvik project, we may have to recognize a substantial loss on our investment.  Any failure to complete the Helguvik project could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and liquidity.
 
The generation of the contracted power for the Helguvik project will also require successful development of new geothermal energy sources within designated areas in Iceland and completion of the necessary transmission infrastructure to service the Helguvik project.  If there are construction delays or technical difficulties in developing these new geothermal energy sources or transmission infrastructure, power may be delayed or may not be available.  Development of the generation and transmission infrastructure is expensive and requires significant resources from the power and transmission providers.  Factors which could delay or impede the generation and transmission of electric power are substantially beyond our ability to control, influence or predict, including the power and transmission providers’ ability to finance and obtain necessary permits, real property and other rights for the development of new geothermal energy sources and associated transmission infrastructure.  In addition, if Nordural Helguvik is unable to proceed with the Helguvik project, it may incur significant reimbursement obligations for certain costs incurred by third party providers under transmission and other agreements entered into in connection with the Helguvik project and remain subject to significant power commitments already confirmed under its agreement with OR.  If the power or transmission providers are unable to provide or transmit the contracted amounts of power, such failure could substantially delay or make the Helguvik project infeasible and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and liquidity.
 
Union disputes could raise our production costs or impair our production operations.
 
The bargaining unit employees at our Grundartangi, Hawesville and Ravenswood smelters are represented by labor unions.  If we fail to maintain satisfactory relations with any labor union representing our employees, our labor contracts may not prevent a strike or work stoppage at any of these facilities in the future.  Any threatened or actual work stoppage in the future or inability to renegotiate our collective bargaining agreements could prevent or significantly impair our ability to conduct production operations at our unionized facilities, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and liquidity.

 
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We could be adversely affected by the loss of a major customer or changes in the business or financial condition of our major customers.
 
In 2011, we derived approximately 80% of our consolidated sales from our three major customers: Southwire Glencore and BHP Billiton.  We currently have long-term primary aluminum sales or tolling contracts with each of these customers. However, a significant downturn or further deterioration in the business or financial condition of one of these major customers could affect our results of operations. In addition, a loss of any of these customers could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and liquidity.
 
Our ability to access the credit and capital markets on acceptable terms may be limited due to our credit ratings, our financial condition or the deterioration of these markets.
 
Our credit rating was adversely affected by the downturn in global economic and financial conditions, curtailment of our Ravenswood smelter and the substantial levels of our existing indebtedness.  Our availability under our revolving credit facility is dependent on our domestic accounts receivable and inventory which secure the facility.  Curtailment of production capacity at Ravenswood has reduced the amount of domestic accounts receivable and inventory available to secure this facility and further curtailments of domestic production capacity could further reduce availability under our revolving credit facility.  Our existing credit ratings, or any future negative actions the credit agencies may take, could negatively affect our ability to access the credit and capital markets in the future and could lead to worsened trade terms, increasing our liquidity needs.  An inability to access capital and credit markets when needed could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and liquidity.
 
We may be unable to continue to compete successfully in the highly competitive markets in which we operate.
 
We are engaged in a highly competitive industry. Aluminum also competes with other materials, such as steel, copper, plastics, composite materials and glass, among others, for various applications. Many of our competitors are larger than us and have greater financial and technical resources than we do. These larger competitors may be better able to withstand reductions in price or other adverse industry or economic conditions. Similarly, competitors with superior cost positions to ours may be better able to withstand reductions in price or other adverse industry or economic conditions. If we are not able to compete successfully, our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be materially and adversely affected.
 
Because we own less than a majority of some of our operating assets, we cannot exercise complete control over their operations.
 
We have limited control over the operation of some of our operating assets, including the Mt. Holly smelter and the BHH carbon anode and cathode facility, because we beneficially own less than a majority of the ownership interests in such assets.  While we seek to exert as much influence with respect to the management and operation of such assets as possible, we are dependent on our co-owners to operate such assets.  Our co-owners may not have the level of experience, technical expertise, human resource management and other attributes to operate these assets optimally.  In addition, our co-owners may have interests, objectives and incentives with respect to such assets that differ from our own.

 
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We require significant cash flow to meet our debt service requirements, which increases our vulnerability to adverse economic and industry conditions, reduces cash available for other purposes and limits our operational flexibility.
 
As of December 31, 2011, we had an aggregate of approximately $257 million principal amount of outstanding debt.  We may incur additional debt in the future.
 
The level of our debt could have important consequences, including:
 
 
·
increasing our vulnerability to adverse economic and industry conditions;
 
 
·
reducing cash flow available for other purposes, including capital expenditures, acquisitions, dividends, working capital and other general corporate purposes, because a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations must be dedicated to servicing our debt; and
 
 
·
limiting our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, competitive and other changes in our business and the industry in which we operate. 
 
We have various obligations to make payments in cash that will reduce the amount of cash available to make interest payments required on our outstanding debt and for other uses.  Our industrial revenue bonds (“IRBs”) and any future borrowings on our credit facility are at variable interest rates, and future borrowings required to fund working capital at our businesses, construction of the Helguvik project, acquisitions, or other strategic opportunities may be at variable rates.  An increase in interest rates would increase our debt service obligations under these instruments, further limiting cash flow available for other uses.  In addition to our debt, we have liabilities and other obligations which could reduce cash available for other purposes and could limit our operational flexibility.
 
Our ability to pay interest on and to repay or refinance our debt and to satisfy other commitments will depend upon our access to additional sources of liquidity and future operating performance, which is subject to general economic, financial, competitive, legislative, regulatory, business and other factors, including market prices for primary aluminum, that are beyond our control.  Accordingly, there can be no assurance that our business will generate sufficient cash flow from operations or that future borrowings will be available to us in an amount sufficient to enable us to pay debt service obligations, or to fund our other liquidity needs.  If we are unable to meet our debt service obligations or fund our other liquidity needs, we could attempt to restructure or refinance our debt or seek additional equity or debt capital.  There can be no assurance that we would be able to accomplish those actions on satisfactory terms, or at all, and if we are unable to ultimately meet our debt service obligations and fund our other liquidity needs, it may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and liquidity.
 
Despite our substantial level of debt, we may incur more debt, which could exacerbate any or all of the risks described above.
 
We may incur substantial additional debt in the future. Although the loan and security agreement governing our revolving credit facility and the indenture governing the 8.0% Senior Secured Notes due 2014 (the “8.0% Notes”) limits our ability and the ability of certain of our subsidiaries to incur additional debt, these restrictions are subject to a number of qualifications and exceptions and, under certain circumstances, debt incurred in compliance with these restrictions could be substantial.  For example, as of December 31, 2011, approximately $58 million was available to us for borrowing under our revolving credit facility.  In addition, the loan and security agreement governing our revolving credit facility and the indenture governing the 8.0% Notes do not prevent us from incurring certain obligations that do not constitute debt as defined in these agreements.  To the extent that we incur additional debt or such other obligations, the risks associated with our substantial debt described above, including our possible inability to service our debt or other obligations, would increase.

 
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Our debt instruments subject us to covenants and restrictions
 
Our existing debt instruments contain various covenants that restrict the way we conduct our business and limit our ability to incur debt, pay dividends and engage in transactions such as acquisitions and investments, among other things, which may impair our ability to obtain additional liquidity and grow our business.  Any failure to comply with those covenants would likely constitute a breach under such debt instruments which may result in the acceleration of all or a substantial portion of our outstanding indebtedness and termination of commitments under our revolving credit facility. If our indebtedness is accelerated, we may be unable to repay the required amounts and our secured lenders could foreclose on any collateral securing our secured debt.  Any of the foregoing actions could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and liquidity.
 
We depend upon intercompany transfers from our subsidiaries to meet our debt service obligations.
 
We are a holding company and conduct all of our operations through our subsidiaries.  Our ability to meet our debt service obligations depends upon the receipt of intercompany transfers from our subsidiaries.  Subject to the restrictions contained in our revolving credit facility and the indenture governing our 8.0% Notes, future borrowings by our subsidiaries could contain restrictions or prohibitions on intercompany transfers by those subsidiaries.  In addition, under applicable law, our subsidiaries could be limited in the amounts that they are permitted to pay as dividends on their capital stock.  For example, the Icelandic government and the Central Bank of Iceland are currently restricting the free transfer of funds outside of Iceland.  While we are currently exempt from these foreign currency rules, we cannot control further actions by the Central Bank of Iceland, which might restrict our ability to transfer funds through the Icelandic banking system and outside of Iceland.
 
Future declines in the financial markets and/or our curtailment actions could have significant and adverse effects on our pension funding obligations.
 
We maintain two qualified defined benefit plans, and contribute to a third, on behalf of our employees.  As a result of poor investment returns, the benefit plans we maintain were underfunded as of December 31, 2011.  If capital markets experience further significant losses, pension fund balances would likely fall and additional cash contributions to the pension funds will be required.  Additionally, in June 2011, the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (the “PBGC”) informed us that it believed that a “cessation of operations” under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (“ERISA”) had occurred at our Ravenswood facility as a result of the curtailment of operations at the facility and requested that we engage in discussions with the PBGC relating thereto.  While we do not believe a “cessation of operations” under ERISA has occurred, if such a determination is ultimately made by the PBGC, it may be necessary for Century Aluminum of West Virginia to accelerate the timing of additional contributions to certain of its defined pension plans or post other collateral with the PBGC or negotiate an alternative agreement.  
 
We may be required to write down the book value of certain assets.
 
We are required to perform various analyses related to the carrying value of various assets whenever events or circumstances indicate that their net carrying amount may not be recoverable. Given the recent lack of profitability of certain of our production facilities and recent global economic conditions, which in part drive assumptions for the future in such analyses, we could have significant adjustments in the carrying value for certain assets.  In the future, we will continue to evaluate our assets for impairments and valuation allowance, which could be significant.  Any such adjustments would be in the form of a non-cash charge which would reduce our earnings and reduce our balance of retained earnings.

 
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Climate change, climate change legislation or regulations and greenhouse effects may adversely impact our operations.
 
Climate change and greenhouse gas emissions are the subject of significant attention in the countries in which we operate and a number of governments or governmental bodies in these countries have introduced or are contemplating legislative and regulatory change in response to the potential impacts of climate change.  For example, as a member of the European Economic Area and a signatory to the Kyoto Protocol, Iceland has implemented legislation to abide by the Kyoto Protocol and prepare to abide by Directive 2003/87/EC of the European Parliament which establishes a “cap and trade” scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading.  Because Iceland was granted emissions allowances under the Kyoto Protocol through 2012, Iceland has not yet implemented Directive 2003/87/EC, but it is anticipated that Iceland will begin complying with the Directive in 2013.  In addition, we are aware of proposed U.S. legislation that if enacted, among other things, would implement a “cap and trade” system of allowances and credits in the United States.
 
Implementation of these potential regulatory changes or others is uncertain and may be either voluntary or legislated and may impact our operations directly or indirectly through customers or our supply chain.  As a result of the foregoing, we may incur increased capital expenditures resulting from required compliance with such regulatory changes, increased energy costs, costs to purchase or profits from sales of, allowances or credits under a “cap and trade” system, increased insurance premiums and deductibles, a change in competitive position relative to industry peers and changes to profit or loss arising from increased or decreased demand for goods produced by us and indirectly, from changes in costs of goods sold.  For example, “cap and trade” legislation may impose significant additional costs to our power suppliers that could lead to significant increases in our energy costs.  In addition, the potential physical impacts of climate change on our operations are highly uncertain and will be particular to the geographic circumstances. These may include changes in rainfall patterns, shortages of water or other natural resources, changing sea levels, changing storm patterns and intensities, and changing temperature levels. Any adverse regulatory and physical changes may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and liquidity.
 
We are subject to a variety of environmental laws and regulations that could result in costs or liabilities.
 
We are obligated to comply with various federal, state and other environmental laws and regulations, including the environmental laws and regulations of the United States, Iceland, China and the EU. Environmental laws and regulations may expose us to costs or liabilities relating to our manufacturing operations or property ownership. We incur operating costs and capital expenditures on an ongoing basis to comply with applicable environmental laws and regulations. In addition, we are currently and may in the future be responsible for the cleanup of contamination at some of our current and former facilities or for the amelioration of damage to natural resources.   If more stringent compliance or cleanup standards under environmental laws or regulations are imposed, previously unknown environmental conditions or damages to natural resources are discovered or alleged, or if contributions from other responsible parties with respect to sites for which we have cleanup responsibilities are not available, we may be subject to additional liability, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and liquidity. Further, additional environmental matters for which we may be liable may arise in the future at our present sites where no problem is currently known, with respect to sites previously owned or operated by us, by related corporate entities or by our predecessors, or at sites that we may acquire in the future. In addition, overall production costs may become prohibitively expensive and prevent us from effectively competing in price sensitive markets if future capital expenditures and costs for environmental compliance or cleanup are significantly greater than current or projected expenditures and costs.
 
Unpredictable events, including natural disasters, dangerous weather conditions, terrorist attacks and political unrest, may adversely affect our ability to conduct business.
 
We receive a significant portion of our revenues from operations in areas that have heightened risk of natural disasters, including Iceland.  Iceland suffered several natural disasters in 2010 and 2011, including significant volcanic eruptions and earthquakes.  In addition, our Grundartangi smelter lost power for approximately three hours in January 2012 as the result of damage sustained due to abnormal and extreme weather conditions at an offsite electrical substation owned and operated by the national power grid operator.

 
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Future unpredictable events, including natural disasters, dangerous weather conditions, terrorist attacks and political unrest, may adversely affect our ability to conduct business by causing disruptions in Icelandic, Chinese, U.S. or global economic conditions, inflicting loss of life, damaging property and requiring substantial capital expenditures and operating expenses to remediate damage and restore operations at our production facilities.
 
Acquisitions may present difficulties.
 
We have a history of making acquisitions and we expect to opportunistically seek to make acquisitions in the future.   We are subject to numerous risks as a result of our acquisition strategy, including the following:
 
 
·
we may spend time and money pursuing acquisitions that do not close;
 
 
·
acquired companies may have contingent or unidentified liabilities;
 
 
·
it may be challenging for us to manage our existing business as we integrate acquired operations;
 
 
·
we may not achieve the anticipated benefits from our acquisitions; and
 
 
·
management of acquisitions will require continued development of financial controls and information systems, which may prove to be expensive, time-consuming and difficult to maintain.
 
Accordingly, our past or future acquisitions might not ultimately improve our competitive position and business prospects as anticipated and may subject us to additional liabilities that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and liquidity.
 
Any restart of the Ravenswood smelter would involve significant risks and uncertainties
 
In 2009, we curtailed all operations at our Ravenswood smelter.  Any potential restart of operations at the Ravenswood smelter would involve significant risks and uncertainties, including:
 
 
·
we may spend time and incur significant costs and liabilities pursuing a restart that does not occur or that does not achieve the anticipated benefits; and
 
 
·
it may be challenging for us to manage our existing business as we restart operations at Ravenswood.
 
Accordingly, any potential restart of operations at Ravenswood might not ultimately improve our competitive position and business prospects as anticipated and may subject us to additional liabilities that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and liquidity.
 
Our ability to utilize certain net operating loss carryforwards to offset future taxable income may be significantly limited if we experience an “ownership change” under the Internal Revenue Code.
 
As of December 31, 2011, we had net operating loss carryforwards of approximately $1.4 billion, after adjusting for losses carried back to previous tax years, which could offset future taxable income.  Our ability to utilize our deferred tax assets to offset future taxable income may be significantly limited if we experience an “ownership change” as defined in Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”). In general, an ownership change would occur if our “five−percent shareholders,” as defined under the Code, collectively increase their ownership in us by more than 50 percentage points over a rolling three−year period. Future transactions in our stock that may not be in our control may cause us to experience an ownership change and thus limit our ability to utilize net operating losses, tax credits and other tax assets to offset future taxable income.

 
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Provisions in our charter documents and state law may make it difficult for others to obtain control of Century Aluminum, even though some stockholders may consider them to be beneficial; Glencore’s ownership interest in us may also deter any change in control of us.
 
Certain provisions of our restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws, as well as provisions of the Delaware General Corporation Law, may have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of Century, including transactions in which our stockholders might otherwise have received a substantial premium for their shares over then current market prices.  For examples, these provisions:
 
 
·
give authority to our board of directors to issue preferred stock and to determine the price, rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions of those shares without any stockholder vote;
 
 
·
provide for a board of directors consisting of three classes, each of which serves for a different three-year term;
 
 
·
require stockholders to give advance notice prior to submitting proposals for consideration at stockholders’ meetings or to nominate persons for election as directors; and
 
 
·
restrict certain business combinations between us and any person who beneficially owns 10% or more of our outstanding voting stock.
 
In addition, while our Tax Benefit Preservation Plan expired in 2010, our board of directors could re-implement the Tax Benefit Preservation Plan or other similar plan that would cause substantial dilution to any person or group who attempts to acquire a significant interest in us without advance approval from our board of directors.
 
While these provisions have the effect of encouraging persons seeking to acquire control of our company to negotiate with our board of directors, they could enable the board of directors to hinder or frustrate a transaction that some, or a majority, of the stockholders might believe to be in their best interests and, in that case, may prevent or discourage attempts to remove and replace incumbent directors.
 
Our relationship with Glencore may also deter a takeover.  As of December 31, 2011, we believe that Glencore beneficially owned, through its common stock, approximately 42% of our issued and outstanding common stock and, through its ownership of common and preferred stock, an overall 46% economic ownership of Century.  In addition, four members of our Board of Directors are employees or former employees of Glencore.

 
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Item 1B.  Unresolved Staff Comments
 
We have no unresolved comments from the staff of the SEC.
 
 
Item 2.  Properties
 
We own the property on which our Hawesville and Ravenswood facilities are located.  The site on which the Grundartangi facility is situated is leased from Faxafloahafnir sf under a long-term lease that runs through 2020, renewable at our option.  The site for our Helguvik project is leased from Reykjaneshofn, an independent public authority owned by the Municipality of Reykjanesbaer, under a long-term lease expected to run through 2060, with an automatic extension provision.  Our corporate offices are subject to an operating lease that expires in June 2015.  We hold a 49.7% interest in a partnership which operates the Mt. Holly facility and a 49.7% undivided interest in the property on which the Mt. Holly facility is located.  The remaining interest in the undivided property at Mt. Holly is owned by Alumax of South Carolina, Inc., a subsidiary of Alcoa.
 
Except for our Ravenswood facility, which was fully curtailed in February 2009, all of our facilities are operating above, at or near their productive capacity.  We believe all of our facilities are suitable and adequate for our current operations.  Additional information about the age, location, and productive capacity of our facilities is available in the “Overview” section of Item 1, “Business.”
 
 
Item 3.  Legal Proceedings
 
We have pending against us or may be subject to various lawsuits, claims and proceedings related primarily to employment, commercial, environmental, safety and health matters. Although it is not presently possible to determine the outcome of these matters, management believes the ultimate disposition will not have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, or liquidity.
 
In November 2011, we were named as a defendant in a lawsuit filed by our former Chief Executive Officer, Logan Kruger, alleging breach of contract and wrongful termination in violation of public policy.  The lawsuit alleges that Century anticipatorily breached the employment and severance protection agreements between Century and Mr. Kruger and that Century is obligated to make various severance payments in excess of $20 million to Mr. Kruger under such agreements.  In addition, the complaint seeks unspecified damages, including exemplary and punitive damages, for wrongful termination, as well as costs and attorneys’ fees.  We believe these claims are without merit and intend to vigorously defend our self against them.   The matter is in a preliminary stage, and we cannot predict the ultimate outcome of this action or estimate a range of possible losses relating to this matter at this time.
 
In March 2011, the purported stockholder class actions pending against us consolidated as In re: Century Aluminum Company Securities Litigation were dismissed with prejudice by the United States District Court for the Northern District of California.  The plaintiffs in the class actions allege that we improperly accounted for cash flows associated with the termination of certain forward financial sales contracts which accounting allegedly resulted in artificial inflation of our stock price and investor losses.  Plaintiffs are seeking rescission of our February 2009 common stock offering, unspecified compensatory damages, including interest thereon, costs and expenses and attorneys’ fees.  In March 2011, plaintiffs filed a notice of appeal to the order and judgment entered by the court dismissing their claims.  The notice of appeal remains pending before the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit.

 
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Item 4.  Mine Safety Disclosures
 
Not applicable.
 

 
 
Our Executive Officers
 
Executive officers are appointed by and serve at the discretion of the Board of Directors.  The following table details certain information about our executive officers as of February 29, 2012.

Name
Age
Position and Duration
Michael A. Bless
46
President and Chief Executive Officer since November 2011.  Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer from January 2006 to October 2011.
William J. Leatherberry
41
Executive Vice President, Chief Legal Officer, General Counsel and Secretary since January 2010.  Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Assistant Secretary from April 2009 to December 2009.  Vice President, Assistant General Counsel and Assistant Secretary from January 2008 to March 2009.  Assistant General Counsel and Assistant Secretary from July 2007 to December 2007, Corporate Counsel and Assistant Secretary from May 2007 to June 2007 and Corporate Counsel from January 2005 to April 2007.
Steve Schneider
56
Senior Vice President, Chief Accounting Officer and Controller since June 2006, Vice President and Corporate Controller from April 2002 through May 2006.
Michelle M. Harrison
36
Vice President and Treasurer since February 2007, Treasurer since June 2006, Assistant Treasurer from November 2005 to June 2006, Corporate Financial Analyst from May 2000 to October 2005.
John E. Hoerner
54
Vice President – North America Operations since September 1, 2011.
David Kjos
59
Vice President of Major Projects, Technology & Sustainability since October 2011. Vice President Operations – Iceland since June 2007.
 
Prior to joining Century, Mr. Hoerner served as General Director of Finished Production for the Western Division of RUSAL from 2010 to August 2011 and Managing Director of Kubikenborg Aluminium in Sundsvall, Sweden (Kubal) from 2003 through 2010.
 
Prior to joining Century, Mr. Kjos was the Vice President and Director of Cygnus, Inc. from February 2006 through June 2007.
 
Messrs. Bless, Leatherberry and Schneider and Ms. Harrison joined Century in 2006, 2005, 2001 and 2000, respectively.  Their respective biographical information is set forth in the table above.

 
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PART II
 
 
Item 5.  Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
 
Market Information
 
Our common stock trades on the NASDAQ Global Market under the symbol: CENX.  The following table sets forth, on a quarterly basis, the high and low sales prices of the common stock during the two most recent fiscal years.
 

   
2011
   
2010
 
   
High sales price
   
Low sales price
   
High sales price
   
Low sales price
 
First quarter
  $ 19.00     $ 13.90     $ 18.77     $ 10.13  
Second quarter
  $ 20.76     $ 13.60     $ 16.75     $ 8.57  
Third quarter
  $ 16.55     $ 8.72     $ 13.26     $ 8.25  
Fourth quarter
  $ 12.30     $ 7.25     $ 16.59     $ 11.62  
 
Holders
 
As of February 3, 2012, there were 24 holders of record of our common stock, which does not include the much larger number of beneficial owners whose common stock was held in street name or through fiduciaries.
 
Dividend Information
 
We did not declare dividends in 2011 or 2010 on our common stock.  We do not plan to declare cash dividends in the foreseeable future.
 
Our revolving credit facility and the indenture governing the 8.0% Notes contain restrictions which limit our ability to pay dividends.  Additional information about the terms of our long-term borrowing agreements is available at Note 6 Debt to the consolidated financial statements included herein.

 
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Stock Performance Graph
 
The following line graph compares Century Aluminum Company’s cumulative total return to stockholders with the cumulative total return of the S&P Composite Index and the Morningstar Aluminum Index.  These comparisons assume the investment of $100 on December 31, 2006 and the reinvestment of dividends.


Comparison of Cumulative Total Return to Stockholders December 31, 2006 through December 31, 2011

As of December 31,
 
2006
   
2007
   
2008
   
2009
   
2010
   
2011
 
Century Aluminum Company
  $ 100     $ 121     $ 22     $ 36     $ 35     $ 19  
Morningstar Aluminum Index
    100       145       42       72       72       39  
S&P 500 Index
    100       105       66       84       97       99  

 
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Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities during the three months ended December 31, 2011
 
Period
 
Total Number of Shares Purchased
   
Average Price Paid per Share
   
Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Programs (1)
   
Approximate Dollar Value of Shares that May Yet Be Purchased Under the Program
 
October 1 through October 31, 2011
        $           $ 21,193,000  
November 1 through November 30, 2011
    375,000       8.50       375,000       18,005,000  
December 1 through December 31, 2011
    386,303     $ 10.08       386,303     $ 14,109,000  
Total October 1 through December 31, 2011
    761,303               761,303          

(1)
On August 11, 2011, our Board of Directors authorized a $60 million stock repurchase program.  Under the program, Century is authorized to repurchase up to $60 million of our outstanding shares of common stock, from time to time, on the open market at prevailing market prices, in block trades or otherwise.  The timing and amount of any shares repurchased will be determined by our management based on its evaluation of market conditions, the trading price of our common stock and other factors.  The stock repurchase program may be suspended or discontinued at any time.


 
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Item 6.  Selected Financial Data
 
The following table presents selected consolidated financial data for each of the last five fiscal years. The selected consolidated historical balance sheet data as of each of the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2010 and the selected consolidated statement of operations data for each of the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009 is derived from our consolidated financial statements audited by Deloitte & Touche LLP included herein.  The selected consolidated historical balance sheet data as of each of the years ended December 31, 2009, 2008 and 2007 and the selected consolidated statement of operations data for each of the years ended December 31, 2008 and 2007 is derived from our consolidated financial statements audited by Deloitte & Touche LLP which are not included herein.
 
Our selected historical results of operations include:

 
·
the restart of the curtailed potline at our 244,000 mtpy Hawesville smelter in the second quarter of 2011;
 
·
the curtailment of operations of our 170,000 mtpy Ravenswood smelter which became fully curtailed in the first quarter of 2009;
 
·
the curtailment of one potline at our 244,000 mtpy Hawesville smelter in the first quarter of 2009;
 
·
our equity in the earnings and related losses on disposition of our 50% joint venture investments in Gramercy Alumina LLC and St. Ann Bauxite Ltd. prior to divesting our interest in those companies in August 2009;
 
·
the results of operations from our 40,000 mtpy expansion of Grundartangi which became operational in the fourth quarter of 2007; and,
 
·
our equity in the earnings of our 40% joint venture investments in Baise Haohai Carbon Co. since we acquired an interest in that company in April 2008.
 
Our results for these periods and prior periods are not fully comparable to our results of operations for fiscal year 2011 and may not be indicative of our future financial position or results of operations.  The information set forth below should be read in conjunction with Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” and notes thereto.
 
 
   
Year Ended December 31,
 
   
2011 (1)
   
2010 (2)
   
2009 (3)
   
2008 (4)
   
2007 (5)
 
Net sales
  $ 1,356,424     $ 1,169,271     $ 899,253     $ 1,970,776     $ 1,798,163  
Gross profit (loss)
    89,522       112,396       (65,665 )     311,624       363,463  
Operating income (loss)
    47,296       102,980       (97,456 )     168,557       303,543  
Net income (loss)
    11,325       59,971       (205,982 )     (895,187 )     (105,586 )
                                         
Income (loss) per share:
                                       
Basic and diluted
  $ 0.11     $ 0.59     $ (2.73 )   $ (20.00 )   $ (2.84 )
                                         
Dividends per common share
  $ 0.00     $ 0.00     $ 0.00     $ 0.00     $ 0.00  
Total assets
    1,811,094       1,923,056       1,861,750       2,035,358       2,566,809  
Total debt (6)
    271,285       314,919       298,678       435,515       402,923  
Long-term debt obligations (7)
    263,470       261,621       247,624       275,000       250,000  
 


 
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Year Ended December 31,
 
   
2011 (1)
   
2010 (2)
   
2009 (3)
   
2008 (4)
   
2007 (5)
 
Other information:
                             
Shipments – Primary aluminum:
                             
Direct shipments (MT)
    334,889       317,940       329,327       532,320       531,561  
Toll shipments (MT)
    267,253       267,455       275,799       271,451       235,390  
 
Average realized price per metric ton:
                                       
Direct shipments
  $ 2,577     $ 2,297     $ 1,728     $ 2,700     $ 2,494  
Toll shipments
  $ 1,839     $ 1,634     $ 1,198     $ 1,966     $ 2,006  
Average LME price:
                                       
Per metric ton
  $ 2,398     $ 2,173     $ 1,665     $ 2,573     $ 2,638  
Average Midwest premium:
                                       
Per metric ton
  $ 169     $ 138     $ 104     $ 93     $ 69  
 

(1)
Net income includes a charge of $19.8 million for lower of cost or market inventory adjustments, an after-tax benefit of $18.3 million for changes to the Century of West Virginia retiree medical benefits program, a charge related to the restart of a curtailed potline at Hawesville of $8.6 million and a charge of $7.7 million in the second quarter related to contractual impact of changes in our Board of Directors and executive management team.
(2)
Net income includes an after-tax benefit of $56.7 million for changes to the Century of West Virginia retiree medical benefits program, a charge of $10.5 million for mark-to-market losses for primary aluminum price protection options and a charge for contractual termination pension benefits of $4.6 million due to the continued curtailment of the Ravenswood facility.
(3)
Net loss includes an after-tax charge of $73.2 million for loss on disposition of our equity investments in Gramercy and St. Ann, an after-tax charge of $41.7 million of curtailment costs for our U.S. smelters, an after-tax benefit of $57.8 million for gains related to the termination of a power contract and a replacement power contract at Hawesville and a benefit of $14.3 million for discrete tax adjustments.
(4)
Net loss includes an after-tax charge of $742.1 million (net of gain on settlement) for mark-to-market losses on forward contracts that do not qualify for cash flow hedge accounting, a $515.1 million tax adjustment to establish reserves on deferred tax assets, a $94.9 million charge for goodwill impairment and an inventory write down to market value of $55.9 million.
(5)
Net loss includes an after-tax charge of $328.3 million for mark-to-market losses on forward contracts that do not qualify for cash flow hedge accounting.
(6)
Total debt includes all long-term debt obligations, the contingent obligation to E.ON for payments made by E.ON above an agreed amount on CAKY’s behalf to Big Rivers under the Big River Agreement (the “E.ON contingent obligation”) and any debt classified as short-term obligations, net of any debt discounts, including current portion of long-term debt, the IRBs and the 1.75% Notes.
(7)
Long-term debt obligations are all payment obligations under long-term borrowing arrangements, including the E.ON contingent obligation and excluding the current portion of long-term debt and net of any debt discounts.
 


 
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Item 7.  Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
 
 
Overview
 
We produce primary aluminum.  The aluminum industry is cyclical and the price of primary aluminum (which trades as a commodity) is determined by global supply and demand.  The key determinants of our results of operations and cash flow from operations are as follows:
 
 
·
Our selling price is based on the LME price of primary aluminum and is influenced by regional premiums and, at certain times, by fixed price sales contracts.  In addition, we earn further premiums on value-added products.
 
 
·
In normal circumstances, our facilities operate at or near capacity, and fluctuations in volume, other than through curtailments, acquisitions or expansion, generally are small.
 
 
·
The principal components of cost of goods sold are alumina, electrical power, labor and carbon products, which in aggregate exceed 80% of our cost of goods sold.  Many of these costs are governed by long-term contracts.
 
Shipment volumes, average realized price and cost of goods sold per metric ton shipped are our key performance indicators.  Revenue can vary significantly from period to period due to the fluctuations in the LME and Midwest price of primary aluminum.  Any adverse changes in the conditions that affect shipment volumes or the market price of primary aluminum could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and cash flows.  Fluctuations in working capital are influenced by shipments, the LME and Midwest price of primary aluminum, cost of electricity and materials, and by the timing of cash receipts from major customers and disbursements to our suppliers.
 

 

 
- 31 -



 
 
Our operating results vary significantly with changes in the price of primary aluminum and the raw materials used in its production, including electrical power, alumina, aluminum fluoride, calcined petroleum coke, pitch, finished carbon anodes and cathodes. Because we sell our products based principally on the LME price for primary aluminum, we cannot pass on increased costs to our customers. Although we attempt to mitigate the effects of price fluctuations through the use of various fixed-price commitments, financial instruments and by pricing some of our raw materials and energy contracts based on LME prices, these efforts also limit our ability to take advantage of favorable changes in the market prices for primary aluminum or raw materials and may affect our financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
 
Electricity represents our single largest operating cost. As a result, the availability of electricity at competitive prices is critical to the profitability of our operations.  Portions of the contracted cost of the electricity supplied to Mt. Holly and all of Hawesville’s electricity costs vary with the supplier’s costs. An increase in these costs would increase the price these facilities pay for electricity.  Costs under the Mt. Holly and Hawesville electricity contracts have substantially increased in recent years, due in part to rising fuel prices.  As these contracts have take-or-pay type provisions, the financial position, results of operations and cash flows of Hawesville and Mt. Holly may be affected by the price for electric power even if we curtailed production capacity at these facilities.
 
We expect that future electric power costs in the U.S. will present severe challenges to our domestic smelting operations.  Recently proposed environmental rules affecting coal-fired power plants are expected to have a disproportionate impact on the electrical power providers for our smelting operations in Kentucky, South Carolina and West Virginia.  Under the rules proposed by the Environmental Protection Agency (the “EPA”) new limits on the emission on mercury, sulfur dioxide and other toxic air pollutants would require existing power plants to make significant capital investments in order to comply with the new standards.  We expect that these new rules will result in power providers shutting down a significant portion of their coal-fired power generation capacity.  The power generating facilities that remain open will incur substantial compliance costs.  The reduced power generation capacity and the additional compliance costs are forecasted to put upward pricing pressure for electrical power, particularly in areas with high concentrations of coal-fired power generation facilities like Kentucky and West Virginia.
 
The average LME price for primary aluminum for 2011 rose to $2,398 per metric ton; however, prices declined to approximately $2,000 by year end.  The average LME price in 2011 was up significantly from $2,173 per metric ton in 2010 and was $1,665 per metric ton in 2009.  Demand for aluminum products continued to improve in 2011 with strong growth in Asia and some improvement in developed markets.  Commodity prices for other metals (copper in particular) remained relatively high in 2011, resulting in a pricing relationship between these metals and primary aluminum that was inconsistent with historic trends.  If current pricing trends continue, there may be some modest additional demand for primary aluminum products from substitution for these higher priced metals.
 
During the first half of 2011, higher LME prices provided an incentive to producers to restart idled capacity worldwide.  However, with lower LME prices in the second half of 2011, no new restarts were announced outside of China and several capacity closures in Europe and Australia were announced in early 2012.  Industry analysts have forecasted that the aluminum market will have surplus production in the near future which may exert downward pressure on LME prices for primary aluminum; however, global cost pressures for aluminum producers are expected to provide some support for metal prices as a significant portion of aluminum producers were producing at a cost above the metal price at year end 2011.

 
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Current primary aluminum warehouse inventories remain at or near historically high levels.  Traditionally, high inventory levels tend to exert downward pressure on the LME price for primary aluminum; however this relationship is contrary to what we have observed in recent history.  In addition, high warehouse inventory levels would also traditionally cause weakened premiums, but premiums in 2011 remained at or near multi-year highs in the U.S and Europe.  It is not possible to predict how long these conditions will continue, but unless there is discipline from suppliers in curtailing uneconomic production as well as improving conditions for metal demand, we may experience lower LME prices for primary aluminum and lower premiums.
 
Recent Developments
 
Century appoints Michael Bless as President and Chief Executive Officer
 
In February 2012, we announced that our Board of Directors had appointed Michael Bless President and Chief Executive Officer of Century.  Mr. Bless, who was named Acting President and CEO in November 2011, had previously served as Century's Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer since January 2006.
 
Mr. Bless succeeded Logan Kruger, who terminated his employment with Century and resigned as a member of the Board of Directors.  Mr. Kruger has also brought a lawsuit against Century alleging a breach of contract and wrongful termination. We believe these claims are without merit and we intend to vigorously defend against them.  See Item 3 “Legal Proceedings” and Note 15 Commitments and contingencies in the consolidated financial statements included herein.
 
Nordural Helguvik receives favorable results in power arbitration
 
In December 2011, Nordural Helguvik hf received the results of its arbitration with HS Orka hf, one of the power suppliers to its Helguvik greenfield project.  The arbitration panel ruled that the parties' power contract remains in force in accordance with its terms and that HS Orka remains obligated to provide the full amount of contracted power to Nordural, subject to the satisfaction of certain remaining conditions.  We are currently in discussions with HS Orka with respect to the satisfaction of these conditions.
 
Grundartangi labor contract wage negotiations completed
 
In September 2011, we reached an agreement on the revised wage terms under our existing labor agreement with the five labor unions representing approximately 84% of workers at Grundartangi.  The wage and other terms of the labor agreement expire on December 31, 2014.

 
Stock Repurchase Program
 
In August 2011, our Board of Directors approved a $60 million stock repurchase program.  From August 11, 2011 through December 31, 2011, we repurchased 4,386,521 shares of common stock at an aggregate purchase price of $45.9 million.  We had $14.1 million remaining under the repurchase program authorization as of December 31, 2011.  See Item 5 Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities for additional information about the program.
 
Century names new Vice President – North America Operations
 
In August 2011, we announced that John Hoerner was named Vice President - North America Operations, effective September 1, 2011.   Mr. Hoerner comes to Century from RUSAL, where he most recently served as Managing Director of Kubikenborg Aluminium in Sundsvall, Sweden (Kubal) as well as General Director of Finished Production for the Western Division of RUSAL.

 
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Restart and production inefficiencies impact our U.S. primary aluminum output
 
Our U.S. primary aluminum production for 2011 was negatively affected by Hawesville's slower than anticipated return to full stable operations following the restart of its curtailed potline earlier this year.  In addition, the plant experienced reduced production efficiencies and higher costs related to the unstable conditions which prevailed during the majority of the year.  Though the plant has essentially returned to full production, we currently expect that Hawesville will return to full stable operations in the first quarter of 2012.
 
 
1.75% Notes redemption
 
In May 2011, we redeemed all of the issued and outstanding 1.75% Notes in accordance with their terms.  The 1.75% Notes were redeemed at 100% of their principal amount plus accrued and unpaid interest.  The redemption of the 1.75% Notes was funded with the available cash on hand.
 
Stockholder class actions dismissed and appealed
 
In March 2011, the purported stockholder class actions pending against us consolidated as Century Aluminum Company Securities Litigation were dismissed with prejudice by the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California.  In March 2011, plaintiffs filed a notice of appeal.
 
Pension and benefit plan contributions
 
During 2011, we made contributions of approximately $17.7 million to the qualified defined benefit plans we sponsor.  In addition, at the time three directors designated for nomination to our Board of Directors were elected, it was determined a “change of control” occurred under the terms of the non-qualified SERB.  As a result, we were required to make a $16.7 million contribution to a Rabbi trust to fully fund the non-qualified SERB benefit obligation.  Our qualified defined benefit plan and non-qualified SERB contributions were $34.4 million during the year.  In addition, we provided $2.1 million in funding for defined benefit plans at the Mt. Holly facility.
 
Results of Operations
 
The following discussion reflects our historical results of operations, the comparability of which is affected by the following unusual or infrequent events:

 
·
the restart of operations of one potline at Hawesville in April 2011;
 
·
the curtailments of operations of Ravenswood’s remaining three potlines and one potline at Hawesville in February 2009 and March 2009, respectively; and,
 
·
the transfer of our 50% ownership positions in Gramercy and St. Ann to Noranda on September 1, 2009.
 
Accordingly, the results for fiscal years 2010 and 2009 are not fully comparable to the results of operations for fiscal year 2011.  We believe that our historical results are not indicative of our current business.  You should read the following discussion in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements included herein.

 
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The following table sets forth, for the years indicated, the percentage relationship to net sales of certain items included in our Statements of Operations.
 
   
Percentage of Net Sales
 
   
2011
   
2010
   
2009
 
Net sales
    100.0 %     100.0 %     100.0 %
Cost of goods sold
    (93.4 )     (90.4 )     (107.3 )
Gross profit (loss)
    6.6       9.6       (7.3 )
Other operating income - net
    0.3       3.2       1.8  
Selling, general and administrative expenses
    (3.4 )     (4.0 )     (5.3 )
Operating income (loss)
    3.5       8.8       (10.8 )
Interest expense – third party
    (1.8 )     (2.2 )     (3.4 )
Interest income (expense) – related parties
                0.1  
Interest income – third party
          0.1       0.2  
Loss on early extinguishment of debt
                (0.3 )
Net gain (loss) on forward contract
          (0.9 )     (2.2 )
Other expense - net
    (0.1 )           (0.3 )
Income (loss) before income taxes and equity in earnings (losses) of joint ventures
    1.6       5.8       (16.7 )
Income tax benefit (expense)
    (1.0 )     (1.0 )     1.4  
Income (loss) before equity in earnings (losses) of joint ventures
    0.6       4.8       (15.3 )
Equity in earnings (losses) of joint ventures
    0.2       0.3       (7.6 )
Net income (loss)
    0.8 %     5.1 %     (22.9 )%

 
 
The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, the shipment volumes and the average sales price per metric ton shipped:

 Primary Aluminum shipments
     
   
Direct (1)
 
   
Metric tons
   
$/metric ton
 
2011
    334,889     $ 2,577  
2010
    317,940       2,297  
2009
    329,327       1,728  
   
Toll
 
   
Metric tons
   
$/metric ton
 
2011
    267,253     $ 1,839  
2010
    267,455       1,634  
2009
    275,799       1,198  

(1)
Direct shipments do not include toll shipments from Grundartangi.
 


 
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Year Ended December 31, 2011 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2010
 
Net sales:  Net sales for the year ended December 31, 2011 increased $187.1 million to $1,356.4 million.  Higher price realizations for primary aluminum in the year ended December 31, 2011, contributed $148.9 million to the sales increase.  The monthly average LME cash price for 2011 was up 6% from the monthly average LME cash price in 2010.  Higher net sales volume positively impacted the year over year sales increase by $38.2 million.  Direct shipments increased 16,949 metric tons from the same period in 2010 due to the restart of curtailed capacity at Hawesville and the increase in direct sales from Grundartangi.  Toll shipments declined 202 metric tons from the same period in 2010.
 
Gross profit (loss):  During 2011, higher price realizations, net of LME based alumina and power cost increases, increased gross profit by $97.3 million.  Higher shipment volume contributed $2.4 million to the increase in gross profit.  Offsetting these increases were $102.4 million in net cost increases comprised of:  increased costs for power at our U.S. smelters, $18.0 million; increased costs for maintenance, supplies and materials, $82.2 million; other cost increases, $3.4 million; and lower depreciation charges, $1.2 million.
 
Of the $82.2 million in increased costs for maintenance, supplies and materials, 70% of the increase relates to the cost of carbon and bath products required to produce aluminum.  A significant portion of the remaining cost increases relates to the restart of a potline at Hawesville, inefficiencies and instabilities experienced during and, subsequent to, the restart and resultant under-absorption of costs.
 
 
A decline in LME prices at the end of 2011 resulted in a decline in the market value of our inventory below its cost basis, resulting in charges to cost of goods sold of $19.8 million in 2011.  We recorded a favorable net inventory adjustment of $0.4 million in 2010.  On a year to year comparative basis, this negatively impacted the change in gross profit by an additional $20.2 million.
 
Other operating income – net: Other operating income is primarily related to items associated with Ravenswood.  In addition to the on-going costs at the curtailed facility, in 2011 and 2010, we recorded credits of $18.3 million and $56.7 million, respectively, due to the elimination of medical benefits for retirees of Ravenswood.  In addition, we recorded a charge of $1.1 million in 2011 for pension benefits that will be payable to a group of employees whose combination of age, years of service and lay-off status make them eligible for accelerated pension benefits in 2012.  We recorded a charge of $4.6 million in 2010 for pension benefits that will be payable to a group of employees whose combination of age, years of service and lay-off status made them eligible for accelerated pension benefits in 2011.
 
 
Selling general and administrative expenses:  During 2011, outside professional support, employee-related expenses and administrative spending to support the Helguvik project were lower than those recorded in 2010.  Off-setting these cost improvements in 2011 were charges of $7.7 million in the second quarter related to the accelerated vesting of share-based compensation plans arising from changes in the Company’s Board of Directors and serverance accruals for changes in the executive management team.
 
Net gain (loss) on forward contracts:  The net gain (loss) on forward contracts in 2011 and 2010 relates primarily to marking-to-market options that were put in place to provide partial downside price protection for our domestic facilities.  At the end of 2011, the unexpired put options increased in value due to declining LME prices for primary aluminum.  At the end of 2010, the unexpired put options decreased in value due to rising LME prices for primary aluminum.  Changes in the value of unexpired put options, along with the write-off of expired contracts in both 2011 and 2010, resulted in a year over year improvement of $11.3 million in this category.
 
 
Tax provision:  Our 2011 and 2010 income tax expense is related to our net income in Iceland with a partial offset to expense due to a discrete tax benefit arising from the elimination of medical benefits for retirees at Ravenswood. 

 
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Equity in earnings (losses) of joint ventures: The amounts reported in both years primarily reflect the results of Century’s joint venture, BHH.
 
Year Ended December 31, 2010 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2009
 
Net sales:  Net sales for the year ended December 31, 2010 increased $270.0 million to $1,169.3 million.  Higher price realizations for primary aluminum in the year ended December 31, 2010, contributed $296.7 million to the sales increase.  The monthly average LME cash price for 2010 was up 31% from the monthly average LME cash price in 2009.  Lower net sales volume negatively impacted the year over year sales increase by $26.7 million.  Direct shipments declined 11,387 metric tons from the same period in 2009 due to capacity curtailments in the U.S. that occurred during the first quarter of 2009.  Toll shipments declined 8,344 metric tons from the same period in 2009.  The decline in toll shipments from Grundartangi was due in part to a transformer outage that reduced overall metal production and also due to selling aluminum on a direct basis in 2010.  Grundartangi’s direct shipments were 6,196 metric tons in 2010.
 
Gross profit (loss):  During 2010, higher price realizations, net of LME based alumina cost and LME-based power cost increases, increased gross profit by $254.8 million.  Lower shipment volume, due to capacity curtailments, contributed $9.2 million to the increase in gross profit.  Offsetting these increases were $52.7 million in net cost increases comprised of:  increased costs for power at our U.S. smelters, $28.5 million (primarily attributable to our new power contract at Hawesville); increased costs for maintenance, supplies and materials, $7.9 million; other cost increases, $25.6 million; and offset by reduced net amortization and depreciation charges, primarily at Hawesville, $9.3 million.
 
Due to the turnover of inventory during 2009 and increased market prices as of December 31, 2009, the previously recognized lower of cost or market inventory reserve was adjusted to reflect the lower of cost or market value of our December 31, 2009 ending inventory.  These adjustments favorably impacted gross profit by $33.6 million during 2009. We recorded a favorable lower of cost or market adjustment of $0.4 million in 2010.  On a year to year comparative basis, this negatively impacted the change in gross profit by an additional $33.2 million.
 
Other operating income – net:  During 2010, we recorded credits of $56.7 million due to the elimination of medical benefits for retirees of the Ravenswood facility.  We recorded a charge of $4.6 million for pension benefits that will be payable to a group of employees whose combination of age, years of service and lay-off status make them eligible for accelerated pension benefits in 2011.  Ongoing site costs, severance and related employee costs at the Ravenswood facility account for the remaining $14.7 million of charges in this category.
 
During 2009, the expenses associated with the curtailed potlines at our Ravenswood and Hawesville facilities were $41.7 million. This amount includes expenses incurred to curtail operations and to maintain the Ravenswood facility in a curtailed state.  See Note 3 Curtailment of Operations – Ravenswood and Hawesville in consolidated financial statements included herein.
 
During 2009, we recorded a gain of $81.6 million related to our agreement with E.ON that was consummated concurrently with the new long term power contract for Hawesville.  In addition, we wrote off the remaining carrying value of the intangible asset associated with the previous power contract that was terminated July 16, 2009.  The amount of the write-off was $23.8 million.  See Note 2 Long-term power contract for Hawesville in consolidated financial statements included herein for additional information about this contract.
 
Selling general and administrative expenses:  The decrease in selling, general and administrative expenses in 2010 is due to a reduction in employee costs and outside professional support, partially offset by increased general and administrative costs to support the Helguvik project.

 
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Interest expense – third party:  The decrease in interest expense in 2010 from 2009 is the result of the exchange of our convertible debt for equity in 2009, partially offset by increased interest expense due to the exchange of 8.0% Notes for 7.5% Notes in the fourth quarter of 2009 and the first quarter of 2010.
 
Net loss on forward contracts:  The net gain (loss) on forward contracts of $10.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2010 relates to marking-to-market options that were put into place to provide partial downside price protection for our Hawesville facility.
 
 
For the year ended December 31, 2009, the net gain (loss) on forward contracts was $19.4 million. Over half of the net loss reported for the year ended December 31, 2009 relates to marking-to-market options that were put in place to provide partial downside price protection for our Hawesville facility.  The remainder of the loss relates to the discontinuation of cash flow hedge accounting treatment for our natural gas financial forward contracts associated with our investment in Gramercy, recognition of previously settled Icelandic krona hedges associated with the Helguvik project and losses on derivatives associated with the Hawesville and Ravenswood power contracts.
 
Tax provision:  Our 2010 income tax expense is related to our net income in Iceland with a partial offset to expense due to a discrete tax benefit arising from the elimination of medical benefits for retirees of the Ravenswood facility. Our 2009 tax provision benefited from the release of income tax reserves for uncertain tax positions due to statute of limitations expiration and additional NOL carry back claims due to a recently enacted U.S. tax law offset by increased Iceland tax rates. 
 
Equity in earnings (losses) of joint ventures: The results in 2010 reflect the results of Century’s joint ventures, primarily BHH.  In August 2009, we signed an agreement to transfer our ownership interests in Gramercy and St. Ann to our joint venture partner, Noranda resulting in a loss on disposition of $73.2 million in 2009.
 
Liquidity and Capital Resources
 
Our principal sources of liquidity are available cash, cash flow from operations and available borrowings under our revolving credit facility.  We have also raised capital in the past through the public equity and debt markets.  We continuously explore various other financing alternatives. Our principal uses of cash are the funding of operating costs (including postemployment benefits), maintenance of curtailed production facilities, payments of principal and interest on our outstanding debt, the funding of capital expenditures, investments in our growth activities and in related businesses, repurchases of common stock, working capital and other general corporate requirements.
 
Our consolidated cash and cash equivalents balance at December 31, 2011 was approximately $183 million compared to $304 million at December 31, 2010.  Century's revolving credit facility matures in July 2014.  As of December 31, 2011, our credit facility had no loan amounts outstanding and approximately $58 million of net availability.  We have approximately $41 million of letters of credit outstanding under our credit facility, which allowed us to eliminate our restricted cash deposits.  Future curtailments of domestic production capacity would reduce domestic accounts receivable and inventory, which comprise the borrowing base of our credit facility, and would result in a corresponding reduction in availability under the credit facility.
 
Domestic primary aluminum production for 2011 was negatively affected, primarily due to Hawesville's slower than anticipated return to full stable operations following the restart of its curtailed potline earlier this year.  We expect that our cash flow from operations will continue to be negatively impacted by these inefficiencies through the first quarter of 2012.

 
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In August 2011, our Board of Directors approved a $60 million stock repurchase program.  Under the program, we may repurchase up to $60 million of our outstanding shares of common stock from time to time on the open market at prevailing market prices, in block trades or otherwise. Through December 31, 2011, we have expended $45.9 million under the repurchase program.  We have $14.1 million remaining under the repurchase program authorization.  The repurchase program may be suspended or discontinued at any time.
 
In May 2011, we used $47.1 million of available cash on hand to redeem all of our outstanding 1.75% Notes at 100% of their principal amount plus accrued and unpaid interest to May 19, 2011.  We have $249.6 million in 8.0% senior secured notes payable that will mature on May 15, 2014.  We may be required to make installment payments for the E.ON contingent obligation.  These payments are contingent based on the LME price of primary aluminum and the level of Hawesville’s operations.  Based on the LME forward market at December 31, 2011 and management’s estimate, we do not expect to make any payments for the E.ON contingent obligation until 2018.
 
During 2011, we made contributions to the qualified defined benefit plans we sponsor of approximately $17.7 million and $16.7 million in contributions to a Rabbi trust to fund the non-qualified SERB benefit obligation.  In addition, we provided $2.1 million in funding for defined benefit plans at the Mt. Holly facility.  We may choose to make additional contributions to these plans from time to time at our discretion.  Based on current actuarial and other assumptions, we expect to make additional contributions to these plans of approximately $9 million during 2012.
 
Effective January 1, 2011, CAWV no longer provided retiree medical benefits to active salaried CAWV personnel or any other personnel who retired prior to November 1, 2010.  CAWV has made no commitments as to the future status of retiree medical benefits for hourly personnel who are currently covered by an active medical program. We expect these plan amendments will significantly reduce our future cash payments for postretirement medical benefits.  See Note 11 Pension and Other Postretirement Benefits in the consolidated financial statements included herein for additional information about the Ravenswood retiree medical benefit changes.
 
In addition, with the ratification of the Hawesville labor agreement, changes were made to the retiree medical benefits program for employees who retire during the term of the labor agreement. We expect these changes to the Hawesville labor agreement will significantly reduce our future cash payments for postretirement medical benefits.  See Note 11 Pension and Other Postretirement Benefits in the consolidated financial statements included herein for additional information about the Hawesville retiree medical benefit changes.
 
In June 2011, the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (the “PBGC”) informed us that it believed that a “cessation of operations” under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (“ERISA”) had occurred at our Ravenswood facility as a result of the curtailment of operations at the facility and requested that we engage in discussions with the PBGC relating thereto.  We have notified the PBGC that we do not believe that a “cessation of operations” has occurred and have entered into ongoing discussions with the PBGC to resolve the matter.  If a “cessation of operations” is ultimately determined to have occurred under ERISA, it may be necessary for Century Aluminum of West Virginia to accelerate the timing of additional contributions to certain of its defined pension plans or post other collateral with the PBGC or negotiate an alternative agreement.  
 
Under an agreement with the Government of Iceland, Nordural Grundartangi ehf agreed to prepay taxes during 2012, 2011 and 2010 as an advance levy of income taxes and other governmental taxes for the period of 2013 through 2018.  The amount of prepaid taxes paid through December 31, 2011 was approximately $ 6.3 million and we expect to prepay an additional $3.2 million in 2012.  The prepaid taxes will offset taxes otherwise payable in equal installments over the period 2013 through 2018.

 
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We received a $26.9 million withholding tax refund in Iceland in the fourth quarter of 2011 for taxes paid for intercompany dividend payments in February 2011.  We paid an additional $20 million in withholding tax for intercompany dividend payments in Iceland in 2011 and expect to pay an additional $10 million in the first quarter of 2012.  We expect to receive a withholding tax refund in the fourth quarter of 2012 related to intercompany dividend payments.  The withholding taxes and associated refunds are payable in Icelandic krona (“ISK”) and we are subject to foreign currency risk associated with fluctuations in the value of the U.S. dollar as compared the ISK.We do not expect to receive any material domestic tax refunds in the near future.  
 
Capital Resources
 
We intend to finance our future recurring capital expenditures from available cash and our cash flow from operations.  For major investment projects, such as the Helguvik project, we would seek financing from various capital and loan markets and may potentially pursue the formation of strategic alliances.  We may be unable to issue additional debt or equity securities, or to issue these securities on attractive terms, due to a number of factors including a lack of demand, unfavorable pricing, poor economic conditions, unfavorable interest rates, or our financial condition or credit rating at the time.  Future uncertainty in the U.S. and international markets and economies may adversely affect our liquidity, our ability to access the capital markets and our financial condition.
 
Capital expenditures for 2011 were $33.0 million, $12.9 million of which was related to the Helguvik project, with the balance principally related to upgrading production equipment, improving facilities and complying with environmental requirements.  We believe capital spending in 2012, excluding the activity on the Helguvik project, will be approximately $25 to 30 million.
 
We have made and continue to make capital expenditures for the construction and development of our Helguvik project.  We have substantial future contractual commitments for the Helguvik project.  If we were to cancel the Helguvik project, we would expect to incur an additional $20 million in contract cancellation costs.  We are continuing to negotiate with the power suppliers to the project to remove all the remaining conditions to their obligations to supply contracted power.  The timing of the power availability together with other factors, including financing, will determine when we will resume major construction activity at Helguvik.  We expect that the portion of capital expenditures for this project that we will fund from our existing cash and operating cash flow will be approximately $1 million per month until the restart of major construction activities.  We cannot, at this time, predict when the restart of major construction activity will occur. See Item 1A, “Risk Factors — Construction at our Helguvik smelter site is under review.  Substantial delay in the completion of this project may increase its cost and impose other risks to completion that are not foreseeable at this time.” included herein.
 
Historical
 
Our Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009 are summarized below:
 

   
2011
   
2010
   
2009
 
   
(dollars in thousands)
 
Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities
  $ (2,936 )   $ 131,510     $ 39,399  
Net cash used in investing activities
    (24,895 )     (25,471 )     (46,213 )
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities
    (93,064 )     23       75,648  
Net change in cash and cash equivalents
  $ (120,895 )   $ 106,062     $ 68,834  


 
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Net cash used in operating activities in 2011 was $2.9 million compared to cash provided by operating activities of $131.5 million in 2010.  The decrease in cash from operations in 2011 was primarily due to withholding tax payments in Iceland, pension and benefit contributions, an increase in working capital associated with the restart of Hawesville and the reduction of the benefits received for the E.ON contractual receivable in 2011 (the E.ON contractual receivable expired in 2010).
 
Net cash provided by operating activities in 2009 was $39.4 million.  Our net cash from operations was due to tax refunds partially offset by operating losses and costs of curtailed operations in 2009.
 
Our net cash used in investing activities in 2011 was $24.9 million compared to $25.5 million in 2010.  The decrease in cash used was primarily due to reduced restricted cash requirements and a payment received on advances to joint ventures.
 
Net cash used in investing activities for 2010 was $25.5 million compared to $46.2 million in 2009.  The decrease was due to restricted cash being released as a result of our replacing cash collateral with letters of credit under our new revolving line of credit in 2010.  In addition, a portion of the decrease was due to lower investments in capital expenditures to maintain and improve plant operations and reduced spending on the Helguvik project.
 
Our net cash used in financing activities during 2011 was $93.1 million.  The use was primarily due to the redemption of the 1.75% Notes in May 2011 of $47.1 million and $45.9 million for the repurchase of common stock.
 
Net cash provided by financing activities during 2010 was $23 thousand from the net proceeds from the issuance of common stock from the exercise of stock options.
 
Net cash provided by financing activities during 2009 was $75.6 million.  We received $103.1 million in net proceeds from the issuance of common stock from our equity offering in February 2009.  We had repayments of $25.0 million on our revolving line of credit and paid financing fees of $2.4 million.

 
 
 
Critical Accounting Estimates
 
Our significant accounting policies are described in Note 1 of the consolidated financial statements.  The preparation of the financial statements requires that management make judgments, assumptions and estimates in applying these accounting policies.  Those judgments are normally based on knowledge and experience about past and current events and on assumptions about future events.  Critical accounting estimates require management to make assumptions about matters that are highly uncertain at the time of the estimate and a change in these estimates may have a material impact on our financial position or results of operations.  Significant judgments and estimates made by our management include expenses and liabilities related to pensions and other postemployment benefits, deferred tax assets and property, plant and equipment.  Our management has discussed the development and selection of these critical accounting estimates with the audit committee of our board of directors and the audit committee has reviewed our disclosure.
 
Pension and Other Postemployment Benefit Liabilities
 
We sponsor several pension and other postemployment benefit plans.  Our liabilities under these defined benefit plans are determined using methodologies that involve several actuarial assumptions, the most significant of which are the discount rate, health care inflation rate and the long-term rate of return on plan assets.

 
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Discount Rate Selection
 
It is our policy to select a discount rate for purposes of measuring obligations under defined benefit plans by matching cash flows separately for each plan to yields on zero coupon bonds.  We use the Citigroup Pension Liability Index for determining these yields.
 
The Citigroup Pension Liability Index was specifically developed to meet the criteria set forth in Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 715.  The published information at the end of each calendar month includes spot rate yields (zero coupon bond yield estimates) in half year increments for use in tailoring a discount rate to a particular plan's projected benefit cash flows.  The Citigroup Pension Liability Index rate represents the discount rate developed from these spot rate yields, based on the pattern and duration of the benefit payments of a typical, large, somewhat mature pension plan.  
 
The individual characteristics of each plan, including projected cash flow patterns and payment durations, have been taken into account, since discount rates are determined on a plan-by-plan basis.  We will generally select a discount rate rounded to the nearest 0.25%, unless specific circumstances provide for a more appropriate non-rounded rate to be used.  We believe the projected cash flows used to determine the Citigroup Pension Liability Index rate provide a good approximation of the timing and amounts of our defined benefits payments under our plans and no adjustment to the Citigroup Pension Liability Index rate has been made.
 
Therefore, as of December 31, 2011, we selected a weighted-average discount rate of 4.25% for all our pension plans and a weighted-average discount rate of 4.25% for our other postemployment benefit plans.
 
A change of a half percentage point in the discount rate for our defined benefit plans would have the following effects on our obligations under these plans in 2011:
 

Effect of changes in the discount rates on the Projected Benefit Obligations for:
 
50 basis point increase
   
50 basis point decrease
 
   
(dollars in millions)
 
Pension plans
  $ (10.7 )   $ 11.9  
Other postemployment benefit (“OPEB”) plans
    (8.8 )     9.8  

 
 
Century provides postemployment benefit plans that provide health care and life insurance benefits for a portion of the retired employees of our U.S. based operations.  ASC 715 requires the accrual of the estimated cost of providing postretirement benefits during the working careers of those employees who could become eligible for such benefits when they retire. We fund these benefits as the retirees submit claims.
 
Measurement of our postretirement benefit obligations requires the use of several assumptions about factors that will affect the amount and timing of future benefit payments. The assumed health care cost trend rates are the most critical estimates for measurement of the postretirement benefits obligation.  Changes in the health care cost trend rates have a significant effect on the amounts reported for the health care benefit obligations.

 
- 42 -



 
 
Century assumes medical inflation is initially 10%, declining to 5% over six years and thereafter.  A one-percentage-point change in the assumed health care cost trend rates would have the following effects in 2011:
 
 
   
1% Increase
   
1% Decrease
 
   
(dollars in millions)
 
Effect on total of service and interest cost components
  $ 1.2     $ (1.0 )
Effect on accumulated postretirement benefit obligation
    21.1       (17.3 )

 
 
Long-term Rate of Return on Plan assets assumption
 
We are currently using an 8.0% long-term rate of return on plan assets for the development of the net periodic cost for the defined benefit pension plans.  The rate was selected by taking into account our expected asset mix and is based on historical performance as well as expected future rates of return on plan assets.
 
Deferred Income Tax Assets
 
We regularly assess the likelihood that deferred tax assets will be recovered from future taxable income.  To the extent we believe that it is more likely than not that a deferred tax asset will or may not be realized, a valuation allowance is established.  When a valuation allowance is established or increased, an income tax charge is included in the consolidated financial statements and net deferred tax assets are adjusted accordingly.  Changes in the tax laws, statutory tax rates and future taxable income levels could result in actual realization of the deferred tax assets being materially different from the amounts provided for in the consolidated financial statements.  If the actual recovery amount of the deferred tax asset is less than anticipated, we would be required to write-off the remaining deferred tax asset and increase the tax provision.
 
The amount of a valuation allowance is based upon our best estimate of our ability to realize the net deferred tax assets.  A valuation allowance can subsequently be reversed when we believe that the assets are realizable on a more likely than not basis.  We have a valuation allowance of $774 million against all of our U.S. deferred tax assets and a portion of our Icelandic deferred tax assets as of December 31, 2011, due to our assessment that it is more likely than not that these assets will not be realized based on our cumulative net losses and future market conditions.
 
Property, Plant and Equipment Impairment
 
We review our property, plant and equipment whenever events or circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of these assets (asset group) may not be recoverable.  The carrying amount of the assets (asset group) is not recoverable if it exceeds the sum of the undiscounted cash flows expected to result from the use and eventual disposition of the asset (asset group).  In that case, an impairment loss would be recognized for the amount the carrying amount exceeds the fair value of the assets (asset group), with the fair value determined using a discounted cash flow calculation.  These estimates of future cash flows include management’s assumptions about the expected use of the asset (asset group), the remaining useful life, expenditures to maintain its service potential, market and cost assumptions.
 
Determination as to whether and how much an asset is impaired involves significant management judgment involving highly uncertain matters, including estimating the future success of product lines, future sales volumes, future selling prices and cost, alternative uses for the assets, and estimated proceeds from the disposal of the assets.  However, the impairment reviews and calculations are based on estimates and assumptions that take into account our business plans and long-term investment decisions at the time of such impairment reviews.

 
- 43 -



 
 

 
We are currently evaluating the Helguvik project’s cost, scope and schedule, in light of issues surrounding the Helguvik electrical power agreements.  In December 2011, Nordural Helguvik received the results of its arbitration with HS, one of the power suppliers to the Helguvik project.  The arbitration panel ruled that the parties' power contract remains in force in accordance with its terms and that HS remains obligated to provide the full amount of contracted power to Nordural Helguvik, subject to the satisfaction of certain remaining conditions.  We are currently in discussions with both power suppliers with respect to the satisfaction of all remaining conditions. If we are unable to reach agreement with HS and OR regarding the satisfaction of the remaining conditions to their respective power contracts, we may have to seek alternative sources of power, incur substantially increased power costs or further curtail construction activities of the Helguvik project.  Due to the limited number of Icelandic power providers with resources sufficient to provide power to the Helguvik project (only three are currently in operation in Iceland), we may find it difficult or impossible to procure additional sources of power if HS and/or OR do not perform under their existing agreements and may be unable to complete construction of the smelter.  If we agree to pay increased prices for power or substantially delay or be unable to complete the Helguvik project, we may have to recognize a substantial loss on our investment.
 
The aggregate capital expenditures through December 31, 2011 related to the Helguvik project were approximately $138 million.  In evaluating the construction in progress at Helguvik, we considered the costs to complete the construction and the estimated undiscounted future cash flows over the estimated useful life of Helguvik and concluded that the estimated undiscounted future cash flows should exceed the expected cost of constructing the Helguvik project.  If we do not restart construction, we may have to recognize a loss on our investment at the time that a decision was made to abandon the project.
 
In February 2009, we curtailed the operations of the Ravenswood facility.  The net carrying value of the asset group at the Ravenswood facility was approximately $61 million at December 31, 2011.  If the estimated future undiscounted cash flows from the asset group were less than the carrying value of the asset group or our assumptions for the use of this facility were to change, we would recognize a loss on all or a portion of the assets at the time.  The estimated future undiscounted cash flows assume that the operations at the Ravenswood facility will resume once LME prices for primary aluminum are sustained and upon the successful negotiation and execution of certain critical enabling agreements for power and labor.
 
 
Environmental Expenditures
 
We have incurred and in the future will continue to incur capital expenditures and operating expenses for matters relating to environmental control, remediation, monitoring and compliance.
 
The aggregate environmental related accrued liabilities were $0.8 million and $0.8 million at December 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively.  We believe that compliance with current environmental laws and regulations (U.S. and foreign) is not likely to have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations or liquidity; however, environmental laws and regulations may change, and we may become subject to more stringent environmental laws and regulations in the future.
 
We expect to incur operating expenses relating to environmental matters of $11 to $12 million in 2012.  These amounts do not include any projected capital expenditures or operating expenses for our joint ventures.  See Note 15 Commitments and contingencies to the consolidated financial statements included herein.
 
 
Other Contingencies
 
We are a defendant in several actions relating to various aspects of our business. While it is impossible to predict the ultimate disposition of any litigation, we do not believe that any of these lawsuits, either individually or in the aggregate, will have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations or liquidity. See Item 3, “Legal Proceedings” and Note 15 Commitments and contingencies to the consolidated financial statements included herein for additional information.

 
- 44 -




 
 
 
Recently Issued Accounting Standards Updates
 
Information regarding recently issued accounting pronouncements is included in Note 1 Summary of significant accounting policies of the consolidated financial statements included herein.
 
Contractual Obligations
 
 
In the normal course of business, we have entered into various contractual obligations that will be settled in cash. These obligations consist primarily of long-term debt obligations and purchase obligations.  The expected future cash flows required to meet these obligations are shown in the table below.  More information is available about these contractual obligations in the notes to the consolidated financial statements included herein.

   
Payments Due by Period
 
   
Total
   
2012
   
2013
   
2014
   
2015
   
2016
   
Thereafter
 
   
(dollars in millions)
 
Long-term debt (1)
  $ 273     $     $     $ 252     $     $     $ 21  
Estimated interest payments (2)
    65       20       20       8                   17  
Purchase obligations (3)
    2,869       517       443       468       124       124       1,193  
OPEB obligations (4)
    70       6       5       6       7       7       39  
Other liabilities (5)
    154       41       41       41       3       3       25  
Total
  $ 3,431     $ 584     $ 509     $ 775     $ 134     $ 134     $ 1,295  

(1)
Long-term debt includes principal repayments on the 7.5% Notes, the 8.0% Notes, the IRBs and the E.ON contingent obligation.  Payments are based on the assumption that all outstanding debt instruments will remain outstanding until their respective due dates.  We assume that the E.ON contingent obligation will be repaid when the LME contingency is met using the LME forward curve as of December 31, 2011.
(2)
Estimated interest payments on our long-term debt are based on several assumptions, including an assumption that all outstanding debt instruments will remain outstanding until their respective due dates.  Our estimated future interest payments for any debt with a variable rate are based on the assumption that the December 31, 2011 rate for that debt continues until the respective due date.  We assume that interest payments due on the E.ON contingent obligation will be paid when the LME contingency is met using the LME forward curve as of December 31, 2011.
(3)
Purchase obligations include long-term alumina, power contracts and anode contracts.  Our CAKY power contract contains a 12 month cancellation clause and allows us to receive credits for unused power that Big Rivers is able to sell to other parties.  We assumed that during the contract period, CAKY would achieve and maintain full production levels and no credits for unused power would be received.  For contracts with LME-based pricing provisions, including our long-term alumina contracts and Nordural’s power contracts, we assumed an LME price using the LME forward curve as of December 31, 2011.
(4)
Includes the estimated benefit payments for our OPEB obligations through 2021, which are unfunded.
(5)
Other liabilities include SERB benefit payments, workers' compensation benefit payments, asset retirement obligations and contractual commitments for the Helguvik project.  Asset retirement obligations are estimated disposal costs for the potliner currently in service.  Our contractual commitments for the Helguvik projects consist of various contracts for equipment and services associated with the project.

 
- 45 -



 
 

 
Item 7A.  Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk
 
 
Commodity Price Sensitivity
 
We are exposed to price risk for primary aluminum.  We manage our exposure to fluctuations in the price of primary aluminum through financial instruments to protect our downside price risk exposure for our domestic production.  In addition, we manage our exposure to fluctuations in our costs by purchasing certain of our alumina and power requirements under supply contracts with prices tied to the same indices as our aluminum sales contracts (the LME price of primary aluminum). Our risk management activities do not include any trading or speculative transactions.
 
Forward Physical Delivery Agreements
 
Primary Aluminum Sales Contracts

Contract
Customer
Volume
Term
Pricing
Glencore Metal Agreement (1)
Glencore
20,400 mtpy
Through December 31, 2013
Variable, based on U.S. Midwest market
Glencore Sweep Agreement (2)
Glencore
Surplus primary aluminum produced in the United States
Through December 31, 2012
Variable, based on U.S. Midwest market
Glencore Nordural Metal Agreement
Glencore
Approximately 16,000 metric tons
Through December 31, 2012
Variable, based on LME
Southwire Metal Agreement (3)
Southwire
220 to 240 million pounds per year (high conductivity molten aluminum)
Through December 31, 2013
Variable, based on U.S. Midwest market

(1)
We account for the Glencore Metal Agreement as a derivative instrument under ASC 815.  Under the Glencore Metal Agreement, pricing is based on then-current Midwest market prices, adjusted by a negotiated U.S. Midwest premium with a cap and a floor as applied to the current U.S. Midwest premium.
(2)
The Glencore Sweep Agreement is for all metal produced in the U.S. in 2012, less existing sales agreements and high-purity metal sales.  The term of the contract may be extended for one year upon mutual agreement.
(3)
The Southwire Metal Agreement contract contains termination rights in the event of a partial or full curtailment of the Hawesville facility.
 
Long-term Tolling Contracts

 
Contract
 
Customer
 
Volume
 
Term
 
Pricing
Billiton Tolling Agreement (1)
BHP Billiton
130,000 mtpy
Through December 31, 2013
LME-based
Glencore Toll Agreement (1)
Glencore
90,000 mtpy
Through July 31, 2016
LME-based
Glencore Toll Agreement (1)
Glencore
40,000 mtpy
Through December 31, 2014
LME-based

(1)
Grundartangi’s tolling revenues include a premium based on the EU import duty for primary aluminum.  Any decrease in the EU import duty for primary aluminum negatively impacts Grundartangi’s revenues.

 
- 46 -



 
 
Apart from the Glencore Metal Agreement, the Glencore Sweep Agreement, Glencore Nordural Metal Agreement and the Southwire Metal Agreements, we had forward delivery contracts to sell 41,504 and 47,926 metric tons of primary aluminum at December 31, 2011 and December 31, 2010, respectively.  Of these forward delivery contracts, we had fixed price commitments to sell 41 and 117 metric tons of primary aluminum at December 31, 2011 and December 31, 2010, respectively, of which none were with Glencore at December 31, 2011 and December 31, 2010.
 
Forwards and Financial Purchase Agreements
 
Financial Purchase and Sales Agreements
 
Primary aluminum put option contracts
 
We enter into primary aluminum put option contracts that settle monthly based on LME prices.  The put option contract volumes account for a portion of our domestic production level in 2012 with a strike price around our domestic facilities’ average cash basis break-even price.  These options were purchased to partially mitigate the risk of a future decline in aluminum prices.  See Note 5 Derivatives and hedging instruments in the consolidated financial statements for additional information about these contracts.
 
Natural gas forward financial contracts
 
To mitigate the volatility of our natural gas cost due to the natural gas markets, we have entered into fixed-price forward financial purchase contracts which settle in cash in the period corresponding to the intended usage of natural gas.  These forward contracts were designated as cash flow hedges.  On a hypothetical basis based on the forward natural gas financial purchase contracts outstanding at December 31, 2011, even a significant decrease in the market price of natural gas would not have a material impact on our financial results of operations, financial position or cash flows.  See Note 5 Derivatives and hedging instruments in the consolidated financial statements for additional information about these contracts.
 
Foreign Currency
 
We are exposed to foreign currency risk due to fluctuations in the value of the U.S. dollar as compared to the euro, the Icelandic krona and the Chinese yuan.  We may manage our foreign currency exposure by entering into foreign currency forward contracts.  As of December 31, 2011, we had no foreign currency forward contracts outstanding.  See Note 5 Derivatives and hedging instruments in the consolidated financial statements for additional information about these contracts.
 
Natural Economic Hedges
 
This quantification of our exposure to the commodity price of aluminum is necessarily limited, as it does not take into consideration our inventory or forward delivery contracts, or the offsetting impact on the sales price of primary aluminum products.  Our alumina contracts are indexed to the LME price for primary aluminum and provide a natural hedge for approximately 16% of our production.  As of December 31, 2011, approximately 33% of our production for 2012 was hedged by our LME-based alumina contracts and by Grundartangi’s electrical power and tolling contracts.
 
Risk Management
 
Our metals, foreign currency and natural gas risk management activities are subject to the control and direction of senior management within guidelines established by Century’s Board of Directors.  These activities are regularly reported to Century’s Board of Directors.

 
- 47 -



 
 
 
Item 8.  Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
 
INDEX TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
 
 

 
Page
   
Reports of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
49-50
Consolidated Balance Sheets at December 31, 2011 and 2010
51
Consolidated Statements of Operations for the Years Ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009
52
Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income (Loss) for the Years Ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009
53
Consolidated Statements of Shareholders’ Equity for the Years Ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009
54
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the Years Ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009
55
Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements
56-110
 


 
- 48 -

 
 
 
REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
 
To the Board of Directors and Shareholders of Century Aluminum Company:
 
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Century Aluminum Company and subsidiaries (the "Company") as of December 31, 2011 and 2010, and the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive income (loss), shareholders' equity, and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2011. These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these financial statements based on our audits.
 
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement. An audit includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. An audit also includes assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
 
In our opinion, such consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of Century Aluminum Company and subsidiaries as of December 31, 2011 and 2010, and the results of their operations and their cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2011, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
 
As discussed in Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company has changed its method of presenting comprehensive income in 2011 due to the adoption of FASB Accounting Standards Update No. 2011-05, Presentation of Comprehensive Income.  The change in presentation has been applied retrospectively to all periods presented.
 
We have also audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2011, based on the criteria established in Internal Control—Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission and our report dated February 29, 2012 expressed an unqualified opinion on the Company's internal control over financial reporting.
 

/s/ Deloitte & Touche LLP

Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
February 29, 2012
 
 
 

 
 
- 49 -

 
REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
 
To the Board of Directors and Shareholders of Century Aluminum Company:
 
We have audited the internal control over financial reporting of Century Aluminum Company and subsidiaries (the "Company") as of December 31, 2011, based on criteria established in Internal Control — Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission. The Company's management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the accompanying Item 9A, Internal Control over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company's internal control over financial reporting based on our audit.
 
We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audit included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk, and performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.
 
A company's internal control over financial reporting is a process designed by, or under the supervision of, the company's principal executive and principal financial officers, or persons performing similar functions, and effected by the company's board of directors, management, and other personnel to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company's internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company's assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
 
Because of the inherent limitations of internal control over financial reporting, including the possibility of collusion or improper management override of controls, material misstatements due to error or fraud may not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. Also, projections of any evaluation of the effectiveness of the internal control over financial reporting to future periods are subject to the risk that the controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
 
In our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2011, based on the criteria established in Internal Control — Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission.
 
We have also audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), the consolidated financial statements and financial statement schedule as of and for the year ended December 31, 2011 of the Company and our reports dated February 29, 2012 expressed an unqualified opinion on those financial statements and financial statement schedule and included an explanatory paragraph regarding the adoption of FASB Accounting Standards Update No. 2011-05, Presentation of Comprehensive Income.
 

/s/ Deloitte & Touche LLP

Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
February 29, 2012

 
- 50 -



 


CENTURY ALUMINUM COMPANY
 
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
 
(Dollars in thousands, except share data)
 
   
December 31,
 
   
2011
   
2010
 
ASSETS
           
Cash and cash equivalents
  $ 183,401     $ 304,296  
Restricted cash
    ––       3,673  
Accounts receivable — net
    47,647       43,903  
Due from affiliates
    44,665       51,006  
Inventories
    171,961       155,908  
Prepaid and other current assets
    40,646       18,292  
Total current assets
    488,320       577,078  
Property, plant and equipment — net
    1,218,225       1,256,970  
Due from affiliates – less current portion
    ––       6,054  
Other assets
    104,549       82,954  
TOTAL
  $ 1,811,094     $ 1,923,056  
LIABILITIES AND SHAREHOLDERS’ EQUITY
               
LIABILITIES:
               
Accounts payable, trade
  $ 86,172     $ 88,004  
Due to affiliates
    41,904       45,381  
Accrued and other current liabilities
    40,776       41,495  
Accrued employee benefits costs — current portion
    16,698       26,682  
Convertible senior notes
    ––       45,483  
Industrial revenue bonds
    7,815       7,815  
Total current liabilities
    193,365       254,860  
Senior notes payable
    249,512       248,530  
Accrued pension benefits costs — less current portion
    70,899       37,795  
Accrued postretirement benefits costs — less current  portion
    128,078       103,744  
Other liabilities
    40,005       37,612  
Deferred taxes
    90,958       85,999  
Total noncurrent liabilities
    579,452       513,680  
COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES (NOTE 15)
               
SHAREHOLDERS’ EQUITY:
               
Series A Preferred stock (one cent par value, 5,000,000 shares authorized; 80,718 and 82,515 shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively)
    1       1  
Common stock (one cent par value, 195,000,000 shares authorized; 93,230,848 issued and 88,844,327 outstanding at December 31, 2011, 92,771,864 shares issued and outstanding at December 31,  2010)
    932       928  
Additional paid-in capital
    2,506,842       2,503,907  
Treasury stock, at cost
    (45,891 )      
Accumulated other comprehensive loss
    (134,588 )     (49,976 )
Accumulated deficit
    (1,289,019 )     (1,300,344 )
Total shareholders’ equity
    1,038,277       1,154,516  
TOTAL
  $ 1,811,094     $ 1,923,056  
 
See notes to consolidated financial statements.


 
- 51 -

 

CENTURY ALUMINUM COMPANY
 
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
 
(Dollars in thousands, except per share amounts)
 
   
Year Ended December 31,
 
   
2011
   
2010
   
2009
 
NET SALES:
                 
Third-party customers
  $ 791,993     $ 755,863     $ 668,344  
Related parties
    564,431       413,408       230,909  
      1,356,424       1,169,271       899,253  
Cost of goods sold
    1,266,902       1,056,875       964,918  
Gross profit (loss)
    89,522       112,396       (65,665 )
Other operating income - net
    (3,806 )     (37,386 )     (16,088 )
Selling, general and administrative expenses
    46,032       46,802       47,879  
Operating income (loss)
    47,296       102,980       (97,456 )
Interest expense – third party
    (25,129 )     (25,625 )     (30,390 )
Interest income – related parties
    303       448       572  
Interest income – third party
    338       615       1,297  
Net gain (loss) on forward contracts
    804       (10,495 )     (19,415 )
Loss on early extinguishment of debt
                (4,711 )
Other expense — net
    (1,373 )     (377 )     (40 )
Income (loss) before income taxes and equity in earnings (losses) of joint ventures
    22,239       67,546       (150,143 )
Income tax benefit (expense)
    (14,359 )     (11,133 )     12,357  
Income (loss) before equity in earnings (losses) of joint ventures
    7,880       56,413       (137,786 )
Equity in earnings (losses) of joint ventures
    3,445       3,558       (68,196 )
Net income (loss)
  $ 11,325     $ 59,971     $ (205,982 )
EARNINGS (LOSS) PER COMMON SHARE:
                       
Basic and Diluted
  $ 0.11     $ 0.59     $ (2.73 )

 
See notes to consolidated financial statements.


 
- 52 -


 
 
CENTURY ALUMINUM COMPANY
 
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS)
 
(Dollars in thousands)
 
   
Year Ended December 31,
 
   
2011
   
2010
   
2009
 
Comprehensive income (loss)
                 
Net income (loss)
  $ 11,325     $ 59,971     $ (205,982 )
Other comprehensive income (loss) before income tax effect:
                       
Net unrealized loss on financial instruments
    (479 )     (81 )     (4,319 )
Net loss reclassified to income on financial instruments
    40       171       14,449  
Net amount of foreign currency cash flow hedges reclassified as income
    (186 )     (186 )     7,842  
Defined benefit plans and other postretirement benefits:
                       
Net gain (loss) arising during the period
    (62,212 )     (32,319 )     36,798  
Prior service cost arising during the period
    ––       112,488       9,153  
Amortization of net loss during the period
    16,926       8,114       4,590  
Amortization of prior service benefit during the period
    (32,677 )     (61,216 )     (1,338 )
Change in equity in investee other comprehensive income:
    (253 )     343       (2,898 )
Other comprehensive income (loss) before income tax effect
    (78,841 )     27,314       64,277  
Income tax effect
    (5,771 )     (3,020 )     (1,339 )
Other comprehensive income (loss)
    (84,612 )     24,294       62,938  
Total comprehensive income (loss)
  $ (73,287 )   $ 84,265     $ (143,044 )


See notes to consolidated financial statements.

 
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CENTURY ALUMINUM COMPANY
 
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF SHAREHOLDERS’ EQUITY
 
(Dollars in thousands)
 
   
Preferred stock
   
Common stock
   
Additional paid-in capital
   
Treasury stock, at cost
   
Accumulated other comprehensive loss
   
Accumulated deficit
   
Total shareholders’ equity
 
 
Balance, December 31, 2008
  $ 2     $ 491     $ 2,272,128     $     $ (137,208 )   $ (1,154,333 )   $ 981,080  
Net loss – 2009
                                            (205,982 )     (205,982 )
Other comprehensive income
                                    62,938               62,938  
Issuance of common stock – compensation plans
            4       607                               611  
Share-based compensation expense
                    3,942                               3,942  
Issuance of common stock in debt exchange offering
            113       120,987                               121,100  
Conversion of preferred stock to common stock
    (1 )     72       (71 )                              
Issuance of common stock – equity offering, net
            245       103,796                               104,041  
Balance, December 31, 2009
  $ 1     $ 925     $ 2,501,389     $     $ (74,270 )   $ (1,360,315 )   $ 1,067,730  
Net income – 2010
                                            59,971       59,971  
Other comprehensive income
                                    24,294               24,294  
Issuance of common stock – compensation plans
            2       1,072                               1,074  
Share-based compensation expense
                    1,447                               1,447  
Conversion of preferred stock to common stock
            1       (1 )                              
Balance, December 31, 2010
  $ 1     $ 928     $ 2,503,907     $     $ (49,976 )   $ (1,300,344 )   $ 1,154,516  
Net income – 2011
                                            11,325       11,325  
Other comprehensive loss
                                    (84,612 )             (84,612 )
Issuance of common stock – compensation plans
            2       81                               83  
Repurchase of common stock
                            (45,891 )                     (45,891 )
Share-based compensation expense
                    2,856                               2,856  
Conversion of preferred stock to common stock
            2       (2 )                             ––  
Balance, December 31, 2011
  $ 1     $ 932     $ 2,506,842     $ (45,891 )   $ (134,588 )   $ (1,289,019 )   $ 1,038,277  
 

 
See notes to consolidated financial statements.

 
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CENTURY ALUMINUM COMPANY
 
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
 
(Dollars in thousands)
 
   
Year Ended December 31,
 
   
2011
   
2010
   
2009
 
CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES:
                 
Net income (loss)
  $ 11,325     $ 59,971     $ (205,982 )
Adjustments to reconcile net income (loss) to net cash provided by (used in) operating activities:
                       
Unrealized net loss (gain) on forward contracts
    (750 )     10,030       11,956  
Unrealized gain on contractual receivable
                (81,557 )
Realized benefit of contractual receivable
          55,703       26,025  
Write-off of intangible asset
                23,759  
Accrued and other plant curtailment costs — net
    (13,928 )     (56,010 )     9,940  
Lower of cost or market inventory adjustment
    19,766       (426 )     (47,152 )
Depreciation and amortization
    62,194       63,550       72,624  
Debt discount amortization
    1,857       3,150       7,022  
Deferred income taxes
    2,494       15,552       44,952  
Pension and other postretirement benefits
    (28,757 )     14,578       12,952  
Stock-based compensation
    2,856       1,905       3,338  
Non-cash loss on early extinguishment and modification of debt
    763             2,325  
Non-cash loss from disposition of equity investments
                73,234  
Non-cash contingent obligation
    ––       13,091