10-K 1 emn2011form10_k.htm EASTMAN CHEMICAL COMPANY 2011 ANNUAL REPORT emn2011form10_k.htm
 
 

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, DC  20549
FORM 10-K

(Mark
One)
 
[X]
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2011
 
OR
[  ]
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the transition period from ______________ to ______________

Commission file number 1-12626
 
EASTMAN CHEMICAL COMPANY
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)


Delaware
 
62-1539359
(State or other jurisdiction of
 
(I.R.S. Employer
incorporation or organization)
 
Identification no.)
     
200 South Wilcox Drive
   
Kingsport, Tennessee
 
37662
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
(Zip Code)
     

Registrant's telephone number, including area code: (423) 229-2000


Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
     
Title of each class
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share
 
New York Stock Exchange



Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:  None







____________________________________________________________________________________________
PAGE 1 OF 127 TOTAL SEQUENTIALLY NUMBERED PAGES
EXHIBIT INDEX ON PAGE 123

 

 


 
Yes
No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
[X]
 
 
Yes
No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act.
 
[X]
 
Yes
No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
[X]
 
 
Yes
No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).
[X]
 
     
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of the registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.
      [X]
     
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company.  See definition of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer" and "smaller reporting company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
 Large accelerated filer [X]                              Accelerated filer [  ]
 Non-accelerated filer   [  ]                               Smaller reporting company [  ]
(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
   
 
Yes
No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).
 
[X]

The aggregate market value (based upon the $51.04 closing price on the New York Stock Exchange on June 30, 2011, adjusted for the October 3, 2011 two-for-one stock split) of the 136,444,185 shares of common equity held by non-affiliates as of December 31, 2011 was approximately $6,964,111,202 using beneficial ownership rules adopted pursuant to Section 13 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 to exclude common stock that may be deemed beneficially owned as of December 31, 2011 by Eastman Chemical Company's ("Eastman" or the "Company") directors and executive officers and charitable foundation, some of whom might not be held to be affiliates upon judicial determination.  A total of 137,003,954 shares of common stock of the registrant were outstanding at December 31, 2011.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the registrant's definitive Proxy Statement relating to the 2012 Annual Meeting of Stockholders (the "2012 Proxy Statement"), to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, are incorporated by reference in Part III, Items 10 to 14 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K (the "Annual Report") as indicated herein.


 

   


FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

Certain statements in this Annual Report which are not statements of historical fact may be "forward-looking statements" as defined in, and subject to the protections of, the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 and other federal securities laws.  These statements, and other written and oral forward-looking statements made by the Company from time to time may relate to, among other things, such matters as planned and expected capacity increases and utilization; anticipated capital spending; expected depreciation and amortization; environmental matters; expectations regarding the completion of the acquisition of Solutia Inc., including our ability to achieve the expected benefits and synergies from the acquired businesses; pending and future legal proceedings; exposure to, and effects of hedging of, raw material and energy costs, foreign currencies and interest rates; global and regional economic, political, and business conditions; competition; growth opportunities; supply and demand, volume, price, cost, margin, and sales; earnings, cash flow, dividends and other expected financial results and conditions; expectations, strategies, and plans for individual assets and products, businesses and segments as well as for the whole of Eastman; cash requirements and uses of available cash; financing plans and activities; pension expenses and funding; credit ratings; anticipated and other future restructuring, acquisition, divestiture, and consolidation activities; cost reduction and control efforts and targets; the timing of, and benefits from, the integration of and expected business and financial performance of acquired businesses; strategic initiatives and development, production, commercialization, and acceptance of new products, services and technologies and related costs; asset, business and product portfolio changes; and expected tax rates and net interest costs.

These plans and expectations are based upon certain underlying assumptions, including those mentioned with the specific statements.  Such assumptions are based upon internal estimates and other analyses of current market conditions and trends, management expectations, plans, and strategies, economic conditions, and other factors.  These plans and expectations and the underlying assumptions are necessarily subject to risks and uncertainties inherent in projecting future conditions and results.  There also can be no assurance regarding the timing of completion of any proposed acquisitions, and the timing or actual achievement of expected benefits from, integration plans relating to, and expected synergies from, acquired businesses.  Actual results could differ materially from expectations expressed in any forward-looking statements if one or more of the underlying assumptions or expectations proves to be inaccurate or is unrealized.  The most significant known factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those in the forward-looking statements are identified and discussed in Part II—Item 7—"Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Forward-Looking Statements and Risk Factors" of this Annual Report.

 

   

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ITEM
   
PAGE

PART I

1.
 
5
       
1A.
 
24
       
1B.
 
24
       
   
25
       
2.
 
27
       
3.
 
29
       
4.
 
29
       
PART II

PART III
PART IV


SIGNATURES

   
121

 

   


PART I




 

   
 
ITEM 1.  BUSINESS
 

Eastman Chemical Company ("Eastman" or the "Company") is a global chemical company which manufactures and sells a broad portfolio of chemicals, plastics, and fibers.  Eastman began business in 1920 for the purpose of producing chemicals for Eastman Kodak Company's photographic business and became a public company, incorporated in Delaware, on December 31, 1993.  Eastman has nineteen manufacturing sites in ten countries and equity interests in joint ventures that supply chemicals, plastics, and fibers products to customers throughout the world.  The Company's headquarters and largest manufacturing site are located in Kingsport, Tennessee.

In 2011, the Company had sales revenue of $7.2 billion, operating earnings of $1.0 billion, and earnings from continuing operations of $657 million.  Earnings per diluted share from continuing operations were $4.59 in 2011.  Asset impairments and restructuring charges and gains included in 2011 operating earnings were gains of $8 million.

The Company's products and operations are managed and reported in four operating segments: the Coatings, Adhesives, Specialty Polymers, and Inks ("CASPI") segment, the Fibers segment, the Performance Chemicals and Intermediates ("PCI") segment, and the Specialty Plastics segment.  The Company manages certain costs and initiatives at the corporate level, including certain research and development ("R&D") costs not allocated to the operating segments.  For additional information concerning the Company's operating segments, see Note 22 "Segment Information" to the Company's consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this 2011 Annual Report on Form 10-K (this "Annual Report").


Eastman's objective is to be an outperforming chemical company through consistently solid financial results and disciplined execution of its growth strategies.  The Company's business segments currently sell differentiated products into diverse markets and geographic regions.  Management believes that the Company can increase the revenues from its businesses with increasing profitability through a balance of new applications for existing products, development of new products, and sales growth in adjacent markets and emerging economies.  These revenue and earnings increases are expected to result from both organic (internal growth) and inorganic (external growth through joint venture and acquisition) initiatives.

The Company is focusing on the following recently completed and current growth initiatives:

·  
In the PCI segment, the Company completed several initiatives in 2011 to expand its non-phthalate plasticizer business, including the acquisitions of Sterling Chemicals, Inc. ("Sterling") and Scandiflex do Brasil S.A. Indústrias Químicas ("Scandiflex").  The acquired Sterling idled plasticizer manufacturing unit is being retrofitted to produce non-phthalate plasticizers, with the first of two phases expected to be online in the first half of 2012.  The Company also plans to increase capacity of 2-ethyl hexanol in first half 2012 to support expected growth in the plasticizers, coatings, and fuel additive markets.
·  
In the Specialty Plastics segment, the Company is adding another 30,000 metric tons of resin capacity at its facility in Kingsport, Tennessee for TritanTM copolyester polymer, which is expected to be operational in early 2012.  The Company is expanding its capacity for cyclohexane dimethanol ("CHDM"), a monomer used in the manufacture of copolyesters, by 25 percent in two phases with the first operational in fourth quarter 2011 and the second expected to be operational in first quarter 2012.  In addition, the Company is expanding its cellulose triacetate capacity by 70 percent, with the new capacity expected to be operational in first quarter 2012.
·  
In the CASPI segment, the Company completed an additional 20 percent expansion of its hydrogenated hydrocarbon resins manufacturing capacity in Middelburg, the Netherlands, and an additional 10 percent debottleneck of the hydrogenated hydrocarbon facility in Longview, Texas in 2011.  The Company also acquired Dynaloy, LLC ("Dynaloy") in 2011 as part of its electronic materials growth initiative.
·  
In the Fibers segment, in 2011 the Company entered into a joint venture for a 30,000 metric ton acetate tow manufacturing facility in China, expected to be operational in mid-2013.
 

 

   
 
· 
The Company continues to explore and invest in R&D initiatives at a corporate level that are aligned with macro trends in sustainability, consumerism, and energy efficiency through high performance materials, advanced cellulosics, and environmentally-friendly chemistry.  These initiatives include the completion of a demonstration facility for market testing of acetylated wood, branded as Perennial WoodTM, in second half 2011 and commercial introduction in first quarter 2012 to select markets; the initial commercial introduction of the new Eastman CerfisTM building and construction products technology, with anticipation that the application will be expanded nationwide by the end of 2012; and the announcement of the new EastmanTM microfiber technology.
·  
On January 26, 2012, the Company entered into a definitive agreement to acquire Solutia Inc. ("Solutia"), a global leader in performance materials and specialty chemicals.  The transaction remains subject to approval by Solutia's shareholders and receipt of required regulatory approvals as well as other customary closing conditions.  The transaction is expected to close in mid-2012.  The acquisition of Solutia is expected to:
o  
broaden Eastman's global presence, particularly in Asia Pacific;
o  
establish a combined platform with organic growth opportunities through complementary technologies and business capabilities and an overlap of key end-markets; and
o  
expand Eastman's portfolio of sustainable products.
For further information, see Part II—Item 7—"Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Overview" and "Outlook" of this Annual Report.

The Company benefits from advantaged feedstocks and proprietary technologies, and is focusing on sustainability as a competitive strength for growth.  Eastman has developed new products and technologies that enable customers' development and sales of sustainable products, and has reduced its greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption on a unit basis.

Management expects continued earnings growth, despite ongoing economic uncertainty, as a result of the strength of the Company's businesses and balance sheet.  The Company continues to evaluate inorganic growth opportunities, through joint ventures and acquisitions, intended to enhance the Company's product portfolios and to extend into emerging markets.


Integral to Eastman's corporate strategy for growth is leveraging its heritage of expertise and innovation in acetyl, olefins, and polyester chemistries in key markets, including packaging, tobacco, building and construction, and consumables.  For each of these chemistries, Eastman has developed a combination of assets and technologies that are operated within three manufacturing "streams".

·  
In the acetyl stream, the Company begins with high sulfur coal which is then gasified in its coal gasification facility.  The resulting synthesis gas is converted into a number of chemicals including methanol, methyl acetate, acetic acid, and acetic anhydride.  These chemicals are used in manufacturing products throughout the Company including acetate tow, acetate yarn, and cellulose esters.  The Company's ability to use coal is a raw material cost advantage.  The Company continues to evaluate opportunities to further leverage its gasification expertise to produce additional cost advantaged chemicals from petroleum coke or coal in addition to natural gas and petroleum.  Manufacturing capacities in 2011 of select chemicals and product lines in the acetyl stream for acetic chemicals included: 611 million pounds of acetic acid; 1,631 million pounds of acetic anhydride; and 475 million pounds of methanol.  These quantities are an average for the year based on the number of operating days and daily rates per manufacturing asset. 

 

   

·  
In the olefins stream, the Company begins primarily with propane and ethane, which are then cracked at its facility in Longview, Texas into propylene, as well as ethylene.  "Cracking" is a chemical process in which gases are converted into more reactive molecules for use in the manufacturing process.  The Company also purchases propylene for use at its Longview facility and its facilities outside the U.S.  The propylene is used in oxo derivative products.  The ethylene is used in oxo derivative products, acetaldehyde and ethylene glycol production and is also sold commercially.  There are four cracking units located at the Company's Longview, Texas facility.  Eastman had previously shut down the first of the three units identified for a staged phase-out and idled the second cracking unit.  In 2010, a decision was made to restart the idled cracking unit due to the Company's improved competitive position based on low cost feedstocks and olefin market conditions.  The Company continues to evaluate options to further improve its olefin cost position including consideration to produce more propylene. Petrochemical business cycles are influenced by periods of over- and under-capacity.  Capacity additions to steam cracker units around the world, combined with demand for light olefins, determine the operating rate and thus profitability of producing olefins.  Historically, periodic additions of large blocks of capacity have caused profit margins of light olefins to expand and contract, resulting in "ethylene" or "olefins" cycles.  The Company believes it is less impacted by the these cycles than it has been historically due to actions it has taken to leverage its diverse derivatives products to take advantage of regulatory trends and focus on more durable markets.  Manufacturing capacities in 2011 of select chemicals and product lines in the olefins stream included: 1,310 million pounds of ethylene; 404 million pounds of acetaldehyde and 220 million pounds of ethylene glycol (both ethylene derivatives); 567 million pounds of propylene; and 2,013 million pounds of oxo aldehydes, 1,077 million pounds of oxo alcohols, and 654 million pounds of plasticizers (all oxo products).  These quantities are calculated as described above in the acetyl stream.  Manufacturing capacities of ethylene and propylene increased from 1,010 million pounds and 392 million pounds, respectively, for 2010 as a result of the restart of the idled cracking unit.  Plasticizers production capacity increased from 496 million pounds in 2009 as a result of the acquisitions of Genovique Specialties Corporation ("Genovique") in 2010 and Sterling and Scandiflex in 2011.
·  
In the polyester stream, the Company begins with purchased paraxylene and produces purified terephthalic acid ("PTA") and dimethyl terephthalate ("DMT") for polyesters and copolyesters.  PTA or DMT is then reacted with ethylene glycol, which the Company both makes and purchases, along with other raw materials (some of which the Company makes and are proprietary) to produce polyesters.  The Company believes that this backward integration of polyester manufacturing is a competitive advantage, giving Eastman a low cost position, as well as surety of intermediate supply.  In addition, Eastman can add specialty monomers to copolyesters to provide clear, tough, chemically resistant product characteristics.  As a result, the Company's copolyesters can effectively compete with materials such as polycarbonate and acrylic.


 

   

The following chart shows significant Eastman products, markets, and end uses by segment and manufacturing stream.

SEGMENT
ACETYL STREAM
POLYESTER STREAM
OLEFINS STREAM
KEY PRODUCTS, MARKETS, AND
END USES
CASPI
X
 
X
Polymers, resins, and solvents for paints and coatings used in architectural, transportation, industrial, and original equipment manufacturing ("OEM"); inks used in packaging; adhesives ingredients used in tapes, labels, personal care products and building and construction uses; and other formulated products
 
Fibers
X
   
Acetate fibers for filter products and textiles
 
PCI
X
X
X
Intermediate chemicals for agriculture, transportation, beverages, nutrition, building and construction, pharmaceuticals, coatings, medical devices, toys, adhesives, household products, polymers, textiles, consumer and industrial products, and health and wellness uses
 
Specialty Plastics
X
X
X
Copolyesters and cellulosics for appliances, store fixtures and displays, building and construction, electronic packaging, medical devices and packaging, graphic arts, general purpose packaging, personal care and cosmetics, food and beverage packaging, performance films, tape and labels, fibers/nonwovens, photographic and optical films, and liquid crystal displays ("LCD")
 

In addition to stream integration, the Company also derives value from Eastman's cellulosics expertise.  These cellulosics are natural polymers, sourced from managed forests, which, when combined with the acetyl and olefin streams, provide differentiated product lines and an advantaged raw material position for Eastman.

The Company continues to leverage its heritage of expertise and innovation in acetyl, polyester, and olefins chemistries and technologies, as well as its use of cellulosics, to meet demand and create new uses and opportunities for the Company's products in key markets.  Through integration and optimization across these streams, the Company is able to create unique and differentiated products that have a performance advantage over competitive materials.


The commodity olefins and olefin derivatives product lines in the PCI segment and the commodity solvent product lines in the CASPI segment are impacted by the cyclicality of key products and markets, while the other segments are more sensitive to global economic conditions.  Supply and demand dynamics determine profitability at different stages of cycles and global economic conditions affect the length of each cycle.  Despite sensitivity to global economic conditions, many of the products in the Fibers and CASPI segments provide a stable foundation of earnings.

The Company's earnings are typically greater in the second and third quarters and cash flows from operations are greatest in fourth quarter due to seasonality.  Demand for CASPI segment products is typically stronger in the second and third quarters due to the increased use of coatings products in the building and construction industries, while demand is typically weaker during the winter months because of seasonal construction downturns.  The PCI segment typically has weaker fourth quarter financial results, due in part to a seasonal downturn in demand for products used in certain building and construction and agricultural markets.

 

   

Financial Strategy

In addition to managing its businesses and growth initiatives, the Company remains committed to maintaining a strong financial position with financial flexibility and consistently solid cash flows.  The Company employs what management believes is a disciplined process for capital allocation and deployment of cash.  The Company pursues a variety of organic growth opportunities and also considers appropriate inorganic growth opportunities, including joint ventures and acquisitions.  The Company also returns cash to stockholders through dividends and from time to time by share repurchases.  The Company also manages its debt based upon its capital structure objectives, funding requirements, and public and private debt market conditions.

BUSINESS SEGMENTS

The Company's products and operations are currently managed and reported in four operating segments: the CASPI segment, the Fibers segment, the PCI segment, and the Specialty Plastics segment.

CASPI SEGMENT

·
Overview

In the CASPI segment, the Company manufactures resins, specialty polymers, and solvents which are integral to the production of paints and coatings, inks, adhesives, and other formulated products.  Growth in these markets in the U.S., Canada, and Europe typically approximates general economic growth due to the wide variety of end uses for these applications.  Typically, growth in these markets in Asia, Eastern Europe, and Latin America continues to be higher than worldwide economic growth, driven by regional growth in these emerging economies.  The CASPI segment focuses on producing intermediate chemicals rather than finished products and developing long-term, strategic relationships to achieve preferred supplier status with its customers.  In 2011, the CASPI segment had sales revenue of $1.8 billion, 26 percent of Eastman's total sales.

The profitability of the CASPI segment is sensitive to the global economy, market trends, broader chemical cycles, particularly the olefins cycle, and foreign currency exchange rates.  The CASPI segment's specialty products, which include cellulose-based specialty polymers, coalescents, and selected hydrocarbon resins, are less sensitive to the olefins cycle due to their functional performance attributes.  The segment's commodity products, which include commodity solvents, are more impacted by the olefins cycle as discussed under "Manufacturing Streams."  The Company seeks to leverage its proprietary technologies, competitive cost structure, and integrated manufacturing facilities to maintain a strong competitive position throughout such cycles.
 
·
 Products
 
 Ø Polymers
The polymers product line consists of cellulose-based specialty polymers and olefin-based performance products.  Eastman's cellulose-based specialty polymers enhance the aesthetic appeal and improve the performance of industrial and transportation coatings and inks.  Olefin-based products are used as base polymers in hot-melt adhesives, paper laminating, sealants, and pressure sensitive adhesives.  They are also used as elastomer extenders in sealants and waterproofing compounds for wire and cable flooding applications.  The polymers product line also includes chlorinated polyolefins which promote the adherence of paints and coatings to plastic substrates.  Polymers accounted for approximately 20 percent, 20 percent, and 15 percent of the CASPI segment's total sales for 2011, 2010, and 2009, respectively.
 
 Ø Resins
The resins product line consists of hydrocarbon resins, rosin resins, and resin dispersions.  These products are sold primarily to adhesive formulators and consumer product companies for use as raw materials essential in hot-melt and pressure sensitive adhesives and as binders in nonwoven products such as disposable diapers, feminine products, and pre-saturated wipes.  Eastman offers a broad product portfolio of essential ingredients for the adhesives industry and ranks as the second largest global tackifier supplier.  In addition, Eastman is one of the largest manufacturers of hydrogenated gum rosins used in chewing gum applications.  Eastman resins are also used in a wide range of applications including plastics and rubber modification and inks.  Resins accounted for approximately 35 percent of the CASPI segment's total sales for 2011, 2010, and 2009.

 
10

 
 
 
 Ø Solvents
The solvents product line includes both specialty coalescents and ketones and commodity esters, glycol ethers, and alcohol solvents.  Coalescents include products such as TexanolTM ester alcohol and Eastman OptifilmTM Enhancer 300 and 400, which improve film formation and durability in architectural latex paints.  Ketones are used in high solids low volatile organic compound ("VOC") coatings applications.  Commodity solvents, which consist of esters, glycol ethers, and alcohol solvents, are used in both paints and inks to maintain the formulation in liquid form for ease of application.  Solvents accounted for approximately 45 percent of the CASPI segment's total sales for 2011 and 2010 and 50 percent in 2009.

 ·  
Strategy and Innovation

A key element of the CASPI segment's strategy is to leverage proprietary technologies for the continued development of innovative product offerings and to focus growth efforts on expanding industries such as packaging, hygiene, and transportation.  Management believes that the ability to leverage the CASPI segment's research, application development, and production capabilities across multiple markets makes the segment uniquely positioned to meet evolving needs to improve the quality and performance of our customers' products.

The Company is currently developing options intended to further leverage both new and existing technologies for growth by geographical expansion and by movement into adjacent industries such as electronics and tires used in transportation.  For example, in 2011, the CASPI segment expanded its presence in the electronic materials market through the acquisition of Dynaloy and its formulated cleaners business.

The Company's global manufacturing presence is a key element of the CASPI segment's growth strategy.  For example, the segment is well positioned to capitalize on expected high industrial growth in China and other parts of Asia from its facilities in Singapore and near Shanghai, China and joint venture operations in China.  The Company is committed to maintaining reliability of supply of the CASPI segment products to our strategic customers to allow Eastman to be the supplier of choice.  The segment is meeting growing demand for specialty hydrocarbon resins with recent capacity expansions in Middelburg, the Netherlands and the additional debottleneck of its Longview, Texas capacity.

·  
Customers and Markets
 
As a result of the variety of end uses for its products, the customer base for the CASPI segment is broad and diverse. This segment has approximately 720 customers around the world, while 80 percent of its sales revenue in 2011 was attributable to approximately 100 customers.  The CASPI segment focuses on establishing long-term relationships with its strategic customers in order to become their preferred supplier and leverage these relationships into sales opportunities in previously underserved markets.  Growth in the U.S., Canadian, and European markets typically coincides with economic growth in general, due to the wide variety of end uses for these applications and their dependence on the economic conditions of the markets for packaged goods, transportation, durable goods, and housing.

The current regulatory environment, particularly in the U.S., Canada, and Europe, provides both market challenges and opportunities for the CASPI segment.  Environmental regulations that impose limits on the emission of VOCs and hazardous air pollutants ("HAPs") continue to impact coatings formulations requiring compliant coatings raw materials.  These regulations are in addition to the consumer market sustainability trend.  The coatings industry is responding by promoting products and technologies designed to enable customers and end users to reduce air emissions of VOCs and HAPs in compliance with applicable regulations.  A variety of Eastman's CASPI segment products are used in these coatings.  Additional products are currently being developed to meet the growing demand for low VOC coatings, including the SolusTM family of cellulose ester additives.

 
11

   

·
Competition

Competition within the CASPI segment's markets varies widely depending on the specific product or product group.  The Company's major competitors in the CASPI segment's markets include larger companies such as BASF SE ("BASF"), The Dow Chemical Company ("Dow"), and Exxon Mobil Corporation ("Exxon"), which may commit greater financial and other resources than Eastman to products in markets in which the CASPI segment competes.  Additionally, within each CASPI segment product market, the Company competes with other smaller, regionally focused companies that may have advantages based upon location, local market knowledge, manufacturing strength in a specific product, or other similar factors.  However, Eastman does not believe that any of these regional competitors has the breadth of product offerings that Eastman is able to offer its CASPI segment customers.  The Company believes its competitive advantages include its level of vertical integration; breadth of product offerings, service, and technology offerings; low-cost manufacturing position; consistent product quality; security of supply; and process and market knowledge.  The CASPI segment principally competes on breadth of products and through leveraging its strong customer base and long-standing customer relationships to promote substantial recurring business and product development.

FIBERS SEGMENT
 
·
 Overview
   
In the Fibers segment, Eastman manufactures and sells EstronTM acetate tow and EstrobondTM triacetin plasticizers for use primarily in the manufacture of cigarette filters; EstronTM natural and ChromspunTM solution-dyed acetate yarns for use in apparel, home furnishings and industrial fabrics; and cellulose acetate flake and acetyl raw materials for other acetate fiber producers.  Eastman is one of the world's two largest suppliers of acetate tow and has been a market leader in the manufacture and sale of acetate tow since it began production in the early 1950s.  The Company is the world's largest producer of acetate yarn and has been in this business for over 75 years.  The Fibers segment's manufacturing operations are primarily located at the Kingsport, Tennessee site and also include smaller acetate tow production plants in Workington, England and Ulsan, South Korea.  Eastman increased its acetate tow capacity with the expansion of the Workington plant in 2008 and the startup of the Korean facility during 2010, and is further expanding its Asia Pacific capacity with a joint venture manufacturing facility in Hefei, China.  In 2011, the Fibers segment had sales revenue of $1.3 billion, 18 percent of Eastman's total sales.  The Fibers segment remains a strong and stable cash generator for the Company.

The Company's long history and experience in the fibers markets are reflected in the Fibers segment's operating expertise, both within the Company and in support of its customers' processes.  The Fibers segment's knowledge of the industry and of customers' processes allows it to assist its customers in maximizing their processing efficiencies, promoting repeat sales and mutually beneficial, long-term customer relationships.

The Company's fully integrated fiber manufacturing processes from coal-based acetyl raw materials through acetate tow and yarn provide a competitive advantage over companies whose processes are dependent on petrochemicals.  In addition, the Fibers segment employs unique technology that allows it to use a broad range of high-purity wood pulps for which the Company has dependable sources of supply.  Management believes that these factors combine to make Eastman an industry leader in reliability of supply and cost position.  In addition to the cost advantage of being coal-based, the Fibers segment's competitive strengths include a reputation for high-quality products, technical expertise, large scale vertically-integrated processes, reliability of supply, acetate flake supply in excess of internal needs, a reputation for customer service excellence, and a customer base characterized by long-term customer relationships.  The Company intends to continue to capitalize and build on these strengths to improve the strategic position of its Fibers segment.

Contributing to the profitability in the Fibers segment are the limited number of competitors, high industry capacity utilization, and significant barriers to entry.  These barriers include, but are not limited to, high capital costs for integrated manufacturing facilities.

 
12 

   

·
Products
 
 Ø Acetate Tow
Eastman manufactures acetate tow under the EstronTM trademark according to a wide variety of customer specifications, primarily for use in the manufacture of cigarette filters.  Acetate tow is the largest sales product of the Fibers segment.  Worldwide demand for acetate tow is expected to increase by one to two percent per year over the next several years.  Demand growth within Asia, mostly China, one of the largest and fastest growing markets, primarily influences this expected global increase.  Acetate tow accounted for approximately 80% of the Fibers segment total sales revenue in 2011, 2010, and 2009.
 
 Ø  Acetate Yarn
The Company manufactures acetate filament yarn under the EstronTM and ChromspunTM trademarks in a wide variety of specifications.  EstronTM acetate yarn is available in bright and dull luster and is suitable for subsequent dyeing in the fabric form.  ChromspunTM acetate yarn is solution-dyed in the manufacturing process and is available in more than 100 colors.
 
 Ø  Acetyl Chemical Products 
The Fibers segment's acetyl chemical products are sold primarily to other acetate fiber market producers and include cellulose diacetate flake, acetic acid, and acetic anhydride.  Each is used as a raw material for the production of cellulose acetate fibers.  The Fibers segment also markets acetyl-based triacetin plasticizers under the EstrobondTM trademark, generally for use by cigarette manufacturers as a bonding agent in cigarette filters.

·
Strategy and Innovation
 
 
Ø
Growth
In the Fibers segment, Eastman is leveraging its strong customer relationships and knowledge of the industry to identify growth options.  These growth options have been enabled primarily by its acetate flake capacity at the Kingsport, Tennessee site.  In 2008, Eastman expanded its Workington, England plant to support customer demand in the region.  In 2010, production began at a new acetate tow facility in Ulsan, South Korea to support customer demand in Asia.  With this new facility Eastman's total global acetate tow capacity is approximately 210,000 metric tons.  In 2011, Eastman began construction of a new 30,000 metric ton acetate tow manufacturing facility in Hefei, China, expected to be operational in mid-2013, in a joint venture with China National Tobacco Corporation.  Acetate flake raw materials will be supplied to the new China acetate tow plant from the Company's Kingsport, Tennessee, manufacturing facility.  The Company continues to pursue other growth opportunities, particularly in the Asia Pacific region.
 
 
Ø
Continue to Capitalize on Fibers Technology Expertise
The Company intends to continue to make use of its capabilities in fibers technology to maintain a strong focus on incremental product and process improvements, with the goals of meeting customers' evolving needs and improving the segment's manufacturing process efficiencies.
 
Ø  Maintain Cost-Effective Operations and Consistent Cash Flows and Earnings
The Company intends to continue to operate the Fibers segment in a cost effective manner, capitalizing on its technology, scale and vertical integration, and to make further productivity and efficiency improvements through continued investments in R&D.
 
Ø  Research and Development
The Company's Fibers segment R&D efforts focus on process and product improvements, as well as cost reduction, with the objectives of increasing sales and reducing costs.  The Fibers segment also conducts research to assist acetate tow customers in the effective use of the segment's products and in the customers' product development efforts.

 
13 

   
 
 ·  Customers and Markets
 
The customer base in the Fibers segment is relatively concentrated, consisting of approximately 150 customers in the tobacco, textile, and acetate fibers industries.  Eastman's Fibers segment customers are located in all regions of the world.  The largest 16 customers within the Fibers segment include multinational as well as regional cigarette producers, fabric manufacturers, and other acetate fiber producers.  These top 16 customers accounted for about 80 percent of the segment's total sales revenue in 2011.  Sales prices for a significant portion of the Fibers segment's products are typically negotiated on an annual basis.  The segment maintains a strong position in acetate tow exports to China.
 
 ·  Competition
  
Eastman is the second largest acetate tow manufacturer in the world.  Competitors in the fibers market for acetate tow include Celanese Corporation ("Celanese"), Daicel Chemical Industries Ltd ("Daicel"), Mitsubishi Rayon Co., Ltd. ("Mitsubishi Rayon"), and Solvay S.A. (formerly Rhodia S.A.)

In the segment's acetate yarn business, major competitors include Industrias del Acetato de Celulosa S.A., UAB Korelita, and Mitsubishi Rayon.  Eastman is the world leader in acetate yarn production and the only acetate yarn producer in the U.S. and Canada.  The physical properties of acetate yarn make it desirable for use in textile products such as suit linings, women's apparel, medical tape, drapery, ribbons and other specialty fabrics.  However, over the past 20 years, demand for acetate yarn has been adversely affected by the substitution of lower cost polyester and rayon yarns.  Accordingly, worldwide demand for acetate yarn is expected to continue to decrease as mills continue to substitute these cheaper yarns for acetate yarn.  Management, however, believes that Eastman remains uniquely positioned because of its integrated production of acetate yarn.
 
As described above under "Fibers Segment – Overview", the principal methods of competition include maintaining the Company's large-scale vertically integrated manufacturing process from coal-based acetyl raw materials, reliability of supply, product quality, and sustaining long-term customer relationships.

PCI SEGMENT

·  
Overview

The PCI segment leverages large scale and vertical integration from the acetyl and olefins streams to manufacture diversified products that are sold externally as well as used internally by other segments of the company.  The PCI segment has leading market positions in many of its core products and believes it is well-positioned in key markets for most of its major products, including both acetyl products and olefin derivatives, due to its competitive cost position and supply reliability versus competitors.  In 2011 the PCI segment had sales revenue of $2.9 billion, 40 percent of the Company's total sales.

Historically the segment's competitive cost position has been primarily due to lower cost raw materials, such as coal which is used in the production of acetyl stream products, and olefins which are used in the production of olefin derivative products.  The Company has three operating cracking units as well as a fourth cracking unit which is currently shutdown.  The Company will continue to evaluate changes in raw materials costs along with olefin derivative volume demand to determine the best use for these assets.  Some of the segment's products are affected by the olefins cycle.  See "Corporate Overview – Manufacturing Streams" earlier in this "Part I – Item 1. Business."  This cyclicality is caused by periods of supply and demand imbalance, either when incremental capacity additions are not offset by corresponding increases in demand or when demand exceeds existing supply.  Demand, in turn, is based on general economic conditions, raw material and energy costs, and other factors beyond the Company's control.  While the segment has taken steps to reduce the impact of the trough of the olefins cycle, future PCI segment results are expected to continue to fluctuate from period to period due to general economic conditions.  Approximately 75 percent of the segment's olefin derivatives are made from propylene. 


 
14 

   
 
 ·
Products
 
The PCI segment offers approximately 200 products that include intermediates based on oxo and acetyl chemistries and performance chemicals.  In 2011, 2010, and 2009, the PCI segment's sales revenue was approximately 70 percent, 65 percent, and 50 percent, respectively, from olefin-based and 20 percent, 20 percent, and 35 percent, respectively, from acetyl-based chemistries, and 10 percent, 15 percent, and 15 percent, respectively, from other chemicals.  Olefin-based increased as a result of recent acquisitions and growth in plasticizers product lines.  Approximately 70 percent of the PCI segment's sales revenue is generated in the U.S. and Canada, a region in which the Company has a leading market share position for most of its key oxo and acetyl products.  Sales in all regions are generated through a mix of the Company's direct sales force and a network of distributors.  The Company's PCI segment is the largest marketer of acetic anhydride in the United States, an intermediate that is a critical component of analgesics, laundry care products, and nutritional supplements, and is the only U.S. producer of acetaldehyde, a key intermediate in the production of agricultural and other specialty products.  Eastman believes that it manufactures one of the world's broadest ranges of products derived from oxo aldehydes and holds a leading North American market position for many of these products.  The PCI segment's other intermediate products include glycols and polymer intermediates.  Many of the intermediates products in the PCI segment are priced based on supply and demand of substitute and competing products.  In order to maintain a competitive position, the Company strives to operate with a low cost manufacturing base.

The PCI segment also manufactures performance chemicals and complex organic molecules such as plasticizers, diketene derivatives, specialty ketones, and specialty anhydrides for medical, pharmaceutical, fiber, and food and beverage ingredients, which are typically used in specialty market applications.  The acquired Sterling Chemicals idled plasticizer manufacturing unit is being retrofitted to produce non-phthalate plasticizers, with the first of two phases expected to be online in the first half of 2012 and the second phase to be determined at a later date based on demand.  This capacity is expected to be used to serve the growing demand for non-phthalate plasticizers in North America and Europe.  The acquisition of Scandiflex in Brazil extends Eastman's non-phthalate plasticizer offerings into Latin American markets.
 
  ·  Strategy and Innovation
 
The PCI segment selectively focuses on continuing to develop and access markets with high-growth potential for the Company's chemicals.  One key market is for flexible plastic products used in sensitive applications such as toys, child care articles, medical packaging and devices, and food contact.  Eastman 168TM plasticizer and other specialty plasticizers provide effective, sustainable alternatives to ortho-phthalate plasticizers traditionally used in these and other applications.  These plasticizers allow manufacturers to meet the challenging requirements of changing government regulations and consumer preferences without sacrificing production efficiency or product performance.  The acquisitions of Scandiflex in 2011 and Genovique Specialties Corporation in 2010 added to the Company's portfolio of and manufacturing capacity for non-phthalate plasticizers that serve high growth markets.  The Company also plans to increase capacity of 2-ethyl hexanol in first half 2012 to support expected growth in the plasticizers, coatings, and fuel additive markets.

To build on and maintain its status as a low cost producer, the PCI segment continuously focuses on cost control, operational efficiency, and capacity utilization to maximize earnings.  Through the PCI segment, the Company maximizes the advantage of its highly integrated and world-scale manufacturing facilities.  For example, the Kingsport, Tennessee manufacturing facility allows the PCI segment to produce acetic anhydride and other acetyl derivatives from coal rather than natural gas or other petroleum feedstocks.  At the Longview, Texas manufacturing facility, Eastman's PCI segment uses its proprietary oxo-technology in the world's largest single-site, oxo aldehyde manufacturing facility to produce a wide range of alcohols, esters, and other derivative products utilizing local propane and ethane supplies, as well as purchased propylene.  These integrated facilities, combined with large scale production processes and a continuous focus on additional process improvements, allow the PCI segment to remain cost competitive with, and for some products cost-advantaged over, its competitors.

The Company engages in R&D initiatives in order to develop new PCI products and find additional applications for existing products and to lower its costs.  The Company has licensed technology to produce acetyl products to Saudi International Petrochemical Company in Saudi Arabia and to Chang Chun Petrochemical Company in Taiwan in 2005 and 2007, respectively, and has recognized all revenue from these license agreements.  The Company is currently evaluating licensing opportunities for acetic acid and oxo derivatives on a selective basis.

 
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·  
Customers and Markets

The PCI segment's products are used in a variety of markets and end uses, including agriculture, building and construction, transportation, beverages, nutrition, pharmaceuticals, coatings, flooring, medical devices, toys, adhesives, sealants, household products, polymers, textiles, and industrials.  Because of its cost position, reliability, and service, the Company has been able to establish and maintain long-term arrangements and relationships with PCI customers.  Product-specific olefin derivative market conditions vary based upon prevailing supply and demand conditions.  An important trend for the PCI segment's business is a tendency toward regionalization of key markets due to increased transportation costs and local supply in developing regions from new capacities.  The PCI segment benefits from this trend primarily in the U.S. and Canada.  Additionally, the PCI segment is engaged in continuous efforts to optimize product and customer mix.  The PCI segment has approximately 1,050 customers worldwide, with about 80 percent of its sales revenue in 2011 attributable to approximately 135 customers.

 ·
Competition

Historically, there have been significant barriers to entry for potential competitors in the PCI segment's major product lines, including acetic acid and acetic anhydride, primarily due to the relevant technology having been held by a small number of companies.  As this technology has become more readily available, competition from multinational chemical manufacturers has intensified.  Eastman competes with these and other producers primarily based on price, as products are generally interchangeable, but also on technology, marketing, and services.  Eastman's major competitors in this segment include large, multinational companies such as BASF, Celanese, Dow, and Exxon.

SPECIALTY PLASTICS SEGMENT

·  
Overview

In the Specialty Plastics segment, the Company produces and markets specialized copolyesters and cellulosic plastics that possess differentiated performance properties for value-added end uses.  In 2011, the Specialty Plastics segment had sales revenue of $1.2 billion, approximately 16 percent of Eastman's total sales.

Eastman has the unique ability within its Specialty Plastics segment to modify its polymers and plastics to control and customize their final properties, creating numerous opportunities for new application development, including the expertise to develop new materials and new applications starting from the molecular level in the research laboratory to the final designed application.  Recent industry trends in various markets have renewed customers' interest in some of the unique attributes offered by Eastman materials.  Such trends include, but are not limited to, interest in plastics that have superior chemical and mechanical properties to withstand increasing demands in specific applications ranging from household or commercial dishwashing to hospital sterilization, as well as polyvinyl chloride ("PVC")-free and bisphenol A ("BPA")-free plastics.  The addition of the Eastman Tritan™ family of products has significantly expanded the segment's ability to customize copolyesters for new markets and applications.  In addition, the Specialty Plastics segment has a long history of manufacturing excellence with strong process improvement and continuing cost reduction.
 
 ·  Products
 
The Specialty Plastics segment consists of two primary product lines: specialty copolyesters and cellulosics.  Eastman estimates that the market growth for copolyesters will continue to be higher than general domestic economic growth due to ongoing specialty copolyester material innovations and displacement opportunities.  Management believes that cellulosic materials will grow at or above the rate of the domestic economy in the long-term driven by demand in legacy ophthalmics applications and growth in the LCD market, as well as increased demand for cellulosics driven by the sustainability profile of these bio-derived materials and their performance as engineered thermoplastics.  For both specialty copolyesters and cellulosic plastics, the Specialty Plastics segment benefits from integration into the Company's polyester and acetyls streams.  The Specialty Plastics segment's specialty copolyesters are currently produced in Kingsport, Tennessee; Columbia, South Carolina; and Kuantan, Malaysia.  The cellulosic products are produced in Kingsport, Tennessee.

 
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Ø
Specialty Copolyesters
Eastman's specialty copolyesters accounted for approximately 80 percent of the Specialty Plastics segment's 2011, 2010, and 2009 sales revenue.  Eastman's specialty copolyesters, which generally are based on Eastman's production of CHDM, have historically filled a market position between polycarbonates and acrylics/PVC.  Polycarbonates have offered some superior performance characteristics, while acrylics have been less expensive.  More recently, consumer trends driven by health and environmental concerns for competing materials have opened new opportunities for copolyesters.  Additionally, OEM and brand-owner packaging and container design preferences have opened new applications that leverage the design freedom inherent in the physical properties of copolyesters.  Consequently, the Specialty Plastics segment has continued to develop new applications for its core copolyesters to meet growing demand for more environmentally-friendly and sustainable copolyester products.

The segment has had significant growth in sales of copolyesters for clear handleware applications where Eastman's materials offer a unique merchandising solution.  Eastman's newest copolyester, Tritan™, enables the Company to move to higher value applications by adding high temperature resistance to the other properties of copolyesters, including toughness, chemical resistance, and excellent processability.  Sales of Tritan™ products have consistently increased and Tritan™ products are being introduced into new geographic regions.  By broadening its Embrace™ family of products, Eastman has continued to have growth in sales of shrink packaging.  The family of shrink packaging offerings has made Eastman the leading supplier of resins for full-body shrink labels.
 
Ø
Cellulosic Plastics
Cellulosics and cellulosic plastics accounted for approximately 20 percent of the Specialty Plastics segment's 2011, 2010, and 2009 sales revenue.  Through the development of new formulations and applications, Eastman continues to solidify its position as a key supplier of resins in certain applications for LCDs.  Eastman's proprietary family of cellulosic polymers, the Visualize™ cellulosics line of products, are known for their superior optical properties and are the preferred choice for certain film structures in LCD polarizers.  Eastman cellulosic plastics, sold under the Tenite™ brand, are known for their excellent balance of properties, including toughness, hardness, strength, surface gloss, clarity, chemical resistance, and warmth to the touch.

·  
Strategy and Innovation

Through Eastman's advantaged asset position and applications development innovation efforts, the segment has increased specialty copolyesters sales volume to twice U.S. gross domestic product growth over the past five years.  During 2011, shrink packaging products sales volume increased more than U.S. gross domestic product growth driven by new applications for Specialty Plastics products that now include the Embrace™ family of products.  The trend of influencing the purchasing decision with product design has also benefited Eastman's clear handleware solutions for large containers.  Additionally, increased demand for BPA-free products has created new opportunities for various applications of legacy copolyesters.

The addition of Tritan™ copolyester to Eastman's Specialty Plastics product offering has created new opportunities for applications previously produced with materials such as polycarbonate or polysulfone.  During 2011, Eastman continued to solidify the position of Tritan™ copolyester in food contact applications, such as water bottles and other consumer houseware applications through OEMs and brand owners.  During 2011, Eastman's newly completed Tritan™ copolyester polymer manufacturing line operated at capacity, and the high demand for Tritan™ copolyester was met by also using the original Tritan™ copolyester demonstration manufacturing facility.  Given the anticipated successful market acceptance of Tritan™ copolyester and the projected rapid demand growth, the monomer facility was designed to be capable of supplying a second Tritan™ copolyester manufacturing line of 30,000 metric tons per year.  Based on the 2010 demand, the Company decided to expand to a second full scale Tritan™ copolyester manufacturing line which is expected to be operational in early 2012.

The Company is expanding its capacity for CHDM, a monomer used in the manufacture of copolyesters including the new TritanTM copolyester, by approximately 25 percent.  The capacity will be operational in two phases with the first operational in fourth quarter 2011 and the second expected to be operational in first quarter 2012.  The expansion also supports continued growth in legacy copolyester applications, both in developed and developing regions.  The Company is also expanding its cellulose triacetate capacity by 70 percent, with the new capacity expected to be operational in first quarter 2012.

 
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The Specialty Plastics segment is focused on providing consistent profit margins and the Company continues to leverage the advantages of being an integrated polyester manufacturer and expects to continue to pursue opportunities within the integrated polyester stream.  The Company is utilizing the manufacturing assets which were formerly used in the divested polyethylene terephthalate ("PET") business to reduce Specialty Plastics copolyester costs and expand production with larger scale assets.

·  
Customers and Markets

The customer base in the Specialty Plastics segment is broad and diverse, consisting of approximately 670 customers worldwide in a variety of industries.  Approximately 80 percent of the Specialty Plastics segment's 2011 sales revenue was attributable to approximately 70 customers.  The Specialty Plastics segment seeks to develop mutually beneficial relationships with its customers throughout various stages of product life cycles.  By doing so, it is better able to understand its customers' needs as those customers develop new products and more effectively bring new solutions to market.

Specialty copolyesters are sold into a wide range of markets and applications including specialty packaging (medical and electronic component trays, shrink label films, general purpose packaging, and multilayer films); in-store fixtures and displays (point of purchase displays including indoor sign and store fixtures); consumer and durable goods (appliances, housewares, toys, and sporting goods); medical goods (disposable medical devices, health care equipment and instruments, and pharmaceutical packaging); and personal care and consumer packaging (food and beverage packaging and consumer packaging).  Cellulosic plastics are sold into markets and applications such as consumer and durable goods (photographic film, tool handles, sunglass frames, and tapes/labels) and LCD.  The Tritan™ family of products is being sold into a range of markets including, but not limited to, consumer housewares, bulk water, infant care, small appliances and other consumer durables segments.  Additional applications and markets are currently under development.

·  
Competition

The segment principally competes by leveraging price and product performance in specific applications.  Customer product selection is typically determined on an application-by-application basis and often by OEMs rather than by resin converters.  New market opportunities result from substitution of plastic for other materials and displacement of other plastic resins in existing applications.  While historically the Specialty Plastics segment's ability to compete was very closely tied to supply-demand balances of competing plastics, the addition of Tritan™ copolyester, a material based on Eastman proprietary technology, has opened new market opportunities in which Eastman is leveraging the unique combination of properties of the new family of products.  In certain cases, the Company believes that Tritan™ copolyester offers a unique solution by bringing properties similar to polycarbonate without containing any BPA.  In food applications, the fact that Eastman copolyesters are both BPA and PVC-free makes them an attractive alternative to materials such as polycarbonate and other plastics.  In addition, the combination of excellent clarity and superior processability allows for the production of unique and attractive packaging that allows brand owners to differentiate their products in retail markets.  Examples of such applications include shrink film made from Eastman's Embrace™ copolyester family of products and clear handleware containers produced from Eastman copolyesters.

Management believes that the Company's Specialty Plastics products maintain competitive advantages throughout the product life cycle.  At product introduction, the segment's breadth of offerings combined with its R&D capabilities and customer service orientation enable it to quickly bring a wide variety of products to market.  As products enter the growth phase of the life cycle, the Specialty Plastics segment is able to continue to leverage its product breadth by generating sales revenue from multiple sources, as well as retaining customers from long-term relationships.  As products become more price sensitive, the Specialty Plastics segment can take advantage of Eastman's scale of operations, including conversion of rationalized PET assets and vertical integration, to maintain a superior product conversion cost position.

In recent years, the markets for Specialty Plastics products have had volatile raw material costs.  While raw material cost volatility is expected to continue into the future, Eastman believes that it maintains a competitive advantage from diversification of its raw materials base by using both coal for cellulosics and petrochemical-based feedstocks for copolyesters.  The segment continues to be exposed to volatility in cost of certain raw materials used in the manufacture of copolyesters, especially paraxylene and ethylene glycol.

 
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Eastman's primary competitors for copolyester products include Bayer AG, Styron, Evonvik Industries, Saudi Basic Industries Corporation, Mitsubishi Chemicals, and SK Chemical Industries.  Competition for cellulosic plastics is primarily from other producers of cellulose ester polymers such as Sichuan Push Acetati Company Limited and Daicel.

REGIONAL BUSINESS OVERVIEW

Eastman operates as a global business with approximately 45 percent of its sales and 55 percent of its operating earnings, excluding asset impairments and restructuring charges and gains, generated from outside the United States and Canada region in 2011.  As the Company focuses on growth in emerging markets, the percentage of sales and earnings from outside the United States and Canada are expected to increase.  While manufacturing is centered in the U.S., the Company is able to transport products globally to meet demand.  While all regions are affected by the uncertainty in the global economy, the degree of the impact on the various regions is dependent on the mix of the Company's segments and products in each region.  In 2011, the mix of regional revenue from the segments was as follows:

 
CASPI
Fibers
PCI
Specialty Plastics
Total
United States and Canada
25 %
5 %
55 %
15 %
100 %
Asia Pacific
20 %
35 %
25 %
20 %
100 %
Europe, Middle East, and Africa
35 %
25 %
20 %
20 %
100 %
Latin America
40 %
10 %
40 %
10 %
100 %

The United States and Canada region contains the highest concentration of the Company's long-lived assets with approximately 85 percent located in the United States.  Management believes that the location of these manufacturing facilities provides the Company with an advantaged cost position for the Company's domestic customers, particularly for commodity and bulk products.  The PCI segment accounts for approximately half of the region's revenue, as the segment is well-positioned in this region's market for most of its major products, including acetic acid and acetic anhydride, although the region is subject to increased variability in revenues due to the effect of raw material and energy costs on this segment's selling prices.

One-third of revenue in the Asia Pacific region is from acetate tow products in the Fibers segment.  The region includes many emerging growth markets served by Eastman products, including specialty products in the CASPI segment and acetate tow in the Fibers segment, particularly in China.  The Company is responding to this growth by strengthening its position through joint ventures and acquisitions such as the new 30,000 metric ton acetate tow manufacturing facility being constructed in Hefei, China, expected to be operational in mid-2013 in a joint venture with China National Tobacco Corporation, and the acquisition of an acetate tow manufacturing facility in Korea which began production in 2010.

The Europe, Middle East, and Africa region has lower revenue from commodity product lines than any other region and therefore is less affected by general economic conditions and prices are less dependent on raw material costs compared to other regions.

The Latin America region has significant sales from commodity product lines, particularly in the PCI and CASPI segments, and is therefore subject to increased volatility in sales volume and selling prices as a result of general economic conditions and other factors outside of the Company’s control.

 
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CORPORATE INITIATIVES

In addition to its business segments, the Company manages certain costs and initiatives at the corporate level, including certain R&D costs not allocated to any one operating segment.  The Company uses a stage-gating process, which is a disciplined decision making framework for evaluating targeted opportunities, with a number of projects at various stages of development.  As projects meet milestones, additional investment is committed to those projects.   The Company continues to explore and invest in R&D initiatives that are aligned with macro trends in sustainability, consumerism, and energy efficiency through high performance materials, advanced cellulosics, environmentally-friendly chemistry, and process improvements, including Eastman™ microfibers technology which leverages the Company's polymers and applications technology expertise in high purity air filtration, liquid filtration, and energy storage media.  In addition, the Company in 2011 acquired TetraVitae Bioscience, Inc., a developer of renewable chemicals, including bio-based butanol and acetone.
 
For decades, Eastman has been known as a leader in acetic anhydride and acetylated products based on cellulose and wood pulp.  In March 2011, Eastman announced the development of breakthrough process technology to economically enable high quality acetylation of wood.  Eastman's acetylation process permanently changes the molecular structure of wood, resulting in real wood with long-lasting performance.  Acetylated wood, branded as Perennial WoodTM, can be used in virtually any wood application, with opportunities spanning an addressable market of over $2 billion.  In second half 2011, Eastman completed construction of its demonstration manufacturing facility in Kingsport, Tennessee, and introduced its Perennial Wood™ product line in first quarter 2012.  Subject to acceptable market response, the Company plans to continue investment in acetylated wood manufacturing.  Expected revenues at maturity are approximately $500 million with a revenue to capital cost ratio approaching two to one. 
 
During 2011, Eastman has also continued the development of its Cerfis™ technology for the building and construction industry.  The first application of the technology, a molding trim extruded with a copolyester, underwent a test market in retail home improvement stores in a limited metropolitan area.  Based on the results of the test market, Eastman anticipates national marketing by the end of 2012.

DISCONTINUED OPERATIONS

The Company completed the sale of the PET business, related assets at the Columbia, South Carolina site, and technology of its Performance Polymers segment on January 31, 2011 for $615 million and recognized a gain of approximately $30 million, net of tax.  The PET business, assets, and technology sold were substantially all of the Performance Polymers segment.  Performance Polymers segment operating results are presented as discontinued operations for all periods presented and are therefore not included in results from continuing operations under  accounting principles generally accepted in the United States.  Corporate costs which were allocated to the Performance Polymers segment have been reallocated to the remaining segments in the Company's financial statements.  For further information, see Note 3, "Discontinued Operations and Assets Held for Sale", to the Company's consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report.

EASTMAN CHEMICAL COMPANY GENERAL INFORMATION

Sales, Marketing, and Distribution

The Company markets and sells products primarily through a global marketing and sales organization which has a presence in the United States and in 28 other countries selling into approximately 100 countries around the world.  Eastman has a marketing and sales strategy targeting industries and applications where Eastman products and services provide differentiated value.  Market, customer, application, and technical expertise are critical capabilities.  Through a highly skilled and specialized sales force that is capable of providing customized business solutions for each of its four operating segments, Eastman is able to establish long-term customer relationships and strives to become the preferred supplier of specialty chemicals, specialty plastics, and fibers worldwide.

The Company's products are also marketed through indirect channels, which include distributors and contract representatives.  Non-U.S. sales tend to be made more frequently through distributors and contract representatives than U.S. sales.  The combination of direct and indirect sales channels, including sales online through its Customer Center website, allows Eastman to reliably serve customers throughout the world. 

 
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The Company's products are shipped to customers directly from Eastman's manufacturing plants and from distribution centers worldwide.

Sources and Availability of Raw Material and Energy

Eastman purchases a substantial portion, estimated to be approximately 75 percent, of its key raw materials and energy through long-term contracts, generally of three to five years in initial duration with renewal or cancellation options for each party.  Most of these agreements do not require the Company to purchase materials or energy if its operations are reduced or idle.  The cost of raw materials and energy is generally based on market price at the time of purchase, and Eastman uses derivative financial instruments, valued at quoted market prices, to mitigate the impact of short-term market price fluctuations.  Key raw materials include propane, paraxylene, propylene, cellulose, natural gas, coal, ethane, and a wide variety of precursors for specialty organic chemicals.  Key purchased energy sources include natural gas, steam, coal, and electricity.  The Company has multiple suppliers for most key raw materials and energy and uses quality management principles, such as the establishment of long-term relationships with suppliers and on-going performance assessment and benchmarking, as part of its supplier selection process.  When appropriate, the Company purchases raw materials from a single source supplier to maximize quality and cost improvements, and has developed contingency plans designed to minimize the impact of any supply disruptions from single source suppliers.

While temporary shortages of raw materials and energy may occasionally occur, these items are generally sufficiently available to cover current and projected requirements.  However, their continuous availability and cost are subject to unscheduled plant interruptions occurring during periods of high demand, or due to domestic or world market and political conditions, changes in government regulation, natural disasters, war or other outbreak of hostilities or terrorism or other political factors, or breakdown or degradation of transportation infrastructure.  Eastman's operations or products have been in the past, and may be in the future at times adversely affected by these factors.  The Company's raw material and energy costs as a percent of total cost of operations were approximately 65 percent in 2011 and 60 percent in 2010 and 2009.

The following chart shows the Company's key purchased raw materials by segment.

SEGMENT
KEY RAW MATERIALS
CASPI
 
Propane, propylene, piperline, C9 resin oil, rosin, acetone, pygas, styrene, ethane
 
Fibers
 
High sulfur coal, wood pulp, methanol
 
PCI
 
Propane, propylene, paraxylene, ethane, toluene
 
Specialty Plastics
 
Ethylene glycol, paraxylene, cellulose
 

Capital Expenditures

Capital expenditures were $457 million, $243 million, and $310 million in 2011, 2010, and 2009, respectively.  Capital expenditures in 2011 were primarily for organic growth initiatives, particularly in the Specialty Plastics, CASPI, and PCI segments.  The lower expenditures in 2010 were primarily due to the deferral of discretionary spending in response to the global recession.  The Company expects that 2012 capital spending will focus on organic growth initiatives and maintenance.

Employees

Eastman employs approximately 10,000 men and women worldwide.  Approximately four percent of the total worldwide labor force is represented by unions, mostly outside the United States.

 
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Customers

Eastman has an extensive customer base and, while it is not dependent on any one customer, loss of certain top customers could adversely affect the Company until such business is replaced.  The top 100 customers accounted for approximately 70 percent of the Company's 2011 sales revenue.

Intellectual Property and Trademarks

While the Company's intellectual property portfolio is an important Company asset which it expands and vigorously protects globally through a combination of patents that expire at various times, trademarks, copyrights, and trade secrets, neither its business as a whole nor any particular segment is materially dependent upon any one particular patent, trademark, copyright, or trade secret.  As a producer of a broad and diverse portfolio of both specialty and commodity chemicals, plastics, and fibers, Eastman owns over 600 active United States patents and more than 1,050 active foreign patents, expiring at various times over several years, and also owns over 2,550 active worldwide trademark applications and registrations.  The Company's intellectual property relates to a wide variety of products and processes.  Eastman continues to actively protect its intellectual property.  As the laws of many countries do not protect intellectual property to the same extent as the laws of the United States, Eastman cannot ensure that it will be able to adequately protect its intellectual property assets outside the United States.

The Company pursues opportunities to license proprietary technology to third parties in areas where it has determined competitive impact to its businesses will be minimal.  These arrangements typically are structured to require payments at significant project milestones such as signing, completion of design, and start-up.  To date, efforts have been focused on acetyls technology in the PCI segment.  The Company also is actively pursuing licensing opportunities for oxo derivatives in the PCI segment.

Research and Development

For 2011, 2010, and 2009, Eastman's R&D expenses totaled $158 million, $152 million, and $124 million, respectively.

Environmental

Eastman is subject to significant and complex laws, regulations, and legal requirements relating to the use, storage, handling, generation, transportation, emission, discharge, disposal, and remediation of, and exposure to, hazardous and non-hazardous substances and wastes in all of the countries in which it does business.  These health, safety, and environmental considerations are a priority in the Company's planning for all existing and new products and processes.  The Health, Safety, Environmental and Security Committee of Eastman's Board of Directors oversees the Company's policies and practices concerning health, safety, and the environment and its processes for complying with related laws and regulations, and monitors related matters.

The Company's policy is to operate its plants and facilities in a manner that protects the environment and the health and safety of its employees and the public.  The Company intends to continue to make expenditures for environmental protection and improvements in a timely manner consistent with its policies and with the technology available.  In some cases, applicable environmental regulations such as those adopted under the U.S. Clean Air Act and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and related actions of regulatory agencies, determine the timing and amount of environmental costs incurred by the Company.  Likewise, when finalized, potential legislation related to greenhouse gas emissions, energy policy, and associated implementing regulations could impact the timing and amount of environmental costs incurred by the Company.

The Company accrues environmental costs when it is probable that the Company has incurred a liability and the amount can be reasonably estimated.  In some instances, the amount cannot be reasonably estimated due to insufficient information, particularly as to the nature and timing of future expenditures.  In these cases, the liability is monitored until such time that sufficient data exists.  With respect to a contaminated site, the amount accrued reflects the Company's assumptions about remedial requirements at the site, the nature of the remedy, the outcome of discussions with regulatory agencies and other potentially responsible parties at multi-party sites, and the number and financial viability of other potentially responsible parties.  Changes in the estimates on which the accruals are based, unanticipated government enforcement action, or changes in health, safety, environmental, and chemical control regulations, and testing requirements could result in higher or lower costs.

 
22 

   

The Company's cash expenditures related to environmental protection and improvement were $219 million, $200 million, and $173 million, in 2011, 2010, and 2009, respectively.  These amounts were primarily for operating costs associated with environmental protection equipment and facilities, but also included $35 million in expenditures for engineering and construction in 2011.  Cash expenditures in 2012 are expected to increase primarily as a result of full year integration of 2011 acquisitions and of the expected mid-2012 acquisition of Solutia, although no assurances of the timing of completion of this acquisition or the related cash expenditures can be provided.  Other than potential capital expenditures at the Company's Kingsport, Tennessee facility related to regulations associated with controlling air emissions from boilers, the Company does not currently expect future environmental capital expenditures arising from requirements of recently promulgated environmental laws and regulations to materially increase the Company's planned level of annual capital expenditures for environmental control facilities, although no assurances can be provided as to the timing or amount of any capital expenditures that may arise as a result of the completion of the expected acquisition of Solutia.  Potential capital expenditures associated with boiler air emissions remain uncertain pending adoption of final regulations, but could increase average annual environmental capital expenditures significantly over the next five years compared to recent historical levels depending on final regulation requirements and the Company's method of addressing those requirements.

Other matters concerning health, safety, and the environment are discussed in Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations in Part II Item 7 and in Notes 1, "Significant Accounting Policies", 15, "Environmental Matters", and 24, "Reserve Rollfowards" to the Company's consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report.

Backlog

On January 1, 2012 and 2011, Eastman's backlog of firm sales orders represented less than 10 percent of the Company's total consolidated revenue for the previous year.  These orders are primarily short-term and all orders are expected to be filled in the following year.  The Company manages its inventory levels to control the backlog of products depending on customers' needs.  In areas where the Company is the single source of supply, or competitive forces or customers' needs dictate, the Company may carry additional inventory to meet customer requirements.

Financial Information About Geographic Areas

For sales revenue and long-lived assets by geographic areas, see Note 22, "Segment Information", to the Company's consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report.  For information about regional sales and earnings, see "Regional Business Overview" above in this "Business" section of this Annual Report.

Available Information – SEC Filings

The Company makes available free of charge, through the "Investors – SEC Information" section of its Internet website (www.eastman.com), its annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as soon as reasonably practicable after electronically filing such material with, or furnishing it to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC").

 
23 

   

ITEM 1A.  RISK FACTORS

For identification and discussion of the most significant risks applicable to the Company and its business, see Part II – Item 7 – "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Forward-Looking Statements and Risk Factors" of this Annual Report.

ITEM 1B.  UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.

 
24 

   

EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF THE COMPANY

Certain information about the Company's executive officers is provided below:

James P. Rogers, age 60, is Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer of Eastman Chemical Company.  He served as President and Chief Executive Officer from May 2009 until January 2011.  Mr. Rogers was appointed Executive Vice President of the Company and President of Eastman Division effective November 2003.  Mr. Rogers joined the Company in 1999 as Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer and in 2002 was also appointed Chief Operations Officer of Eastman Division.  Mr. Rogers served previously as Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of GAF Materials Corporation ("GAF").  He also served as Executive Vice President, Finance, of International Specialty Products, Inc., which was spun off from GAF in 1997.
 
Mark J. Costa, age 45, is Executive Vice President, Specialty Polymers, Coatings and Adhesives, and Chief Marketing Officer.  In addition to his responsibilities for two of Eastman's growth businesses, he also directs the global integrated supply chain.  Mr. Costa joined the Company in June 2006 as Senior Vice President, Corporate Strategy & Marketing and was appointed Executive Vice President, Polymers Business Group Head and Chief Marketing Officer in August 2008.  Prior to joining Eastman, Mr. Costa was a senior partner within Monitor Group's integrated North American and global client service networks.  He joined Monitor, a global management consulting firm, in 1988 and his experience included corporate and business unit strategies, asset portfolio strategies, innovation and marketing, and channel strategies across a wide range of industries.  Mr. Costa was appointed to his current position in May 2009.
 
Ronald C. Lindsay, age 53, is Executive Vice President, Performance Chemicals and Intermediates, Fibers, Engineering and Construction, and Manufacturing Support.  He joined Eastman in 1980 and held a number of positions in various manufacturing and business organizations.  In 2003, Mr. Lindsay was appointed Vice President and General Manager of Intermediates, in 2005 became Vice President, Performance Chemicals and Intermediates, in 2006 was appointed Senior Vice President and Chief Technology Officer, in 2008 was appointed Senior Vice President, Corporate Strategy and Regional Leadership, and in May 2009 was appointed Executive Vice President, Performance Polymers and Chemical Intermediates.  He was appointed to his current position in January 2011.

Michael H.K. Chung, age 58 is Senior Vice President and Chief International Ventures Officer.  Mr. Chung joined Eastman in 1976, and since that time has held various management positions, primarily in the Company's chemicals and fibers businesses.  He was appointed Vice President, Fibers International Business in 2006 and in 2009, he was appointed Vice President and Managing Director, Asia Pacific Region.  Mr. Chung was appointed to his current position in January 2011.
 
Curtis E. Espeland, age 47, is Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer.  Mr. Espeland joined Eastman in 1996, and has served in various financial management positions of increasing responsibility, including Vice President, Finance, Polymers; Vice President, Finance, Eastman Division; Vice President and Controller; Director of Corporate Planning and Forecasting; Director of Finance, Asia Pacific; and Director of Internal Auditing. He served as the Company's Chief Accounting Officer from December 2002 to 2008.  Prior to joining Eastman, Mr. Espeland was an audit and business advisory manager with Arthur Andersen LLP in the United States, Eastern Europe, and Australia.  Mr. Espeland was appointed to his current position in September 2008.
 
Theresa K. Lee, age 59, is Senior Vice President, Chief Legal and Administrative Officer.  Ms. Lee joined Eastman as a staff attorney in 1987, and has served in various legal management positions of increasing responsibility, including Assistant General Counsel for the health, safety, and environmental legal staff, Assistant General Counsel for the corporate legal staff, and Vice President, Associate General Counsel and Secretary.  She became Vice President, General Counsel, and Corporate Secretary of Eastman in 2000, was appointed Senior Vice President, Chief Legal Officer and Corporate Secretary in 2002, and was appointed to her current position in January 2011.

Godefroy A.F.E. Motte, age 53, is Senior Vice President, Chief Regional and Sustainability Officer.  Since joining Eastman in 1985, Mr. Motte has held leadership positions in various organizations, including sales and manufacturing and in the Company's chemicals and polymers businesses.  He was appointed Vice President for the Europe, Middle East, and Asia ("EMEA") region for the Chemicals Division in 2001 and for the EMEA Polymers Business Group in April 2006.  Mr. Motte was appointed to his current position in January 2011.

 
25 

   

Greg W. Nelson, age 49, is Senior Vice President and Chief Technology Officer.  Dr. Nelson joined Eastman in 1988 in the Research and Development organization, and served in various positions in specialty plastics technology and business organizations, including business unit manager of polymer films and coatings.  In 2001, Dr. Nelson was appointed Vice President, Technology, in 2006 became Vice President, Polymers Technology, and in 2007 Vice President, Corporate Technology until appointed to his current position in August 2008.

Scott V. King, age 43, is Vice President, Controller and Chief Accounting Officer.  Since joining Eastman in 1999 as Manager, Corporate Consolidations and External Reporting, he has held various positions of increasing responsibility in the financial organization, and was appointed Vice President and Controller in August 2007.  Prior to joining Eastman, Mr. King was an audit and business advisory manager with PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP.  Mr. King was appointed to his current position in September 2008.


 

 
 

 

 
26 

   

ITEM 2. PROPERTIES

PROPERTIES

At December 31, 2011, Eastman Chemical Company ("Eastman" or the "Company") operated nineteen manufacturing sites in ten countries.  Utilization of these facilities may vary with product mix and economic, seasonal, and other business conditions; however, with the exception of the recently acquired Sterling Chemicals, Inc. ("Sterling"), in Texas City, Texas none of the principal plants are substantially idle.   For additional information regarding Sterling, see "PCI Segment – Strategy and Innovation" in Part I, Item 1 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K (this "Annual Report").  The Company's plants, including approved expansions, generally have sufficient capacity for existing needs and expected near-term growth.  These plants are generally well maintained, in good operating condition, and suitable and adequate for their use.  Unless otherwise indicated, all of the properties are owned.  The locations and general character of the major manufacturing facilities are:

 
Segment using manufacturing facility
Location
CASPI
Fibers
PCI
Specialty Plastics
         
USA
       
  Chestertown, Maryland
   
x
 
  Columbia, South Carolina(1)
     
x
  Franklin, Virginia(2)
x
     
  Indianapolis, Indiana
x
     
  Jefferson, Pennsylvania
x
     
  Kingsport, Tennessee
x
x
x
x
  Longview, Texas
x
 
x
x
  Texas City, Texas
   
x
 
Europe
       
  Workington, England
 
x
   
  Middelburg, the Netherlands
x
     
  Kohtla-Järve, Estonia
   
x
 
Asia Pacific
       
  Jurong Island, Singapore (2)
x
 
x
 
  Kuantan, Malaysia (2)
     
x
  Tong Xiang, China
x
     
  Ulsan, Korea
 
x
   
  Wuhan, China (3)
   
x
 
  Zibo City, China(4)
x
 
x
 
Latin America
       
  Uruapan, Mexico
x
     
  San Paulo, Brazil
   
x
 

(1)  
Although nearly all of the manufacturing facility was included in the first quarter 2011 divestiture of the Company's polyethylene terephthalate ("PET") business and related assets, a portion has been retained subsequent to the sale.
(2)  
Indicates a location that Eastman leases from a third party.
(3)  
Eastman holds a 51 percent share in the joint venture Genovique Specialties Wuhan Youji Chemical Co., Ltd.
(4)  
Eastman holds a 51 percent share in the joint venture Qilu Eastman Specialty Chemical Ltd.

 
27 

   

Eastman has a 50 percent interest in Primester, a joint venture that manufactures cellulose acetate at Eastman's Kingsport, Tennessee plant.  The production of cellulose acetate is an intermediate step in the manufacture of acetate tow and other cellulose acetate based products.  The Company also has a 50 percent interest in a joint venture that has a manufacturing facility in Nanjing, China.  The Nanjing facility produces EastotacTM hydrocarbon tackifying resins for pressure-sensitive adhesives, caulks, and sealants.  EastotacTM hydrocarbon resins are also used to produce hot melt adhesives for packaging applications in addition to glue sticks, tapes, labels, and other adhesive applications.  In November 2010, the Company entered into a joint venture with 50 percent interest for the manufacture of compounded cellulose diacetate ("CDA") in Shenzhen, China.  CDA is a bio-derived material, which is used in various injection molded applications, including but not limited to ophthalmic frames, tool handles and other end use products.  In 2011, the Company entered into a joint venture for a 30,000 metric ton acetate tow manufacturing facility in China, expected to be operational in mid-2013.  Eastman has 45 percent ownership of the joint venture and expects to provide 100 percent of the acetate flake raw material to the joint venture from the Company's manufacturing facility in Kingsport.

Eastman has distribution facilities at all of its plant sites.  In addition, the Company owns or leases approximately 90 stand-alone distribution facilities in the United States and 16 other countries.  Corporate headquarters are in Kingsport, Tennessee.  The Company's regional headquarters are in Miami, Florida; Capelle aan den IJssel, the Netherlands; Zug, Switzerland; Singapore; and Kingsport, Tennessee.  Technical service is provided to the Company's customers from technical service centers in Kingsport, Tennessee; Kirkby, England; Shanghai, China; and Singapore.  Customer service centers are located in Kingsport, Tennessee; Capelle aan den IJssel, the Netherlands; Miami, Florida; and Singapore.

A summary of properties, classified by type, is included in Note 5, "Properties and Accumulated Depreciation", to the Company's consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report.

 
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ITEM 3.  LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

General

From time to time, Eastman Chemical Company ("Eastman" or the "Company") and its operations are parties to, or targets of, lawsuits, claims, investigations and proceedings, including product liability, personal injury, asbestos, patent and intellectual property, commercial, contract, environmental, antitrust, health and safety, and employment matters, which are being handled and defended in the ordinary course of business.  While the Company is unable to predict the outcome of these matters, it does not believe, based upon currently available facts, that the ultimate resolution of any such pending matters will have a material adverse effect on its overall financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.  However, adverse developments could negatively impact earnings or cash flows in a particular future period.

On February 2, 2012, a putative shareholder class and derivative action, styled Jennifer Howard v. Jeffry N. Quinn, et al., was filed against Solutia, its board of directors (the “Solutia Board”), and Eastman in the Circuit Court of St. Louis County, Missouri.  The complaint generally alleges that the Solutia Board breached its fiduciary duties to Solutia shareholders by, among other things, approving Eastman's proposed acquisition of Solutia for allegedly inadequate consideration and following an allegedly unfair sale process.  The complaint further alleges that Eastman aided and abetted the Solutia Board in the alleged breach of fiduciary duties by participating in Eastman's proposed acquisition of Solutia.  The complaint seeks, among other things, an injunction against the consummation of Eastman's proposed acquisition of Solutia, rescission of Eastman's proposed acquisition of Solutia in the event it is consummated, any damages arising from the defendants’ alleged breaches, and costs and attorneys’ fees associated with the action.  Eastman intends to vigorously defend itself against the allegations in the complaint.

On February 7, 2012, a second putative shareholder class action, styled John C. Dewan v. Solutia, Inc., was filed against Solutia, the Solutia Board, Eastman, and Eastman's wholly-owned subsidiary Eagle Merger Sub Corporation (the “Merger Sub”) in the Chancery Court of Delaware.  The complaint generally alleges that the Solutia Board breached its fiduciary duties to Solutia shareholders by, among other things, approving Eastman's proposed acquisition of Solutia for allegedly inadequate consideration, following an allegedly unfair sale process, and agreeing to terms in the Merger Agreement that favor Eastman and deter alternative bids.  The complaint further alleges that Eastman and Merger Sub aided and abetted the Solutia Board in the alleged breach of fiduciary duties through, among other things, their respective participation in Eastman's proposed acquisition of Solutia.  The complaint seeks, among other things, an injunction against the consummation of Eastman's proposed acquisition of Solutia and costs and attorneys’ fees associated with the action.  Eastman and Merger Sub intend to vigorously defend themselves against the allegations in the complaint.

On February 14, 2012, two additional putative shareholder class actions, styled Joseph C. Huttemann v. Jeffry N. Quinn, et al., and David Wolfe v. Solutia, Inc., et al., respectively, were filed against Solutia, the Solutia Board, Eastman, and Merger Sub in the Chancery Court of Delaware.  These complaints generally allege that the Solutia Board breached its fiduciary duties to Solutia shareholders by, among other things, approving Eastman's proposed acquisition of Solutia for allegedly inadequate consideration, following an allegedly unfair sale process, and agreeing to terms in the Merger Agreement that favor Eastman and deter alternative bids.  The complaint further alleges that Eastman and Merger Sub aided and abetted the Solutia Board in the alleged breach of fiduciary duties through, among other things, their respective participation in Eastman's proposed acquisition of Solutia.  The complaints seek, among other things, an injunction against the consummation of Eastman's proposed acquisition of Solutia and costs and attorneys’ fees associated with the action.  Eastman and the Merger Sub intend to vigorously defend themselves against the allegations in these complaints.

ITEM 4.  MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.

 
29 

   


ITEM 5.  MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON STOCK, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

(a)  Eastman Chemical Company's ("Eastman" or the "Company") common stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange ("NYSE") under the symbol "EMN".  The following table presents the high and low sales prices of the common stock on the NYSE and the cash dividends per share declared by the Company's Board of Directors for each quarterly period of 2011 and 2010.

 
High
 
Low
 
Cash Dividends Declared
2011
First Quarter
50.07
42.39
0.235
 
Second Quarter
55.36
 
46.82
 
0.235
 
Third Quarter
53.31
 
32.45
 
0.260
 
Fourth Quarter
42.62
 
33.21
 
0.260
2010
First Quarter
32.34
27.94
0.220
 
Second Quarter
35.98
 
26.63
 
0.220
 
Third Quarter
37.43
 
25.55
 
0.220
 
Fourth Quarter
42.29
 
36.82
 
0.235

As of December 31, 2011, there were 137,003,954 shares of the Company's common stock issued and outstanding, which shares were held by 20,959 stockholders of record.  These shares include 88,456 shares held by the Company's charitable foundation.  The Company's Board of Directors has declared a cash dividend of $0.260 per share during the first quarter of 2012, payable on April 2, 2012 to stockholders of record on March 15, 2012.  Quarterly dividends on common stock, if declared by the Board of Directors, are usually paid on or about the first business day of the month following the end of each quarter.  The payment of dividends is a business decision made by the Board of Directors from time to time based on the Company's earnings, financial position and prospects, and such other considerations as the Board considers relevant.  Accordingly, while management currently expects that the Company will continue to pay the quarterly cash dividend, its dividend practice may change at any time.

In third quarter 2011, the Company's Board of Directors declared a two-for-one split of the Company's common stock, distributed October 3, 2011 in the form of a 100 percent stock dividend.  All shares and per share amounts in this Annual Report on Form 10-K (this "Annual Report") have been adjusted for all periods presented for the stock split.  For additional information, see Note 1, "Significant Accounting Policies" and Note 17, "Stockholders' Equity" to the Company's consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report.


(b)  Not applicable.

(c)  Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers

 
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Period
(1)
Total Number
of Shares
Purchased
(2)
 
Average Price Paid Per Share
(3)
 
Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans
or Programs
(4)
 
Approximate Dollar
Value (in Millions) that May Yet Be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs
(4)
October 1- 31, 2011
693,209
$
36.04
 
693,209
$
98
November 1-30, 2011
--
$
--
 
--
$
98
December 1-31, 2011
--
$
--
 
--
$
98
Total
693,209
$
36.04
 
693,209
   

(1)   
Shares and share prices have been retrospectively adjusted for all periods presented for the two-for-one stock split on October 3, 2011.  For additional information, see Note 17, "Stockholders' Equity", to the Company's consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report.
(2)   
Shares repurchased under a Company announced repurchase plan.
(3)   
Average price paid per share reflects the weighted average purchase price paid for shares.
(4)   
In February 2011, the Board of Directors authorized repurchase of up to $300 million of the Company's outstanding common stock at such times, in such amounts, and on such terms, as determined to be in the best interests of the Company.  As of December 31, 2011, a total of 4,757,639 shares have been repurchased under this authorization for a total amount of approximately $202 million.  During 2011, the Company repurchased 7,258,031 shares of common stock for a cost of approximately $316 million under the current and a previous stock repurchase authorization.  For additional information, see Note 17, "Stockholders' Equity", to the Company's consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report.


 
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ITEM 6.  SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

Operating Data
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
                               
(Dollars in millions, except per share amounts)
 
2011
   
2010
   
2009
   
2008
   
2007
 
                               
Sales
  $ 7,178     $ 5,842     $ 4,396     $ 5,936     $ 5,513  
Operating earnings
    1,021       862       345       551       683  
     
                                         
Earnings from continuing operations
    657       425       154       345       434  
Earnings (loss) from discontinued operations
    8       13       (18 )     (17 )     (123 )
Gain (loss) from disposal of discontinued operations
    31       --       --       18       (11 )
Net earnings
  $ 696     $ 438     $ 136     $ 346     $ 300  
                                         
Basic earnings per share
                                       
Earnings from continuing operations
  $ 4.70     $ 2.95     $ 1.06     $ 2.29     $ 2.62  
Earnings (loss) from discontinued operations
    0.28       0.09       (0.12 )     0.01       (0.81 )
Net earnings
  $ 4.98     $ 3.04     $ 0.94     $ 2.30     $ 1.81  
                                         
Diluted earnings per share
                                       
Earnings from continuing operations
  $ 4.59     $ 2.88     $ 1.05     $ 2.27     $ 2.59  
Earnings (loss) from discontinued operations
    0.27       0.08       (0.12 )     0.00       (0.80 )
Net earnings
  $ 4.86     $ 2.96     $ 0.93     $ 2.27     $ 1.79  
                                         
                                         
Statement of Financial Position Data
                                       
                                         
Current assets
  $ 2,302     $ 2,047     $ 1,735     $ 1,423     $ 2,293  
Net properties
    3,107       3,219       3,110       3,198       2,846  
Total assets
    6,184       5,986       5,515       5,281       6,009  
Current liabilities
    1,114       1,070       800       832       1,122  
Long-term borrowings
    1,445       1,598       1,604       1,442       1,535  
Total liabilities
    4,314       4,359       4,002       3,728       3,927  
Total stockholders' equity
    1,870       1,627       1,513       1,553       2,082  
Dividends declared per share
    0.990       0.895       0.880       0.880       0.880  

In third quarter 2011, Eastman Chemical Company's ("Eastman" or the "Company") Board of Directors declared a two-for-one split of the Company's common stock, distributed October 3, 2011 in the form of a 100 percent stock dividend.  All shares and per share amounts in this Annual Report on Form 10-K (this "Annual Report") have been adjusted for all periods presented for the stock split.  For additional information, see Note 17, "Stockholders' Equity" to the Company's consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report.

In third quarter 2011, the Company completed two acquisitions in the Performance Chemicals and Intermediates ("PCI") segment.  Eastman acquired Sterling Chemicals, Inc. ("Sterling"), a single site North American petrochemical producer, to produce non-phthalate plasticizers, including Eastman 168™ non-phthalate plasticizers, and acetic acid, and Eastman also acquired Scandiflex do Brasil S.A. Indústrias Químicas ("Scandiflex"), a manufacturer of plasticizers located in São Paulo, Brazil.  For additional information see Part II, Item 8 – "Notes to the Audited Consolidated Financial Statements" – Note 2, "Acquisitions and Investments in Joint Ventures" and Note 18, "Asset Impairments and Restructuring Charges (Gains), Net" of this Annual Report.


 
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In third quarter 2011, the Company acquired Dynaloy, LLC ("Dynaloy"), a producer of formulated solvents.  The acquisition was accounted for as a business combination and is reported in the Coatings, Adhesives, Specialty Polymers, and Inks ("CASPI") segment.  Dynaloy adds materials science capabilities that are expected to complement growth of the CASPI segment's electronic materials product line.  For additional information see Part II, Item 8 – "Notes to the Audited Consolidated Financial Statements" – Note 2, "Acquisitions and Investments in Joint Ventures" of this Annual Report.

In first quarter 2011, the Company completed the sale of the polyethylene terephthalate ("PET") business, related assets at the Columbia, South Carolina site, and technology of its Performance Polymers segment.  The PET business, assets, and technology sold were substantially all of the Performance Polymers segment.  Performance Polymers segment operating results are presented as discontinued operations for all periods presented and are therefore not included in results from continuing operations in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted ("GAAP") in the United States.  For additional information, see Note 3, "Discontinued Operations and Assets Held for Sale", to the Company's consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report.

In second quarter 2010, Eastman completed the stock purchase of Genovique Specialties Corporation ("Genovique"), which was accounted for as a business combination.  The acquired business is a global producer of specialty plasticizers, benzoic acid, and sodium benzoate.  This acquisition included Genovique's manufacturing operations in Kohtla-Järve, Estonia and Chestertown, Maryland and a joint venture in Wuhan, China.  Genovique's benzoate ester plasticizers were a strategic addition to Eastman's existing general-purpose and specialty non-phthalate plasticizers.  For additional information see Part II, Item 8 – "Notes to the Audited Consolidated Financial Statements" – Note 2, "Acquisitions and Investments in Joint Ventures" and Note 18, "Asset Impairments and Restructuring Charges (Gains), Net" of this Annual Report.

In fourth quarter 2009, the Company discontinued its Beaumont, Texas industrial gasification project.  This decision was based on a number of factors, including high capital costs, the current and projected reduced spread between natural gas and oil and petroleum coke prices, and continued uncertainty regarding U.S. energy and environmental public policy.  For more information regarding the impact of this impairment on financial results, see the segment discussions of Part II, Item 7 – "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and Part II, Item 8 – "Notes to the Audited Consolidated Financial Statements" – Note 18, "Asset Impairments and Restructuring Charges (Gains), Net " of this Annual Report.




 
33 

   

  ITEM 7
 MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS


This Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations is based upon the consolidated financial statements for Eastman Chemical Company ("Eastman" or the "Company"), which have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted ("GAAP") in the United States, and should be read in conjunction with the Company's consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this 2011 Annual Report on Form 10-K (this "Annual Report").  All references to earnings per share ("EPS") contained in this report are diluted earnings per share unless otherwise noted.

In third quarter 2011, the Company's Board of Directors declared a two-for-one split of the Company's common stock, distributed October 3, 2011 in the form of a 100 percent stock dividend.  All shares and per share amounts in this Annual Report have been adjusted for all periods presented for the stock split.  For additional information, see Note 17, "Stockholders' Equity" to the Company's consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report.




 
34 

   
 
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL
CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS


In preparing the consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP, the Company's management must make decisions which impact the reported amounts and the related disclosures.  Such decisions include the selection of the appropriate accounting principles to be applied and assumptions on which to base estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, sales revenue and expenses, and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities.  On an ongoing basis, the Company evaluates its estimates, including those related to allowances for doubtful accounts, impairment of long-lived assets, environmental costs, U.S. pension and other post-employment benefits, litigation and contingent liabilities, income taxes, and purchase accounting.  The Company bases its estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources.  Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.  The Company's management believes the critical accounting estimates described below are the most important to the fair presentation of the Company's financial condition and results.  These estimates require management's most significant judgments in the preparation of the Company's consolidated financial statements.

Allowances for Doubtful Accounts

The Company maintains allowances for doubtful accounts for estimated losses resulting from the inability of its customers to make required payments.  The Company believes, based on historical results, the likelihood of actual write-offs having a material impact on financial results is low.  However, if one of the Company's key customers was to file for bankruptcy, or otherwise be unwilling or unable to make its required payments, or there was a significant slow-down in the economy, the Company could increase its allowances.  This could result in a material charge to earnings.  The Company's allowances were $8 million and $5 million at December 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively.

Impairment of Long-Lived Assets

Long-lived assets and certain identifiable intangibles to be held and used by the Company are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable.  If the carrying amount is not considered to be recoverable, an analysis of fair value is triggered.  An impairment is recorded for the excess of the carrying amount of the asset over the fair value.

The Company conducts its annual testing of goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets in third quarter of each year, unless events warrant more frequent testing.  Reporting units are identified for the purpose of assessing potential impairments of goodwill.  The carrying value of indefinite-lived intangibles is considered impaired when their fair value, as established by appraisal or based on undiscounted future cash flows of certain related products, is less than their carrying value.  If the fair value of a reporting unit is less than the carrying value of goodwill, additional steps, including an allocation of the estimated fair value to the assets and liabilities of the reporting unit, would be necessary to determine the amount, if any, of goodwill impairment.  Goodwill and indefinite-lived intangibles primarily consist of goodwill in the Coatings, Adhesives, Specialty Polymers and Inks ("CASPI") and Performance Chemicals and Intermediates ("PCI") segments.  The Company also had recorded goodwill and other intangibles associated with the Beaumont, Texas industrial gasification project.  In fourth quarter 2009, the Company announced the discontinuance of the Beaumont, Texas industrial gasification project, which resulted in an impairment of the Beaumont industrial gasification project goodwill and other intangible assets.

As the Company's assumptions related to long-lived assets are subject to change, additional write-downs may be required in the future.  If estimates of fair value less costs to sell are revised, the carrying amount of the related asset is adjusted, resulting in a charge to earnings.  The Company recognized a definite-lived intangible asset impairment charge of $8 million resulting from an environmental regulatory change during fourth quarter 2010 impacting the fair value of air emission credits remaining from the previously discontinued Beaumont, Texas, industrial gasification project.  The Company recognized fixed (tangible) asset impairment charges of $133 million and goodwill and definite-lived intangible asset impairment charges of $46 million in results from continuing operations during 2009, related to the discontinuance of the Beaumont, Texas industrial gasification project.

 
35 

 
 
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL
CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Environmental Costs

The Company accrues environmental remediation costs when it is probable that the Company has incurred a liability at a contaminated site and the amount can be reasonably estimated.  When a single amount cannot be reasonably estimated but the cost can be estimated within a range, the Company accrues the minimum amount.  This undiscounted accrued amount reflects the Company's assumptions about remediation requirements at the contaminated site, the nature of the remedy, the outcome of discussions with regulatory agencies and other potentially responsible parties at multi-party sites, and the number and financial viability of other potentially responsible parties.  Changes in the estimates on which the accruals are based, unanticipated government enforcement action, or changes in health, safety, environmental, and chemical control regulations and testing requirements could result in higher or lower costs.  Estimated future environmental expenditures for remediation costs range from the minimum or best estimate of $11 million to the maximum of $29 million at December 31, 2011.

In accordance with GAAP, the Company also establishes reserves for closure/postclosure costs associated with the environmental and other assets it maintains.  Environmental assets, as defined by GAAP, include but are not limited to waste management units, such as landfills, water treatment facilities, and ash ponds.  When these types of assets are constructed or installed, a reserve is established for the future costs anticipated to be associated with the retirement or closure of the asset based on an expected life of the environmental assets and the applicable regulatory closure requirements.  These future expenses are charged against earnings over the estimated useful life of the assets.  Currently, the Company estimates the useful life of each individual asset is up to 50 years.  If the Company changes its estimate of the asset retirement obligation costs or its estimate of the useful lives of these assets, expenses to be charged against earnings could increase or decrease.

In accordance with GAAP, the Company also monitors conditional obligations and will record reserves associated with them when and to the extent that more detailed information becomes available concerning applicable retirement costs.

The Company's reserve, including the above remediation, was $39 million at December 31, 2011 and $40 million at December 31, 2010, representing the minimum or best estimate for remediation costs and the best estimate of the amount accrued to date over the regulated assets' estimated useful lives for asset retirement obligation costs.

Pension and Other Post-employment Benefits

The Company maintains defined benefit pension plans that provide eligible employees with retirement benefits.  Additionally, Eastman provides a subsidy toward life insurance, health care, and dental benefits for eligible retirees and a subsidy toward health care and dental benefits for retirees' eligible survivors.  The costs and obligations related to these benefits reflect the Company's assumptions related to general economic conditions (particularly interest rates) and expected return on plan assets.  In connection with its acquisition of Sterling Chemicals, Inc. ("Sterling") in 2011, the Company assumed Sterling's U.S. pension plans.  At December 31, 2011, the Company assumed discount rates of 4.88 percent and 4.83 percent on the defined benefit pension plans, respectively, and an expected return on plan assets of 8.75 percent and 5.50 percent, respectively.  The Company assumed a discount rate of 5.00 percent on its other post-employment benefit plan.  The cost of providing plan benefits also depends on demographic assumptions including retirements, mortality, turnover, and plan participation.


 
36 

 
 
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL
CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

The December 31, 2011 projected benefit obligation and 2012 expense are affected by year-end 2011 assumptions.  The following table illustrates the sensitivity to changes in the Company's long-term assumptions in the expected return on assets and assumed discount rate for all U.S. pension plans and other postretirement welfare plans.  The sensitivities below are specific to the time periods noted.  They also may not be additive, so the impact of changing multiple factors simultaneously cannot be calculated by combining the individual sensitivities shown.

Change in
Assumption
Impact on
2012 Pre-tax U.S.
Benefits Expense
Impact on
December 31, 2011 Projected Benefit Obligation for U.S. Pension Plans
Impact on
December 31, 2011 Accumulated Postretirement Benefit Obligation for Other U.S. Postretirement Plans
       
25 basis point
decrease in discount
 rate
 
 
+$6 Million
 
 
+$49 Million
 
 
+$27 Million
       
25 basis point
increase in discount
 rate
 
 
-$6 Million
 
 
-$47 Million
 
 
-$26 Million
       
25 basis point
decrease in expected return on assets
 
 
+$3 Million
 
 
No Impact
 
 
N/A
       
25 basis point
increase in expected
return on assets
 
 
-$3 Million
 
 
No Impact
 
 
N/A

The expected return on assets and assumed discount rate used to calculate the Company's pension and other post-employment benefit obligations are established each December 31.  The expected return on assets is based upon the long-term expected returns in the markets in which the pension trust invests its funds, primarily the domestic, international, private equity, and real estate markets.  Historically, over a ten year period, excluding 2008 which is considered an anomaly due to the global recession, the Company's average achieved actual return has been near the expected return on assets.  The assumed discount rate is based upon a portfolio of high-grade corporate bonds, which are used to develop a yield curve.  This yield curve is applied to the expected durations of the pension and post-employment benefit obligations.  As future benefits under the U.S. benefit plan have been fixed at a certain contribution amount, changes in the health care cost trend assumptions do not have a material impact on the results of operations.

The Company uses the market related valuation method to determine the value of plan assets, which recognizes the change of the fair value of the plan assets over five years.  If actual experience differs from these long-term assumptions, the difference is recorded as an unrecognized actuarial gain (loss) and then amortized into earnings over a period of time based on the average future service period, which may cause the expense related to providing these benefits to increase or decrease.  The charges applied to earnings in 2011, 2010, and 2009 due to the amortization of these unrecognized actuarial losses, largely due to actual experience versus assumptions of discount rates, were $69 million, $56 million, and $45 million, respectively.


 
37 

 
 
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL
CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

The Company does not anticipate that a change in pension and other post-employment obligations caused by a change in the assumed discount rate during 2012 will impact the cash contributions to be made to the pension plans during 2012.  However, an after-tax charge or credit will be recorded directly to accumulated other comprehensive income (loss), a component of stockholders' equity, as of December 31, 2012 for the impact on the pension's projected benefit obligation of the change in interest rates, if any.  While the amount of the change in these obligations does not correspond directly to cash funding requirements, it is an indication of the amount the Company will be required to contribute to the plans in future years.  The amount and timing of such cash contributions is dependent upon interest rates, actual returns on plan assets, retirement, attrition rates of employees, and other factors.  For further information regarding pension and other post-employment obligations, see Note 13, "Retirement Plans", to the Company's consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report.

Litigation and Contingent Liabilities

From time to time, the Company and its operations are parties to or targets of lawsuits, claims, investigations and proceedings, including product liability, personal injury, asbestos, patent and intellectual property, commercial, contract, environmental, antitrust, health and safety, and employment matters, which are handled and defended in the ordinary course of business.  The Company accrues a liability for such matters when it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount can be reasonably estimated.  When a single amount cannot be reasonably estimated but the cost can be estimated within a range, the Company accrues the minimum amount.  The Company expenses legal costs, including those expected to be incurred in connection with a loss contingency, as incurred.  Based upon facts and information currently available, the Company believes the amounts reserved are adequate for such pending matters; however, results of operations could be affected by monetary damages, costs or expenses, and charges against earnings in particular periods.

Income Taxes

The Company records deferred tax assets and liabilities based on temporary differences between the financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities, applying enacted tax rates expected to be in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse.  The ability to realize the deferred tax assets is evaluated through the forecasting of taxable income using historical and projected future operating results, the reversal of existing temporary differences, and the availability of tax planning strategies.  Valuation allowances are recorded to reduce deferred tax assets when it is more likely than not that a tax benefit will not be realized.  In the event that the actual outcome from future tax consequences differs from our estimates and assumptions, the resulting change to the provision for income taxes could have a material adverse impact on the consolidated results of operations and statement of financial position.  As of December 31, 2011, a valuation allowance of $42 million has been provided against the deferred tax assets.

The Company recognizes income tax positions that meet the more likely than not threshold and accrues interest related to unrecognized income tax positions, which is recorded as a component of the income tax provision.

Purchase Accounting

In general, the acquisition method of accounting requires companies to record assets acquired and liabilities assumed at their respective fair market values at the date of acquisition.  The Company estimates fair value using the exit price approach which is defined as the price that would be received if we sold an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly market.  The value of an exit price is determined from the viewpoint of all market participants as a whole and may result in the Company valuing assets at a fair value that is not reflective of our intended use of the assets.  Any amount of the purchase price paid that is in excess of the estimated fair values of net assets acquired is recorded in the line item goodwill on our consolidated balance sheets.  Management's judgment is used to determine the estimated fair values assigned to assets acquired and liabilities assumed, as well as asset lives for property, plant and equipment and amortization periods for intangible assets, and can materially affect the Company's results of operations.

 
38 

 
 
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL
CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

PRESENTATION OF NON-GAAP FINANCIAL MEASURES

This Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations includes the following non-GAAP financial measures and accompanying reconciliations to the most directly comparable GAAP financial measures.  The non-GAAP financial measures used by the Company may not be comparable to similarly titled measures used by other companies and should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for measures of performance or liquidity prepared in accordance with GAAP.

·  
Company and segment operating earnings excluding asset impairments and restructuring charges and gains described below;
·  
Company earnings from continuing operations and diluted earnings per share excluding asset impairments and restructuring charges and gains and early debt extinguishment costs described below;
·  
Cash flows from operating activities excluding the impact of adoption of amended accounting guidance for transfers of financial assets and the impact of a tax payment for the gain on the sale of the polyethylene terephthalate ("PET") business, described below; and
·  
Free cash flow (as defined), described below.

During 2011, the Company recognized $7 million in restructuring charges primarily for severance associated with the acquisition and integration of Sterling and a $15 million gain from the sale of the previously impaired methanol and ammonia assets related to the terminated Beaumont, Texas industrial gasification project.  Also during 2011, cash flows included the use of $110 million for a tax payment for the tax gain on the sale of the PET business completed in first quarter 2011.

During 2010, the Company recognized $29 million in asset impairments and restructuring charges consisting of $20 million in severance and pension curtailment, $8 million for an intangible asset impairment resulting from an environmental regulatory change during fourth quarter 2010 impacting air emission credits remaining from the previously discontinued Beaumont, Texas industrial gasification project, and $1 million of additional site closure charges.

During fourth quarter 2010, the Company completed a public debt restructuring including the early repayment of $500 million aggregate principal amount of outstanding debt securities.  The early repayment of debt resulted in a charge of $115 million, net.  For additional information regarding the early extinguishment costs, see Note 11, "Early Debt Extinguishment Costs", to the Company's consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report.

During first quarter 2010, the Company adopted amended accounting guidance for transfers of financial assets which impacts the financial statement presentation for activity under the Company's $200 million accounts receivable securitization program.  For periods beginning after December 31, 2009, transfers of receivables interests that were previously treated as sold and removed from the balance sheet are included in trade receivables, net, and reflected as secured borrowings on the balance sheet.  The Company's Statement of Financial Position at December 31, 2010 reflects an increase in trade receivables of $200 million, the amount transferred at December 31, 2009 under the securitization program, which reduced cash flows from operating activities by that amount for 2010.

During 2009, the Company recognized $196 million in asset impairments and restructuring charges, primarily consisting of $179 million in asset impairments related to the Company's previously announced discontinuance of its Beaumont, Texas industrial gasification project and $19 million, net, for severance resulting from a reduction in force.
 
 

 
39 

 
 
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL
CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

For evaluation and analysis of ongoing business results and the impact on the Company and segments of strategic decisions and actions to reduce costs, to improve the profitability of the Company, and favorably adjust its debt maturities and cost, Eastman's management believes that Company and segment earnings from continuing operations should be considered both with and without asset impairments and restructuring charges and gains and early debt extinguishment costs.  Management believes that investors can better evaluate and analyze historical and future business trends if they also consider the reported Company and segment results, respectively, without the identified items.  In addition, management believes that cash provided by and used in operating activities should be considered both with and without the impact of adoption of amended accounting guidance for transfers of financial assets and the tax payment for the gain on the sale of the PET business, and dividends and capital expenditures.  Management utilizes Company and segment results including and excluding the identified items in the measures it uses to evaluate business performance and in determining certain performance-based compensation.  These measures, excluding the identified items, are not recognized in accordance with GAAP and should not be viewed as alternatives to the GAAP measures of performance.


The Company generated sales revenue of $7.2 billion and $5.8 billion for 2011 and 2010, respectively.  Sales revenue increases were primarily due to higher selling prices and higher sales volume.  The higher selling prices were in response to higher raw material and energy costs, primarily for propane, paraxylene, and wood pulp.  The higher sales volume was primarily due to growth in PCI segment plasticizer product lines, the fourth quarter 2010 restart of a previously idled olefins cracking unit at the Longview, Texas facility, and strengthened end-use demand primarily for CASPI segment products.  The increase was also due to growth initiatives including the increased utilization of the Korean acetate tow manufacturing facility and the Eastman TritanTM copolyester resin manufacturing line, and the acquisition of the Genovique Specialties Corporation ("Genovique") plasticizer product lines.

Operating earnings were $1,021 million in 2011 compared to $862 million in 2010.  Excluding asset impairments and restructuring charges and gains, described above in "Presentation of Non-GAAP Financial Measures", operating earnings increased primarily due to higher selling prices which more than offset higher raw material and energy costs, and higher sales volume and increased capacity utilization which led to lower unit costs, particularly in the first half of the year.  Operating earnings in 2011 also included $17 million of costs from an unplanned outage of an olefins cracking unit at the Longview, Texas facility.

Earnings from continuing operations were $657 million in 2011 compared to $425 million in 2010.  Excluding asset impairments and restructuring charges and gains, and early debt extinguishment costs, earnings from continuing operations were $652 million and $514 million, respectively.  Earnings from continuing operations were $4.59 per diluted share in 2011 compared to $2.88 per diluted share in 2010.  Excluding asset impairments and restructuring charges and gains, and early debt extinguishment costs, earnings were $4.56 per diluted share and $3.48 per diluted share, respectively.

Eastman generated $625 million in cash from operating activities in 2011, including $102 million in contributions to its U.S. defined benefit pension plans and the $110 million tax payment for the tax gain on the sale of the PET business completed in first quarter 2011.  Excluding the impact of the tax payment and the adoption of amended accounting guidance for transfers of financial assets described above in "Presentation of Non-GAAP Financial Measures", cash provided by operating activities decreased $40 million to $735 million in 2011 compared with 2010.  The decrease was primarily due to an increase in working capital and higher cash payments for employee pension and incentive pay plans during the year, which were partially offset by higher net earnings.  Excluding the tax payment, the Company generated free cash flow of $142 million for full year 2011.  Free cash flow is defined as cash from operating activities less capital expenditures and dividends.


 
40 

 
 
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL
CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

In 2011 and early 2012, the Company completed and progressed on both organic (internal growth) and inorganic (external growth through joint venture and acquisition) growth initiatives:

·  
In the PCI segment, the Company completed several initiatives in 2011 to expand its non-phthalate plasticizer business, including the acquisitions of Sterling and Scandiflex do Brasil S.A. Indústrias Químicas ("Scandiflex").  The acquired Sterling idled plasticizer manufacturing unit is being retrofitted to produce non-phthalate plasticizers, with the first of two phases expected to be online in the first half of 2012.  The Company also plans to increase capacity of 2-ethyl hexanol in first half 2012 to support expected growth in the plasticizers, coatings, and fuel additive markets.
·  
In the Specialty Plastics segment, the Company is adding another 30,000 metric tons of resin capacity at its facility in Kingsport, Tennessee for TritanTM copolyester polymer, which is expected to be operational in early 2012.  The Company is expanding its capacity for cyclohexane dimethanol ("CHDM"), a monomer used in the manufacture of copolyesters, in two phases with the first operational in fourth quarter 2011 and the second expected to be operational in first quarter 2012.  The Company is also expanding its cellulose triacetate capacity, with the new capacity expected to be operational in first quarter 2012.
·  
In the CASPI segment, the Company completed an additional 20 percent expansion of its hydrogenated hydrocarbon resins manufacturing capacity in Middelburg, the Netherlands, and an additional 10 percent debottleneck of the hydrogenated hydrocarbon facility in Longview, Texas in 2011.  The Company also acquired Dynaloy, LLC ("Dynaloy") in 2011 as part of its electronic materials growth initiative.
·  
In the Fibers segment, in 2011 the Company entered into a joint venture for a 30,000 metric ton acetate tow manufacturing facility in China, expected to be operational in mid-2013.
·  
The Company continues to explore and invest in research and development ("R&D") initiatives at a corporate level that are aligned with macro trends in sustainability, consumerism, and energy efficiency through high performance materials, advanced cellulosics, and environmentally-friendly chemistry.  These initiatives include the completion of a demonstration facility for market testing of acetylated wood, branded as Perennial WoodTM, in second half 2011 and commercial introduction in first quarter 2012 to select markets; the initial commercial introduction of the new Eastman CerfisTM technology, with anticipation that the application will be expanded nationwide by the end of 2012; and the announcement of the new EastmanTM microfiber technology.
·  
On January 26, 2012, the Company entered into a definitive agreement to acquire Solutia Inc. ("Solutia"), a global leader in performance materials and specialty chemicals.  Under the terms of the agreement, Solutia stockholders will receive $22.00 in cash and 0.12 shares of Eastman common stock for each share of Solutia common stock, a total transaction value of approximately $4.7 billion, as of January 26, 2012, including the assumption of Solutia's debt.  The transaction remains subject to approval by Solutia's shareholders and receipt of required regulatory approvals as well as other customary closing conditions.  The transaction is expected to close in mid-2012.  The acquisition of Solutia is expected to:
o  
broaden Eastman's global presence, particularly in Asia Pacific;
o  
establish a combined platform with extensive organic growth opportunities through complementary technologies and business capabilities and an overlap of key end-markets; and
o  
expand Eastman's portfolio of sustainable products.

In first quarter 2011, the Company completed the sale of the PET business, related assets at the Columbia, South Carolina site, and technology of its Performance Polymers segment. The PET business, assets, and technology sold were substantially all of the Performance Polymers segment.  Performance Polymers segment operating results are presented as discontinued operations for all periods presented and are therefore not included in results from continuing operations in accordance with GAAP.  The total cash proceeds of the transaction were $615 million.

RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

The Company's results of operations as presented in the Company's consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report are summarized and analyzed below.

 
41 

 
 
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL
CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

SUMMARY OF CONSOLIDATED RESULTS

    2011 Compared to 2010     2010 Compared to 2009  
(Dollars in millions)  
2011
   
2010
   
%
   
2010
   
2009
   
%
 
                                     
 Sales   $ 7,178     $ 5,842       23 %   $ 5,842     $ 4,396       33 %
   Volume effect                     7 %                     19 %
   Price effect                     14 %                     10 %
   Product mix effect                     2 %                     4 %
   Exchange rate effect                     -- %                     -- %

2011 Compared to 2010

Sales revenue for 2011 compared to 2010 increased $1.3 billion.  The increase was primarily due to higher selling prices in all segments (particularly in the PCI segment) and higher sales volume primarily in the PCI segment.  The higher selling prices were in response to higher raw material and energy costs, primarily for propane, paraxylene, and wood pulp.  The higher sales volume was primarily due to growth in PCI segment plasticizer product lines, the fourth quarter 2010 restart of a previously idled olefins cracking unit at the Longview, Texas facility, and strengthened end-use demand primarily for CASPI segment products.  The increase was also due to growth initiatives including the increased utilization of the Korean acetate tow manufacturing facility and the Eastman TritanTM copolyester resin manufacturing line, and the acquisition of the Genovique plasticizer product lines.

2010 Compared to 2009

Sales revenue for 2010 compared to 2009 increased $1.4 billion.  The sales revenue increase was primarily due to higher sales volume in all segments attributed to improved end-use demand in packaging, durable goods, and other markets, in part due to the recovery in the global economy, as well as the positive impact of growth initiatives.  Sales revenue increases were also due to higher selling prices in response to higher raw material and energy costs, primarily in the PCI and CASPI segments.

   
2011 Compared to 2010
   
2010 Compared to 2009
 
(Dollars in millions)  
2011
   
2010
   
Change
   
2010
   
2009
   
Change
 
                                     
Gross Profit
  $ 1,640     $ 1,474       11 %   $ 1,474     $ 1,032       43 %
As a percentage of sales
    23 %     25 %             25 %     23 %        

2011 Compared to 2010

Gross profit for 2011 increased compared with 2010 in all segments.  Gross profit increased primarily due to higher selling prices, which more than offset higher raw material and energy costs, and higher sales volume and increased capacity utilization, which led to lower unit costs, particularly in the first half of the year.  Gross profit in 2011 included $17 million of costs from an unplanned outage of an olefins cracking unit at the Longview, Texas facility.

 
42 

 
 
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL
CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

2010 Compared to 2009

Gross profit for 2010 increased compared with 2009 in all segments.  The increase was due to higher sales volume and higher capacity utilization which led to lower unit costs.  In addition, higher selling prices more than offset higher raw material and energy costs.  Gross profit in 2010 also included $12 million from acetyl license revenue.  In first quarter 2010, the Company experienced a power outage at its Longview, Texas manufacturing facility.  Costs related to the outage were mostly offset by the settlement of the related insurance claim.  Gross profit in 2009 included approximately $20 million in costs related to the reconfiguration of the Longview, Texas facility.  The reconfiguration costs impacted the PCI and CASPI segments.

   
2011 Compared to 2010
   
2010 Compared to 2009
 
(Dollars in millions)
 
2011
   
2010
   
Change
   
2010
   
2009
   
Change
 
                                     
Selling, General and Administrative Expenses
  $ 469     $ 431       9 %   $ 431     $ 367       17 %
Research and Development Expenses
    158       152       4 %     152       124       23 %
    $ 627     $ 583       8 %   $ 583     $ 491       19 %
As a percentage of sales
    9 %     10 %             10 %     11 %        

2011 Compared to 2010

Selling, general and administrative expenses increased in 2011 compared to 2010 primarily due to increased compensation expense and higher costs of growth and business development initiatives.

Research and development expenses increased in 2011 compared to 2010 primarily due to higher R&D expenses for growth initiatives.

2010 Compared to 2009

Selling, general and administrative expenses increased for 2010 compared to 2009 primarily due to increased performance-based compensation expense and higher discretionary spending, including expenses for growth initiatives.

Research and development expenses increased for 2010 compared to 2009 primarily due to higher R&D expenses for growth initiatives.

Asset Impairments and Restructuring Charges (Gains), Net

In 2011, asset impairments and restructuring charges and gains were net gains of $8 million.  A gain of $15 million was recognized from the sale of the previously impaired methanol and ammonia assets related to the terminated Beaumont, Texas industrial gasification project and restructuring charges of $7 million were primarily for severance associated with the acquisition and integration of Sterling.

In 2010, asset impairments and restructuring charges and gains were net charges of $29 million and consisted primarily of severance and pension curtailment charges and an intangible asset impairment.  Severance charges of $18 million included $15 million for the previously announced voluntary separation program in fourth quarter 2010 and $3 million primarily for severance associated with the acquisition and integration of Genovique in second quarter 2010.  Restructuring charges of $2 million for pension curtailment are also related to the voluntary separation program in fourth quarter 2010.  The intangible asset impairment of $8 million resulted from an environmental regulatory change impacting air emission credits remaining from the previously discontinued Beaumont, Texas industrial gasification project in fourth quarter 2010.

 
43 

 
 
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL
CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

In 2009, asset impairments and restructuring charges and gains were net charges of $196 million and consisted of $179 million in asset impairments related to the Company's previously announced discontinuance of its Beaumont, Texas industrial gasification project and $19 million, net, for severance resulting from a reduction in force.

For more information regarding asset impairments and restructuring charges and gains, primarily related to recent strategic decisions and actions, see Note 18, "Asset Impairments and Restructuring Charges (Gains), Net", to the Company's consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report.
 
Operating Earnings
   
2011 Compared to 2010
   
2010 Compared to 2009
(Dollars in millions)
 
2011
   
2010
   
Change
   
2010
   
2009
 
Change
                                 
Operating earnings
  $ 1,021     $ 862       18 %   $ 862     $ 345  
>100 %
Asset impairments and restructuring charges (gains), net
    (8 )     29               29       196    
Operating earnings excluding asset impairments and restructuring charges (gains), net
  $ 1,013     $ 891       14 %   $ 891     $ 541  
65 %

Net Interest Expense
   
2011 Compared to 2010
   
2010 Compared to 2009
 
(Dollars in millions)
 
2011
   
2010
   
Change
   
2010
   
2009
   
Change
 
                                     
Gross interest costs
  $ 92     $ 108           $ 108     $ 99        
Less:  Capitalized interest
    9       3             3       14        
Interest expense
    83       105       (21 ) %     105       85       24 %
Interest income
    7       6               6       7          
Net interest expense
  $ 76     $ 99       (23 ) %   $ 99     $ 78       27 %
                                                 

2011 Compared to 2010

Net interest expense decreased $23 million in 2011 compared to 2010 primarily due to lower borrowing costs resulting from the debt restructuring in fourth quarter 2010 and higher capitalized interest resulting from higher capital spending.

For 2012, the Company expects net interest expense to remain consistent with 2011, excluding the expected impact of the acquisition of Solutia.

2010 Compared to 2009

Net interest expense increased $21 million in 2010 compared to 2009 primarily due to lower capitalized interest resulting from lower capital spending and higher average borrowings.

Early Debt Extinguishment Costs

During fourth quarter 2010, the Company completed a public debt restructuring comprised of the sale of $500 million aggregate principal amount of new debt securities with maturities five and ten years from issuance and the early repayment of $500 million aggregate principal amount of outstanding debt securities.  The debt restructuring allowed the Company to favorably adjust its debt maturities and reduce future interest costs on its long-term debt.  The early repayment of debt resulted in a charge of $115 million, net.  For additional information regarding the early extinguishment costs, see Note 11, "Early Debt Extinguishment Costs", to the Company's consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report.

 
44 

 
 
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL
CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Other Charges (Income), Net
 
(Dollars in millions)
 
2011
   
2010
   
2009
 
                   
Foreign exchange transaction (gains) losses, net
  $ (2 )   $ 8     $ 5  
Investment (gains) losses, net
    (16 )     (1 )     5  
Other, net
    (1 )     5       3  
Other charges (income), net
  $ (19 )   $ 12     $ 13  

Included in other charges (income), net are gains or losses on foreign exchange transactions, results from equity investments, gains or losses on business venture investments, gains from the sale of non-operating assets, certain litigation costs, fees on securitized receivables, other non-operating income, and other miscellaneous items.  Investment gains in 2011 included increased earnings from the Nanjing, China joint venture and sales of business venture investments.

Provision for Income Taxes from Continuing Operations

   
2011 Compared to 2010
   
2010 Compared to 2009
(Dollars in millions)
 
2011
   
2010
   
Change
   
2010
   
2009
 
Change
                                 
Provision for income taxes from continuing operations
  $ 307     $ 211       45 %   $ 211     $ 100  
>100 %
Effective tax rate
    32 %     33 %             33 %     39 %  

The 2011 effective tax rate reflects an $8 million tax benefit recognized due to an increased level of capital investment which qualified for additional state tax credits.

The 2010 effective tax rate reflected a $9 million tax charge associated with a nondeductible, early distribution under the executive deferred compensation plan of previously earned compensation as a result of certain participants electing early withdrawal.

The 2009 effective tax rate reflected an $11 million tax charge associated with the recapture of gasification investment tax credits, a $7 million tax charge associated with a change in accounting method for tax purposes to accelerate timing of deductions for manufacturing repairs expense and a $5 million tax benefit from the reversal of tax reserves due to the expiration of the relevant statute of limitations.

The Company expects its effective tax rate in 2012 will be approximately 33 percent, excluding the expected impact of the acquisition of Solutia.



 
  45

 
 
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL
CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Earnings from Continuing Operations and Diluted Earnings per Share
 
   
2011
   
2010
   
2009
 
(Dollars in millions, except per share amounts)
   $      EPS      $      EPS      $     EPS  
                                     
Earnings from continuing operations
  $ 657     $ 4.59     $ 425     $ 2.88     $ 154     $ 1.05  
Asset impairments and restructuring charges (gains), net of tax
    (5 )     (0.03 )     18       0.12       127       0.86  
Early debt extinguishment costs, net of tax
    --       --       71       0.48       --       --  
Earnings from continuing operations excluding items
  $ 652     $ 4.56     $ 514     $ 3.48     $ 281     $ 1.91  

Net Earnings and Diluted Earnings per Share

   
2011
   
2010
   
2009
 
(Dollars in millions, except per share amounts)
   $     EPS      $     EPS      $     EPS  
                                     
Earnings from continuing operations
  $ 657     $ 4.59     $ 425     $ 2.88     $ 154     $ 1.05  
Earnings (loss) from discontinued operations, net of tax
    8       0.06       13       0.08       (18 )     (0.12 )
Gain from disposal of discontinued operations, net of tax
    31       0.21       --       --       --       --  
Net earnings
  $ 696     $ 4.86     $ 438     $ 2.96     $ 136     $ 0.93  

Earnings of $8 million and $13 million and a loss of $18 million, net of tax in 2011, 2010, and 2009, respectively, resulted from discontinued operations of the PET business of the Performance Polymers segment.  Corporate costs which were allocated to the Performance Polymers segment have been reallocated to other segments in the Company's financial statements.  For additional information, see Note 3, "Discontinued Operations and Assets Held for Sale", to the Company's consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report.

SUMMARY BY OPERATING SEGMENT

The Company's products and operations are currently managed and reported in four reportable operating segments, consisting of the CASPI segment, the Fibers segment, the PCI segment, and the Specialty Plastics segment.  For additional information concerning the Company's operating businesses and products, see Note 22, "Segment Information", to the Company's consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report.

In first quarter 2011, the Company completed the sale of the PET business, related assets at the Columbia, South Carolina site, and technology of its Performance Polymers segment. The PET business, assets, and technology sold were substantially all of the Performance Polymers segment.  Performance Polymers segment operating results are presented as discontinued operations for all periods presented and are therefore not included in results from continuing operations in accordance with GAAP.  For additional information, see Note 3, "Discontinued Operations and Assets Held for Sale", to the Company's consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report.
 
 

 
46 

 
 
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL
CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Sales revenue and expenses not identifiable to an operating segment are not included in segment operating results for either of the periods presented and are shown in Note 22, "Segment Information", to the Company's consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report, as "other" sales revenue and operating losses.  As discussed in Note 22, these "other" operating losses are $50 million, $66 million, and $218 million in 2011, 2010, and 2009, respectively.  Included in 2011 is a $15 million gain from the sale of the previously impaired methanol and ammonia assets related to the terminated Beaumont, Texas industrial gasification project.  Included in 2010 and 2009 are $8 million and $179 million, respectively, in asset impairments related to the discontinuance of its Beaumont, Texas industrial gasification project.

CASPI Segment
 
2011 Compared to 2010
 
2010 Compared to 2009
         
Change
         
Change
(Dollars in millions)
2011
 
2010
 
$
 
%
 
2010
 
2009
 
$
 
%
                               
Sales
$
1,844
$
1,574
$
270
 
17 %
$
1,574
$
1,217
$
357
 
29 %
 
Volume effect
       
79
 
5 %
         
198
 
16 %
 
Price effect
       
197
 
13 %
         
122
 
10 %
 
Product mix effect
       
(11)
 
(1) %
         
43
 
4 %
 
Exchange rate effect
       
5
 
-- %
         
(6)
 
(1) %
                               
                               
Operating earnings
331
 
293
 
38
 
13 %
 
293
 
221
 
72
 
33 %
                               
Asset impairments and restructuring charges (gains), net
--
 
6
 
(6)
     
6
 
3
 
3
   
                               
Operating earnings excluding asset impairments and restructuring charges (gains), net
331
 
299
 
32
 
11 %
 
299
 
224
 
75
 
34 %
                               
2011 Compared to 2010

Sales revenue for 2011 increased compared to 2010 primarily due to higher selling prices and higher sales volume.  The higher selling prices were in response to higher raw material and energy costs and were also attributed to strengthened demand, particularly in the U.S., and tight industry supply particularly in the first half of the year.  The higher sales volume was attributed primarily to strengthened end-use demand in the packaging, durable goods, and transportation markets, particularly in the U.S.

Excluding restructuring charges, operating earnings increased in 2011 compared to 2010 primarily due to higher selling prices, higher sales volume, and the increased benefits from cracking propane to produce low-cost propylene, which more than offset higher raw material and energy costs.  In 2011, operating earnings included $5 million of costs from the unplanned outage of an olefins cracking unit.  The restructuring charges for 2010 reflect the segment's portion of severance charges.


 
47 

 
 
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL
CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

2010 Compared to 2009

Sales revenue for 2010 increased compared to 2009 primarily due to higher sales volume and higher selling prices.  The higher sales volume was attributed to strengthened end-use demand in the packaging and transportation markets primarily in the Europe, Middle East, and Africa and the United States and Canada regions, in part due to the recovery in the global economy, and the positive impact of growth initiatives, including the hydrogenated hydrocarbon resins manufacturing capacity expansion in Middelburg, the Netherlands which was completed in fourth quarter 2009.  The higher selling prices were primarily in response to higher raw material and energy costs, particularly for propane.

Excluding restructuring charges, operating earnings for 2010 increased compared to 2009 primarily due to higher sales volume, higher capacity utilization, which led to lower unit costs, and higher selling prices, which more than offset higher raw material and energy costs.  Operating earnings in 2009 included approximately $5 million in costs related to the reconfiguration of the Longview, Texas facility.  The restructuring charges for 2010 and 2009 reflect the segment's portion of severance charges.

Growth Initiatives

The Company is progressing on both organic and inorganic growth initiatives in the CASPI segment.  The segment is meeting growing demand for specialty hydrocarbon resins by completing two capacity expansions in 2011: an additional expansion in Middelburg, the Netherlands and a debottleneck in Longview, Texas.  In 2011, CASPI expanded its presence in the electronic materials market through the acquisition of Dynaloy and its formulated cleaners business.

Fibers Segment
 
2011 Compared to 2010
 
2010 Compared to 2009
         
Change
         
Change
(Dollars in millions)
2011
 
2010
 
$
 
%
 
2010
 
2009
 
$
 
%
                               
Sales
$
1,279
$
1,142
$
137
 
12 %
$
1,142
$
1,032
$
110
 
11 %
 
Volume effect
       
35
 
3 %
         
61
 
6 %
 
Price effect
       
46
 
4 %
         
4
 
-- %
 
Product mix effect
       
55
 
5 %
         
46
 
5 %
 
Exchange rate effect
       
1
 
-- %
         
(1)
 
-- %
                               
                               
Operating earnings
346
 
323
 
23
 
7 %
 
323
 
292
 
31
 
11 %
                               
Asset impairments and restructuring charges (gains), net
--
 
3
 
(3)
     
3
 
4
 
(1)
   
                               
Operating earnings excluding asset impairments and restructuring charges (gains), net
346
 
326
 
20
 
6 %
 
326
 
296
 
30
 
10 %
                               


 
48 

 
 
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL
CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

2011 Compared to 2010

Sales revenue for 2011 increased compared to 2010 primarily due to a favorable shift in product mix, higher selling prices, and higher sales volume.  The favorable shift in product mix was mainly due to higher acetate tow sales volume resulting from increased utilization of the recently completed acetate tow manufacturing facility in Korea.  The higher selling prices were in response to higher raw material and energy costs, particularly for wood pulp.

Excluding restructuring charges, operating earnings for 2011 increased compared to 2010 primarily due to higher acetate tow sales volume in Asia Pacific and Europe and higher selling prices, partially offset by higher raw material and energy costs.  The restructuring charges for 2010 reflect the segment's portion of severance charges.

2010 Compared to 2009

Sales revenue for 2010 increased compared to 2009 primarily due to higher sales volume and a favorable shift in product mix.  The higher sales volume and favorable shift in product mix were due to higher sales volume of acetate tow and of acetate yarn, both attributed to strengthened demand due to the global economic recovery.

Excluding restructuring charges, operating earnings for 2010 increased compared to 2009 primarily due to higher sales volume for acetate tow and acetate yarn, improved acetyl stream capacity utilization and a favorable shift in product mix.  The restructuring charges for 2010 and 2009 reflect the segment's portion of severance charges.

Growth Initiatives

The Company has entered into a joint venture for a 30,000 metric ton acetate tow manufacturing facility in China.  The facility is expected to be operational in mid-2013.  Eastman has 45 percent ownership of the joint venture and expects to provide 100 percent of the acetate flake raw material to the joint venture from the Company's manufacturing facility in Kingsport.

During first quarter 2010, the Company completed the acquisition of and commenced production at the Korean acetate tow manufacturing facility.  The facility was operating at full production beginning in fourth quarter 2010.

PCI Segment
 
2011 Compared to 2010
 
2010 Compared to 2009
         
Change
         
Change
(Dollars in millions)
2011
 
2010
 
$
 
%
 
2010
 
2009
 
$
 
%
                               
Sales
$
2,860
$
2,083
$
777
 
37 %
$
2,083
 
1,398
$
685
 
49 %
 
Volume effect
       
289
 
14 %
         
333
 
24 %
 
Price effect
       
392
 
19 %
         
295
 
21 %
 
Product mix effect
       
89
 
4 %
         
58
 
4 %
 
Exchange rate effect
       
7
 
-- %
         
(1)
 
-- %
                               
                               
Operating earnings
289
 
224
 
65
 
29 %
 
224
 
41
 
183
 
>100 %
                               
Asset impairments and restructuring charges (gains), net
7
 
7
 
--
     
7
 
6
 
1
   
                               
Operating earnings excluding asset impairments and restructuring charges (gains), net
296
 
231
 
65
 
28 %
 
231
 
47
 
184
 
>100 %
 
 
49

 
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL
CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
 
2011 Compared to 2010

Sales revenue for 2011 increased compared to 2010 primarily due to higher selling prices and higher sales volume.  The increased selling prices were in response to higher raw material and energy costs and also attributed to strengthened demand in North America and tight industry supply, particularly for olefin-derivative product lines in the first half of the year.  The higher sales volume was primarily due to growth in plasticizer product lines, which included the acquired Genovique plasticizer product lines, particularly in North America and Europe, and the restart of the previously idled Longview, Texas olefins cracking unit.

Excluding restructuring charges, operating earnings in 2011 increased compared to 2010 due to higher selling prices, higher sales volume, and the increased benefits from cracking propane to produce low-cost propylene, which more than offset higher raw material and energy costs.  The operating earnings increase was primarily in North America.  In 2011, operating earnings included $8 million from the acetyl technology license and costs of $11 million from the unplanned outage of an olefins cracking unit at the Longview, Texas facility.  In 2010, operating earnings included $12 million from the acetyl technology license.  In 2011, operating earnings included $7 million in restructuring charges, primarily for severance associated with the acquisition and integration of Sterling.  In 2010, the restructuring charges reflect the segment's portion of severance charges. 

2010 Compared to 2009

Sales revenue for 2010 increased compared to 2009 primarily due to higher sales volume and higher selling prices.  The higher sales volume included growth in plasticizer product lines, both in heritage products as well as in product lines added with the acquisition of Genovique plasticizer product lines, and also attributed to strengthened end-use demand due to the global economic recovery.  The higher selling prices were in response to higher raw material and energy costs.

Excluding restructuring charges, operating earnings in 2010 increased compared to 2009 due to higher selling prices more than offsetting higher raw material and energy costs, higher sales volume, and increased capacity utilization which led to lower unit costs.  Operating earnings in 2010 also included $12 million from acetyl license revenue.  The restructuring charges for 2010 and 2009 reflect the segment's portion of severance charges.  Operating results in 2009 included approximately $15 million in costs related to the reconfiguration of the Longview, Texas facility.

Growth Initiatives

The Company completed several initiatives to expand its non-phthalate plasticizer business, including the acquisitions of Sterling and Scandiflex in 2011 and Genovique in 2010.  In third quarter 2011, the Company acquired Sterling, a single site North American petrochemical producer.  The acquisition of Sterling will allow an idled plasticizer unit to be retrofitted to produce non-phthalate plasticizers, with the first of two phases expected to be online in the first half of 2012 and the second phase to be determined at a later date based on demand.  Also, in third quarter 2011, the Company acquired Scandiflex, a manufacturer of plasticizers located in São Paulo, Brazil.  In second quarter 2010, the Company acquired Genovique, a global producer of specialty non-phthalate plasticizers for water-based adhesives and other applications.  The acquisitions of Sterling and Scandiflex in 2011 and Genovique in 2010 added to the Company's portfolio of non-phthalate plasticizers that serve high growth markets.  The Company also plans to increase capacity of 2-ethyl hexanol in first half 2012 to support expected growth in the plasticizers, coatings, and fuel additive markets. 

To further improve its competitive cost position over purchasing olefins in the North American market, the Company restarted a previously idled cracking unit at the Longview, Texas facility in 2010.  This restart was prompted by a favorable shift in market conditions for olefins raw materials that is expected to continue over the next several years.  The Company has three operating cracking units as well as a fourth cracking unit which is currently shutdown.

 
50 

 
 
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL
CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Specialty Plastics Segment
 
2011 Compared to 2010
 
2010 Compared to 2009
         
Change
         
Change
(Dollars in millions)
2011
 
2010
 
$
 
%
 
2010
 
2009
 
$
 
%
                               
Sales
$
1,195
$
1,043
$
152
 
15 %
$
1,043
$
749
$
294
 
39 %
 
Volume effect
       
(23)
 
(2) %
         
240
 
32 %
 
Price effect
       
161
 
16 %
         
14
 
2 %
 
Product mix effect
       
11
 
1 %
         
37
 
5 %
 
Exchange rate effect
       
3
 
-- %
         
3
 
-- %
                               
                               
Operating earnings
105
 
88
 
17
 
19 %
 
88
 
9
 
79
 
>100 %
                               
Asset impairments and restructuring charges (gains), net
--
 
5
 
(5)
     
5
 
4
 
1
   
                               
Operating earnings excluding asset impairments and restructuring charges (gains), net
105
 
93
 
12
 
13 %
 
93
 
13
 
80
 
>100 %

2011 Compared to 2010

Sales revenue for 2011 increased compared to 2010 primarily due to higher selling prices.  Selling prices increased primarily in response to higher raw material and energy costs, particularly for paraxylene.  Slightly lower sales volume was attributed to weakened demand for copolyester product lines, particularly in packaging and consumer durable goods end markets, and some customer shift to other plastic materials that do not use paraxylene as a raw material.

Excluding restructuring charges, operating earnings for 2011 increased compared to 2010 primarily due to higher selling prices more than offsetting higher raw material and energy costs and the positive impact of the Eastman Tritan™ copolyester growth initiative.  Restructuring charges for 2010 reflect the segment's portion of severance charges.

2010 Compared to 2009

Sales revenue for 2010 increased compared to 2009 primarily due to higher sales volume.  The higher sales volume was attributed to improved end-use demand across all markets, in part due to the global economic recovery, as well as the positive impact of growth initiatives for core copolyesters and the TritanTM copolyester product lines. 

Excluding restructuring charges, operating earnings for 2010 increased compared to 2009 primarily due to higher sales volume, resulting in higher capacity utilization and lower unit costs.  The restructuring charges for 2010 and 2009 reflect the segment's portion of severance charges.


 
51 

 
 
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL
CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Growth Initiatives

The Company is adding another 30,000 metric tons of resin capacity at its facility in Kingsport, Tennessee for TritanTM copolyester polymer, which is expected to be operational in early 2012.  The Company is expanding its capacity for CHDM, a monomer used in the manufacture of copolyesters, in two phases with the first operational in fourth quarter 2011 and the second expected to be operational in first quarter 2012.  The Company is also expanding its cellulose triacetate capacity, with the new capacity expected to be operational in first quarter 2012.  Eastman expects that the overall segment decrease in sales volume, particularly in second half 2011, is a temporary slowdown and expects growth to resume in the long-term.

The monomer manufacturing facility and the first Eastman TritanTM copolyester resin manufacturing line in Kingsport, Tennessee commenced production in first quarter 2010.

SUMMARY BY CUSTOMER LOCATION – 2011 COMPARED WITH 2010

Sales Revenue
(Dollars in millions)
 
2011
 
2010
 
Change
 
Volume Effect
 
Price Effect
 
Product
Mix Effect
 
Exchange
Rate
Effect
                             
United States and Canada
$
3,824
$
2,957
 
29 %
 
10 %
 
17 %
 
2 %
 
-- %
Asia Pacific
 
1,681
 
1,446
 
16 %
 
2 %
 
10 %
 
4 %
 
-- %
Europe, Middle East, and Africa
 
1,352
 
1,150
 
18 %
 
5 %
 
11 %
 
1 %
 
1 %
Latin America
 
321
 
289
 
11 %
 
(2) %
 
12 %
 
1 %
 
-- %
 
$
7,178
$
5,842
 
23 %
 
7 %
 
14 %
 
2 %
 
-- %

Sales revenue in the United States and Canada increased in 2011 compared to 2010 primarily due to higher selling prices and higher sales volume, particularly in the PCI segment.

Sales revenue in Asia Pacific increased in 2011 compared to 2010 primarily due to higher selling prices in all segments, and a favorable shift in product mix and higher sales volume, primarily in the Fibers segment.  The sales volume increase was less than other regions due to lower sales volume in the Specialty Plastics segment offsetting increases in the other segments.

Sales revenue in Europe, Middle East, and Africa increased in 2011 compared to 2010 primarily due to higher selling prices in all segments and higher sales volume, particularly in the PCI segment.

Sales revenue in Latin America increased in 2011 compared to 2010 primarily due to higher selling prices, particularly in the PCI and CASPI segments.  Lower sales volume was primarily due to sales being directed to other regions.

With a substantial portion of sales to customers outside the United States, Eastman is subject to the risks associated with operating in international markets.  To mitigate its exchange rate risks, the Company frequently seeks to negotiate payment terms in U.S. dollars or euros.  In addition, where it deems such actions advisable, the Company engages in foreign currency hedging transactions and requires letters of credit and prepayment for shipments where its assessment of individual customer and country risks indicates their use is appropriate.  For additional information concerning these practices, see Note 12, "Derivatives", to the Company's consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report and Part II, Item 7A--"Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk."

 
52 

 
 
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL
CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS


SUMMARY BY CUSTOMER LOCATION – 2010 COMPARED WITH 2009

Sales Revenue
(Dollars in millions)
 
2010
 
2009
 
Change
 
Volume Effect
 
Price Effect
 
Product
Mix Effect
 
Exchange
Rate
Effect
                             
United States and Canada
$
2,957
$
2,252
 
31 %
 
19 %
 
12 %
 
-- %
 
-- %
Asia Pacific
 
1,446
 
1,062
 
36 %
 
18 %
 
10 %
 
7 %
 
1 %
Europe, Middle East, and Africa
 
1,150
 
835
 
38 %
 
23 %
 
5 %
 
12 %
 
(2) %
Latin America
 
289
 
247
 
17 %
 
9 %
 
7 %
 
1 %
 
-- %
 
$
5,842
$
4,396
 
33 %
 
19 %
 
10 %
 
4 %
 
-- %

Sales revenue in the United States and Canada increased in 2010 compared to 2009 primarily due to higher sales volumes in all segments, particularly the PCI segment, and higher selling prices in all segments except the Fibers segment.

Sales revenue in Asia Pacific increased in 2010 compared to 2009 primarily due to higher sales volume particularly in the Specialty Plastics segments, higher selling prices in all segments, and a favorable shift in product mix in all segments.

Sales revenue in Europe, Middle East, and Africa increased in 2010 compared to 2009 primarily due to higher sales volume and a favorable shift in product mix in all segments.  The region had minimal price effect change compared to other regions due to fewer sales from commodity product lines.

Sales revenue in Latin America increased in 2010 compared to 2009 primarily due to higher sales volume and higher selling prices in all segments.

LIQUIDITY, CAPITAL RESOURCES, AND OTHER FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Cash Flows

(Dollars in millions)
 
2011