424B2 1 d617443d424b2.htm 424B2 424B2
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Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2)
Registration No. 333-184532

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

 

Title of Each Class of

Securities to be Registered

 

Proposed

maximum

aggregate

offering price

 

Amount of

registration fee

7.500% Senior Notes due 2022

  $475,000,000   $61,180(1)

Guarantees of Senior Notes

    (2)

 

 

(1) Calculated in accordance with Rule 457(r) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended. The total registration fee due for this offering is $61,180.
(2) In accordance with Rule 457(n), no separate fee is payable with respect to the subsidiary guarantees.


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PROSPECTUS    SUPPLEMENT

(To prospectus dated October 22, 2012)

$475,000,000

 

LOGO

7.500% Senior Notes due 2022

 

 

We are offering $475 million aggregate principal amount of 7.500% Senior Notes due 2022. The notes offered hereby, which we refer to as the “new notes,” are an additional issuance of our outstanding 7.500% Senior Notes due 2022, which we issued in November 2012 in an aggregate principal amount of $300 million and which we refer to as the “original notes.” The new notes will be issued under the same indenture as the original notes and will be treated as a single series with the original notes for all purposes under the indenture, including waivers, amendments, redemptions and offers to purchase. We refer to the new notes and the original notes collectively as the “notes.”

Interest is payable on the notes on May 15 and November 15 of each year, and the next interest payment will be due on May 15, 2014. Interest on the new notes will accrue from the most recent interest payment date, November 15, 2013. The notes will mature on November 15, 2022.

We may redeem some or all of the notes at any time on or after November 15, 2017 at the redemption prices described in this prospectus supplement and prior to such date at a “make-whole” redemption price. We may also redeem up to 35% of the notes prior to November 15, 2015 with cash proceeds we receive from certain equity offerings. If we sell certain assets and do not reinvest the proceeds or repay senior indebtedness or if we experience specific kinds of changes of control, we must offer to repurchase the notes.

The new notes will be our unsecured obligations and will rank equally in right of payment with all of our existing and future senior indebtedness and senior in right of payment to all of our future subordinated indebtedness. The new notes will be effectively subordinated to any of our existing and future secured indebtedness to the extent of the value of the collateral securing such indebtedness, including all borrowings under our bank credit facility. The new notes will be structurally subordinated to all liabilities of any of our subsidiaries that do not issue guarantees of the notes.

The obligations under the new notes will be fully and unconditionally guaranteed by our only existing material subsidiary and by certain of our future restricted subsidiaries. The guarantee of any subsidiary will be released when such subsidiary no longer guarantees certain specified indebtedness, when such subsidiary is no longer a subsidiary of ours or when such subsidiary is designated an unrestricted subsidiary under the terms of the indenture. The guarantees will rank equally in right of payment with the existing and future senior indebtedness of the guarantors and will rank senior in right of payment to all of the future subordinated indebtedness of the guarantors. The guarantees will be effectively subordinated to all existing and future secured indebtedness of the guarantors, including guarantees of our borrowings under our bank credit facility, to the extent of the value of the collateral securing such indebtedness.

Investing in the new notes involves risks that are described in the “Risk Factors ” section beginning on page S-10 of this prospectus supplement and page 6 of the accompanying prospectus.

 

 

 

      

Per Note

    

Total

Public offering price (1)

         103.000 %        $ 489,250,000  

Underwriting discount

         1.750 %        $ 8,312,500  

Proceeds, before expenses, to us (1)

         101.250 %        $ 480,937,500  

 

  (1) Plus accrued interest from November 15, 2013.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

The notes will be ready for delivery in book-entry form only through the facilities of The Depository Trust Company for the accounts of its participants, including Euroclear Bank S.A./N.V., as operator of the Euroclear System, and Clearstream Banking, S.A., Luxembourg, on or about November 27, 2013.

 

 

Joint Book-Running Managers

 

BofA Merrill Lynch   Barclays   Wells Fargo Securities

 

 

Co-Managers

 

Capital One Securities          
  Natixis            
    Scotiabank        
      TD Securities    
        Tudor, Pickering, Holt & Co.  
          US Bancorp    
           

Global Hunter Securities        

              IBERIA Capital Partners L.L.C.    
               

SMBC Nikko

 

 

The date of this prospectus supplement is November 13, 2013.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Prospectus Supplement   

About This Prospectus Supplement

     S-ii   

Where You Can Find More Information

     S-iii   

Cautionary Statements Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

     S-iv   

Summary

     S-1   

Risk Factors

     S-10   

Use of Proceeds

     S-16   

Capitalization

     S-17   

Description of Other Indebtedness

     S-18   

Description of Notes

     S-20   

Book-Entry, Delivery and Form

     S-79   

Certain United States Federal Income and Estate Tax Considerations

     S-84   

Certain ERISA Considerations

     S-89   

Underwriting

     S-91   

Legal Matters

     S-96   

Experts

     S-96   

 

Prospectus

 

  

About this Prospectus

     1   

Where You Can Find More Information

     2   

Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

     3   

The Company

     5   

The Subsidiary Guarantors

     5   

Risk Factors

     6   

Ratio of Earnings to Fixed Charges

     6   

Use of Proceeds

     6   

Description of Debt Securities

     7   

Description of Capital Stock

     19   

Description of Warrants

     24   

Description of Rights

     26   

Description of Units

     27   

Description of Depositary Shares

     28   

Plan of Distribution

     30   

Legal Matters

     32   

Experts

     32   

We expect that delivery of the notes will be made to investors on or about November 27, 2013, which will be the tenth business day following the date of this prospectus supplement (such settlement being referred to as “T+10”). Under Rule 15c6-1 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), trades in the secondary market are required to settle in three business days, unless the parties to any such trade expressly agree otherwise. Accordingly, purchasers who wish to trade notes prior to the delivery of the notes hereunder will be required, by virtue of the fact that the notes initially settle in T+10, to specify an alternate settlement arrangement at the time of any such trade to prevent a failed settlement. Purchasers of the notes who wish to trade the notes prior to their date of delivery hereunder should consult their advisors.

You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents we have incorporated by reference into this prospectus. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different information. We are not making an offer of these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer is not permitted. You should not assume that the information contained in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus, as well as the information we previously filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) that is incorporated by reference in this prospectus, is accurate as of any date other than its respective date.

 

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

This document is in two parts. The first part is this prospectus supplement and the information incorporated by reference herein, which, among other things, describes the specific terms of this offering. The second part is the accompanying prospectus and the information incorporated by reference therein, which, among other things, gives more general information, some of which may not apply to this offering. Generally, when we refer to the prospectus we are referring to both this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. If any information varies between this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, you should rely on the information in this prospectus supplement.

Additional information about us, including our financial statements and the notes thereto, is incorporated in this prospectus by reference to certain of our filings with the SEC. You are urged to read carefully this prospectus and the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus, including the risk factors and other cautionary statements described under the caption “Risk Factors” included elsewhere in this prospectus, in Item 1A of Part I of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2012 and in Item 1A of Part II of our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarterly periods ended June 30, 2013 and September 30, 2013 before investing in the notes. Please read “Where You Can Find More Information” in this prospectus supplement.

 

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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public over the Internet at the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov and at our website at http://www.stoneenergy.com. You may also read and copy any document we file with the SEC at the SEC’s public reference room at 100 F Street, NE, Washington, D.C. 20549. Please call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for further information on the public reference room and its copy charges.

We are incorporating by reference in this prospectus the information we file with the SEC, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents. The information incorporated by reference in this prospectus is an important part of this prospectus, and information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede this information. We incorporate by reference the documents listed below and any future filings made with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (excluding any information furnished pursuant to Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 on any Current Report on Form 8-K).

 

   

Annual Report filed on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2012;

 

   

Quarterly Reports filed on Form 10-Q for the quarterly periods ended March 31, 2013, June 30, 2013 and September 30, 2013; and

 

   

Current Reports on Form 8-K or Form 8-K/A filed on January 11, 2013, May 28, 2013, July 3, 2013, July 24, 2013, July 30, 2013, October 10, 2013 and November 13, 2013 (excluding any information furnished pursuant to Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 on any Current Report on Form 8-K).

Any statement contained in a document incorporated by reference herein shall be deemed to be modified or superseded for all purposes to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus or in any other subsequently filed document which is also incorporated, or deemed to be incorporated by reference, modifies or supersedes such statement. Any statement so modified or superseded shall not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus.

You may request a copy of any of the documents summarized or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, at no cost, by writing or telephoning us at the following address and phone number:

Ms. Lisa S. Jaubert

Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary

Stone Energy Corporation

625 E. Kaliste Saloom Road

Lafayette, Louisiana 70508

(337) 237-0410

 

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CAUTIONARY STATEMENTS REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

The information in this prospectus and in the documents incorporated by reference herein includes “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Exchange Act. All statements, other than statements of historical or current facts, that address activities, events, outcomes and other matters that we plan, expect, intend, assume, believe, budget, predict, forecast, project, estimate or anticipate (and other similar expressions) will, should or may occur in the future are forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements are based on management’s current belief, based on currently available information, as to the outcome and timing of future events. When considering forward-looking statements, you should keep in mind the risk factors and other cautionary statements in this prospectus and in the documents incorporated by reference.

Forward-looking statements appear in a number of places and include statements with respect to, among other things:

 

   

any expected results or benefits associated with our acquisitions;

 

   

expected results from risked weighted drilling success;

 

   

estimates of our future oil and natural gas production, including estimates of any increases in oil and gas production;

 

   

planned capital expenditures and the availability of capital resources to fund capital expenditures;

 

   

our outlook on oil and gas prices;

 

   

estimates of our oil and gas reserves;

 

   

any estimates of future earnings growth;

 

   

the impact of political and regulatory developments;

 

   

our outlook on the resolution of pending litigation and government inquiry;

 

   

estimates of the impact of new accounting pronouncements on earnings in future periods;

 

   

our future financial condition or results of operations and our future revenues and expenses;

 

   

the amount, nature and timing of any potential divestiture transactions;

 

   

our access to capital and our anticipated liquidity;

 

   

estimates of future income taxes; and

 

   

our business strategy and other plans and objectives for future operations.

We caution you that these forward-looking statements are subject to all of the risks and uncertainties, many of which are beyond our control, incident to the exploration for and development, production and marketing of oil and natural gas. These risks include, among other things:

 

   

commodity price volatility;

 

   

consequences of a catastrophic event like the Deepwater Horizon oil spill;

 

   

domestic and worldwide economic conditions;

 

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the availability of capital on economic terms to fund our capital expenditures and acquisitions;

 

   

our level of indebtedness;

 

   

declines in the value of our oil and gas properties resulting in a decrease in our borrowing base under our bank credit facility and impairments;

 

   

our ability to replace and sustain production;

 

   

the impact of a financial crisis on our business operations, financial condition and ability to raise capital;

 

   

the ability of financial counterparties to perform or fulfill their obligations under existing agreements;

 

   

third-party interruption of sales to market;

 

   

inflation;

 

   

lack of availability and cost of goods and services;

 

   

market conditions relating to potential acquisition and divestiture transactions;

 

   

regulatory and environmental risks associated with drilling and production activities;

 

   

drilling and other operating risks;

 

   

unsuccessful exploration and development drilling activities;

 

   

hurricanes and other weather conditions;

 

   

adverse effects of changes in applicable tax, environmental, derivatives and other regulatory legislation, including changes affecting our offshore and Appalachian operations;

 

   

uncertainty inherent in estimating proved oil and natural gas reserves and in projecting future rates of production and timing of development expenditures; and

 

   

other risks described in this prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference.

Should one or more of the risks or uncertainties described above or elsewhere in this prospectus or in the documents incorporated by reference herein occur, or should underlying assumptions prove incorrect, our actual results and plans could differ materially from those expressed in any forward-looking statements. We specifically disclaim all responsibility to publicly update any information contained in a forward-looking statement or any forward-looking statement in its entirety and therefore disclaim any resulting liability for potentially related damages.

All forward-looking statements attributable to us are expressly qualified in their entirety by this cautionary statement.

In addition, reserve engineering is a subjective process of estimating underground accumulations of oil and natural gas that cannot be measured in an exact way. The accuracy of any reserve estimate depends on the quality of available data and the interpretation of that data by geological engineers. In addition, the results of drilling, testing and production activities may justify revisions of estimates that were made previously. If significant, these revisions would change the schedule of any further production and development drilling. Accordingly, reserve estimates are generally different from the quantities of oil and natural gas that are ultimately recovered.

 

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SUMMARY

This summary highlights information contained elsewhere in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. It does not contain all of the information that you should consider before making an investment decision. You should carefully read this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents we have incorporated by reference into this prospectus for a more complete understanding of our business and the terms of the notes, as well as the tax and other considerations that are important to you in making your investment decision. You should pay special attention to the “Risk Factors” section beginning on page S–10 of this prospectus supplement. The estimates of proved oil and natural gas reserves at December 31, 2012 included in this prospectus supplement and in the documents we have incorporated by reference into this prospectus are based upon the report of Netherland, Sewell & Associates, Inc., an independent engineering firm. As used in this prospectus supplement, “we,” “us,” “Stone,” “our” and similar terms mean Stone Energy Corporation and its subsidiaries, unless otherwise indicated or the context indicates otherwise. As used in this prospectus supplement, “Stone Offshore” means Stone Energy Offshore, L.L.C., our wholly owned subsidiary.

The Company

Stone Energy is an independent oil and natural gas company engaged in the acquisition, exploration, exploitation, development and operation of oil and gas properties. We have been operating in the Gulf Coast Basin since our incorporation in 1993 and have established a technical and operational expertise in this area. We have expanded our reserve base outside of the conventional shelf of the Gulf of Mexico (the “GOM”) and into the more prolific reserve basins of the GOM deep water and Gulf Coast deep gas, as well as onshore oil and gas shale opportunities, including the Marcellus Shale in Appalachia. As of December 31, 2012, our estimated proved oil and natural gas reserves were approximately 129 million barrel equivalents or 773 billion cubic feet equivalent.

Strategy and Operational Overview

Our business strategy is to leverage cash flow generated from existing assets to maintain relatively stable GOM shelf oil production, profitably grow gas reserves and production in price-advantaged basins such as Appalachia and the Gulf Coast Basin, and profitably grow oil reserves and production in the deep water GOM and onshore oil areas.

Gulf of Mexico—Deep Water. We believe that the deep water of the GOM is an attractive area to explore and operate, even though it involves high risk, high costs and substantial lead time to develop infrastructure. Since 2006, we have made two significant acquisitions that included two deep water platforms, producing reserves and numerous leases. We have also utilized subsea tie-backs in the deep water on new drill wells that require less capital than a deep water facility. We have made a significant investment in seismic data and leasehold interests and have assembled a technical team with prior geological, geophysical, engineering and operational experience in the deep water arena to evaluate potential exploration, development and acquisition opportunities. Our deep water properties accounted for approximately 34% of our estimated proved oil and natural gas reserves at December 31, 2012 on a volume equivalent basis.

Appalachia. During 2006, we began securing leasehold interests in the Appalachia regions of Pennsylvania and West Virginia. As of December 31, 2012, we had leasehold interests in approximately 93,000 net acres. During the first nine months of 2013, we drilled a total of 23 horizontal Marcellus shale wells and are currently producing from 68 wells in Appalachia. We expect to add leasehold interests and drill additional wells to further expand our interests in Appalachia. Our Appalachian properties accounted for approximately 44% of our estimated proved oil and natural gas reserves at December 31, 2012 on a volume equivalent basis.

 

 

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South Louisiana Gulf of Mexico—Deep Gas. The deep gas play provides us with high potential exploration opportunities with existing infrastructure nearby, which shortens the lead time to production. We have made two onshore south Louisiana deep gas discoveries and have identified other deep gas opportunities in south Louisiana. Additionally, our current property base in the GOM also contains multiple deep shelf exploration opportunities, which are defined as prospects below 15,000 feet. Our deep shelf gas properties accounted for approximately 4% of our estimated proved oil and natural gas reserves at December 31, 2012 on a volume equivalent basis.

Gulf of Mexico—Conventional Shelf (Including Onshore Louisiana). We seek to generate cash flow from existing reserves and establish additional proved reserves and production through the drilling of new wells, workovers and recompletions of existing wells and the application of other techniques designed to provide production to help mitigate some of the natural decline of the GOM conventional shelf. Our GOM conventional shelf properties accounted for approximately 18% of our estimated proved oil and natural gas reserves at December 31, 2012 on a volume equivalent basis.

Onshore Oil. We maintain working interests in several undeveloped plays, which totaled approximately 92,000 net acres as of December 31, 2012. We have budgeted limited funds in 2013 for new venture opportunities. Our onshore oil properties accounted for less than 1% of our estimated proved oil and natural gas reserves at December 31, 2012 on a volume equivalent basis.

Recent Developments

Sale of Shelf Properties. We have engaged a financial advisor to market certain of our properties in the GOM conventional shelf, state waters and onshore Louisiana (the “Sale Properties”). The sale of these properties would allow for more focus on our targeted growth areas, specifically the GOM deep water and Appalachia. Proceeds from a sale would be used to help fund the 2014 capital expenditure program. The Sale Properties represented approximately 12% of our total estimated proved reserves as of December 31, 2012. In October 2013, we completed the sale of our interest in the Weeks Island field, representing less than 1% of our total estimated proved reserves at December 31, 2012. Production volumes at the Weeks Island field represented approximately 2% of our total production volumes and 3% of our total production revenue for the nine months ended September 30, 2013. The remainder of the Sale Properties represented approximately 24% of our total production volumes and 21% of our total production revenue for the nine months ended September 30, 2013. The future sale of some or all of the rest of the Sale Properties would be subject to an acceptable offer or offers and other market conditions.

Tender Offer. Concurrently with this offering, we announced a fixed price tender offer for any and all of the $375 million outstanding principal amount of our 8.625% Senior Notes due 2017 (the “2017 Notes”). We have offered to purchase the 2017 Notes for cash equal to $1,027.38 per $1,000 principal amount of the 2017 Notes tendered, together with accrued and unpaid interest up to but not including the purchase date, plus a consent fee of $30.00 per $1,000 principal amount of 2017 Notes tendered before 5:00 p.m., New York City time, on November 26, 2013, unless extended by us. Our offer to purchase the 2017 Notes is being made on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in an Offer to Purchase and Consent Solicitation Statement dated November 13, 2013. The tender offer and consent solicitation are conditioned upon our having obtained financing with terms and conditions satisfactory to us and in amounts not less than the amount required to purchase the 2017 Notes tendered in the tender offer. In addition, the tender offer and consent solicitation are conditioned upon the receipt of consents from holders of a majority of the outstanding principal amount of the 2017 Notes to shorten to three business days the minimum notice period for optional redemption and to eliminate substantially all of the restrictive covenants and certain events of default in the indenture governing the 2017 Notes. If fully subscribed, we expect that the tender offer and consent solicitation will cost approximately $396.5 million (including the consent fee but excluding accrued and unpaid interest of approximately $10.5 million),

 

 

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which would be funded principally with the net proceeds from this offering, as described in “Use of Proceeds.” There is no assurance that the tender offer, which is expected to be completed on December 12, 2013, will be subscribed for in any amount. In the event that all of the 2017 Notes are not tendered in the tender offer or our tender offer is not consummated, we will use the net proceeds from this offering to redeem any 2017 Notes that remain outstanding.

Consent under our Senior Secured Bank Credit Facility. In connection with the proposed sale of the rest of the Sale Properties, this offering and the tender and consent solicitation, on November 8, 2013, we obtained a consent from our lenders, which (1) provides that the borrowing base under our bank credit facility will not be reduced as a result of the sale of the rest of the Sale Properties and (2) increases our basket for outstanding notes from $1.1 billion in the aggregate to $1.5 billion until March 31, 2014. Our basket for outstanding notes will be $1.1 billion for periods after March 31, 2014. On November 8, 2013, the borrowing base under our bank credit facility was reaffirmed at $400 million.

Corporate Information

We were incorporated in 1993 as a Delaware corporation. Our corporate headquarters are located at 625 E. Kaliste Saloom Road, Lafayette, Louisiana 70508. We have additional offices in New Orleans, Louisiana, Houston, Texas and Morgantown, West Virginia. Our telephone number is (337) 237-0410, and our website is located at http://www.stoneenergy.com. We have not incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus the information included on, or linked from, our website, and you should not consider it to be part of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus.

 

 

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THE OFFERING

The following summary contains basic information about the notes and is not intended to be complete. For a more complete understanding of the notes, please refer to the section in this prospectus supplement entitled “Description of Notes” and the section in the accompanying prospectus entitled “Description of Debt Securities.”

 

Issuer

Stone Energy Corporation

 

The Notes

$475,000,000 aggregate principal amount of 7.500% Senior Notes due 2022. The new notes will be issued as additional notes under the same indenture governing our outstanding 7.500% Senior Notes due 2022 that were issued in November 2012 in an aggregate principal amount of $300 million. The new notes will be treated as a single series with the original notes for all purposes under the indenture, including waivers, amendments, redemptions and offers to purchase.

 

Maturity

November 15, 2022.

 

Interest Rate

The notes bear interest at 7.500% per annum. All interest on the new notes will accrue from November 15, 2013.

 

Interest Payment Dates

Interest is payable on the notes on May 15 and November 15 of each year, and the next interest payment will be due on May 15, 2014.

 

Optional Redemption

We may, at our option, redeem all or part of the notes at any time prior to November 15, 2017 at a make-whole redemption price, and at any time on or after November 15, 2017 at fixed redemption prices, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to the date of redemption, as described under “Description of Notes—Optional Redemption.” In addition, prior to November 15, 2015, we may, at our option, redeem up to 35% of the notes with the cash proceeds of certain equity offerings.

 

Guarantees

The payment of the principal of, premium, if any, and interest on the new notes will be fully and unconditionally guaranteed on a senior unsecured basis by Stone Offshore, our only existing material subsidiary, and by certain of our future restricted subsidiaries. In the future, the guarantees may be released or terminated under certain circumstances. See “Description of Notes—Subsidiary Guarantees.”

 

Ranking

The new notes and the guarantees will be our and the guarantors’ senior unsecured obligations and will:

 

   

rank equally in right of payment with all of our and the guarantors’ existing and future senior indebtedness;

 

   

rank senior in right of payment to all of our and the guarantors’ future subordinated indebtedness, including our outstanding senior subordinated notes;

 

 

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be effectively subordinated in right of payment to all of our and the guarantors’ existing and future secured indebtedness to the extent of the value of the collateral securing such indebtedness (including all of our borrowings and the guarantors’ guarantees under our bank credit facility); and

 

   

be structurally subordinated in right of payment to all existing and future indebtedness and other liabilities of any of our subsidiaries that is not also a guarantor of the notes.

 

  As of September 30, 2013, after giving effect to the issuance and sale of the new notes and the application of the estimated net proceeds therefrom as set forth under “Use of Proceeds” to fund our pending tender offer and consent solicitation for the 2017 Notes and assuming that all of our existing 2017 Notes are tendered for repurchase, we would have had total consolidated indebtedness of $1,023.7 million, none of which would have been secured indebtedness under our bank credit facility, and we would have had $348.6 million of availability under our bank credit facility. The subsidiary guarantor would have had total indebtedness in the same amount, excluding intercompany indebtedness, consisting of its guarantees of our indebtedness. For further discussion, see “Description of Other Indebtedness.”

 

Covenants

We will issue the new notes under the same indenture with The Bank of New York Mellon Trust Company, N.A., as trustee, that governs the original notes. The indenture governing the notes contains covenants that, among other things, limit our ability and the ability of our restricted subsidiaries to:

 

   

incur additional debt;

 

   

make certain investments or pay dividends or distributions on our capital stock or purchase, redeem or retire capital stock;

 

   

sell assets, including capital stock of our restricted subsidiaries;

 

   

restrict dividends or other payments by restricted subsidiaries;

 

   

create liens that secure debt;

 

   

enter into transactions with affiliates; and

 

   

merge or consolidate with another company.

 

  These covenants are subject to a number of important limitations and exceptions. See “Description of Notes—Certain Covenants.” However, most of the covenants will terminate if both Standard & Poor’s Ratings Services and Moody’s Investors Service, Inc., or, in certain circumstances, another rating agency selected by us, assign the notes an investment grade rating and no default exists with respect to the notes.

 

 

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Change of Control Offer

If we experience certain kinds of changes of control, we must give the holders of the notes the opportunity to sell us their notes at a purchase price of at least 101% of their principal amount, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to the repurchase date.

 

No Active Public Market

The new notes will be fungible with the original notes for trading purposes from the time of issue, but there is currently no active public market for the original notes. The underwriters have advised us that they presently intend to continue making a market in the notes. However, you should be aware that they are not obligated to continue making a market in the notes and may discontinue their market-making activities at any time without notice. As a result, a liquid market for the notes may not be available if you try to sell your notes. We do not intend to apply for a listing of the notes on any securities exchange or any automated dealer quotation system.

 

Use of Proceeds

We expect to use substantially all of the net proceeds from this offering to fund our pending tender offer and consent solicitation for the 2017 Notes. In the event that all of the 2017 Notes are not tendered in the tender offer or our tender offer is not consummated, we will use the net proceeds from this offering to redeem any 2017 Notes that remain outstanding, and we expect to use any remaining net proceeds for general corporate purposes. See “Use of Proceeds.”

 

  Certain of the underwriters and their affiliates are holders of the 2017 Notes, and accordingly, may receive a portion of the proceeds of this offering in the pending tender offer and consent solicitation for the 2017 Notes or the redemption of any of the 2017 Notes not acquired in the tender offer. Please read “Underwriting—Other Relationships” in this prospectus supplement.

 

Form

The new notes, in common with the original notes, will be issuable in denominations of $2,000 and in integral multiples of $1,000 above that amount and will be represented by one or more registered global securities registered in the name of Cede & Co., the nominee of the depositary, The Depository Trust Company, or DTC. Beneficial interests in the new notes will be shown on, and transfers of beneficial interests will be effected through, records maintained by DTC and its participants, including Euroclear Bank S.A./N.V., or Euroclear, and Clearstream, Banking, S.A., Luxembourg, or Clearstream, Luxembourg.

 

Trustee

The Bank of New York Mellon Trust Company, N.A.

 

Governing Law

The notes, the guarantees and the indenture are governed by, and construed in accordance with, the laws of the State of New York.

 

 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in the new notes involves substantial risk. You should carefully consider the risk factors set forth in the section entitled “Risk Factors” and the other information contained in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein, prior to making an investment in the notes. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-10 of this prospectus supplement and page 6 of the accompanying prospectus.

 

 

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SUMMARY HISTORICAL FINANCIAL AND OPERATING DATA

We derived the summary historical financial and operating data as of and for the years ended December 31, 2012, 2011 and 2010 from our audited financial statements included in our Annual Reports on Form 10-K for the years ended December 31, 2012 and December 31, 2011. We derived the summary historical financial and operating data as of and for the nine months ended September 30, 2013 and September 30, 2012 from our unaudited financial statements included in our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarters ended September 30, 2013 and September 30, 2012. The data for the nine-month periods has not been audited.

The following table should be read together with, and is qualified in its entirety by reference to, the historical financial statements and the notes thereto included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2012 and our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended September 30, 2013, each of which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

 

   

As of and for the Nine
Months Ended

September 30,

   

As of and for the

Year Ended December 31,

 
   

2013

   

2012

   

2012

   

2011

   

2010

 
    (Unaudited)        
    (In thousands, except per share amounts, volumes and prices)  

Statement of operations data:

         

Operating revenue:

         

Oil production

  $ 558,031      $ 564,745      $ 761,304      $ 663,958      $ 417,948   

Gas production

    137,382        91,006        134,739        170,611        210,686   

Natural gas liquids production

    36,854        35,228        48,498        29,996        27,473   

Other operational income

    2,659        2,520        3,520        3,938        5,916   

Derivative income, net

    —         3,119        3,428        1,418        3,265   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total operating revenue

    734,926        696,618        951,489        869,921        665,288   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating expenses:

         

Lease operating expenses

    157,547        157,030        215,003        175,881        150,212   

Transportation, processing and gathering expenses

    27,374        15,911        21,782        8,958        7,218   

Other operational expenses

    382        195        267        2,149        5,579   

Production taxes

    11,404        7,578        10,015        9,380        5,808   

Depreciation, depletion and amortization

    255,497        260,982        344,365        280,020        248,201   

Accretion expense

    25,012        24,926        33,331        30,764        34,469   

Salaries, general and administrative expenses

    43,351        40,521        54,648        40,169        42,759   

Incentive compensation expense

    8,047        3,907        8,113        11,600        5,888   

Derivative expense, net

    1,537        —          —          —          —     
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total operating expenses

    530,151        511,050        687,524        558,921        500,134   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Income from operations

    204,775        185,568        263,965        311,000        165,154   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Other (income) expenses:

         

Interest expense

    26,452        21,107        30,375        9,289        12,192   

Interest income

    (1,543     (227     (600     (420     (1,464

Other income

    (2,190     (1,229     (1,805     (1,942     (776

Loss on early extinguishment of debt

    —          —          1,972        607        1,820   

Other expense

    —          —          —         —         671   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total other expenses

    22,719        19,651        29,942        7,534        12,443   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Income before income taxes

    182,056        165,917        234,023        303,466        152,711   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Provision (benefit) for income taxes:

 

Current

    (10,827     1,164        15,022        (20,386     5,808   

Deferred

    77,001        59,573        69,575        129,520        50,474   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total income taxes

    66,174        60,737        84,597        109,134        56,282   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net income

  $ 115,882      $ 105,180      $ 149,426      $ 194,332      $ 96,429   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

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As of and for the Nine
Months Ended
September 30,

   

As of and for the

Year Ended December 31,

 
   

2013

   

2012

   

2012

   

2011

   

2010

 
    (Unaudited)        
    (In thousands, except per share amounts, volumes and prices)  

Per share data:

         

Basic earnings per share

  $ 2.32      $ 2.13      $ 3.03      $ 3.97      $ 1.99   

Diluted earnings per share

  $ 2.32      $ 2.13      $ 3.03      $ 3.97      $ 1.99   

Cash flow information:

         

Net cash provided by operating activities

  $ 439,510      $ 373,913      $ 509,749      $ 570,850      $ 424,794   

Net cash used in investing activities

    (472,228     (448,772     (568,688     (679,250     (374,088

Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities

    (3,588     212,594        300,014        39,895        (13,043

Operating data (unaudited):

         

Production:

         

Oil (MBbls)

    5,243        5,289        7,135        6,427        5,714   

Natural gas (MMcf)

    35,969        31,031        42,569        38,466        41,168   

Natural gas liquids (MBbls)

    1,048        794        1,163        506        574   

Oil, natural gas and NGLs (MMcfe)

    73,715        67,529        92,357        80,064        78,896   

Average prices (a):

         

Oil (per Bbl)

  $ 106.43      $ 106.78      $ 106.70      $ 103.31      $ 73.14   

Natural gas (per Mcf)

    3.82        2.93        3.17        4.44        5.12   

Natural gas liquids (per Bbl)

    35.17        44.37        41.70        59.28        47.86   

Oil, natural gas and NGLs (per Mcfe)

    9.93        10.23        10.23        10.80        8.32   

Balance sheet data:

         

Working capital surplus (deficit)

  $ 237,038      $ 176,283      $ 300,348      $ (13,282   $ 30,382   

Oil and gas properties, net

    2,402,611        2,066,421        2,182,095        1,875,048        1,379,809   

Total assets

    2,970,426        2,514,677        2,776,431        2,165,751        1,679,090   

Long-term debt, less current portion

    923,745        811,024        914,126        620,000        575,000   

Stockholders’ equity

    972,563        826,159        872,133        667,829        430,357   

Ratio of earnings to fixed charges:

    3.5        3.8        3.9        6.1        3.8   

 

(a) Includes the cash settlement of effective hedging contracts.

 

 

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RISK FACTORS

An investment in the new notes involves risk. In addition to the risks described below, you should also carefully read all of the other information included in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents we have incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement, including those risk factors in Item 1A of Part I of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2012 and in Item 1A of Part II of our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarterly periods ended June 30, 2013 and September 30, 2013, in evaluating an investment in the notes. If any of the described risks actually were to occur, our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be materially adversely affected. In that case, our ability to fulfill our obligations under the notes could be materially affected and you could lose all or part of your investment. The risks described below are not the only ones facing our company. Additional risks not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial individually or in the aggregate may also impair our business operations.

This prospectus supplement and documents incorporated by reference herein also contain forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties, some of which are described in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including the risks and uncertainties faced by us described below or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. Please read “Cautionary Statements Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”

Our debt level and the covenants in the current and any future agreements governing our debt could negatively impact our financial condition, results of operations and business prospects.

As of September 30, 2013, after giving effect to the issuance and sale of the new notes and the application of the net proceeds therefrom as set forth under “Use of Proceeds” to fund our pending tender offer and consent solicitation for the 2017 Notes and assuming that all of our existing 2017 Notes are tendered for repurchase, we would have had $1,023.7 million of outstanding consolidated indebtedness and we would have been able to incur $348.6 million of secured indebtedness under our bank credit facility as amended in connection with this offering. The terms of the current agreements governing our debt impose significant restrictions on our ability to take a number of actions that we may otherwise desire to take, including:

 

   

incurring additional debt;

 

   

paying dividends on stock, redeeming stock or redeeming subordinated debt;

 

   

making investments;

 

   

creating liens on our assets;

 

   

selling assets;

 

   

guaranteeing other indebtedness;

 

   

entering into agreements that restrict dividends from our subsidiaries to us;

 

   

merging, consolidating or transferring all or substantially all of our assets; and

 

   

entering into transactions with affiliates.

 

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Our level of indebtedness, and the covenants contained in current and future agreements governing our debt, could have important consequences on our operations, including:

 

   

making it more difficult for us to satisfy our obligations under the indentures or other debt and increasing the risk that we may default on our debt obligations;

 

   

requiring us to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flow from operating activities to make interest payments on our debt, thereby reducing the availability of cash flow for working capital, capital expenditures and other general business activities;

 

   

limiting our ability to obtain additional financing in the future for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions and other general business activities;

 

   

limiting our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and the industry in which we operate;

 

   

detracting from our ability to successfully withstand a downturn in our business or the economy generally;

 

   

placing us at a competitive disadvantage against other less leveraged competitors; and

 

   

making us vulnerable to increases in interest rates, because debt under our bank credit facility is at variable rates.

We may be required to repay all or a portion of our debt on an accelerated basis in certain circumstances. If we fail to comply with the covenants and other restrictions in the agreements governing our debt, it could lead to an event of default and the acceleration of our repayment of outstanding debt. Our ability to comply with these covenants and other restrictions may be affected by events beyond our control, including prevailing economic and financial conditions. Our borrowing base under our bank credit facility, which is redetermined semi-annually, is based on an amount established by the bank group after its evaluation of our proved oil and gas reserve values. On November 8, 2013, the borrowing base under our bank credit facility was reaffirmed at $400 million. The next scheduled redetermination of our borrowing base is in May 2014. Upon a redetermination, if borrowings in excess of the revised borrowing capacity were outstanding, we could be forced to repay a portion of our bank debt.

We may not have sufficient funds to make such repayments. If we are unable to repay our debt out of cash on hand, we could attempt to refinance such debt, sell assets or repay such debt with the proceeds from an equity offering. We cannot assure you that we will be able to generate sufficient cash flow from operating activities to pay the interest on our debt or that future borrowings, equity financings or proceeds from the sale of assets will be available to pay or refinance such debt. The terms of our debt, including our bank credit facility and our indentures, may also prohibit us from taking such actions. Factors that will affect our ability to raise cash through an offering of our capital stock, a refinancing of our debt or a sale of assets include financial market conditions and our market value and operating performance at the time of such offering, refinancing or sale of assets. We cannot assure you that any such offering, refinancing or sale of assets can be successfully completed.

We may not be able to purchase the notes upon a Change of Control.

Upon the occurrence of a Change of Control (as defined in the indenture governing the notes), we will be required to offer to purchase all of the outstanding notes at a price in cash of 101% of the aggregate principal amount of the notes, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to, but not including, the repurchase date. Our outstanding 2017 Notes have the same requirement. We may not, however, have sufficient funds at the time of the Change of Control to purchase all outstanding notes. Any failure to make an offer to purchase, or to repay

 

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holders tendering notes, upon a Change of Control will result in an event of default under the indenture. Additionally, certain events that would constitute a Change of Control would require us to offer to purchase all of our existing senior subordinated notes and would constitute an event of default under our bank credit facility that would, if it should occur, permit the lenders to accelerate the debt outstanding under this bank credit facility and that, in turn, would cause an event of default under the indenture.

The source of funds for any purchase required as a result of any Change of Control will be our available cash or cash generated from oil and gas operations or other sources, including borrowings, sales of assets, sales of equity or funds provided by a new controlling entity. We cannot assure you, however, that sufficient funds would be available at the time of any Change of Control to purchase the notes and to repay debt under our bank credit facility. Furthermore, using available cash to fund the potential consequences of a Change of Control may impair our ability to obtain additional financing in the future. Any future credit agreements or other agreements relating to debt to which we may become a party will most likely contain similar restrictions and provisions.

The Change of Control put right might not be enforceable.

In published decisions, the Chancery Court of Delaware has raised the possibility that a change of control put right occurring as a result of a failure to have “continuing directors” comprising a majority of a board of directors might be unenforceable on public policy grounds. Therefore, you may not be entitled to receive this protection under the indenture.

Your right to receive payments on the new notes is effectively subordinated to the rights of our existing and future secured creditors.

Holders of our secured indebtedness will have claims that are prior to your claims as holders of the new notes to the extent of the value of the assets securing that other indebtedness. Notably, we and our subsidiary guarantor are parties to our bank credit facility, which is secured by liens on substantially all of our assets and the assets of the subsidiary guarantor. The new notes will be effectively subordinated to any secured indebtedness incurred under this bank credit facility. In the event of any distribution or payment of our debt in any foreclosure, dissolution, winding-up, liquidation, reorganization or other bankruptcy proceeding, holders of secured indebtedness will have prior claim to those of our assets that constitute their collateral. Holders of the notes will participate ratably with all holders of our unsecured indebtedness that is deemed to be of the same class as such notes, and potentially with all of our other general creditors, based upon the respective amounts owed to each holder or creditor, in our remaining assets. In any of the foregoing events, we cannot assure you that there will be sufficient assets to pay amounts due on the notes. As a result, holders of the notes may receive less, ratably, than holders of secured indebtedness.

The notes will be structurally subordinated to all existing and future liabilities of any of our existing subsidiaries and all liabilities of any of our future subsidiaries that do not guarantee the notes. In the event of a bankruptcy, liquidation or dissolution of any of the non-guarantor subsidiaries, holders of their indebtedness, their trade creditors and holders of their preferred equity will generally be entitled to payment on their claims from assets of those subsidiaries before any assets are made available for distribution to us.

Despite current indebtedness levels, we may still be able to incur substantially more debt, including indebtedness ranking equally to the notes.

As of September 30, 2013, after giving effect to the issuance and sale of the new notes and the application of the net proceeds therefrom as set forth under “Use of Proceeds” to fund our pending tender offer and consent solicitation for the 2017 Notes and assuming that all of our existing 2017 Notes are tendered for repurchase, we would have had $1,023.7 million of outstanding consolidated indebtedness and we would have been able to incur $348.6 million of secured indebtedness under our bank credit facility as amended in connection with this offering.

 

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Subject to the restrictions in the indenture governing the notes and in other instruments governing our other outstanding indebtedness (including our bank credit facility), we may incur substantial additional indebtedness (including secured indebtedness) in the future. Although the indenture governing the notes and the instruments governing certain of our other outstanding indebtedness contain restrictions on the incurrence of additional indebtedness, these restrictions are subject to waiver and a number of significant qualifications and exceptions, and indebtedness incurred in compliance with these restrictions could be substantial.

If we or our subsidiary guarantor incurs any additional indebtedness that ranks equally with the notes (or with the guarantee thereof), including trade payables, the holders of that indebtedness will be entitled to share ratably with noteholders in any proceeds distributed in connection with any insolvency, liquidation, reorganization, dissolution or other winding-up of us or our subsidiary guarantor. This may have the effect of reducing the amount of proceeds paid to noteholders in connection with such a distribution.

To service our indebtedness, we will require a significant amount of cash. Our ability to generate cash depends on many factors beyond our control.

Our ability to make payments on and to refinance our indebtedness, including the notes, and to fund planned capital expenditures and development efforts will depend on our ability to generate cash in the future. This, to a certain extent, is subject to general economic, financial, competitive, legislative, regulatory and other factors that are beyond our control.

We cannot assure you that our business will generate sufficient cash flow from operations or that future borrowings will be available to us under our bank credit facility or otherwise in an amount sufficient to enable us to pay our indebtedness, including the notes, or to fund our other liquidity needs. We may need to refinance all or a portion of our indebtedness, including the notes, on or before the maturity thereof. Our bank credit facility matures on April 26, 2015. We may not be able to obtain financing on commercially reasonable terms or at all. If we are unable to generate sufficient cash flow to refinance our debt obligations, including the notes, on favorable terms, it could have a significant adverse effect on our financial condition and on our ability to pay principal and interest on the notes.

In addition, if for any reason we are unable to meet our debt service obligations, we would be in default under the terms of our agreements governing our outstanding debt. If such a default were to occur, the lenders under our bank credit facility could elect to declare all amounts then outstanding under this bank credit facility immediately due and payable, and the lenders would not be obligated to continue to advance funds under this bank credit facility. In addition, if such a default were to occur, the notes would become immediately due and payable. If the amounts outstanding under these debt agreements are accelerated, we cannot assure you that our assets will be sufficient to repay in full the money owed to the banks or to our debt holders, including holders of the notes.

If we default on our obligations to pay our other indebtedness, we may not be able to make payments on the notes.

Any default under the agreements governing our indebtedness, including a default under our bank credit facility that is not waived by the required lenders, and the remedies sought by the holders of any such indebtedness, could make us unable to pay principal of, premium, if any, and interest on the notes and substantially decrease the market value of the notes. If we are unable to generate sufficient cash flow and are otherwise unable to obtain funds necessary to meet required payments of principal of, premium, if any, and interest on our indebtedness, or if we otherwise fail to comply with the various covenants, including financial and operating covenants, in the instruments governing our indebtedness (including our bank credit facility), we could be in default under the terms of the agreements governing such indebtedness. In the event of such default, the holders of such indebtedness could elect to declare all the funds borrowed thereunder to be due and payable, together with accrued and unpaid interest, the lenders under our bank credit facility could elect to terminate their

 

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commitments, cease making further loans and institute foreclosure proceedings against our assets, and we could be forced into bankruptcy or liquidation. If our operating performance declines, we may in the future need to seek to obtain waivers from the required lenders under our bank credit facility to avoid being in default. If we breach our covenants under our bank credit facility and seek waiver, we may not be able to obtain a waiver from the required lenders. If this occurs, we would be in default under the bank credit facility, the lenders could exercise their rights as described above, and we could be forced into bankruptcy or liquidation. See “Description of Other Indebtedness—Bank Credit Facility” and “Description of Notes.”

The subsidiary guarantees of the notes may be subordinated or avoided by a court.

Initially, our only existing material subsidiary will guarantee the new notes, and in the future certain of our other subsidiaries may be required by the terms of the indenture governing the notes to jointly and severally guarantee the notes on a senior basis. Various applicable fraudulent conveyance or similar laws have been enacted for the protection of creditors. A court may use those laws to subordinate or avoid any guarantee of the notes issued by any of our subsidiaries. It is also possible that under certain circumstances a court could hold that the direct obligations of a subsidiary guaranteeing the notes could be superior to the obligations under that guarantee. A court could avoid or subordinate the guarantee of the notes by any of our subsidiary guarantors in favor of that subsidiary’s other debts or liabilities if, among other things, the court determined either of the following were true at the time the subsidiary issued the guarantee:

 

   

that subsidiary incurred the guarantee with the intent to hinder, delay or defraud any of its present or future creditors or that such subsidiary contemplated insolvency with a design to favor one or more creditors to the total or partial exclusion of others; or

 

   

that subsidiary did not receive fair consideration or reasonably equivalent value for issuing the guarantee and, at the time it issued the guarantee, that subsidiary:

 

   

was insolvent or rendered insolvent by reason of the issuance of the guarantee,

 

   

was engaged or about to engage in a business or transaction for which the remaining assets of that subsidiary constituted unreasonably small capital, or

 

   

intended to incur, or believed that it would incur, debts beyond its ability to pay such debts as they matured.

Among other things, a legal challenge of a subsidiary’s guarantee of the notes on fraudulent conveyance grounds may focus on the benefits, if any, realized by that subsidiary as a result of our issuance of the notes. To the extent a subsidiary’s guarantee of the notes is avoided as a result of fraudulent conveyance or held unenforceable for any other reason, the note holders would cease to have any claim in respect of that guarantee and would be creditors solely of ours.

Receipt of payment on the notes, as well as the enforcement of remedies under the subsidiary guarantees, may be limited in bankruptcy or in equity.

An investment in the notes, as in any type of security, involves insolvency and bankruptcy considerations that investors should carefully consider. If we or any of our subsidiary guarantors become a debtor subject to insolvency proceedings under the bankruptcy code, it is likely to result in delays in the payment of the notes and in the exercise of enforcement remedies under the notes or the subsidiary guarantees. Provisions under the bankruptcy code or general principles of equity that could result in the impairment of your rights include the automatic stay, avoidance of preferential transfers by a trustee or a debtor-in-possession, substantive consolidation, limitations of collectability of unmatured interest or attorneys’ fees and forced restructuring of the notes.

 

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If a bankruptcy court substantively consolidated us and our subsidiaries, the assets of each entity would be subject to the claims of creditors of all entities. This would expose you not only to the usual impairments arising from bankruptcy, but also to potential dilution of the amount ultimately recoverable because of the larger creditor base. Furthermore, forced restructuring of the notes could occur through the “cram-down” provision of the bankruptcy code. Under this provision, the notes could be restructured over your obligations as to their general terms, primarily interest rate and maturity.

An active public market for the notes may not develop.

The new notes will be fungible with the original notes for trading purposes from the date of issue, but there is currently no active public market for the original notes. We do not intend to apply for a listing of the notes on any securities exchange or any automated dealer quotation system. There can be no assurance that an active public market for the notes will ever develop or will be maintained. Further, there can be no assurance as to the liquidity of any market for the notes, your ability to sell your notes or the price at which you will be able to sell your notes. Trading prices of the notes depend on many factors, including our financial condition and results of operations, the then-current ratings assigned to the notes and the market for similar securities, and are affected by many other factors, including the:

 

   

time remaining to the maturity of the notes;

 

   

outstanding amount of the notes;

 

   

terms related to optional redemption of the notes; and

 

   

level, direction and volatility of market interest rates generally.

The underwriters have advised us that they currently intend to continue making a market in the notes. However, they are not obligated to do so and may discontinue their market-making activities at any time without notice.

Many of the covenants contained in the indenture will terminate if the notes are rated investment grade by Standard & Poor’s Ratings Services and Moody’s Investors Service, Inc., or, in certain circumstances, another rating agency selected by us.

Many of the covenants in the indenture governing the notes will terminate if the notes are rated investment grade by both Standard & Poor’s Ratings Service and Moody’s Investors Service, Inc., or, in certain circumstances, another rating agency selected by us, provided at such time no default under the indenture has occurred and is continuing. These covenants restrict, among other things, our ability to pay dividends, to incur debt and to enter into certain other transactions. There can be no assurance that the notes will ever be rated investment grade, or that if they are rated investment grade, that the notes will maintain such ratings. However, termination of these covenants would allow us to engage in certain transactions that would not be permitted while these covenants were in force. Please see “Description of Notes—Covenant Termination.”

A ratings agency downgrade could lead to increased borrowing costs and credit stress.

If any rating agency that rates the notes reduces its rating in the future, the market price of the notes could be adversely affected. In addition, if any of our other outstanding debt that is rated is downgraded, raising capital will become more difficult for us, borrowing costs under our bank credit facility and other future borrowings may increase and the market price of the notes may decrease.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We expect the net proceeds from this offering to be approximately $480.1 million, after deducting estimated fees and expenses (including underwriting discounts and commissions), but excluding accrued interest paid by purchasers of the new notes.

We expect to use substantially all of the net proceeds from this offering to fund our pending tender offer and consent solicitation for the 2017 Notes and the redemption of any of the 2017 Notes not acquired in the tender offer, and we expect to use any remaining net proceeds for general corporate purposes. Assuming that all of our existing 2017 Notes are tendered for repurchase on November 27, 2013, we would use approximately $396.5 million to fund such tender offer and consent solicitation, leaving the balance of approximately $83.6 million available for general corporate purposes.

Certain of the underwriters and their affiliates are holders of the 2017 Notes, and accordingly, may receive a portion of the proceeds of this offering in the pending tender offer and consent solicitation for the 2017 Notes or the redemption of any of the 2017 Notes not acquired in the tender offer. Please read “Underwriting—Other Relationships” in this prospectus supplement.

 

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CAPITALIZATION

The following table shows our cash and cash equivalents and capitalization as of September 30, 2013 and on an as adjusted basis to reflect the consummation of this offering and the application of the net proceeds as indicated in “Use of Proceeds.”

This table should be read in conjunction with, and is qualified in its entirety by reference to, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our historical financial statements and the notes thereto in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2012 and our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended September 30, 2013, each of which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

 

    

As of September 30, 2013

 
    

Historical

   

As Adjusted

 
     (Unaudited)  
     (In thousands)  

Cash and cash equivalents (a)

   $ 243,075      $ 326,666   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Long-term debt:

    

Bank credit facility (b)

   $ —       $ —    

8.625% Senior Notes due 2017

     375,000        —    

1 3/4% Senior Convertible Notes due 2017

     248,745        248,745   

7.500% Senior Notes due 2022

     300,000       775,000 (c) 
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total long-term debt

     923,745        1,023,745   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Stockholders’ equity:

    

Common stock, $.01 par value; authorized 100,000,000 shares; 48,750,533 shares issued, respectively

     488        488   

Treasury stock (16,582 shares, respectively, at cost)

     (860     (860

Additional paid-in capital

     1,393,439        1,393,439   

Accumulated deficit

     (426,917     (444,725 )(d) 

Accumulated other comprehensive income

     6,413        6,413   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total stockholders’ equity

     972,563        954,755   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total capitalization

   $ 1,896,308      $ 1,978,500   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

(a) Does not give effect to the payment of $10.5 million of accrued but unpaid interest on the 2017 Notes payable in connection with the tender offer and consent solicitation for the 2017 Notes, which we expect to fund with cash on hand. Also, does not give effect to accrued interest to be paid by purchasers of the notes offered hereby.
(b) As of September 30, 2013 and November 12, 2013, we had no outstanding borrowings under our bank credit facility and letters of credit totaling $21.4 million had been issued pursuant to the facility, leaving $378.6 million of availability under our bank credit facility. As of September 30, 2013 and November 12, 2013, on an as adjusted basis assuming that all of our existing 2017 Notes are tendered for repurchase, we would have $348.6 million of availability under our bank credit facility.
(c) Excludes a premium recorded on the offering of the new notes of $14.25 million, which will be amortized over the life of the notes.
(d) Reflects after-tax charges associated with the tender offer and consent solicitation for the 2017 Notes, assuming all 2017 Notes are purchased on November 27, 2013.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF OTHER INDEBTEDNESS

Senior Secured Bank Credit Facility

On April 26, 2011, we entered into a third amended and restated revolving bank credit facility with commitments totaling $700 million (subject to borrowing base limitations) through a syndicated bank group, replacing our previous bank credit facility. Our bank credit facility matures on April 26, 2015. On November 8, 2013, the borrowing base under our bank credit facility was reaffirmed at $400 million. As of September 30, 2013 and November 12, 2013, we had no outstanding borrowings under our bank credit facility and letters of credit totaling $21.4 million had been issued pursuant to the facility, leaving $378.6 million of availability under our bank credit facility. Upon completion of this offering, the borrowing base under our bank credit facility will be reduced automatically by an amount equal to 30% of the principal amount of the new notes less the amount of the proceeds from the issuance of the new notes used to refinance the principal amount of the 2017 Notes.

The borrowing base under our bank credit facility is redetermined by the lenders semi-annually, on May 1 and November 1, taking into consideration the estimated value of our oil and gas properties and those of our direct and indirect material subsidiaries in accordance with the lenders’ customary practices for oil and gas loans. The next scheduled redetermination of our borrowing base is in May 2014. In addition, we and the lenders each have discretion at any time, but not more than two additional times in any calendar year, to have the borrowing base redetermined. If a reduction in our borrowing base were to fall below any outstanding balances under the bank credit facility plus any outstanding letters of credit, our agreement with the banks allows us one or more of three options to cure the borrowing base deficiency: (1) repay amounts outstanding sufficient to cure the deficiency within 10 days after our written election to do so; (2) add additional oil and gas properties acceptable to the banks to the borrowing base and take such actions necessary to grant the banks a mortgage in the properties within 30 days after our written election to do so or (3) arrange to pay the deficiency in five equal monthly installments such that the deficiency is cured within six months.

Our bank credit facility is guaranteed by our only existing material subsidiary, Stone Offshore. Our bank credit facility is collateralized by substantially all of Stone’s and Stone Offshore’s assets. Stone and Stone Offshore are required to mortgage, and grant a security interest in, their oil and gas reserves representing at least 80% of the discounted present value of the future net income from their oil and gas reserves reviewed in determining the borrowing base. At our option, loans under our bank credit facility will bear interest at a rate based on the adjusted London Interbank Offering Rate plus an applicable margin, or a rate based on the prime rate or Federal funds rate plus an applicable margin.

Under the financial covenants of our bank credit facility, we must (1) maintain a ratio of consolidated debt to consolidated EBITDA, as defined in the credit agreement, for the preceding four quarterly periods of not greater than 3.25 to 1.00 and (2) maintain a ratio of consolidated EBITDA to consolidated Net Interest Expense, as defined in the credit agreement, for the preceding four quarterly periods of not less than 3.00 to 1.00. As of September 30, 2013, our debt to EBITDA ratio was 1.51 to 1.00 and our EBITDA to consolidated Net Interest Expense ratio was approximately 19.53 to 1.00. In addition, our bank credit facility includes certain customary restrictions or requirements with respect to disposition of properties, incurrence of additional debt, change of ownership and reporting responsibilities. These covenants may limit or prohibit us from paying cash dividends but do allow for limited stock repurchases. These covenants also restrict our ability to prepay other indebtedness under certain circumstances.

In connection with the proposed sale of the rest of the Sale Properties, this offering and the tender and consent solicitation, on November 8, 2013, we obtained a consent from our lenders, which (1) provides that the borrowing base under our bank credit facility will not be reduced as a result of the sale of the rest of the Sale Properties and (2) increases our basket for outstanding notes from $1.1 billion in the aggregate to $1.5 billion until March 31, 2014. Our basket for outstanding notes will be $1.1 billion for periods after March 31, 2014.

 

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8.625% Senior Notes due 2017

On January 26, 2010, we completed a public offering of $275 million aggregate principal amount of 8.625% Senior Notes due 2017, which are fully and unconditionally guaranteed on a senior unsecured basis by Stone Offshore and by certain future restricted subsidiaries of Stone. On November 17, 2010, we completed a public offering of an additional $100 million aggregate principal amount of the 2017 Notes. The 2017 Notes rank equally in right of payment with all of our existing and future senior debt, and rank senior in right of payment to all of our future subordinated debt. The 2017 Notes mature on February 1, 2017, and interest is payable on each February 1 and August 1, commencing on August 1, 2010. We may, at our option, redeem all or part of the 2017 Notes at any time prior to February 1, 2014 at a make-whole redemption price, and at any time on or after February 1, 2014 at fixed redemption prices. In addition, prior to February 1, 2013, we may, at our option, redeem up to 35% of the 2017 Notes with the cash proceeds of certain equity offerings. The 2017 Notes provide for certain covenants, which are substantially similar to those relating to the notes offered hereby. The violation of any of these covenants could give rise to a default, which if not cured could give the holder of the 2017 Notes a right to accelerate payment.

We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering to repurchase or redeem all of the 2017 Notes.

1 3/4% Senior Convertible Notes due 2017

On March 6, 2012, we issued in a private offering $300 million in aggregate principal amount of 1 3/4% Senior Convertible Notes due 2017. The 2017 Convertible Notes are fully and unconditionally guaranteed on a senior unsecured basis by Stone Offshore and by certain future restricted subsidiaries of Stone. The net proceeds from the sale of the 2017 Convertible Notes were approximately $291.1 million, after deducting fees and expenses. The 2017 Convertible Notes rank equally in right of payment with all of our existing and future senior unsecured indebtedness, including the notes offered hereby. The 2017 Convertible Notes bear interest at a rate of 1.75% per year, payable on March 1 and September 1 of each year, beginning on September 1, 2012. The 2017 Convertible Notes mature on March 1, 2017, unless earlier converted or repurchased. We may not redeem the 2017 Convertible Notes at our option prior to the maturity date.

The 2017 Convertible Notes are convertible into cash, shares of our common stock or a combination of cash and shares of our common stock, at our election, based on an initial conversion rate of 23.4449 shares of our common stock per $1,000 principal amount of 2017 Convertible Notes, which corresponds to an initial conversion price of approximately $42.65 per share of our common stock. The conversion rate, and thus the conversion price, may be adjusted under certain circumstances as described in the indenture related to the 2017 Convertible Notes.

Prior to December 1, 2016, the 2017 Convertible Notes may be converted by the holder, in multiples of $1,000 principal amount, only under the circumstances set forth in the related indenture. On or after December 1, 2016, the 2017 Convertible Notes may be converted by the holder in multiples of $1,000 principal amount at any time prior to the close of business on the second scheduled trading day (as defined in the indenture related to the 2017 Convertible Notes) prior to March 1, 2017.

If we undergo a fundamental change (as defined in the indenture related to the 2017 Convertible Notes) prior to maturity, holders of the 2017 Convertible Notes will have the right, at their option, to require us to repurchase for cash some or all of their 2017 Convertible Notes at a repurchase price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the 2017 Convertible Notes being repurchased, plus accrued and unpaid interest (including additional interest, if any) to the fundamental change repurchase date.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF NOTES

We will issue the notes offered hereby (the “New Notes”) under an indenture dated as of January 26, 2010, as supplemented by a supplemental indenture dated as of November 8, 2012 (collectively the “Indenture”), among us, the Subsidiary Guarantors and The Bank of New York Mellon Trust Company, N.A., as trustee (the “Trustee”), pursuant to which we issued $300 million in aggregate principal amount of our 7.500% Senior Notes due 2022 (the “Original Notes”) in November 2012. In this description, we refer to the New Notes and Original Notes collectively as the “Notes.”

The terms of the Notes include those expressly set forth in the Indenture and those made part of the Indenture by reference to the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended (the “Trust Indenture Act”). The Indenture is unlimited in aggregate principal amount, although the issuance of Notes in this offering will be limited to $475.0 million. We may issue an unlimited principal amount of additional notes in the future identical to the Original Notes and the New Notes (the “Additional Notes”), as well as debt securities of other series. We will only be permitted to issue such Additional Notes in compliance with the covenant described under the subheading “—Certain Covenants—Limitation on Indebtedness and Preferred Stock.” Any Additional Notes will be part of the same series as the Original Notes and the New Notes and will vote on all matters with the holders of the Original Notes and the New Notes. Unless the context otherwise requires, for all purposes of the Indenture and this “Description of Notes,” references to the Notes include any Additional Notes actually issued.

This description, together with the “Description of Debt Securities” included in the accompanying base prospectus, is intended to be a useful overview of the material provisions of the Notes and the Indenture. Since this description and such “Description of Debt Securities” is only a summary, you should refer to the Indenture for a complete description of the obligations of the Company and your rights. This description supersedes the “Description of Debt Securities” in the accompanying base prospectus to the extent it is inconsistent with such “Description of Debt Securities.”

You will find the definitions of capitalized terms used in this description under the heading “—Certain Definitions.” For purposes of this description, references to “the Company,” “we,” “our” and “us” refer only to Stone Energy Corporation and not to any of its subsidiaries. The registered holder of a Note will be treated as the owner of it for all purposes. Only registered holders of Notes have rights under the Indenture, and all references to “holders” in this description of notes are to registered holders of Notes.

General

The New Notes. The New Notes will:

 

   

be general unsecured, senior obligations of the Company;

 

   

be treated as a single series with the Original Notes for all purposes under the Indenture, including waivers, amendments, redemptions and offers to purchase;

 

   

mature on November 15, 2022;

 

   

be issued in denominations of $2,000 and integral multiples of $1,000 in excess thereof;

 

   

be represented by one or more registered Notes in global form, but in certain circumstances may be represented by Notes in definitive form (see “Book-entry, Delivery and Form”);

 

   

rank senior in right of payment to any future Subordinated Obligations of the Company;

 

   

rank equally in right of payment to any other senior Indebtedness of the Company, without giving effect to collateral arrangements;

 

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be initially unconditionally guaranteed on a senior basis by Stone Energy Offshore, L.L.C. (“Stone Offshore”), the only Subsidiary of the Company that currently guarantees its Senior Secured Credit Agreement (see “—Subsidiary Guarantees”);

 

   

effectively rank junior to any existing and future secured Indebtedness of the Company, including amounts that may be borrowed under its Senior Secured Credit Agreement, to the extent of the value of the collateral securing such Indebtedness; and

 

   

rank structurally junior to any indebtedness and other obligations of all non-guarantor Subsidiaries of the Company.

Interest. Interest on the New Notes will:

 

   

accrue at the rate of 7.500% per annum;

 

   

accrue from November 15, 2013, the most recent interest payment date on the Notes;

 

   

be payable in cash semi-annually in arrears on May 15 and November 15, commencing on May 15, 2014;

 

   

be payable to the holders of record on the May 1 and November 1 immediately preceding the related interest payment dates; and

 

   

be computed on the basis of a 360-day year comprised of twelve 30-day months.

If an interest payment date falls on a day that is not a Business Day, the interest payment to be made on such interest payment date will be made on the next succeeding Business Day with the same force and effect as if made on such interest payment date, and no additional interest will accrue as a result of such delayed payment. The Company will pay interest on overdue principal of the Notes at the above rate, and overdue installments of interest at such rate, to the extent lawful.

Payments on the Notes; Paying Agent and Registrar

We will pay principal of, premium, if any, and interest on the Notes at the office or agency designated by the Company in the City and State of New York, except that we may, at our option, pay interest on the Notes by check mailed to holders of the Notes at their registered addresses as they appear in the registrar’s books. We have initially designated The Bank of New York Mellon, on behalf (for the benefit) of The Bank of New York Mellon Trust Company, N.A., which is currently located at 101 Barclay Street, Floor 21 West, New York, New York 10286, to act as our paying agent and registrar. We may, however, change the paying agent or registrar without prior notice to the holders of the Notes, and the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries may act as paying agent or registrar.

We will pay principal of, premium, if any, and interest on the Notes in global form registered in the name of or held by The Depository Trust Company (“DTC”) or its nominee in immediately available funds to the DTC or its nominee, as the case may be, as the registered holder of such global Note.

Transfer and Exchange

A holder may transfer or exchange Notes in accordance with the Indenture. The registrar and the Trustee may require a holder, among other things, to furnish appropriate endorsements and transfer documents in connection with a transfer of Notes. No service charge will be imposed by the Company, the Trustee or the registrar for any registration of transfer or exchange of Notes, but the Company or the Trustee may require a

 

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holder to pay a sum sufficient to cover any transfer tax or other governmental taxes and fees required by law or permitted by the Indenture. The Company is not required to transfer or exchange any Note selected for redemption. Also, the Company is not required to transfer or exchange any Note for a period of 15 days before a selection of Notes to be redeemed.

The registered holder of a Note will be treated its owner for all purposes.

Optional Redemption

On and after November 15, 2017, we may redeem all or, from time to time, a part of the Notes upon notice as provided in the Indenture, at the following redemption prices (expressed as a percentage of principal amount of the Notes), plus accrued and unpaid interest on the Notes, if any, to the applicable redemption date (subject to the right of holders of record on the relevant record date to receive interest due on the relevant interest payment date), if redeemed during the twelve-month period beginning on November 15 of the years indicated below:

 

Year

   Percentage  

2017

     103.750

2018

     102.500

2019

     101.250

2020 and thereafter

     100.000

Prior to November 15, 2015, we may, at our option, on any one or more occasions redeem up to 35% of the aggregate principal amount of the Notes (including Additional Notes) issued under the Indenture with the Net Cash Proceeds of one or more Equity Offerings at a redemption price of 107.500% of the principal amount thereof, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to the redemption date (subject to the right of holders of record on the relevant record date to receive interest due on the relevant interest payment date); provided that

 

  (1) at least 65% of the original principal amount of the Notes issued on the Issue Date remains outstanding after each such redemption; and

 

  (2) the redemption occurs within 180 days after the closing of the related Equity Offering.

In addition, the Notes may be redeemed, in whole or in part, at any time prior to November 15, 2017 at the option of the Company upon notice as provided in the Indenture, at a redemption price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the Notes redeemed plus the Applicable Premium as of, and accrued and unpaid interest to, the applicable redemption date (subject to the right of holders of record on the relevant record date to receive interest due on the relevant interest payment date).

Applicable Premium” means, with respect to any Note on any applicable redemption date, the greater of:

 

  (1) 1.0% of the principal amount of such Note; or

 

  (2) the excess, if any, of:

 

  (a) the present value at such redemption date of (i) the redemption price of such Note at November 15, 2017 (such redemption price being set forth in the table appearing above under the caption “Optional Redemption”) plus (ii) all required interest payments (excluding accrued and unpaid interest to such redemption date) due on such Note through November 15, 2017 computed using a discount rate equal to the Treasury Rate as of such redemption date plus 50 basis points; over

 

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  (b) the principal amount of such Note.

Treasury Rate” means, as of any redemption date, the yield to maturity at the time of computation of United States Treasury securities with a constant maturity (as compiled and published in the most recent Federal Reserve Statistical Release H.15 (519) which has become publicly available at least two Business Days prior to the redemption date (or, if such Statistical Release is no longer published, any publicly available source of similar market data)) most nearly equal to the period from the redemption date to November 15, 2017; provided, however, that if the period from the redemption date to November 15, 2017 is not equal to the constant maturity of a United States Treasury security for which a weekly average yield is given, the Treasury Rate shall be obtained by linear interpolation (calculated to the nearest one-twelfth of a year) from the weekly average yields of United States Treasury securities for which such yields are given, except that if the period from the redemption date to November 15, 2017 is less than one year, the weekly average yield on actually traded United States Treasury securities adjusted to a constant maturity of one year shall be used. The Company will (a) calculate the Treasury Rate as of the second Business Day preceding the applicable redemption date and (b) prior to such redemption date file with the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate setting forth the Applicable Premium and the Treasury Rate and showing the calculation of each in reasonable detail.

Selection and Notice

If less than all of the Notes are to be redeemed at any time, the Trustee will select Notes for redemption as follows:

 

  (1) if the Notes are listed on any national securities exchange, in compliance with the requirements of the principal national securities exchange on which the Notes are listed; or

 

  (2) if the Notes are not listed on any national securities exchange, on a pro rata basis (or, in the case of Notes issued in global form, based on such method as the DTC or its successor may require).

Notes of $2,000 or less cannot be redeemed in part. Notices of optional redemption will be mailed by first class mail at least 30 but not more than 60 days before the redemption date to each holder of Notes to be redeemed at its registered address, except that optional redemption notices may be mailed more than 60 days prior to a redemption date if the notice is issued in connection with a defeasance of the Notes or a satisfaction and discharge of the Indenture. Notices of redemption may not be conditional, except that any redemption pursuant to the second paragraph under “—Optional Redemption,” may, at the Company’s discretion, be subject to completion of the related Equity Offering.

If any Note is to be redeemed in part only, the notice of redemption that relates to that Note will state the portion of the principal amount of that Note that is to be redeemed. A new Note in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion of the original Note will be issued in the name of the holder of Notes upon cancellation of the original Note.

Notes called for redemption become due on the date fixed for redemption, and at the redemption price. On and after the redemption date, interest ceases to accrue on Notes or portions of them called for redemption.

Mandatory Redemption; Offers to Purchase; Open Market Purchases

We are not required to make mandatory redemption payments or sinking fund payments with respect to the Notes. However, under certain circumstances, we may be required to offer to purchase Notes as described under the captions “—Change of Control” and “—Certain Covenants—Limitation on Sales of Assets and Subsidiary Stock.”

We may acquire Notes by means other than a redemption or required repurchase, whether by tender offer, open market purchases, negotiated transactions or otherwise, in accordance with applicable securities laws,

 

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so long as such acquisition does not otherwise violate the terms of the Indenture. However, other existing or future agreements of the Company may limit the ability of the Company or its Subsidiaries to purchase Notes prior to maturity.

Ranking

The New Notes will be general unsecured obligations of the Company that rank senior in right of payment to all future Indebtedness that is expressly subordinated in right of payment to the Notes. The New Notes will rank equally in right of payment with all existing and future liabilities of the Company that are not so subordinated and will be effectively subordinated to all of our secured Indebtedness, including Indebtedness Incurred under our bank credit facility, to the extent of the value of the collateral securing such Indebtedness, and liabilities of any of our future Subsidiaries that do not guarantee the Notes. In the event of bankruptcy, liquidation, reorganization or other winding up of the Company or its Subsidiary Guarantors or upon a default in payment with respect to, or the acceleration of, any Indebtedness under the Senior Secured Credit Agreement or other secured Indebtedness, the assets of the Company and its Subsidiary Guarantors that secure secured Indebtedness will be available to pay obligations on the Notes and the Subsidiary Guarantees only after all Indebtedness under the Senior Secured Credit Agreement and other secured Indebtedness has been repaid in full from such assets. In addition, initially not all of the Company’s existing Subsidiaries will guarantee the New Notes, and under the circumstances described below under “—Certain Covenants—Future Subsidiary Guarantors,” in the future one or more of its other Subsidiaries may not guarantee the Notes. Thus, in the event of bankruptcy, liquidation, reorganization or other winding up of a non-guarantor Subsidiary, the assets of such Subsidiary will be available to pay obligations on the Notes only after all obligations of such Subsidiary have been repaid in full from such assets, and there may not be sufficient assets remaining to pay amounts due on any or all the Notes and the Subsidiary Guarantees then outstanding.

Our non-guarantor Subsidiaries do not guarantee our Indebtedness under our Senior Secured Credit Agreement, and they have no outstanding Indebtedness. These non-guarantor Subsidiaries generated less than 0.1% of our consolidated net income for the nine months ended September 30, 2013 and held less than 0.9% of our consolidated total assets as of such date.

As of September 30, 2013, on an as adjusted basis after giving effect to this offering and the application of net proceeds from this offering as more fully described in “Use of Proceeds” to fund our pending tender offer and consent solicitation for the 2017 Notes and assuming that all of our existing 2017 Notes are tendered for repurchase:

 

   

we and our Subsidiary Guarantor would have had $1,023.7 million (including any discount) of total Indebtedness (excluding outstanding Hedging Obligations, letters of credit and intercompany Indebtedness); and

 

   

we would have had additional availability of $348.6 million under our Senior Secured Credit Agreement as to which the Notes would be effectively subordinated to the extent of the value of the collateral thereunder. For further discussion, see “Description of Other Indebtedness—Senior Secured Bank Credit Facility.”

Subsidiary Guarantees

The Subsidiary Guarantors will, jointly and severally, fully and unconditionally guarantee on a senior unsecured basis our obligations under the New Notes and all obligations under the Indenture. The obligations of Subsidiary Guarantors under the Subsidiary Guarantees will rank equally in right of payment with other Indebtedness of such Subsidiary Guarantor, except to the extent such other Indebtedness is expressly subordinate to the obligations arising under the Subsidiary Guarantee.

Initially, only Stone Offshore will guarantee the New Notes. Stone Offshore is a guarantor under our Senior Secured Credit Agreement, and it guarantees our other outstanding senior notes.

 

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Although the Indenture limits the amount of Indebtedness that Restricted Subsidiaries may Incur, such Indebtedness may be substantial and such limitation is subject to a number of significant qualifications. Moreover, the Indenture does not impose any limitation on the Incurrence by such Subsidiaries of liabilities that are not considered Indebtedness under the Indenture. See “—Certain Covenants—Limitation on Indebtedness and Preferred Stock.”

The Indenture limits obligations of each Subsidiary Guarantor under its Subsidiary Guarantee as necessary to prevent that Subsidiary Guarantee from constituting a fraudulent conveyance or fraudulent transfer under applicable law, although no assurance can be given that a court would give the holder the benefit of such provision. See “Risk Factors—The subsidiary guarantees of the notes may be subordinated or avoided by a court.” If a Subsidiary Guarantee were rendered voidable, it could be subordinated by a court to all other indebtedness (including guarantees and other contingent liabilities) of the applicable Subsidiary Guarantor, and, depending on the amount of such indebtedness, a Subsidiary Guarantor’s liability on its Subsidiary Guarantee could be reduced to zero. If the obligations of a Subsidiary Guarantor under its Subsidiary Guarantee were avoided, holders of Notes would have to look to the assets of any remaining Subsidiary Guarantors for payment. There can be no assurance in that event that such assets would suffice to pay the outstanding principal and interest on the Notes.

In the event a Subsidiary Guarantor is sold or disposed of (whether by merger, consolidation, the sale of a sufficient amount of its Capital Stock so that it no longer qualifies as our Subsidiary or the sale of all or substantially all of its assets (other than by lease) and whether or not the Subsidiary Guarantor is the surviving entity in such transaction) to a Person which is not the Company or a Restricted Subsidiary of the Company, such Subsidiary Guarantor will be released from its obligations under its Subsidiary Guarantee if the sale or other disposition does not violate the covenants described under “—Certain Covenants—Limitation on Sales of Assets and Subsidiary Stock.”

In addition, a Subsidiary Guarantor will be released from its obligations under the Indenture and, its Subsidiary Guarantee, upon the release or discharge of the Guarantee that resulted in the creation of such Subsidiary Guarantee pursuant to clause (b) of the covenant described under “—Certain Covenants—Future Subsidiary Guarantors,” except a release or discharge by or as a result of payment under such Guarantee; or if the Company designates such Subsidiary as an Unrestricted Subsidiary and such designation complies with the other applicable provisions of the Indenture or in connection with any covenant defeasance, legal defeasance or satisfaction and discharge of the Notes as provided below under the captions “—Defeasance” and “—Satisfaction and Discharge.”

Currently, all of the Company’s Subsidiaries are Restricted Subsidiaries. Under certain circumstances, the Company may designate Subsidiaries as Unrestricted Subsidiaries. None of the Unrestricted Subsidiaries will be subject to the restrictive covenants in the Indenture and none will guarantee the Notes.

Change of Control

If a Change of Control occurs, unless the Company has previously or concurrently exercised its right to redeem all of the Notes as described under “Optional Redemption,” each holder will have the right to require the Company to repurchase all or any part (equal to $2,000 or an integral multiple of $1,000 in excess of $2,000) of such holder’s Notes at a purchase price in cash equal to at least 101% of the principal amount of the Notes plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to the date of purchase (subject to the right of holders of record on the relevant record date to receive interest due on the relevant interest payment date).

Within 30 days following any Change of Control, unless we have previously or concurrently exercised our right to redeem all of the Notes as described under “—Optional Redemption,” we will mail a notice (the “Change of Control Offer”) to each holder, with a copy to the Trustee, stating:

 

  (1)

that a Change of Control has occurred and that such holder has the right to require us to purchase such holder’s Notes at a purchase price in cash equal to 101% (or such greater percentage as may

 

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  be specified in such notice) of the principal amount of such Notes plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to the date of purchase (subject to the right of holders of record on a record date to receive interest on the relevant interest payment date) (the “Change of Control Payment”);

 

  (2) the repurchase date (which shall be no earlier than 30 days nor later than 60 days from the date such notice is mailed) (the “Change of Control Payment Date”);

 

  (3) that any Note not properly tendered will remain outstanding and continue to accrue interest;

 

  (4) that unless we default in the payment of the Change of Control Payment, all Notes accepted for payment pursuant to the Change of Control Offer will cease to accrue interest on the Change of Control Payment Date;

 

  (5) that holders electing to have any Notes in certificated form purchased pursuant to a Change of Control Offer will be required to surrender such Notes, with the form entitled “Option of Holder to Elect Purchase” on the reverse of such Notes completed, to the paying agent specified in the notice at the address specified in the notice prior to the close of business on the third Business Day preceding the Change of Control Payment Date;

 

  (6) that holders will be entitled to withdraw their tendered Notes and their election to require us to purchase such Notes, provided that the paying agent receives, not later than the close of business on the third Business Day preceding the Change of Control Payment Date, a telegram, telex, facsimile transmission or letter setting forth the name of the holder of the Notes, the principal amount of Notes tendered for purchase, and a statement that such holder is withdrawing its tendered Notes and its election to have such Notes purchased;

 

  (7) that if we are repurchasing a portion of the Note of any holder, the holder will be issued a new Note equal in principal amount to the unpurchased portion of the Note surrendered, provided that the unpurchased portion of the Note must be equal to a minimum principal amount of $2,000 and an integral multiple of $1,000 in excess of $2,000; and

 

  (8) the procedures determined by us, consistent with the Indenture, that a holder must follow in order to have its Notes repurchased.

On the Change of Control Payment Date, the Company will, to the extent lawful:

 

  (1) accept for payment all Notes or portions of Notes (in a minimum principal amount of $2,000 and integral multiples of $1,000 in excess of $2,000) properly tendered pursuant to the Change of Control Offer and not properly withdrawn;

 

  (2) deposit with the paying agent an amount equal to the Change of Control Payment in respect of all Notes or portions of Notes accepted for payment; and

 

  (3) deliver or cause to be delivered to the Trustee the Notes so accepted together with an Officers’ Certificate stating the aggregate principal amount of Notes or portions of Notes being purchased by the Company.

The paying agent will promptly mail or deliver to each holder of Notes accepted for payment the Change of Control Payment for such Notes, and the Trustee will promptly authenticate and mail (or cause to be transferred by book entry) to each holder a new Note equal in principal amount to any unpurchased portion of the Notes surrendered, if any; provided that each such new Note will be in a minimum principal amount of $2,000 or an integral multiple of $1,000 in excess of $2,000.

 

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If the Change of Control Payment Date is on or after an interest record date and on or before the related interest payment date, any accrued and unpaid interest, will be paid to the Person in whose name a Note is registered at the close of business on such record date, and no further interest will be payable to holders who tender pursuant to the Change of Control Offer.

The Change of Control provisions described above will be applicable whether or not any other provisions of the Indenture are applicable. Except as described above with respect to a Change of Control, the Indenture does not contain provisions that permit the holders to require that the Company repurchase or redeem the Notes in the event of a takeover, recapitalization or similar transaction.

We will not be required to make a Change of Control Offer upon a Change of Control if a third party makes the Change of Control Offer in the manner, at the times and otherwise in compliance with the requirements set forth in the Indenture applicable to a Change of Control Offer made by us and purchases all Notes validly tendered and not withdrawn under such Change of Control Offer.

A Change of Control Offer may be made in advance of a Change of Control, and conditioned upon the occurrence of a Change of Control, if a definitive agreement is in place for the Change of Control at the time of making the Change of Control Offer.

We will comply, to the extent applicable, with the requirements of Rule 14e-1 of the Exchange Act and any other securities laws or regulations in connection with the repurchase of Notes as a result of a Change of Control. To the extent that the provisions of any securities laws or regulations conflict with provisions of this covenant, we will comply with the applicable securities laws and regulations and will not be deemed to have breached our obligations under the Indenture by virtue of our compliance with such securities laws or regulations.

Our ability to repurchase Notes pursuant to a Change of Control Offer may be limited by a number of factors. The occurrence of certain of the events that constitute a Change of Control would constitute a default under the Senior Secured Credit Agreement. In addition, certain events that may constitute a change of control under the Senior Secured Credit Agreement and cause a default under that agreement will not constitute a Change of Control under the Indenture. Future Indebtedness of the Company and its Subsidiaries may also contain prohibitions of certain events that would constitute a Change of Control or require such Indebtedness to be repurchased upon a Change of Control. Moreover, the exercise by the holders of their right to require the Company to repurchase the Notes could cause a default under such Indebtedness, even if the Change of Control itself does not, due to the financial effect of such repurchase on the Company. Finally, the Company’s ability to pay cash to the holders upon a repurchase may be limited by the Company’s then existing financial resources. There can be no assurance that sufficient funds will be available when necessary to make any required repurchases.

Even if sufficient funds were otherwise available, our future Indebtedness may prohibit the Company’s prepayment or repurchase of Notes before their scheduled maturity. Consequently, if the Company is not able to prepay the Indebtedness under the Senior Secured Credit Agreement and any such other Indebtedness containing similar restrictions or obtain requisite consents, the Company will be unable to fulfill its repurchase obligations if holders of Notes exercise their repurchase rights following a Change of Control, resulting in a default under the Indenture. A default under the Indenture may result in a cross-default under the Senior Secured Credit Agreement.

If holders of not less than 90% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding Notes validly tender and do not withdraw such Notes in a Change of Control Offer and the Company, or any third party making a Change of Control Offer in lieu of the Company as described above, purchases all of the Notes validly tendered and not withdrawn by such holders, the Company will have the right, upon not less than 30 nor more than 60 days’ prior notice, given not more than 30 days following such purchase pursuant to the Change of Control

 

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Offer described above, to redeem all Notes that remain outstanding following such purchase at a redemption price in cash equal to the applicable Change of Control Payment plus, to the extent not included in the Change of Control Payment, accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to the date of redemption.

The Change of Control provisions described above may deter certain mergers, tender offers and other takeover attempts involving the Company. The Change of Control purchase feature is a result of negotiations between the underwriters of the Original Notes and us. Currently, we have no present intention to engage in a transaction involving a Change of Control, although it is possible that we could decide to do so in the future. Subject to the limitations discussed below, we could, in the future, enter into certain transactions, including acquisitions, refinancings or other recapitalizations, that would not constitute a Change of Control under the Indenture, but that could increase the amount of indebtedness outstanding at such time or otherwise affect our capital structure or credit ratings. Restrictions on our ability to incur additional Indebtedness are contained in the covenants described under “—Certain Covenants—Limitation on Indebtedness and Preferred Stock” and “—Certain Covenants—Limitation on Liens.” Such restrictions in the Indenture can be waived only with the consent of the holders of a majority in principal amount of the Notes then outstanding. Except for the limitations contained in such covenants, however, the Indenture does not contain any covenants or provisions that may afford holders of the Notes protection in the event of a highly leveraged transaction.

The definition of “Change of Control” includes a disposition of all or substantially all of the property and assets of the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries taken as a whole to any Person. Although there is a limited body of case law interpreting the phrase “substantially all,” there is no precise established definition of the phrase under applicable law. Accordingly, in certain circumstances there may be a degree of uncertainty as to whether a particular transaction would involve a disposition of “all or substantially all” of the property or assets of a Person. As a result, it may be unclear as to whether a Change of Control has occurred and whether a holder of Notes may require the Company to make an offer to repurchase the Notes as described above. In a recent decision, the Chancery Court of Delaware raised the possibility that a Change of Control occurring as a result of a failure to have Continuing Directors comprising a majority of the Board of Directors may be unenforceable on public policy grounds.

The provisions under the Indenture relative to our obligation to make an offer to repurchase the Notes as a result of a Change of Control may be waived or modified or terminated with the written consent of the holders of a majority in principal amount of the Notes then outstanding (including consents obtained in connection with a tender offer or exchange offer for the Notes) prior to the occurrence of such Change of Control.

Certain Covenants

Limitation on Indebtedness and Preferred Stock

The Company will not, and will not permit any of its Restricted Subsidiaries to, directly or indirectly, Incur any Indebtedness (including Acquired Indebtedness) and the Company will not permit any of its Restricted Subsidiaries to issue Preferred Stock; provided, however, that the Company may Incur Indebtedness and any of the Subsidiary Guarantors may Incur Indebtedness and issue Preferred Stock if on the date thereof:

 

  (1) the Consolidated Coverage Ratio for the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries is at least 2.50 to 1.00, determined on a pro forma basis (including a pro forma application of proceeds); and

 

  (2) no Default would occur as a consequence of, and no Event of Default would be continuing following, Incurring the Indebtedness or its application.

The first paragraph of this covenant will not prohibit the Incurrence of the following Indebtedness:

 

  (1)

Indebtedness under one or more Credit Facilities of (a) the Company or any Subsidiary Guarantor Incurred pursuant to this clause (1) in an aggregate amount not to exceed the greater of (i) $700.0

 

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  million or (ii) the sum of $200.0 million and 25.0% of the Company’s Adjusted Consolidated Net Tangible Assets determined as of the date of the Incurrence of such Indebtedness after giving effect to the application of the proceeds therefrom;

 

  (2) Guarantees of Indebtedness Incurred in accordance with the provisions of the Indenture; provided that in the event such Indebtedness that is being Guaranteed is a Subordinated Obligation or a Guarantor Subordinated Obligation, then the related Guarantee shall be subordinated in right of payment to the Notes or the Subsidiary Guarantee to at least the same extent as the Indebtedness being Guaranteed, as the case may be;

 

  (3) Indebtedness of the Company owing to and held by any Restricted Subsidiary or Indebtedness of a Restricted Subsidiary owing to and held by the Company or any Restricted Subsidiary; provided, however, that (a)(i) if the Company is the obligor on such Indebtedness and the obligee is not a Subsidiary Guarantor, such Indebtedness must be expressly subordinated to the prior payment in full in cash of all obligations with respect to the Notes and (ii) if a Subsidiary Guarantor is the obligor of such Indebtedness and the obligee is neither the Company nor a Subsidiary Guarantor, such Indebtedness must be expressly subordinated to the prior payment in full in cash of all obligations of such Subsidiary Guarantor with respect to its Subsidiary Guarantee and (b)(i) any subsequent issuance or transfer of Capital Stock or any other event which results in any such Indebtedness being held by a Person other than the Company or a Restricted Subsidiary of the Company and (ii) any sale or other transfer of any such Indebtedness to a Person other than the Company or a Restricted Subsidiary of the Company shall be deemed, in each case, to constitute an Incurrence of such Indebtedness by the Company or such Subsidiary, as the case may be, that was not permitted by this clause;

 

  (4) Indebtedness represented by (a) the Original Notes and all Subsidiary Guarantees, (b) any Indebtedness (other than the Indebtedness described in clauses (1), (2) and 4(a)) outstanding on the Issue Date and (c) any Refinancing Indebtedness Incurred in respect of any Indebtedness described in this clause (4) or clause (5) or Incurred pursuant to the first paragraph of this covenant;

 

  (5) Permitted Acquisition Indebtedness and Non-Recourse Purchase Money Indebtedness;

 

  (6) Indebtedness Incurred in respect of (a) self-insurance obligations, bid, appeal, reimbursement, performance, surety and similar bonds and completion guarantees provided by the Company or a Restricted Subsidiary in the ordinary course of business and any Guarantees or letters of credit functioning as or supporting any of the foregoing bonds or obligations and (b) obligations represented by letters of credit for the account of the Company or a Restricted Subsidiary in order to provide security for workers’ compensation claims (in the case of clauses (a) and (b) other than for an obligation for money borrowed); and

 

  (7) in addition to the items referred to in clauses (1) through (6) above, Indebtedness of the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries in an aggregate outstanding principal amount which, when taken together with the principal amount of all other Indebtedness Incurred pursuant to this clause (7) and then outstanding, will not exceed $100.0 million.

For purposes of determining compliance with, and the outstanding principal amount of any particular Indebtedness Incurred pursuant to and in compliance with, this covenant:

 

  (1) in the event an item of that Indebtedness meets the criteria of more than one of the types of Indebtedness described in the first and second paragraphs of this covenant, the Company, in its sole discretion, will classify such item of Indebtedness on the date of Incurrence and, subject to clause (2) below may later classify, reclassify or redivide all or a portion of such item of Indebtedness, in any manner that complies with this covenant;

 

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  (2) all Indebtedness outstanding on the date of the Indenture under the Senior Secured Credit Agreement shall be deemed Incurred on the Issue Date under clause (1) of the second paragraph of this covenant;

 

  (3) Guarantees of, or obligations in respect of letters of credit supporting, Indebtedness which is otherwise included in the determination of a particular amount of Indebtedness shall not be included;

 

  (4) if obligations in respect of letters of credit are Incurred pursuant to a Credit Facility and are being treated as Incurred pursuant to clause (1) of the second paragraph above and the letters of credit relate to other Indebtedness, then such other Indebtedness shall not be included to the extent of the underlying letter of credit;

 

  (5) the principal amount of any Disqualified Stock of the Company or a Restricted Subsidiary, or Preferred Stock of a Restricted Subsidiary that is not a Subsidiary Guarantor, will be equal to the greater of the maximum mandatory redemption or repurchase price (not including, in either case, any redemption or repurchase premium) or the liquidation preference thereof;

 

  (6) Indebtedness permitted by this covenant need not be permitted solely by reference to one provision permitting such Indebtedness but may be permitted in part by one such provision and in part by one or more other provisions of this covenant permitting such Indebtedness; and

 

  (7) the amount of Indebtedness issued at a price that is less than the principal amount thereof will be equal to the amount of the liability in respect thereof determined in accordance with GAAP.

Accrual of interest, accrual of dividends, the amortization of debt discount or the accretion of accreted value, the payment of interest in the form of additional Indebtedness, the payment of dividends in the form of additional shares of Preferred Stock or Disqualified Stock and unrealized losses or charges in respect of Hedging Obligations (including those resulting from the application of Statement of Financial Accounting Standard No. 133) will not be deemed to be an Incurrence of Indebtedness for purposes of this covenant.

The Company will not permit any of its Unrestricted Subsidiaries to Incur any Indebtedness, or issue any shares of Disqualified Stock, other than Non-Recourse Debt. If at any time an Unrestricted Subsidiary becomes a Restricted Subsidiary, any Indebtedness of such Subsidiary shall be deemed to be Incurred by a Restricted Subsidiary as of such date (and, if such Indebtedness is not permitted to be Incurred as of such date under this “Limitation on Indebtedness and Preferred Stock” covenant, the Company shall be in Default of this covenant).

For purposes of determining compliance with any U.S. dollar-denominated restriction on the Incurrence of Indebtedness, the U.S. dollar-equivalent principal amount of Indebtedness denominated in a foreign currency shall be calculated based on the relevant currency exchange rate in effect on the date such Indebtedness was Incurred, in the case of term Indebtedness, or first committed, in the case of revolving credit Indebtedness; provided that if such Indebtedness is Incurred to refinance other Indebtedness denominated in a foreign currency, and such refinancing would cause the applicable U.S. dollar-denominated restriction to be exceeded if calculated at the relevant currency exchange rate in effect on the date of such refinancing, such U.S. dollar-denominated restriction shall be deemed not to have been exceeded so long as the principal amount of such refinancing Indebtedness does not exceed the principal amount of such Indebtedness being refinanced. Notwithstanding any other provision of this covenant, the maximum amount of Indebtedness that the Company may Incur pursuant to this covenant shall not be deemed to be exceeded solely as a result of fluctuations in the exchange rates of currencies. The principal amount of any Indebtedness Incurred to refinance other Indebtedness, if Incurred in a different currency from the Indebtedness being refinanced, shall be calculated based on the currency exchange rate applicable to the currencies in which such Refinancing Indebtedness is denominated that is in effect on the date of such refinancing.

 

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The Indenture provides that (1) unsecured Indebtedness will not be treated as subordinated or junior to secured Indebtedness merely because it is unsecured and (2) senior Indebtedness will not be treated as subordinated or junior to any other senior Indebtedness merely because it has a junior priority with respect to the same collateral.

Limitation on Restricted Payments

The Company will not, and will not permit any of its Restricted Subsidiaries, directly or indirectly, to:

 

  (1) declare or pay any dividend or make any payment or distribution on or in respect of the Company’s or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries’ Capital Stock (including any payment or distribution in connection with any merger or consolidation involving the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries) except:

 

  (a) dividends or distributions by the Company payable solely in Capital Stock of the Company (other than Disqualified Stock but including options, warrants or other rights to purchase such Capital Stock of the Company); and

 

  (b) dividends or distributions payable to the Company or a Restricted Subsidiary and if such Restricted Subsidiary is not a Wholly-Owned Subsidiary, to minority stockholders (or owners of an equivalent interest in the case of a Subsidiary that is an entity other than a corporation) so long as the Company or a Restricted Subsidiary receives at least its pro rata share of such dividend or distribution;

 

  (2) purchase, repurchase, redeem, defease or otherwise acquire or retire for value any Capital Stock of the Company or any direct or indirect parent of the Company held by Persons other than the Company or a Restricted Subsidiary (other than in exchange for Capital Stock of the Company (other than Disqualified Stock));

 

  (3) purchase, repurchase, redeem, defease or otherwise acquire or retire for value, prior to scheduled maturity, scheduled repayment or scheduled sinking fund payment, any Subordinated Obligations or Guarantor Subordinated Obligations (other than (x) Indebtedness permitted under clause (3) of the second paragraph of the covenant “—Limitation on Indebtedness and Preferred Stock” or (y) the purchase, repurchase, redemption, defeasance or other acquisition or retirement of Subordinated Obligations or Guarantor Subordinated Obligations purchased in anticipation of satisfying a sinking fund obligation, principal installment or final maturity, in each case due within one year of the date of purchase, repurchase, redemption, defeasance or other acquisition or retirement); or

 

  (4) make any Restricted Investment in any Person;

(any such dividend, distribution, purchase, redemption, repurchase, defeasance, other acquisition, retirement or Restricted Investment referred to in clauses (1) through (4) shall be referred to herein as a “Restricted Payment”), if at the time the Company or such Restricted Subsidiary makes such Restricted Payment:

 

  (a) a Default shall have occurred and be continuing (or would result therefrom);

 

  (b) the Company is not able to Incur an additional $1.00 of Indebtedness pursuant to the covenant described under the first paragraph under “—Limitation on Indebtedness and Preferred Stock” after giving effect, on a pro forma basis, to such Restricted Payment; or

 

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  (c) the aggregate amount of such Restricted Payment and all other Restricted Payments declared or made subsequent to December 31, 2008 would exceed the sum of (the “Restricted Payments Basket”):

 

  (i) 50% of Consolidated Net Income for the period (treated as one accounting period) from January 1, 2009 to the end of the most recent fiscal quarter ending prior to the date of such Restricted Payment for which internal financial statements are in existence (or, in case such Consolidated Net Income is a deficit, minus 100% of such deficit);

 

  (ii) 100% of the aggregate Net Cash Proceeds and the Fair Market Value of property or securities other than cash (including Capital Stock of Persons engaged primarily in the Oil and Gas Business or assets used in the Oil and Gas Business), in each case received by the Company from the issue or sale of its Capital Stock (other than Disqualified Stock) or other capital contributions subsequent to December 31, 2008 (other than Net Cash Proceeds received from an issuance or sale of such Capital Stock to (x) any Persons indicated in clause 5(a) of the next succeeding paragraph or any direct or indirect parent of the Company, to the extent such Net Cash Proceeds have been used to make a Restricted Payment pursuant to clause (5)(a) of the next succeeding paragraph, (y) a Subsidiary of the Company or (z) an employee stock ownership plan, option plan or similar trust (to the extent such sale to an employee stock ownership plan, option plan or similar trust is financed by loans from or Guaranteed by the Company or any Restricted Subsidiary unless such loans have been repaid with cash on or prior to the date of determination));

 

  (iii) the amount by which Indebtedness of the Company or its Restricted Subsidiaries is reduced on the Company’s balance sheet upon the conversion or exchange (other than by a Subsidiary of the Company) subsequent to December 31, 2008 of any Indebtedness of the Company or its Restricted Subsidiaries convertible or exchangeable for Capital Stock (other than Disqualified Stock) of the Company (less the amount of any cash, or the Fair Market Value of any other property (other than such Capital Stock), distributed by the Company upon such conversion or exchange), together with the net proceeds, if any, received by the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries upon such conversion or exchange; and

 

  (iv) the amount equal to the aggregate net reduction in Restricted Investments made by the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries in any Person after December 31, 2008 resulting from:

 

  (A) repurchases, repayments or redemptions of such Restricted Investments by such Person, proceeds realized upon the sale of such Restricted Investment (other than to a Subsidiary of the Company), repayments of loans or advances or other transfers of assets (including by way of dividend or distribution) by such Person to the Company or any Restricted Subsidiary;

 

  (B) the redesignation of Unrestricted Subsidiaries as Restricted Subsidiaries (valued in each case as provided in the definition of “Investment”) not to exceed, in the case of any Unrestricted Subsidiary, the amount of Investments previously made by the Company or any Restricted Subsidiary in such Unrestricted Subsidiary, which amount in each case under this clause (iv) was included in the calculation of the amount of Restricted Payments; provided, however, that no amount will be included under this clause (iv) to the extent it is already included in Consolidated Net Income; and

 

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  (C) the sale by the Company or any Restricted Subsidiary (other than to the Company or a Restricted Subsidiary) of all or a portion of the Capital Stock of an Unrestricted Subsidiary or a distribution from an Unrestricted Subsidiary or a dividend from an Unrestricted Subsidiary (whether any such distribution or dividend is made with proceeds from the issuance by such Unrestricted Subsidiary of its Capital Stock or otherwise).

The amount of the Restricted Payments Basket as of September 30, 2013 was approximately $401 million. The provisions of the preceding paragraph will not prohibit:

 

  (1) any Restricted Payment made by exchange for, or out of the proceeds of the substantially concurrent sale of, Capital Stock of the Company (other than Disqualified Stock and other than Capital Stock issued or sold to a Subsidiary of the Company or an employee stock ownership plan or similar trust to the extent such sale to an employee stock ownership plan or similar trust is financed by loans from or Guaranteed by the Company or any Restricted Subsidiary unless such loans have been repaid with cash on or prior to the date of determination) or a substantially concurrent cash capital contribution received by the Company from its shareholders; provided, however, that (a) such Restricted Payment will be excluded from subsequent calculations of the amount of Restricted Payments and (b) the Net Cash Proceeds from such sale of Capital Stock or capital contribution will be excluded from clause (c)(ii) of the preceding paragraph;

 

  (2) any purchase, repurchase, redemption, defeasance or other acquisition or retirement of Subordinated Obligations of the Company or Guarantor Subordinated Obligations of any Subsidiary Guarantor made by exchange for, or out of the proceeds of the substantially concurrent sale of, Refinancing Indebtedness or any purchase, repurchase, redemption, defeasance or other acquisition or retirement of Guarantor Subordinated Obligations made by exchange for or out of the proceeds of the substantially concurrent sale of Refinancing Indebtedness that, in each case, is permitted to be Incurred pursuant to the covenant described under “—Limitation on Indebtedness and Preferred Stock”; provided, however, that such purchase, repurchase, redemption, defeasance, acquisition or retirement will be excluded from subsequent calculations of the amount of Restricted Payments;

 

  (3) any purchase, repurchase, redemption, defeasance or other acquisition or retirement of Disqualified Stock of the Company or a Restricted Subsidiary made by exchange for, or out of the proceeds of the substantially concurrent sale of, Disqualified Stock of the Company or such Restricted Subsidiary, as the case may be, that, in each case, is permitted to be Incurred pursuant to the covenant described under “—Limitation on Indebtedness and Preferred Stock”; provided, however, that such purchase, repurchase, redemption, defeasance, acquisition or retirement will be excluded from subsequent calculations of the amount of Restricted Payments;

 

  (4) dividends paid or distributions made within 60 days after the date of declaration if at such date of declaration such dividend or distribution would have complied with this covenant; provided, however, that such dividends and distributions will be included in subsequent calculations of the amount of Restricted Payments; and provided further, however, that for purposes of clarification, this clause (4) shall not include cash payments in lieu of the issuance of fractional shares included in clause (9) below;

 

  (5)

so long as no Default has occurred and is continuing, (a) the repurchase or other acquisition of Capital Stock (including options, warrants, equity appreciation rights or other rights to purchase or acquire Capital Stock) of the Company held by any existing or former employees, officers or directors of the Company or any Restricted Subsidiary of the Company or their assigns, estates or heirs, in each case pursuant to the repurchase or other acquisition provisions under employee stock

 

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  option or stock purchase plans or agreements or other agreements to compensate employees, officers or directors, in each case approved by the Company’s Board of Directors; provided that such repurchases or other acquisitions pursuant to this subclause (a) during any calendar year will not exceed $4.0 million in the aggregate (with unused amounts in any calendar year being carried over to succeeding calendar years); provided further, that such amount in any calendar year may be increased by an amount not to exceed (A) the cash proceeds received by the Company from the sale of Capital Stock of the Company to any existing or former employees, officers or directors of the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries or their assigns, estates or heirs that occurred after December 31, 2008 (to the extent the cash proceeds from the sale of such Capital Stock have not otherwise been applied to the payment of Restricted Payments by virtue of clause (c) of the preceding paragraph), plus (B) the cash proceeds of key man life insurance policies received by the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries after December 31, 2008, less (C) the amount of any Restricted Payments made pursuant to clauses (A) and (B) of this clause (5)(a); provided further, however, that the amount of any such repurchase or other acquisition under this subclause (a) will be excluded in subsequent calculations of the amount of Restricted Payments and the proceeds received from any such transaction will be excluded from clause (c)(ii) of the preceding paragraph; and (b) loans or advances to employees, officers or directors of the Company or any Subsidiary of the Company, in each case as permitted by Section 402 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, the proceeds of which are used to purchase Capital Stock of the Company, or to refinance loans or advances made pursuant to this clause (5)(b), in an aggregate principal amount not in excess of $4.0 million at any one time outstanding; provided, however, that the amount of such loans and advances will be included in subsequent calculations of the amount of Restricted Payments;

 

  (6) purchases, repurchases, redemptions or other acquisitions or retirements for value of Capital Stock deemed to occur upon the exercise of stock options, warrants, rights to acquire Capital Stock or other convertible securities if such Capital Stock represents a portion of the exercise or exchange price thereof, and any purchases, repurchases, redemptions or other acquisitions or retirements for value of Capital Stock made in lieu of withholding taxes in connection with any exercise or exchange of warrants, options or rights to acquire Capital Stock; provided, however, that such acquisitions or retirements will be excluded from subsequent calculations of the amount of Restricted Payments;

 

  (7) so long as no Default has occurred and is continuing or would be caused thereby, the purchase, repurchase, redemption, defeasance or other acquisition or retirement for value of any Subordinated Obligation (i) at a purchase price not greater than 101% of the principal amount of such Subordinated Obligation in the event of a Change of Control in accordance with provisions similar to the covenant described under “—Change of Control” or (ii) at a purchase price not greater than 100% of the principal amount thereof in accordance with provisions similar to the covenant described under “—Limitation on Sales of Assets and Subsidiary Stock”; provided that, prior to or simultaneously with such purchase, repurchase, redemption, defeasance or other acquisition or retirement, the Company has made the Change of Control Offer or Asset Disposition Offer, as applicable, as provided in such covenant with respect to the Notes and has completed the repurchase or redemption of all Notes validly tendered for payment in connection with such Change of Control Offer or Asset Disposition Offer; provided, however, that such acquisitions or retirements will be included in subsequent calculations of the amount of Restricted Payments;

 

  (8) payments or distributions to dissenting stockholders pursuant to applicable law or in connection with the settlement or other satisfaction of legal claims made pursuant to or in connection with a consolidation, merger or transfer of assets; provided, however, that any payment pursuant to this clause (8) shall be included in the calculation of the amount of Restricted Payments;

 

  (9) cash payments in lieu of the issuance of fractional shares; provided, however, that any payment pursuant to this clause (9) shall be excluded in the calculation of the amount of Restricted Payments;

 

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  (10) the declaration and payment of scheduled or accrued dividends to holders of any class of or series of Disqualified Stock of the Company issued on or after the Issue Date in accordance with the covenant captioned “—Limitation on Indebtedness and Preferred Stock,” to the extent such dividends are included in Consolidated Interest Expense; provided, however, that any payment pursuant to this clause (10) shall be excluded in the calculation of the amount of Restricted Payments; and

 

  (11) Restricted Payments in an amount not to exceed $25.0 million in the aggregate since the Issue Date; provided, however, that the amount of such Restricted Payments will be included in subsequent calculations of the amount of Restricted Payments.

The amount of all Restricted Payments (other than cash) shall be the Fair Market Value, on the date of such Restricted Payment, of the Restricted Investment proposed to be made or the asset(s) or securities proposed to be transferred or issued by the Company or such Restricted Subsidiary, as the case may be, pursuant to the Restricted Payment, except that the Fair Market Value of any non-cash dividend or distribution paid within 60 days after the date of its declaration shall be determined as of such date. The Fair Market Value of any cash Restricted Payment shall be its face amount, and the Fair Market Value of any non-cash Restricted Payment shall be determined in accordance with the definition of that term. Not later than the date of making any Restricted Payment in excess of $15.0 million that will be included in subsequent calculations of the amount of Restricted Payments, the Company shall deliver to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate stating that such Restricted Payment is permitted and setting forth the basis upon which the calculations required by this covenant were computed.

In the event that a Restricted Payment meets the criteria of more than one of the exceptions described in (1) through (11) above or is entitled to be made pursuant to the first paragraph above, the Company shall, in its sole discretion, classify such Restricted Payment.

As of the Issue Date, all of the Company’s Subsidiaries will be Restricted Subsidiaries. We will not permit any Unrestricted Subsidiary to become a Restricted Subsidiary except pursuant to the last sentence of the definition of “Unrestricted Subsidiary.” For purpose of designating any Restricted Subsidiary as an Unrestricted Subsidiary, all outstanding Investments by the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries (except to the extent repaid) in the Subsidiary so designated will be deemed to be Restricted Payments in an amount determined as set forth in the last sentence of the definition of “Investment.” Such designation will be permitted only if a Restricted Payment in such amount would be permitted at such time, whether pursuant to the first paragraph of this covenant or under clause (11) of the second paragraph of this covenant, or pursuant to the definition of “Permitted Investments,” and if such Subsidiary otherwise meets the definition of an Unrestricted Subsidiary. Unrestricted Subsidiaries will not be subject to any of the restrictive covenants set forth in the Indenture.

Limitation on Liens

The Company will not, and will not permit any of its Restricted Subsidiaries to, directly or indirectly, create, Incur or suffer to exist any Lien (the “Initial Lien”) other than Permitted Liens upon any of its property or assets (including Capital Stock of Restricted Subsidiaries), including any income or profits therefrom, whether owned on the date of the Indenture or acquired after that date, which Lien is securing any Indebtedness, unless contemporaneously with the Incurrence of such Lien effective provision is made to secure the Indebtedness due under the Notes or, in respect of any Lien on any Restricted Subsidiary’s property or assets, any Subsidiary Guarantee of such Restricted Subsidiary, equally and ratably with (or senior in priority to in the case of Liens with respect to Subordinated Obligations or Guarantor Subordinated Obligations, as the case may be) the Indebtedness secured by such Lien for so long as such Indebtedness is so secured.

Any Lien created for the benefit of the holders of the Notes pursuant to the preceding paragraph shall provide by its terms that such Lien shall be automatically and unconditionally released and discharged upon the release and discharge of the Initial Lien.

 

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Limitation on Restrictions on Distributions from Restricted Subsidiaries

The Company will not, and will not permit any Restricted Subsidiary to, create or otherwise cause or permit to exist or become effective any consensual encumbrance or consensual restriction on the ability of any Restricted Subsidiary to:

 

  (1) pay dividends or make any other distributions on its Capital Stock or pay any Indebtedness or other obligations owed to the Company or any Restricted Subsidiary (it being understood that the priority of any Preferred Stock in receiving dividends or liquidating distributions prior to dividends or liquidating distributions being paid on Common Stock shall not be deemed a restriction on the ability to make distributions on Capital Stock);

 

  (2) make any loans or advances to the Company or any Restricted Subsidiary (it being understood that the subordination of loans or advances made to the Company or any Restricted Subsidiary to other Indebtedness Incurred by the Company or any Restricted Subsidiary shall not be deemed a restriction on the ability to make loans or advances); or

 

  (3) sell, lease or transfer any of its property or assets to the Company or any Restricted Subsidiary.

The preceding provisions will not prohibit:

 

  (1) any encumbrance or restriction pursuant to or by reason of an agreement in effect at or entered into on the Issue Date, including, without limitation, the Indenture as in effect on such date;

 

  (2) any encumbrance or restriction with respect to a Person pursuant to or by reason of an agreement relating to any Capital Stock or Indebtedness Incurred by a Person on or before the date on which such Person was acquired by the Company or another Restricted Subsidiary (other than Capital Stock or Indebtedness Incurred as consideration in, or to provide all or any portion of the funds utilized to consummate, the transaction or series of related transactions pursuant to which such Person was acquired by the Company or a Restricted Subsidiary or in contemplation of the transaction) and outstanding on such date; provided that any such encumbrance or restriction shall not extend to any assets or property of the Company or any other Restricted Subsidiary other than the assets and property so acquired;

 

  (3) any encumbrance or restriction with respect to a Unrestricted Subsidiary pursuant to or by reason of an agreement that the Unrestricted Subsidiary is a party to entered into before the date on which such Unrestricted Subsidiary became a Restricted Subsidiary; provided that such agreement was not entered into in anticipation of the Unrestricted Subsidiary becoming a Restricted Subsidiary and any such encumbrance or restriction shall not extend to any assets or property of the Company or any other Restricted Subsidiary other than the assets and property so acquired;

 

  (4) with respect to any Foreign Subsidiary, any encumbrance or restriction contained in the terms of any Indebtedness or any agreement pursuant to which such Indebtedness was Incurred if either (1) the encumbrance or restriction applies only in the event of a payment default or a default with respect to a financial covenant in such Indebtedness or agreement or (2) the Company determines that any such encumbrance or restriction will not materially affect the Company’s ability to make principal or interest payments on the Notes, as determined in good faith by the Board of Directors of the Company, whose determination shall be conclusive;

 

  (5)

any encumbrance or restriction with respect to a Restricted Subsidiary pursuant to an agreement effecting a refunding, replacement or refinancing of Indebtedness Incurred pursuant to an agreement referred to in clauses (1) through (4) or clause (11) of this paragraph or this clause (5) or

 

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  contained in any amendment, restatement, modification, renewal, refunding, replacement or refinancing of an agreement referred to in clauses (1) through (4) or clause (11) of this paragraph or this clause (5); provided that the encumbrances and restrictions with respect to such Restricted Subsidiary contained in any such agreement, taken as a whole, are no less favorable in any material respect to the holders of the Notes than the encumbrances and restrictions contained in the agreements governing the Indebtedness being refunded, replaced or refinanced contained in the agreements governing the Indebtedness being refunded, replaced or refinanced;

 

  (6) in the case of clause (3) of the first paragraph of this covenant, any encumbrance or restriction:

 

  (a) that restricts in a customary manner the subletting, assignment or transfer of any property or asset that is subject to a lease (including leases governing leasehold interests or farm-in agreements or farm-out agreements relating to leasehold interests in Oil and Gas Properties), license or similar contract, or the assignment or transfer of any such lease (including leases governing leasehold interests or farm-in agreements or farm-out agreements relating to leasehold interests in Oil and Gas Properties), license (including, without limitation, licenses of intellectual property) or other contract;

 

  (b) contained in mortgages, pledges or other security agreements permitted under the Indenture securing Indebtedness of the Company or a Restricted Subsidiary to the extent such encumbrances or restrictions restrict the transfer of the property subject to such mortgages, pledges or other security agreements;

 

  (c) contained in any agreement creating Hedging Obligations permitted from time to time under the Indenture;

 

  (d) pursuant to customary provisions restricting dispositions of real property interests set forth in any reciprocal easement agreements of the Company or any Restricted Subsidiary;

 

  (e) restrictions on cash or other deposits imposed by customers under contracts entered into in the ordinary course of business; or

 

  (f) provisions with respect to the disposition or distribution of assets or property in operating agreements, joint venture agreements, development agreements, area of mutual interest agreements and other agreements that are customary in the Oil and Gas Business and entered into in the ordinary course of business;

 

  (7) any encumbrance or restriction contained in (a) purchase money obligations for property acquired in the ordinary course of business and (b) Capitalized Lease Obligations permitted under the Indenture, in each case, that impose encumbrances or restrictions of the nature described in clause (3) of the first paragraph of this covenant on the property so acquired;

 

  (8) any encumbrance or restriction with respect to a Restricted Subsidiary (or any of its property or assets) imposed pursuant to an agreement entered into for the direct or indirect sale or disposition of all or a portion of the Capital Stock or assets of such Restricted Subsidiary (or the property or assets that are subject to such restriction) pending the closing of such sale or disposition;

 

  (9) any customary encumbrances or restrictions imposed pursuant to any agreement of the type described in the definition of “Permitted Business Investment”;

 

  (10) encumbrances or restrictions arising or existing by reason of applicable law or any applicable rule, regulation or order;

 

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  (11) encumbrances or restrictions contained in agreements governing Indebtedness of the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries permitted to be Incurred pursuant to an agreement entered into subsequent to the Issue Date in accordance with the covenant described under the caption “—Limitation on Indebtedness and Preferred Stock”; provided that the provisions relating to such encumbrance or restriction contained in such Indebtedness are not materially less favorable to the Company taken as a whole, as determined by the Board of Directors of the Company in good faith, than the provisions contained in the Senior Secured Credit Agreement and in the Indenture as in effect on the Issue Date;

 

  (12) the issuance of Preferred Stock by a Restricted Subsidiary or the payment of dividends thereon in accordance with the terms thereof; provided that issuance of such Preferred Stock is permitted pursuant to the covenant described under the caption “—Limitation on Indebtedness and Preferred Stock” and the terms of such Preferred Stock do not expressly restrict the ability of a Restricted Subsidiary to pay dividends or make any other distributions on its Capital Stock (other than requirements to pay dividends or liquidation preferences on such Preferred Stock prior to paying any dividends or making any other distributions on such other Capital Stock);

 

  (13) supermajority voting requirements existing under corporate charters, bylaws, stockholders agreements and similar documents and agreements;

 

  (14) restrictions on cash or other deposits or net worth imposed by customers under contracts entered into in the ordinary course of business; and

 

  (15) any encumbrance or restriction contained in the Senior Secured Credit Agreement as in effect as of the Issue Date, and in any amendments, modifications, restatements, renewals, increases, supplements, refundings, replacements or refinancings thereof; provided that such amendments, modifications, restatements, renewals, increases, supplements, refundings, replacements or refinancings are no more restrictive with respect to such dividend and other payment restrictions than those contained in the Senior Secured Credit Agreement as in effect on the Issue Date.

Limitation on Sales of Assets and Subsidiary Stock

The Company will not, and will not permit any of its Restricted Subsidiaries to, make any Asset Disposition unless:

 

  (1) the Company or such Restricted Subsidiary, as the case may be, receives consideration at the time of such Asset Disposition at least equal to the Fair Market Value (such Fair Market Value to be determined on the date of contractually agreeing to such Asset Disposition) of the shares or other assets subject to such Asset Disposition;

 

  (2) at least 75% of the aggregate consideration received by the Company or such Restricted Subsidiary, as the case may be, from such Asset Disposition and all other Asset Dispositions since the Issue Date, on a cumulative basis, is in the form of cash or Cash Equivalents, or any combination thereof; and

 

  (3) except as provided in the next paragraph, an amount equal to 100% of the Net Available Cash from such Asset Disposition is applied, within 365 days from the later of the date of such Asset Disposition or the receipt of such Net Available Cash, by the Company or such Restricted Subsidiary, as the case may be:

 

  (a)

to prepay, repay, redeem or purchase Pari Passu Indebtedness of the Company (including the Notes) or a Subsidiary Guarantor or any Indebtedness (other than Disqualified Stock) of a

 

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  Restricted Subsidiary that is not a Subsidiary Guarantor (in each case, excluding Indebtedness owed to the Company or an Affiliate of the Company); provided, however, that, in connection with any prepayment, repayment, redemption or purchase of Indebtedness pursuant to this clause (a), the Company or such Restricted Subsidiary will retire such Indebtedness and will cause the related commitment (if any) to be permanently reduced in an amount equal to the principal amount so prepaid, repaid, redeemed or purchased; or

 

  (b) to invest in Additional Assets;

provided that pending the final application of any such Net Available Cash in accordance with clause (a) or clause (b) above, the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries may temporarily reduce Indebtedness or otherwise invest such Net Available Cash in any manner not prohibited by the Indenture.

Any Net Available Cash from Asset Dispositions that is not applied or invested as provided in the preceding paragraph will be deemed to constitute “Excess Proceeds.” Not later than the 366th day from the later of the date of such Asset Disposition or the receipt of such Net Available Cash, if the aggregate amount of Excess Proceeds exceeds $20.0 million, the Company will be required to make an offer (“Asset Disposition Offer”) to all holders of Notes and, to the extent required by the terms of other Pari Passu Indebtedness, to all holders of other Pari Passu Indebtedness outstanding with similar provisions requiring the Company to make an offer to purchase or redeem such Pari Passu Indebtedness with the proceeds from any Asset Disposition (“Pari Passu Notes”) to purchase or redeem on a pro rata basis the maximum principal amount of Notes and any such Pari Passu Notes to which the Asset Disposition Offer applies that may be purchased out of the Excess Proceeds, at an offer price in cash in an amount equal to 100% of the principal amount (or, in the event such Pari Passu Indebtedness of the Company was issued with significant original issue discount, 100% of the accreted value thereof) of the Notes and Pari Passu Notes plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any (or in respect of such Pari Passu Indebtedness, such lesser price, if any, as may be provided for by the terms of such Indebtedness), to the date of purchase (subject to the right of holders of record on the relevant record date to receive interest due on the relevant interest payment date), in accordance with the procedures set forth in the Indenture or the agreements governing the Pari Passu Notes, as applicable, in each case in minimum principal amount of $2,000 and integral multiples of $1,000 in excess of $2,000. If the aggregate principal amount of Notes surrendered by holders thereof and accepted for payment exceeds the amount of Excess Proceeds allocated to the purchase of Notes, the Trustee shall select the Notes to be purchased on a pro rata basis. To the extent that the aggregate amount of Notes and Pari Passu Notes so validly tendered and not properly withdrawn pursuant to an Asset Disposition Offer is less than the Excess Proceeds, the Company or any Restricted Subsidiary may use any remaining Excess Proceeds for general corporate purposes, subject to the other covenants contained in the Indenture. Upon completion of such Asset Disposition Offer, the amount of Excess Proceeds shall be reset at zero.

The Asset Disposition Offer will remain open for a period of 20 Business Days following its commencement, except to the extent that a longer period is required by applicable law (the “Asset Disposition Offer Period”). No later than five Business Days after the termination of the Asset Disposition Offer Period (the “Asset Disposition Purchase Date”), the Company will purchase the principal amount of Notes and Pari Passu Notes required to be purchased pursuant to this covenant (the “Asset Disposition Offer Amount”) or, if less than the Asset Disposition Offer Amount has been so validly tendered and not properly withdrawn, all Notes and Pari Passu Notes validly tendered and not properly withdrawn in response to the Asset Disposition Offer.

If the Asset Disposition Purchase Date is on or after an interest record date and on or before the related interest payment date, any accrued and unpaid interest, if any, will be paid to the Person in whose name a Note is registered at the close of business on such record date, and no further interest will be payable to holders who tender Notes pursuant to the Asset Disposition Offer.

On or before the Asset Disposition Purchase Date, the Company will, to the extent lawful, accept for payment, on a pro rata basis to the extent necessary, the Asset Disposition Offer Amount of Notes and Pari Passu Notes or portions of Notes and Pari Passu Notes so validly tendered and not properly withdrawn pursuant to the

 

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Asset Disposition Offer, or if less than the Asset Disposition Offer Amount has been validly tendered and not properly withdrawn, all Notes and Pari Passu Notes so validly tendered and not properly withdrawn, in each case in minimum principal amount of $2,000 and integral multiples of $1,000 in excess of $2,000. The Company will deliver to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate stating that such Notes or portions thereof were accepted for payment by the Company in accordance with the terms of this covenant and, in addition, the Company will deliver all certificates and notes required, if any, by the agreements governing the Pari Passu Notes. The Company or the paying agent, as the case may be, will promptly (but in any case not later than five Business Days after the termination of the Asset Disposition Offer Period) mail or deliver to each tendering holder of Notes or holder or lender of Pari Passu Notes, as the case may be, an amount equal to the purchase price of the Notes or Pari Passu Notes so validly tendered and not properly withdrawn by such holder or lender, as the case may be, and accepted by the Company for purchase, and the Company will promptly issue a new Note, and the Trustee, upon delivery of a written request from the Company, will authenticate and mail or deliver such new Note to such holder, in a principal amount equal to any unpurchased portion of the Note surrendered; provided that each such new Note will be in a minimum principal amount of $2,000 or an integral multiple of $1,000 in excess of $2,000. In addition, the Company will take any and all other actions required by the agreements governing the Pari Passu Notes. Any Note not so accepted will be promptly mailed or delivered by the Company to the holder thereof. The Company will publicly announce the results of the Asset Disposition Offer on the Asset Disposition Purchase Date.

The Company will comply, to the extent applicable, with the requirements of Rule 14e-1 of the Exchange Act and any other securities laws or regulations in connection with the repurchase of Notes pursuant to an Asset Disposition Offer. To the extent that the provisions of any securities laws or regulations conflict with provisions of this covenant, the Company will comply with the applicable securities laws and regulations and will not be deemed to have breached its obligations under the Indenture by virtue of its compliance with such securities laws or regulations.

For the purposes of clause (2) of the first paragraph of this covenant, the following will be deemed to be cash:

 

  (1) the assumption by the transferee of Indebtedness (other than Subordinated Obligations or Disqualified Stock) of the Company or Indebtedness of a Restricted Subsidiary (other than Guarantor Subordinated Obligations or Disqualified Stock of any Restricted Subsidiary that is a Subsidiary Guarantor) and the release of the Company or such Restricted Subsidiary from all liability on such Indebtedness in connection with such Asset Disposition (in which case the Company will, without further action, be deemed to have applied such deemed cash to Indebtedness in accordance with clause (3)(a) of the first paragraph of this covenant;

 

  (2) with respect to any Asset Disposition by the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries of oil and gas properties in which the Company or such Restricted Subsidiary still retains an interest, any agreement by the transferee (or an Affiliate thereof) to pay all or a portion of the costs and expenses of the Company or such Restricted Subsidiary related to the exploration, development, completion or production of such properties and activities related thereto; and

 

  (3) securities, notes or other obligations received by the Company or any Restricted Subsidiary from the transferee that are converted by the Company or such Restricted Subsidiary into cash within 180 days after receipt thereof.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, the 75% limitation referred to in clause (2) of the first paragraph of this covenant shall be deemed satisfied with respect to any Asset Disposition in which the cash or Cash Equivalents portion of the consideration received therefrom, determined in accordance with the foregoing provision on an after-tax basis, is equal to or greater than what the after-tax proceeds would have been had such Asset Disposition complied with the aforementioned 75% limitation.

 

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The requirement of clause (3)(b) of the first paragraph of this covenant shall be deemed to be satisfied if an agreement (including a lease, whether a capital lease or an operating lease) committing to make the acquisitions or expenditures referred to therein is entered into by the Company or its Restricted Subsidiary within the specified time period and such Net Available Cash is subsequently applied in accordance with such agreement within six months following such agreement.

The Company will not, and will not permit any Restricted Subsidiary to, engage in any Asset Swaps, unless:

 

  (1) at the time of entering into such Asset Swap and immediately after giving effect to such Asset Swap, no Default or Event of Default shall have occurred and be continuing or would occur as a consequence thereof; and

 

  (2) in the event such Asset Swap involves the transfer by the Company or any Restricted Subsidiary of assets having an aggregate Fair Market Value equal to or in excess of $25.0 million, the terms of such Asset Swap have been approved by a majority of the members of the Board of Directors of the Company.

Limitation on Affiliate Transactions

The Company will not, and will not permit any of its Restricted Subsidiaries to, directly or indirectly, enter into, make, amend or conduct any transaction (including making a payment to, the purchase, sale, lease or exchange of any property or the rendering of any service), contract, agreement or understanding with or for the benefit of any Affiliate of the Company (an “Affiliate Transaction”) unless:

 

  (1) the terms of such Affiliate Transaction are no less favorable to the Company or such Restricted Subsidiary, as the case may be, than those that could reasonably be expected to be obtained in a comparable transaction at the time of such transaction in arm’s-length dealings with a Person who is not such an Affiliate; and

 

  (2) the Company delivers to the Trustee a copy of:

 

  (a) with respect to any Affiliate Transaction or series of related Affiliate Transactions involving aggregate consideration in excess of $20.0 million, a resolution of the Board of Directors of the Company certifying that the terms of such transaction have been approved by a majority of the members of the Board of Directors of the Company having no personal stake in such transaction, if any (and such majority determines that such Affiliate Transaction satisfies the criteria in clause (1) above); and

 

  (b) with respect to any Affiliate Transaction or series of related Affiliate Transactions involving aggregate consideration in excess of $50.0 million, a written opinion addressed to the Board of Directors of the Company or the Company from an independent investment banking, accounting, engineering or appraisal firm of nationally recognized standing that such Affiliate Transaction is fair, from a financial standpoint, to the Company or such Restricted Subsidiary or is not materially less favorable than those that could reasonably be expected to be obtained in a comparable transaction at such time on an arm’s-length basis from a Person that is not an Affiliate.

The preceding paragraph will not apply to:

 

  (1) any Restricted Payment permitted to be made pursuant to the covenant described under “—Limitation on Restricted Payments” or any Permitted Investment;

 

  (2)

any issuance of Capital Stock (other than Disqualified Stock), or other payments, awards or grants in cash, Capital Stock (other than Disqualified Stock) or otherwise pursuant to, or the funding of,

 

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  employment or severance agreements and other compensation arrangements, options to purchase Capital Stock (other than Disqualified Stock) of the Company, restricted stock plans, long-term incentive plans, stock appreciation rights plans, participation plans or similar employee benefits plans and/or insurance and indemnification arrangements provided to or for the benefit of directors and employees approved by the Board of Directors of the Company;

 

  (3) loans or advances to employees, officers or directors in the ordinary course of business of the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries not to exceed $5.0 million in the aggregate at any one time outstanding;

 

  (4) advances to or reimbursements of employees for moving, entertainment and travel expenses, drawing accounts and similar expenditures in the ordinary course of business of the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries;

 

  (5) any transaction between the Company and a Restricted Subsidiary or between Restricted Subsidiaries, and Guarantees issued by the Company or a Restricted Subsidiary for the benefit of the Company or a Restricted Subsidiary, as the case may be, in accordance with “—Limitation on Indebtedness and Preferred Stock”;

 

  (6) any transaction with a joint venture or similar entity (other than an Unrestricted Subsidiary) which would constitute an Affiliate Transaction solely because the Company or a Restricted Subsidiary owns, directly or indirectly, an Equity Interest in or otherwise controls such joint venture or similar entity;

 

  (7) the issuance or sale of any Capital Stock (other than Disqualified Stock) of the Company to, or the receipt by the Company of any capital contribution from its shareholders;

 

  (8) indemnities of officers, directors and employees of the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries permitted by charter, bylaw or statutory provisions and any employment agreement or other employee compensation plan or arrangement entered into in the ordinary course of business by the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries;

 

  (9) the payment of reasonable compensation and fees paid to, and indemnity provided on behalf of, officers or directors of the Company or any Restricted Subsidiary;

 

  (10) the performance of obligations of the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries under the terms of any agreement to which the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries is a party as of or on the Issue Date, as these agreements may be amended, modified, supplemented, extended or renewed from time to time; provided, however, that any future amendment, modification, supplement, extension or renewal entered into after the Issue Date will be permitted only to the extent that its terms are not materially more disadvantageous, taken as a whole, to the holders of the Notes than the terms of the agreements in effect on the Issue Date;

 

  (11) transactions with customers, clients, suppliers, or purchasers or sellers of goods or services, in each case in the ordinary course of business and otherwise in compliance with the terms of the Indenture, provided that in the reasonable determination of the Board of Directors of the Company or the senior management of the Company, such transactions are on terms not materially less favorable to the Company or the relevant Restricted Subsidiary than those that could reasonably be expected to be obtained in a comparable transaction at such time on an arm’s-length basis from a Person that is not an Affiliate of the Company;

 

  (12) transactions with a Person (other than an Unrestricted Subsidiary) that is an Affiliate of the Company solely because the Company owns, directly or through a Restricted Subsidiary, an Equity Interest in such Person; and

 

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  (13) transactions between the Company or any Restricted Subsidiary and any Person, a director of which is also a director of the Company or any direct or indirect parent company of the Company, and such director is the sole cause for such Person to be deemed an Affiliate of the Company or any Restricted Subsidiary; provided, however, that such director shall abstain from voting as a director of the Company or such direct or indirect parent company, as the case may be, on any matter involving such other Person.

Provision of Financial Information

The Indenture provides that, whether or not the Company is subject to the reporting requirements of Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act, to the extent not prohibited by the Exchange Act, the Company will file with the SEC, and make available to the Trustee and the holders of the Notes without cost to any holder, the annual reports and the information, documents and other reports (or copies of such portions of any of the foregoing as the SEC may by rules and regulations prescribe) that are specified in Sections 13 and 15(d) of the Exchange Act and applicable to a U.S. corporation within the time periods specified therein with respect to an accelerated filer. In the event that the Company is not permitted to file such reports, documents and information with the SEC pursuant to the Exchange Act, the Company will nevertheless make available such Exchange Act information to the Trustee and the holders of the Notes without cost to any holder as if the Company were subject to the reporting requirements of Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act within the time periods specified therein with respect to a non-accelerated filer.

If the Company has designated any of its Subsidiaries as Unrestricted Subsidiaries, then the financial information required will include a reasonably detailed presentation, either on the face of the financial statements or in the footnotes thereto, and in Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, of the financial condition and results of operations of the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries separate from the financial condition and results of operations of the Unrestricted Subsidiaries of the Company.

The availability of the foregoing materials on the SEC’s website or on the Company’s website shall be deemed to satisfy the foregoing delivery obligations.

Any and all Defaults or Events of Default arising from a failure to furnish or file in a timely manner a report or other information required by this covenant shall be deemed cured (and the Company shall be deemed to be in compliance with this covenant) upon furnishing or filing such report or other information as contemplated by this covenant (but without regard to the date on which such report or other information is so furnished or filed); provided, that such cure shall not otherwise affect the rights of the holders or the trustee under “—Events of Default” if the principal of, premium, if any, and interest on the Notes have been accelerated in accordance with the terms of the Indenture and such acceleration has not been rescinded or cancelled prior to such cure.

Merger and Consolidation

The Company will not consolidate with or merge with or into or wind up into (whether or not the Company is the surviving corporation), or convey, transfer or lease all or substantially all its assets in one or more related transactions to, any Person, unless:

 

  (1) the resulting, surviving or transferee Person (the “Successor Company”) will be a corporation, partnership, trust or limited liability company organized and existing under the laws of the United States of America, any State of the United States or the District of Columbia and the Successor Company (if not the Company) will expressly assume, by supplemental indenture, executed and delivered to the Trustee, in form reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee, all the obligations of the Company under the Notes and the Indenture;

 

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  (2) immediately after giving effect to such transaction (and treating any Indebtedness that becomes an obligation of the Successor Company or any Subsidiary of the Successor Company as a result of such transaction as having been Incurred by the Successor Company or such Subsidiary at the time of such transaction), no Default or Event of Default shall have occurred and be continuing;

 

  (3) either immediately after giving effect to such transaction on a pro forma basis and any related financing transactions as if the same had occurred at the beginning of the applicable four quarter period, (A) the Successor Company would be able to Incur at least an additional $1.00 of Indebtedness pursuant to the first paragraph of the covenant described under “—Limitation on Indebtedness and Preferred Stock” or (B) the Consolidated Coverage Ratio of the Company is equal to or greater than the Consolidated Coverage Ratio of the Company immediately before such transaction;

 

  (4) if the Company is not the Successor Company, each Subsidiary Guarantor (unless it is the other party to the transactions above, in which case clause (1) shall apply) shall have by supplemental indenture confirmed that its Subsidiary Guarantee shall apply to such Person’s obligations in respect of the Indenture and the Notes shall continue to be in effect; and

 

  (5) the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that such consolidation, merger, conveyance, transfer or lease and such supplemental indenture (if any) comply with the Indenture.

For purposes of this covenant, the sale, lease, conveyance, assignment, transfer or other disposition of all or substantially all of the properties and assets of one or more Subsidiaries of the Company, which properties and assets, if held by the Company instead of such Subsidiaries, would constitute all or substantially all of the properties and assets of the Company on a consolidated basis, shall be deemed to be the transfer of all or substantially all of the assets of the Company.

The Successor Company will succeed to, and be substituted for, and may exercise every right and power of, the Company under the Indenture; and its predecessor Company, except in the case of a lease of all or substantially all its assets, will be released from the obligation to pay the principal of and interest on the Notes.

Although there is a limited body of case law interpreting the phrase “substantially all,” there is no precise established definition of the phrase under applicable law. Accordingly, in certain circumstances there may be a degree of uncertainty as to whether a particular transaction would involve “all or substantially all” of the assets of a Person.

Notwithstanding the preceding clause (3), (x) any Restricted Subsidiary may consolidate with, merge into or transfer all or part of its properties and assets to the Company and the Company may consolidate with, merge into or transfer all or part of its properties and assets to a Subsidiary Guarantor and (y) the Company may merge with an Affiliate incorporated solely for the purpose of reincorporating the Company in another jurisdiction; and provided further that, in the case of a Restricted Subsidiary that consolidates with, merges into or transfers all or part of its properties and assets to the Company, the Company will not be required to comply with the preceding clause (5).

In addition, the Company will not permit any Subsidiary Guarantor to consolidate with or merge with or into, and will not permit the conveyance, transfer or lease of all or substantially all of the assets of any Subsidiary Guarantor to, any Person (other than the Company or another Subsidiary Guarantor) unless (x) such Subsidiary Guarantor is released from its obligations under its Subsidiary Guarantee as described above under “—Subsidiary Guarantees” or (y):

 

  (1)

(a) the resulting, surviving or transferee Person (if not such Subsidiary Guarantor) assumes, by supplemental indenture, executed and delivered to the Trustee, all the obligations of such

 

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  Subsidiary Guarantor under its Subsidiary Guarantee; (b) immediately after giving effect to such transaction (and treating any Indebtedness that becomes an obligation of the resulting, surviving or transferee Person or any Restricted Subsidiary as a result of such transaction as having been Incurred by such Person or such Restricted Subsidiary at the time of such transaction), no Default has occurred and is continuing; and (c) the Company delivers to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that such consolidation, merger or transfer and such supplemental indenture (if any) comply with the Indenture; and

 

  (2) the transaction is made in compliance with the covenants described under “—Certain Covenants—Limitation on Sales of Assets and Subsidiary Stock” and this “Merger and Consolidation” covenant.

Future Subsidiary Guarantors

The Company will cause (a) each Wholly-Owned Subsidiary of the Company (other than a Foreign Subsidiary) formed or acquired after the Issue Date and (b) any other Restricted Subsidiary that is not already a Subsidiary Guarantor that Guarantees any Indebtedness of the Company or a Subsidiary Guarantor, in each case to execute and deliver to the Trustee within 30 days a supplemental indenture (in the form specified in the Indenture) pursuant to which such Subsidiary will unconditionally Guarantee, on a joint and several basis, the full and prompt payment of the principal of, premium, if any, and interest on the Notes on a senior basis; provided that any Restricted Subsidiary that constitutes an Immaterial Subsidiary need not become a Subsidiary Guarantor until such time as it ceases to be an Immaterial Subsidiary.

Payments for Consent

Neither the Company nor any of its Restricted Subsidiaries will, directly or indirectly, pay or cause to be paid any consideration, whether by way of interest, fees or otherwise, to any holder of any Notes for or as an inducement to any consent, waiver or amendment of any of the terms or provisions of the Indenture or the Notes unless such consideration is offered to be paid or is paid to all holders of the Notes that consent, waive or agree to amend in the time frame set forth in the solicitation documents relating to such consent, waiver or amendment.

Covenant Termination

From and after the occurrence of an Investment Grade Rating Event, the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries will no longer be subject to the provisions of the Indenture described above under the following headings:

 

   

“—Limitation on Indebtedness and Preferred Stock,”

 

   

“—Limitation on Restricted Payments,”

 

   

“—Limitation on Restrictions on Distributions from Restricted Subsidiaries,”

 

   

“—Limitation on Sales of Assets and Subsidiary Stock,”

 

   

“—Limitation on Affiliate Transactions” and

 

   

Clause (3) of “—Merger and Consolidation”

(collectively, the “Eliminated Covenants”). As a result, after the date on which the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries are no longer subject to the Eliminated Covenants, the Notes will be entitled to substantially reduced covenant protection.

 

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After the foregoing covenants have been terminated, the Company may not designate any of its Subsidiaries as Unrestricted Subsidiaries pursuant to the second sentence of the definition of “Unrestricted Subsidiary.”

Events of Default

Each of the following is an Event of Default with respect to the Notes:

 

  (1) default in any payment of interest on any Note when due, continued for 30 days;

 

  (2) default in the payment of principal of or premium, if any, on any Note when due at its Stated Maturity, upon optional redemption, upon required repurchase, upon declaration of acceleration or otherwise;

 

  (3) failure by the Company or any Subsidiary Guarantor to comply with its obligations under “—Certain Covenants—Merger and Consolidation”;

 

  (4) failure by the Company to comply for 30 days (or 180 days in the case of a Reporting Failure) after notice as provided below with any of its obligations under the covenant described under “—Change of Control” above or under the covenants described under “—Certain Covenants” above (in each case, other than a failure to purchase Notes which will constitute an Event of Default under clause (2) above and other than a failure to comply with “—Certain Covenants—Merger and Consolidation” which is covered by clause (3));

 

  (5) failure by the Company to comply for 60 days after notice as provided below with its other agreements contained in the Indenture;

 

  (6) default under any mortgage, indenture or instrument under which there may be issued or by which there may be secured or evidenced any Indebtedness for money borrowed by the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries (or the payment of which is Guaranteed by the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries), other than Indebtedness owed to the Company or a Restricted Subsidiary, whether such Indebtedness or Guarantee now exists, or is created after the date of the Indenture, which default:

 

  (a) is caused by a failure to pay principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on such Indebtedness prior to the expiration of the grace period provided in such Indebtedness (and any extensions of any grace period) (“payment default”); or

 

  (b) results in the acceleration of such Indebtedness prior to its Stated Maturity (the “cross acceleration provision”);

and, in each case, the principal amount of any such Indebtedness, together with the principal amount of any other such Indebtedness under which there has been a payment default or the maturity of which has been so accelerated, aggregates $20.0 million or more;

 

  (7) certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization of the Company or a Significant Subsidiary or group of Restricted Subsidiaries that, taken together (as of the latest audited consolidated financial statements for the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries), would constitute a Significant Subsidiary (the “bankruptcy provisions”);

 

  (8)

failure by the Company or any Significant Subsidiary or group of Restricted Subsidiaries that, taken together (as of the latest audited consolidated financial statements for the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries), would constitute a Significant Subsidiary to pay final judgments

 

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  aggregating in excess of $20.0 million (to the extent not covered by insurance by a reputable and creditworthy insurer as to which the insurer has not disclaimed coverage), which judgments are not paid or discharged, and there shall be any period of 60 consecutive days following entry of such final judgment or decree during which a stay of enforcement of such final judgment or decree, by reason of pending appeal or otherwise, shall not be in effect (the “judgment default provision”); or

 

  (9) any Subsidiary Guarantee of a Significant Subsidiary or group of Restricted Subsidiaries that, taken together (as of the latest audited consolidated financial statements for the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries) would constitute a Significant Subsidiary, ceases to be in full force and effect (except as contemplated by the terms of the Indenture) or is declared null and void in a judicial proceeding or any Subsidiary Guarantor that is a Significant Subsidiary or group of Subsidiary Guarantors that, taken together (as of the latest audited consolidated financial statements of the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries) would constitute a Significant Subsidiary, denies or disaffirms its obligations under the Indenture or its Subsidiary Guarantee.

However, a default under clauses (4) and (5) of this paragraph will not constitute an Event of Default until the Trustee or the holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the outstanding Notes notify the Company in writing and, in the case of a notice given by the holders, the Trustee of the default and the Company does not cure such default within the time specified in clauses (4) and (5) of this paragraph after receipt of such notice.

If an Event of Default (other than an Event of Default described in clause (7) above) occurs and is continuing, the Trustee by notice to the Company, or the holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the outstanding Notes by notice to the Company and the Trustee, may, and the Trustee at the request of such holders shall, declare the principal of, premium, if any, and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all the Notes to be due and payable. If an Event of Default described in clause (7) above occurs and is continuing, the principal of, premium, if any, and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all the Notes will become and be immediately due and payable without any declaration or other act on the part of the Trustee or any holders. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Notes may rescind any such acceleration with respect to the Notes and its consequences if, among other requirements, (1) rescission would not conflict with any judgment or decree of a court of competent jurisdiction and (2) all existing Events of Default, other than the nonpayment of the principal of, premium, if any, and interest on the Notes that have become due solely by such declaration of acceleration, have been cured or waived.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, if an Event of Default specified in clause (6) above has occurred and is continuing, such Event of Default and any consequential acceleration (to the extent not in violation of any applicable law or in conflict with any judgment or decree of a court of competent jurisdiction) shall be automatically rescinded if (i) the Indebtedness that is the subject of such Event of Default has been repaid or (ii) if the default relating to such Indebtedness is waived by the holders of such Indebtedness or cured and if such Indebtedness has been accelerated, then the holders thereof have rescinded their declaration of acceleration in respect of such Indebtedness, in each case within 20 days after the declaration of acceleration with respect thereto, and (iii) any other existing Events of Default, except nonpayment of principal of, premium, if any, or interest on the Notes that became due solely because of the acceleration of the Notes, have been cured or waived.

Subject to the provisions of the Indenture relating to the duties of the Trustee if an Event of Default occurs and is continuing, the Trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of the rights or powers under the Indenture at the request or direction of any of the holders unless such holders have offered to the Trustee reasonable indemnity or security against any loss, liability or expense. Except to enforce the right to receive payment of principal, premium, if any, or interest when due, no holder may pursue any remedy with respect to the Indenture or the Notes unless:

 

  (1) such holder has previously given the Trustee notice that an Event of Default is continuing;

 

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  (2) holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the outstanding Notes have requested the Trustee to pursue the remedy;

 

  (3) such holders have offered the Trustee reasonable security or indemnity against any loss, liability or expense;

 

  (4) the Trustee has not complied with such request within 60 days after the receipt of the request and the offer of security or indemnity; and

 

  (5) the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Notes have not waived such Event of Default or otherwise given the Trustee a direction that, in the opinion of the Trustee, is inconsistent with such request within such 60-day period.

Subject to certain restrictions, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Notes are given the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee or of exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee. If an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing, the Trustee will be required in the exercise of its powers to use the degree of care that a prudent person would use in the conduct of his own affairs. The Trustee, however, may refuse to follow any direction that conflicts with law or the Indenture or that the Trustee determines is unduly prejudicial to the rights of any other holder or that would involve the Trustee in personal liability. Prior to taking any action under the Indenture, the Trustee will be entitled to indemnification satisfactory to it in its sole discretion against all losses and expenses caused by taking or not taking such action.

If a Default occurs and is continuing and is known to the Trustee, the Trustee must mail to each holder notice of the Default within 90 days after it occurs. Except in the case of a Default in the payment of principal of, premium, if any, or interest on any Note, the Trustee may withhold such notice if and so long as a committee of trust officers of the Trustee in good faith determines that withholding notice is in the interests of the holders. In addition, the Company is required to deliver to the Trustee, within 120 days after the end of each fiscal year, an Officers’ Certificate indicating whether the signers thereof know of any Default that occurred during the previous year. The Company also is required to deliver to the Trustee, within 30 days after the occurrence thereof, written notice of any Defaults, their status and what action the Company is taking or proposing to take in respect thereof.

Amendments and Waivers

Subject to certain exceptions, the Indenture and the Notes may be amended with the consent of the holders of a majority in principal amount of the Notes then outstanding (including without limitation, consents obtained in connection with a purchase of, or tender offer or exchange offer for, Notes) and, subject to certain exceptions, any past default or compliance with any provisions may be waived with the consent of the holders of a majority in principal amount of the Notes then outstanding (including, without limitation, consents obtained in connection with a purchase of, or tender offer or exchange offer for, Notes). However, without the consent of each holder of an outstanding Note affected, no amendment may, among other things:

 

  (1) reduce the principal amount of Notes whose holders must consent to an amendment or waiver;

 

  (2) reduce the stated rate of or extend the stated time for payment of interest on any Note;

 

  (3) reduce the principal of or extend the Stated Maturity of any Note;

 

  (4) reduce the premium payable upon the redemption of any Note as described above under “—Optional Redemption,” or change the time at which any Note may be redeemed as described above under “—Optional Redemption”;

 

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  (5) waive a Default or Event of Default in the payment of principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, the Notes (except a rescission of acceleration of the Notes by the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the then outstanding Notes and a waiver of the payment default that resulted from such acceleration);

 

  (6) make any Note payable in money other than that stated in the Note;

 

  (7) make any change in the provisions of the Indenture relating to waivers of past Defaults or Events of Default or impair the right of any holder to receive payment of the principal of, premium, if any, and interest on such holder’s Notes on or after the due dates therefor or to institute suit for the enforcement of any payment on or with respect to such holder’s Notes;

 

  (8) make any change in the amendment provisions which require each holder’s consent or in the waiver provisions;

 

  (9) modify the Subsidiary Guarantees in any manner adverse to the holders of the Notes; or

 

  (10) make any change to or modify the ranking of the Notes that would adversely affect the holders.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, without the consent of any holder, the Company, the Subsidiary Guarantors and the Trustee may amend the Indenture and the Notes to:

 

  (1) cure any ambiguity, omission, defect, mistake or inconsistency;

 

  (2) provide for the assumption by a successor of the obligations of the Company or any Subsidiary Guarantor under the Indenture;

 

  (3) provide for uncertificated Notes in addition to or in place of certificated Notes;

 

  (4) add Guarantors with respect to the Notes, including Subsidiary Guarantors, or release a Subsidiary Guarantor from its Subsidiary Guarantee and terminate such Subsidiary Guarantee; provided that the release and termination is in accordance with the applicable provisions of the Indenture;

 

  (5) secure the Notes or Subsidiary Guarantees;

 

  (6) add to the covenants of the Company or a Subsidiary Guarantor for the benefit of the holders or surrender any right or power conferred upon the Company or a Subsidiary Guarantor;

 

  (7) make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any holder; provided, however, that any change to conform the Indenture to the “Description of Notes” section in the prospectus dated October 23, 2012 relating to the Original Notes will not be deemed to adversely affect such legal rights;

 

  (8) comply with any requirement of the SEC in connection with the qualification of the Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act; or

 

  (9) provide for the succession of a successor Trustee, provided that the successor Trustee is otherwise qualified and eligible to act as such under the Indenture.

The consent of the holders is not necessary under the Indenture to approve the particular form of any proposed amendment. It is sufficient if such consent approves the substance of the proposed amendment. A consent to any amendment or waiver under the Indenture by any holder of Notes given in connection with a

 

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tender of such holder’s Notes will not be rendered invalid by such tender. After an amendment under the Indenture requiring the consent of the holders becomes effective, the Company is required to mail to the holders a notice briefly describing such amendment. However, the failure to give such notice to all the holders, or any defect in the notice will not impair or affect the validity of the amendment.

Defeasance

The Company at any time may terminate all its obligations under the Notes and the Indenture (“legal defeasance”), except for certain obligations, including those respecting the defeasance trust and obligations to register the transfer or exchange of the Notes, to replace mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Notes and to maintain a registrar and paying agent in respect of the Notes.

The Company at any time may terminate its obligations described under “—Change of Control” and under covenants described under “—Certain Covenants” (other than clauses (1), (2), (4) and (5) of “—Merger and Consolidation”), the operation of the cross default upon a payment default, cross acceleration provisions, the bankruptcy provisions with respect to Significant Subsidiaries, the judgment default provision, the Subsidiary Guarantee provision described under “—Events of Default” above and the limitations contained in clause (3) under “—Certain Covenants—Merger and Consolidation” above (“covenant defeasance”).

If the Company exercises its legal defeasance or its covenant defeasance option, the Subsidiary Guarantees in effect at such time will terminate.

The Company may exercise its legal defeasance option notwithstanding its prior exercise of its covenant defeasance option. If the Company exercises its legal defeasance option, payment of the Notes may not be accelerated because of an Event of Default with respect to the Notes. If the Company exercises its covenant defeasance option, payment of the Notes may not be accelerated because of an Event of Default specified in clause (4), (5), (6), (7) (with respect only to Significant Subsidiaries), (8) or (9) under “—Events of Default” above or because of the failure of the Company to comply with clause (3) under “—Certain Covenants—Merger and Consolidation” above.

In order to exercise either defeasance option, the Company must, among other things, irrevocably deposit in trust (the “defeasance trust”) with the Trustee money or U.S. Government Obligations for the payment of principal of, premium, if any, and interest on the Notes to redemption or Stated Maturity, as the case may be, and must comply with certain other conditions, including delivery to the Trustee of an Opinion of Counsel (subject to customary exceptions and exclusions) to the effect that holders of the Notes will not recognize income, gain or loss for federal income tax purposes as a result of such deposit and defeasance and will be subject to Federal income tax on the same amount and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such deposit and defeasance had not occurred. In the case of legal defeasance only, such Opinion of Counsel must be based on a ruling of the Internal Revenue Service or other change in applicable federal income tax law.

Satisfaction and Discharge

The Indenture will be discharged and will cease to be of further effect as to all Notes issued thereunder, when either:

 

  (1) all Notes that have been authenticated (except lost, stolen or destroyed Notes that have been replaced or paid and Notes for whose payment money has theretofore been deposited in trust or segregated and held in trust by the Company and thereafter repaid to the Company or discharged from such trust) have been delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, or

 

  (2)

all Notes that have not been delivered to the Trustee for cancellation have become due and payable or will become due and payable within one year by reason of the giving of a notice of redemption

 

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  or otherwise and the Company or any Subsidiary Guarantor has irrevocably deposited or caused to be irrevocably deposited with the Trustee as trust funds in trust solely for such purpose, cash in U.S. dollars, U.S. Government Obligations, or a combination thereof, in such amounts as will be sufficient without consideration of any reinvestment of interest, to pay and discharge the entire indebtedness on the Notes not delivered to the Trustee for cancellation for principal and accrued interest to the date of Stated Maturity or redemption, and in each case certain other requirements set forth in the Indenture are satisfied.

No Personal Liability of Directors, Officers, Employees and Stockholders

No director, officer, employee, incorporator, stockholder, member, partner or trustee of the Company or any Subsidiary Guarantor, as such, shall have any liability for any obligations of the Company or any Subsidiary Guarantor under the Notes, the Indenture or the Subsidiary Guarantees or for any claim based on, in respect of, or by reason of, such obligations or their creation. Each holder by accepting a Note waives and releases all such liability. The waiver and release are part of the consideration for issuance of the Notes.

Concerning the Trustee

The Bank of New York Mellon Trust Company, N.A. is the Trustee under the Indenture and has been appointed by the Company as registrar and paying agent with regard to the Notes. Such bank also acts as trustee under the indentures governing the 2017 Notes and our 1 3/4% Senior Convertible Notes due 2017.

The Indenture contains certain limitations on the rights of the Trustee, should it become a creditor of the Company, to obtain payment of claims in certain cases, or to realize on certain property received in respect of any such claim as security or otherwise. The Trustee will be permitted to engage in other transactions; provided, however, that if it acquires any conflicting interest (as defined in the Trust Indenture Act) while any Default exists it must eliminate such conflict within 90 days, apply to the SEC for permission to continue as Trustee with such conflict or resign as Trustee.

Governing Law

The Indenture, the Subsidiary Guarantees and the Notes are governed by, and will be construed in accordance with, the laws of the State of New York.

Certain Definitions

Acquired Indebtedness” means Indebtedness (i) of a Person or any of its Subsidiaries existing at the time such Person becomes or is merged with and into a Restricted Subsidiary or (ii) assumed in connection with the acquisition of assets from such Person, in each case whether or not Incurred by such Person in connection with, or in anticipation or contemplation of, such Person becoming a Restricted Subsidiary or such acquisition. Acquired Indebtedness shall be deemed to have been Incurred, with respect to clause (i) of the preceding sentence, on the date such Person becomes or is merged with and into a Restricted Subsidiary and, with respect to clause (ii) of the preceding sentence, on the date of consummation of such acquisition of assets.

Additional Assets” means:

 

  (1) any properties or assets to be used by the Company or a Restricted Subsidiary in the Oil and Gas Business;

 

  (2) capital expenditures by the Company or a Restricted Subsidiary in the Oil and Gas Business;

 

  (3) the Capital Stock of a Person that becomes a Restricted Subsidiary as a result of the acquisition of such Capital Stock by the Company or a Restricted Subsidiary; or

 

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  (4) Capital Stock constituting a minority interest in any Person that at such time is a Restricted Subsidiary;

provided, however, that, in the case of clauses (3) and (4), such Restricted Subsidiary is primarily engaged in the Oil and Gas Business.

Adjusted Consolidated Net Tangible Assets” of the Company means (without duplication), as of the date of determination, the remainder of:

 

  (1) the sum of:

 

  (i) discounted future net revenues from proved oil and gas reserves of the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries calculated in accordance with SEC guidelines before any state or federal income taxes, as estimated by the Company in a reserve report prepared as of the end of the Company’s most recently completed fiscal year for which audited financial statements are available, which reserve report is prepared or audited by independent petroleum engineers, as increased by, as of the date of determination, the estimated discounted future net revenues from

 

  (A) estimated proved oil and gas reserves acquired since such year end, which reserves were not reflected in such year end reserve report, and

 

  (B) estimated oil and gas reserves attributable to extensions, discoveries and other additions and upward revisions of estimates of proved oil and gas reserves since such year end due to exploration, development or exploitation, production or other activities, which would, in accordance with standard industry practice, cause such revisions (including the impact to proved reserves and future net revenues from estimated development costs incurred and the accretion of discount since such year end), and decreased by, as of the date of determination, the estimated discounted future net revenues from

 

  (C) estimated proved oil and gas reserves produced or disposed of since such year end, and

 

  (D) estimated oil and gas reserves attributable to downward revisions of estimates of proved oil and gas reserves since such year end due to changes in geological conditions or other factors which would, in accordance with standard industry practice, cause such revisions, in each case calculated on a pre-tax basis and in accordance with SEC guidelines,

in the case of clauses (A) through (D) utilizing prices and costs calculated in accordance with SEC guidelines as of such year end; provided, however, that in the case of each of the determinations made pursuant to clauses (A) through (D), such increases and decreases shall be as estimated by the Company’s petroleum engineers;

 

  (ii) the capitalized costs that are attributable to Oil and Gas Properties of the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries to which no proved oil and gas reserves are attributable, based on the Company’s books and records as of a date no earlier than the date of the Company’s latest available annual or quarterly financial statements;

 

  (iii) the Net Working Capital of the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries on a date no earlier than the date of the Company’s latest annual or quarterly financial statements; and

 

  (iv) the greater of

 

  (A) the net book value of other tangible assets of the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries, as of a date no earlier than the date of the Company’s latest annual or quarterly financial statements, and

 

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  (B) the appraised value, as estimated by independent appraisers, of other tangible assets of the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries, as of a date no earlier than the date of the Company’s latest audited financial statements; provided that, if no such appraisal has been performed the Company shall not be required to obtain such an appraisal and only clause (iv)(A) of this definition shall apply;

minus

 

  (b) the sum of:

 

  (i) Minority Interests;

 

  (ii) any net gas balancing liabilities of the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries reflected in the Company’s latest annual or quarterly balance sheet (to the extent not deducted in calculating Net Working Capital of the Company in accordance with clause (a)(iii) above of this definition);

 

  (iii) to the extent included in (a)(i) above, the discounted future net revenues, calculated in accordance with SEC guidelines (utilizing prices and costs calculated in accordance with SEC guidelines as of such year end), attributable to reserves which are required to be delivered to third parties to fully satisfy the obligations of the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries with respect to Volumetric Production Payments (determined, if applicable, using the schedules specified with respect thereto); and

 

  (iv) the discounted future net revenues, calculated in accordance with SEC guidelines, attributable to reserves subject to Dollar-Denominated Production Payments which, based on the estimates of production and price assumptions included in determining the discounted future net revenues specified in (a)(i) above, would be necessary to fully satisfy the payment obligations of the Company and its Subsidiaries with respect to Dollar-Denominated Production Payments (determined, if applicable, using the schedules specified with respect thereto).

Affiliate” of any specified Person means any other Person, directly or indirectly, controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with such specified Person. For the purposes of this definition, “control” when used with respect to any Person means the power to direct the management and policies of such Person, directly or indirectly, whether through the ownership of voting securities, by contract or otherwise; and the terms “controlling” and “controlled” have meanings correlative to the foregoing.

Asset Disposition” means (A) any direct or indirect sale, lease (including by means of Production Payments and Reserve Sales and a Sale/Leaseback Transaction but excluding an operating lease entered into in the ordinary course of the Oil and Gas Business), transfer, issuance or other disposition, or a series of related sales, leases, transfers, issuances or dispositions that are part of a common plan, of any assets and (B) shares of Capital Stock of a Restricted Subsidiary (other than directors’ qualifying shares or shares required by applicable law to be held by a Person other than the Company or a Restricted Subsidiary) (each referred to for the purposes of this definition as a “disposition”), in each case by the Company or any of the Restricted Subsidiaries, including any disposition by means of a merger, consolidation or similar transaction.

Notwithstanding the preceding, the following items shall not be deemed to be Asset Dispositions:

 

  (1) a disposition by a Restricted Subsidiary to the Company or by the Company or a Restricted Subsidiary to a Restricted Subsidiary;

 

  (2) a disposition of cash, Cash Equivalents or other financial assets in the ordinary course of business;

 

  (3) a disposition of Hydrocarbons or mineral products inventory in the ordinary course of business;

 

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  (4) a disposition of damaged, unserviceable, obsolete or worn out equipment or equipment that is no longer necessary for the proper conduct of the business of the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries and that is disposed of in each case in the ordinary course of business;

 

  (5) transactions in accordance with the covenant described under “—Certain Covenants—Merger and Consolidation”;

 

  (6) an issuance of Capital Stock by a Restricted Subsidiary to the Company or to a Restricted Subsidiary;

 

  (7) the making of a Permitted Investment or a Restricted Payment (or a disposition that would constitute a Restricted Payment but for the exclusions from the definition thereof) permitted by the covenant described under “—Certain Covenants—Limitation on Restricted Payments”;

 

  (8) an Asset Swap;

 

  (9) dispositions of assets with a Fair Market Value of less than $10.0 million;

 

  (10) Permitted Liens;

 

  (11) dispositions of receivables in connection with the compromise, settlement or collection thereof in the ordinary course of business or in bankruptcy or similar proceedings and exclusive of factoring or similar arrangements;

 

  (12) the licensing or sublicensing of intellectual property (including, without limitation, the licensing of seismic data) or other general intangibles and licenses, leases or subleases of other property in the ordinary course of business which do not materially interfere with the business of the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries;

 

  (13) foreclosure on assets;

 

  (14) any Production Payments and Reserve Sales; provided that any such Production Payments and Reserve Sales, other than incentive compensation programs on terms that are reasonably customary in the Oil and Gas Business for geologists, geophysicists and other providers of technical services to the Company or a Restricted Subsidiary, shall have been created, Incurred, issued, assumed or Guaranteed in connection with the financing of, and within 60 days after the acquisition of, the property that is subject thereto;

 

  (15) surrender or waiver of contract rights or the settlement, release or surrender of contract, tort or other claims of any kind;

 

  (16) the abandonment, farmout, lease or sublease of developed or undeveloped Oil and Gas Properties in the ordinary course of business; and

 

  (17) a disposition (whether or not in the ordinary course of business) of any Oil and Gas Property or interest therein to which no proved reserves are attributable at the time of such disposition.

Asset Swap” means any substantially contemporaneous (and in any event occurring within 180 days of each other) purchase and sale or exchange of any oil or natural gas properties or assets or interests therein between the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries and another Person; provided, that any cash received must be applied in accordance with “—Certain Covenants—Limitation on Sales of Assets and Subsidiary Stock” as if the Asset Swap were an Asset Disposition.

 

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Average Life” means, as of the date of determination, with respect to any Indebtedness or Preferred Stock, the quotient obtained by dividing (1) the sum of the products of the numbers of years from the date of determination to the dates of each successive scheduled principal payment of such Indebtedness or redemption or similar payment with respect to such Preferred Stock multiplied by the amount of such payment by (2) the sum of all such payments.

Beneficial Owner” has the meaning assigned to such term in Rule 13d-3 and Rule 13d-5 under the Exchange Act, except that in calculating the beneficial ownership of any particular “person” (as that term is used in Section 13(d)(3) of the Exchange Act), such “person” will be deemed to have beneficial ownership of all securities that such “person” has the right to acquire by conversion or exercise of other securities, whether such right is currently exercisable or is exercisable only after the passage of time. The terms “Beneficially Owns” and “Beneficially Owned” have a corresponding meaning.

Board of Directors” means, as to any Person that is a corporation, the board of directors of such Person or any duly authorized committee thereof or as to any Person that is not a corporation, the board of managers or such other individual or group serving a similar function.

Business Day” means each day that is not a Saturday, Sunday or other day on which commercial banking institutions in New York, New York are authorized or required by law to close.

Capital Stock” of any Person means any and all shares, units, interests, rights to purchase, warrants, options, participations or other equivalents of or interests in (however designated) equity of such Person, including any Preferred Stock, but excluding any debt securities convertible into, or exchangeable for, such equity.

Capitalized Lease Obligations” means an obligation that is required to be classified and accounted for as a capitalized lease for financial reporting purposes in accordance with GAAP, and the amount of Indebtedness represented by such obligation will be the capitalized amount of such obligation at the time any determination thereof is to be made as determined in accordance with GAAP, and the Stated Maturity thereof will be the date of the last payment of rent or any other amount due under such lease prior to the first date such lease may be terminated without penalty.

Cash Equivalents” means:

 

  (1) securities issued or directly and fully guaranteed or insured by the United States Government or any agency or instrumentality of the United States (provided that the full faith and credit of the United States is pledged in support thereof), having maturities of not more than one year from the date of acquisition;

 

  (2) marketable general obligations issued by any state of the United States of America or any political subdivision of any such state or any public instrumentality thereof maturing within one year from the date of acquisition and, at the time of acquisition, having a credit rating of “A” (or the equivalent thereof) or better from either S&P or Moody’s;

 

  (3) certificates of deposit, time deposits, eurodollar time deposits, overnight bank deposits or bankers’ acceptances having maturities of not more than one year from the date of acquisition thereof issued by any commercial bank the short-term deposit of which is rated at the time of acquisition thereof at least “A-2” or the equivalent thereof by S&P, or “P-2” or the equivalent thereof by Moody’s, and having combined capital and surplus in excess of $100.0 million;

 

  (4) repurchase obligations with a term of not more than seven days for underlying securities of the types described in clauses (1), (2) and (3) entered into with any bank meeting the qualifications specified in clause (3) above;

 

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  (5) commercial paper rated at the time of acquisition thereof at least “A-2” or the equivalent thereof by S&P or “P-2” or the equivalent thereof by Moody’s, or carrying an equivalent rating by a nationally recognized rating agency, if both of the two named Rating Agencies cease publishing ratings of investments, and in any case maturing within one year after the date of acquisition thereof; and

 

  (6) interests in any investment company or money market fund which invests 95% or more of its assets in instruments of the type specified in clauses (1) through (5) above.

Change of Control” means:

 

  (1) any “person” or “group” of related persons (as such terms are used in Sections 13(d) and 14(d) of the Exchange Act) is or becomes the Beneficial Owner, directly or indirectly, of more than 50% of the total voting power of the Voting Stock of the Company (or its successor by merger, consolidation or purchase of all or substantially all of its assets) (for the purposes of this clause (1), such person or group shall be deemed to Beneficially Own any Voting Stock of the Company held by a parent entity, if such person or group Beneficially Owns, directly or indirectly, more than 50% of the total voting power of the Voting Stock of such parent entity);

 

  (2) the first day on which a majority of the members of the Board of Directors of the Company are not Continuing Directors;

 

  (3) the sale, lease, transfer, conveyance or other disposition (other than by way of merger or consolidation), in one or a series of related transactions, of all or substantially all of the assets of the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries taken as a whole to any “person” (as such term is used in Sections 13(d) and 14(d) of the Exchange Act); or

 

  (4) the adoption by the shareholders of the Company of a plan or proposal for the liquidation or dissolution of the Company.

Commodity Agreements” means, in respect of any Person, any forward contract, commodity swap agreement, commodity option agreement or other similar agreement or arrangement in respect of Hydrocarbons used, produced, processed or sold by such Person that are customary in the Oil and Gas Business and designed to protect such Person against fluctuation in Hydrocarbon prices.

Common Stock” means, with respect to any Person, any and all shares, interests or other participations in, and other equivalents (however designated and whether voting or nonvoting) of such Person’s common stock whether or not outstanding on the Issue Date, and includes, without limitation, all series and classes of such common stock.

Consolidated Coverage Ratio” means as of any date of determination, the ratio of (x) the aggregate amount of Consolidated EBITDA for the period of the most recent four consecutive fiscal quarters ending prior to the date of such determination for which financial statements are in existence to (y) Consolidated Interest Expense for such four fiscal quarters, provided, however, that:

 

  (1) if the Company or any Restricted Subsidiary:

 

  (a)

has Incurred any Indebtedness since the beginning of such period that remains outstanding on such date of determination or if the transaction giving rise to the need to calculate the Consolidated Coverage Ratio is an Incurrence of Indebtedness, Consolidated EBITDA and Consolidated Interest Expense for such period will be calculated after giving effect on a pro forma basis to such Indebtedness and the use of proceeds thereof as if such Indebtedness had

 

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  been Incurred on the first day of such period and such proceeds had been applied as of such date (except that in making such computation, the amount of Indebtedness under any revolving Credit Facility outstanding on the date of such calculation will be deemed to be (i) the average daily balance of such Indebtedness during such four fiscal quarters or such shorter period for which such facility was outstanding or (ii) if such revolving Credit Facility was created after the end of such four fiscal quarters, the average daily balance of such Indebtedness during the period from the date of creation of such revolving Credit Facility to the date of such calculation, in each case, provided that such average daily balance shall take into account any repayment of Indebtedness under such revolving Credit Facility as provided in clause (b)); or

 

  (b) has repaid, repurchased, defeased or otherwise discharged any Indebtedness since the beginning of the period, including with the proceeds of such new Indebtedness, that is no longer outstanding on such date of determination or if the transaction giving rise to the need to calculate the Consolidated Coverage Ratio involves a discharge of Indebtedness (in each case other than Indebtedness Incurred under any revolving Credit Facility unless such Indebtedness has been permanently repaid and the related commitment terminated), Consolidated EBITDA and Consolidated Interest Expense for such period will be calculated after giving effect on a pro forma basis to such discharge of such Indebtedness as if such discharge had occurred on the first day of such period;

 

  (2) if, since the beginning of such period, the Company or any Restricted Subsidiary has made any Asset Disposition or if the transaction giving rise to the need to calculate the Consolidated Coverage Ratio is such an Asset Disposition, the Consolidated EBITDA for such period will be reduced by an amount equal to the Consolidated EBITDA (if positive) directly attributable to the assets which are the subject of such Asset Disposition for such period or increased by an amount equal to the Consolidated EBITDA (if negative) directly attributable thereto for such period and Consolidated Interest Expense for such period shall be reduced by an amount equal to the Consolidated Interest Expense directly attributable to any Indebtedness of the Company or any Restricted Subsidiary repaid, repurchased, defeased or otherwise discharged with respect to the Company and its continuing Restricted Subsidiaries in connection with or with the proceeds from such Asset Disposition for such period (or, if the Capital Stock of any Restricted Subsidiary is sold, the Consolidated Interest Expense for such period directly attributable to the Indebtedness of such Restricted Subsidiary to the extent the Company and its continuing Restricted Subsidiaries are no longer liable for such Indebtedness after such sale);

 

  (3) if, since the beginning of such period, the Company or any Restricted Subsidiary (by merger or otherwise) has made an Investment in any Restricted Subsidiary (or any Person which becomes a Restricted Subsidiary or is merged with or into the Company or a Restricted Subsidiary) or an acquisition (or will have received a contribution) of assets, including any acquisition or contribution of assets occurring in connection with a transaction causing a calculation to be made under the Indenture, which constitutes all or substantially all of a company, division, operating unit, segment, business, group of related assets or line of business, Consolidated EBITDA and Consolidated Interest Expense for such period will be calculated after giving pro forma effect thereto (including the Incurrence of any Indebtedness) as if such Investment or acquisition or contribution had occurred on the first day of such period; and

 

  (4)

if, since the beginning of such period, any Person (that subsequently became a Restricted Subsidiary or was merged with or into the Company or any Restricted Subsidiary since the beginning of such period) made any Asset Disposition or any Investment or acquisition of assets that would have required an adjustment pursuant to clause (2) or (3) above if made by the Company or a Restricted Subsidiary during such period, Consolidated EBITDA and Consolidated

 

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  Interest Expense for such period will be calculated after giving pro forma effect thereto as if such Asset Disposition or Investment or acquisition of assets had occurred on the first day of such period.

For purposes of this definition, whenever pro forma effect is to be given to any calculation under this definition, the pro forma calculations will be determined in good faith by a responsible financial or accounting officer of the Company, provided that such officer may in his or her discretion include any reasonably identifiable and factually supportable pro forma changes to Consolidated EBITDA, including any pro forma expenses and costs reductions, that have occurred or in the judgment of such officer are reasonably expected to occur within 12 months of the date of the applicable transaction (regardless of whether such expense or cost reduction or any other operating improvements could then be reflected properly in pro forma financial statements prepared in accordance with Regulation S-X under the Securities Act or any other regulation or policy of the SEC). If any Indebtedness bears a floating rate of interest and is being given pro forma effect, the interest expense on such Indebtedness will be calculated as if the average rate in effect from the beginning of such period to the date of determination had been the applicable rate for the entire period (taking into account any Interest Rate Agreement applicable to such Indebtedness, but if the remaining term of such Interest Rate Agreement is less than 12 months, then such Interest Rate Agreement shall only be taken into account for that portion of the period equal to the remaining term thereof). If any Indebtedness that is being given pro forma effect bears an interest rate at the option of the Company, the interest rate shall be calculated by applying such optional rate chosen by the Company. Interest on Indebtedness that may optionally be determined at an interest rate based upon a factor of a prime or similar rate, a eurocurrency interbank offered rate, or other rate, shall be deemed to have been based upon the rate actually chosen, or, if none, then based upon such optional rate chosen as the Company may designate.

Consolidated EBITDA” for any period means, without duplication, the Consolidated Net Income for such period, plus the following, without duplication and to the extent deducted (and not added back) in calculating such Consolidated Net Income:

 

  (1) Consolidated Interest Expense;

 

  (2) Consolidated Income Tax Expense;

 

  (3) consolidated accretion and consolidated depletion and depreciation expense of the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries;

 

  (4) consolidated amortization expense or impairment charges of the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries recorded in connection with the application of Statement of Financial Accounting Standard No. 142, “Goodwill and Other Intangibles” and Statement of Financial Accounting Standard No. 144, “Accounting for the Impairment or Disposal of Long Lived Assets”;

 

  (5) other non-cash charges of the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries (excluding any such non-cash charge to the extent it represents an accrual of or reserve for cash charges in any future period or amortization of a prepaid cash expense that was paid in a prior period not included in the calculation); and

 

  (6) if the Company changes its method of accounting for oil and gas properties from full cost to successful efforts or a similar method of accounting, consolidated exploration and abandonment expense of the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries,

if applicable for such period; and less, to the extent included in calculating such Consolidated Net Income and in excess of any costs or expenses attributable thereto that were deducted (and not added back) in calculating such Consolidated Net Income, the sum of (x) the amount of deferred revenues that are amortized during such period and are attributable to reserves that are subject to Volumetric Production Payments, (y) amounts recorded in

 

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accordance with GAAP as repayments of principal and interest pursuant to Dollar-Denominated Production Payments and (z) other non-cash gains (excluding any non-cash gain to the extent it represents the reversal of an accrual or reserve for a potential cash item that reduced Consolidated EBITDA in any prior period).

Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, clauses (2) through (6) relating to amounts of a Restricted Subsidiary of the Company will be added to Consolidated Net Income to compute Consolidated EBITDA of the Company only to the extent (and in the same proportion) that the net income (loss) of such Restricted Subsidiary was included in calculating the Consolidated Net Income of the Company and, to the extent the amounts set forth in clauses (2) through (6) are in excess of those necessary to offset a net loss of such Restricted Subsidiary or if such Restricted Subsidiary has net income for such period included in Consolidated Net Income, only if a corresponding amount would be permitted at the date of determination to be dividended to the Company by such Restricted Subsidiary without prior approval (that has not been obtained), pursuant to the terms of its charter and all agreements, instruments, judgments, decrees, orders, statutes, rules and governmental regulations applicable to that Restricted Subsidiary or the holders of its Capital Stock.

Consolidated Income Tax Expense” means, with respect to any period, the provision for federal, state, local and foreign income taxes (including state franchise taxes accounted for as income taxes in accordance with GAAP) of the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries for such period as determined in accordance with GAAP.

Consolidated Interest Expense” means, for any period, the total consolidated interest expense (less interest income) of the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries, whether paid or accrued, plus, to the extent not included in such interest expense and without duplication:

 

  (1) interest expense attributable to Capitalized Lease Obligations and the interest component of any deferred payment obligations;

 

  (2) amortization of debt discount and debt issuance cost (provided that any amortization of bond premium will be credited to reduce Consolidated Interest Expense unless, pursuant to GAAP, such amortization of bond premium has otherwise reduced Consolidated Interest Expense);

 

  (3) non-cash interest expense;

 

  (4) commissions, discounts and other fees and charges owed with respect to letters of credit and bankers’ acceptance financing;

 

  (5) the interest expense on Indebtedness of another Person that is Guaranteed by the Company or one of its Restricted Subsidiaries or secured by a Lien on assets of the Company or one of its Restricted Subsidiaries, whether or not such Guarantee or Lien is called upon;

 

  (6) cash costs associated with Interest Rate Agreements (including amortization of fees); provided, however, that if Interest Rate Agreements result in net cash benefits rather than costs, such benefits shall be credited to reduce Consolidated Interest Expense unless, pursuant to GAAP, such net benefits are otherwise reflected in Consolidated Net Income;

 

  (7) the consolidated interest expense of the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries that was capitalized during such period; and

 

  (8) all dividends paid or payable in cash, Cash Equivalents or Indebtedness or accrued during such period on any series of Disqualified Stock of the Company or on Preferred Stock of its Restricted Subsidiaries payable to a party other than the Company or another Restricted Subsidiary,

minus, to the extent included above, (i) any interest attributable to Dollar-Denominated Production Payments and (ii) accretion of interest charges on future plugging and abandonment obligations, future retirement benefits and other obligations that do not constitute Indebtedness.

 

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For the purpose of calculating the Consolidated Coverage Ratio in connection with the Incurrence of any Indebtedness described in the final paragraph of the definition of “Indebtedness,” the calculation of Consolidated Interest Expense shall include all interest expense (including any amounts described in clauses (1) through (8) above) relating to any Indebtedness of the Company or any Restricted Subsidiary described in the final paragraph of the definition of “Indebtedness.”

Consolidated Net Income” means, for any period, the aggregate net income (loss) of the Company and its consolidated Subsidiaries determined in accordance with GAAP and before any reduction in respect of Preferred Stock dividends of such Person; provided, however, that there will not be included (to the extent otherwise included therein) in such Consolidated Net Income:

 

  (1) any net income (loss) of any Person (other than the Company) if such Person is not a Restricted Subsidiary, except that:

 

  (a) subject to the limitations contained in clauses (3) and (4) below, the Company’s equity in the net income of any such Person for such period will be included in such Consolidated Net Income up to the aggregate amount of cash actually distributed by such Person during such period to the Company or a Restricted Subsidiary as a dividend or other distribution (subject, in the case of a dividend or other distribution to a Restricted Subsidiary, to the limitations contained in clause (2) below); and

 

  (b) the Company’s equity in a net loss of any such Person for such period will be included in determining such Consolidated Net Income to the extent such loss has been funded with cash from the Company or a Restricted Subsidiary during such period;

 

  (2) any net income (but not loss) of any Restricted Subsidiary if such Subsidiary is subject to restrictions, directly or indirectly, on the payment of dividends or the making of distributions by such Restricted Subsidiary, directly or indirectly, to the Company, except that:

 

  (a) subject to the limitations contained in clauses (3), (4) and (5) below, the Company’s equity in the net income of any such Restricted Subsidiary for such period will be included in such Consolidated Net Income up to the aggregate amount of cash that could have been distributed by such Restricted Subsidiary during such period to the Company or another Restricted Subsidiary as a dividend or other distribution (subject, in the case of a dividend or other distribution paid to another Restricted Subsidiary, to the limitation contained in this clause); and

 

  (b) the Company’s equity in a net loss of any such Restricted Subsidiary for such period will be included in determining such Consolidated Net Income;

 

  (3) any gain (loss) realized upon the sale or other disposition of any property, plant or equipment of the Company or its consolidated Subsidiaries (including pursuant to any Sale/Leaseback Transaction) which is not sold or otherwise disposed of in the ordinary course of business and any gain (loss) realized upon the sale or other disposition of any Capital Stock of any Person;

 

  (4) any extraordinary or nonrecurring gains or losses, together with any related provision for taxes on such gains or losses and all related fees and expenses;

 

  (5) the cumulative effect of a change in accounting principles;

 

  (6) any “ceiling limitation” on Oil and Gas Properties or other asset impairment writedowns under GAAP or SEC guidelines;

 

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  (7) any unrealized non-cash gains or losses or charges in respect of Hedging Obligations (including those resulting from the application of FASB ASC Topic No. 815, Derivatives and Hedging;

 

  (8) income or loss attributable to discontinued operations (including, without limitation, operations disposed of during such period whether or not such operations were classified as discontinued);

 

  (9) all deferred financing costs written off, and premiums paid, in connection with any early extinguishment of Indebtedness; and

 

  (10) any non-cash compensation charge arising from any grant of stock, stock options or other equity based awards; provided that the proceeds resulting from any such grant will be excluded from clause (c)(ii) of the first paragraph of the covenant described under “—Limitation on Restricted Payments.”

continuing” means, with respect to any Default or Event of Default, that such Default or Event of Default has not been cured or waived.

Continuing Directors” means, as of any date of determination, any member of the Board of Directors of the Company who: (1) was a member of such Board of Directors on the date of the Indenture; or (2) was nominated for election or elected to such Board of Directors with the approval of a majority of the Continuing Directors who were members of such Board of Directors at the time of such nomination or election.

Credit Facility” means, with respect to the Company or any Restricted Subsidiary, one or more debt facilities (including, without limitation, the Senior Secured Credit Agreement), indentures or commercial paper facilities providing for revolving credit loans, term loans, receivables financing (including through the sale of receivables to such lenders or to special purpose entities formed to borrow from such lenders against such receivables) or letters of credit, in each case, as amended, restated, modified, renewed, refunded, replaced or refinanced in whole or in part from time to time (and whether or not with the original administrative agent and lenders or another administrative agent or agents or other lenders and whether provided under the original Senior Secured Credit Agreement or any other credit or other agreement or indenture).

Currency Agreement” means in respect of a Person any foreign exchange contract, currency swap agreement, futures contract, option contract or other similar agreement as to which such Person is a party or a beneficiary.

Customary Recourse Exceptions” means, with respect to any Non-Recourse Debt of an Unrestricted Subsidiary or any Non-Recourse Purchase Money Indebtedness, exclusions from the exculpation provisions with respect to such Indebtedness for the voluntary bankruptcy of such Unrestricted Subsidiary or the obligor on such Non-Recourse Purchase Money Indebtedness, as applicable, fraud, misapplication of cash, environmental claims, waste, willful destruction and other circumstances customarily excluded by lenders from exculpation provisions or included in separate indemnification agreements in non-recourse financings.

Default” means any event which is, or after notice or passage of time or both would be, an Event of Default.

Disqualified Stock” means, with respect to any Person, any Capital Stock of such Person which by its terms (or by the terms of any security into which it is convertible or for which it is exchangeable) at the option of the holder of the Capital Stock or upon the happening of any event:

 

  (1) matures or is mandatorily redeemable (other than redeemable only for Capital Stock of such Person which is not itself Disqualified Stock) pursuant to a sinking fund obligation or otherwise;

 

  (2) is convertible or exchangeable for Disqualified Stock or other Indebtedness (excluding Capital Stock which is convertible or exchangeable solely at the option of the Company or a Restricted Subsidiary); or

 

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  (3) is redeemable at the option of the holder of the Capital Stock in whole or in part,

in each case on or prior to the date that is 91 days after the earlier of the date (a) of the Stated Maturity of the Notes or (b) on which there are no Notes outstanding; provided that only the portion of Capital Stock which so matures or is mandatorily redeemable, is so convertible or exchangeable or is so redeemable at the option of the holder thereof prior to such date will be deemed to be Disqualified Stock; provided further, that any Capital Stock that would constitute Disqualified Stock solely because the holders thereof have the right to require the Company to repurchase such Capital Stock upon the occurrence of a change of control or asset sale (each defined in a substantially identical manner to the corresponding definitions in the Indenture) shall not constitute Disqualified Stock if the terms of such Capital Stock (and all such securities into which it is convertible or for which it is exchangeable) provide that (i) the Company may not repurchase or redeem any such Capital Stock (and all such securities into which it is convertible or for which it is ratable or exchangeable) pursuant to such provision prior to compliance by the Company with the provisions of the Indenture described under the captions “—Change of Control” and “—Certain Covenants—Limitation on Sales of Assets and Subsidiary Stock” and (ii) such repurchase or redemption will be permitted solely to the extent also permitted in accordance with the provisions of the Indenture described under the caption “—Certain Covenants—Limitation on Restricted Payments.”

Dollar-Denominated Production Payments” means production payment obligations recorded as liabilities in accordance with GAAP, together with all undertakings and obligations in connection therewith.

Equity Offering” means a public or private offering for cash by the Company of Capital Stock (other than Disqualified Stock), other than public offerings registered on Form S-8.

Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations of the SEC promulgated thereunder.

Fair Market Value” means, with respect to any asset or property, the sale value that would be obtained in an arm’s-length free market transaction between an informed and willing seller under no compulsion to sell and an informed and willing buyer under no compulsion to buy. Fair Market Value of an asset or property equal to or in excess of $25.0 million shall be determined by the Board of Directors of the Company acting in good faith, whose determination shall be conclusive and evidenced by a resolution of such Board of Directors delivered to the Trustee, and any lesser Fair Market Value may be determined by an officer of the Company acting in good faith.

Foreign Subsidiary” means any Restricted Subsidiary that is not organized under the laws of the United States of America or any state thereof or the District of Columbia.

GAAP” means generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America as in effect from time to time. All ratios and computations based on GAAP contained in the Indenture will be computed in conformity with GAAP.

Guarantee” means any obligation, contingent or otherwise, of any Person directly or indirectly guaranteeing any Indebtedness of any other Person and any obligation, direct or indirect, contingent or otherwise, of such Person:

 

  (1) to purchase or pay (or advance or supply funds for the purchase or payment of) such Indebtedness of such other Person (whether arising by virtue of partnership arrangements, or by agreement to keep-well, to purchase assets, goods, securities or services, to take-or-pay, or to maintain financial statement conditions or otherwise); or

 

  (2) entered into for purposes of assuring in any other manner the obligee of such Indebtedness of the payment thereof or to protect such obligee against loss in respect thereof (in whole or in part);

 

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provided, however, that the term “Guarantee” will not include endorsements for collection or deposit in the ordinary course of business or any obligation to the extent it is payable only in Capital Stock of the Guarantor that is not Disqualified Stock. The term “Guarantee” used as a verb has a corresponding meaning.

Guarantor Subordinated Obligation” means, with respect to a Subsidiary Guarantor, its Guarantee of the 6 3/4% Senior Subordinated Notes due 2014 of the Company and any other Indebtedness of such Subsidiary Guarantor (whether outstanding on the Issue Date or thereafter Incurred) which is expressly subordinate in right of payment to the obligations of such Subsidiary Guarantor under its Subsidiary Guarantee pursuant to a written agreement.

Hedging Obligations” of any Person means the obligations of such Person pursuant to any Interest Rate Agreement, Currency Agreement or Commodity Agreement.

holder” means a Person in whose name a Note is registered on the registrar’s books.

Hydrocarbons” means oil, natural gas, casing head gas, drip gasoline, natural gasoline, condensate, distillate, liquid hydrocarbons, gaseous hydrocarbons and all constituents, elements or compounds thereof and products refined or processed therefrom.

Immaterial Subsidiary” means, as of any date, any Restricted Subsidiary whose total assets, as of the end of the most recent month for which financial statements are available, are less than $5.0 million and whose total revenues for the most recent 12-month period for which financial statements are available do not exceed $5.0 million; provided that a Restricted Subsidiary will not be considered to be an Immaterial Subsidiary if it, directly or indirectly, Guarantees or otherwise provides direct credit support for any Indebtedness of the Company.

Incur” means issue, create, assume, Guarantee, incur or otherwise become directly or indirectly liable for, contingently or otherwise; provided, however, that any Indebtedness or Capital Stock of a Person existing at the time such Person becomes a Restricted Subsidiary (whether by merger, consolidation, acquisition or otherwise) will be deemed to be Incurred by such Restricted Subsidiary at the time it becomes a Restricted Subsidiary; and the terms “Incurred” and “Incurrence” have meanings correlative to the foregoing.

Indebtedness” means, with respect to any Person on any date of determination (without duplication, whether or not contingent):

 

  (1) the principal of and premium (if any) in respect of indebtedness of such Person for borrowed money;

 

  (2) the principal of and premium (if any) in respect of obligations of such Person evidenced by bonds, debentures, notes or other similar instruments;

 

  (3) the principal component of all obligations of such Person in respect of letters of credit, bankers’ acceptances or other similar instruments (including reimbursement obligations with respect thereto except to the extent such reimbursement obligation relates to a trade payable, to the extent such letters of credit are not drawn upon or, if and to the extent drawn upon, such obligation is satisfied within 30 days of payment on the letter of credit);

 

  (4) the principal component of all obligations of such Person (other than obligations payable solely in Capital Stock that is not Disqualified Stock) to pay the deferred and unpaid purchase price of property (except as described in clause (8) of the penultimate paragraph of this definition of “Indebtedness”), which purchase price is due more than six months after the date of placing such property in service or taking delivery and title thereto to the extent such obligations would appear as liabilities upon the consolidated balance sheet of such Person in accordance with GAAP;

 

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  (5) Capitalized Lease Obligations of such Person to the extent such Capitalized Lease Obligations would appear as liabilities on the consolidated balance sheet of such Person in accordance with GAAP;

 

  (6) the principal component or liquidation preference of all obligations of such Person with respect to the redemption, repayment or other repurchase of any Disqualified Stock or, with respect to any Subsidiary that is not a Subsidiary Guarantor, any Preferred Stock (but excluding, in each case, any accrued dividends);

 

  (7) the principal component of all Indebtedness of other Persons secured by a Lien on any asset of such Person, whether or not such Indebtedness is assumed by such Person; provided, however, that the amount of such Indebtedness will be the lesser of (a) the Fair Market Value of such asset at such date of determination and (b) the amount of such Indebtedness of such other Persons;

 

  (8) the principal component of Indebtedness of other Persons to the extent Guaranteed by such Person; and

 

  (9) to the extent not otherwise included in this definition, net obligations of such Person under Commodity Agreements, Currency Agreements and Interest Rate Agreements (the amount of any such obligations to be equal at any time to the termination value of such agreement or arrangement giving rise to such obligation that would be payable by such Person at such time);

provided, however, that any indebtedness which has been defeased in accordance with GAAP or defeased pursuant to the deposit of cash or Cash Equivalents (in an amount sufficient to satisfy all such indebtedness obligations at maturity or redemption, as applicable, and all payments of interest and premium, if any) in a trust or account created or pledged for the sole benefit of the holders of such indebtedness, and subject to no other Liens, shall not constitute “Indebtedness.” The term “Indebtedness” also excludes any repayment or reimbursement obligation of such Person or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries with respect to Customary Recourse Exceptions, unless and until an event or circumstance occurs that triggers the Person’s or such Restricted Subsidiary’s direct repayment or reimbursement obligation (as opposed to contingent or performance obligations) to the lender or other Person to whom such obligation is actually owed, in which case the amount of such direct payment or reimbursement obligation shall constitute Indebtedness.

The amount of Indebtedness of any Person at any date will be the outstanding balance at such date of all unconditional obligations as described above and the maximum liability, upon the occurrence of the contingency giving rise to the obligation, of any contingent obligations at such date.

Notwithstanding the preceding, “Indebtedness” of any Person shall not include:

 

  (1) Production Payments and Reserve Sales;

 

  (2) any obligation of a Person in respect of a farm-in agreement or similar arrangement whereby such Person agrees to pay all or a share of the drilling, completion or other expenses of an exploratory or development well (which agreement may be subject to a maximum payment obligation, after which expenses are shared in accordance with the working or participation interest therein or in accordance with the agreement of the parties) or perform the drilling, completion or other operation on such well in exchange for an ownership interest in an oil or gas property;

 

  (3)

any obligations under Currency Agreements, Commodity Agreements and Interest Rate Agreements; provided that such agreements are entered into for bona fide hedging purposes of such Person or its Restricted Subsidiaries (as determined in good faith by the Board of Directors or senior management of the Company, whether or not accounted for as a hedge in accordance with

 

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  GAAP) and, in the case of Currency Agreements or Commodity Agreements, such Currency Agreements or Commodity Agreements are related to business transactions of such Person or its Restricted Subsidiaries entered into in the ordinary course of business and, in the case of Interest Rate Agreements, such Interest Rate Agreements substantially correspond in terms of notional amount, duration and interest rates, as applicable, to Indebtedness of such Person or its Restricted Subsidiaries Incurred without violation of the Indenture;

 

  (4) any obligation arising from agreements of such Person or a Restricted Subsidiary providing for indemnification, Guarantees, adjustment of purchase price, holdbacks, contingency payment obligations or similar obligations, in each case, Incurred or assumed in connection with the acquisition or disposition of any business, assets or Capital Stock of a Restricted Subsidiary, provided that such Indebtedness is not reflected on the face of the balance sheet of the Company or any Restricted Subsidiary;

 

  (5) any obligation arising from the honoring by a bank or other financial institution of a check, draft or similar instrument (except in the case of daylight overdrafts) drawn against insufficient funds in the ordinary course of business, provided that such Indebtedness is extinguished within five business days of Incurrence;

 

  (6) in-kind obligations relating to net oil or natural gas balancing positions arising in the ordinary course of business;

 

  (7) all contracts and other obligations, agreements, instruments or arrangements described in clauses (19), (20), (21) or (28)(a) of the definition of “Permitted Liens”; and

 

  (8) accrued expenses and trade payables and other accrued liabilities arising in the ordinary course of business that are not overdue by 90 days past the invoice or billing date or more or are being contested in good faith by appropriate proceedings promptly instituted and diligently conducted.

In addition, “Indebtedness” of any Person shall include Indebtedness described in the first paragraph of this definition of “Indebtedness” that would not appear as a liability on the balance sheet of such Person if:

 

  (1) such Indebtedness is the obligation of a partnership or joint venture that is not a Restricted Subsidiary (a “Joint Venture”);

 

  (2) such Person or a Restricted Subsidiary of such Person is a general partner of the Joint Venture or otherwise liable for all or a portion of the Joint Venture’s liabilities (a “General Partner”); and

 

  (3) there is recourse, by contract or operation of law, with respect to the payment of such Indebtedness to property or assets of such Person or a Restricted Subsidiary of such Person; and then such Indebtedness shall be included in an amount not to exceed:

 

  (a) the lesser of (i) the net assets of the General Partner and (ii) the amount of such obligations to the extent that there is recourse, by contract or operation of law, to the property or assets of such Person or a Restricted Subsidiary of such Person; or

 

  (b) if less than the amount determined pursuant to clause (a) immediately above, the actual amount of such Indebtedness that is with recourse to such Person or a Restricted Subsidiary of such Person, if the Indebtedness is evidenced by a writing and is for a determinable amount and the related interest expense shall be included in Consolidated Interest Expense to the extent actually paid by such Person and its Restricted Subsidiaries.

 

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Interest Rate Agreement” means with respect to any Person any interest rate protection agreement, interest rate future agreement, interest rate option agreement, interest rate swap agreement, interest rate cap agreement, interest rate collar agreement, interest rate hedge agreement or other similar agreement or arrangement as to which such Person is party or a beneficiary.

Investment” means, with respect to any Person, all investments by such Person in other Persons (including Affiliates) in the form of any direct or indirect advance, loan or other extensions of credit (including by way of Guarantee or similar arrangement, but excluding any debt or extension of credit represented by a bank deposit other than a time deposit and advances or extensions of credit to customers in the ordinary course of business) or capital contribution to (by means of any transfer of cash or other property to others or any payment for property or services for the account or use of others), or any purchase or acquisition of Capital Stock, Indebtedness or other similar instruments (excluding any interest in a crude oil or natural gas leasehold to the extent constituting a security under applicable law) issued by, such other Person and all other items that are or would be classified as investments on a balance sheet prepared in accordance with GAAP.

The amount of any Investment shall not be adjusted for increases or decreases in value, write-ups, write-downs or write-offs with respect to such Investment.

For purposes of the definition of “Unrestricted Subsidiary” and the covenant described under “—Certain Covenants—Limitation on Restricted Payments,”

 

  (1) Investment” will include the portion (proportionate to the Company’s equity interest in a Restricted Subsidiary to be designated as an Unrestricted Subsidiary) of the Fair Market Value of the net assets of such Restricted Subsidiary at the time that such Restricted Subsidiary is designated an Unrestricted Subsidiary; provided, however, that upon a redesignation of such Subsidiary as a Restricted Subsidiary, the Company will be deemed to continue to have a permanent “Investment” in an Unrestricted Subsidiary in an amount (if positive) equal to

 

  (a) the Company’s “Investment” in such Subsidiary at the time of such redesignation less

 

  (b) the portion (proportionate to the Company’s equity interest in such Subsidiary) of the Fair Market Value of the net assets of such Subsidiary at the time that such Subsidiary is so re-designated a Restricted Subsidiary; and

 

  (2) any property transferred to or from an Unrestricted Subsidiary will be valued at its Fair Market Value at the time of such transfer.

Investment Grade Rating” means a rating equal to or higher than:

 

  (1) Baa3 (or the equivalent) with a stable or better outlook by Moody’s; and

 

  (2) BBB- (or the equivalent) with a stable or better outlook by S&P,

or, if either such Rating Agency ceases to make a rating on the Notes publicly available for reasons outside the Company’s control, the equivalent investment grade credit rating from any other Rating Agency.

Investment Grade Rating Event” means the first day on which the Notes have an Investment Grade Rating from each Rating Agency, and no Default has occurred and is then continuing under the Indenture.

Issue Date” means the first date on which the Notes are issued under the Indenture, November 8, 2012.

Lien” means, with respect to any asset, any mortgage, lien (statutory or otherwise), pledge, hypothecation, charge, security interest, preference, priority or encumbrance of any kind in respect of such asset,

 

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whether or not filed, recorded or otherwise perfected under applicable law, including any conditional sale or other title retention agreement, any lease in the nature thereof, any option or other agreement to sell or give a security interest in and any filing of or agreement to give any financing statement under the Uniform Commercial Code (or equivalent statutes) of any jurisdiction; provided that in no event shall an operating lease be deemed to constitute a Lien.

Minority Interest” means the percentage interest represented by any class of Capital Stock of a Restricted Subsidiary that are not owned by the Company or a Restricted Subsidiary.

Moody’s” means Moody’s Investors Service, Inc., or any successor to the rating agency business thereof.

Net Available Cash” from an Asset Disposition means cash payments received (including any cash payments received by way of deferred payment of principal pursuant to a note or installment receivable or otherwise and net proceeds from the sale or other disposition of any securities received as consideration, but only as and when received, but excluding any other consideration received in the form of assumption by the acquiring Person of Indebtedness or other obligations relating to the properties or assets that are the subject of such Asset Disposition or received in any other non-cash form) therefrom, in each case net of:

 

  (1) all legal, accounting, investment banking, title and recording tax expenses, commissions and other fees and expenses Incurred, and all federal, state, provincial, foreign and local taxes required to be paid or accrued as a liability under GAAP (after taking into account any available tax credits or deductions and any tax sharing agreements), as a consequence of such Asset Disposition;

 

  (2) all payments made on any Indebtedness which is secured by any assets subject to such Asset Disposition, in accordance with the terms of any Lien upon such assets, or which must by its terms, or in order to obtain a necessary consent to such Asset Disposition, or by applicable law be repaid out of the proceeds from such Asset Disposition;

 

  (3) all distributions and other payments required to be made to minority interest holders in Subsidiaries or joint ventures or to holders of royalty or similar interests as a result of such Asset Disposition;

 

  (4) the deduction of appropriate amounts to be provided by the seller as a reserve, in accordance with GAAP, against any liabilities associated with the assets disposed of in such Asset Disposition and retained by the Company or any Restricted Subsidiary after such Asset Disposition; and

 

  (5) all relocation expenses incurred as a result thereof and all related severance and associated costs, expenses and charges of personnel related to assets and related operations disposed of;

provided, however, that if any consideration for an Asset Disposition (that would otherwise constitute Net Available Cash) is required to be held in escrow pending determination of whether or not a purchase price adjustment will be made, such consideration (or any portion thereof) shall become Net Available Cash only at such time as it is released to the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries from escrow.

Net Cash Proceeds,” with respect to any issuance or sale of Capital Stock or any contribution to equity capital, means the cash proceeds of such issuance, sale or contribution net of attorneys’ fees, accountants’ fees, underwriters’ or placement agents’ fees, listing fees, discounts or commissions and brokerage, consultant and other fees and charges actually Incurred in connection with such issuance, sale or contribution and net of taxes paid or payable as a result of such issuance or sale (after taking into account any available tax credit or deductions and any tax sharing arrangements).

Net Working Capital” means (a) all current assets of the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries, except current assets from commodity price risk management activities arising in the ordinary course of the Oil

 

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and Gas Business, less (b) all current liabilities of the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries, except current liabilities (i) associated with asset retirement obligations relating to Oil and Gas Properties, (ii) included in Indebtedness and (iii) any current liabilities from commodity price risk management activities arising in the ordinary course of the Oil and Gas Business, in each case as set forth in the consolidated financial statements of the Company prepared in accordance with GAAP except as contemplated by clause (3) of the definition of Permitted Liens or for Customary Recourse Exceptions.

Non-Recourse Debt” means Indebtedness of a Person:

 

  (1) as to which neither the Company nor any Restricted Subsidiary (a) provides any Guarantee or credit support of any kind (including any undertaking, guarantee, indemnity, agreement or instrument that would constitute Indebtedness) or (b) is directly or indirectly liable (as a guarantor or otherwise), except for Customary Recourse Exceptions;

 

  (2) no default with respect to which (including any rights that the holders thereof may have to take enforcement action against an Unrestricted Subsidiary) would permit (upon notice, lapse of time or both) any holder of any other Indebtedness of the Company or any Restricted Subsidiary to declare a default under such other Indebtedness or cause the payment thereof to be accelerated or payable prior to its stated maturity; and

 

  (3) the explicit terms of which provide there is no recourse against any of the assets of the Company or its Restricted Subsidiaries (excluding any adjustments made pursuant to FASB ASC Topic No. 815, Derivatives and Hedging).

“Non-Recourse Purchase Money Indebtedness” means Indebtedness (other than Capitalized Lease Obligations) of the Company or any Restricted Subsidiary Incurred in connection with the acquisition by the Company or such Restricted Subsidiary in the ordinary course of business of fixed assets used in the Oil and Gas Business (including office buildings and other real property used by the Company or such Restricted Subsidiary in conducting its operations) with respect to which (a) the holders of such Indebtedness agree that they will look solely to the fixed assets so acquired which secure such Indebtedness, and neither the Company nor any Restricted Subsidiary (i) is directly or indirectly liable for such Indebtedness, except for Customary Recourse Exceptions, or (ii) provides credit support, including any undertaking, Guarantee, agreement or instrument that would constitute Indebtedness (other than the grant of a Lien on such acquired fixed assets), and (b) no default or event of default with respect to such Indebtedness would cause, or permit (after notice or passage of time or otherwise), any holder of any other Indebtedness of the Company or a Restricted Subsidiary to declare a default or event of default on such other Indebtedness or cause the payment, repurchase, redemption, defeasance or other acquisition or retirement for value thereof to be accelerated or payable prior to any scheduled principal payment, scheduled sinking fund payment or maturity.

Officer” means the Chairman of the Board, the Chief Executive Officer, the President, the Chief Financial Officer, any Vice President, the Treasurer or the Secretary of the Company. Officer of any Subsidiary Guarantor has a correlative meaning.

Officers’ Certificate” means a certificate signed by two Officers of the Company.

Oil and Gas Business” means:

 

  (1) the business of acquiring, exploring, exploiting, developing, producing, operating and disposing of interests in oil, natural gas, liquefied natural gas and other Hydrocarbon and mineral properties or products produced in association with any of the foregoing;

 

  (2) the business of gathering, marketing, distributing, treating, processing, storing, refining, selling and transporting of any production from such interests or properties and products produced in association therewith and the marketing of oil, natural gas, other Hydrocarbons and minerals obtained from unrelated Persons;

 

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  (3) any other related energy business, including power generation and electrical transmission business, directly or indirectly, from oil, natural gas and other Hydrocarbons and minerals produced substantially from properties in which the Company or its Restricted Subsidiaries, directly or indirectly, participate;

 

  (4) any business relating to oil field sales and service; and

 

  (5) any business or activity relating to, arising from, or necessary, appropriate or incidental to the activities described in the foregoing clauses (1) through (4) of this definition.

Oil and Gas Properties” means all properties, including equity or other ownership interests therein, owned by a Person which contain or are believed to contain oil and gas reserves.

Opinion of Counsel” means a written opinion from legal counsel who is acceptable to the Trustee. The counsel may be an employee of or counsel to the Company or the Trustee.

Pari Passu Indebtedness” means any Indebtedness of the Company or any Subsidiary Guarantor that ranks equally in right of payment to the Notes or the Subsidiary Guarantees, as the case may be.

Permitted Acquisition Indebtedness” means Indebtedness (including Disqualified Stock) of the Company or any of the Restricted Subsidiaries to the extent such Indebtedness was Indebtedness:

 

  (1) of an acquired Person prior to the date on which such Person became a Restricted Subsidiary as a result of having been acquired and not incurred in contemplation of such acquisition; or

 

  (2) of a Person that was merged, consolidated or amalgamated with or into the Company or a Restricted Subsidiary that was not incurred in contemplation of such merger, consolidation or amalgamation,

provided that on the date such Person became a Restricted Subsidiary or the date such Person was merged, consolidated and amalgamated with or into the Company or a Restricted Subsidiary, as applicable, after giving pro forma effect thereto,

 

  (1) the Restricted Subsidiary or the Company, as applicable, would be permitted to incur at least $1.00 of additional Indebtedness pursuant to the Consolidated Coverage Ratio test described under “—Certain Covenants—Limitation on Indebtedness and Preferred Stock,” or

 

  (2) the Consolidated Coverage Ratio for the Company would be greater than the Consolidated Coverage Ratio for the Company immediately prior to such transaction.

Permitted Business Investment” means any Investment made in the ordinary course of, and of a nature that is or shall have become customary in, the Oil and Gas Business including investments or expenditures for actively exploiting, exploring for, acquiring, developing, producing, processing, gathering, marketing or transporting oil, natural gas or other Hydrocarbons and minerals through agreements, transactions, interests or arrangements which permit one to share risks or costs, comply with regulatory requirements regarding local ownership or satisfy other objectives customarily achieved through the conduct of the Oil and Gas Business jointly with third parties including:

 

  (1) ownership interests in oil, natural gas, other Hydrocarbons and minerals properties, liquefied natural gas facilities, processing facilities, gathering systems, pipelines, storage facilities or related systems or ancillary real property interests;

 

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  (2) Investments in the form of or pursuant to operating agreements, working interests, royalty interests, mineral leases, processing agreements, farm-in agreements, farm-out agreements, contracts for the sale, transportation or exchange of oil, natural gas, other Hydrocarbons and minerals, production sharing agreements, participation agreements, development agreements, area of mutual interest agreements, unitization agreements, pooling agreements, joint bidding agreements, service contracts, joint venture agreements, partnership agreements (whether general or limited) and other similar agreements (including for limited liability companies) with third parties, excluding, however, Investments in corporations and publicly-traded limited liability companies or limited partnerships; and

 

  (3) direct or indirect ownership interests in drilling rigs and related equipment, including, without limitation, transportation equipment.

Permitted Investment” means an Investment by the Company or any Restricted Subsidiary in:

 

  (1) the Company (whether by way of an Investment in the Notes or otherwise) or a Restricted Subsidiary; provided, however, that the primary business of such Restricted Subsidiary is the Oil and Gas Business;

 

  (2) another Person whose primary business is the Oil and Gas Business if as a result of such Investment such other Person becomes a Restricted Subsidiary or is merged or consolidated with or into, or transfers or conveys all or substantially all its assets to, the Company or a Restricted Subsidiary and, in each case, any Investment held by such Person; provided that such Investment was not acquired by such Person in contemplation of such acquisition, merger, consolidation or transfer;

 

  (3) cash and Cash Equivalents;

 

  (4) receivables owing to the Company or any Restricted Subsidiary created or acquired in the ordinary course of business and payable or dischargeable in accordance with customary trade terms; provided, however, that such trade terms may include such concessionary trade terms as the Company or any such Restricted Subsidiary deems reasonable under the circumstances;

 

  (5) payroll, commission, travel, relocation and similar advances to cover matters that are expected at the time of such advances ultimately to be treated as expenses for accounting purposes and that are made in the ordinary course of business;

 

  (6) loans or advances to employees (other than executive officers) made in the ordinary course of business consistent with past practices of the Company or such Restricted Subsidiary not to exceed $5.0 million in the aggregate at any one time outstanding;

 

  (7) Hedging Obligations entered into in the ordinary course of business and in compliance with the Indenture;

 

  (8) endorsements of negotiable instruments and documents in the ordinary course of business;

 

  (9) an acquisition of assets, Capital Stock or other securities by the Company or a Subsidiary for consideration to the extent such consideration consists of Common Stock of the Company;

 

  (10) Capital Stock, obligations or securities received in settlement of debts (x) created in the ordinary course of business and owing to the Company or any Restricted Subsidiary or in satisfaction of judgments or (y) pursuant to any plan of reorganization or similar arrangement in a bankruptcy or insolvency proceeding;

 

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  (11) any Person as a result of the receipt of non-cash consideration from an Asset Disposition that was made pursuant to and in compliance with the covenant described under “Certain Covenants—Limitation on Sales of Assets and Subsidiary Stock”;

 

  (12) Commodity Agreements, Currency Agreements, Interest Rate Agreements and related Hedging Obligations, which transactions or obligations are Incurred in compliance with “—Certain Covenants—Limitation on Indebtedness and Preferred Stock”;

 

  (13) Guarantees issued in accordance with the covenant described under “—Certain Covenants—Limitation on Indebtedness and Preferred Stock”;

 

  (14) Permitted Business Investments;

 

  (15) any Person where such Investment was acquired by the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries (a) in exchange for any other Investment or accounts receivable held by the Company or any such Restricted Subsidiary in connection with or as a result of a bankruptcy, workout, reorganization or recapitalization of the issuer of such other Investment or accounts receivable or (b) as a result of a foreclosure by the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries with respect to any secured Investment or other transfer of title with respect to any secured Investment in default;

 

  (16) any Person to the extent such Investments consist of prepaid expenses, negotiable instruments held for collection and lease, utility and workers’ compensation, performance and other similar deposits made in the ordinary course of business by the Company or any Restricted Subsidiary;

 

  (17) Guarantees of performance or other obligations (other than Indebtedness) arising in the ordinary course in the Oil and Gas Business, including obligations under oil and natural gas exploration, development, joint operating, and related agreements and licenses, concessions or operating leases related to the Oil and Gas Business; and

 

  (18) Investments by the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries, together with all other Investments pursuant to this clause (18), in an aggregate amount outstanding at the time of such Investment not to exceed the greater of $20.0 million and 1.0% of the Company’s Adjusted Consolidated Net Tangible Assets (with the Fair Market Value of such Investment being measured at the time such Investment is made and without giving effect to subsequent changes in value).

Permitted Liens” means, with respect to any Person:

 

  (1) Liens securing Indebtedness under a Credit Facility permitted to be Incurred under the Indenture;

 

  (2) pledges or deposits by such Person under workers’ compensation laws, unemployment insurance laws, social security or old age pension laws or similar legislation, or good faith deposits in connection with bids, tenders, contracts (other than for the payment of Indebtedness) or leases to which such Person is a party, or deposits (which may be secured by a Lien) to secure public or statutory obligations of such Person including letters of credit and bank guarantees required or requested by the United States, any State thereof or any foreign government or any subdivision, department, agency, organization or instrumentality of any of the foregoing in connection with any contract or statute (including lessee or operator obligations under statutes, governmental regulations, contracts or instruments related to the ownership, exploration and production of oil, natural gas, other Hydrocarbons and minerals on State, Federal or foreign lands or waters), or deposits of cash or United States government bonds to secure indemnity performance, surety or appeal bonds or other similar bonds to which such Person is a party, or deposits as security for contested taxes or import or customs duties or for the payment of rent, in each case Incurred in the ordinary course of business;

 

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  (3) Liens on and pledges of the Capital Stock of any Unrestricted Subsidiary or any Joint Venture owned by the Company or any Restricted Subsidiary of the Company to the extent securing Non-Recourse Debt or other Indebtedness of such Unrestricted Subsidiary or Joint Venture;

 

  (4) Liens for taxes, assessments or other governmental charges or claims not yet subject to penalties for non-payment or which are being contested in good faith by appropriate proceedings; provided that appropriate reserves, if any, required pursuant to GAAP have been made in respect thereof;

 

  (5) Liens in favor of issuers of surety or performance bonds or bankers’ acceptances issued pursuant to the request of and for the account of such Person in the ordinary course of its business;

 

  (6) survey exceptions, encumbrances, ground leases, easements or reservations of, or rights of others for, licenses, rights of way, sewers, electric lines, telegraph and telephone lines and other similar purposes, or zoning, building codes or other restrictions (including, without limitation, minor defects or irregularities in title and similar encumbrances) as to the use of real properties or Liens incidental to the conduct of the business of such Person or to the ownership of its properties which do not in the aggregate materially adversely affect the value of the assets of such Person and its Restricted Subsidiaries, taken as a whole, or materially impair their use in the operation of the business of such Person;

 

  (7) Liens securing Hedging Obligations;

 

  (8) leases, licenses, subleases and sublicenses of assets (including, without limitation, real property and intellectual property rights) which do not materially interfere with the ordinary conduct of the business of the Company or any of its Restricted Subsidiaries;

 

  (9) prejudgment Liens and judgment Liens not giving rise to an Event of Default so long as such Lien is adequately bonded and any appropriate legal proceedings which may have been duly initiated for the review of such judgment have not been finally terminated or the period within which such proceedings may be initiated has not expired;

 

  (10) Liens for the purpose of securing the payment of all or a part of the purchase price of, or Capitalized Lease Obligations, purchase money obligations or other payments Incurred to finance the acquisition, lease, improvement or construction of or repairs or additions to, assets or property acquired or constructed in the ordinary course of business; provided that:

 

  (a) the aggregate principal amount of Indebtedness secured by such Liens is otherwise permitted to be Incurred under the Indenture and does not exceed the cost of the assets or property so acquired or constructed; and

 

  (b) such Liens are created within 180 days of the later of the acquisition, lease, completion of improvements, construction, repairs or additions or commencement of full operation of the assets or property subject to such Lien and do not encumber any other assets or property of the Company or any Restricted Subsidiary other than such assets or property and assets affixed or appurtenant thereto;

 

  (11) Liens arising solely by virtue of any statutory or common law provisions relating to banker’s Liens, rights of set-off or similar rights and remedies as to deposit accounts or other funds maintained with a depositary institution; provided that:

 

  (a) such deposit account is not a dedicated cash collateral account and is not subject to restrictions against access by the Company in excess of those set forth by regulations promulgated by the Federal Reserve Board; and

 

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  (b) such deposit account is not intended by the Company or any Restricted Subsidiary to provide collateral to the depository institution;

 

  (12) Liens arising from Uniform Commercial Code financing statement filings regarding operating leases entered into by the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries in the ordinary course of business;

 

  (13) Liens existing on the Issue Date;

 

  (14) Liens on property or shares of Capital Stock of a Person at the time such Person becomes a Subsidiary; provided, however, that such Liens are not created or Incurred in connection with, or in contemplation of, such other Person becoming a Subsidiary; provided further, however, that any such Lien may not extend to any other property owned by the Company or any Restricted Subsidiary (other than assets or property affixed or appurtenant thereto);

 

  (15) Liens on property at the time the Company or any of its Subsidiaries acquired the property, including any acquisition by means of a merger or consolidation with or into the Company or any of its Subsidiaries; provided, however, that such Liens are not created or Incurred in connection with, or in contemplation of, such acquisition; provided further, however, that such Liens may not extend to any other property owned by the Company or any Restricted Subsidiary (other than assets or property affixed or appurtenant thereto);

 

  (16) Liens securing the Notes, Subsidiary Guarantees and other obligations under the Indenture;

 

  (17) Liens securing Refinancing Indebtedness Incurred to refinance Indebtedness that was previously so secured, provided that any such Lien is limited to all or part of the same property or assets (plus improvements, accessions, proceeds or dividends or distributions in respect thereof) that secured (or, under the written arrangements under which the original Lien arose, could secure) the Indebtedness being refinanced or is in respect of property or assets that is the security for a Permitted Lien hereunder;

 

  (18) Liens in respect of Production Payments and Reserve Sales, which Liens shall be limited to the property that is the subject of such Production Payments and Reserve Sales;

 

  (19) Liens arising under farm-out agreements, farm-in agreements, division orders, contracts for the sale, purchase, exchange, transportation, gathering or processing of Hydrocarbons, unitizations and pooling designations, declarations, orders and agreements, development agreements, joint venture agreements, partnership agreements, operating agreements, royalties, working interests, net profits interests, joint interest billing arrangements, participation agreements, production sales contracts, area of mutual interest agreements, gas balancing or deferred production agreements, injection, repressuring and recycling agreements, salt water or other disposal agreements, seismic or geophysical permits or agreements, and other agreements which are customary in the Oil and Gas Business; provided, however, in all instances that such Liens are limited to the assets that are the subject of the relevant agreement, program, order or contract;

 

  (20) Liens on pipelines or pipeline facilities that arise by operation of law;

 

  (21) Liens in favor of the Company or any Subsidiary Guarantor;

 

  (22) deposits made in the ordinary course of business to secure liability to insurance carriers;

 

  (23) Liens in favor of customs and revenue authorities arising as a matter of law to secure payment of customs duties in connection with the importation of goods in the ordinary course of business;

 

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  (24) Liens deemed to exist in connection with Investments in repurchase agreements permitted under “—Certain Covenants—Limitation on Indebtedness and Preferred Stock”; provided that such Liens do not extend to any assets other than those that are the subject of such repurchase agreement;

 

  (25) Liens encumbering reasonable customary initial deposits and margin deposits and similar Liens attaching to commodity trading accounts or other brokerage accounts incurred in the ordinary course of business and not for speculative purposes;

 

  (26) any (a) interest or title of a lessor or sublessor under any lease, Liens reserved in oil, gas or other Hydrocarbons, minerals, leases for bonus, royalty or rental payments and for compliance with the terms of such leases, (b) restriction or encumbrance that the interest or title of such lessor or sublessor may be subject to (including, without limitation, ground leases or other prior leases of the demised premises, mortgages, mechanics’ liens, tax liens and easements) or (c) subordination of the interest of the lessee or sublessee under such lease to any restrictions or encumbrance referred to in the preceding clause (b);

 

  (27) Liens upon specific items of inventory or other goods and proceeds of any Person securing such Person’s obligations in respect of bankers’ acceptances issued or created for the account of such Person to facilitate the purchase, shipment or storage of such inventory or other goods;

 

  (28) Liens arising under the Indenture in favor of the Trustee for its own benefit and similar Liens in favor of other trustees, agents and representatives arising under instruments governing Indebtedness permitted to be incurred under the Indenture, provided, however, that such Liens are solely for the benefit of the trustees, agents or representatives in their capacities as such and not for the benefit of the holders of such Indebtedness;

 

  (29) Liens arising from the deposit of funds or securities in trust for the purpose of decreasing or defeasing Indebtedness so long as such deposit of funds or securities and such decreasing or defeasing of Indebtedness are permitted under the covenant described under “—Certain Covenants—Limitation on Restricted Payments”;

 

  (30) Liens in favor of collecting or payer banks having a right of setoff, revocation, or charge back with respect to money or instruments of the Company or any Subsidiary of the Company on deposit with or in possession of such bank; and

 

  (31) Liens securing Indebtedness in an aggregate principal amount outstanding at any one time, added together with all other Indebtedness secured by Liens Incurred pursuant to this clause (31), not to exceed the greater of $20.0 million and 1.0% of the Company’s Adjusted Consolidated Net Tangible Assets, as determined on the date of Incurrence of such Indebtedness after giving pro forma effect to such Incurrence and the application of the proceeds therefrom.

In each case set forth above, notwithstanding any stated limitation on the assets that may be subject to such Lien, a Permitted Lien on a specified asset or group or type of assets may include Liens on all improvements, additions and accessions thereto and all products and proceeds thereof (including dividends, distributions and increases in respect thereof).

Person” means any individual, corporation, partnership, joint venture, association, joint-stock company, trust, unincorporated organization, limited liability company, government or any agency or political subdivision thereof or any other entity.

Preferred Stock,” as applied to the Capital Stock of any corporation, means Capital Stock of any class or classes (however designated) which is preferred as to the payment of dividends, or as to the distribution of assets upon any voluntary or involuntary liquidation or dissolution of such corporation, over shares of Capital Stock of any other class of such corporation.

 

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Production Payments and Reserve Sales” means the grant or transfer by the Company or a Restricted Subsidiary to any Person of a royalty, overriding royalty, net profits interest, production payment (whether volumetric or dollar denominated), partnership or other interest in Oil and Gas Properties, reserves or the right to receive all or a portion of the production or the proceeds from the sale of production attributable to such properties where the holder of such interest has recourse solely to such production or proceeds of production, subject to the obligation of the grantor or transferor to operate and maintain, or cause the subject interests to be operated and maintained, in a reasonably prudent manner or other customary standard or subject to the obligation of the grantor or transferor to indemnify for environmental, title or other matters customary in the Oil and Gas Business, including any such grants or transfers pursuant to incentive compensation programs on terms that are reasonably customary in the Oil and Gas Business for geologists, geophysicists or other providers of technical services to the Company or a Restricted Subsidiary.

Rating Agency” means each of S&P and Moody’s, or if S&P or Moody’s or both shall not make a rating on the Notes publicly available, a nationally recognized statistical rating agency or agencies, as the case may be, selected by the Company shall be substituted for S&P or Moody’s, or both, as the case may be.

Refinancing Indebtedness” means Indebtedness that is Incurred to refund, refinance, replace, exchange, renew, repay, extend, prepay, redeem or retire (including pursuant to any defeasance or discharge mechanism) (collectively, “refinance” and “refinances” and “refinanced” shall have correlative meanings) any Indebtedness (including Indebtedness of the Company that refinances Indebtedness of any Restricted Subsidiary and Indebtedness of any Restricted Subsidiary that refinances Indebtedness of another Restricted Subsidiary, but excluding Indebtedness of a Subsidiary that is not a Restricted Subsidiary that refinances Indebtedness of the Company or a Restricted Subsidiary), including Indebtedness that refinances Refinancing Indebtedness, provided, however, that:

 

  (1) (a) if the Stated Maturity of the Indebtedness being Refinanced is earlier than the Stated Maturity of the Notes, the Refinancing Indebtedness has a Stated Maturity no earlier than the Stated Maturity of the Indebtedness being refinanced or (b) if the Stated Maturity of the Indebtedness being refinanced is later than the Stated Maturity of the Notes, the Refinancing Indebtedness has a Stated Maturity at least 91 days later than the Stated Maturity of the Notes;

 

  (2) the Refinancing Indebtedness has an Average Life at the time such Refinancing Indebtedness is Incurred that is equal to or greater than the Average Life of the Indebtedness being refinanced;

 

  (3) such Refinancing Indebtedness is Incurred in an aggregate principal amount (or if issued with original issue discount, an aggregate issue price) that is equal to or less than the sum of the aggregate principal amount (or if issued with original issue discount, the aggregate accreted value) then outstanding of the Indebtedness being refinanced (plus, without duplication, any additional Indebtedness Incurred to pay interest, premiums or defeasance costs required by the instruments governing such existing Indebtedness and fees and expenses Incurred in connection therewith);

 

  (4) if the Indebtedness being Refinanced is subordinated in right of payment to the Notes or the Subsidiary Guarantee, such Refinancing Indebtedness is subordinated in right of payment to the Notes or the Subsidiary Guarantee on terms at least as favorable to the holders as those contained in the documentation governing the Indebtedness being Refinanced; and

 

  (5) if the Indebtedness being Refinanced is Non-Recourse Purchase Money Indebtedness or Indebtedness that Refinanced Non-Recourse Purchase Money Indebtedness, such Refinancing Indebtedness satisfies clauses (a) and (b) of the definition of “Non-Recourse Purchase Money Indebtedness.”

Reporting Failure” means the failure of the Company to file with the SEC and make available or otherwise deliver to the Trustee and each holder of Notes, within the time periods specified in “—Certain

 

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Covenants—Provision of Financial Information” (after giving effect to any grace period specified under Rule 12b-25 under the Exchange Act), the periodic reports, information, documents or other reports which the Company may be required to file with the SEC pursuant to such provision.

Restricted Investment” means any Investment other than a Permitted Investment.

Restricted Subsidiary” means any Subsidiary of the Company other than an Unrestricted Subsidiary.

S&P” means Standard & Poor’s Rating Services, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., or any successor to the rating agency business thereof.

Sale/Leaseback Transaction” means an arrangement relating to property now owned or hereafter acquired whereby the Company or a Restricted Subsidiary transfers such property to a Person and the Company or a Restricted Subsidiary leases it from such Person.

SEC” means the United States Securities and Exchange Commission.

Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations of the SEC promulgated thereunder.

Senior Secured Credit Agreement” means the Third Amended and Restated Credit Agreement dated as of April 26, 2011 among the Company, as Borrower, Bank of America, N.A., as Administrative Agent and Issuing Bank, and the lenders parties thereto from time to time, including any guarantees, collateral documents, instruments and agreements executed in connection therewith, and any amendments, supplements, modifications, extensions, renewals, restatements, refundings or refinancings thereof and any indentures or credit facilities or commercial paper facilities with banks or other institutional lenders or investors that replace, refund or refinance any part of the loans, notes, other credit facilities or commitments thereunder, including any such replacement, refunding or refinancing facility or indenture that increases the amount borrowable thereunder or alters the maturity thereof (provided that such increase in borrowings is permitted under “—Certain Covenants—Limitation on Indebtedness and Preferred Stock” above).

Significant Subsidiary” means any Restricted Subsidiary that would be a “Significant Subsidiary” of the Company within the meaning of Rule 1-02 under Regulation S-X promulgated by the SEC, as in effect on the Issue Date.

Stated Maturity” means, with respect to any security, the date specified in such security as the fixed date on which the payment of principal of such security is due and payable, including pursuant to any mandatory redemption provision, but shall not include any contingent obligations to repay, redeem or repurchase any such principal prior to the date originally scheduled for the payment thereof.

Subordinated Obligation” means the 6 3/4% Senior Subordinated Notes due 2014 of the Company and any other Indebtedness of the Company (whether outstanding on the Issue Date or thereafter Incurred) which is expressly subordinate in right of payment to the Notes pursuant to a written agreement.

Subsidiary” of any Person means (a) any corporation, association or other business entity (other than a partnership, joint venture, limited liability company or similar entity) of which more than 50% of the total ordinary voting power of shares of Capital Stock entitled (without regard to the occurrence of any contingency) to vote in the election of directors, managers or trustees thereof (or Persons performing similar functions) or (b) any partnership, joint venture, limited liability company or similar entity of which more than 50% of the capital accounts, distribution rights, total equity and voting interests or general or limited partnership interests, as applicable, is, in the case of clauses (a) and (b), at the time owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by (1) such Person, (2) such Person and one or more Subsidiaries of such Person or (3) one or more Subsidiaries of such Person. Unless otherwise specified herein, each reference to a Subsidiary (other than in this definition) will refer to a Subsidiary of the Company.

 

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Subsidiary Guarantee” means, individually, any Guarantee of payment of the Notes by a Subsidiary Guarantor pursuant to the terms of the Indenture and any supplemental indenture thereto, and, collectively, all such Guarantees.

Subsidiary Guarantors” means any Subsidiary of the Company that is a guarantor of the Notes, including any Person that is required after the Issue Date to guarantee the Notes pursuant to the “Future Subsidiary Guarantors” covenant, in each case until a successor replaces such Person pursuant to the applicable provisions of the Indenture and, thereafter, means such successor.

Unrestricted Subsidiary” means:

 

  (1) any Subsidiary of the Company that at the time of determination shall be designated an Unrestricted Subsidiary by the Board of Directors of the Company in the manner provided below; and

 

  (2) any Subsidiary of an Unrestricted Subsidiary.

The Board of Directors of the Company may designate any Subsidiary of the Company (including any newly acquired or newly formed Subsidiary or a Person becoming a Subsidiary through merger or consolidation or Investment therein) to be an Unrestricted Subsidiary only if:

 

  (1) such Subsidiary or any of its Subsidiaries does not own any Capital Stock or Indebtedness of or has any Investment in, or owns or holds any Lien on any property of, any other Subsidiary of the Company which is not a Subsidiary of the Subsidiary to be so designated or otherwise an Unrestricted Subsidiary;

 

  (2) all the Indebtedness of such Subsidiary and its Subsidiaries shall, at the date of designation, and will at all times thereafter, consist of Non-Recourse Debt;

 

  (3) on the date of such designation, such designation and the Investment of the Company or a Restricted Subsidiary in such Subsidiary complies with “—Certain Covenants—Limitation on Restricted Payments”;

 

  (4) such Subsidiary is a Person with respect to which neither the Company nor any of its Restricted Subsidiaries has any direct or indirect obligation:

 

  (a) to subscribe for additional Capital Stock of such Person; or

 

  (b) to maintain or preserve such Person’s financial condition or to cause such Person to achieve any specified levels of operating results; and

 

  (5) on the date such Subsidiary is designated an Unrestricted Subsidiary, such Subsidiary is not a party to any agreement, contract, arrangement or understanding with the Company or any Restricted Subsidiary with terms substantially less favorable to the Company or such Restricted Subsidiary than those that might have been obtained from Persons who are not Affiliates of the Company.

Any such designation by the Board of Directors of the Company shall be evidenced to the Trustee by filing with the Trustee a resolution of the Board of Directors of the Company giving effect to such designation and an Officers’ Certificate certifying that such designation complies with the foregoing conditions. If, at any time, any Unrestricted Subsidiary would fail to meet the foregoing requirements as an Unrestricted Subsidiary, it shall thereafter cease to be an Unrestricted Subsidiary for purposes of the Indenture and any Indebtedness of such Subsidiary shall be deemed to be Incurred as of such date. The Board of Directors of the Company may designate

 

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any Unrestricted Subsidiary to be a Restricted Subsidiary; provided that immediately after giving effect to such designation, no Default or Event of Default shall have occurred and be continuing or would occur as a consequence thereof and the Company could Incur at least $1.00 of additional Indebtedness under the first paragraph of the covenant described under “—Certain Covenants—Limitation on Indebtedness and Preferred Stock” on a pro forma basis taking into account such designation.

U.S. Government Obligations” means securities that are (a) direct obligations of the United States of America for the timely payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged or (b) obligations of a Person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of the United States of America the timely payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation of the United States of America, which, in either case, are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof, and shall also include a depositary receipt issued by a bank (as defined in Section 3(a)(2) of the Securities Act), as custodian with respect to any such U.S. Government Obligations or a specific payment of principal of or interest on any such U.S. Government Obligations held by such custodian for the account of the holder of such depositary receipt; provided that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depositary receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the U.S. Government Obligations or the specific payment of principal of or interest on the U.S. Government Obligations evidenced by such depositary receipt.

Volumetric Production Payments” means production payment obligations recorded as deferred revenue in accordance with GAAP, together with all undertakings and obligations in connection therewith.

Voting Stock” of an entity means all classes of Capital Stock of such entity then outstanding and normally entitled to vote in the election of members of such entity’s Board of Directors.

Wholly-Owned Subsidiary” means a Restricted Subsidiary, all of the Capital Stock of which (other than directors’ qualifying shares) is owned by the Company or another Wholly-Owned Subsidiary.

 

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BOOK-ENTRY, DELIVERY AND FORM

We have obtained the information in this section concerning DTC, Clearstream, Luxembourg and Euroclear, and their book-entry systems and procedures from sources that we believe to be reliable. We take no responsibility for an accurate portrayal of this information. In addition, the description of the clearing systems in this section reflects our understanding of the rules and procedures of DTC, Clearstream, Luxembourg and Euroclear as they are currently in effect. Those systems could change their rules and procedures at any time.

The new notes will initially be represented by one or more fully registered global notes. Each such global note will be deposited with, or on behalf of, DTC or any successor thereto and registered in the name of Cede & Co. (DTC’s nominee). You may hold your interests in the global notes in the United States through DTC, or in Europe through Clearstream, Luxembourg or Euroclear, either as a participant in such systems or indirectly through organizations that are participants in such systems. Clearstream, Luxembourg and Euroclear will hold interests in the global notes on behalf of their respective participating organizations or customers through customers’ securities accounts in Clearstream, Luxembourg’s or Euroclear’s names on the books of their respective depositaries, which in turn will hold those positions in customers’ securities accounts in the depositaries’ names on the books of DTC. Citibank, N.A. acts as depositary for Clearstream, Luxembourg, and JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A. acts as depositary for Euroclear.

So long as DTC or its nominee is the registered owner of the global securities representing the notes, DTC or such nominee will be considered the sole owner and holder of the notes for all purposes of the notes and the indenture. Except as provided below, owners of beneficial interests in the notes will not be entitled to have the notes registered in their names, will not receive or be entitled to receive physical delivery of the notes in definitive form and will not be considered the owners or holders of the notes under the indenture, including for purposes of receiving any reports delivered by us or the trustee under the indenture. Accordingly, each person owning a beneficial interest in a note must rely on the procedures of DTC or its nominee, and, if such person is not a participant, on the procedures of the participant through which such person owns its interest, in order to exercise any rights of a holder of notes.

Unless and until we issue the notes in fully certificated, registered form under the limited circumstances described below under the caption “—Certificated Notes”:

 

   

you will not be entitled to receive a certificate representing your interest in the notes;

 

   

all references in this prospectus supplement to actions by holders will refer to actions taken by DTC upon instructions from its direct participants; and

 

   

all references in this prospectus supplement to payments and notices to holders will refer to payments and notices to DTC or Cede & Co., as the registered holder of the notes, for distribution to you in accordance with DTC procedures.

The Depository Trust Company

DTC will act as securities depositary for the notes. The new notes will be issued as fully registered notes registered in the name of Cede & Co. DTC is:

 

   

a limited-purpose trust company organized under the New York Banking Law;

 

   

a “banking organization” under the New York Banking Law;

 

   

a member of the Federal Reserve System;

 

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a “clearing corporation” under the New York Uniform Commercial Code; and

 

   

a “clearing agency” registered under the provisions of Section 17A of the Exchange Act.

DTC holds securities that its direct participants deposit with DTC. DTC facilitates the post-trade settlement among direct participants of securities transactions, such as transfers and pledges, in deposited securities through electronic computerized book-entry changes in direct participants’ accounts, thereby eliminating the need for physical movement of securities certificates.

Direct participants of DTC include both U.S. and non-U.S. securities brokers and dealers (including the underwriters), banks, trust companies, clearing corporations and certain other organizations. DTC is owned by a number of its direct participants. Indirect participants of DTC, such as U.S. and non-U.S. securities brokers and dealers, banks and trust companies, can also access the DTC system if they maintain a custodial relationship with a direct participant.

Purchases of notes under DTC’s system must be made by or through direct participants, which will receive a credit for the notes on DTC’s records. The ownership interest of each beneficial owner is in turn to be recorded on the records of direct participants and indirect participants. Beneficial owners will not receive written confirmation from DTC of their purchase, but beneficial owners are expected to receive written confirmations providing details of the transaction, as well as periodic statements of their holdings, from the direct participants or indirect participants through which such beneficial owners entered into the transaction. Transfers of ownership interests in the notes are to be accomplished by entries made on the books of participants acting on behalf of beneficial owners. Beneficial owners will not receive certificates representing their ownership interests in notes, except as provided below in “—Certificated Notes.”

To facilitate subsequent transfers, all notes deposited with DTC are registered in the name of DTC’s nominee, Cede & Co., or such other nominee as may be requested by DTC. The deposit of notes with DTC and their registration in the name of Cede & Co. or such other DTC nominee effect no change in beneficial ownership. DTC has no knowledge of the actual beneficial owners of the notes. DTC’s records reflect only the identity of the direct participants to whose accounts such notes are credited, which may or may not be the beneficial owners. The participants will remain responsible for keeping account of their holdings on behalf of their customers.

Conveyance of notices and other communications by DTC to direct participants, by direct participants to indirect participants and by direct participants and indirect participants to beneficial owners will be governed by arrangements among them, subject to any statutory or regulatory requirements as may be in effect from time to time.

Book-Entry Format

Under the book-entry format, the paying agent will pay interest or principal payments to Cede & Co., as nominee of DTC. DTC will forward the payment to the direct participants, who will then forward the payment to the indirect participants (including Clearstream, Luxembourg or Euroclear) or to you as the beneficial owner. You may experience some delay in receiving your payments under this system. None of us, any subsidiary guarantor, the trustee under the indenture or any paying agent has any direct responsibility or liability for the payment of principal or interest on the notes to owners of beneficial interests in the notes.

DTC is required to make book-entry transfers on behalf of its direct participants and is required to receive and transmit payments of principal of, premium, if any, and interest on the notes. Any direct participant or indirect participant with which you have an account is similarly required to make book-entry transfers and to receive and transmit payments with respect to the notes on your behalf. We, the subsidiary guarantors and the trustee under the indenture have no responsibility for any aspect of the actions of DTC, Clearstream,

 

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Luxembourg or Euroclear or any of their direct or indirect participants. In addition, we, the subsidiary guarantors and the trustee under the indenture have no responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records kept by DTC, Clearstream, Luxembourg, Euroclear or any of their direct or indirect participants relating to or payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in the notes or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to such beneficial ownership interests. We also do not supervise these systems in any way.

The trustee under the indenture will not recognize you as a holder under the indenture, and you can only exercise the rights of a holder indirectly through DTC and its direct participants. DTC has advised us that it will only take action regarding a note if one or more of the direct participants to whom the note is credited direct DTC to take such action and only in respect of the portion of the aggregate principal amount of the notes as to which that participant or participants has or have given that direction. DTC can only act on behalf of its direct participants. Your ability to pledge notes to non-direct participants, and to take other actions, may be limited because you will not possess a physical certificate that represents your notes.

Neither DTC nor Cede & Co. (nor any other DTC nominee) will consent or vote with respect to the notes unless authorized by a direct participant in accordance with DTC’s procedures. Under its usual procedures, DTC will mail an omnibus proxy to its direct participants as soon as possible after the record date. The omnibus proxy assigns Cede & Co.’s consenting or voting rights to those direct participants to whose accounts the notes are credited on the record date (identified in a listing attached to the omnibus proxy).

Clearstream, Luxembourg or Euroclear will credit payments to the cash accounts of Clearstream, Luxembourg customers or Euroclear participants in accordance with the relevant system’s rules and procedures, to the extent received by its depositary. These payments will be subject to tax reporting in accordance with relevant U.S. tax laws and regulations. Clearstream, Luxembourg or Euroclear, as the case may be, will take any other action permitted to be taken by a holder under the indenture on behalf of a Clearstream, Luxembourg customer or Euroclear participant only in accordance with its relevant rules and procedures and subject to its depositary’s ability to effect those actions on its behalf through DTC.

DTC, Clearstream, Luxembourg and Euroclear have agreed to the foregoing procedures in order to facilitate transfers of the notes among participants of DTC, Clearstream, Luxembourg and Euroclear. However, they are under no obligation to perform or continue to perform those procedures, and they may discontinue those procedures at any time.

Transfers Within and Among Book-Entry Systems

Transfers between DTC’s direct participants will occur in accordance with DTC rules. Transfers between Clearstream, Luxembourg customers and Euroclear participants will occur in accordance with their respective applicable rules and operating procedures.

DTC will effect cross-market transfers between persons holding directly or indirectly through DTC, on the one hand, and directly or indirectly through Clearstream, Luxembourg customers or Euroclear participants, on the other hand, in accordance with DTC rules on behalf of the relevant European international clearing system by its depositary. However, cross-market transactions will require delivery of instructions to the relevant European international clearing system by the counterparty in that system in accordance with its rules and procedures and within its established deadlines (European time). The relevant European international clearing system will, if the transaction meets its settlement requirements, instruct its depositary to effect final settlement on its behalf by delivering or receiving securities in DTC and making or receiving payment in accordance with normal procedures for same-day funds settlement applicable to DTC. Clearstream, Luxembourg customers and Euroclear participants may not deliver instructions directly to the depositaries.

Because of time-zone differences, credits of securities received in Clearstream, Luxembourg or Euroclear resulting from a transaction with a DTC direct participant will be made during the subsequent securities settlement processing, dated the business day following the DTC settlement date. Those credits or any

 

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transactions in those securities settled during that processing will be reported to the relevant Clearstream, Luxembourg customer or Euroclear participant on that business day. Cash received in Clearstream, Luxembourg or Euroclear as a result of sales of securities by or through a Clearstream, Luxembourg customer or a Euroclear participant to a DTC direct participant will be received with value on the DTC settlement date but will be available in the relevant Clearstream, Luxembourg or Euroclear cash amount only as of the business day following settlement in DTC.

Although DTC, Clearstream, Luxembourg and Euroclear have agreed to the foregoing procedures in order to facilitate transfers of debt securities among their respective participants, they are under no obligation to perform or continue to perform such procedures and such procedures may be discontinued at any time.

Certificated Notes

Unless and until they are exchanged, in whole or in part, for notes in definitive form in accordance with the terms of the notes, the notes may not be transferred except (1) as a whole by DTC to a nominee of DTC, (2) by a nominee of DTC to DTC or another nominee of DTC or (3) by DTC or any such nominee to a successor of DTC or a nominee of such successor.

We will issue notes to you or your nominees, in fully certificated, registered form, rather than to DTC or its nominees, only if:

 

   

we advise the trustee in writing that DTC is no longer willing or able to discharge its responsibilities properly or that DTC is no longer a registered clearing agency under the Exchange Act, and we have not appointed a qualified successor within 90 days;

 

   

an event of default has occurred and is continuing under the indenture and DTC has notified us and the trustee under the indenture of its desire to exchange the global notes for certificated notes; or

 

   

subject to DTC’s rules, we, at our option, elect to terminate the book-entry system through DTC.

If any of the three above events occurs, DTC is required to notify all direct participants that notes in fully certificated, registered form are available through DTC. DTC will then surrender the global note representing the notes along with instructions for re-registration. We will re-issue the notes in fully certificated, registered form and will recognize the registered holders of the certificated notes as holders under the indenture.

Unless and until we issue the notes in fully certificated, registered form, (1) you will not be entitled to receive a certificate representing your interest in the notes, (2) all references in this prospectus supplement to actions by holders will refer to actions taken by the depositary upon instructions from its direct participants and (3) all references in this prospectus supplement to payments and notices to holders will refer to payments and notices to the depositary or its nominee, as the registered holder of the notes, for distribution to you in accordance with its policies and procedures.

Same Day Settlement and Payment

We will make payments in respect of the notes represented by the global notes (including principal, premium, if any, and interest) by wire transfer of immediately available funds to the accounts specified by DTC or its nominee. We will make all payments of principal, premium, if any, and interest with respect to certificated notes by wire transfer of immediately available funds to the accounts specified by the holders of the certificated notes or, if no such account is specified, by mailing a check to each such holder’s registered address. The notes represented by the global notes are expected to be eligible to trade in DTC’s Same-Day Funds Settlement System, and any permitted secondary market-trading activity in such notes will, therefore, be required by DTC to be settled in immediately available funds. We expect that secondary trading in any certificated notes will also be settled in immediately available funds.

 

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Because of time zone differences, the securities account of a Clearstream, Luxembourg customer or Euroclear participant purchasing an interest in a global note from another customer or participant will be credited, and any such crediting will be reported to the relevant Clearstream, Luxembourg customer or Euroclear participant, during the securities settlement processing day (which must be a business day for Euroclear and Clearstream) immediately following the settlement date of DTC. DTC has advised us that cash received in Clearstream, Luxembourg or Euroclear as a result of sales of interests in a global note by or through a Clearstream, Luxembourg customer or Euroclear participant to another customer or participant will be received with value on the settlement date of DTC but will be available in the relevant Clearstream, Luxembourg or Euroclear cash account only as of the business day for Euroclear or Clearstream, Luxembourg following DTC’s settlement date.

 

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CERTAIN UNITED STATES FEDERAL INCOME AND ESTATE TAX CONSIDERATIONS

The following discussion summarizes certain U.S. federal income tax considerations, and in the case of a non-U.S. holder (as defined below), U.S. federal estate tax considerations, that may be relevant to the acquisition, ownership and disposition of the notes. This discussion is based upon the provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), applicable U.S. Treasury Regulations promulgated thereunder, judicial authority and administrative interpretations, as of the date of this document, all of which are subject to change, possibly with retroactive effect, or are subject to different interpretations. We cannot assure you that the Internal Revenue Service, or IRS, will not challenge one or more of the tax consequences described in this discussion, and we have not obtained, nor do we intend to obtain, a ruling from the IRS or an opinion of counsel with respect to the U.S. federal tax consequences of acquiring, holding or disposing of the notes.

The new notes will be issued as additional notes under the indenture pursuant to which we issued $300 million principal amount of our 7.500% Senior Notes due 2022. The notes offered hereby and those previously issued notes will be treated as a single class of debt securities under the indenture and will be subject to the same information reporting for U.S. federal income tax purposes. This discussion pertains only to the note being issued in this offering and does not apply to the notes presently outstanding under the indenture.

This discussion is limited to holders who purchase the notes in this offering for cash at their initial offering price and who hold the notes as capital assets (generally, property held for investment). This discussion does not address the tax considerations arising under U.S. federal gift tax laws or the laws of any foreign, state, local or other jurisdiction or any income tax treaty. In addition, this discussion does not address all tax considerations that may be important to a particular holder in light of the holder’s circumstances, or to certain categories of investors that may be subject to special tax rules, such as:

 

   

dealers in securities or currencies;

 

   

traders in securities that have elected the mark-to-market method of accounting for their securities;

 

   

U.S. holders (as defined below) whose functional currency is not the U.S. dollar;

 

   

persons holding notes as part of a hedge, straddle, conversion or other “synthetic security” or other risk reduction transaction;

 

   

U.S. expatriates;

 

   

financial institutions;

 

   

insurance companies;

 

   

regulated investment companies;

 

   

real estate investment trusts;

 

   

persons subject to the alternative minimum tax;

 

   

entities that are tax-exempt for U.S. federal income tax purposes; and

 

   

partnerships and other pass-through entities and holders of interests therein.

If a partnership (or an entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes) holds notes, the tax treatment of a partner of the partnership generally will depend upon the status of the partner and the activities of the partnership. If you are a partner of a partnership acquiring the notes, you are urged to consult your own tax advisor about the U.S. federal income tax consequences of acquiring, holding and disposing of the notes.

 

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INVESTORS CONSIDERING THE PURCHASE OF NOTES ARE URGED TO CONSULT THEIR OWN TAX ADVISORS REGARDING THE APPLICATION OF THE U.S. FEDERAL INCOME AND ESTATE TAX LAWS TO THEIR PARTICULAR SITUATIONS AS WELL AS ANY TAX CONSEQUENCES OF THE PURCHASE, OWNERSHIP AND DISPOSITION OF THE NOTES UNDER U.S. FEDERAL GIFT TAX LAWS OR UNDER THE LAWS OF ANY STATE, LOCAL OR FOREIGN JURISDICTION OR UNDER ANY APPLICABLE INCOME TAX TREATY.

Certain Additional Payments

In certain circumstances (see “Description of Notes—Optional Redemption” and “Description of Notes—Change of Control”), we may be obligated to pay amounts on the notes that are in excess of stated interest or principal on the notes. These potential payments may implicate the provisions of the U.S. Treasury Regulations relating to “contingent payment debt instruments.” We do not intend to treat the possibility of paying such additional amounts as causing the notes to be treated as contingent payment debt instruments. However, additional income will be recognized if any such additional payment is made. It is possible that the IRS may take a different position, in which case a holder might be required to accrue interest income at a higher rate than the stated interest rate and to treat as ordinary income any gain realized on the taxable disposition of the note. The remainder of this discussion assumes that the notes will not be treated as contingent payment debt instruments. Prospective investors should consult their own tax advisors regarding the possible application of the contingent payment debt instrument rules to the notes.

Tax Consequences to U.S. Holders

You are a “U.S. holder” for purposes of this discussion if you are a beneficial owner of a note and you are for U.S. federal income tax purposes:

 

   

an individual who is a U.S. citizen or U.S. resident alien;

 

   

a corporation, or other entity taxable as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, that was created or organized in or under the laws of the United States, any state thereof or the District of Columbia;

 

   

an estate whose income is subject to U.S. federal income taxation regardless of its source; or

 

   

a trust (1) if a court within the United States is able to exercise primary supervision over the administration of the trust and one or more United States persons have the authority to control all substantial decisions of the trust or (2) that has a valid election in effect under applicable U.S. Treasury Regulations to be treated as a United States person.

Interest on the Notes

Interest on the notes (other than pre-issuance accrued interest described below) generally will be taxable to you as ordinary income at the time it is received or accrued in accordance with your regular method of accounting for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

Pre-issuance Accrued Interest

A portion of the purchase price of the notes is attributable to the amount of accrued interest from the period from November 15, 2013 until the date of issuance (the “pre-issuance accrued interest”). Pre-issuance accrued interest should be excluded from your income and, when received, will reduce your tax basis in your notes.

 

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Amortizable Bond Premium

If you purchase a note for an amount in excess of its principal amount (excluding any amount properly allocable to pre-issuance accrued interest, as described above under “—Pre-issuance Accrued Interest”), you will be considered to have purchased the note with amortizable bond premium in an amount equal to such excess. You may elect to amortize this bond premium (or a smaller amount as determined with respect to a call option, if applicable), using a constant yield method, over the remaining term of the note (or over a shorter period that accounts for an earlier call date, if applicable). You may generally use the amortizable bond premium allocable to an accrual period to offset stated interest required to be included in your gross income with respect to the note in that accrual period. You must reduce your tax basis in the note by the amount of premium amortized in any year. An election to amortize bond premium applies to all taxable debt obligations then owned and thereafter acquired by you and may be revoked only with the consent of the IRS. If you do not elect to amortize bond premium, that premium will decrease the gain or increase the loss you would otherwise recognize on the disposition of the note.

Disposition of the Notes

You will generally recognize capital gain or loss on the sale, redemption, exchange, retirement or other taxable disposition of a note. This gain or loss will equal the difference between the proceeds you receive (excluding any proceeds attributable to accrued but unpaid interest that is not pre-issuance accrued interest, which will be taxable as ordinary interest income to the extent you have not previously included such amounts in income) and your adjusted tax basis in the note. The proceeds you receive will include the amount of any cash and the fair market value of any other property received for the note. Your adjusted tax basis in the note will generally equal the amount you paid for the note, reduced by any pre-issuance accrued interest previously received and any amortizable bond premium you previously have amortized. The gain or loss will be long-term capital gain or loss if you held the note for more than one year at the time of the sale, redemption, exchange, retirement or other taxable disposition. Long-term capital gains of individuals, estates and trusts currently are subject to a reduced rate of U.S. federal income tax. The deductibility of capital losses is subject to limitation.

Information Reporting and Backup Withholding

Information reporting generally will apply to payments of interest on, and the proceeds of the sale or other taxable disposition (including a redemption, exchange or retirement) of, notes held by you, and backup withholding will apply to such payments unless you provide the appropriate intermediary with a taxpayer identification number, certified under penalties of perjury, as well as certain other information or otherwise establish an exemption from backup withholding. Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amount withheld under the backup withholding rules is allowable as a credit against your U.S. federal income tax liability, if any, and a refund may be obtained if the amounts withheld exceed your actual U.S. federal income tax liability and you timely provide the required information or appropriate claim form to the IRS.

Tax Consequences to Non-U.S. Holders

You are a “non-U.S. holder” for purposes of this discussion if you are a beneficial owner of a note and you are, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, an individual, corporation, estate or trust that is not a U.S. holder.

Interest on the Notes

Payments to you of interest on the notes generally will be exempt from withholding of U.S. federal income tax under the “portfolio interest” exemption if you properly certify as to your foreign status, as described below, and:

 

   

you do not own, directly or indirectly, actually or constructively, 10% or more of the total combined voting power of all classes of our stock entitled to vote;

 

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you are not a “controlled foreign corporation” that is related to us (actually or constructively);

 

   

you are not a bank whose receipt of interest on the notes is in connection with an extension of credit made pursuant to a loan agreement entered into in the ordinary course of your trade or business; and

 

   

interest on the notes is not effectively connected with your conduct of a U.S. trade or business.

The portfolio interest exemption and several of the special rules for non-U.S. holders described below generally apply only if you appropriately certify as to your foreign status. You can generally meet this certification requirement by providing a properly executed IRS Form W-8BEN or appropriate substitute form to the applicable withholding agent. If you hold the notes through a financial institution or other agent acting on your behalf, you may be required to provide appropriate certifications to the agent. Your agent will then generally be required to provide appropriate certifications to the applicable withholding agent, either directly or through other intermediaries. Special rules apply to foreign partnerships, estates and trusts, and in certain circumstances, certifications as to foreign status of partners, trust owners or beneficiaries may have to be provided to the withholding agent. In addition, special rules apply to qualified intermediaries that enter into withholding agreements with the IRS.

If you cannot satisfy the requirements described above, payments of interest made to you will be subject to U.S. federal withholding tax at a 30% rate, unless you provide the applicable withholding agent with a properly executed IRS Form W-8BEN (or successor form) claiming an exemption from (or a reduction of) withholding under the benefit of an income tax treaty, or the payments of interest are effectively connected with your conduct of a trade or business in the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, are treated as attributable to a permanent establishment maintained by you in the United States) and you meet the certification requirements described below. (See “—Income or Gain Effectively Connected with a U.S. Trade or Business.”)

Disposition of Notes

You generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax on any gain realized on the sale, redemption, exchange, retirement or other taxable disposition of a note (other than any amount allocable to accrued and unpaid interest, which generally will be subject to the rules discussed above in “—Interest on the Notes” or below in “—Income or Gain Effectively Connected with a U.S. Trade or Business”) unless:

 

   

the gain is effectively connected with the conduct by you of a U.S. trade or business (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, is treated as attributable to a permanent establishment maintained by you in the United States); or

 

   

you are an individual who has been present in the United States for 183 days or more in the taxable year of disposition and certain other requirements are met.

If you are a non-U.S. holder whose gain is described in the first bullet point above, you generally will be subject to U.S. federal income tax in the manner described under “—Income or Gain Effectively Connected with a U.S. Trade or Business.” If you are a non-U.S. holder described in the second bullet point above, you will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at a flat rate of 30% (or lower applicable treaty rate) on the gain derived from the sale or other taxable disposition, which may be offset by U.S. source capital losses.

Income or Gain Effectively Connected with a U.S. Trade or Business

If any interest on the notes (excluding any pre-issuance accrued interest) or gain from the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of the notes is effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business conducted by you (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, is attributable to a permanent establishment maintained by you in the United States), then the interest income or gain will be subject to U.S. federal income tax in generally

 

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the same manner as if you were a U.S. holder, unless an applicable income tax treaty provides otherwise. Effectively connected interest income will not be subject to U.S. withholding tax if you satisfy certain certification requirements by providing to the applicable withholding agent a properly executed IRS Form W-8ECI (or IRS Form W-8BEN if a treaty exemption applies) or successor form. If you are a corporation, that portion of your earnings and profits that is effectively connected with your U.S. trade or business may also be subject to a “branch profits tax” at a 30% rate, unless an applicable income tax treaty provides for a lower rate.

U.S. Federal Estate Tax

If you are an individual and are not a resident of the United States (as specially defined for U.S. federal estate tax purposes) at the time of your death, the notes will not be included in your estate for U.S. federal estate tax purposes provided, at the time of your death, interest on the notes qualifies for the portfolio interest exemption under the rules described above in “—Interest on the Notes” (without regard to the certification requirement necessary to qualify for the portfolio interest exemption).

Information Reporting and Backup Withholding

Payments to you of interest on a note, and amounts withheld from such payments, if any, generally will be required to be reported to the IRS and to you. Copies of the information returns reporting such interest payments and withholding may also be made available to the tax authorities of the country in which you reside under the provisions of a specific treaty or agreement.

U.S. backup withholding generally will not apply to payments to you of interest on a note if the statement described in “—Tax Consequences to Non-U.S. Holders—Interest on the Notes” is duly provided or you otherwise establish an exemption; provided that we do not have actual knowledge or reason to know that you are a United States person.

Payment of the proceeds of a disposition of a note effected by the U.S. office of a U.S. or foreign broker will be subject to information reporting requirements and backup withholding unless you properly certify under penalties of perjury as to your foreign status on Form W-8BEN (or other applicable Form W-8) and certain other conditions are met or you otherwise establish an exemption. Information reporting requirements and backup withholding generally will not apply to any payment of the proceeds of the disposition of a note effected outside the United States by a foreign office of a broker. However, unless such a broker has documentary evidence in its records that you are a non-U.S. holder and certain other conditions are met, or you otherwise establish an exemption, information reporting will apply to a payment of the proceeds of the disposition of a note effected outside the United States by such a broker if it has certain relationships with the United States.

Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amount withheld under the backup withholding rules is allowable as a credit against your U.S. federal income tax liability, if any, and a refund may be obtained if the amounts withheld exceed your actual U.S. federal income tax liability and you timely provide the required information or appropriate claim form to the IRS.

Additional Tax Relating to Net Investment Income

An additional 3.8% tax is imposed on the “net investment income” of certain U.S. citizens and resident aliens and on the undistributed “net investment income” of certain estates and trusts. Among other items, “net investment income” generally includes gross income from interest and net gain from the disposition of property, such as the notes, less certain deductions. You should consult your tax advisor with respect to this additional tax.

THE PRECEDING DISCUSSION OF CERTAIN UNITED STATES FEDERAL INCOME AND ESTATE TAX CONSIDERATIONS IS FOR GENERAL INFORMATION ONLY AND IS NOT TAX ADVICE. WE URGE EACH PROSPECTIVE INVESTOR TO CONSULT ITS OWN TAX ADVISOR REGARDING THE PARTICULAR UNITED STATES FEDERAL, STATE, LOCAL AND FOREIGN TAX CONSEQUENCES OF PURCHASING, HOLDING AND DISPOSING OF OUR NOTES, INCLUDING THE CONSEQUENCES OF ANY PROPOSED CHANGE IN APPLICABLE LAWS.

 

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CERTAIN ERISA CONSIDERATIONS

The following is a summary of certain considerations associated with the purchase of the notes by employee benefit plans that are subject to Title I of the U.S. Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended (“ERISA”), plans, individual retirement accounts and other arrangements that are subject to Section 4975 of the Code or provisions under any other federal, state, local, non-U.S. or other laws or regulations that are similar to such provisions of ERISA or the Code (collectively, “Similar Laws”), and entities whose underlying assets are considered to include “plan assets” of any such plan, account or arrangement (each, a “Plan”).

General Fiduciary Matters

ERISA and the Code impose certain duties on persons who are fiduciaries of a Plan subject to Title I of ERISA or Section 4975 of the Code (an “ERISA Plan”) and prohibit certain transactions involving the assets of an ERISA Plan and its fiduciaries or other interested parties. Under ERISA and the Code, any person who exercises any discretionary authority or control over the administration of such an ERISA Plan or the management or disposition of the assets of such an ERISA Plan, or who renders investment advice for a fee or other compensation to such an ERISA Plan, is generally considered to be a fiduciary of the ERISA Plan.

In considering an investment in the notes of a portion of the assets of any Plan, a fiduciary should determine whether the investment is in accordance with the documents and instruments governing the Plan and the applicable provisions of ERISA, the Code or any Similar Law relating to a fiduciary’s duties to the Plan including, without limitation, the prudence, diversification, delegation of control and prohibited transaction provisions of ERISA, the Code and any other applicable Similar Laws.

Prohibited Transaction Issues

Section 406 of ERISA and Section 4975 of the Code prohibit ERISA Plans from engaging in specified transactions involving plan assets with persons or entities who are “parties in interest,” within the meaning of ERISA, or “disqualified persons,” within the meaning of Section 4975 of the Code, unless an exemption is available. A party in interest or disqualified person who engaged in a non-exempt prohibited transaction may be subject to excise taxes and other penalties and liabilities under ERISA and the Code. In addition, the fiduciary of the ERISA Plan that engaged in such a non-exempt prohibited transaction may be subject to penalties and liabilities under ERISA and the Code. The acquisition and/or holding of notes by an ERISA Plan with respect to which we, an underwriter, or a guarantor is considered a party in interest or a disqualified person may constitute or result in a direct or indirect prohibited transaction under Section 406 of ERISA and/or Section 4975 of the Code, unless the investment is acquired and is held in accordance with an applicable statutory, class or individual prohibited transaction exemption. In this regard, the U.S. Department of Labor has issued prohibited transaction class exemptions, or PTCEs, that may apply to the acquisition and holding of the notes. These class exemptions include, without limitation, PTCE 84-14 respecting transactions determined by independent qualified professional asset managers, PTCE 90-1 respecting insurance company pooled separate accounts, PTCE 91-38 respecting bank collective investment funds, PTCE 95-60 respecting life insurance company general accounts and PTCE 96-23 respecting transactions determined by in-house asset managers. In addition, Section 408(b)(17) of ERISA and Section 4975(d)(20) of the Code provide relief from the prohibited transaction provisions of ERISA and Section 4975 of the Code for certain transactions; provided that neither the issuer of the securities nor any of its affiliates (directly or indirectly) have or exercise any discretionary authority or control or render any investment advice with respect to the assets of any ERISA Plan involved in the transaction and provided further that the ERISA Plan pays no more than adequate consideration in connection with the transaction. There can be no assurance that all of the conditions of any such exemptions will be satisfied.

Because of the foregoing, the notes should not be purchased or held by any person investing “plan assets” of any Plan, unless such purchase and holding will not constitute a non-exempt prohibited transaction under ERISA and the Code or a similar violation of any applicable Similar Laws.

 

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Representation

Accordingly, by acceptance of a note, each purchaser and subsequent transferee of a note will be deemed to have represented and warranted that either (1) no portion of the assets used by such purchaser or transferee to acquire or hold the notes constitutes assets of any Plan or (2) the purchase and holding of the notes by such purchaser or transferee will not constitute a non-exempt prohibited transaction under Section 406 of ERISA or Section 4975 of the Code or a similar violation under any applicable Similar Laws.

The foregoing discussion is general in nature and is not intended to be all inclusive, nor should it be construed as legal advice. Due to the complexity of these rules and the penalties that may be imposed upon persons involved in non-exempt prohibited transactions, it is particularly important that fiduciaries or other persons considering purchasing the notes on behalf of, or with the assets of, any Plan, consult with their counsel regarding the potential applicability of ERISA, Section 4975 of the Code and any Similar Laws to such investment and whether an exemption would be applicable to the purchase and holding of the notes.

 

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UNDERWRITING

Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith Incorporated and Barclays Capital Inc. are acting as representatives of each of the underwriters named below. Subject to the terms and conditions set forth in a firm commitment underwriting agreement among us and the underwriters, we have agreed to sell to the underwriters, and each of the underwriters has agreed, severally and not jointly, to purchase from us, the principal amount of new notes set forth opposite its name below.

 

                            Underwriter    Principal
Amount of
New Notes
 

Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith

  

                      Incorporated

   $ 178,125,000   

Barclays Capital Inc.

     178,125,000   

Wells Fargo Securities, LLC

     19,000,000   

Capital One Securities, Inc.

     13,060,000   

Natixis Securities Americas LLC

     13,060,000   

Scotia Capital (USA) Inc.

     13,060,000   

TD Securities (USA) LLC

     13,060,000   

Tudor, Pickering, Holt & Co. Securities, Inc.

     13,060,000   

U.S. Bancorp Investments, Inc.

     13,060,000   

Global Hunter Securities, LLC

     7,130,000   

IBERIA Capital Partners L.L.C.

     7,130,000   

SMBC Nikko Securities America, Inc.

     7,130,000   
  

 

 

 

                     Total

   $ 475,000,000   
  

 

 

 

Subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the underwriting agreement, the underwriters have agreed, severally and not jointly, to purchase all of the new notes sold under the underwriting agreement if any of these notes are purchased. If an underwriter defaults, the underwriting agreement provides that the purchase commitments of the nondefaulting underwriters may be increased or the underwriting agreement may be terminated.

We have agreed to indemnify the underwriters and their controlling persons against certain liabilities in connection with this offering, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or to contribute to payments the underwriters may be required to make in respect of those liabilities.

The underwriters are offering the new notes, subject to prior sale, when, as and if issued to and accepted by them, subject to approval of legal matters by their counsel, including the validity of the new notes, and other conditions contained in the underwriting agreement, such as the receipt by the underwriters of officer’s certificates and legal opinions. The underwriters reserve the right to withdraw, cancel or modify offers to the public and to reject orders in whole or in part.

Commissions and Discounts

The representatives have advised us that the underwriters propose initially to offer the new notes to the public at the public offering price set forth on the cover page of this prospectus supplement. After the initial offering, the public offering price or any other term of the offering may be changed.

The expenses of the offering, not including the underwriting discount, are estimated at $810,000 and are payable by us.

 

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New Issue of Notes

The new notes will be fungible with the original notes for trading purposes from the time of issue, but there is currently no active trading market for the original notes. We do not intend to apply for listing of the notes on any national securities exchange or for inclusion of the notes on any automated dealer quotation system. We have been advised by the underwriters that they presently intend to continue making a market in the notes. However, they are under no obligation to do so and may discontinue any market-making activities at any time without any notice. We can not assure the liquidity of the trading market for the notes or that an active public market for the notes will develop. In the absence of an active public market for the notes, the market price and liquidity of the notes may be adversely affected. If the notes are traded, they may trade at a discount from their initial offering price, depending on prevailing interest rates, the market for similar securities, our operating performance and financial condition, general economic conditions and other factors.

Settlement

We expect that delivery of the new notes will be made to investors on or about November 27, 2013, which will be the tenth business day following the date of this prospectus supplement (such settlement being referred to as “T+10”). Under Rule 15c6-1 under the Exchange Act, trades in the secondary market are required to settle in three business days, unless the parties to any such trade expressly agree otherwise. Accordingly, purchasers who wish to trade notes prior to the delivery of the notes hereunder will be required, by virtue of the fact that the notes initially settle in T+10, to specify an alternate settlement arrangement at the time of any such trade to prevent a failed settlement. Purchasers of the notes who wish to trade the notes prior to their date of delivery hereunder should consult their advisors.

No Sales of Similar Securities

We have agreed that, for a period of 60 days following the date of the prospectus supplement, we will not, without the prior written consent of Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith Incorporated (which consent may be withheld at the sole discretion of Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith Incorporated), directly or indirectly, sell, offer, contract or grant any option to sell, pledge, transfer or establish an open “put equivalent position” within the meaning of Rule 16a-1 under the Exchange Act or otherwise dispose of or transfer, or announce the offering of, or file any registration statement under the Securities Act in respect of, any of our debt securities or securities exchangeable for or convertible into our debt securities (other than as contemplated by the underwriting agreement).

Short Positions

In connection with the offering, the underwriters may purchase and sell the notes in the open market. These transactions may include short sales and purchases on the open market to cover positions created by short sales. Short sales involve the sale by the underwriters of a greater principal amount of notes than they are required to purchase in the offering. The underwriters must close out any short position by purchasing notes in the open market. A short position is more likely to be created if the underwriters are concerned that there may be downward pressure on the price of the notes in the open market after pricing that could adversely affect investors who purchase in the offering.

 

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Similar to other purchase transactions, the underwriters’ purchases to cover the syndicate short sales may have the effect of raising or maintaining the market price of the notes or preventing or retarding a decline in the market price of the notes. As a result, the price of the notes may be higher than the price that might otherwise exist in the open market.

Neither we nor any of the underwriters makes any representation or prediction as to the direction or magnitude of any effect that the transactions described above may have on the price of the notes. In addition, neither we nor any of the underwriters make any representation that the representatives will engage in these transactions or that these transactions, once commenced, will not be discontinued without notice.

Other Relationships

Certain of the underwriters and their affiliates have engaged, and may in the future engage, in commercial banking, financial advisory, investment banking and other services with us or our affiliates in the ordinary course of their business for which they have received, or may in the future receive, customary fees and commissions. In addition, affiliates of nearly all of the underwriters are lenders under our bank credit facility, and Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith Incorporated is acting as the dealer manager and solicitation agent of our pending tender offer and consent solicitation for the 2017 Notes. In addition, certain of the underwriters and their affiliates are holders of the 2017 Notes, and accordingly, may receive a portion of the proceeds of this offering in the pending tender offer and consent solicitation for the 2017 Notes or the redemption of any of the 2017 Notes not acquired in the tender offer.

In addition, in the ordinary course of their business activities, the underwriters and their affiliates may make or hold a broad array of investments and actively trade debt and equity securities (or related derivative securities) and financial instruments (including bank loans) for their own account and for the accounts of their customers. Such investments and securities activities may involve securities and/or instruments of ours or our affiliates. Certain of the underwriters or their affiliates that have a lending relationship with us routinely hedge, and certain other of the underwriters or their affiliates may hedge, their credit exposure to us consistent with their customary risk management policies. Typically, such underwriters and their affiliates would hedge such exposure by entering into transactions that consist of either the purchase of credit default swaps or the creation of short positions in our securities, including potentially the notes offered hereby. Any such credit default swaps or short positions could adversely affect future trading prices of the notes offered hereby. The underwriters and their affiliates may also make investment recommendations and/or publish or express independent research views in respect of such securities or financial instruments and may hold, or recommend to clients that they acquire, long and/or short positions in such securities and instruments.

David H. Welch, our President, Chief Executive Officer and a member of our board of directors, also serves on the board of directors of IBERIABANK, of which IBERIA Capital Partners L.L.C. is an affiliate. Donald E. Powell serves on the board of directors of Bank of America Corporation, an affiliate of Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith Incorporated. Mr. Powell also serves as a member of our board of directors.

Notice to Prospective Investors in the European Economic Area

In relation to each Member State of the European Economic Area that has implemented the Prospectus Directive (each, a “Relevant Member State”), with effect from and including the date on which the Prospectus Directive is implemented in that Relevant Member State (the “Relevant Implementation Date”) no offer of notes may be made to the public in that Relevant Member State other than:

 

  (1) to any legal entity that is a qualified investor as defined in the Prospectus Directive;

 

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  (2) to fewer than 100 or, if the Relevant Member State has implemented the relevant provision of the 2010 PD Amending Directive, 150, natural or legal persons (other than qualified investors as defined in the Prospectus Directive), as permitted under the Prospectus Directive, subject to obtaining the prior consent of the representatives; or

 

  (3) in any other circumstances falling within Article 3(2) of the Prospectus Directive,

provided that no such offer of notes shall require the Company or the representatives to publish a prospectus pursuant to Article 3 of the Prospectus Directive or supplement a prospectus pursuant to Article 16 of the Prospectus Directive.

This prospectus has been prepared on the basis that any offer of notes in any Relevant Member State will be made pursuant to an exemption under the Prospectus Directive from the requirement to publish a prospectus for offers of notes. Accordingly any person making or intending to make an offer in that Relevant Member State of notes that are the subject of the offering contemplated in this prospectus may only do so in circumstances in which no obligation arises for the Company or any of the underwriters to publish a prospectus pursuant to Article 3 of the Prospectus Directive in relation to such offer. Neither the Company nor the underwriters have authorized, nor do they authorize, the making of any offer of notes in circumstances in which an obligation arises for the Company or the underwriters to publish a prospectus for such offer.

For the purpose of the above provisions, the expression “an offer to the public” in relation to any notes in any Relevant Member State means the communication in any form and by any means of sufficient information on the terms of the offer and the notes to be offered so as to enable an investor to decide to purchase or subscribe for the notes, as the same may be varied in the Relevant Member State by any measure implementing the Prospectus Directive in the Relevant Member State and the expression “Prospectus Directive” means Directive 2003/71/EC (including the 2010 PD Amending Directive, to the extent implemented in the Relevant Member States) and includes any relevant implementing measure in the Relevant Member State and the expression “2010 PD Amending Directive” means Directive 2010/73/EU.

Notice to Prospective Investors in the United Kingdom

In addition, in the United Kingdom, this document is being distributed only to, and is directed only at, and any offer subsequently made may only be directed at persons who are “qualified investors” (as defined in the Prospectus Directive) (1) who have professional experience in matters relating to investments falling within Article 19(5) of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 (Financial Promotion) Order 2005, as amended (the “Order”), and/or (2) who are high net worth companies (or persons to whom it may otherwise be lawfully communicated) falling within Article 49(2)(a) to (d) of the Order (all such persons together being referred to as “relevant persons”). This document must not be acted on or relied on in the United Kingdom by persons who are not relevant persons. In the United Kingdom, any investment or investment activity to which this document relates is only available to, and will be engaged in with, relevant persons.

Notice to Prospective Investors in Switzerland

This prospectus supplement does not constitute an issue prospectus pursuant to Article 652a or Article 1156 of the Swiss Code of Obligations and the notes will not be listed on the SIX Swiss Exchange. Therefore, this prospectus supplement may not comply with the disclosure standards of the listing rules (including any additional listing rules or prospectus schemes) of the SIX Swiss Exchange. Accordingly, the notes may not be offered to the public in or from Switzerland, but only to a selected and limited circle of investors who do not subscribe to the notes with a view to distribution. Any such investors will be individually approached by the underwriters from time to time.

 

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Notice to Prospective Investors in the Dubai International Financial Centre

This prospectus supplement relates to an Exempt Offer in accordance with the Offered Securities Rules of the Dubai Financial Services Authority (“DFSA”). This prospectus supplement is intended for distribution only to persons of a type specified in the Offered Securities Rules of the DFSA. It must not be delivered to, or relied on by, any other person. The DFSA has no responsibility for reviewing or verifying any documents in connection with Exempt Offers. The DFSA has not approved this prospectus supplement nor taken steps to verify the information set forth herein and has no responsibility for the prospectus supplement. The notes to which this prospectus supplement relates may be illiquid and/or subject to restrictions on their resale. Prospective purchasers of the notes offered should conduct their own due diligence on the notes. If you do not understand the contents of this prospectus supplement you should consult an authorized financial advisor.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

The validity of the issuance of the notes offered by this prospectus will be passed upon for us by Vinson & Elkins L.L.P. The underwriters are being represented by Baker Botts L.L.P.

EXPERTS

The consolidated financial statements of Stone Energy Corporation appearing in Stone Energy Corporation’s Annual Report (Form 10-K) for the year ended December 31, 2012, and the effectiveness of Stone Energy Corporation’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2012, have been audited by Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, as set forth in their reports thereon, included therein, and incorporated herein by reference. Such consolidated financial statements are incorporated herein by reference in reliance upon such reports given on the authority of such firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

Certain information with respect to the oil and gas reserves associated with Stone Energy Corporation’s oil and natural gas properties is derived from the reports of Netherland, Sewell & Associates, Inc., an independent petroleum consulting firm, and has been included in this document upon the authority of said firm as an expert with respect to such matters covered by such report and in giving such report.

 

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PROSPECTUS

 

LOGO

STONE ENERGY CORPORATION

STONE ENERGY OFFSHORE, L.L.C., as Guarantor

Debt Securities

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Warrants

Guarantees of Debt Securities

Rights

Units

Depositary Shares

Stone Energy Corporation (“Stone,” “we,” “us,” or “our”) may offer and sell from time to time, in one or more series, in one or more transactions, the following securities under this prospectus:

 

   

debt securities;

 

   

common stock, $0.01 par value;

 

   

preferred stock, $0.01 par value;

 

   

warrants to purchase any of the other securities that may be sold under this prospectus;

 

   

unsecured guarantees of debt securities;

 

   

rights to purchase common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities;

 

   

depositary shares; and

 

   

units consisting of one or more of these classes of securities.

One or more of our subsidiaries, including Stone Energy Offshore, L.L.C., a Delaware limited liability company (“Stone Offshore”), may fully and unconditionally guarantee the debt securities we issue.

This prospectus describes the general terms of the offered securities and the general manner in which we will offer the securities. We will provide specific terms of any offering in supplements to this prospectus. The prospectus supplement will contain more specific information about the offering and the terms of the securities being offered, including any guarantees by our subsidiaries. A prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. The securities may be offered separately or together in any combination and as separate series. You should read this prospectus and any supplement carefully before you make your investment decision.

We may sell securities in and outside the United States through underwriters or dealers, directly to purchasers, including our affiliates and stockholders, in a rights offering, through agents or through a combination of any of these methods. If we use agents, underwriters or dealers to sell the securities, we will name them and describe their compensation in a prospectus supplement. The net proceeds we expect to receive from these sales will be described in the prospectus supplement.

The securities offered in this prospectus involve a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the matters set forth in “Risk Factors” on page 6 of this prospectus, in any prospectus supplement or incorporated by reference herein or therein in determining whether to purchase our securities.

Our common stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) under the trading symbol “SGY.”

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

The date of this prospectus is October 22, 2012


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

About This Prospectus

     1   

Where You Can Find More Information

     2   

Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

     3   

The Company

     5   

The Subsidiary Guarantors

     5   

Risk Factors

     6   

Ratio of Earnings to Fixed Charges

     6   

Use of Proceeds

     6   

Description of Debt Securities

     7   

Description of Capital Stock

     19   

Description of Warrants

     24   

Description of Rights

     26   

Description of Units

     27   

Description of Depositary Shares

     28   

Plan of Distribution

     30   

Legal Matters

     32   

Experts

     32   

You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement and the documents we have incorporated by reference. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different information. We are not making an offer of these securities in any state where the offer is not permitted. You should not assume that the information contained in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement, as well as the information we previously filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission that is incorporated by reference herein, is accurate as of any date other than its respective date.


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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we have filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities that we may offer. Each time we sell securities we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain specific information about the terms of that offering and the offered securities. A prospectus supplement may also add to, update or change information in this prospectus. Any statement that we make in this prospectus will be modified or superseded by any inconsistent statement made by us in a prospectus supplement. You should read both this prospectus and any prospectus supplement together with additional information incorporated by reference in this prospectus before making an investment in our securities. See “Where You Can Find More Information” for more information. We may use this prospectus to sell securities only if it is accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

You should not assume that the information in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement or any document incorporated by reference is accurate as of any date other than the date of such document.

 

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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We file annual, quarterly and special reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public over the Internet at the SEC’s web site at http://www.sec.gov and at our website at http://www.stoneenergy.com. You may also read and copy any document we file at the SEC’s public reference room at 100 F Street N.W., Washington, D.C. 20549. Please call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for further information on the public reference room and its copy charges.

We are incorporating by reference the information we file with the SEC, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents. The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus and any prospectus supplement, and information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede this information. We incorporate by reference the documents listed below and any future filings made with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14, or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”) (excluding any information furnished pursuant to Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 on any Current Report on Form 8-K).

 

   

Annual Report filed on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2011;

 

   

Quarterly Reports filed on Form 10-Q for the quarters ended March 31, 2012 and June 30, 2012;

 

   

Current Reports on Form 8-K or Form 8-K/A filed on January 20, 2012, February 17, 2012, February 27, 2012, March 5, 2012, March 6, 2012 and May 25, 2012; and

 

   

Description of Stone’s capital stock contained in Stone’s registration statement on Form 8-A filed on June 11, 1993.

All future documents filed pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 and 15(d) of the Exchange Act (excluding any information furnished pursuant to Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 on any Current Report on Form 8-K) before the termination of each offering under this prospectus shall be deemed to be incorporated in this prospectus by reference and to be a part hereof from the date of filing of such documents. Any statement contained in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference herein shall be deemed to be modified or superseded for all purposes to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement or in any other subsequently filed document which is also incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference, modifies or supersedes such statement. Any statement so modified or superseded shall not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus or any prospectus supplement. You may request a copy of any of the documents summarized in this prospectus or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement, at no cost, by writing or telephoning us at the following address and phone number:

Ms. Lisa S. Jaubert

Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary

Stone Energy Corporation

625 E. Kaliste Saloom Road

Lafayette, Louisiana 70508

(337) 237-0410

 

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CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

The information in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement and in the documents incorporated by reference includes “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Exchange Act. All statements, other than statements of historical or current facts, that address activities, events, outcomes and other matters that we plan, expect, intend, assume, believe, budget, predict, forecast, project, estimate or anticipate (and other similar expressions) will, should or may occur in the future are forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements are based on management’s current belief, based on currently available information, as to the outcome and timing of future events. When considering forward-looking statements, you should keep in mind the risk factors and other cautionary statements in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement and in the documents incorporated by reference.

Forward-looking statements appear in a number of places and include statements with respect to, among other things:

 

   

any expected results or benefits associated with our acquisitions;

 

   

estimates of our future oil and natural gas production, including estimates of any increases in oil and gas production;

 

   

planned capital expenditures and the availability of capital resources to fund capital expenditures;

 

   

our outlook on oil and gas prices;

 

   

estimates of our oil and gas reserves;

 

   

any estimates of future earnings growth;

 

   

the impact of political and regulatory developments;

 

   

our outlook on the resolution of pending litigation and government inquiry;

 

   

estimates of the impact of new accounting pronouncements on earnings in future periods;

 

   

our future financial condition or results of operations and our future revenue and expenses;

 

   

our access to capital and our anticipated liquidity;

 

   

estimates of future income taxes; and

 

   

our business strategy and other plans and objectives for future operations.

We caution you that these forward-looking statements are subject to all of the risks and uncertainties, many of which are beyond our control, incident to the exploration for and development, production and marketing of oil and natural gas. These risks include, among other things:

 

   

commodity price volatility;

 

   

domestic and worldwide economic conditions;

 

   

the availability of capital on economic terms to fund our capital expenditures and acquisitions;

 

   

our level of indebtedness;

 

   

declines in the value of our oil and gas properties resulting in a decrease in our borrowing base under our bank credit facility and ceiling test write-downs and impairments;

 

   

our ability to replace and sustain production;

 

   

the impact of a financial crisis on our business operations, financial condition and ability to raise capital;

 

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the ability of financial counterparties to perform or fulfill their obligations under existing agreements;

 

   

third party interruption of sales to market;

 

   

inflation;

 

   

lack of availability and cost of goods and services;

 

   

regulatory and environmental risks associated with drilling and production activities;

 

   

drilling and other operating risks;

 

   

unsuccessful exploration and development drilling activities;

 

   

hurricanes and other weather conditions;

 

   

the adverse effects of changes in applicable tax, environmental, derivatives and other regulatory legislation, including changes affecting our offshore and Appalachian operations;

 

   

consequences of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill and resulting stringent regulatory requirements;

 

   

the uncertainty inherent in estimating proved oil and natural gas reserves and in projecting future rates of production and timing of development expenditures; and

 

   

the other risks described in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement and the documents incorporated by reference.

Should one or more of the risks or uncertainties described above or elsewhere in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement or in the documents incorporated by reference herein occur, or should underlying assumptions prove incorrect, our actual results and plans could differ materially from those expressed in any forward-looking statements. We specifically disclaim all responsibility to publicly update any information contained in a forward-looking statement or any forward-looking statement in its entirety and therefore disclaim any resulting liability for potentially related damages, except as required by law.

All forward-looking statements attributable to us are expressly qualified in their entirety by this cautionary statement.

In addition, reserve engineering is a subjective process of estimating underground accumulations of oil and natural gas that cannot be measured in an exact way. The accuracy of any reserve estimate depends on the quality of available data and the interpretation of that data by geological engineers. In addition, the results of drilling, testing and production activities may justify revisions of estimates that were made previously. If significant, these revisions would change the schedule of any further production and development drilling. Accordingly, reserve estimates are generally different from the quantities of oil and natural gas that are ultimately recovered.

 

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THE COMPANY

We are an independent oil and natural gas company engaged in the acquisition, exploration, exploitation, development and operation of oil and gas properties. We have been operating in the Gulf Coast Basin since our incorporation in 1993 and have established a technical and operational expertise in this area. We have expanded our reserve base outside of the conventional shelf of the Gulf of Mexico (“GOM”) and into the more prolific reserve basins of the GOM deep water and Gulf Coast deep gas, as well as onshore oil and gas shale opportunities, including the Marcellus shale in Appalachia. As of December 31, 2011, our estimated proved oil and natural gas reserves were approximately 100 million barrel equivalent or 602 billion cubic feet equivalent.

We were incorporated in 1993 as a Delaware corporation. Our corporate headquarters is located at 625 E. Kaliste Saloom Road, Lafayette, Louisiana 70508, and our telephone number is (337) 237-0410. We have additional offices in New Orleans, Louisiana, Houston, Texas and Morgantown, West Virginia. Our Internet website is located at http://www.stoneenergy.com. We have not incorporated by reference into this prospectus the information included on, or linked from, our website, and you should not consider it to be part of this prospectus.

THE SUBSIDIARY GUARANTORS

Certain of our subsidiaries, which we refer to as the “Subsidiary Guarantors” in this prospectus, may fully and unconditionally guarantee our payment obligations under any series of debt securities offered by this prospectus. As of the date of this prospectus, our only subsidiary is Stone Energy Offshore, L.L.C. Financial information concerning our Subsidiary Guarantors and any non-guarantor subsidiaries will be included in our consolidated financial statements filed as part of our periodic reports filed pursuant to the Exchange Act to the extent required by the rules and regulations of the SEC.

Additional information concerning our subsidiaries and us is included in reports and other documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus. See “Where You Can Find More Information.”

 

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RISK FACTORS

An investment in our securities involves a significant degree of risk. Before you invest in our securities you should carefully consider those risk factors included in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K , any subsequently filed Quarterly Reports on From 10-Q and any subsequently filed Current Reports on Form 8-K, which are incorporated herein by reference, and those risk factors that may be included in any applicable prospectus supplement, together with all of the other information included in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement and the documents we incorporate by reference, in evaluating an investment in our securities. If any of the risks discussed in the foregoing documents were to occur, our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be materially adversely affected. Also, please read “Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”

RATIO OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES

The following table sets forth our ratio of consolidated earnings to fixed charges for the periods presented:

 

     Year Ended December 31,      Six Months
Ended
June 30,
2012
 
     2007      2008     2009     2010      2011     

Ratio of earnings to fixed charges

     6.3x           (a)        (b)      3.8         6.1         4.5   

 

(a) Earnings for the year ended December 31, 2008 were insufficient to cover fixed charges in the amount of $1,542.6 million.
(b) Earnings for the year ended December 31, 2009 were insufficient to cover fixed charges in the amount of $360.4 million.

For purposes of calculating the ratio of consolidated earnings to fixed charges:

 

   

“earnings” is the aggregate of the following items: pre-tax income or loss from continuing operations before income or loss from equity investees; plus fixed charges; plus amortization of capitalized interest; plus distributed income of equity investees; less our share of pre-tax losses of equity investees for which charges arising from guarantees are included in fixed charges; less capitalized interest; less preference security dividend requirements of consolidated subsidiaries; and less the minority interest in pre-tax income of subsidiaries that have not incurred fixed charges; and

 

   

“fixed charges” means the sum of the following: interest expensed and capitalized; amortized premiums, discounts and capitalized expenses related to indebtedness; an estimate of the interest within rental expense; and preference security dividend requirements of consolidated subsidiaries.

 

   

“preference security dividend” means the amount of pre-tax earnings that is required to pay the dividends on outstanding preference securities.

We did not have any preferred stock outstanding and there were no preferred stock dividends paid or accrued during the periods presented above.

USE OF PROCEEDS

Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the securities offered by this prospectus and any prospectus supplement for our general corporate purposes, which may include repayment of indebtedness, the financing of capital expenditures, future acquisitions and additions to our working capital.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

The Debt Securities will be either our senior debt securities (“Senior Debt Securities”) or our subordinated debt securities (“Subordinated Debt Securities”). The Senior Debt Securities will be issued under the indenture, dated as of January 26, 2010 (the “Senior Indenture”), among us, the Subsidiary Guarantor and The Bank of New York Mellon Trust Company, N.A., as trustee (the “Senior Indenture Trustee”). The Subordinated Debt Securities will be issued under a separate indenture (the “Subordinated Indenture”) among us, the Subsidiary Guarantors of such Debt Securities, if any, and a trustee to be determined (the “Subordinated Indenture Trustee”). Together, the Senior Indenture and the Subordinated Indenture, as each may be supplemented to create a series of Debt Securities, are called “Indentures,” and the Senior Indenture Trustee and the Subordinated Indenture Trustee are called “Trustees.”

The Debt Securities may be issued from time to time in one or more series. The particular terms of each series that are offered by a prospectus supplement will be described in the prospectus supplement.

Unless the Debt Securities are guaranteed by our subsidiaries as described below, the rights of Stone and our creditors, including holders of the Debt Securities, to participate in the assets of any subsidiary upon the latter’s liquidation or reorganization, will be subject to the prior claims of the subsidiary’s creditors, except to the extent that we may ourself be a creditor with recognized claims against such subsidiary.

We have summarized selected provisions of the Indentures below. The summary is not complete. The form of each Indenture has been filed with the SEC as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and you should read the Indentures for provisions that may be important to you. Capitalized terms used in the summary have the meanings specified in the Indentures.

General

The Indentures provide that Debt Securities in separate series may be issued thereunder from time to time without limitation as to aggregate principal amount. We may specify a maximum aggregate principal amount for the Debt Securities of any series. We will determine the terms and conditions of the Debt Securities, including the maturity, principal and interest, but those terms must be consistent with the Indenture. The Debt Securities will be our unsecured obligations.

The Subordinated Debt Securities will be subordinated in right of payment to the prior payment in full of all of our Senior Debt (as defined) as described under “— Subordination of Subordinated Debt Securities” and in the prospectus supplement applicable to any Subordinated Debt Securities. If the prospectus supplement so indicates, the Debt Securities will be convertible into our common stock.

If specified in the prospectus supplement respecting a particular series of Debt Securities, one or more subsidiary guarantors, including Stone Energy Offshore, L.L.C. (each a “Subsidiary Guarantor”), will fully and unconditionally guarantee (the “Subsidiary Guarantee”) that series as described under “— Subsidiary Guarantee” and in the prospectus supplement. Each Subsidiary Guarantee will be an unsecured obligation of the Subsidiary Guarantor. A Subsidiary Guarantee of Subordinated Debt Securities will be subordinated to the Senior Debt of the Subsidiary Guarantor on the same basis as the Subordinated Debt Securities are subordinated to our Senior Debt.

The applicable prospectus supplement will set forth the price or prices at which the Debt Securities to be issued will be offered for sale and will describe the following terms of such Debt Securities:

(1) the title of the Debt Securities;

(2) whether the Debt Securities are Senior Debt Securities or Subordinated Debt Securities and, if Subordinated Debt Securities, the related subordination terms;

 

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(3) whether any Subsidiary Guarantor will provide a Subsidiary Guarantee of the Debt Securities;

(4) any limit on the aggregate principal amount of the Debt Securities;

(5) each date on which the principal of the Debt Securities will be payable;

(6) the interest rate that the Debt Securities will bear and the interest payment dates for the Debt Securities;

(7) each place where payments on the Debt Securities will be payable;

(8) any terms upon which the Debt Securities may be redeemed, in whole or in part, at our option;

(9) any sinking fund or other provisions that would obligate us to redeem or otherwise repurchase the Debt Securities;

(10) the portion of the principal amount, if less than all, of the Debt Securities that will be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the Maturity of the Debt Securities;

(11) whether the Debt Securities are defeasible;

(12) any addition to or change in the Events of Default;

(13) whether the Debt Securities are convertible into our common stock and, if so, the terms and conditions upon which conversion will be effected, including the initial conversion price or conversion rate and any adjustments thereto and the conversion period;

(14) any addition to or change in the covenants in the Indenture applicable to the Debt Securities; and

(15) any other terms of the Debt Securities not inconsistent with the provisions of the Indenture.

Debt Securities, including any Debt Securities that provide for an amount less than the principal amount thereof to be due and payable upon a declaration of acceleration of the Maturity thereof (“Original Issue Discount Securities”), may be sold at a substantial discount below their principal amount. Special United States federal income tax considerations applicable to Debt Securities sold at an original issue discount may be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. In addition, special United States federal income tax or other considerations applicable to any Debt Securities that are denominated in a currency or currency unit other than United States dollars may be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Subordination of Subordinated Debt Securities

The indebtedness evidenced by the Subordinated Debt Securities will, to the extent set forth in the Subordinated Indenture with respect to each series of Subordinated Debt Securities, be subordinate in right of payment to the prior payment in full of all of our Senior Debt, including the Senior Debt Securities, and it may also be senior in right of payment to all of our Subordinated Debt. The prospectus supplement relating to any Subordinated Debt Securities will summarize the subordination provisions of the Subordinated Indenture applicable to that series including:

 

   

the applicability and effect of such provisions upon any payment or distribution respecting that series following any liquidation, dissolution or other winding-up, or any assignment for the benefit of creditors or other marshalling of assets or any bankruptcy, insolvency or similar proceedings;

 

   

the applicability and effect of such provisions in the event of specified defaults with respect to any Senior Debt, including the circumstances under which and the periods during which we will be prohibited from making payments on the Subordinated Debt Securities; and

 

   

the definition of Senior Debt applicable to the Subordinated Debt Securities of that series and, if the series is issued on a senior subordinated basis, the definition of Subordinated Debt applicable to that series.

The prospectus supplement will also describe as of a recent date the approximate amount of Senior Debt to which the Subordinated Debt Securities of that series will be subordinated.

 

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The failure to make any payment on any of the Subordinated Debt Securities by reason of the subordination provisions of the Subordinated Indenture described in the prospectus supplement will not be construed as preventing the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to the Subordinated Debt Securities arising from any such failure to make payment.

The subordination provisions described above will not be applicable to payments in respect of the Subordinated Debt Securities from a defeasance trust established in connection with any legal defeasance or covenant defeasance of the Subordinated Debt Securities as described under “— Legal Defeasance and Covenant Defeasance.”

Subsidiary Guarantee

If specified in the prospectus supplement, one or more of the Subsidiary Guarantors will guarantee the Debt Securities of a series. Unless otherwise indicated in the prospectus supplement, the following provisions will apply to the Subsidiary Guarantee of the Subsidiary Guarantor.

Subject to the limitations described below and in the prospectus supplement, one or more of the Subsidiary Guarantors will jointly and severally, fully and unconditionally guarantee the punctual payment when due, whether at Stated Maturity, by acceleration or otherwise, of all our payment obligations under the Indentures and the Debt Securities of a series, whether for principal of, premium, if any, or interest on the Debt Securities or otherwise (all such obligations guaranteed by a Subsidiary Guarantor being herein called the “Guaranteed Obligations”). The Subsidiary Guarantors will also pay all expenses (including reasonable counsel fees and expenses) incurred by the applicable Trustee in enforcing any rights under a Subsidiary Guarantee with respect to a Subsidiary Guarantor.

In the case of Subordinated Debt Securities, a Subsidiary Guarantor’s Subsidiary Guarantee will be subordinated in right of payment to the Senior Debt of such Subsidiary Guarantor on the same basis as the Subordinated Debt Securities are subordinated to our Senior Debt. No payment will be made by any Subsidiary Guarantor under its Subsidiary Guarantee during any period in which payments by us on the Subordinated Debt Securities are suspended by the subordination provisions of the Subordinated Indenture.

Each Subsidiary Guarantee will be limited in amount to an amount not to exceed the maximum amount that can be guaranteed by the Subsidiary Guarantor without rendering such Subsidiary Guarantee voidable under applicable law relating to fraudulent conveyance or fraudulent transfer or similar laws affecting the rights of creditors generally.

Each Subsidiary Guarantee will be a continuing guarantee and will:

(1) remain in full force and effect until either (a) payment in full of all the applicable Debt Securities (or such Debt Securities are otherwise satisfied and discharged in accordance with the provisions of the applicable Indenture) or (b) released as described in the following paragraph;

(2) be binding upon each Subsidiary Guarantor; and

(3) inure to the benefit of and be enforceable by the applicable Trustee, the Holders and their successors, transferees and assigns.

In the event that (a) a Subsidiary Guarantor ceases to be a Subsidiary, (b) either legal defeasance or covenant defeasance occurs with respect to the series or (c) all or substantially all of the assets or all of the Capital Stock of such Subsidiary Guarantor is sold, including by way of sale, merger, consolidation or otherwise, such Subsidiary Guarantor will be released and discharged of its obligations under its Subsidiary Guarantee without any further action required on the part of the applicable Trustee or any Holder, and no other person acquiring or owning the assets or Capital Stock of such Subsidiary Guarantor will be required to enter into a Subsidiary Guarantee. In addition, the prospectus supplement may specify additional circumstances under which a Subsidiary Guarantor can be released from its Subsidiary Guarantee.

 

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Form, Exchange and Transfer

The Debt Securities of each series will be issuable only in fully registered form, without coupons, and, unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, only in denominations of $1,000 and integral multiples thereof.

At the option of the Holder, subject to the terms of the applicable Indenture and the limitations applicable to Global Securities, Debt Securities of each series will be exchangeable for other Debt Securities of the same series of any authorized denomination and of a like tenor and aggregate principal amount.

Subject to the terms of the applicable Indenture and the limitations applicable to Global Securities, Debt Securities may be presented for exchange as provided above or for registration of transfer (duly endorsed or with the form of transfer endorsed thereon duly executed) at the office of the Security Registrar or at the office of any transfer agent designated by us for such purpose. No service charge will be made for any registration of transfer or exchange of Debt Securities, but we may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge payable in that connection. Such transfer or exchange will be effected upon the Security Registrar or such transfer agent, as the case may be, being satisfied with the documents of title and identity of the person making the request. The Security Registrar and any other transfer agent initially designated by us for any Debt Securities will be named in the applicable prospectus supplement. We may at any time designate additional transfer agents or rescind the designation of any transfer agent or approve a change in the office through which any transfer agent acts, except that we will be required to maintain a transfer agent in each Place of Payment for the Debt Securities of each series.

If the Debt Securities of any series (or of any series and specified tenor) are to be redeemed in part, we will not be required to (1) issue, register the transfer of or exchange any Debt Security of that series (or of that series and specified tenor, as the case may be) during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of mailing of a notice of redemption of any such Debt Security that may be selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of such mailing or (2) register the transfer of or exchange any Debt Security so selected for redemption, in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of any such Debt Security being redeemed in part.

Global Securities

Some or all of the Debt Securities of any series may be represented, in whole or in part, by one or more Global Securities that will have an aggregate principal amount equal to that of the Debt Securities they represent. Each Global Security will be registered in the name of a Depositary or its nominee identified in the applicable prospectus supplement, will be deposited with such Depositary or nominee or its custodian and will bear a legend regarding the restrictions on exchanges and registration of transfer thereof referred to below and any such other matters as may be provided for pursuant to the applicable Indenture.

Notwithstanding any provision of the Indentures or any Debt Security described in this prospectus, no Global Security may be exchanged in whole or in part for Debt Securities registered, and no transfer of a Global Security in whole or in part may be registered, in the name of any Person other than the Depositary for such Global Security or any nominee of such Depositary unless:

(1) the Depositary has notified us that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for such Global Security or has ceased to be qualified to act as such as required by the applicable Indenture, and in either case we fail to appoint a successor Depositary within 90 days;

(2) an Event of Default with respect to the Debt Securities represented by such Global Security has occurred and is continuing and the applicable Trustee has received a written request from the Depositary to issue certificated Debt Securities; or

(3) other circumstances exist, in addition to or in lieu of those described above, as may be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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All certificated Debt Securities issued in exchange for a Global Security or any portion thereof will be registered in such names as the Depositary may direct.

As long as the Depositary, or its nominee, is the registered holder of a Global Security, the Depositary or such nominee, as the case may be, will be considered the sole owner and Holder of such Global Security and the Debt Securities that it represents for all purposes under the Debt Securities and the applicable Indenture. Except in the limited circumstances referred to above, owners of beneficial interests in a Global Security will not be entitled to have such Global Security or any Debt Securities that it represents registered in their names, will not receive or be entitled to receive physical delivery of certificated Debt Securities in exchange for those interests and will not be considered to be the owners or Holders of such Global Security or any Debt Securities that is represents for any purpose under the Debt Securities or the applicable Indenture. All payments on a Global Security will be made to the Depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, as the Holder of the security. The laws of some jurisdictions may require that some purchasers of Debt Securities take physical delivery of such Debt Securities in certificated form. These laws may impair the ability to transfer beneficial interests in a Global Security.

Ownership of beneficial interests in a Global Security will be limited to institutions that have accounts with the Depositary or its nominee (“participants”) and to persons that may hold beneficial interests through participants. In connection with the issuance of any Global Security, the Depositary will credit, on its book-entry registration and transfer system, the respective principal amounts of Debt Securities represented by the Global Security to the accounts of its participants. Ownership of beneficial interests in a Global Security will be shown only on, and the transfer of those ownership interests will be effected only through, records maintained by the Depositary (with respect to participants’ interests) or any such participant (with respect to interests of Persons held by such participants on their behalf). Payments, transfers, exchanges and other matters relating to beneficial interests in a Global Security may be subject to various policies and procedures adopted by the Depositary from time to time. None of us, the Subsidiary Guarantors, the Trustees or the agents of us, the Subsidiary Guarantors or the Trustees will have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the Depositary’s or any participant’s records relating to, or for payments made on account of, beneficial interests in a Global Security, or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to such beneficial interests.

Payment and Paying Agents

Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, payment of interest on a Debt Security on any Interest Payment Date will be made to the Person in whose name such Debt Security (or one or more Predecessor Securities) is registered at the close of business on the Regular Record Date for such interest.

Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, principal of and any premium and interest on the Debt Securities of a particular series will be payable at the office of such Paying Agent or Paying Agents as we may designate for such purpose from time to time, except that at our option payment of any interest on Debt Securities in certificated form may be made by check mailed to the address of the Person entitled thereto as such address appears in the Security Register. Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, the corporate trust office of the Senior Indenture Trustee in The City of New York will be designated as sole Paying Agent for payments with respect to Senior Debt Securities of each series, and the corporate trust office of the Subordinated Indenture Trustee in The City of New York will be designated as the sole Paying Agent for payment with respect to Subordinated Debt Securities of each series. Any other Paying Agents initially designated by us for the Debt Securities of a particular series will be named in the applicable prospectus supplement. We may at any time designate additional Paying Agents or rescind the designation of any Paying Agent or approve a change in the office through which any Paying Agent acts, except that we will be required to maintain a Paying Agent in each Place of Payment for the Debt Securities of a particular series.

All money paid by us to a Paying Agent for the payment of the principal of or any premium or interest on any Debt Security which remains unclaimed at the end of two years after such principal, premium or interest has

 

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become due and payable will be repaid to us, and the Holder of such Debt Security thereafter may look only to us for payment.

Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets

Unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement, we may not consolidate with or merge into, or transfer, lease or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of our assets to, any Person (a “successor Person”), and may not permit any Person to consolidate with or merge into us, unless:

(1) the successor Person (if not us) is a corporation, partnership, trust or other entity organized and validly existing under the laws of any domestic jurisdiction and assumes our obligations on the Debt Securities and under the Indentures;

(2) immediately before and after giving pro forma effect to the transaction, no Event of Default, and no event which, after notice or lapse of time or both, would become an Event of Default, has occurred and is continuing; and

(3) several other conditions, including any additional conditions with respect to any particular Debt Securities specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, are met.

The successor Person (if not us) will be substituted for us under the applicable Indenture with the same effect as if it had been an original party to such Indenture, and, except in the case of a lease, we will be relieved from any further obligations under such Indenture and the Debt Securities.

Events of Default

Unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement, each of the following will constitute an Event of Default under the applicable Indenture with respect to Debt Securities of any series:

(1) failure to pay principal of or any premium on any Debt Security of that series when due, whether or not, in the case of Subordinated Debt Securities, such payment is prohibited by the subordination provisions of the Subordinated Indenture;

(2) failure to pay any interest on any Debt Securities of that series when due, continued for 30 days, whether or not, in the case of Subordinated Debt Securities, such payment is prohibited by the subordination provisions of the Subordinated Indenture;

(3) failure to deposit any sinking fund payment, when due, in respect of any Debt Security of that series, whether or not, in the case of Subordinated Debt Securities, such deposit is prohibited by the subordination provisions of the Subordinated Indenture;

(4) failure to perform or comply with the provisions described under “— Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets”;

(5) failure to perform any of our other covenants in such Indenture (other than a covenant included in such Indenture solely for the benefit of a series other than that series), continued for 60 days after written notice has been given by the applicable Trustee, or the Holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the Outstanding Debt Securities of that series, as provided in such Indenture;

(6) any Debt of ourself, any Significant Subsidiary or, if a Subsidiary Guarantor has guaranteed the series, such Subsidiary Guarantor, is not paid within any applicable grace period after final maturity or is accelerated by its holders because of a default and the total amount of such Debt unpaid or accelerated exceeds $20.0 million;

(7) any judgment or decree for the payment of money in excess of $20.0 million is entered against us, any Significant Subsidiary or, if a Subsidiary Guarantor has guaranteed the series, such Subsidiary Guarantor, remains outstanding for a period of 60 consecutive days following entry of such judgment and is not discharged, waived or stayed;

 

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(8) certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization affecting us, any Significant Subsidiary or, if a Subsidiary Guarantor has guaranteed the series, such Subsidiary Guarantor; and

(9) if any Subsidiary Guarantor has guaranteed such series, the Subsidiary Guarantee of any such Subsidiary Guarantor is held by a final non-appealable order or judgment of a court of competent jurisdiction to be unenforceable or invalid or ceases for any reason to be in full force and effect (other than in accordance with the terms of the applicable Indenture) or any Subsidiary Guarantor or any Person acting on behalf of any Subsidiary Guarantor denies or disaffirms such Subsidiary Guarantor’s obligations under its Subsidiary Guarantee (other than by reason of a release of such Subsidiary Guarantor from its Subsidiary Guarantee in accordance with the terms of the applicable Indenture).

If an Event of Default (other than an Event of Default with respect to Stone Energy Corporation described in clause (8) above) with respect to the Debt Securities of any series at the time Outstanding occurs and is continuing, either the applicable Trustee or the Holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the Outstanding Debt Securities of that series by notice as provided in the Indenture may declare the principal amount of the Debt Securities of that series (or, in the case of any Debt Security that is an Original Issue Discount Debt Security, such portion of the principal amount of such Debt Security as may be specified in the terms of such Debt Security) to be due and payable immediately, together with any accrued and unpaid interest thereon. If an Event of Default with respect to Stone Energy Corporation described in clause (8) above with respect to the Debt Securities of any series at the time Outstanding occurs, the principal amount of all the Debt Securities of that series (or, in the case of any such Original Issue Discount Security, such specified amount) will automatically, and without any action by the applicable Trustee or any Holder, become immediately due and payable, together with any accrued and unpaid interest thereon. After any such acceleration and its consequences, but before a judgment or decree based on acceleration, the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Debt Securities of that series may, under certain circumstances, rescind and annul such acceleration if all Events of Default with respect to that series, other than the non-payment of accelerated principal (or other specified amount), have been cured or waived as provided in the applicable Indenture. For information as to waiver of defaults, see “— Modification and Waiver” below.

Subject to the provisions of the Indentures relating to the duties of the Trustees in case an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing, no Trustee will be under any obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under the applicable Indenture at the request or direction of any of the Holders, unless such Holders have offered to such Trustee reasonable security or indemnity. Subject to such provisions for the indemnification of the Trustees, the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Debt Securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee with respect to the Debt Securities of that series.

No Holder of a Debt Security of any series will have any right to institute any proceeding with respect to the applicable Indenture, or for the appointment of a receiver or a trustee, or for any other remedy thereunder, unless:

(1) such Holder has previously given to the Trustee under the applicable Indenture written notice of a continuing Event of Default with respect to the Debt Securities of that series;

(2) the Holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the Outstanding Debt Securities of that series have made written request, and such Holder or Holders have offered reasonable security or indemnity, to the Trustee to institute such proceeding as trustee; and

(3) the Trustee has failed to institute such proceeding, and has not received from the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Debt Securities of that series a direction inconsistent with such request, within 60 days after such notice, request and offer.

However, such limitations do not apply to a suit instituted by a Holder of a Debt Security for the enforcement of payment of the principal of or any premium or interest on such Debt Security on or after the applicable due date specified in such Debt Security or, if applicable, to convert such Debt Security.

 

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We will be required to furnish to each Trustee annually a statement by certain of our officers as to whether or not we, to their knowledge, are in default in the performance or observance of any of the terms, provisions and conditions of the applicable Indenture and, if so, specifying all such known defaults.

Modification and Waiver

We may modify or amend an Indenture without the consent of any holders of the Debt Securities in certain circumstances, including:

(1) to evidence the succession under the Indenture of another Person to us or any Subsidiary Guarantor and to provide for its assumption of our or such Subsidiary Guarantor’s obligations to holders of Debt Securities;

(2) to make any changes that would add any additional covenants for the benefit of the holders of Debt Securities or that do not adversely affect the rights under the Indenture of the Holders of Debt Securities in any material respect;

(3) to add any additional Events of Default;

(4) to provide for uncertificated notes in addition to or in place of certificated notes;

(5) to secure the Debt Securities;

(6) to establish the form or terms of any series of Debt Securities;

(7) to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment under the Indenture of a successor Trustee;

(8) to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency;

(9) to add Subsidiary Guarantors; or

(10) in the case of any Subordinated Debt Security, to make any change in the subordination provisions that limits or terminates the benefits applicable to any Holder of Senior Debt.

Other modifications and amendments of an Indenture may be made by us, the Subsidiary Guarantors, if applicable, and the applicable Trustee with the consent of the Holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Debt Securities of each series affected by such modification or amendment; provided, however, that no such modification or amendment may, without the consent of the Holder of each Outstanding Debt Security affected thereby:

(1) change the Stated Maturity of the principal of, or any installment of principal of or interest on, any Debt Security;

(2) reduce the principal amount of, or any premium or interest on, any Debt Security;

(3) reduce the amount of principal of an Original Issue Discount Security or any other Debt Security payable upon acceleration of the Maturity thereof;

(4) change the place or currency of payment of principal of, or any premium or interest on, any Debt Security;

(5) impair the right to institute suit for the enforcement of any payment due on or any conversion right with respect to any Debt Security;

(6) modify the subordination provisions in the case of Subordinated Debt Securities, or modify any conversion provisions, in either case in a manner adverse to the Holders of the Subordinated Debt Securities;

(7) except as provided in the applicable Indenture, release the Subsidiary Guarantee of a Subsidiary Guarantor;

(8) reduce the percentage in principal amount of Outstanding Debt Securities of any series, the consent of whose Holders is required for modification or amendment of the Indenture;

 

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(9) reduce the percentage in principal amount of Outstanding Debt Securities of any series necessary for waiver of compliance with certain provisions of the Indenture or for waiver of certain defaults;

(10) modify such provisions with respect to modification, amendment or waiver; or

(11) following the making of an offer to purchase Debt Securities from any Holder that has been made pursuant to a covenant in such Indenture, modify such covenant in a manner adverse to such Holder.

The Holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Debt Securities of any series may waive compliance by us with certain restrictive provisions of the applicable Indenture. The Holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Debt Securities of any series may waive any past default under the applicable Indenture, except a default in the payment of principal, premium or interest and certain covenants and provisions of the Indenture which cannot be amended without the consent of the Holder of each Outstanding Debt Security of such series.

Each of the Indentures provides that in determining whether the Holders of the requisite principal amount of the Outstanding Debt Securities have given or taken any direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action under such Indenture as of any date:

(1) the principal amount of an Original Issue Discount Security that will be deemed to be Outstanding will be the amount of the principal that would be due and payable as of such date upon acceleration of maturity to such date;

(2) if, as of such date, the principal amount payable at the Stated Maturity of a Debt Security is not determinable (for example, because it is based on an index), the principal amount of such Debt Security deemed to be Outstanding as of such date will be an amount determined in the manner prescribed for such Debt Security;

(3) the principal amount of a Debt Security denominated in one or more foreign currencies or currency units that will be deemed to be Outstanding will be the United States-dollar equivalent, determined as of such date in the manner prescribed for such Debt Security, of the principal amount of such Debt Security (or, in the case of a Debt Security described in clause (1) or (2) above, of the amount described in such clause); and

(4) certain Debt Securities, including those owned by us, any Subsidiary Guarantor or any of our other Affiliates, will not be deemed to be Outstanding.

Except in certain limited circumstances, we will be entitled to set any day as a record date for the purpose of determining the Holders of Outstanding Debt Securities of any series entitled to give or take any direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action under the applicable Indenture, in the manner and subject to the limitations provided in the Indenture. In certain limited circumstances, the Trustee will be entitled to set a record date for action by Holders. If a record date is set for any action to be taken by Holders of a particular series, only persons who are Holders of Outstanding Debt Securities of that series on the record date may take such action. To be effective, such action must be taken by Holders of the requisite principal amount of such Debt Securities within a specified period following the record date. For any particular record date, this period will be 180 days or such other period as may be specified by us (or the Trustee, if it set the record date), and may be shortened or lengthened (but not beyond 180 days) from time to time.

Satisfaction and Discharge

Each Indenture will be discharged and will cease to be of further effect as to all outstanding Debt Securities of any series issued thereunder, when:

either:

(1) (a) all outstanding Debt Securities of that series that have been authenticated (except lost, stolen or destroyed Debt Securities that have been replaced or paid and Debt Securities for whose payment money has theretofore been deposited in trust and thereafter repaid to us) have been delivered to the Trustee for cancellation; or

 

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(b) all outstanding Debt Securities of that series that have been not delivered to the Trustee for cancellation have become due and payable or will become due and payable at their Stated Maturity within one year or are to be called for redemption within one year under arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee and in any case we have irrevocably deposited with the Trustee as trust funds money in an amount sufficient, without consideration of any reinvestment of interest, to pay the entire indebtedness of such Debt Securities not delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, for principal, premium, if any, and accrued interest to the Stated Maturity or redemption date;

(2) we have paid or caused to be paid all other sums payable by us under the Indenture with respect to the Debt Securities of that series; and

(3) we have delivered an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel to the Trustee stating that all conditions precedent to satisfaction and discharge of the Indenture with respect to the Debt Securities of that series have been satisfied.

Legal Defeasance and Covenant Defeasance

To the extent indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we may elect, at our option at any time, to have our obligations discharged under provisions relating to defeasance and discharge of indebtedness, which we call “legal defeasance,” or relating to defeasance of certain restrictive covenants applied to the Debt Securities of any series, or to any specified part of a series, which we call “covenant defeasance.”

Legal Defeasance

The Indentures provide that, upon our exercise of our option (if any) to have the legal defeasance provisions applied to any series of Debt Securities, we and, if applicable, each Subsidiary Guarantor will be discharged from all our obligations, and, if such Debt Securities are Subordinated Debt Securities, the provisions of the Subordinated Indenture relating to subordination will cease to be effective, with respect to such Debt Securities (except for certain obligations to convert, exchange or register the transfer of Debt Securities, to replace stolen, lost or mutilated Debt Securities, to maintain paying agencies and to hold moneys for payment in trust) upon the deposit in trust for the benefit of the Holders of such Debt Securities of money or U.S. Government Obligations, or both, which, through the payment of principal and interest in respect thereof in accordance with their terms, will provide money in an amount sufficient (in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants) to pay the principal of and any premium and interest on such Debt Securities on the respective Stated Maturities in accordance with the terms of the applicable Indenture and such Debt Securities. Such defeasance or discharge may occur only if, among other things:

(1) we have delivered to the applicable Trustee an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that we have received from, or there has been published by, the United States Internal Revenue Service a ruling, or there has been a change in tax law, in either case to the effect that Holders of such Debt Securities will not recognize gain or loss for federal income tax purposes as a result of such deposit and legal defeasance and will be subject to federal income tax on the same amount, in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such deposit and legal defeasance were not to occur;

(2) no Event of Default or event that with the passing of time or the giving of notice, or both, shall constitute an Event of Default shall have occurred and be continuing at the time of such deposit or, with respect to any Event of Default described in clause (8) under “— Events of Default,” at any time until 121 days after such deposit;

(3) such deposit and legal defeasance will not result in a breach or violation of, or constitute a default under, any agreement or instrument (other than the applicable Indenture) to which we are a party or by which we are bound;

(4) in the case of Subordinated Debt Securities, at the time of such deposit, no default in the payment of all or a portion of principal of (or premium, if any) or interest on any Senior Debt shall have occurred and be continuing, no event of default shall have resulted in the acceleration of any Senior Debt and no other event of

 

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default with respect to any Senior Debt shall have occurred and be continuing permitting after notice or the lapse of time, or both, the acceleration thereof; and

(5) we have delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that such deposit shall not cause the Trustee or the trust so created to be subject to the Investment Company Act of 1940.

Covenant Defeasance

The Indentures provide that, upon our exercise of our option (if any) to have the covenant defeasance provisions applied to any Debt Securities, we may fail to comply with certain restrictive covenants (but not with respect to conversion, if applicable), including those that may be described in the applicable prospectus supplement, and the occurrence of certain Events of Default, which are described above in clause (5) (with respect to such restrictive covenants) and clauses (6), (7) and (9) under “Events of Default” and any that may be described in the applicable prospectus supplement, will not be deemed to either be or result in an Event of Default and, if such Debt Securities are Subordinated Debt Securities, the provisions of the Subordinated Indenture relating to subordination will cease to be effective, in each case with respect to such Debt Securities. In order to exercise such option, we must deposit, in trust for the benefit of the Holders of such Debt Securities, money or U.S. Government Obligations, or both, which, through the payment of principal and interest in respect thereof in accordance with their terms, will provide money in an amount sufficient (in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants) to pay the principal of and any premium and interest on such Debt Securities on the respective Stated Maturities in accordance with the terms of the applicable Indenture and such Debt Securities. Such covenant defeasance may occur only if we have delivered to the applicable Trustee an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that Holders of such Debt Securities will not recognize gain or loss for federal income tax purposes as a result of such deposit and covenant defeasance and will be subject to federal income tax on the same amount, in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such deposit and covenant defeasance were not to occur, and the requirements set forth in clauses (2), (3), (4) and (5) above are satisfied. If we exercise this option with respect to any series of Debt Securities and such Debt Securities were declared due and payable because of the occurrence of any Event of Default, the amount of money and U.S. Government Obligations so deposited in trust would be sufficient to pay amounts due on such Debt Securities at the time of their respective Stated Maturities but may not be sufficient to pay amounts due on such Debt Securities upon any acceleration resulting from such Event of Default. In such case, we would remain liable for such payments.

If we exercise either our legal defeasance or covenant defeasance option, any Subsidiary Guarantee will terminate.

Notices

Notices to Holders of Debt Securities will be given by mail to the addresses of such Holders as they may appear in the Security Register.

Title

We, the Subsidiary Guarantors, the Trustees and any agent of us, the Subsidiary Guarantors or a Trustee may treat the Person in whose name a Debt Security is registered as the absolute owner of the Debt Security (whether or not such Debt Security may be overdue) for the purpose of making payment and for all other purposes.

Governing Law

The Indentures and the Debt Securities will be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the law of the State of New York.

 

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The Trustee

The Bank of New York Mellon Trust Company, N.A., is the Senior Indenture Trustee. We will enter into the Subordinated Indenture with a Trustee that is qualified to act under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended (the “Trust Indenture Act”). We may maintain a banking relationship in the ordinary course of business with either the Senior Indenture Trustee or the Subordinated Indenture Trustee and one or more of its affiliates.

Resignation or Removal of Trustee

If a Trustee has or acquires a conflicting interest within the meaning of the Trust Indenture Act, the Trustee must either eliminate its conflicting interest or resign, to the extent and in the manner provided by, and subject to the provisions of, the Trust Indenture Act and the applicable Indenture. Any resignation will require the appointment of a successor Trustee under the applicable Indenture in accordance with the terms and conditions of such Indenture.

A Trustee may resign or be removed by us with respect to one or more series of Debt Securities and a successor Trustee may be appointed to act with respect to any such series. The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Debt Securities of any series may remove the Trustee with respect to the Debt Securities of such series.

Limitations on Trustee if It Is Our Creditor

Each Indenture limits the right of the Trustee, in the event that it becomes our creditor, to obtain payment of claims in certain cases, or to realize on certain property received in respect of any such claim as security or otherwise.

Certificates and Opinions to Be Furnished to Trustee

Each Indenture provides that, in addition to other certificates or opinions that may be specifically required by other provisions of an Indenture, every application by us for action by the Trustee must be accompanied by an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel stating that, in the opinion of the signers, all conditions precedent to such action have been complied with by us.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

As of October 16, 2012, our authorized capital stock was 105,000,000 shares. Those shares consisted of: (a) 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock, none of which were outstanding; and (b) 100,000,000 shares of common stock, of which 49,503,454 shares were outstanding.

Common Stock

This section describes the general terms of our common stock. For more detailed information, you should refer to our certificate of incorporation, as amended (the “Certificate of Incorporation”) and our amended and restated bylaws (the “Bylaws”), copies of which have been filed with the SEC. These documents are also incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

Listing

Our outstanding shares of common stock are listed on the New York Stock Exchange (the “NYSE”) under the symbol “SGY.” Any additional common stock we issue also will be listed on the NYSE.

Dividends

Subject to the rights of any series of preferred stock that we may issue, the holders of common stock may receive dividends when declared by the Board of Directors. Dividends may be paid in cash, stock or other form out of legally available funds.

Fully Paid

All outstanding shares of common stock are fully paid and non-assessable. Any additional common stock we issue will also be fully paid and non-assessable.

Voting Rights

Subject to any special voting rights of any series of preferred stock that we may issue in the future, the holders of common stock may vote one vote for each share held in the election of directors and on all other matters voted upon by our stockholders. Under our Bylaws, unless otherwise required by Delaware law or the Certificate of Incorporation or Bylaws, action by our stockholders is taken by the affirmative vote of a majority of the votes cast, except for elections of directors, which are determined by a plurality of the votes cast, at a meeting of stockholders at which a quorum is present. Holders of common stock may not cumulate their votes in the elections of directors.

Other Rights

We will notify common stockholders of any stockholders’ meetings according to applicable law. If we liquidate, dissolve or wind-up our business, either voluntarily or not, common stockholders will share equally in the assets remaining after we pay our creditors and preferred stockholders. The holders of common stock have no preemptive rights to purchase our shares of stock. Shares of common stock are not subject to any redemption or sinking fund provisions and are not convertible into any of our other securities.

Preferred Stock

The following description of the terms of the preferred stock sets forth certain general terms and provisions of our authorized preferred stock. If we offer preferred stock, a description will be filed with the SEC and the specific designations and rights will be described in the prospectus supplement, including the following terms:

 

   

the series, the number of shares offered and the liquidation value of the preferred stock;

 

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the price at which the preferred stock will be issued;

 

   

the dividend rate, the dates on which the dividends will be payable and other terms relating to the payment of dividends on the preferred stock;

 

   

the liquidation preference of the preferred stock;

 

   

the voting rights of the preferred stock;

 

   

whether the preferred stock is redeemable or subject to a sinking fund, and the terms of any such redemption or sinking fund;

 

   

whether the preferred stock is convertible or exchangeable for any other securities, and the terms of any such conversion; and

 

   

any additional rights, preferences, qualifications, limitations and restrictions of the preferred stock.

The description of the terms of the preferred stock to be set forth in an applicable prospectus supplement will not be complete and will be subject to and qualified in its entirety by reference to the statement of resolution relating to the applicable series of preferred stock. The registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part will include the statement of resolution as an exhibit or incorporate it by reference.

Our Board of Directors can, without approval of stockholders, issue one or more series of preferred stock. Subject to the provisions of our Certificate of Incorporation and limitations prescribed by law, our Board of Directors may adopt resolutions to determine the number of shares of each series and the rights, preferences and limitations of each series, including the dividend rights, voting rights, conversion rights, redemption rights and any liquidation preferences of any wholly unissued series of preferred stock, the number of shares constituting each series and the terms and conditions of issue. Under certain circumstances, preferred stock could restrict dividend payments to holders of our common stock.

Undesignated preferred stock may enable our Board of Directors to render more difficult or to discourage an attempt to obtain control of us by means of a tender offer, proxy contest, merger or otherwise, and to thereby protect the continuity of our management. The issuance of shares of preferred stock may adversely affect the rights of the holders of our common stock. For example, any preferred stock issued may rank prior to our common stock as to dividend rights, liquidation preference or both, may have full or limited voting rights and may be convertible into shares of common stock. As a result, the issuance of shares of preferred stock may discourage bids for our common stock or may otherwise adversely affect the market price of our common stock or any existing preferred stock.

The preferred stock will, when issued, be fully paid and non-assessable.

Anti-Takeover Provisions

Certain provisions in our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws may encourage persons considering unsolicited tender offers or other unilateral takeover proposals to negotiate with the Board of Directors rather than pursue non-negotiated takeover attempts.

Stockholder Action by Unanimous Consent

Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, unless a company’s certificate of incorporation specifies otherwise, any action that could be taken by stockholders at an annual or special meeting may be taken, instead, without a meeting and without notice to or a vote of other stockholders if a consent in writing is signed by holders of outstanding stock having voting power that would be sufficient to take such action at a meeting at which all outstanding shares were present and voted. Our Certificate of Incorporation provides that stockholder action may be taken only at an annual or special meeting of stockholders or by unanimous written consent. As a result, stockholders may not act upon any matter except at a duly called meeting or by unanimous written consent.

 

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Blank Check Preferred Stock

Our Certificate of Incorporation authorizes the issuance of blank check preferred stock. The Board of Directors can set the voting rights, redemption rights, conversion rights and other rights relating to such preferred stock and could issue such stock in either private or public transactions. In some circumstances, the blank check preferred stock could be issued and have the effect of preventing a merger, tender offer or other takeover attempt that the Board of Directors opposes.

Business Combinations Under Delaware Law

We are a Delaware corporation and are subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law. Section 203 prevents a person who, together with any affiliates or associates of such person, beneficially owns, directly or indirectly, 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock (an “interested stockholder”) from engaging in certain business combinations with us for three years following the time that the interested stockholder became an interested stockholder. These restrictions do not apply if:

 

   

before the person became an interested stockholder, our Board of Directors approved either the business combination or the transaction in which the interested stockholder became an interested stockholder;

 

   

upon completion of the transaction that resulted in the interested stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owns at least 85% of our outstanding voting stock at the time the transaction commenced, excluding stock held by directors who are also officers of the corporation and stock held by certain employee stock plans; or

 

   

at or following the time that such person became an interested stockholder, the business combination is approved by both our Board of Directors and, at an annual or special meeting of stockholders, the holders of at least two-thirds of our outstanding voting stock not owned by the interested stockholder.

Section 203 defines a “business combination” to include (i) any merger or consolidation involving the corporation and an interested stockholder; (ii) any sale, lease, transfer, pledge or other disposition involving an interested stockholder of 10% or more of the assets of the corporation; (iii) subject to certain exceptions, any transaction that results in the issuance or transfer by the corporation of any stock of the corporation to an interested stockholder; (iv) any transaction involving the corporation that has the effect of increasing the proportionate share of the stock of any class or series of the corporation beneficially owned by the interested stockholder; or (v) the receipt by an interested stockholder of the benefit of any loans, advances, guarantees, pledges or other financial benefits provided by or through the corporation.

Special Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaw Provisions

Stone’s Bylaws contain provisions requiring that advance notice be delivered to Stone of any business to be brought by a stockholder before an annual meeting of stockholders and providing for certain procedures to be followed by stockholders in nominating persons for election to Stone’s board of directors. Generally, such advance notice provisions provide that the stockholder must give written notice to Stone’s Secretary not earlier than the 120th day and not later than the 90th day prior to the first anniversary of the preceding year’s annual meeting. The notice must set forth specific information regarding such stockholder and such business or director nominee, as described in Stone’s Bylaws. Such requirement is in addition to those set forth in the regulations adopted by the SEC under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Stone’s Bylaws provide that the number of directors shall be determined by the Board of Directors and shall not be more than 13. Each director shall hold office until his successor is elected and qualified or until his earlier death, resignation or removal. Stone’s directors may be removed with or without cause by the holders of a majority of the shares then entitled to vote at an election of directors.

Special meetings of the stockholders may be called by the chairman (if any) of the Board of Directors, the president of Stone or by a majority of the Board of Directors or a majority of Stone’ executive committee (if

 

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any), but may not be called by Stone’s stockholders. Stone’s Bylaws