10-K 1 a50582557.htm REPUBLIC BANCORP, INC. 10-K a50582557.htm

U.S. SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
______________________

FORM 10-K

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2012
 
Commission File Number: 0-24649
 
Logo
 
REPUBLIC BANCORP, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
Kentucky
61-0862051
(State or other jurisdiction of
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
incorporation or organization)
 
   
601 West Market Street, Louisville, Kentucky
40202
(Address of principal executive offices)
(Zip Code)
 
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (502) 584-3600

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
 
Title of each class
Name of each exchange on which registered
Class A Common Stock
NASDAQ Global Select Market
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
(Title of Class)

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
 
 
o Yes þ   No
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act.
 
 
o Yes þ   No
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
 
 
þYes  o   No
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).
 
 
þYes  o   No
 
Indicate by check mark if the disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.
 
 
 þ
 
 
 

 
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
 
Large accelerated filer o
Accelerated filer þ
Non-accelerated filer o
Smaller reporting company  o
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).
 
 
o Yes þ   No
 
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates computed by reference to the price at which the common equity was last sold as of June 30, 2012 (the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter) was approximately $223,268,529 (for purposes of this calculation, the market value of the Class B Common Stock was based on the market value of the Class A Common Stock into which it is convertible).

The number of shares outstanding of the registrant’s Class A Common Stock and Class B Common Stock, as of February 15, 2013 was 18,658,066 and 2,264,247.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

List hereunder the following documents if incorporated by reference and the Part of the Form 10-K (e.g., Part I, Part II, etc.) into which the document is incorporated: (1) Any annual report to security holders; (2) Any proxy or information statement; and (3) Any prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) or (c) under the Securities Act of 1933. The listed documents should be clearly described for identification purposes:

Portions of the Registrant’s Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held April 25, 2013 are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K.
 
 
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 
 
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Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains statements relating to future results of Republic Bancorp, Inc. that are considered “forward-looking” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. The forward-looking statements are principally, but not exclusively, contained in Part I Item 1 “Business,” Part I Item 1A “Risk Factors” and Part II Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

As used in this filing, the terms “Republic,” the “Company,” “we,” “our” and “us” refer to Republic Bancorp, Inc., and, where the context requires, Republic Bancorp, Inc. and its subsidiaries; and the term the “Bank” refers to the Company’s subsidiary banks: Republic Bank & Trust Company and Republic Bank.

Forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. Actual results may differ materially from those expressed or implied as a result of certain risks and uncertainties, including, but not limited to, changes in political and economic conditions, interest rate fluctuations, competitive product and pricing pressures, equity and fixed income market fluctuations, personal and corporate customers’ bankruptcies, inflation, recession, acquisitions and integrations of acquired businesses, technological changes, changes in law and regulations or the interpretation and enforcement thereof, changes in fiscal, monetary, regulatory and tax policies, monetary fluctuations, success in gaining regulatory approvals when required, as well as other risks and uncertainties reported from time to time in the Company’s filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) included under Part 1 Item 1A “Risk Factors.”

Broadly speaking, forward-looking statements include:
 
 
projections of revenue, income, expenses, losses, earnings per share, capital expenditures, dividends, capital structure or other financial items;
 
descriptions of plans or objectives for future operations, products or services;
 
forecasts of future economic performance; and
 
descriptions of assumptions underlying or relating to any of the foregoing.
 
The Company may make forward-looking statements discussing management’s expectations about various matters, including:
 
 
loan delinquencies, non-performing loans, impaired loans and troubled debt restructurings (“TDR”s);
 
further developments in the Bank’s ongoing review of and efforts to resolve possible problem credit relationships, which could result in, among other things, additional provision for loan losses;
 
deteriorating credit quality, including changes in the interest rate environment and reducing interest margins;
 
future credit losses and the overall adequacy of the allowance for loan losses;
 
potential write-downs of other real estate owned (“OREO”);
 
potential recast adjustments to acquisition day fair values (“day-one fair values”);
 
future short-term and long-term interest rates and the respective impact on net interest margin, net interest spread, net income, liquidity and capital;
 
future long-term interest rates and their impact on the demand for Mortgage Banking products and warehouse lines of credit;
 
the future value of mortgage servicing rights;
 
the future regulatory viability of the Tax Refund Solutions (“TRS”) division;
 
the future operating performance of TRS, including the impact of the cessation of Refund Anticipation Loans (“RALs”);
 
future Refund Transfers (“RTs”), formerly referred to as Electronic Refund Check/Electronic Refund Deposit (“ERC/ERD” or “AR/ARD”), volume for TRS;
 
the impact to net income resulting from the termination of material TRS contracts;
 
future revenues associated with RTs at TRS;
 
future financial performance of Republic Payment Solutions (“RPS”);
 
future financial performance of Republic Credit Solutions (“RCS”);
 
potential impairment of investment securities;
 
the extent to which regulations written and implemented by the Federal Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection, and other federal, state and local governmental regulation of consumer lending and related financial products and services may limit or prohibit the operation of the Company’s business;
 
 
4

 
 
 
financial services reform and other current, pending or future legislation or regulation that could have a negative effect on the Company’s revenue and businesses, including the Dodd-Frank Act and legislation and regulation relating to overdraft fees (and changes to the Bank’s overdraft practices as a result thereof), debit card interchange fees, credit cards, and other bank services;
 
the impact of new accounting pronouncements;
 
legal and regulatory matters including results and consequences of regulatory guidance, litigation, administrative proceedings, rule-making, interpretations, actions and examinations;
 
future capital expenditures;
 
the strength of the U.S. economy in general and the strength of the local economies in which the Company conducts operations;
 
the Bank’s ability to maintain current deposit and loan levels at current interest rates; and,
 
the Company’s ability to successfully implement future growth plans, including but not limited to the acquisitions of failed banks.
 
Forward-looking statements discuss matters that are not historical facts. As forward-looking statements discuss future events or conditions, the statements often include words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “plan,” “project,” “target,” “can,” “could,” “may,” “should,” “will,” “would,” or similar expressions. Do not rely on forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements detail management’s expectations regarding the future and are not guarantees. Forward-looking statements are assumptions based on information known to management only as of the date the statements are made and management may not update them to reflect changes that occur subsequent to the date the statements are made. See additional discussion under the sections titled Part I Item 1 “Business,” Part I Item 1A “Risk Factors” and Part II Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”



Republic Bancorp, Inc. (“Republic” or the “Company”) is a bank holding company headquartered in Louisville, Kentucky. Republic is the parent company of Republic Bank & Trust Company (“RB&T”) and Republic Bank (“RB”) (collectively referred together as the “Bank”), and Republic Invest Co. Republic Invest Co. includes its subsidiary, Republic Capital LLC. The consolidated financial statements also include the wholly-owned subsidiaries of RB&T: Republic Financial Services, LLC, TRS RAL Funding, LLC and Republic Insurance Agency, LLC. Republic Bancorp Capital Trust (“RBCT”) is a Delaware statutory business trust that is a wholly-owned, unconsolidated finance subsidiary of Republic Bancorp, Inc. Incorporated in 1974, Republic became a bank holding company when RB&T became authorized to conduct commercial banking business in Kentucky in 1981.

RB&T’s banking centers are primarily located in Kentucky and Southern Indiana. Additionally, RB&T has one banking center in metropolitan Minneapolis, Minnesota and one in metropolitan Nashville, Tennessee. RB’s banking centers are primarily located in metropolitan Tampa, Florida; with one office in Cincinnati, Ohio.

The principal business of Republic is directing, planning and coordinating the business activities of the Bank. The financial condition and results of operations of Republic are primarily dependent upon the results of operations of the Bank. At December 31, 2012, Republic had total assets of $3.4 billion, total deposits of $2.0 billion and total stockholders’ equity of $537 million. Based on total assets as of December 31, 2012, Republic ranked as the second largest Kentucky-based bank holding company. The executive offices of Republic are located at 601 West Market Street, Louisville, Kentucky 40202, telephone number (502) 584-3600. The Company’s website address is www.republicbank.com.

Website Access to Reports

The Company makes its annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports, filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, available free of charge through its website, www.republicbank.com, as soon as reasonably practicable after the Company electronically files such material with, or furnishes it to, the SEC.
 
 
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General Business Overview

As of December 31, 2012, the Company was divided into three distinct business operating segments: Traditional Banking, Mortgage Banking and Republic Processing Group (“RPG”). During 2012, the Company realigned the previously reported TRS segment as a division of the newly formed RPG segment. Along with the TRS division, Republic Payment Solutions (“RPS”) and Republic Credit Solutions (“RCS”) also operate as divisions of the newly formed RPG segment. The RPS and RCS divisions are considered immaterial for segment reporting. Net income, total assets and net interest margin by segment for the years ended December 31, 2012, 2011 and 2010 are presented below:
 
   
Year Ended December 31, 2012
 
               
Republic
       
   
Traditional
   
Mortgage
   
Processing
   
Total
 
(dollars in thousands)
 
Banking
   
Banking
   
Group
   
Company
 
                         
                         
Net income
  $ 55,174     $ 3,279     $ 60,886     $ 119,339  
Total assets
    3,371,934       15,752       6,713       3,394,399  
Net interest margin
    3.64 %  
NM
   
NM
      4.82 %
 
   
Year Ended December 31, 2011
 
               
Republic
       
   
Traditional
   
Mortgage
   
Processing
   
Total
 
(dollars in thousands)
 
Banking
   
Banking
   
Group
   
Company
 
                         
                         
Net income
  $ 26,463     $ 344     $ 67,342     $ 94,149  
Total assets
    3,099,426       10,880       309,685       3,419,991  
Net interest margin
    3.55 %  
NM
   
NM
      5.09 %
 
   
Year Ended December 31, 2010
 
               
Republic
       
   
Traditional
   
Mortgage
   
Processing
   
Total
 
(dollars in thousands)
 
Banking
   
Banking
   
Group
   
Company
 
                         
                         
Net income
  $ 17,895     $ 2,618     $ 44,240     $ 64,753  
Total assets
    3,026,628       23,359       572,716       3,622,703  
Net interest margin
    3.57 %  
NM
   
NM
      4.65 %
_____________________
NM – Not Meaningful

For expanded segment financial data see Footnote 21 “Segment Information” of Part II Item 8 “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.”
 
 
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(I)  Traditional Banking segment

As of December 31, 2012, in addition to an internet delivery channel, Republic had 44 full-service banking centers with locations as follows:

Kentucky – 34
o     
Metropolitan Louisville – 20
o     
Central Kentucky – 11
§ 
Elizabethtown – 1
§ 
Frankfort – 1
§ 
Georgetown – 1
§ 
Lexington – 5
§ 
Owensboro – 2
§ 
Shelbyville, Kentucky - 1
o     
Northern Kentucky – 3
§ 
Covington, Kentucky – 1
§ 
Florence, Kentucky – 1
§ 
Independence, Kentucky - 1
Southern Indiana – 3
o     
Floyds Knobs – 1
o     
Jeffersonville – 1
o     
New Albany – 1
Metropolitan Tampa, Florida – 4*
Metropolitan Cincinnati, Ohio – 1*
Metropolitan Nashville, Tennessee – 1
Metropolitan Minneapolis, Minnesota – 1
____________________
* - Denotes a RB location

Effective January 27, 2012, RB&T assumed substantially all of the deposits and certain other liabilities and acquired certain assets of Tennessee Commerce Bank (“TCB”), headquartered in Nashville, Tennessee from the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporations (“FDIC”), as receiver for TCB. This acquisition of a failed bank represented a single banking center located in metropolitan Nashville and RB&T’s initial entrance into the Nashville market.

Effective September 7, 2012 RB&T acquired substantially all of the assets and assumed substantially all of the liabilities of First Commercial Bank (“FCB”), headquartered in Bloomington, Minnesota from the FDIC, as receiver for FCB. This acquisition of a failed bank represented a single banking center located in metropolitan Minneapolis and RB&T’s initial entrance into the Minneapolis market.

Lending Activities

The Bank principally markets its lending products and services through the following delivery channels:
 
Mortgage Lending – A major component of the Bank’s lending activities consists of the origination of single family, first lien residential real estate loans collateralized by owner occupied property, predominately located in the Bank’s primary market areas. Additionally, the Bank offers home equity loans and home equity lines of credit. These loans are originated through the Bank’s retail banking center network.

 
The Bank generally retains adjustable rate mortgage (“ARM”) single family, first lien residential real estate loans with fixed terms up to ten years. All mortgage loans retained on balance sheet are included as a component of the Company’s “Traditional Banking” segment and are discussed below and elsewhere in this filing.
 
 
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Single family, first lien residential real estate loans with fixed rate terms of 15, 20 and 30 years are generally sold into the secondary market. Their accompanying mortgage servicing rights (“MSRs”), which may be either sold or retained, are included as a component of the Company’s “Mortgage Banking” segment and are discussed below and elsewhere in this filing. In order to take advantage of the steep yield curve during 2012, 2011 and 2010, the Bank elected to retain approximately $3 million, $45 million and $65 million of 15-year fixed rate single family, first lien residential real estate loans. In addition, during 2012 and 2011, the Bank retained approximately $8 million and $14 million of 30-year fixed rate single family, first lien residential real estate loans.
 
As a result of the historically low interest rate environment the last four years, the Bank has been challenged to grow its residential real estate portfolio, as consumer demand shifted to 15- and 30-year fixed rate loan products that the Bank has historically sold into the secondary market. As a result of these challenges, the Bank created its Home Equity Amortizing Loan (“HEAL”) product. The HEAL product is a first mortgage or a junior lien mortgage product with amortization periods of 20 years or less. Features of the HEAL include $199 fixed closing costs; no requirement for the client to escrow insurance and property taxes; and as with the Bank’s traditional ARM products, no requirement for private mortgage insurance. The overall features of the HEAL have made it an attractive alternative to long-term fixed rate secondary market products. As of December 31, 2012 and 2011, the Bank had $229 million and $58 million of HEALs outstanding.

The Bank offers ARMs with rate adjustments tied to various indices with specified minimum and maximum interest rate adjustments. The interest rates on a majority of these loans are adjusted after their fixed rate terms on an annual basis, with most having limitations on upward adjustments over the life of the loan. These loans typically feature amortization periods of up to 30 years and have fixed rate features for one, three, five, seven or ten years. While there is no requirement for a client to refinance their loan at the end of the fixed rate period, clients have historically done so the substantial majority of the time as most clients are interest rate risk-averse on their first mortgage loans. The Bank is able to mitigate interest rate risk with the ARM product because the substantial majority of these loans refinance at the end of their fixed rate periods.

The Bank generally charges a higher interest rate for its ARM products if the property is not owner occupied. It has been the Bank’s experience that the proportions of fixed rate and ARM originations depend in large part on the interest rate environment. As interest rates decline, there is generally a reduced demand for ARMs and an increased demand for fixed rate secondary market loans. Alternatively, as interest rates rise, there is generally an increased demand for ARMs, as consumer demand shifts away from fixed rate secondary market loans.

Prior to the fourth quarter of 2009, in the Bank’s primary markets, loans collateralized by single family residential real estate were generally originated in amounts up to 90% of appraised value; however, the Bank commonly included home equity lines of credit in conjunction with its first liens, often increasing the loan-to-value of the entire relationship to 100%. During the fourth quarter of 2009, the Bank reduced the maximum combined first and second lien position loan-to-value ratio for new residential real estate originations in all markets to 80%. These loan-to-value standards remain in place with the exception of the Bank’s HEAL product, which is allowed a maximum first and second lien loan-to-value of up to 90%. Additionally, with the exception of HEALs under $150,000, the Bank requires mortgagee’s title insurance on first lien residential real estate loans to protect the Bank against defects in its liens on the properties that collateralize the loans. The Bank normally requires title, fire, and extended casualty insurance to be obtained by the borrower and when required by applicable regulations, flood insurance. The Bank maintains an errors and omissions insurance policy to protect the Bank against loss in the event a borrower fails to maintain proper fire and other hazard insurance policies.

Although the contractual loan payment periods for single family, first lien residential real estate ARM loans are generally for a 15 to 30-year period, such loans often remain outstanding for only their fixed rate periods, which is significantly shorter than the contractual terms. The Bank generally charges a penalty for prepayment of ARM loans if they are refinanced prior to the completion of their fixed rate period.

The Bank does, on occasion, purchase single family, first lien residential real estate loans in low to moderate income areas in order to meet its obligations under the Community Reinvestment Act (“CRA”). The Bank generally applies secondary market underwriting criteria to these purchased loans and generally reserves the right to reject particular loans from a loan package being purchased that do not meet its underwriting criteria. In connection with loan purchases, the Bank receives various representations and warranties from the sellers of the loans regarding the quality and characteristics of the loans.
 
 
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Commercial Lending – The Bank’s commercial real estate and multi-family (“commercial real estate”) loans are typically secured by improved property such as office buildings, medical facilities, retail centers, warehouses, apartment buildings, condominiums, schools, religious institutions and other types of commercial real estate.

The Bank’s commercial real estate loans are generally made to small-to-medium sized businesses in amounts up to 80% or 85%, depending on the market, of the lesser of the appraised value or purchase price of the property. Commercial real estate loans generally have fixed or variable interest rates indexed to Prime and have terms of three, five, seven or ten years with amortizing terms up to 20 years. Although the contractual loan payment period for these types of loans is generally a 20-year period, such loans often remain outstanding for only their fixed rate periods, which is significantly shorter than their contractual terms. The Bank generally charges a penalty for prepayment of commercial real estate loans if the loans are refinanced prior to the completion of their fixed rate period.

Loans secured by commercial real estate generally are larger and often involve greater risks than single family, first lien residential real estate loans. Because payments on loans secured by commercial real estate properties often are dependent on successful operation or management of the properties or businesses operated from the properties, repayment of such loans may be impacted to a greater extent by adverse conditions in the national and local economies. The Bank seeks to minimize these risks in a variety of ways, including limiting the size of commercial real estate loans and generally restricting such loans to its primary market area. In determining whether to originate commercial real estate loans, the Bank also considers such factors as the financial condition of the borrower and guarantor and the debt service coverage of the property when applicable.

A broad range of short-to-medium-term collateralized commercial loans are made available to businesses for working capital, business expansion (including acquisitions of real estate and improvements), and the purchase of equipment or machinery. The Bank also offers a variety of commercial loans, including term loans, lines of credit and equipment and receivables financing. Equipment loans are typically originated on a fixed-term basis ranging from one to five years.

As mentioned above, the availability of funds for the repayment of commercial loans may be substantially dependent on the success of the business itself. Further, the collateral underlying the loans, which may depreciate over time, usually cannot be appraised with as much precision as residential real estate and may fluctuate in value over the term of the loan.

Warehouse Lines of Credit – In June 2011, RB&T began offering warehouse lines of credit, through which RB&T provides short-term, revolving credit facilities to mortgage bankers across the nation. These credit facilities are secured by single family, first lien residential real estate loans. The credit facility enables the mortgage banking customers to close single family, first lien residential real estate loans in their own name and temporarily fund their inventory of these closed loans until the loans are sold to investors approved by RB&T. These individual loans are expected to remain on the warehouse line for an average of 15 to 30 days. Interest income and loan fees are accrued for each individual loan during the time the loan remains on the warehouse line and collected when the loan is sold to the secondary market investor. RB&T receives the sale proceeds of each loan directly from the investor and applies the funds to pay off the warehouse advance and related accrued interest and fees. The remaining proceeds are credited to the mortgage banking customer.

Construction Lending – The Bank originates residential construction real estate loans to finance the construction of single family dwellings. Construction loans also are made to contractors to build single family dwellings under contract. Construction loans are generally offered on the same basis as other single family, first lien residential real estate loans, except that a larger percentage down payment is typically required.

The Bank finances the construction of individual owner occupied houses on the basis of written underwriting and construction loan management guidelines. Construction loans are structured either to be converted to permanent loans with the Bank at the end of the construction phase or to be paid off at closing. Construction loans on residential properties are generally made in amounts up to 80% of anticipated cost of construction. Construction loans to developers and builders generally have terms of nine to 12 months. Loan proceeds on builders’ projects are disbursed in increments as construction progresses and as property inspections warrant.

The Bank also may make residential land development loans to real estate developers for the acquisition, development and construction of residential subdivisions. Such loans may involve additional risks because the funds are advanced to fund the project while under construction, and the project is of uncertain value prior to completion. Moreover, because it is relatively difficult to evaluate completion value accurately, the total amount of funds required to complete a development may be subject to change. Repayments of these loans depend to a large degree on results of operations, management of properties and conditions in the real estate market or the economy.
 
 
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Consumer Lending – Traditional consumer loans made by the Bank include home improvement and home equity loans, as well as other secured and unsecured personal loans in addition to credit cards. With the exception of home equity loans, which are actively marketed in conjunction with single family, first lien residential real estate loans, other traditional consumer loan products, while available, are not and have not been actively promoted in the Bank’s markets.

Private Banking – The Bank provides financial products and services to high net worth individuals through its Private Banking Department. The Bank’s Private Banking officers have extensive banking experience and are trained to meet the unique financial needs of high net worth individuals.

Treasury Management Services – The Bank provides various deposit products designed for commercial business customers located throughout its market areas. Lockbox processing, remote deposit capture, business on-line banking, account reconciliation and Automated Clearing House (“ACH”) processing are additional services offered to commercial businesses through the Bank’s Treasury Management Department.

Internet Banking – The Bank expands its market penetration and service delivery by offering customers Internet banking services and products through its website, www.republicbank.com.

Other Banking Services – The Bank also provides trust, title insurance and other financial institution related products and services.

See additional discussion regarding Lending Activities under the sections titled:
 
 
Part I Item 1A “Risk Factors”
 
Part II Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations”
 
Part II Item 8 “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.”
 
o
Footnote 4 “Loans and Allowance for Loan Losses”
 
o
Footnote 21 “Segment Information”
 
 
10

 
 
(II)  Mortgage Banking segment

Mortgage Banking activities primarily include 15-, 20- and 30-year fixed-term single family, first lien residential real estate loans that are sold into the secondary market, primarily to the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“FHLMC” or “Freddie Mac”). The Bank typically retains servicing on loans sold into the secondary market. Administration of loans with servicing retained by the Bank includes collecting principal and interest payments, escrowing funds for property taxes and insurance and remitting payments to secondary market investors. A fee is received by the Bank for performing these standard servicing functions.

As part of the sale of loans with servicing retained, the Bank records an MSR. MSRs represent an estimate of the present value of future cash servicing income, net of estimated costs, which the Bank expects to receive on loans sold with servicing retained by the Bank. MSRs are capitalized as separate assets. This transaction is posted to net gain on sale of loans, a component of “Mortgage Banking income” in the income statement. Management considers all relevant factors, in addition to pricing considerations from other servicers, to estimate the fair value of the MSRs to be recorded when the loans are initially sold with servicing retained by the Bank. The carrying value of MSRs is initially amortized in proportion to and over the estimated period of net servicing income and subsequently adjusted quarterly based on the weighted average remaining life of the underlying loans. The amortization is recorded as a reduction to Mortgage Banking income.

With the assistance of an independent third party, the MSRs asset is reviewed monthly for impairment based on the fair value of the MSRs using groupings of the underlying loans by interest rates. Any impairment of a grouping is reported as a valuation allowance. A primary factor influencing the fair value is the estimated life of the underlying loans serviced. The estimated life of the loans serviced is significantly influenced by market interest rates. During a period of declining interest rates, the fair value of the MSRs is expected to decline due to increased anticipated prepayment speed assumptions within the portfolio. Alternatively, during a period of rising interest rates, the fair value of MSRs is expected to increase, as prepayment speed assumptions on the underlying loans would be anticipated to decline.

Due to the reduction in long-term interest rates during 2012 and 2011, the fair value of the MSR portfolio declined as prepayment speed assumptions were adjusted upwards resulting in net impairment charges of $142,000 and $203,000 for the years ending December 31, 2012 and 2011.

During the third quarter of 2010, the Bank recorded an MSR valuation allowance of $157,000; however, this valuation allowance was reversed in the fourth quarter of 2010 resulting in an end-of-year valuation allowance of $0.

See additional discussion regarding Mortgage Banking under the sections titled:
 
 
Part I Item 1A “Risk Factors”
 
Part II Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations”
 
Part II Item 8 “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.”
 
o
Footnote 4 “Loans and Allowance for Loan Losses”
 
o
Footnote 21 “Segment Information”
 
 
11

 
 
(III) Republic Processing Group segment

Nationally, through RB&T, RPG facilitates the receipt and payment of federal and state tax refund products under the TRS division. Nationally, through RB, the RPS division is preparing to become an issuing bank to offer general purpose reloadable prepaid debit, payroll, gift and incentive cards through third party program managers. Nationally, through RB&T, the RCS division is preparing to pilot short-term consumer credit products on-line.

Tax Refund Solutions division:

Republic, through its TRS division, is one of a limited number of financial institutions that facilitates the payment of federal and state tax refund products through third-party tax preparers located throughout the U.S., as well as tax-preparation software providers. The TRS division’s primary tax-related products have historically included RTs and RALs. Substantially all of the business generated by the TRS division occurs in the first quarter of the year. The TRS division traditionally operates at a loss during the second half of the year, during which time the division incurs costs preparing for the upcoming year’s first quarter tax season.

Effective December 8, 2011, RB&T entered into an agreement with the FDIC resolving its differences regarding the TRS division. RB&T’s resolution with the FDIC was in the form of a Stipulation Agreement and a Consent Order (collectively, the “Agreement”). As part of the Agreement, RB&T and the FDIC settled all matters set out in the FDIC’s Amended Notice of Charges dated May 3, 2011 and the lawsuit filed against the FDIC by RB&T. As required by this settlement, RB&T discontinued its offering of the RAL product effective April 30, 2012. The Company’s RAL revenue was $45 million in 2012.

Additionally, as a result of the Agreement, TRS is subject to additional oversight requirements through its Electronic Return Originator Oversight (“ERO”) Plan, the (“ERO Plan”). The ERO Plan, developed by RB&T and approved by the FDIC, implemented increased training and audits of RB&T’s ERO partners, who make RB&T’s tax products available to taxpayers across the nation. In addition, various components of the Agreement required RB&T to meet certain implementation, completion and reporting timelines, including the establishment of a compliance management system to appropriately assess, measure, monitor and control third-party risk and ensure compliance with consumer laws.

For additional discussion regarding the Agreement, see the Company’s Form 8-K filed with the SEC on December 9, 2011, including Exhibits 10.1 and 10.2.

RTs are products whereby a tax refund is issued to the taxpayer after RB&T has received the refund from the federal or state government. There is no credit risk or borrowing cost for RB&T associated with these products because they are only delivered to the taxpayer upon receipt of the refund directly from the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”). Fees earned on RTs are reported as non-interest income under the line item “Refund transfer fees.”

RALs were short-term consumer loans offered to taxpayers that were secured by the customer’s anticipated tax refund, which represented the source of repayment. The fees earned on RALs are reported as interest income under the line item “Loans, including fees.”

Termination of Material Tax Refund Solutions Contracts

For the first quarter 2012 tax season, RB&T conducted business with Jackson Hewitt Inc. (“JHI”), a subsidiary of Jackson Hewitt Tax Service Inc. (“JH”), and JTH Tax Inc. d/b/a Liberty Tax Service (“Liberty”) to offer RAL and RT products. JH and Liberty provide preparation services of federal, state and local individual income tax returns in the U.S. through a nationwide network of franchised and company-owned tax-preparer offices.

On August 27, 2012, RB&T received a termination notice to the Amended and Restated Marketing and Servicing Agreement, dated November 29, 2011 (the “M&S Agreement”), with Liberty related to RB&T’s RT products, as well as RB&T’s previously offered RAL product.
 
 
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  Prior to its termination, the restated M&S Agreement had, among other things:

 
set the term of the M&S Agreement to expire on October 16, 2014;
 
named RB&T as the exclusive provider of all RT products and the previously offered RAL product for a mutually agreed upon list of locations through the term of the contract; and
 
provided that either party may at its option terminate the M&S Agreement upon twenty (20) days’ prior written notice if (i) the other party has materially breached any of the terms thereof and has failed to cure such breach within such twenty day time period or (ii) the continued operation of the Financial Product Program or the electronic filing program was no longer commercially feasible or practical, or no longer provided the same opportunity, to the terminating party due to legal, legislative or regulatory determinations, enactments or interpretations or significant external events or occurrences beyond the control of the terminating party; and provided that in the case of clause (ii) above, the parties shall first mutually endeavor in good faith to modify the Financial Product Program in a manner resolving the problems caused by legal, legislative, regulatory or external events or occurrences.

Liberty’s termination letter stated that it was terminating the M&S Agreement effective September 16, 2012, under section 9(b) of the M&S Agreement, with the termination provisions of this section listed in bullet point (3) above. Under the terms of the M&S Agreement, a termination under section 9(b) requires no early termination penalty for either party.

RB&T has notified Liberty that RB&T believes there has been no occurrence that would give rise to termination of the M&S Agreement and that RB&T disagrees with Liberty’s interpretation of the M&S Agreement relative to Liberty’s ability to terminate. RB&T has also notified Liberty that RB&T believes that the mediation process to settle differences under the M&S Agreement is complete and that it intends to demand arbitration under the terms of the M&S Agreement seeking damages for what RB&T believes was Liberty’s wrongful termination of the M&S Agreement.

On September 18, 2012, RB&T received a termination notice to the Amended and Restated Program Agreement, dated August 3, 2011 (the “Program Agreement”), with JHI and Jackson Hewitt Technology Services LLC (“JHTSL”) related to RB&T’s RT products, as well as RB&T’s previously offered RAL product. Prior to its termination, the Program Agreement had, among other things, set the term of the Program Agreement to expire on October 14, 2014.

JHTSL’s termination letter stated that they were terminating the Program Agreement pursuant to Sections 8.2(i) and 8.2(ii) because, among other reasons, RB&T “cannot offer and provide RALs to customers of designated EROs during Tax Seasons 2013 and 2014 as required by the Program Agreement.” RB&T believes there has been no occurrence that would give rise to termination of the Program Agreement and RB&T has filed a demand for arbitration with JH under the terms of the M&S Agreement seeking damages for what RB&T believes was JH’s wrongful termination of the M&S Agreement. JH has answered RB&T’s demand and filed a counterclaim seeking damages from RB&T for breach of the M&S Agreement. The parties have agreed to arbitrate the matter with Judicial Arbitration and Mediation Services (“JAMS”) in New York, New York in June 2013. Procedurally, JAMS typically provides its decision within 30 days after the close of the hearing. JAMS can also extend that time, however, and if extended, the decision may not occur for an extended period of time following the completion of the June arbitration. The Company believes the arbitration ruling will likely occur prior to the end of 2013; however, no assurances can be made regarding an exact time frame.

Approximately 40% and 40% of the TRS division’s gross revenue was derived from JH tax offices for the years ended as of December 31, 2012 and 2011, with another 19% and 20% from Liberty tax offices for the same respective periods. Termination of these contracts will have a material adverse impact to the Company’s results of operations in 2013 and beyond.

Tax Refund Solutions Funding – First Quarter 2013 Tax Season

Due to the elimination of RAL product effective April 30, 2012, RB&T will have no funding requirements specific to the TRS division for the first quarter 2013 tax season.
 
 
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Tax Refund Solutions Funding – First Quarter 2012 Tax Season

During the fourth quarter of 2011, in anticipation of first quarter 2012 RAL program, RB&T obtained $300 million in Federal Home Loan Bank (“FHLB”) advances with a weighted average life of three months with a weighted average interest rate of 0.10%. In January 2012, the Company obtained $252 million of short-term brokered deposits to complete its funding needs for the first quarter 2012 tax season. These brokered deposits had a weighted average maturity of 44 days with a weighted average cost of approximately 0.39%. The total weighted average funding cost for the first quarter 2012 tax season was 0.23%.

For additional discussion regarding TRS, a division of Republic Processing Group, see the following sections:
 
 
Part I Item 1 “Business”
 
o
General Business Overview
 
§
Republic Processing Group segment
 
Part I Item 1A “Risk Factors”
 
o
Republic Processing Group
 
Part II Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations”
 
o
“Recent Developments”
 
o
“Overview”
 
o
“Results of Operations”
 
o
“Financial Condition”
 
Part II Item 8 “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data”
 
o
Footnote 1 “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies”
 
o
Footnote 4 “Loans and Allowance for Loan Losses”
 
o
Footnote 21 “Segment Information”
 
Republic Payment Solutions division:

Nationally, through RB, the RPS division is preparing to become an issuing bank to offer general purpose reloadable prepaid debit, payroll, gift and incentive cards through third party program managers. If successful, this program is expected to:

 
generate a low-cost deposit source;
 
generate float revenue from the previously mentioned low cost deposit source;
 
serve as a source of fee income; and
 
generate debit card interchange revenue.

For the projected near-term, as the prepaid card program is being established, the operating results of the RPS division are expected to be immaterial to the Company’s overall results of operations and will be reported as part of the RPG business operating segment. The RPS division will not be reported as a separate business operating segment until such time, if any, that it becomes material to the Company’s overall results of operations.

The Company divides prepaid cards into two general categories: reloadable and non-reloadable cards.
 
Reloadable Cards: These types of cards are considered general purpose reloadable (“GPR”) cards. These cards may take the form of payroll cards issued to an employee by an employer to receive the direct deposit of their payroll. GPR cards can also be issued to a consumer at a retail location or mailed to a consumer after completing an on-line application. GPR cards can be reloaded multiple times with a consumer’s payroll, government benefit, a federal or state tax refund or through cash reload networks located at retail locations. Reloadable cards are generally open loop cards as described below.

Non-Reloadable Cards: These are generally one-time use cards that are only active until the funds initially loaded to the card are spent. These types of cards are considered gift or incentive cards. These cards may be open loop or closed loop, as described below. Normally these types of cards are used for the purchase of goods or services at retail locations and cannot be used to receive cash.
 
 
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Prepaid cards may be open loop, closed loop or semi-closed loop. Open loop cards can be used to receive cash at ATM locations or purchase goods or services by PIN or signature at retail locations. These cards can be used virtually anywhere that Visa® or MasterCard® is accepted. Closed loop cards can only be used at a specific merchant. Semi-closed loop cards can be used at several merchants such as a shopping mall.

The prepaid card market is one of the fastest growing segments of the payments industry in the U.S. This market has experienced significant growth in recent years due to consumers and merchants embracing improved technology, greater convenience, more product choices and greater flexibility. Prepaid cards have also proven to be an attractive alternative to traditional bank accounts for certain segments of the population, particularly those without, or who could not qualify for, a checking or savings account.

The RPS division will work with various third parties to distribute prepaid cards to consumers throughout the U.S. The Company will also likely work with these third parties to develop additional financial services for consumers to increase the functionality of the program and prepaid card usage.

Republic Credit Solutions division:

Nationally, through RB&T, the RCS division is preparing to pilot short-term consumer credit products through on-line channels. In general, the credit products are expected to be unsecured small dollar consumer loans with maturities of 30 days or more, and are dependent on various factors including the consumer's ability to repay. All RCS programs will be piloted for a period of time to ensure all aspects are meeting expectations before continuation.

RB&T management preliminarily expects to fund RCS during its pilot phase with a nominal amount of capital. At the conclusion of its pilot phase, RB&T management will determine whether or not to expand or modify the program based on the results of the pilot phase. As with most start-up ventures, management expects the pilot to operate at a loss in its initial stages. Given the speculative nature of the program, management cannot currently predict how much money the program may lose during the pilot phase, however, RB&T does not plan to put more than $5 million of capital at risk until such time the program may become profitable.
 
Employees

As of December 31, 2012, Republic had 797 full-time equivalent employees. Altogether, Republic had 774 full-time and 46 part-time employees. None of the Company’s employees are subject to a collective bargaining agreement, and Republic has never experienced a work stoppage. The Company believes that its employee relations have been and continue to be good.

Competition

Traditional Banking

The Traditional Bank encounters intense competition in its market areas in originating loans, attracting deposits, and selling other banking related financial services. The deregulation of the banking industry, the ability to create financial services holding companies to engage in a wide range of financial services other than banking and the widespread enactment of state laws which permit multi-bank holding companies, as well as the availability of nationwide interstate banking, has created a highly competitive environment for financial institutions. In one or more aspects of the Bank’s business, the Bank competes with local and regional retail and commercial banks, other savings banks, credit unions, finance companies, mortgage companies and other financial intermediaries operating in Kentucky, Indiana, Florida, Ohio, Tennessee and Minnesota. The Bank also competes with insurance companies, consumer finance companies, investment banking firms and mutual fund managers. Some of the Company’s competitors are not subject to the same degree of regulatory review and restrictions that apply to the Company and the Bank. Many of the Bank’s primary competitors, some of which are affiliated with large bank holding companies or other larger financial based institutions, have substantially greater resources, larger established customer bases, higher lending limits, more extensive banking center networks, numerous automatic teller machines, and greater advertising and marketing budgets. They may also offer services that the Bank does not currently provide. These competitors attempt to gain market share through their financial product mix, pricing strategies and banking center locations. Legislative developments related to interstate branching and banking in general, by providing large banking institutions easier access to a broader marketplace, can act to create more pressure on smaller financial institutions to consolidate. It is anticipated that competition from both bank and non-bank entities will continue to remain strong in the foreseeable future.
 
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The primary factors in competing for bank products are convenient office locations, flexible hours, interest rates, services, internet banking, range of lending services offered and lending fees. Additionally, the Bank believes that an emphasis on highly personalized service tailored to individual customer needs, together with the local character of the Bank’s business and its “community bank” management philosophy will continue to enhance the Bank’s ability to compete successfully in its market areas.

Mortgage Banking

The Bank competes with mortgage bankers, mortgage brokers and financial institutions for the origination and funding of mortgage loans. Many competitors have branch offices in the same areas where the Bank’s loan officers operate. The Bank also competes with mortgage companies whose focus is on telemarketing and internet lending.

Republic Processing Group
 
  Tax Refund Solutions division

With regard to the TRS division, the discontinuance of the RAL product after April 30, 2012 and the previously mentioned termination of TRS contracts will have a material adverse impact on the profitability of RB&T’s RT products. The TRS division faces direct competition for RT market share from independently-owned processing groups partnered with banks. Independent processing groups that were unable to offer RAL products have historically been at a competitive disadvantage to banks who could offer RALs. Without the ability to originate RALs after the 2012 tax season, RB&T is facing increased competition in the RT marketplace. In addition to the loss of volume resulting from additional competitors, RB&T will also incur substantial pressure on its profit margin for its RT products, as it is forced to compete with existing rebate and pricing incentives in the RT marketplace.

In addition, as a result of RB&T’s Agreement with the FDIC, the TRS division is subject to additional oversight requirements not currently imposed on its competitors. Management believes these additional requirements make attracting new relationships and retaining existing relationships more difficult for RB&T.

Republic Credit Solutions division

The small dollar consumer loan industry is highly competitive. Management believes principal competitors for its small dollar loan pilot program will be billers who accept late payments for a fee, overdraft privilege programs of other banks and credit unions, as well as payday lenders.
 
The roll out of RB&T’s pilot small dollar loan program will be on-line through various billers across the United States. New entrants to the on-line, small dollar consumer loan market must successfully implement underwriting and fraud prevention processes, overcome consumer brand loyalty and have sufficient capital to withstand early losses associated with unseasoned loan portfolios. In addition, there are substantial regulatory and compliance costs, including the need for expertise to customize products associated with licenses to lend in various states in the U.S.

Republic Payment Solutions division

The prepaid card industry is subject to intense and increasing competition. RB will compete with a number of companies that market different types of prepaid card products; such as GPR, gift, incentive and corporate disbursement cards. There is also competition from large retailers who are seeking to integrate more financial services into their product offerings. Increased competition is also expected from alternative financial services providers who are often well-positioned to service the underbanked and who may wish to develop their own prepaid card programs.
 
 
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Supervision and Regulation

RB&T is a Kentucky-chartered commercial banking and trust corporation and as such, it is subject to supervision and regulation by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) and the Kentucky Department of Financial Institutions (“KDFI”). Republic Bank is a federally-chartered savings bank institution subject to the supervision and regulation by the Office of the Comptroller of Currency (“OCC”). Republic Bank is also subject to limited regulation by the FDIC which insures the Bank’s deposits.

All deposits, subject to regulatory prescribed limitations, held by the Bank are insured by the FDIC. Such supervision and regulation subjects the Bank to restrictions, requirements, potential enforcement actions and examinations by the FDIC, the OCC and Kentucky banking regulators. The Federal Reserve Bank (“FRB”) regulates the Company with monetary policies and operational rules that directly affect the Bank. The Bank is a member of the FHLB System. As a member of the FHLB system, the Bank must also comply with applicable regulations of the Federal Housing Finance Board. Regulation by these agencies is intended primarily for the protection of the Bank’s depositors and the Deposit Insurance Fund (“DIF”) and not for the benefit of the Company’s stockholders. The Bank’s activities are also regulated under consumer protection laws applicable to the Bank’s lending, deposit and other activities. An adverse ruling against the Company under these laws could have a material adverse effect on results.

Republic Bancorp, Inc. is a legal entity separate and distinct from the Bank and is subject to direct supervision by the FRB. Republic Bancorp’s principal sources of funds are cash dividends from the Bank and other subsidiaries. The Company files regular routine reports with the FRB in addition to the Bank’s filings with the FDIC and OCC concerning business activities and financial condition. These regulatory agencies conduct periodic examinations to review the Company’s safety and soundness and compliance with various compliance and regulatory requirements. This regulation and supervision establishes a comprehensive framework of activities in which a bank or savings bank may engage and is intended primarily to provide protection for the DIF and the Bank’s depositors. Regulators have extensive discretion in connection with their supervisory and enforcement authority and examination policies, including, but not limited to, policies that can materially impact the classification of assets and the establishment of adequate loan loss reserves. Any change in regulatory requirements and policies, whether by the FRB, the FDIC, the OCC or state or federal legislation, could have a material adverse impact on Company operations.

Enforcement Powers – Regulators have broad enforcement powers over banks, savings banks and their holding companies, including, but not limited to: the power to mandate or restrict particular actions, activities, or divestitures; impose monetary fines and other penalties for violations of laws and regulations; issue cease and desist or removal orders; seek injunctions; publicly disclose such actions; and prohibit unsafe or unsound practices. This authority includes both informal actions and formal actions to effect corrective actions or sanctions. In addition, Republic is subject to regulation and enforcement actions by other state and federal agencies.

Certain regulatory requirements applicable to the Company and the Bank are referred to below or elsewhere in this filing. The description of statutory provisions and regulations applicable to banks, savings banks and their holding companies set forth in this filing does not purport to be a complete description of such statutes and regulations. Their effect on the Company and the Bank and is qualified in its entirety by reference to the actual laws and regulations.

Prepaid Cards Regulation

The cards marketed by the RPS division are subject to various federal and state laws and regulations, including those discussed below. Though not all prepaid card products are expressly subject to the provisions of the Electronic Fund Transfers Act(“EFTA”) and the FRB’s Regulation E, with the exception of those provisions comprising the Credit Card Accountability, Responsibility, and Disclosure Act of 2009, or (“CARD Act”); the Bank intends to treat prepaid products such as GPR cards as being subject to certain provisions of the EFTA and Regulation E when applicable, such as those related to disclosure requirements, periodic reporting, error resolution procedures and liability limitations.
 
State Wage Payment Laws and Regulations

The use of payroll card programs as means for an employer to remit wages or other compensation to its employees or independent contractors is governed by state labor laws related to wage payments. RPS payroll cards are designed to allow employers to comply with such applicable state wage and hour laws. Most states permit the use of payroll cards as a method of paying wages to employees either through statutory provisions allowing such use, or, in the absence of specific statutory guidance, the adoption by state labor departments of formal or informal policies allowing for the use of such cards. Nearly every state allowing payroll cards places certain requirements and/or restrictions on their use as a wage payment method. The most common of these requirements and/or restrictions involve obtaining the prior written consent of the employee, limitations on payroll card fees and disclosure requirements.
 
 
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Card Association and Payment Network Operating Rules

In providing certain services, the Bank is required to comply with the operating rules promulgated by various card associations and network organizations, including certain data security standards, with such obligations arising as a condition to access or otherwise participate in the relevant card association or network organization. Each card association and network organization may audit the Bank from time to time to ensure compliance with these standards. The Bank maintains appropriate policies and programs and adapts business practices in order to comply with all applicable rules and standards.
 
I.           The Company

Acquisitions – Republic is required to obtain the prior approval of the FRB under the Bank Holding Company Act (“BHCA”) before it may, among other things, acquire all or substantially all of the assets of any bank, or ownership or control of any voting shares of any bank, if after such acquisition it would own or control, directly or indirectly, more than 5% of any class of the voting shares of such bank. In addition, the Bank must obtain regulatory approval prior to entering into certain transactions, such as adding new banking offices and mergers with, or acquisitions of, other financial institutions. In approving bank acquisitions by bank holding companies, the FRB is required to consider the financial and managerial resources and future prospects of the bank holding company and the target bank involved, the convenience and needs of the communities to be served and various competitive factors. Consideration of financial resources generally focuses on capital adequacy, which is discussed below. Consideration of convenience and needs issues includes the parties’ performance under the CRA. Under the CRA, all financial institutions have a continuing and affirmative obligation consistent with safe and sound operation to help meet the credit needs of their entire communities, specifically including low to moderate income persons and neighborhoods.

Under the BHCA, so long as it is at least adequately capitalized, adequately managed and not subject to any regulatory restrictions, the Company may purchase a bank, subject to regulatory approval. Similarly, an adequately capitalized and adequately managed bank holding company located outside of Kentucky or Florida may purchase a bank located inside Kentucky or Florida, subject to appropriate regulatory approvals. In either case, however, state law restrictions may be placed on the acquisition of a state bank that has been in existence for a limited amount of time, or would result in specified concentrations of deposits. For example, Kentucky law prohibits a bank holding company from acquiring control of banks located in Kentucky if the holding company would then hold more than 15% of the total deposits of all federally insured depository institutions in Kentucky.

Financial Activities – The activities permissible for bank holding companies and their affiliates were substantially expanded by the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (“GLBA”), issued in March of 2000. The GLBA permits bank holding companies that qualify as, and elect to be, Financial Holding Company’s (“FHCs”), to engage in a broad range of financial activities, including underwriting securities, dealing in and making a market in securities, insurance underwriting and agency activities without geographic or other limitation, as well as merchant banking. To maintain its status as a FHC, the Company and all of its affiliated depository institutions must be well-capitalized, well-managed, and have at least a “satisfactory” CRA rating. The Company currently qualifies as a FHC.

Subject to certain exceptions, insured state banks are permitted to control or hold an interest in a financial subsidiary that engages in a broader range of activities than are permissible for national banks to engage in directly, subject to any restrictions imposed on a bank under the laws of the state under which it is organized. Conducting financial activities through a bank subsidiary can impact capital adequacy and regulatory restrictions may apply to affiliate transactions between the bank and its financial subsidiaries.

Safe and Sound Banking Practice – The FRB does not permit bank holding companies to engage in unsafe and unsound banking practices. The FDIC, the KDFI and the OCC have similar restrictions with respect to the Bank.

Pursuant to the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, the FDIC and OCC have adopted a set of guidelines prescribing safety and soundness standards. These guidelines establish general standards relating to internal controls, information systems, internal audit systems, loan documentation, credit underwriting, interest rate risk exposure, asset growth, asset quality, earnings standards, compensation, fees and benefits. In general, the guidelines require appropriate systems and practices to identify and manage the risks and exposures specified in the guidelines.
 
 
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Source of Strength Doctrine – Under FRB policy, a bank holding company is expected to act as a source of financial strength to each of its banking subsidiaries and to commit resources for their support. Such support may restrict the Company’s ability to pay dividends, and may be required at times when, absent this FRB policy, a holding company may not be inclined to provide it. A bank holding company may also be required to guarantee the capital restoration plan of an undercapitalized banking subsidiary and cross-guarantee provisions (as between RB&T and Republic Bank) generally apply to the Company. In addition, any capital loans by the Company to its bank subsidiaries are subordinate in right of payment to deposits and to certain other indebtedness of the bank subsidiary. In the event of a bank holding company’s bankruptcy, any commitment by the bank holding company to a federal bank regulatory agency to maintain the capital of subsidiary banks will be assumed by the bankruptcy trustee and entitled to a priority of payment. The Dodd-Frank Act codifies the Federal Reserve Board’s existing “source of strength” policy that holding companies act as a source of strength to their insured institution subsidiaries by providing capital, liquidity and other support in times of distress.

Office of Foreign Asset Control (“OFAC”) – The Company and the Bank, like all U.S. companies and individuals, are prohibited from transacting business with certain individuals and entities named on the OFAC’s list of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons. Failure to comply may result in fines and other penalties. The OFAC issued guidance for financial institutions in which it asserted that it may, in its discretion, examine institutions determined to be high risk or to be lacking in their efforts to comply with these prohibitions.

Code of Ethics – The Company has adopted a code of ethics that applies to all employees, including the Company’s principal executive, financial and accounting officers. A copy of the Company’s code of ethics is available on the Company’s website. The Company intends to disclose information about any amendments to, or waivers from, the code of ethics that are required to be disclosed under applicable SEC regulations by providing appropriate information on the Company’s website. If at any time the code of ethics is not available on the Company’s website, the Company will provide a copy of it free of charge upon written request.

II.           The Bank

The Kentucky and federal banking statutes prescribe the permissible activities in which a Kentucky bank or federal savings bank may engage and where those activities may be conducted. Kentucky’s statutes contain a super parity provision that permits a well-rated Kentucky banking corporation to engage in any banking activity in which a national or state bank operating in any other state or a federal savings association meeting the qualified thrift lender test and operating in any state could engage, provided it first obtains a legal opinion from counsel specifying the statutory or regulatory provisions that permit the activity.

Branching – Kentucky law generally permits a Kentucky chartered bank to establish a branch office in any county in Kentucky. A Kentucky bank may also, subject to regulatory approval and certain restrictions, establish a branch office outside of Kentucky. Well-capitalized Kentucky chartered banks that have been in operation at least three years and that satisfy certain criteria relating to, among other things, their composite and management ratings, may establish a branch in Kentucky without the approval of the Executive Director of the KDFI, upon notice to the KDFI and any other state bank with its main office located in the county where the new branch will be located. Branching by all other banks requires the approval of the Executive Director of the KDFI, who must ascertain and determine that the public convenience and advantage will be served and promoted and that there is a reasonable probability of the successful operation of the branch. In any case, the transaction must also be approved by the FDIC, which considers a number of factors, including financial history, capital adequacy, earnings prospects, character of management, needs of the community and consistency with corporate powers. Previously, an out-of-state bank was permitted to establish branch offices in Kentucky only by merging with a Kentucky bank. De novo branching into Kentucky by out-of-state banks was not permitted. This difficulty for out-of-state banks to branch into Kentucky limited the ability of Kentucky chartered banks to branch into many states, as several states have reciprocity requirements for interstate branching. Section 613 of the Dodd-Frank Act effectively eliminated the interstate branching restrictions set forth in the Riegle-Neal Interstate Banking and Branching Efficiency Act of 1994, thus eliminating the corresponding state law restrictions. Banks located in any state may now de novo branch in any other state, including Kentucky. Such unlimited branching power will likely increase competition within the markets in which the Company and the Bank operate.

Under federal regulations, Republic Bank may establish and operate branches in any state within the U.S. with the prior approval of the OCC. Highly rated federal savings banks that satisfy certain regulatory requirements may establish branches without prior OCC approval, provided the federal savings bank publishes notice of its establishment of a new branch, and notifies the OCC of the establishment of the branch, and no person files a comment with the OCC opposing the proposed branch. OCC and FDIC regulations also restrict the Company’s ability to open new banking offices of RB&T or Republic Bank. In either case, the Company must publish notice of the proposed office in area newspapers and, if objections are made, the new office may be delayed or disapproved.
 
 
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Affiliate Transaction Restrictions – Transactions between the Bank and its affiliates, including the Company and its subsidiaries, are subject to FDIC and OCC regulations, the FRB’s Regulations O and W, and Sections 23A, 23B, 22(g) and 22(h) of the Federal Reserve Act (“FRA”). In general, these transactions must be on terms and conditions that are consistent with safe and sound banking practices and substantially the same, or at least as favorable to the institution or its subsidiary, as those for comparable transactions with non-affiliated parties. In addition, certain types of these transactions referred to as “covered transactions” are subject to quantitative limits based on a percentage of the Bank’s capital, thereby restricting the total dollar amount of transactions the Bank may engage in with each individual affiliate and with all affiliates in the aggregate. Affiliates must pledge qualifying collateral in amounts between 100% and 130% of the covered transaction in order to receive loans from the Bank. In addition, applicable regulations prohibit a savings association from lending to any of its affiliates that engage in activities that are not permissible for bank holding companies and from purchasing low-quality assets from an affiliate or purchasing the securities of any affiliate, other than a subsidiary. Limitations are also imposed on loans and extensions of credit by an institution to its executive officers, directors and principal stockholders and each of their related interests.

The FRB promulgated Regulation W to implement Sections 23A and 23B of the FRA. That regulation contains many of the foregoing restrictions and also addresses derivative transactions, overdraft facilities and other transactions between a bank and its non-bank affiliates.

Restrictions on Distribution of Subsidiary Bank Dividends and Assets – Banking regulators may declare a dividend payment to be unsafe and unsound even if the Bank continues to meet its capital requirements after the dividend. Dividends paid by RB&T provide substantially all of the Company’s operating funds. Regulatory requirements serve to limit the amount of dividends that may be paid by the Bank. Under federal regulations, the Bank cannot pay a dividend if, after paying the dividend, the Bank would be undercapitalized.

Under Kentucky and federal banking regulations, the dividends the Bank can pay during any calendar year are generally limited to its profits for that year, plus its retained net profits for the two preceding years, less any required transfers to surplus or to fund the retirement of preferred stock or debt, absent approval of the respective state or federal banking regulators. FDIC regulations also require all insured depository institutions to remain in a safe and sound condition, as defined in regulations, as a condition of having federal deposit insurance.

Federal Deposit Insurance Assessments – All Bank deposits are insured to the maximum extent permitted by the DIF. These bank deposits are backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government. The DIF is the successor to the Bank Insurance Fund and the Savings Association Insurance Fund, which were merged in 2006. As insurer, the FDIC is authorized to conduct examinations of, and to require reporting by, insured institutions. It also may prohibit any insured institution from engaging in any activity determined by regulation or order to pose a serious threat to the DIF.

The Dodd-Frank Act permanently increased deposit insurance on most accounts to $250,000 per depositor, retroactive to January 1, 2009. In addition, pursuant to Section 13(c)(4)(G) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, the FDIC implemented two temporary programs to provide deposit insurance for the full amount of most non-interest bearing transaction deposit accounts through the end of 2012 and to guarantee certain unsecured debt of financial institutions and their holding companies through December 2012. These programs were not extended past December 2012.

As part of a plan to restore the reserve ratio to 1.15%, in 2009, the FDIC imposed a special assessment on all insured institutions equal to five basis points of assets less Tier 1 capital as of June 30, 2009, payable on September 30, 2009, in order to cover losses to the DIF resulting from bank failures. The amount of Republic’s special assessment, which was paid on September 30, 2009, was $1.4 million.

In November 2009, the FDIC adopted the final rule amending the assessment regulations to require insured depository institutions to prepay their quarterly risk-based assessments for the fourth quarter of 2009, and for all of 2010, 2011, and 2012, on December 30, 2009, along with each institution’s risk-based assessment for the third quarter of 2009. Republic prepaid $11.5 million in deposit insurance assessments on December 30, 2009. As of December 31, 2012, RB&T had $2.9 million in prepaid balance outstanding that will be refunded in June 2013 by the FDIC.
 
 
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In addition to the Deposit Insurance Premium, all institutions with deposits insured by the FDIC are required to pay assessments to fund interest payments on bonds issued by the Financing Corporation, a mixed-ownership government corporation established to recapitalize the predecessor to the DIF. These assessments will continue until the Financing Corporation (“FICO”) bonds mature between 2017 through 2019.

The FDIC’s risk-based premium system provides for quarterly assessments. Each insured institution is placed in one of four risk categories depending on supervisory and capital considerations. Within its risk category, an institution is assigned to an initial base assessment rate which is then adjusted to determine its final assessment rate based on its brokered deposits, secured liabilities and unsecured debt. The FDIC may adjust the scale uniformly from one quarter to the next, except that no adjustment can deviate more than three basis points from the base scale without notice and comment. No institution may pay a dividend if in default of the federal deposit insurance assessment.

On February 7, 2011, effective April 1, 2011, the FDIC Board of Directors adopted a final rule, which redefined the deposit insurance assessment base as required by the Dodd-Frank Act. The final rule:

Redefined the deposit insurance assessment base as average consolidated total assets minus average tangible equity (defined as Tier I Capital);
Made generally conforming changes to the unsecured debt and brokered deposit adjustments to assessment rates;
Created a depository institution debt adjustment;
Elminated the secured liability adjustment; and
Adopted a new assessment rate schedule, and, in lieu of dividends, other rate schedules when the reserve ratio reaches certain levels.

The FDIC is authorized to set the reserve ratio for the DIF annually at between 1.15% and 1.50% of estimated insured deposits. The Dodd-Frank Act mandates that the statutory minimum reserve ratio of the DIF increase from 1.15% to 1.35% of insured deposits by September 30, 2020. Banks with assets of less than $10 billion are exempt from any additional assessments necessary to increase the reserve fund above 1.15%.

The FDIC may terminate the deposit insurance of any insured depository institution, including the Bank, if it determines after a hearing that the institution has engaged or is engaging in unsafe or unsound practices, is in an unsafe or unsound condition to continue operations, or has violated any applicable law, regulation, order or any condition imposed by an agreement with the FDIC. It may also suspend deposit insurance temporarily during the hearing process for the permanent termination of insurance, if the institution has no tangible capital. If insurance is terminated, the accounts at the institution at the time of the termination, less subsequent withdrawals, shall continue to be insured for a period of six months to two years, as determined by the FDIC. Management is aware of no existing circumstances which would result in termination of the Bank’s Federal’s deposit insurance.

Republic Bank is required to pay assessments to the OCC to fund its operations. The general assessments, paid on a semi-annual basis, are based upon total assets, including consolidated subsidiaries, as reported in the institution’s latest quarterly call report, the institution’s financial condition and the complexity of its asset portfolio.

Consumer Laws and Regulations – In addition to the laws and regulations discussed herein, the Bank is also subject to certain consumer laws and regulations that are designed to protect consumers in their transactions with banks. While the discussion set forth in this filing is not exhaustive, these laws and regulations include Regulation E, the Truth in Savings Act, Check Clearing for the 21st Century Act and the Expedited Funds Availability Act, among others. These federal laws and regulations mandate certain disclosure requirements and regulate the manner in which financial institutions must deal with consumers when accepting deposits. Certain laws also limit the Bank’s ability to share information with affiliated and unaffiliated entities. The Bank is required to comply with all applicable consumer protection laws and regulations as part of its ongoing business operations.

Regulation E – In November 2009, the FRB announced its amendment of Regulation E. The amendment prohibits financial institutions from charging consumers fees for paying overdrafts on automated teller machine (“ATM”) and one-time debit card transactions, unless a consumer affirmatively consents, or opts in, to the overdraft service for those types of transactions. Before opting in, the consumer must be provided a notice that explains the financial institution’s overdraft services, including the fees associated with the service, and the consumer’s choices. The final rules require institutions to provide consumers who do not opt in with the same account terms, conditions, and features (including pricing) that they provide to consumers who do opt in. For consumers who do not opt in, the institution would be prohibited from charging overdraft fees for any overdrafts it pays on ATM and one-time debit card transactions.
 
 
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The Bank earns a substantial majority of its fee income related to overdrafts from the per item fee it assesses its customers for each insufficient funds check or electronic debit presented for payment. In addition, the Bank estimates that it had historically earned more than 60% of its fees on the electronic debits presented for payment. Both the per item fee and the daily fee assessed to the account resulting from its overdraft status, if computed as a percentage of the amount overdrawn, results in a high rate of interest when annualized and are thus considered excessive by some consumer groups.

Prohibitions Against Tying Arrangements – The Bank is subject to prohibitions on certain tying arrangements. A depository institution is prohibited, subject to certain exceptions, from extending credit to or offering any other service, or fixing or varying the consideration for such extension of credit or service, on the condition that the customer obtain some additional product or service from the institution or its affiliates or not obtain services of a competitor of the institution.

The USA Patriot Act (“Patriot Act”), Bank Secrecy Act (“BSA”) and Anti-Money Laundering (“AML”) – The Patriot Act was enacted after September 11, 2001, to provide the federal government with powers to prevent, detect, and prosecute terrorism and international money laundering, and has resulted in promulgation of several regulations that have a direct impact on financial institutions. There are a number of programs that financial institutions must have in place such as: (i) BSA/AML controls to manage risk; (ii) Customer Identification Programs to determine the true identity of customers, document and verify the information, and determine whether the customer appears on any federal government list of known or suspected terrorists or terrorist organizations; and (iii) monitoring for the timely detection and reporting of suspicious activity and reportable transactions. Title III of the Patriot Act takes measures intended to encourage information sharing among financial institutions, bank regulatory agencies and law enforcement bodies. Further, certain provisions of Title III impose affirmative obligations on a broad range of financial institutions, including banks, savings banks, brokers, dealers, credit unions, money transfer agents and parties registered under the Commodity Exchange Act. Among other requirements, the Patriot Act imposes the following obligations on financial institutions:

Establishment of enhanced anti-money laundering programs;
Establishment of a program specifying procedures for obtaining identifying information from customers seeking to open new accounts;
Establishment of enhanced due diligence policies, procedures and controls designed to detect and report money laundering;
Prohibitions on correspondent accounts for foreign shell banks; and
Compliance with record keeping obligations with respect to correspondent accounts of foreign banks.

Depositor Preference – The Federal Deposit Insurance Act (“FDIA”) provides that, in the event of the “liquidation or other resolution” of an insured depository institution, the claims of depositors of the institution, including the claims of the FDIC as subrogee of insured depositors, and certain claims for administrative expenses of the FDIC as a receiver, will have priority over other general unsecured claims against the institution. If an insured depository institution fails, insured and uninsured depositors, along with the FDIC, will have priority in payment ahead of unsecured, non-deposit creditors, including depositors whose deposits are payable only outside of the U.S. and the parent bank holding company, with respect to any extensions of credit they have made to such insured depository institution.

Liability of Commonly Controlled Institutions – FDIC-insured depository institutions can be held liable for any loss incurred, or reasonably expected to be incurred, by the FDIC due to the default of another FDIC-insured depository institution controlled by the same bank holding company, or for any assistance provided by the FDIC to another FDIC-insured depository institution controlled by the same bank holding company that is in danger of default. “Default” generally means the appointment of a conservator or receiver. “In danger of default” generally means the existence of certain conditions indicating that default is likely to occur in the absence of regulatory assistance. Such a “cross-guarantee” claim against a depository institution is generally superior in right of payment to claims of the holding company and its affiliates against that depository institution. At this time, RB&T and Republic Bank are the only insured depository institutions controlled by the Company for this purpose. However, if the Company were to control other FDIC-insured depository institutions in the future, the cross-guarantee would apply to all such FDIC-insured depository institutions.
 
 
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Federal Home Loan Bank System – The FHLB provides credit to its members, which include savings banks, commercial banks, insurance companies, credit unions, and other entities. The FHLB system is currently divided into twelve federally chartered regional FHLBs which are regulated by the Federal Housing Finance Board. The Bank is a member and owns capital stock in FHLB Cincinnati and FHLB Atlanta. The amount of capital stock the Bank must own depends on its balance of outstanding advances. It is required to acquire and hold shares in an amount at least equal to 1% of the aggregate principal amount of its unpaid single family residential real estate loans and similar obligations at the beginning of each year, or 1/20th of its outstanding advances from the FHLB, whichever is greater. Advances are secured by pledges of loans, mortgage backed securities and capital stock of the FHLB. FHLBs also purchase mortgages in the secondary market through their Mortgage Purchase Program (“MPP”). The Bank has never sold loans to the MPP.

In the event of a default on an advance, the Federal Home Loan Bank Act establishes priority of the FHLB’s claim over various other claims. Regulations provide that each FHLB has joint and several liability for the obligations of the other FHLBs in the system. In the event a FHLB falls below its minimum capital requirements, the FHLB may seek to require its members to purchase additional capital stock of the FHLB. If problems within the FHLB system were to occur, it could adversely affect the pricing or availability of advances, the amount and timing of dividends on capital stock issued by the FHLBs to members, or the ability of members to have their FHLB capital stock redeemed on a timely basis. Congress continues to consider various proposals which could establish a new regulatory structure for the FHLB system, as well as for other government-sponsored entities. The Bank cannot predict at this time, which, if any, of these proposals may be adopted or what effect they would have on the Bank’s business.

Federal Reserve System – Under regulations of the FRB, the Bank is required to maintain non interest-earning reserves against its transaction accounts (primarily NOW and regular checking accounts). The Bank is in compliance with the foregoing reserve requirements. Required reserves must be maintained in the form of vault cash, a non interest-bearing account at the FRB, or a pass-through account as defined by the FRB. The effect of this reserve requirement is to reduce the Bank’s interest-earning assets. The balances maintained to meet the reserve requirements imposed by the FRB may be used to satisfy liquidity requirements imposed by the FDIC or OCC. The Bank is authorized to borrow from the FRB discount window.

General Lending Regulations

Pursuant to FDIC and OCC regulations, the Bank generally may extend credit as authorized under federal law without regard to state laws purporting to regulate or affect its credit activities, other than state contract and commercial laws, real property laws, homestead laws, tort laws, criminal laws and other state laws designated by the FDIC and OCC. While the discussion set forth in this filing is not exhaustive, these federal laws and regulations include but are not limited to the following:

Community Reinvestment Act
Home Mortgage Disclosure Act
Equal Credit Opportunity Act
Truth in Lending Act
Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act
Fair Credit Reporting Act

Community Reinvestment Act (“CRA”) – Under the CRA, financial institutions have a continuing and affirmative obligation to help meet the credit needs of their entire community, including low and moderate income neighborhoods, consistent with safe and sound banking practices. The CRA does not establish specific lending requirements or programs for the Bank, nor does it limit the Bank’s discretion to develop the types of products and services that it believes are best suited to its particular community, consistent with the CRA. In particular, the CRA assessment system focuses on three tests:

a lending test, to evaluate the institution’s record of making loans in its assessment areas;
an investment test, to evaluate the institution’s record of investing in community development projects, affordable housing and programs benefiting low or moderate income individuals and businesses in its assessment area or a broader area that includes its assessment area; and
a service test, to evaluate the institution’s delivery of services through its retail banking channels and the extent and innovativeness of its community development services.

The CRA requires all institutions to make public disclosure of their CRA ratings. In December 2011, RB&T received a “Satisfactory” CRA Performance Evaluation. In August 2012 RB received an “Outstanding” CRA Performance Evaluation. A copy of each of the public section of each of those CRA Performance Evaluations is available to the public upon request.
 
 
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Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (“HMDA”) – The HMDA has grown out of public concern over credit shortages in certain urban neighborhoods. One purpose of HMDA is to provide public information that will help show whether financial institutions are serving the housing credit needs of the neighborhoods and communities in which they are located. HMDA also includes a “fair lending” aspect that requires the collection and disclosure of data about applicant and borrower characteristics, as a way of identifying possible discriminatory lending patterns and enforcing anti-discrimination statutes. The HMDA requires institutions to report data regarding applications for loans for the purchase or improvement of single family and multi-family dwellings, as well as information concerning originations and purchases of such loans. Federal bank regulators rely, in part, upon data provided under HMDA to determine whether depository institutions engage in discriminatory lending practices. The appropriate federal banking agency, or in some cases the Department of Housing and Urban Development, enforces compliance with HMDA and implements its regulations. Administrative sanctions, including civil money penalties, may be imposed by supervisory agencies for violations of the HMDA.

Equal Credit Opportunity Act; Fair Housing Act (“ECOA”) – The ECOA prohibits discrimination against an applicant in any credit transaction, whether for consumer or business purposes, on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, sex, marital status, age (except in limited circumstances), receipt of income from public assistance programs or good faith exercise of any rights under the Consumer Credit Protection Act. Under the Fair Housing Act, it is unlawful for any lender to discriminate in its housing-related lending activities against any person because of race, color, religion, national origin, sex, handicap or familial status. Among other things, these laws prohibit a lender from denying or discouraging credit on a discriminatory basis, making excessively low appraisals of property based on racial considerations, or charging excessive rates or imposing more stringent loan terms or conditions on a discriminatory basis. In addition to private actions by aggrieved borrowers or applicants for actual and punitive damages, the U.S. Department of Justice and other regulatory agencies can take enforcement action seeking injunctive and other equitable relief or sanctions for alleged violations.

Truth in Lending Act (“TLA”) – The TLA is designed to ensure that credit terms are disclosed in a meaningful way so that consumers may compare credit terms more readily and knowledgeably. As result of the TLA, all creditors must use the same credit terminology and expressions of rates, and disclose the annual percentage rate, the finance charge, the amount financed, the total of payments and the payment schedule for each proposed loan. Violations of the TLA may result in regulatory sanctions and in the imposition of both civil and, in the case of willful violations, criminal penalties. Under certain circumstances, the TLA also provides a consumer with a right of rescission, which if exercised within three business days would require the creditor to reimburse any amount paid by the consumer to the creditor or to a third party in connection with the loan, including finance charges, application fees, commitment fees, title search fees and appraisal fees. Consumers may also seek actual and punitive damages for violations of the TLA.

Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (“RESPA”) – The RESPA requires lenders to provide borrowers with disclosures regarding the nature and cost of real estate settlements. The RESPA also prohibits certain abusive practices, such as kickbacks, and places limitations on the amount of escrow accounts. Violations of the RESPA may result in imposition of penalties, including: (i) civil liability equal to three times the amount of any charge paid for the settlement services or civil liability of up to $1,000 per claimant, depending on the violation; (ii) awards of court costs and attorneys’ fees; and (iii) fines of not more than $10,000 or imprisonment for not more than one year, or both.

Fair Credit Reporting Act (“FACT”) – The FACT requires the Bank to adopt and implement a written identity theft prevention program, paying particular attention to several identified “red flag” events. The program must assess the validity of address change requests for card issuers and for users of consumer reports to verify the subject of a consumer report in the event of notice of an address discrepancy. The FACT gives consumers the ability to challenge the Bank with respect to credit reporting information provided by the Bank. The FACT also prohibits the Bank from using certain information it may acquire from an affiliate to solicit the consumer for marketing purposes unless the consumer has been given notice and an opportunity to opt out of such solicitation for a period of five years.

Loans to One Borrower – Under current limits, loans and extensions of credit outstanding at one time to a single borrower and not fully secured generally may not exceed 15% of the institution’s unimpaired capital and unimpaired surplus. Loans and extensions of credit fully secured by certain readily marketable collateral may represent an additional 10% of unimpaired capital and unimpaired surplus.
 
 
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Interagency Guidance on Non Traditional Mortgage Product Risks – In 2006, final guidance was issued to address the risks posed by residential mortgage products that allow borrowers to defer repayment of principal and sometimes interest (such as “interest-only” mortgages and “payment option” ARMs. The guidance discusses the importance of ensuring that loan terms and underwriting standards are consistent with prudent lending practices, including consideration of a borrower’s repayment capacity. The guidance also suggests that banks i) implement strong risk management standards, ii) maintain capital levels commensurate with risk and iii) establish an allowance for loan losses that reflects the collectability of the portfolio. The guidance urges banks to ensure that consumers have sufficient information to clearly understand loan terms and associated risks prior to making product or payment choices.

Loans to Insiders – The Bank’s authority to extend credit to its directors, executive officers and principal shareholders, as well as to entities controlled by such persons, is governed by the requirements of Sections 22(g) and 22(h) of the FRA and Regulation O of the Federal Reserve Board. Among other things, these provisions require that extensions of credit to insiders:

be made on terms that are substantially the same as, and follow credit underwriting procedures that are not less stringent than, those prevailing for comparable transactions with non-insiders and that do not involve more than the normal risk of repayment or present other features that are unfavorable to the Bank; and
not exceed certain limitations on the amount of credit extended to such persons, individually and in the aggregate, which limits are based, in part, on the amount of the Bank’s capital.

The regulations allow small discounts on fees on residential mortgages for directors, officers and employees. In addition, extensions of credit to insiders in excess of certain limits must be approved by the Bank’s Board of Directors.

Qualified Thrift Lender Test (“QTL”) – Federal law requires savings banks to meet the QTL, as detailed in 12 U.S.C. §1467a(m). The QTL measures the proportion of a federal savings bank institution’s assets invested in loans or securities supporting residential construction and home ownership. Under the QTL, a federal savings bank is required to either qualify as a “domestic building and loan association” under the Internal Revenue Code or maintain at least 65% of its “portfolio assets” (total assets less: (i) specified liquid assets up to 20% of total assets; (ii) intangibles, including goodwill; and (iii) the value of property used to conduct business) in certain “qualified thrift investments” (primarily residential mortgages and related investments, including certain mortgage backed securities) in at least nine months out of each 12-month period. Qualified thrift investments include (i) housing-related loans and investments, (ii) obligations of the FDIC, (iii) loans to purchase or construct churches, schools, nursing homes and hospitals, (iv) consumer loans, (v) shares of stock issued by any FHLB, and (vi) shares of stock issued by the FHLMC or the Federal National Mortgage Association (“FNMA”). Legislation has expanded the extent to which education loans, credit card loans and small business loans may be considered “qualified thrift investments.” If Republic Bank fails to remain qualified under the QTL, it must either convert to a commercial bank charter or be subject to restrictions specified under OCC regulations. A savings bank may re-qualify under the QTL if it thereafter complies with the QTL. A savings bank also may satisfy the QTL by qualifying as a “domestic building and loan association” as defined in the Internal Revenue Code. At December 31, 2012, Republic Bank met the QTL requirements.
 
 
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Capital Adequacy Requirements

Capital Guidelines – The FRB, FDIC and OCC have substantially similar risk based and leverage ratio guidelines for banking organizations, which are intended to ensure that banking organizations have adequate capital related to the risk levels of assets and off balance sheet instruments. Under the risk based guidelines, specific categories of assets are assigned different risk weights based generally on the perceived credit risk of the asset. These risk weights are multiplied by corresponding asset balances to determine a risk weighted asset base. Under these regulations, a bank will be considered:
 
 
Total Risk Based
Capital Ratio
Tier 1 Risk-Based
Capital Ratio
Leverage Ratio
Other
Well Capitalized:
10% or greater
6% or greater
5% or greater
Not subject to any order
or written directive to
meet and maintain a
specific capital level for
any capital measure
Adequately Capitalized
8% or greater
4% or greater
4% or greater (3% in the
case of a bank with a
composite CAMEL rating of 1)
 
Undercapitalized
less than 8%
less than 4%
less than 4% (3% in the
case of a bank with a
composite CAMEL rating of 1)
 
Significantly
Undercapitalized
less than 6%
less than 3%
less than 3%
 
Critically
Undercapitalized
     
Ratio of tangible equity to
total assets is less than or
equal to 2%
 
The guidelines require a minimum total risk based capital ratio of 8%, of which at least 4% is required to consist of Tier I capital elements (generally, common shareholders’ equity, minority interests in the equity accounts of consolidated subsidiaries, non-cumulative perpetual preferred stock, less goodwill and certain other intangible assets). Total capital is the sum of Tier I and Tier II capital. Tier II capital generally may consist of limited amounts of subordinated debt, qualifying hybrid capital instruments, other preferred stock, loan loss reserves and unrealized gains on certain equity investment securities.

In addition to the risk based capital guidelines, the FRB utilizes a leverage ratio as a tool to evaluate the capital adequacy of bank holding companies. The leverage ratio is a company’s Tier I capital divided by its average total consolidated assets (less goodwill and certain other intangible assets).
 
 
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As of December 31, 2012 and 2011 the Company’s capital ratios were as follows:
 
   
2012
   
2011
 
As of December 31, (dollars in thousands)
 
Amount
   
Ratio
   
Amount
   
Ratio
 
                         
Total Capital to risk weighted assets
                       
Republic Bancorp, Inc.
  $ 581,189       25.28 %   $ 501,188       24.74 %
Republic Bank & Trust Co.
    451,898       20.37       447,143       22.97  
Republic Bank
    14,494       18.02       16,441       20.34  
                                 
Tier 1 (Core) Capital to risk weighted assets
                               
Republic Bancorp, Inc.
    558,982       24.31 %     478,003       23.59 %
Republic Bank & Trust Co.
    407,261       18.36       401,529       20.63  
Republic Bank
    13,474       16.75       15,420       19.08  
                                 
Tier 1 Leverage Capital to average assets
                               
Republic Bancorp, Inc.
    558,982       16.36 %     478,003       14.77 %
Republic Bank & Trust Co.
    407,261       12.18       401,529       12.78  
Republic Bank
    13,474       13.43       15,420       14.44  
 
The federal banking agencies’ risk based and leverage ratios represent minimum supervisory ratios generally applicable to banking organizations that meet certain specified criteria, assuming that they have the highest regulatory capital rating. Banking organizations not meeting these criteria are required to operate with capital positions above the minimum ratios. FRB guidelines also provide that banking organizations experiencing internal growth or making acquisitions may be expected to maintain strong capital positions above the minimum supervisory levels, without significant reliance on intangible assets. The FDIC and the OCC may establish higher minimum capital adequacy requirements if, for example, a bank or savings bank proposes to make an acquisition requiring regulatory approval, has previously warranted special regulatory attention, rapid growth presents supervisory concerns, or, among other factors, has a high susceptibility to interest rate and other types of risk. The Bank is not subject to any such individual minimum regulatory capital requirement.

Corrective Measures for Capital Deficiencies – The banking regulators are required to take “prompt corrective action” with respect to capital deficient institutions. As detailed in the table above, agency regulations define, for each capital category, the levels at which institutions are well-capitalized, adequately capitalized, undercapitalized, significantly undercapitalized and critically undercapitalized. A bank is undercapitalized if it fails to meet any one of the ratios required to be adequately capitalized.

Undercapitalized institutions are required to submit a capital restoration plan, which must be guaranteed by the holding company of the institution. In addition, agency regulations contain broad restrictions on certain activities of undercapitalized institutions including asset growth, acquisitions, branch establishment, and expansion into new lines of business. With certain exceptions, an insured depository institution is prohibited from making capital distributions, including dividends, and is prohibited from paying management fees to control persons if the institution would be undercapitalized after any such distribution or payment. A bank’s capital classification will also affect its ability to accept brokered deposits. Under banking regulations, a bank may not lawfully accept, roll over or renew brokered deposits, unless it is either well-capitalized or it is adequately capitalized and receives a waiver from the applicable regulator.

If a banking institution’s capital decreases below acceptable levels, bank regulatory enforcement powers become more enhanced. A significantly undercapitalized institution is subject to mandated capital raising activities, restrictions on interest rates paid and transactions with affiliates, removal of management and other restrictions. Banking regulators have limited discretion in dealing with a critically undercapitalized institution and are normally required to appoint a receiver or conservator. Banks with risk based capital and leverage ratios below the required minimums may also be subject to certain administrative actions, including the termination of deposit insurance upon notice and hearing, or a temporary suspension of insurance without a hearing in the event the institution has no tangible capital.
 
 
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In addition, a bank holding company that elects to be treated as a FHC may face significant consequences if its bank subsidiaries fail to maintain the required capital and management ratings, including entering into an agreement with the FRB which imposes limitations on its operations and may even require divestitures. Such possible ramifications may limit the ability of a bank subsidiary to significantly expand or acquire less than well-capitalized and well-managed institutions. More specifically, the FRB’s regulations require a FHC to notify the FRB within 15 days of becoming aware that any depository institution controlled by the company has ceased to be well-capitalized or well-managed. If the FRB determines that a FHC controls a depository institution that is not well-capitalized or well-managed, the FRB will notify the FHC that it is not in compliance with applicable requirements and may require the FHC to enter into an agreement acceptable to the FRB to correct any deficiencies, or require the FHC to decertify as a FHC. Until such deficiencies are corrected, the FRB may impose any limitations or conditions on the conduct or activities of the FHC and its affiliates that the FRB determines are appropriate, and the FHC may not commence any additional activity or acquire control of any company under Section 4(k) of the BHC Act without prior FRB approval. Unless the period of time for compliance is extended by the FRB, if a FHC fails to correct deficiencies in maintaining its qualification for FHC status within 180 days of entering into an agreement with the FRB, the FRB may order divestiture of any depository institution controlled by the company. A company may comply with a divestiture order by ceasing to engage in any financial or other activity that would not be permissible for a bank holding company that has not elected to be treated as a FHC. The Company is currently classified as a FHC.
 
Under the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act (“FDICIA”), each federal banking agency has prescribed, by regulation, non-capital safety and soundness standards for institutions under its authority. These standards cover internal controls, information systems and internal audit systems, loan documentation, credit underwriting, interest rate exposure, asset growth, compensation, fees and benefits, such other operational and managerial standards as the agency determines to be appropriate, and standards for asset quality, earnings and stock valuation. An institution which fails to meet these standards must develop a plan acceptable to the agency, specifying the steps that the institution will take to meet the standards. Failure to submit or implement such a plan may subject the institution to regulatory sanctions.

New Capital Requirements – Possible Changes to Capital Requirements Resulting from Basel III. In December 2010 and January 2011, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision published the final texts of reforms on capital and liquidity generally referred to as “Basel III.” Although Basel III is intended to be implemented by participating countries for large, internationally active banks, its provisions are likely to be considered by U.S. banking regulators in developing new regulations applicable to other banks in the U.S., including the Bank. For banks in the U.S., among the most significant provisions of Basel III concerning capital are the following:

A minimum ratio of common equity to risk-weighted assets reaching 4.5%, plus an additional 2.5% as a capital conservation buffer, by 2019 after a phase-in period.
A minimum ratio of Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets reaching 6.0% by 2019 after a phase-in period.
A minimum ratio of total capital to risk-weighted assets, plus the additional 2.5% capital conservation buffer, reaching 10.5% by 2019 after a phase-in period.
An additional countercyclical capital buffer to be imposed by applicable national banking regulators periodically at their discretion, with advance notice.
Restrictions on capital distributions and discretionary bonuses applicable when capital ratios fall within the buffer zone.
Deduction from common equity of deferred tax assets that depend on future profitability to be realized.
Increased capital requirements for counterparty credit risk relating to Over-The-Counter derivatives, repos and securities financing activities.
For capital instruments issued on or after January 13, 2013 (other than common equity), a loss-absorbency requirement such that the instrument must be written off or converted to common equity if a trigger event occurs, either pursuant to applicable law or at the direction of the banking regulator. A trigger event is an event under which the banking entity would become nonviable without the write-off or conversion, or without an injection of capital from the public sector. The issuer must maintain authorization to issue the requisite shares of common equity if conversion were required.

The Basel III provisions on liquidity include complex criteria establishing a liquidity coverage ratio (“LCR”) and net stable funding ratio (“NSFR”). The purpose of the LCR is to ensure that a bank maintains adequate unencumbered, high quality liquid assets to meet its liquidity needs for 30 days under a severe liquidity stress scenario. The purpose of the NSFR is to promote more medium and long-term funding of assets and activities, using a one-year horizon. Although Basel III is described as a “final text,” it is subject to the resolution of certain issues and to further guidance and modification, as well as to adoption by U.S. banking regulators, including decisions as to whether and to what extent it will apply to U.S. banks that are not large, internationally active banks.
 
 
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The FDIC proposed rules implementing Basel III in June 2012; however, the U.S. banking agencies released a joint statement on November 9, 2012 delaying these rules indefinitely. Highlights of these rules follow:
 
Revises the definition of regulatory capital components and related calculations.
Adds a new common equity tier 1 capital ratio.
Increases the minimum tier 1 capital ratio requirement from 4 percent to 6 percent.
Imposes different limitations to qualifying minority interest in regulatory capital than those currently applied;
Incorporates the revised regulatory capital requirements into the Prompt Corrective Action (PCA) framework.
Implements a new capital conservation buffer that would limit payment of capital distributions and certain discretionary bonus payments to executive officers and key risk takers if the banking organization does not hold certain amounts of common equity tier 1 capital in addition to those needed to meet its minimum risk-based capital requirements.
Provides a transition period for several aspects of the proposed rule, including the phase-out period for certain non-qualifying capital instruments, the new minimum capital ratio requirements, the capital conservation buffer, and the regulatory capital adjustments and deductions.
For advanced approaches banks, introduces a countercyclical capital buffer and a supplemental leverage ratio.
 
Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act – On July 21, 2010, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (“the Dodd-Frank Act”) was signed into law. The Dodd-Frank Act is intended to effect a fundamental restructuring of federal banking regulation. Among other things, the Dodd-Frank Act creates a new Financial Stability Oversight Council to identify systemic risks in the financial system and gives federal regulators new authority to take control of and liquidate financial firms. The Dodd-Frank Act also creates a new independent federal regulator to administer federal consumer protection laws.

The Dodd-Frank Act legislation requires various federal agencies to promulgate numerous and extensive implementing regulations over the next several years. Although the substance and scope of these regulations cannot be determined at this time, it is expected that the legislation and implementing regulations, particularly those provisions relating to the new Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (“CFPB”) will increase the Company’s operating and compliance costs.

Among the Dodd-Frank Act provisions that are likely to affect the Company are the following:
 
Corporate Governance – The Dodd-Frank Act requires publicly traded companies to give stockholders a non-binding vote on executive compensation at their first annual meeting taking place six months after the date of enactment and at least every three years thereafter and on so-called “golden parachute” payments in connection with approvals of mergers and acquisitions. The new legislation also authorizes the SEC to promulgate rules that would allow stockholders to nominate their own candidates using a company’s proxy materials. Additionally, the Dodd-Frank Act directs the federal banking regulators to promulgate rules prohibiting excessive compensation paid to executives of depository institutions and their holding companies with assets in excess of $1 billion, regardless of whether the company is publicly traded or not. The Dodd-Frank Act gives the SEC authority to prohibit broker discretionary voting on elections of directors and executive compensation matters.
 
Transactions with Affiliates and Insiders – The Dodd-Frank Act applies Section 23A and Section 22(h) of the Federal Reserve Act (governing transactions with insiders) to derivative transactions, repurchase agreements and securities lending and borrowing transactions that create credit exposure to an affiliate or an insider. Any such transactions with affiliates must be fully secured. The exemption from Section 23A for transactions with financial subsidiaries was effectively eliminated. The Dodd-Frank Act additionally prohibits an insured depository institution from purchasing an asset from or selling an asset to an insider unless the transaction is on market terms and, if representing more than 10% of capital, is approved in advance by the disinterested directors.
 
 
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Consumer Financial Protection Bureau – The Dodd-Frank Act created the new, independent federal agency, the CFPB, which is granted broad rulemaking, supervisory and enforcement powers under various federal consumer financial protection laws, including the ECOA, TLA, RESPA, FACT Act, Fair Debt Collection Act, the Consumer Financial Privacy provisions of the GLBA and certain other statutes. The CFPB has examination and primary enforcement authority with respect to depository institutions with $10 billion or more in assets. Smaller institutions are subject to rules promulgated by the CFPB, but continue to be examined and supervised by federal banking regulators for consumer compliance purposes. The CFPB has authority to prevent unfair, deceptive or abusive acts and practices in connection with the offering of consumer financial products. The Dodd-Frank Act authorizes the CFPB to establish certain minimum standards for the origination of residential mortgages including a determination of the borrower’s ability to repay. In addition, the Dodd-Frank Act allows borrowers to raise certain defenses to foreclosure if they receive any loan other than a “qualified mortgage” as defined by the CFPB. The Dodd-Frank Act permits states to adopt consumer protection laws and standards that are more stringent than those adopted at the federal level and, in certain circumstances, permits state attorneys general to enforce compliance with both the state and federal laws and regulations. Federal preemption of state consumer protection law requirements, traditionally an attribute of the federal savings association charter, has also been modified by the Dodd-Frank Act and now requires a case-by-case determination of preemption by the OCC and eliminates preemption for subsidiaries of a bank. Depending on the implementation of this revised federal preemption standard, the operations of the Bank could become subject to additional compliance burdens in the states in which it operates.
 
Deposit Insurance – The Dodd-Frank Act permanently increases the maximum deposit insurance amount for financial institutions to $250,000 per depositor, retroactive to January 1, 2009, and extended unlimited deposit insurance to non interest-bearing transaction accounts through December 31, 2012. The Dodd-Frank Act also broadens the base for FDIC insurance assessments. Assessments will now be based on the average consolidated total assets less tangible equity capital of a financial institution. The Dodd-Frank Act requires the FDIC to increase the reserve ratio of the Deposit Insurance Fund from 1.15% to 1.35% of insured deposits by 2020 and eliminates the requirement that the FDIC pay dividends to insured depository institutions when the reserve ratio exceeds certain thresholds. The Dodd-Frank Act eliminates the federal statutory prohibition against the payment of interest on business checking accounts.
 
Elimination of the Office of Thrift Supervision (“OTS”) – The Dodd-Frank Act eliminated the OTS, which was Republic Bank’s primary federal regulator. The OCC will generally have rulemaking, examination, supervision and oversight authority and the FDIC will retain secondary authority over Republic Bank. OTS guidance, orders, interpretations, policies and similar items will continue to remain in effect until they are superseded by new guidance and policies from the OCC.
 
Federal Preemption – A major benefit of the federal thrift charter has been the strong preemptive effect of HOLA, under which Republic Bank is chartered. Historically, the courts have interpreted the HOLA to “occupy the field” with respect to the operations of federal thrifts, leaving no room for conflicting state regulation. The Dodd-Frank Act, however, amends the HOLA to specifically provide that it does not occupy the field in any area of state law. Henceforth, any preemption determination must be made in accordance with the standards applicable to national banks, which have themselves been scaled back to require case-by-case determinations of whether state consumer protection laws discriminate against national banks or interfere with the exercise of their powers before these laws may be pre-empted.
 
Qualified Thrift Lender Test – Federal law requires savings institutions to meet a qualified thrift lender test. Under the test, a savings association is required to either qualify as a “domestic building and loan association” under the Internal Revenue Code or maintain at least 65% of its “portfolio assets” (total assets less: (i) specified liquid assets up to 20% of total assets; (ii) intangibles, including goodwill; and (iii) the value of property used to conduct business) in certain “qualified thrift investments” (primarily residential mortgages and related investments, including certain mortgage-backed securities) in at least 9 months out of each 12 month period. Recent legislation has expanded the extent to which education loans, credit card loans and small business loans may be considered “qualified thrift investments.”
 
A savings institution that fails the qualified thrift lender test is subject to certain operating restrictions. The Dodd-Frank Act subjects violations of the qualified thrift lender test to possible enforcement action for violation of law and imposes dividend restrictions on violating institutions. As of December 31, 2012, Republic Bank met the qualified thrift lender test.
 
 
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Capital – Under the Dodd-Frank Act, the proceeds of trust preferred securities are excluded from Tier 1 capital unless such securities were issued prior to 2010 by bank or savings and loan holding companies with less than $15 billion of assets. The legislation also establishes a floor for capital of insured depository institutions that cannot be lower than the standards in effect today, and directs the federal banking regulators to implement new leverage and capital requirements within 18 months that take into account off-balance sheet activities and other risks, including risks relating to securitized products and derivatives.
 
Incentive Compensation – In 2011, seven federal agencies, including the FDIC, the OCC, the FRB and the SEC, issued a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking designed to implement section 956 of the Dodd-Frank Act, which applies only to financial institutions with total consolidated assets of $1 billion or more. This seeks to strengthen the incentive compensation practices at covered institutions by better aligning employee rewards with longer-term institutional objectives. The proposed orders are designed to:
 
 
prohibit incentive-based compensation arrangements that encourage inappropriate risks by providing covered persons with “excessive” compensation;
 
prohibit incentive-based compensation arrangements that encourage inappropriate risk taking by providing  covered persons with compensation that “could lead to a material financial loss” to an institution;
 
require disclosures that will enable the appropriate federal regulator to determine compliance with the rule; and
 
require the institution to maintain policies and procedures to ensure compliance with these requirements and prohibitions commensurate with the size and complexity of the organization and the scope of its use of incentive compensation.
 
Other Legislative Initiatives

The U.S. Congress and state legislative bodies continually consider proposals for altering the structure, regulation and competitive relationships of financial institutions. It cannot be predicted whether, or in what form, any of these potential proposals or regulatory initiatives will be adopted, the impact the proposals will have on the financial institutions industry or the extent to which the business or financial condition and operations of the Company and its subsidiaries may be affected.

Statistical Disclosures

The statistical disclosures required by Part I Item 1 “Business” are located under Part II Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”
 
 
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FACTORS THAT MAY AFFECT FUTURE RESULTS

An investment in the Company’s common stock is subject to risks inherent in its business. Before making an investment decision, you should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below together with all of the other information included in this report. In addition to the risks and uncertainties described below, other risks and uncertainties not currently known to the Company or that the Company currently deems to be immaterial also may materially and adversely affect its business, financial condition and results of operations in the future. The value or market price of the Company’s common stock could decline due to any of these identified or other risks, and an investor could lose all or part of their investment.

There are factors, many beyond the Company’s control, which may significantly change the results or expectations of the Company. Some of these factors are described below, however many are described in the other sections of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
 
ACCOUNTING POLICIES/ESTIMATES, ACCOUNTING STANDARDS AND INTERNAL CONTROL

The Company’s accounting policies and estimates are critical components of the Company’s presentation of its financial statements. Management must exercise judgment in selecting and adopting various accounting policies and in applying estimates. Actual outcomes may be materially different than amounts previously estimated. Management has identified several accounting policies and estimates as being critical to the presentation of the Company’s financial statements. The Company’s management must exercise judgment in selecting and applying many accounting policies and methods in order to comply with generally accepted accounting principles and reflect management’s judgment of the most appropriate manner to report the Company’s financial condition and results. In some cases, management may select an accounting policy which might be reasonable under the circumstances, yet might result in the Company’s reporting different results than would have been reported under a different alternative. Materially different amounts could be reported under different conditions or using different assumptions or estimates. These policies are described in Part II Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” under the section titled “Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates.”

With respect to the acquisitions of failed banks, the Bank could post material adjustments up to one year after the acquisition date to bargain purchase gains resulting from valuation revisions to assets acquired and liabilities assumed. The assets acquired and liabilities assumed in the acquisitions of failed banks are presented at estimated fair value as of the respective acquisition date and often times result in bargain purchase gains for the acquiring company. Bargain purchase gains often result in connection with the acquisition of a failed bank because the overall price paid by the acquiring bank is less than the estimated fair value of the assets acquired and liabilities assumed. These fair value estimates are considered preliminary, and are subject to change for up to one year after the closing date of the acquisition, as additional information relative to the acquisition date fair values becomes available. More specifically, fair value adjustments for loans and other real estate owned may be made, as market value data, such as appraisals, are received by the Bank.

Due to the compressed due diligence period of an FDIC-assisted acquisition, the measurement period analysis of information that may be reflective of conditions existing as of the acquisition date generally extends longer within the maximum one year measurement period compared to non-FDIC-assisted transactions. The difference is attributable to the fact that FDIC-assisted transactions are marketed for two to four weeks with on-site due diligence limited to two to three days while traditional non-FDIC-assisted transactions generally have a three to six month due diligence and regulatory approval period prior to the acquisition. The accuracy of the bargain purchase gain estimate can also be negatively impacted by the amount of time between the acquisition date of the failed bank and the required reporting date of the Company. The shorter the time between those two dates can limit the amount of information the Bank can gather before it reports its bargain purchase gain, thus limiting the overall precision in the estimate.

As of the date of this filing, management considers the FCB acquisition within the measurement period; therefore, management believes there may be future adjustments made to the bargain purchase gain that was originally recorded for the third quarter of 2012 and recast as of December 31, 2012. Management also believes that it is possible that some of these adjustments could be significant. While management has made its best estimate related to the future cash flows of the FCB loans based on the information it had available at year end, management believes more data may become available by the end of the first quarter of 2013, including updated appraisal information and face-to-face discussions with troubled borrowers to determine their willingness and ability to repay the loans purchased, which will allow the Bank to more precisely estimate its bargain purchase gain related to the FCB acquisition.
 
 
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Negative adjustments to the Company’s FCB bargain purchase gain could have a material adverse impact to the Company’s results of operation.

The Bank may experience future goodwill impairment, which could reduce its earnings. The Bank performed its annual goodwill impairment test during the fourth quarter of 2012 as of September 30, 2012. The evaluation of the fair value of goodwill requires management judgment. If management’s judgment was incorrect and an impairment of goodwill was deemed to exist, the Bank would be required to write down its assets resulting in a charge to earnings, which would adversely affect its results of operations, perhaps materially.

Changes in accounting standards could materially impact the Company’s financial statements. The Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) may change the financial accounting and reporting standards that govern the preparation of the Company’s financial statements. These changes can be hard to predict and can materially impact how the Company records and reports its financial condition and results of operations. For example, the FASB has proposed new accounting standards related to fair value accounting and accounting for leases that could materially change the Company’s financial statements in the future. Those who interpret the accounting standards, such as the SEC, the banking regulators and the Company’s independent registered public accounting firm may amend or reverse their previous interpretations or conclusions regarding how various standards should be applied. In some cases, the Company could be required to apply a new or revised standard retroactively, resulting in the Company recasting, or possibly restating, prior period financial statements.

If the Company does not maintain strong internal controls and procedures, it may impact profitability. Management reviews and updates its internal controls, disclosure controls and procedures, and corporate governance policies and procedures on a routine basis. This system is designed to provide reasonable, not absolute, assurances that the internal controls comply with appropriate regulatory guidance. Any undetected circumvention of these controls could have a material adverse impact on the Company’s financial condition and results of operations.

If the Bank’s OREO is not properly valued or sufficiently reserved to cover actual losses, or if the Bank is required to increase its valuation reserves, the Bank’s earnings could be reduced. Management obtains updated valuations in the form of appraisals and broker price opinions when a loan has been foreclosed and the property taken in as OREO and at certain other times during the asset’s holding period. The Bank’s net book value of the loan at the time of foreclosure and thereafter is compared to the updated market value of the foreclosed property less estimated selling costs (fair value). A write-down is recorded for any excess in the asset’s net book value over its fair value. If the Bank’s valuation process is incorrect, or if property values decline, the fair value of the Bank’s OREO may not be sufficient to recover its carrying value in such assets, resulting in the need for additional writedowns or valuation allowances. Significant additional writedowns or valuation allowances to OREO could have a material adverse effect on the Bank’s financial condition and results of operations.
 
 
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REPUBLIC PROCESSING GROUP
 
The Company’s lines of business and products not typically associated with Traditional Banking expose earnings to additional risks and uncertainties. Republic Processing Group (“RPG”) is comprised of three distinct divisions: Tax Refund Solutions (“TRS”), Republic Payment Solutions (“RPS”) and Republic Credit Solutions (“RCS”).

As a result of RB&T’s Agreement with the FDIC, the TRS division is subject to additional oversight requirements through its ERO Plan. If RB&T is unable to comply with these new requirements, the FDIC could require RB&T to cease offering RT products in the future. As disclosed above, RB&T developed an ERO Plan, which was agreed to by the FDIC. The ERO Plan articulates a framework for RB&T to continue to offer non-RAL tax related products and services with specified oversight of the tax preparers with which RB&T does business. The ERO Plan includes requirements for, among other things:

positive affirmations by EROs of individual tax preparer training related to regulatory requirements applicable to bank products;
annual audits covering 10% of active ERO locations and a significant sample of applications for Bank products. The audits will consist of onsite visits, document reviews, mystery shops of tax preparation offices, and tax product customer surveys;
on-site audit confirmation of ERO agreements to adhere to laws, processes, procedures, disclosure requirements and physical and electronic security requirements;
an advertising approval process that requires RB&T to approve all tax preparer advertisements prior to their issuance;
monitoring of ERO offices for income tax return quality;
monitoring of ERO offices for adherence to acceptable tax preparation fee parameters;
monitoring for federal and state tax preparation requirements, including local and state tax preparer registration, and posting and disclosure requirements relative to Bank products;
RB&T to provide advance notification, as practicable, to the FDIC of any significant changes in the TRS line of business, including
o       
a change of more than 25% from the prior tax season in the number of EROs with which RB&T is doing business, or
o       
the addition of tax-related products offered by RB&T that it did not previously offer; and
RB&T to provide advance notification, as practicable, to the FDIC when RB&T enters into a relationship with a new corporation that has multiple owned or franchised locations, when the relationship alone will represent an increase of more than 10% from the prior tax season in the number of EROs with which RB&T is doing business.

If the FDIC determines that RB&T is not in compliance with its ERO Plan, it has the authority to issue more restrictive enforcement actions. These enforcement actions could include significant additional penalties and/or requirements regarding the tax business which could significantly, negatively impact this segment’s profitability and cause RB&T to exit the business altogether.

As a result of RB&T’s Agreement with the FDIC, the TRS division is subject to additional oversight requirements not currently imposed on its competitors. Management believes these additional requirements have made attracting new relationships and retaining existing relationships more difficult for RB&T. As disclosed above, the Agreement contains a provision for an ERO Plan which has been implemented by RB&T. The ERO Plan placed additional oversight and training requirements on RB&T and its tax preparation partners that are not currently required by the regulators for RB&T’s competitors in the tax business. Management believes these additional requirements have made attracting new relationships and retaining existing relationships more difficult for RB&T, negatively impacting future RT volume. Reductions in RT volume will have a material adverse impact to RB&T’s earnings.
 
 
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Discontinuance of the RAL product will have a material adverse impact on the profitability of RB&T’s RT products. TRS faces direct competition for RT market share from independently-owned processing groups partnered with banks. Independent processing groups that were unable to offer RAL products have historically been at a competitive disadvantage to banks who could offer RALs. Without the ability to originate RALs after April 30, 2012, RB&T faces increased competition in the RT marketplace. In addition to the loss of volume resulting from additional competitors, RB&T will incur substantial pressure on its profit margin for its RT products as it is forced to compete with existing rebate and pricing incentives in the RT marketplace.

Reduced RT volume and/or a decrease in profitability of the RT products will have a material adverse impact to RB&T’s earnings.

RB&T’s RT products represent a significant business risk, and with the elimination of the RAL product, management believes RB&T could be subject to additional regulatory and public pressure to exit the RT business. If RB&T can no longer offer these products it will have a material adverse effect on its profits. The TRS division offers bank products to facilitate the payment of tax refunds for customers that electronically file their tax returns. RB&T is one of only a few financial institutions in the U.S. that provides this service to taxpayers. In return, RB&T charges a fee for the service. During 2012, net income from the TRS division accounted for approximately 51% of the Company’s total net income.

Various governmental, regulatory and consumer groups have, from time to time, questioned the fairness of the TRS RAL and RT products. With RB&T’s agreement to cease offering RALs beyond April 30, 2012, management believes these groups could focus more attention on the RT product. Actions of these groups and others could result in regulatory, governmental or legislative action or material litigation against RB&T.

Discontinuing the RT product by RB&T, either voluntarily or involuntarily, would significantly reduce RB&T’s earnings.

The TRS division represents a significant operational risk, and if RB&T were unable to properly service this business, it could materially impact earnings. This division requires continued increases in technology and employees to service its business. In order to process its business, RB&T must implement and test new systems, as well as train new employees. RB&T relies heavily on communications and information systems to conduct its TRS division. Any failure, interruption or breach in security of these systems could result in failures or disruptions in customer relationship management and other systems. Significant operational problems could also cause a material portion of RB&T’s tax-preparer base to switch to a competitor to process their bank product transactions, significantly reducing RB&T’s projected revenue without a corresponding decrease in expenses.

For additional discussion regarding TRS, a division of Republic Processing Group, see the following sections:
 
 
Part I Item 1 “Business”
 
o
General Business Overview
 
§
Republic Processing Group segment
 
Part I Item 1A “Risk Factors”
 
o
Republic Processing Group
 
Part II Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations”
 
o
“Recent Developments”
 
o
“Overview”
 
o
“Results of Operations”
 
o
“Financial Condition”
 
Part II Item 8 “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data”
 
o
Footnote 1 “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies”
 
o
Footnote 4 “Loans and Allowance for Loan Losses”
 
o
Footnote 21 “Segment Information”
 
 
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TRADITIONAL BANK LENDING AND THE ALLOWANCE FOR LOAN LOSSES
 
The allowance for loan losses could be insufficient to cover the Bank’s actual loan losses. The Bank makes various assumptions and judgments about the collectability of its loan portfolio, including the creditworthiness of its borrowers and the value of the real estate and other assets serving as collateral for the repayment of many of its loans. In determining the amount of the allowance for loan losses, among other things, the Bank reviews its loans and its loss and delinquency experience, and the Bank evaluates economic conditions. If its assumptions are incorrect, the allowance for loan losses may not be sufficient to cover losses inherent in its loan portfolio, resulting in additions to its allowance. In addition, regulatory agencies periodically review the allowance for loan losses and may require the Bank to increase its provision for loan losses or recognize further loan charge-offs. A material increase in the allowance for loan losses or loan charge-offs would have a material adverse effect on the Bank's financial condition and results of operations.

Deterioration in the quality of the Traditional Banking loan portfolio may result in additional charge-offs, which would adversely impact the Bank’s operating results. Despite the various measures implemented by the Bank to address the current economic environment, there may be further deterioration in the Bank’s loan portfolio. When borrowers default on their loan obligations, it may result in lost principal and interest income and increased operating expenses associated with the increased allocation of management time and resources associated with the collection efforts. In certain situations where collection efforts are unsuccessful or acceptable “work out” arrangements cannot be reached or performed, the Bank may have to charge off loans, either in part or in whole. Additional charge-offs will adversely affect the Bank’s operating results and financial condition.

The Bank’s financial condition and earnings could be negatively impacted to the extent the Bank relies on borrower information that is false, misleading or inaccurate. The Bank relies on the accuracy and completeness of information provided by vendors, customers and other parties. In deciding whether to extend credit, or enter into transactions with other parties, the Bank relies on information furnished by, or on behalf of, customers or entities related to those customers or other parties. Additional charge-offs will adversely affect the Bank’s operating results and financial condition.

The Bank’s use of appraisals in deciding whether to make a loan on or secured by real property does not ensure the value of the real property collateral. In considering whether to make a loan secured by real property, the Bank generally requires an appraisal of the real property. However, an appraisal is only an estimate of the value of the property at the time the appraisal is made, and an error in fact or judgment could adversely affect the reliability of the appraisal. In addition, events occurring after the initial appraisal may cause the value of the real estate to decrease. As a result of any of these factors the value of collateral backing a loan may be less than supposed, and if a default occurs, the Bank may not recover the outstanding balance of the loan. Additional charge-offs will adversely affect the Bank’s operating results and financial condition.

The Bank is exposed to risk of environmental liabilities with respect to properties to which it takes title. In the course of its business, the Bank may own or foreclose and take title to real estate, and could be subject to environmental liabilities with respect to these properties. The Bank may be held liable to a governmental entity or to third parties for property damage, personal injury, investigation and clean-up costs incurred by these parties in connection with environmental contamination, or may be required to investigate or clean up hazardous or toxic substances, or chemical releases at a property. The costs associated with investigation or remediation activities could be substantial. In addition, if the Bank is the owner or former owner of a contaminated site, the Bank may be subject to common law claims by third parties based on damages and costs resulting from environmental contamination emanating from the property. These costs and claims could adversely affect the Bank.

Prepayment of loans may negatively impact the Bank’s business. The Bank’s customers may prepay the principal amount of their outstanding loans at any time. The speeds at which such prepayments occur, as well as the size of such prepayments, are within the Bank’s customers’ discretion. If customers prepay the principal amount of their loans, and the Bank is unable to lend those funds to other customers or invest the funds at the same or higher interest rates, the Bank’s interest income will be reduced. A significant reduction in interest income would have a negative impact on the Bank’s results of operations and financial condition.
 
 
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RB&T is highly dependent upon programs administered by Freddie Mac (“FHLMC”).  Changes in existing U.S. government-sponsored mortgage programs or servicing eligibility standards could materially and adversely affect its business, financial position, results of operations and cash flows.  RB&T’s ability to generate revenues through mortgage loan sales to institutional investors depends to a significant degree on programs administered by FHLMC. This entity plays a powerful role in the residential mortgage industry, and RB&T has significant business relationships with it. RB&T’s status as an FHLMC approved seller/servicer is subject to compliance with its selling and servicing guides.

Any discontinuation of, or significant reduction or material change in, the operation of FHLMC or any significant adverse change in the level of activity in the secondary mortgage market or the underwriting criteria of FHLMC would likely prevent RB&T from originating and selling most, if not all, of its mortgage loan originations.

The mortgage warehouse lending business is subject to numerous risks which could result in losses. Risks associated with mortgage warehouse loans include, without limitation, (i) credit risks relating to the mortgage bankers that borrow from RB&T, (ii) the risk of intentional misrepresentation or fraud by any of such mortgage bankers and their third party service providers, (iii) changes in the market value of mortgage loans originated by the mortgage banker during the time in warehouse, the sale of which is the expected source of repayment of the borrowings under a warehouse line of credit, or (iv) unsalable or impaired mortgage loans so originated, which could lead to decreased collateral value and the failure of a purchaser of the mortgage loan to purchase the loan from the mortgage banker. Failure to mitigate these risks could have a material adverse impact on the Bank’s financial statements and results of operations.

Loan production volume through warehouse lending is subject to various market conditions. RB&T’s warehouse lending business is significantly influenced by the volume and composition of residential mortgage purchase and refinance transactions among the Bank’s mortgage banking clients. During 2012 the Bank’s warehouse lending volume consisted of 47% purchase transactions, in which the mortgage company’s borrower was purchasing a new residence, and 53% refinance transactions, in which the mortgage company’s client was refinancing an existing mortgage loan. Purchase volume is driven by a number of factors, including but not limited to, the overall economy, the housing market, and long-term residential mortgage interest rates; while refinance volume is primarily driven by long-term residential mortgage interest rates. RB&T’s warehouse lending business has benefited from the past two years of low or declining long-term residential mortgage rates which have incentivized a high volume of borrowers to refinance their mortgages. Increases in long-term residential mortgage interest rates will likely decrease refinances; and, without an equivalent increase in purchases and/or growth in RB&T’s warehouse client base, would have an adverse impact on the Bank’s net interest income.
 
INVESTMENT SECURITIES AND FHLB STOCK
 
Concerns regarding a downgrade of the U.S. government’s credit rating could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, financial condition, liquidity, and results of operations. In 2011, Standard & Poor’s lowered its long-term sovereign credit rating on the U.S. from AAA to AA+ and also lowered the credit rating of several related government agencies and institutions, including FHLMC, FNMA, and the Federal Home Loan Bank’s (“FHLB’s”), from AAA to AA+. Further downgrades by Standard & Poor’s or other rating agencies, particularly Moody’s and Fitch, or defaults by the U.S. on any of its obligations could have material adverse impacts on financial and banking markets and economic conditions in the U.S. and throughout the world.  In turn, the market’s anticipation of these impacts could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, financial condition and liquidity. In particular, these events could increase interest rates and disrupt payment systems, money markets, and long-term or short-term fixed income markets, adversely affecting the cost and availability of funding, which could negatively affect the Company’s profitability. It may also negatively affect the value and liquidity of the government securities the Bank holds in its investment portfolio.

At December 31, 2012, the majority of the Bank’s investment securities were issued by FHLMC, FNMA, and the FHLB. It is uncertain as to what impact future downgrades or defaults, if any, will have on these securities as sources of liquidity and funding. Also, the adverse consequences as a result of downgrades could extend to the borrowers of the loans the Bank makes and, as a result, could adversely affect its borrowers’ ability to repay their loans.

The Bank’s investment in Federal Home Loan Bank stock may become impaired. At December 31, 2012, the Bank owned $28 million in FHLB stock. As a condition of membership at the FHLB, the Bank is required to purchase and hold a certain amount of FHLB stock. Its stock purchase requirement is based, in part, upon the outstanding principal balance of advances from the FHLB and is calculated in accordance with the Capital Plan of the FHLB. The Bank’s FHLB stock has a par value of $100, is carried at cost, and it is subject to recoverability testing per applicable accounting standards. The Bank’s FHLB stock investments could become impaired. The Bank will continue to monitor the financial condition of the FHLB as it relates to, among other things, the recoverability of its investment.
 
 
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The Bank’s investment securities may incur other than temporary impairment charges. The Bank’s investment portfolio is periodically evaluated for other-than-temporary impairment loss (“OTTI”). In 2011 and 2010, an OTTI charge was recognized on the Bank’s private label mortgage backed securities. The Bank’s remaining private label mortgage backed security may still require an OTTI charge in the future should the financial condition of the underlying mortgages deteriorate further.
 
ASSET LIABILITY MANAGEMENT AND LIQUIDITY
 
Fluctuations in interest rates could reduce profitability. The Bank’s primary source of income is from the difference between interest earned on loans and investments and the interest paid on deposits and borrowings. The Bank expects to periodically experience “gaps” in the interest rate sensitivities of its assets and liabilities, meaning that either interest-bearing liabilities will be more sensitive to changes in market interest rates than interest-earning assets, or vice versa. In either event, if market interest rates should move contrary to the Bank’s position, earnings may be negatively affected.

The Bank’s asset-liability management strategy may not be able to prevent changes in interest rates from having a material adverse effect on results of operations and financial condition. Overall, interest rates generally have decreased since 2008. In order to combat contraction with its net interest income and net interest margin and improve its current earnings for the current year and near-term, the Bank elected to retain assets in the loan and investment portfolios with longer repricing durations. In addition, through its strategic pricing, the Bank also allowed its certificates of deposits, which are a longer-term source of funding, to decline. While the Bank has remained within its board approved interest rate risk policies, when interest rates begin to rise again, the Bank’s net interest income and net interest margin will be more negatively impacted as a result of these strategies. More specifically, the Bank’s interest income will rise at a slower pace than the Bank’s interest expense and the fair value of the Bank’s assets will likely decrease at a faster pace than the increase in the fair value of interest-bearing liabilities. These circumstances will cause a decline in the Bank’s net interest income and a reduction in the Bank’s economic value of equity.

A continued stable interest rate environment will reduce profitability. From 2007 through early 2009, net interest income within the Traditional Banking segment benefitted from low short-term interest rates in combination with a “steep” yield curve and an increase in average-earning assets. The month-to-month improvement in this benefit when comparing to the same month in the previous year, however, began to decrease in late 2008, as the Bank could no longer lower the rate on many of its interest-bearing liabilities, while the Bank’s higher yielding interest-earning assets continued to pay down and reprice lower. An on-going stable interest rate environment will cause the Bank’s interest-earning assets to continue to reprice into lower yielding assets without the ability for the Bank to offset the decline in interest income through a reduction in its cost of funds. The continued contraction in the Bank’s net interest margin will cause net income to decrease. The overall magnitude of the decrease in net interest income will depend on the period of time that the current interest rate environment remains.

Mortgage Banking activities could be adversely impacted by increasing long-term interest rates. The Company is unable to predict changes in market interest rates. Changes in interest rates can impact the gain on sale of loans, loan origination fees and loan servicing fees, which account for a significant portion of Mortgage Banking income. A decline in market interest rates generally results in higher demand for mortgage products, while an increase in rates generally results in reduced demand. Generally, if demand increases, Mortgage Banking income will be positively impacted by more gains on sale; however, the valuation of existing mortgage servicing rights will decrease and may result in a significant impairment. Moreover, a decline in demand for Mortgage Banking products could also adversely impact other programs/products such as home equity lending, title insurance commissions and service charges on deposit accounts. Specifically, the Bank’s Mortgage Banking income has benefitted in the past three years from a relatively low rate environment which has incentivized borrowers to refinance their mortgages. During 2012, the Bank’s loan sales consisted of 19% purchase transactions and 81% refinance transactions. Increases in long-term interest rates would likely decrease demand for all Mortgage Banking products, and most significantly decrease refinance transaction volume. These decreases in demand will have a significant adverse impact on Mortgage Banking income.

The Company may need additional capital resources in the future and these capital resources may not be available when needed or at all. The Company may need to incur additional debt or equity financing in the future for growth, investment or strategic acquisitions. Such financing may not be available on acceptable terms or at all. If the Company is unable to obtain additional financing, it may not be able to grow or make strategic acquisitions or investments.
 
 
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The Bank’s funding sources may prove insufficient to replace deposits and support future growth. The Bank relies on customer deposits, brokered deposits and advances from the FHLB to fund operations. Although the Bank has historically been able to replace maturing deposits and advances if desired, no assurance can be given that the Bank would be able to replace such funds in the future if the Bank’s financial condition or the financial condition of the FHLB or general market conditions were to change. The Bank’s financial flexibility will be severely constrained if it is unable to maintain its access to funding or if adequate financing is not available to accommodate future growth at acceptable interest rates. Finally, if the Bank is required to rely more heavily on more expensive funding sources to support future growth, revenues may not increase proportionately to cover costs. In this case, profitability would be adversely affected.

Although the Bank considers such sources of funds adequate for its liquidity needs, the Bank may seek additional debt in the future to achieve long-term business objectives. There can be no assurance additional borrowings, if sought, would be available to the Bank or, if available, would be on favorable terms. The sale of equity or equity-related securities in the future may be dilutive to the Bank’s shareholders, and debt financing arrangements may require the Bank to pledge some of its assets and enter into various affirmative and negative covenants, including limitations on operational activities and financing alternatives. Future financing sources, if sought, might be unavailable to the Bank or, if available, could be on terms unfavorable to the Bank and may require regulatory approval. If additional financing sources are unavailable or are not available on reasonable terms, growth and future prospects could be adversely affected.
 
DEPOSITS, OVERDRAFTS, FDIC INSURANCE PREMIUMS AND SERVICE CHARGES ON DEPOSITS
 
Clients could pursue alternatives to bank deposits, causing the Bank to lose a relatively inexpensive source of funding. Checking and savings account balances and other forms of client deposits could decrease if clients perceive alternative investments, such as the stock market, as providing superior expected returns. If clients move money out of bank deposits in favor of alternative investments, the Bank could lose a relatively inexpensive source of funds, increasing its funding costs and negatively impacting its overall results of operations.

The expiration of the unlimited FDIC insurance on non interest-bearing accounts could cause clients to pursue safer or higher yielding investments. Non interest-bearing deposit balances previously covered under unlimited FDIC insurance may decrease as clients perceive alternatives to be safer or more lucrative. If clients move money out of bank deposits in favor of alternative investments, the Bank could lose a relatively inexpensive source of funds, increasing its funding costs.

The loss of large non-sweep deposit relationships could increase the Bank’s funding costs. The Bank’s large non-sweep deposits do not require collateral; therefore, cash from these accounts can generally be utilized to fund the loan portfolio. If any of these balances are moved from the Bank, the Bank would likely utilize overnight borrowing lines in the short-term to replace the balances. On a longer-term basis, the Bank would likely utilize brokered deposits to replace withdrawn balances. The overall cost of gathering brokered deposits, however, could be substantially higher than the Traditional Bank deposits they replace, increasing the Bank’s funding costs and reducing the Bank’s overall results of operations.

The Bank’s “Overdraft Honor” program represents a significant business risk, and if the Bank terminated the program it would materially impact the earnings of the Bank. There can be no assurance that Congress, the Bank’s regulators, or others, will not impose additional limitations on this program or prohibit the Bank from offering the program. The Bank’s “Overdraft Honor” program permits eligible customers to overdraft their checking accounts up to a predetermined dollar amount for the Bank’s customary overdraft fee(s). Generally, to be eligible for the Overdraft Honor program, customers must qualify for one of the Bank’s traditional checking products when the account is opened, remain in that product for 30 days and have recurring deposit activity within the account. Once the eligibility requirements have been met, the client is eligible to participate in the Overdraft Honor program. If an overdraft occurs, the Bank may pay the overdraft, at its discretion, up to the client’s individual overdraft limit. Under regulatory guidelines, customers utilizing the Overdraft Honor program may remain in overdraft status for no more than 60 days. Generally, an account that is overdrawn for 60 consecutive days is closed and the balance is charged off.

Overdraft balances from deposit accounts, including those overdraft balances resulting from the Bank’s Overdraft Honor program, are recorded as a component of loans on the Bank’s balance sheet.
 
 
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The Bank assesses two types of fees related to overdrawn accounts, a fixed per item fee and a fixed daily charge for being in overdraft status. The per item fee for this service is not considered an extension of credit, but rather is considered a fee for paying checks when sufficient funds are not otherwise available. As such, it is classified on the income statement in “service charges on deposits” as a component of non-interest income along with per item fees assessed to customers not in the Overdraft Honor program. A substantial majority of the per item fees in service charges on deposits relates to customers in the Overdraft Honor program. The daily fee assessed to the client for being in overdraft status is considered a loan fee and is thus included in interest income under the line item “loans, including fees.” The total net per item fees included in service charges on deposit for the years ended December 31, 2012 and 2011 were $7.5 million and $8.9 million. The total net daily overdraft charges included in interest income for the years ended December 31, 2012 and 2011 was $1.7 million and $1.8 million. Additional limitations or elimination, or adverse modifications to this program, either voluntary or involuntary, would significantly reduce Bank earnings.

In 2010, the FDIC issued its final guidance on Automated Overdraft payment programs which requires FDIC regulated banks to implement and maintain robust oversight of these programs. The new guidance has had a material adverse effect on the Bank’s net income. These guidelines have negatively impacted and will continue to negatively impact the Bank’s net income in 2013 and beyond. This guidance states, “the FDIC expects institutions to implement effective compliance and risk management systems, policies, and procedures to ensure that institutions manage any overdraft payment programs in accordance with the 2005 Joint Guidance on Overdraft Protection Programs (Joint Guidance)(Financial Institutions Letter (FIL)-11-2005) and the Federal Reserve Bank (“FRB”) November 2009 amendments to Regulation E, to avoid harming consumers or creating other compliance, operational, financial, reputational, legal or other risks.”

Management believes that the implementation of these guidelines was the primary driver in the 16% reduction of the Bank’s annual overdraft fee income during 2012. Additional limitations or adverse modifications to this program, either voluntary or involuntary, would further significantly reduce net income.

Company expenses would increase as a result of increases in FDIC insurance premiums. Under the Dodd-Frank Act, the minimum statutory reserve ratio for the FDIC’s Deposit Insurance Fund will increase from 1.15% to 1.35% of insurable deposits by 2020. There can be no assurance that the FDIC will not impose special assessments or increase the deposit premiums applicable to the Company.
 
COMPANY COMMON STOCK
 
The Company’s common stock generally has a low average daily trading volume, which limits a stockholder’s ability to quickly accumulate or quickly sell large numbers of shares of Republic’s stock without causing wide price fluctuations. Republic’s stock price can fluctuate widely in response to a variety of factors, such as actual or anticipated variations in the Company’s operating results, recommendations by securities analysts, operating and stock price performance of other companies, news reports, results of litigation, regulatory actions or changes in government regulations, among other factors. A low average daily stock trading volume can lead to significant price swings even when a relatively small number of shares are being traded.

The market price for the Company’s common stock may be volatile. The market price of the Company’s common stock could fluctuate substantially in the future in response to a number of factors, including those discussed below. The market price of the Company’s common stock has in the past fluctuated significantly and is likely to continue to fluctuate significantly. Some of the factors that may cause the price of the Company’s common stock to fluctuate include:
 
 
Variations in the Company’s and its competitors’ operating results;
 
Changes in earnings estimates or publication of research reports and recommendations by financial analysts or actions taken by rating agencies with respect to the Bank or other financial institutions;
 
Announcements by the Company or its competitors of mergers, acquisitions and strategic partnerships;
 
Additions or departure of key personnel;
 
Actual or anticipated quarterly or annual fluctuations in operating results, cash flows and financial condition;
 
The announced exiting of or significant reductions in material lines of business within the Company;
 
Changes or proposed changes in banking laws or regulations or enforcement of these laws and regulations;
 
Events affecting other companies that the market deems comparable to the Company;
 
Developments relating to regulatory examinations;
 
Speculation in the press or investment community generally or relating to the Company’s reputation or the financial services industry;
 
Future issuances or re-sales of equity or equity-related securities, or the perception that they may occur;
 
 
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General conditions in the financial markets and real estate markets in particular, developments related to market conditions for the financial services industry;
 
Domestic and international economic factors unrelated to the Company’s performance;
 
Developments related to litigation or threatened litigation;
 
The presence or absence of short selling of the Company’s common stock; and,
 
Future sales of the Company’s common stock or debt securities.
 
In addition, in recent years, the stock market, in general, has experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations. This is due, in part, to investors’ shifting perceptions of the effect of changes and potential changes in the economy on various industry sectors. This volatility has had a significant effect on the market price of securities issued by many companies for reasons unrelated to their performance or prospects. These broad market fluctuations may adversely affect the market price of the Company’s common stock, notwithstanding its actual or anticipated operating results, cash flows and financial condition. The Company expects that the market price of its common stock will continue to fluctuate due to many factors, including prevailing interest rates, other economic conditions, operating performance and investor perceptions of the outlook for the Company specifically and the banking industry in general. There can be no assurance about the level of the market price of the Company’s common stock in the future or that you will be able to resell your shares at times or at prices you find attractive.

The Company’s 2012 results of operations are unlikely to be repeated in future years and its 2013 results of operations are projected to reflect significant declines in key income items. The Company’s 2013 net income and overall results of operations will likely show a substantial decline as compared to those achieved in 2012. The Company’s results of operations for 2012 reflect pre-tax bargain purchase gains on FDIC assisted acquisitions of $55 million, RAL fees in interest income of $45 million and RT fees in non interest income of $78 million.

Within the Traditional Banking segment, FDIC-assisted acquisition opportunities are expected to decline substantially in 2013 as compared to 2012. In addition, as the market for FDIC-assisted opportunities declines, pricing for the deals that do become available is expected to be less favorable as competition increases for these limited opportunities. As a result of these factors, the level of bargain purchase gains achieved by the Company in 2012 are unlikely to be repeated in 2013 and beyond.

Within the RPG segment, RAL revenue will not reoccur in the future as a result of the discontinuance of the RAL product effective April 30, 2012. Furthermore, RT revenues will be reduced substantially in 2013 primarily due to decreased customer volume following the termination of material contracts with Jackson Hewitt Tax Service and Liberty Tax Service and pricing pressures following the loss of the RAL product as a competitive advantage. Due primarily to these factors, RPG net income is expected to be in a range of $3 to $5 million for the first quarter of 2013. RPG typically operates at a loss after the first quarter of each calendar year.

Comparisons of the Company’s 2012 and 2013 results of operations will likely reflect significant negative declines in revenues and overall net income. These declines may also have a negative impact on the Company’s stock price.

An investment in the Company’s Common Stock is not an insured deposit. The Company’s common stock is not a bank deposit and, therefore, is not insured against loss by the FDIC, any other deposit insurance fund or by any other public or private entity. Investment in the Company’s common stock is inherently risky for the reasons described in this section and elsewhere in this report and is subject to the same market forces that affect the price of common stock in any company. As a result, if you acquire the Company’s common stock, you could lose some or all of your investment.

The Company’s insiders hold voting rights that give them significant control over matters requiring stockholder approval. The Company’s Chairman/CEO and President hold substantial voting authority over the Company’s Class A Common Stock and Class B Common Stock. Each share of Class A Common Stock is entitled to one vote and each share of Class B Common Stock is entitled to ten votes. This group generally votes together on matters presented to stockholders for approval. These actions may include, for example, the election of directors, the adoption of amendments to corporate documents, the approval of mergers and acquisitions, sales of assets and the continuation of the Company as a registered company with obligations to file periodic reports and other filings with the SEC. Consequently, other stockholders’ ability to influence Company actions through their vote may be limited and the non-insider stockholders may not have sufficient voting power to approve a change in control even if a significant premium is being offered for their shares. Majority stockholders may not vote their shares in accordance with minority stockholder interests.
 
 
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GOVERNMENT REGULATION / ECONOMIC FACTORS

The Company is significantly impacted by the regulatory, fiscal and monetary policies of federal and state governments which could negatively impact the Company’s liquidity position and earnings. These policies can materially affect the value of the Company’s financial instruments and can also adversely affect the Company’s customers and their ability to repay their outstanding loans. Also, failure to comply with laws, regulations or policies, or adverse examination findings, could result in significant penalties, negatively impact operations, or result in other sanctions against the Company. The Board of Governors of the FRB regulates the supply of money and credit in the U.S. Its policies determine, in large part, the Company’s cost of funds for lending and investing and the return the Company earns on these loans and investments, all of which impact net interest margin.

The Company and the Bank are heavily regulated at both the federal and state levels and are subject to various routine and non-routine examinations by federal and state regulators. This regulatory oversight is primarily intended to protect depositors, the Deposit Insurance Fund and the banking system as a whole, not the stockholders of the Company. Changes in policies, regulations and statutes, or the interpretation thereof, could significantly impact the product offerings of Republic causing the Company to terminate or modify its product offerings in a manner that could materially adversely affect the earnings of the Company.

Federal and state laws and regulations govern numerous matters including changes in the ownership or control of banks and bank holding companies, maintenance of adequate capital and the financial condition of a financial institution, permissible types, amounts and terms of extensions of credit and investments, permissible non-banking activities, the level of reserves against deposits and restrictions on dividend payments. Various federal and state regulatory agencies possess cease and desist powers, and other authority to prevent or remedy unsafe or unsound practices or violations of law by banks subject to their regulations. The FRB possesses similar powers with respect to bank holding companies. These, and other restrictions, can limit in varying degrees, the manner in which Republic conducts its business.

The Dodd-Frank Act may adversely affect the Company’s business, financial conditions and results of operations. In July, 2010, the President of the U.S. signed into law the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (“the Dodd-Frank Act”). The Dodd-Frank Act imposes various new restrictions and creates an expanded framework of regulatory oversight for financial institutions.

The Dodd-Frank Act requires the federal banking agencies to establish stricter risk-based capital requirements and leverage limits to apply to banks and bank holding companies. In addition, the “Basel III” standards announced by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (the “Basel Committee”), if adopted, could lead to significantly higher capital requirements, higher capital charges and more restrictive leverage and liquidity ratios. The standards would, among other things, impose more restrictive eligibility requirements for Tier 1 and Tier 2 capital; increase the minimum Tier 1 common equity ratio to 4.5%, net of regulatory deductions, and introduce a capital conservation buffer of an additional 2.5% of common equity to risk-weighted assets, raising the target minimum common equity ratio to 7%; increase the minimum Tier 1 capital ratio to 8.5% inclusive of the capital conservation buffer; increase the minimum total capital ratio to 10.5% inclusive of the capital buffer; and introduce a countercyclical capital buffer of up to 2.5% of common equity or other fully loss absorbing capital for periods of excess credit growth. Basel III also introduces a non-risk adjusted Tier 1 leverage ratio of 3%, based on a measure of total exposure rather than total assets, and new liquidity standards.

The new Basel III capital standards have been indefinitely delayed by U.S. federal banking agencies. It is not yet known when these standards will be implemented by U.S. regulators or how they will be applied to financial institutions and financial institutions holding companies. Implementation of these standards, or any other new regulations, may adversely affect the Bank’s and Republic’s ability to pay dividends, or require the Company to restrict growth or raise capital, including in ways that may adversely affect its results of operations or financial condition.

Many provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act will not be implemented immediately and will require interpretation and rule making by federal regulators. While the ultimate effect of the Dodd-Frank on the Company cannot be determined yet, the law is likely to result in increased compliance costs and fees paid to regulators, along with possible restrictions on the Company’s operations.
 
 
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Also, included as provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act was the establishment of the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection, which was granted authority to regulate companies that provide consumer financial services. The Company is regularly refining its consumer financial services and developing new products and services or operations to address recent or anticipated legislative and regulatory changes. Some of these anticipated legislative and regulatory changes may result in, among other things, RB&T reducing fees to consumers or implementing additional disclosure requirements. The Company could incur additional operating costs which could reduce overall product profitability and lead to the Company exiting certain consumer products. The Company generally cannot estimate what effect, if any, operational changes it would make in response to legislative and regulatory changes and what effect these changes may have on the Company’s financial results until the Company is able to develop legal and financially viable alternative products and services.

Government responses to economic conditions may adversely affect the Company’s operations, financial condition and earnings. Newly enacted financial reform legislation will change the bank regulatory framework, create an independent consumer protection bureau that will assume the consumer protection responsibilities of the various federal banking agencies, and establish more stringent capital standards for banks and bank holding companies. The legislation will also result in new regulations affecting the lending, funding, trading and investment activities of banks and bank holding companies. Bank regulatory agencies also have been responding aggressively to concerns and adverse trends identified in examinations. Ongoing uncertainty and adverse developments in the financial services industry and the domestic and international credit markets, and the effect of new legislation and regulatory actions in response to these conditions, may adversely affect Company operations by restricting business activities, including the Company’s ability to originate or sell loans, modify loan terms, or foreclose on property securing loans. These measures are likely to increase the Company’s costs of doing business and may have a significant adverse effect on the Company’s lending activities, financial performance and operating flexibility. In addition, these risks could affect the performance and value of the Company’s loan and investment securities portfolios, which also would negatively affect financial performance.

Furthermore, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, in an attempt to help the overall economy, has, among other things, kept interest rates low through its targeted federal funds rate and the purchase of mortgage-backed securities. If the Federal Reserve Board increases the federal funds rate, overall interest rates will likely rise, which may negatively impact the housing markets and the U.S. economic recovery. In addition, deflationary pressures, while possibly lowering operating costs, could have a significant negative effect on the Company’s borrowers, especially business borrowers, and the values of underlying collateral securing loans, which could negatively affect the Company’s financial performance.

The Company may be subject to examinations by taxing authorities which could adversely affect results of operations. In the normal course of business, the Company may be subject to examinations from federal and state taxing authorities regarding the amount of taxes due in connection with investments it has made and the businesses in which the Company is engaged. Recently, federal and state taxing authorities have become increasingly aggressive in challenging tax positions taken by financial institutions. The challenges made by taxing authorities may result in adjustments to the timing or amount of taxable income or deductions or the allocation of income among tax jurisdictions. If any such challenges are made and are not resolved in the Company’s favor, they could have an adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition and results of operations.

The Company may be adversely affected by the soundness of other financial institutions. Financial services institutions are interrelated as a result of trading, clearing, counterparty, or other relationships. The Company has exposure to many different industries and counterparties, and routinely executes transactions with counterparties in the financial services industry, including commercial banks, brokers and dealers, investment banks, and other institutional clients. Many of these transactions expose the Company to credit risk in the event of a default by a counterparty or client. In addition, the Company’s credit risk may be exacerbated when the collateral held by the Company cannot be realized upon or is liquidated at prices not sufficient to recover the full amount of the credit or derivative exposure due to the Company. Any such losses could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition and results of operations.
 
 
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MANAGEMENT, INFORMATION SYSTEMS, ACQUISITIONS, ETC.

The Company is dependent upon the services of its management team and qualified personnel. The Company is dependent upon the ability and experience of a number of its key management personnel who have substantial experience with Company operations, the financial services industry and the markets in which the Company offers services. It is possible that the loss of the services of one or more of its senior executives or key managers would have an adverse effect on operations, moreover, the Company depends on its account executives and loan officers to attract bank customers by developing relationships with commercial and consumer clients, mortgage companies, real estate agents, brokers and others. The Company believes that these relationships lead to repeat and referral business. The market for skilled account executives and loan officers is highly competitive and historically has experienced a high rate of turnover. In addition, if a manager leaves the Company, other members of the manager’s team may follow. Competition for qualified account executives and loan officers may lead to increased hiring and retention costs. The Company’s success also depends on its ability to continue to attract, manage and retain other qualified personnel as the Company grows. The Company cannot assure you that it will continue to attract or retain such personnel.

The Company’s operations could be impacted if its third-party service providers experience difficulty. The Company depends on a number of relationships with third-party service providers, including core systems processing and web hosting. These providers are well established vendors that provide these services to a significant number of financial institutions. If these third-party service providers experience difficulty or terminate their services and the Company is unable to replace them with other providers, its operations could be interrupted which would adversely impact its business.
 
The Company’s operations, including customer interactions, are increasingly done via electronic means, and this has increased the risks related to cyber security. The Company is exposed to the risk of cyber-attacks in the normal course of business. In general, cyber incidents can result from deliberate attacks or unintentional events. Management has observed an increased level of attention in the industry focused on cyber-attacks that include, but are not limited to, gaining unauthorized access to digital systems for purposes of misappropriating assets or sensitive information, corrupting data, or causing operational disruption. Cyber-attacks may also be carried out in a manner that does not require gaining unauthorized access, such as by causing denial-of-service attacks on websites. Cyber-attacks may be carried out by third parties or insiders using techniques that range from highly sophisticated efforts to electronically circumvent network security or overwhelm websites to more traditional intelligence gathering and social engineering aimed at obtaining information necessary to gain access. The objectives of cyber-attacks vary widely and can include theft of financial assets, intellectual property, or other sensitive information, including the information belonging to the Bank’s customers. Cyber-attacks may also be directed at disrupting operations. While the Company has not incurred any material losses related to cyber-attacks, nor is management aware of any specific or threatened cyber-incidents as of the date of this report, the Bank may incur substantial costs and suffer other negative consequences if the Bank falls victim to successful cyber-attacks. Such negative consequences could include remediation costs that may include liability for stolen assets or information and repairing system damage that may have been caused; increased cyber security protection costs that may include organizational changes, deploying additional personnel and protection technologies, training employees, and engaging third party experts and consultants; lost revenues resulting from unauthorized use of proprietary information or the failure to retain or attract customers following an attack; litigation; and reputational damage adversely affecting customer or investor confidence.

The Company’s information systems may experience an interruption that could adversely impact the Company’s business, financial condition and results of operations. The Company relies heavily on communications and information systems to conduct its business. Any failure or interruption of these systems could result in failures or disruptions in customer relationship management, general ledger, deposit, loan and other systems. While the Company has policies and procedures designed to prevent or limit the impact of the failure or interruption of information systems, there can be no assurance that any such failures or interruptions will not occur or, if they do occur, that they will be adequately addressed. The occurrences of any failures, or interruptions of the Company’s information systems could damage the Company’s reputation, result in a loss of customer business, subject the Company to additional regulatory scrutiny, or expose the Company to civil litigation and possible financial liability, any of which could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition and results of operations.
 
 
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New lines of business or new products and services may subject the Company to additional risks. From time to time, the Company may develop and grow new lines of business or offer new products and services within existing lines of business. There are substantial risks and uncertainties associated with these efforts, particularly in instances where the markets are not fully developed. In developing and marketing new lines of business and/or new products and services the Company may invest significant time and resources. Initial timetables for the introduction and development of new lines of business and/or new products or services may not be achieved and price and profitability targets may not prove feasible. External factors, such as compliance with regulations, competitive alternatives and shifting market preferences, may also impact the successful implementation of a new line of business or a new product or service. Furthermore, any new line of business and/or new product or service could have a significant impact on the effectiveness of the Company’s system of internal controls. Failure to successfully manage these risks in the development and implementation of new lines of business or new products or services could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, results of operations and financial condition. All service offerings, including current offerings and those which may be provided in the future, may become more risky due to changes in economic, competitive and market conditions beyond the Company’s control.

Negative public opinion could damage the Company’s reputation and adversely affect earnings. Reputational risk is the risk to Company operations from negative public opinion. Negative public opinion can result from the actual or perceived manner in which the Company conducts its business activities, including sales practices, practices used in origination and servicing operations, the management of actual or potential conflicts of interest and ethical issues, and the Company’s protection of confidential customer information. Negative public opinion can adversely affect the Company’s ability to keep and attract customers and can expose the Company to litigation.

The Company’s ability to successfully complete acquisitions will affect its ability to grow its franchise and compete effectively in its market areas. The Company has announced plans to pursue a policy of growth through acquisitions in the near-future to supplement internal growth. The Company’s efforts to acquire other financial institutions and financial service companies or branches may not be successful. Numerous potential acquirers exist for many acquisition candidates, creating intense competition, which affects the purchase price for which the institution can be acquired. In many cases, the Company’s competitors have significantly greater resources than the Company has, and greater flexibility to structure the consideration for the transaction. The Company may also not be the successful bidder in acquisition opportunities that it pursues due to the willingness or ability of other potential acquirers to propose a higher purchase price or more attractive terms and conditions than the Company is willing or able to propose. The Company intends to continue to pursue acquisition opportunities in each of its market areas, although the Company currently has no understandings or agreements to acquire other financial institutions. The risks presented by the acquisition of other financial institutions could adversely affect the Bank’s financial condition and results of operations.

If the Company is successful in conducting acquisitions, it will be presented with many risks that could adversely affect the Company’s financial condition and results of operations. An institution that the Company acquires may have unknown asset quality issues or unknown or contingent liabilities that the Company did not discover or fully recognize in the due diligence process, thereby resulting in unanticipated losses. The acquisition of other institutions also typically requires the integration of different corporate cultures, loan and deposit products, pricing strategies, data processing systems and other technologies, accounting, internal audit and financial reporting systems, operating systems and internal controls, marketing programs and personnel of the acquired institution, in order to make the transaction economically advantageous. The integration process is complicated and time consuming and could divert the Company’s attention from other business concerns and may be disruptive to its customers and the customers of the acquired institution. The Company’s failure to successfully integrate an acquired institution could result in the loss of key customers and employees, and prevent the Company from achieving expected synergies and cost savings. Acquisitions also result in professional fees and may result in creating goodwill that could become impaired, thereby requiring the Company to recognize further charges. The Company may finance acquisitions with borrowed funds, thereby increasing the Company’s leverage and reducing liquidity, or with potentially dilutive issuances of equity securities.
 
 
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The Company may engage in additional FDIC-assisted transactions, which could present additional risks to its business. The Company may have additional opportunities to acquire the assets and liabilities of failed banks in FDIC-assisted transactions. Although these FDIC-assisted transactions typically provide for FDIC assistance to an acquirer to mitigate certain risks, such as sharing exposure to loan losses and providing indemnification against certain liabilities of the failed institution, the Company is (and would be in future transactions) subject to many of the same risks it would face in acquiring another bank in a negotiated transaction, including risks associated with maintaining customer relationships and failure to realize the anticipated acquisition benefits in the amounts and within the timeframes the Company expects. In addition, because these acquisitions are structured in a manner that would not allow the Company the time and access to information normally associated with preparing for and evaluating a negotiated acquisition, the Company may face additional risks in FDIC-assisted transactions, including additional strain on management resources, management of problem loans, problems related to integration of personnel and operating systems and impact to capital resources requiring the Company to raise additional capital. Moreover, if the Company seeks to participate in additional FDIC-assisted acquisitions, the Company can only participate in the bid process if it receives approval of bank regulators. The Company’s inability to overcome these risks could have a material adverse effect on its business, financial condition and results of operations.

The Company’s litigation related costs may continue to increase. The Bank is subject to a variety of legal proceedings that have arisen in the ordinary course of the Bank’s business. The Bank believes that it has meritorious defenses in legal actions where it has been named as a defendant and is vigorously defending these suits. There can be no assurance that a resolution of any such legal matters will not result in significant liability to the Bank nor have a material adverse impact on its financial condition and results of operations or the Bank’s ability to meet applicable regulatory requirements. Moreover, the expenses of pending legal proceedings could adversely affect the Bank’s results of operations until they are resolved.
 
 
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None


The Company’s executive offices, principal support and operational functions are located at 601 West Market Street in Louisville, Kentucky. Republic has 34 banking centers located in Kentucky, four banking centers located in Florida, three banking centers in Indiana and one banking center located each in Ohio, Tennessee and Minnesota.

The location of Republic’s facilities, their respective approximate square footage and their form of occupancy are as follows:
 
 
Approximate
   
 
Square
 
Owned (O)/
Bank Offices
Footage
 
Leased (L)
 
Kentucky Banking Centers:
     
 
Louisville Metropolitan Area
     
2801 Bardstown Road, Louisville
5,000
 
L (1)
601 West Market Street, Louisville
57,000
 
L (1)
661 South Hurstbourne Parkway, Louisville
42,000
 
L (1)
9600 Brownsboro Road, Louisville
15,000
 
L (1)
5250 Dixie Highway, Louisville
5,000
 
O/L (2)
10100 Brookridge Village Boulevard, Louisville
5,000
 
O/L (2)
9101 U.S. Highway 42, Prospect
3,000
 
O/L (2)
11330 Main Street, Middletown
6,000
 
O/L (2)
3902 Taylorsville Road, Louisville
4,000
 
O/L (2)
3811 Ruckriegel Parkway, Louisville
4,000
 
O/L (2)
5125 New Cut Road, Louisville
4,000
 
O/L (2)
4808 Outer Loop, Louisville
4,000
 
O/L (2)
438 Highway 44 East, Shepherdsville
4,000
 
O/L (2)
1420 Poplar Level Road, Louisville
3,000
 
O
4921 Brownsboro Road, Louisville
2,000
 
L
3950 Kresge Way, Suite 108, Louisville
1,000
 
L
3726 Lexington Road, Louisville
4,000
 
L
2028 West Broadway, Suite 105, Louisville
3,000
 
L
220 Abraham Flexner Way, Suite 100, Louisville
1,000
 
L
6401 Claymont Crossing, Crestwood
4,000
 
L
 
Lexington
     
3098 Helmsdale Place
5,000
 
O/L (2)
3608 Walden Drive
4,000
 
O/L (2)
651 Perimeter Drive
4,000
 
L
2401 Harrodsburg Road
6,000
 
O
641 East Euclid Avenue
3,000
 
O
 
Northern Kentucky
     
535 Madison Avenue, Covington
4,000
 
L
8513 U.S. Highway 42, Florence
4,000
 
L
2051 Centennial Boulevard, Independence
2,000
 
L
 
Owensboro
     
3500 Frederica Street
5,000
 
O
3332 Villa Point Drive, Suite 101
2,000
 
L
 
(continued)
     
 
 
47

 
 
 
Approximate
   
 
Square
 
Owned (O)/
Bank Offices
Footage
 
Leased (L)
 
(continued)
     
 
Elizabethtown, 1690 Ring Road
6,000
 
O
 
Frankfort, 100 Highway 676
3,000
 
O/L (2)
 
Georgetown, 430 Connector Road
4,000
 
O/L (2)
 
Shelbyville, 1614 Midland Trail
4,000
 
O/L (2)
 
Southern Indiana Banking Centers:
     
4571 Duffy Road, Floyds Knobs
4,000
 
O/L (2)
3141 Highway 62, Jeffersonville
4,000
 
O
3001 Charlestown Crossing Way, New Albany
2,000
 
L
 
Florida Banking Centers:
     
9100 Hudson Avenue, Hudson
4,000
 
O
34650 U.S. Highway 19, Palm Harbor
3,000
 
L
9037 U.S. Highway 19, Port Richey
8,000
 
O
11502 North 56th Street, Temple Terrace
3,000
 
L
 
Ohio Banking Center:
     
9683 Kenwood Road, Blue Ash
3,000
 
L
 
Tennessee Banking Center:
     
3817 Mallory Station Road, Franklin
9,000
 
L
 
Minnesota Banking Center:
     
8500 Normandale Lake Blvd, Suite 110, Bloomington
4,000
   
 
Support and Operations:
     
200 South Seventh Street, Louisville, KY
48,000
 
L (1)
125 South Sixth Street, Louisville, KY
1,000
 
L
401 East Chestnut, Suite 620, Louisville, KY
500
 
 

(1)
Locations are leased from partnerships in which Steven E. Trager, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer and A. Scott Trager, President, are partners. See additional discussion included under Part III Item 13 "Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence."
 
(2)
The banking centers at these locations are owned by Republic; however, the banking center is located on land that is leased through long-term agreements with third parties.
 
 
48

 
 

In the ordinary course of operations, Republic and the Bank are defendants in various legal proceedings. There is no proceeding pending or threatened litigation, to the knowledge of management, in which an adverse decision could result in a material adverse change in the business or consolidated financial position of Republic or the Bank, except as set forth below.

Overdraft Litigation

On August 1, 2011, a lawsuit was filed in the U.S. District Court for the Western District of Kentucky styled Brenda Webb vs. Republic Bank & Trust Company d/b/a Republic Bank, Civil Action No. 3:11-CV-00423-TBR. The Complaint was brought as a putative class action and seeks monetary damages, restitution and declaratory relief allegedly arising from the manner in which RB&T assessed overdraft fees. In the Complaint, the Plaintiff pleads six claims against RB&T alleging: breach of contract and breach of the covenant of good faith and fair dealing (Count I), unconscionability (Count II), conversion (Count III), unjust enrichment (Count IV), violation of the Electronic Funds Transfer Act and Regulation E (Count V), and violations of the Kentucky Consumer Protection Act, KRS §367, et seq. (Count VI). RB&T filed a Motion to Dismiss the case on January 12, 2012. In response, Plaintiff filed its Motion to Amend the Complaint on February 23, 2012. In Plaintiff’s proposed Amended Complaint, Plaintiff acknowledges disclosure of the Overdraft Honor Policy and does not seek to add any claims to the Amended Complaint. However, Plaintiff divided the breach of contract and breach of the covenant of good faith and fair dealing claims into two counts (Counts One and Two). In the original Complaint, those claims were combined in Count One. RB&T filed its objection to Plaintiff’s Motion to Amend. On June 16, 2012, the District Court denied the Plaintiff’s Motion to Amend concluding that she lacked the ability to automatically amend the complaint as of right. However, the Court held that she could be permitted to amend if she could first demonstrate that her amendment would not be futile and that she had standing to sue despite RB&T’s offer of judgment. The Court declined to rule on that issue at this time and ordered the case stayed pending a decision by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit in a case on appeal with the same standing issue. The Sixth Circuit is in turn waiting for the ruling of the U.S. Supreme Court in yet another case with the same standing issue. RB&T intends to vigorously defend its case. Management continues to closely monitor this case, but is unable to estimate, at this time, the possible loss or range of possible loss, if any, that may result from this lawsuit.


Not applicable.
 
 
49

 
 


Market and Dividend Information

Republic’s Class A Common Stock is traded on The NASDAQ Global Select Market® (“NASDAQ”) under the symbol “RBCAA.” The following table sets forth the high and low market value of the Class A Common Stock and the respective dividends declared during 2012 and 2011.
 
2012
 
   
Market Value
   
Dividend
 
Quarter Ended
 
High
   
Low
   
Class A
   
Class B
 
                         
March 31st
  $ 27.50     $ 23.35       0.154       0.140  
June 30th
    24.31       20.23       0.165       0.150  
September 30th
    25.12       21.95       0.165       0.150  
December 31st (*)
    22.02       19.85       1.265       1.150  
                                 
2011
 
   
Market Value
   
Dividend
 
Quarter Ended
 
High
   
Low
   
Class A
   
Class B
 
                                 
March 31st
  $ 23.86     $ 16.87       0.143       0.130  
June 30th
    21.89       18.95       0.154       0.140  
September 30th
    21.69       16.00       0.154       0.140  
December 31st
    23.51       16.98       0.154       0.140  
 

(*) – A one-time special cash dividend of $1.10 per share on Class A Common Stock and $1.00 per share on Class B Common Stock was declared on November 14, 2012 to shareholders of record as of November 30, 2012, payable on December 21, 2012.

At February 15, 2013, the Company’s Class A Common Stock was held by 573 shareholders of record and the Class B Common Stock was held by 117 shareholders of record. There is no established public trading market for the Company’s Class B Common Stock. The Company intends to continue its historical practice of paying quarterly cash dividends; however, there is no assurance by the Board of Directors that such dividends will continue to be paid in the future. The payment of dividends in the future is dependent upon future income, financial position, capital requirements, the discretion and judgment of the Board of Directors and numerous other considerations.

For additional discussion regarding regulatory restrictions on dividends, see the following section:

Part II Item 8 “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data”
Footnote 15 “Stockholders’ Equity and Regulatory Capital Matters”

Republic has made available to its employees participating in its 401(k) plan the opportunity, at the employee’s sole discretion, to invest funds held in their accounts under the plan in shares of Class A Common Stock of Republic. Shares are purchased by the independent trustee administering the plan from time to time in the open market in the form of broker’s transactions. As of December 31, 2012, the trustee held 200,169 shares of Class A Common Stock and 2,648 shares of Class B Common Stock on behalf of the plan.
 
 
50

 
 
Details of Republic’s Class A Common Stock purchases during the fourth quarter of 2012 are included in the following table:
 
               
Total Number of
   
 Maximum Number
 
               
Shares Purchased
   
of Shares that May
 
               
as Part of Publicly
   
Yet Be Purchased
 
   
Total Number of
   
Average Price
   
Announced Plans
   
Under the Plan
 
Period
 
Shares Purchased
   
Paid Per Share
   
or Programs
   
or Programs
 
                         
October 1 - October 31
    -     $ -       -        
November 1 - November 30
    20,843       20.38       20,843        
December 1 - December 31
    42,000       20.28       42,000        
Total
    62,843     $ 20.23       62,843    
              523,719
 
 
During 2012, the Company repurchased 79,470 shares and there were 1,849 shares exchanged for stock option exercises. During November of 2011, the Company’s Board of Directors amended its existing share repurchase program by approving the repurchase of 300,000 additional shares from time to time, as market conditions are deemed attractive to the Company. The repurchase program will remain effective until the total number of shares authorized is repurchased or until Republic’s Board of Directors terminates the program. As of December 31, 2012, the Company had 523,719 shares which could be repurchased under its current share repurchase programs.

During 2012, there were approximately 29,000 shares of Class A Common Stock issued upon conversion of shares of Class B Common Stock by stockholders of Republic in accordance with the share-for-share conversion provision option of the Class B Common Stock. The exemption from registration of the newly issued Class A Common Stock relied upon was Section (3)(a)(9) of the Securities Act of 1933.

There were no equity securities of the registrant sold without registration during the quarter covered by this report.
 
 
51

 
 
STOCK PERFORMANCE GRAPH
 
The following stock performance graph does not constitute soliciting material and should not be deemed filed or incorporated by reference into any other Company filing under the Securities Act of 1933 or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, except to the extent the Company specifically incorporates the performance graph by reference therein.

The following stock performance graph sets forth the cumulative total shareholder return (assuming reinvestment of dividends) on Republic’s Class A Common Stock as compared to the NASDAQ Bank Stocks Index and the Standard & Poor’s (“S&P”) 500 Index. The graph covers the period beginning December 31, 2007 and ending December 31, 2012. The calculation of cumulative total return assumes an initial investment of $100 in Republic’s Class A Common Stock, the NASDAQ Bank Index and the S&P 500 Index on December 31, 2007. The stock price performance shown on the graph below is not necessarily indicative of future stock price performance.
 
   
December 31,
   
December 31,
   
December 31,
   
December 31,
   
December 31,
   
December 31,
 
   
2007
   
2008
   
2009
   
2010
   
2011
   
2012
 
                                     
Republic Bancorp Class A
                                   
Common Stock
  $ 100.00     $ 168.20     $ 130.41     $ 154.43     $ 153.28     $ 152.82  
NASDAQ Bank Stock Index
    100.00       78.46       66.39       75.04       67.16       78.80  
S&P 500 Index
    100.00       63.00       79.91       91.05       92.98       106.06  
 
Chart
 
 
52

 
 

The following table sets forth Republic Bancorp Inc.’s selected financial data from 2008 through 2012. This information should be read in conjunction with Part II Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and Part II Item 8 “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.” Certain amounts presented in prior periods have been reclassified to conform to the current period presentation.
 
   
As of and for the Years Ended December 31,
 
(in thousands, except per share data, FTEs and # of banking centers)
 
2012
   
2011
   
2010
   
2009
   
2008
 
                               
                               
Balance Sheet Data:
                             
                               
Cash and cash equivalents
  $ 137,691     $ 362,971     $ 786,371     $ 1,068,179     $ 616,303  
Investment securities
    484,256       674,022       542,694       467,235       904,674  
Mortgage loans held for sale
    10,614       4,392       15,228       5,445       11,298  
Gross loans
    2,650,197       2,285,295       2,175,240       2,268,232       2,303,857  
Allowance for loan losses
    23,729       24,063       23,079       22,879       14,832  
Goodwill
    10,168       10,168       10,168       10,168       10,168  
Total assets
    3,394,399       3,419,991       3,622,703       3,918,768       3,939,368  
Non interest-bearing deposits
    479,046       408,483       325,375       318,275       273,203  
Interest-bearing deposits
    1,503,882       1,325,495       1,977,317       2,284,206       2,470,166  
Total deposits
    1,982,928       1,733,978       2,302,692       2,602,481       2,743,369  
Securities sold under agreements to repurchase
                                       
 and other short-term borrowings
    250,884       230,231       319,246       299,580       339,012  
Federal Home Loan Bank advances
    542,600       934,630       564,877       637,607       515,234  
Subordinated note
    41,240       41,240       41,240       41,240       41,240  
Total liabilities
    2,857,697       2,967,624       3,251,327       3,602,748       3,663,446  
Total stockholders' equity
    536,702       452,367       371,376       316,020       275,922  
                                         
Average Balance Sheet Data:
                                       
                                         
Federal funds sold and other interest-earning deposits
  $ 187,790     $ 315,530     $ 473,137     $ 341,126     $ 92,978  
Investment securities, including FHLB stock
    640,830       678,804       561,273       536,996       629,626  
Gross loans, including loans held for sale
    2,504,150       2,246,259       2,338,990       2,372,008       2,369,691  
Allowance for loan losses
    25,226       28,817       27,755       22,005       15,556  
Total assets
    3,560,739       3,416,921       3,503,886       3,415,725       3,232,435  
Non interest-bearing deposits
    624,053       509,457       421,162       381,665       321,308  
Interest-bearing deposits
    1,512,455       1,540,515       1,725,891       1,684,277       1,599,280  
Total liabilities
    2,351,768       2,418,865       2,671,466       2,679,499       2,604,577  
Total stockholders' equity
    530,096       439,636       361,357       305,864       267,578  
                                         
Income Statement Data - Total Company:
                                       
                                         
Total interest income
  $ 183,459     $ 195,115     $ 193,473     $ 212,605     $ 202,142  
Total interest expense
    22,804       30,255       36,661       48,742       72,418  
Net interest income
    160,655       164,860       156,812       163,863       129,724  
Provision for loan losses
    15,043       17,966       19,714       33,975       16,205  
Total non interest income
    165,078       119,624       87,658       57,621       45,960  
Total non interest expenses
    126,745       122,321       126,323       121,485       107,592  
Income before income tax expense
    183,945       144,197       98,433       66,024       51,887  
Income tax expense
    64,606       50,048       33,680       23,893       18,235  
Net income
    119,339       94,149       64,753       42,131       33,652  
                                         
Income Statement Data - Traditional Bank(1):
                                       
                                         
Total interest income
  $ 137,886     $ 135,522     $ 141,252     $ 154,942     $ 176,366  
Total interest expense
    22,655       29,775       35,099       43,786       64,808  
Net interest income
    115,231       105,747       106,153       111,156       111,558  
Provision for loan losses
    8,167       6,406       11,571       15,885       8,154  
Total non interest income
    86,554       31,072       28,548       31,766       14,826  
Total non interest expenses
    104,222       91,238       93,527       94,167       86,650  
Income before income tax expense
    89,396       39,175       29,603       32,870       31,580  
Income tax expense
    30,943       12,368       9,090       10,718       11,186  
Net income
    58,453       26,807       20,513       22,152       20,394  

(continued)
 
 
53

 
 
Item 6.  Selected Financial Data (continued)
 
   
As of and for the Years Ended December 31,
 
(in thousands, except per share data, FTEs and # of banking centers)
 
2012
   
2011
   
2010
   
2009
   
2008
 
                               
Per Share Data:
                             
                               
Basic average shares outstanding
    20,959       20,945       20,877       20,749       20,518  
Diluted average shares outstanding
    21,028       20,993       20,960       20,884       20,824  
End of period shares outstanding:
                                       
Class A Common Stock
    18,694       18,652       18,628       18,499       18,318  
Class B Common Stock
    2,271       2,300       2,307       2,309       2,310  
Basic earnings per share:
                                       
Class A Common Stock
  $ 5.71     $ 4.50     $ 3.11     $ 2.04     $ 1.65  
Class B Common Stock
    5.55       4.45       3.06       1.99       1.60  
Diluted earnings per share:
                                       
Class A Common Stock
  $ 5.69     $ 4.49     $ 3.10     $ 2.02     $ 1.62  
Class B Common Stock
    5.53       4.44       3.04       1.98       1.58  
Cash dividends declared per share:
                                       
Class A Common Stock
  $ 1.749     $ 0.605     $ 0.561     $ 0.517     $ 0.473  
Class B Common Stock
    1.590       0.550       0.510       0.470       0.430