10-K 1 d493525d10k.htm 10-K 10-K
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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, DC 20549

FORM 10-K

 

  X  

Annual report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 for the fiscal year ended

        

December 31, 2012

 

        

Transition report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934

Commission file number 1-11848

REINSURANCE GROUP OF AMERICA, INCORPORATED

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Missouri   43-1627032

(State or other jurisdiction

of incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

1370 Timberlake Manor Parkway, Chesterfield, Missouri   63017
(Address of principal executive offices)   (Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (636) 736-7000

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class

 

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, par value $0.01   New York Stock Exchange

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.

Yes ü  No       

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.

Yes         No ü

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ü  No       

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).  Yes ü  No       

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. [  ü  ]

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

Large accelerated filer ü       Accelerated filer               Non-accelerated filer             Smaller reporting company       

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company.  Yes         No ü

The aggregate market value of the stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant, based upon the closing sale price of the common stock on June 30, 2012, as reported on the New York Stock Exchange was approximately $3.9 billion.

As of January 31, 2013, 73,930,128 shares of the registrant’s common stock were outstanding.


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DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

 

Certain portions of the Definitive Proxy Statement in connection with the 2013 Annual Meeting of Shareholders (“the Proxy Statement”) which will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission not later than 120 days after the Registrant’s fiscal year ended December 31, 2012, are incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K.

 

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REINSURANCE GROUP OF AMERICA, INCORPORATED AND SUBSIDIARIES

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Item

        Page  
PART I   
1    Business      4   
1A        Risk Factors      16   
1B    Unresolved Staff Comments      28   
2    Properties      28   
3    Legal Proceedings      28   
4    Mine Safety Disclosures      28   
PART II   
5    Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholders Matters, and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities      28   
6    Selected Financial Data      29   
7    Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations      31   
7A    Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk      76   
8    Financial Statements and Supplementary Data      76   
9    Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure      146   
9A    Controls and Procedures      146   
9B    Other Information      148   
PART III   
10    Directors, Executive Officers, and Corporate Governance      148   
11    Executive Compensation      149   
12    Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters      149   
13    Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence      150   
14    Principal Accountant Fees and Services      150   
PART IV   
15    Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules      151   

 

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Item 1.         BUSINESS

A.

Overview

Reinsurance Group of America, Incorporated (“RGA”) is an insurance holding company that was formed on December 31, 1992. The consolidated financial statements herein include the assets, liabilities, and results of operations of RGA, RGA Reinsurance Company (“RGA Reinsurance”), Reinsurance Company of Missouri, Incorporated (“RCM”), RGA Reinsurance Company (Barbados) Ltd. (“RGA Barbados”), RGA Americas Reinsurance Company, Ltd. (“RGA Americas”), RGA Atlantic Reinsurance Company, Ltd. (“RGA Atlantic”), RGA Life Reinsurance Company of Canada (“RGA Canada”), RGA Reinsurance Company of Australia, Limited (“RGA Australia”) and RGA International Reinsurance Company (“RGA International”) as well as several other subsidiaries, which are primarily wholly owned (collectively, the “Company”).

The Company is primarily engaged in the reinsurance of individual and group coverages for traditional life and health, longevity, disability income, asset-intensive (e.g., annuities) and critical illness products, and financial reinsurance. RGA and its predecessor, the Reinsurance Division of General American Life Insurance Company, a Missouri life insurance company, have been engaged in the business of life and health reinsurance since 1973. The Company’s operations in the U.S. and Canada contributed approximately 66.3% of its consolidated net premiums during 2012. In 1994, the Company began expanding into international markets and now has subsidiaries, branch operations, or representative offices in Australia, Barbados, Bermuda, China, France, Germany, Hong Kong, India, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Singapore, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Taiwan, the United Arab Emirates (“UAE”) and the United Kingdom (“UK”). RGA is considered one of the leading life reinsurers in the world based on premiums and the amount of life reinsurance in force. As of December 31, 2012, the Company had approximately $2.9 trillion of life reinsurance in force and $40.4 billion in consolidated assets.

Reinsurance is an arrangement under which an insurance company, the “reinsurer,” agrees to indemnify another insurance company, the “ceding company,” for all or a portion of the insurance risks underwritten by the ceding company. Reinsurance is designed to (i) reduce the net amount at risk on individual risks, thereby enabling the ceding company to increase the volume of business it can underwrite, as well as increase the maximum risk it can underwrite on a single risk; (ii) stabilize operating results by leveling fluctuations in the ceding company’s loss experience; (iii) assist the ceding company in meeting applicable regulatory requirements; and (iv) enhance the ceding company’s financial strength and surplus position.

Life reinsurance primarily refers to reinsurance of individual or group-issued term, whole life, universal life, and joint and last survivor insurance policies. Health and disability income reinsurance primarily refers to reinsurance of individual or group health policies. Critical illness reinsurance provides a benefit in the event of the diagnosis of a pre-defined critical illness. Asset-intensive reinsurance primarily refers to reinsurance of annuities and corporate-owned life insurance. Longevity reinsurance primarily refers to reinsurance of annuities in payout status. Financial reinsurance primarily involves assisting ceding companies in meeting applicable regulatory requirements by enhancing the ceding companies’ financial strength and regulatory surplus position. Financial reinsurance transactions do not qualify as reinsurance under U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”), due to the low-risk nature of the transactions. These transactions are reported in accordance with deposit accounting guidelines. Ceding companies will often contract with more than one reinsurance company to reinsure their automatic business. Group reinsurance and facultative treaties are typically written with one reinsurer.

Reinsurance may be written on an indemnity or an assumption basis; however, the Company has not entered into any assumption reinsurance contracts. Indemnity reinsurance does not discharge a ceding company from liability to the policyholder. A ceding company is required to pay the full amount of its insurance obligations regardless of whether it is entitled or able to receive payments from its reinsurer. In the case of assumption reinsurance, the ceding company is discharged from liability to the policyholder, with such liability passed directly to the reinsurer. Reinsurers also may purchase reinsurance, known as retrocession reinsurance, to transfer their risk exposure. Reinsurance companies enter into retrocession agreements for reasons similar to those that drive primary insurers to purchase reinsurance.

Reinsurance is written on a facultative or automatic treaty basis. Facultative reinsurance is individually underwritten by the reinsurer for each policy to be reinsured, with the pricing and other terms established based upon rates negotiated in advance. Facultative reinsurance is normally purchased by ceding companies for medically impaired lives, unusual risks, or liabilities in excess of the binding limits specified in their automatic reinsurance treaties.

An automatic reinsurance treaty provides that the ceding company will cede risks to a reinsurer on specified blocks of policies where the underlying policies meet the ceding company’s underwriting criteria. In contrast to facultative reinsurance, the reinsurer does not approve each individual policy being reinsured. Automatic reinsurance treaties generally provide that the reinsurer will be liable for a portion of the risk associated with the specified policies written by the ceding company. Automatic reinsurance treaties specify the ceding company’s binding limit, which is the maximum amount of risk on a given life that can be ceded automatically to the reinsurer and that the reinsurer must accept. The binding limit may be stated either as a multiple of the ceding company’s retention or as a stated dollar amount.

 

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Facultative and automatic reinsurance may be written as yearly renewable term, coinsurance, modified coinsurance or coinsurance with funds withheld. Under a yearly renewable term treaty, the reinsurer assumes primarily the mortality or morbidity risk. Under a coinsurance arrangement, depending upon the terms of the contract, the reinsurer may share in the risk of loss due to mortality or morbidity, lapses, and the investment risk, if any, inherent in the underlying policy. Modified coinsurance and coinsurance with funds withheld differs from coinsurance in that the assets supporting the reserves are retained by the ceding company.

Generally, the amount of life and health reinsurance ceded is stated on an excess or a quota share basis. Reinsurance on an excess basis covers amounts in excess of an agreed-upon retention limit. Retention limits vary by ceding company and also may vary by the age or underwriting classification of the insured, the product, and other factors. Under quota share reinsurance, the ceding company states its retention in terms of a fixed percentage of the risk with the remainder to be ceded to one or more reinsurers up to the maximum binding limit.

Reinsurance agreements, whether facultative or automatic, may include recapture rights, which permit the ceding company to reassume all or a portion of the risk formerly ceded to the reinsurer after an agreed-upon period of time (generally 10 years) or in some cases due to changes in the financial condition or ratings of the reinsurer. Recapture of business previously ceded does not affect premiums ceded prior to the recapture of such business, but would reduce premiums in subsequent periods. The potential adverse effects of recapture rights are mitigated by the following factors: (i) recapture rights vary by treaty and the risk of recapture is a factor that is considered when pricing a reinsurance agreement; (ii) ceding companies generally may exercise their recapture rights only to the extent they have increased their retention limits for the reinsured policies; and (iii) ceding companies generally must recapture all of the policies eligible for recapture under the agreement in a particular year if any are recaptured (which prevents a ceding company from recapturing only the most profitable policies). In addition, when a ceding company recaptures reinsured policies, the reinsurer releases the reserves it maintained to support the recaptured portion of the policies.

Reinsurers may place assets in trust to satisfy collateral requirements for certain treaties. Securities with an amortized cost of $2,140.7 million were held in trust for the benefit of certain RGA subsidiaries to satisfy collateral requirements for reinsurance business at December 31, 2012. Additionally, securities with an amortized cost of $7,549.0 million as of December 31, 2012 were held in trust to satisfy collateral requirements under certain third-party reinsurance treaties. Under certain conditions, the Company may be obligated to move reinsurance from one subsidiary of RGA to another subsidiary of RGA or make payments under a given treaty. These conditions include change in control or ratings of the subsidiary, insolvency, nonperformance under a treaty, or loss of the subsidiary’s reinsurance license. If the Company is ever required to perform under these obligations, the risk to the consolidated company under the reinsurance treaties would not change; however, additional capital may be required due to the change in jurisdiction of the subsidiary reinsuring the business and may create a strain on liquidity, possibly causing a reduction in dividend payments or hampering the Company’s ability to write new business or retain existing business.

During 2006, RGA’s subsidiary, Timberlake Financial, L.L.C. (“Timberlake Financial”), issued $850.0 million of Series A Floating Rate Insured Notes due June 2036 in a private placement. The notes were issued to fund the collateral requirements for statutory reserves required by the U.S. Valuation of Life Policies Model Regulation (commonly referred to as Regulation XXX) on specified term life insurance policies reinsured by RGA Reinsurance. Proceeds from the notes and the Company’s direct investment in Timberlake Financial were deposited into a series of trust accounts as collateral and are not available to satisfy the general obligations of the Company. As of December 31, 2012, the Company held assets in trust and in custody of $909.2 million for this purpose, which is not included in the assets held in trust amounts above. See Note 14 - “Collateral Finance Facility” in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information on the Timberlake Financial notes.

Some reinsurance agreements give the ceding company the right to force the reinsurer to place assets in trust for the ceding company’s benefit to provide collateral for statutory reserve credits taken by the ceding company, in the event of a downgrade of the reinsurer’s ratings to specified levels, generally non-investment grade levels, or if minimum levels of financial condition are not maintained, or based on certain treaty performance measures. As of December 31, 2012, the Company had approximately $1,522.1 million in statutory reserves associated with these types of treaties. Assets placed in trust continue to be owned by the Company, but their use is restricted based on the terms of the trust agreement.

 

B.

Corporate Structure

RGA is an insurance holding company, the principal assets of which consist of the common stock of RCM, RGA Barbados, RGA Americas, RGA Canada, RGA International and RGA Atlantic as well as several other subsidiaries, which are primarily wholly owned. Potential sources of funds for RGA to make stockholder dividend distributions and to fund debt service obligations are dividends and interest paid to RGA by its subsidiaries, securities maintained in its investment portfolio, and proceeds from securities offerings and borrowings. RCM’s primary sources of funds are dividend distributions paid by RGA Reinsurance Company, whose principal source of funds is derived from current operations. Dividends paid by

 

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RGA’s reinsurance subsidiaries are subject to regulatory restrictions of the respective governing bodies where each reinsurance subsidiary is domiciled.

The Company has five geographic-based or function-based operational segments each of which is a distinct reportable segment: U.S., Canada, Europe & South Africa, Asia Pacific and Corporate and Other. These operating segments write reinsurance business that is wholly or partially retained in one or more of RGA’s reinsurance subsidiaries. See “Segments” for more information concerning the Company’s operating segments.

Ratings

Insurer financial strength ratings, sometimes referred to as claims paying ratings, represent the opinions of rating agencies regarding the financial ability of an insurance company to meet its obligations under an insurance policy. The Company’s insurer financial strength ratings as of the date of this filing are listed in the table below for each rating agency that meets with the Company’s management on a regular basis:

 

Insurer Financial Strength Ratings   

A.M. Best

    Company (1)    

  

Moody’s

Investors

    Service (2)    

  

    Standard &    

Poor’s (3)

RGA Reinsurance Company

   A+    A1    AA-

RGA Life Reinsurance Company of Canada

   A+    Not Rated    AA-

RGA International Reinsurance Company

   Not Rated    Not Rated    AA-

RGA Global Reinsurance Company

   Not Rated    Not Rated    AA-

RGA Reinsurance Company of Australia Limited

   Not Rated    Not Rated    AA-

 

(1)

An A.M. Best Company (“A.M. Best”) insurer financial strength rating of “A+ (superior)” is the second highest out of fifteen possible ratings and is assigned to companies that have, in A.M. Best’s opinion, a superior ability to meet their ongoing obligations to policyholders.

 

(2)

A Moody’s Investors Service (“Moody’s”) insurer financial strength rating of “A1” (good) is the fifth highest rating out of twenty-one possible ratings and indicates that Moody’s believes the insurance company offers good financial security; however, elements may be present which suggest a susceptibility to impairment sometime in the future.

 

(3)

A Standard & Poor’s (“S&P”) insurer financial strength rating of “AA-” (very strong) is the fourth highest rating out of twenty-one possible ratings. According to S&P’s rating scale, a rating of “AA-” means that, in S&P’s opinion, the insurer has very strong financial security characteristics.

The ability to write reinsurance partially depends on a reinsurer’s financial condition and its financial strength ratings. These ratings are based on a company’s ability to pay policyholder obligations and are not directed toward the protection of investors. A ratings downgrade could adversely affect the Company’s ability to compete. See Item 1A – “Risk Factors” for more on the potential effects of a ratings downgrade.

Regulation

The following table provides the jurisdiction of the regulatory authority for RGA’s primary operating and captive subsidiaries:

 

Subsidiary

  

Regulatory Authority

RGA Reinsurance

   Missouri

Parkway Reinsurance Company (“Parkway Re”)

   Missouri

Rockwood Reinsurance Company (“Rockwood Re”)

   Missouri

Castlewood Reinsurance Company (“Castlewood Re”)

   Missouri

RCM

   Missouri

Timberlake Reinsurance Company II (“Timberlake Re”)

   South Carolina

RGA Canada

   Canada

RGA Barbados

   Barbados

RGA Americas

   Barbados

Manor Reinsurance, Ltd. (“Manor Re”)

   Barbados

RGA Atlantic

   Barbados

RGA Worldwide Reinsurance Company, Ltd. (“RGA Worldwide”)

   Barbados

RGA Global Reinsurance Company, Ltd. (“RGA Global”);

   Bermuda

RGA Australia

   Australia

RGA International

   Ireland

RGA Reinsurance Company of South Africa, Limited (“RGA South Africa”)

   South Africa

RGA Reinsurance, RGA Global and RGA International are also subject to regulations in the other jurisdictions in which they are licensed or authorized to do business. Insurance laws and regulations, among other things, establish minimum capital requirements and limit the amount of dividends, distributions, and intercompany payments affiliates can make without regulatory approval. Additionally, insurance laws and regulations impose restrictions on the amounts and types of investments that insurance companies may hold. In addition, new standards to be imposed upon European insurers by Solvency II, revisions to the insurance laws of Bermuda similar to Solvency II, changes to regulations in Canada and revisions to the insurance holding company laws in the U.S. and other jurisdictions could, in the near future, affect RGA

 

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International, RGA Global, RGA Canada, RGA Reinsurance and other subsidiaries, and the clients of each to varying degrees.

General

The insurance laws and regulations, as well as the level of supervisory authority that may be exercised by the various insurance departments, vary by jurisdiction, but generally grant broad powers to supervisory agencies or regulators to examine and supervise insurance companies and insurance holding companies with respect to every significant aspect of the conduct of the insurance business, including approval or modification of contractual arrangements. These laws and regulations generally require insurance companies to meet certain solvency standards and asset tests, to maintain minimum standards of business conduct, and to file certain reports with regulatory authorities, including information concerning their capital structure, ownership, and financial condition; and subject insurers to potential assessments for amounts paid by guarantee funds. RGA Reinsurance and RCM are subject to the state of Missouri’s adoption of the National Association of Insurance Commissioners (“NAIC”) Model Audit Rule which requires an insurer to have an annual audit by an independent certified public accountant, provide an annual management report of internal control over financial reporting, file the resulting reports with the Director of Insurance and maintain an audit committee. Moreover, the new model insurance holding company standards promulgated by the NAIC during 2010 will likely be adopted by the state of Missouri to become effective in 2013 or 2014. These new standards will permit the Missouri regulator to request and consider, in its regulation of the solvency of and capital standards for RGA Reinsurance and RCM, information about the operations of other subsidiaries of RGA and the extent to which there may be deemed to exist contagion risk posed by those operations. In addition, the RGA insurers are now the subject of a supervisory college which involves regular meetings of the insurance regulators of the insurance entities of RGA. These regular meetings are expected to bring about additional questions and perhaps even limitations on some of the activities of the insurance company members of RGA.

RGA’s reinsurance subsidiaries are required to file statutory financial statements in each jurisdiction in which they are licensed and may be subject to periodic examinations by the insurance regulators of the jurisdictions in which each is licensed, authorized, or accredited. To date, none of the regulators’ reports related to the Company’s periodic examinations have contained material adverse findings.

Although some of the rates and policy terms of U.S. direct insurance agreements are regulated by state insurance departments, the rates, policy terms, and conditions of reinsurance agreements generally are not subject to regulation by any regulatory authority. The same is true outside of the U.S. In the U.S., however, the NAIC Model Law on Credit for Reinsurance, which has been adopted in most states, imposes certain requirements for an insurer to take reserve credit for risk ceded to a reinsurer. Generally, the reinsurer is required to be licensed or accredited in the insurer’s state of domicile, or post security for reserves transferred to the reinsurer in the form of letters of credit or assets placed in trust. The NAIC Life and Health Reinsurance Agreements Model Regulation, which has been passed in most states, imposes additional requirements for insurers to claim reserve credit for reinsurance ceded (excluding yearly renewable term reinsurance and non-proportional reinsurance). These requirements include bona fide risk transfer, an insolvency clause, written agreements, and filing of reinsurance agreements involving in force business, among other things. Outside of the U.S., rules for reinsurance and requirements for minimum risk transfer are less specific and are less likely to be published as rules, but nevertheless standards can be imposed to varying extents.

Regulation XXX, implemented in the U.S. for various types of life insurance business, significantly increased the level of reserves that U.S. life insurance and life reinsurance companies must hold on their statutory financial statements for various types of life insurance business, primarily certain level premium term life products. The reserve levels required under Regulation XXX are normally in excess of reserves required under GAAP. In situations where primary insurers have reinsured business to reinsurers that are unlicensed and unaccredited in the U.S., the reinsurer must provide collateral equal to its reinsurance reserves in order for the ceding company to receive statutory financial statement credit. Reinsurers have historically utilized letters of credit for the benefit of the ceding company, or have placed assets in trust for the benefit of the ceding company, or have used other structures as the primary forms of collateral.

RGA Reinsurance is the primary subsidiary of the Company subject to Regulation XXX. In order to manage the effect of Regulation XXX on its statutory financial statements, RGA Reinsurance has retroceded a majority of Regulation XXX reserves to unaffiliated and affiliated unlicensed reinsurers and special purpose reinsurers, or captives. RGA Reinsurance’s statutory capital may be significantly reduced if the unaffiliated or affiliated reinsurer is unable to provide the required collateral to support RGA Reinsurance’s statutory reserve credits and RGA Reinsurance cannot find an alternative source for the collateral. In 2012 the National Association of Insurance Commissioners began a study of the uses life insurers make of special purpose vehicles. While this study continues, it is possible that in the future there may be some limitations on RGA Re’s ability to use special purpose vehicles to finance Regulation XXX reserves. Such limitations could cause the Company to utilize alternative financing methods.

 

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RGA Reinsurance, Parkway Re, Rockwood Re, Castlewood Re and RCM prepare statutory financial statements in conformity with accounting practices prescribed or permitted by the State of Missouri. Timberlake Re prepares statutory financial statements in conformity with accounting practices prescribed or permitted by the State of South Carolina. Both states require domestic insurance companies to prepare their statutory financial statements in accordance with the NAIC Accounting Practices and Procedures manual subject to any deviations permitted by each state’s insurance commissioner. The Company’s non-U.S. subsidiaries are subject to the regulations and reporting requirements of their respective countries of domicile. In the future, a convergence between U.S. reporting standards and International Financial Reporting Standards may occur, which may affect the presentation of the Company’s financial statements.

Capital Requirements

Risk-Based Capital (“RBC”) guidelines promulgated by the NAIC are applicable to RGA Reinsurance and RCM, and identify minimum capital requirements based upon business levels and asset mix. RGA Reinsurance and RCM maintain capital levels in excess of the amounts required by the applicable guidelines. Timberlake Re, Parkway Re, Rockwood Re and Castlewood Re’s capital requirements are determined solely by their licensing orders issued by their states of domicile. Pursuant to its licensing order issued by the South Carolina Department of Insurance, Timberlake Re only calculates RBC as a means of demonstrating its ability to pay principal and interest on its surplus note issued to Timberlake Financial. It is not otherwise subject to the RBC guidelines. Similarly, Parkway Re, Rockwood Re and Castlewood Re are not subject to the requirements of the NAIC’s RBC guidelines. Regulations in international jurisdictions also require certain minimum capital levels, and subject the companies operating there to oversight by the applicable regulatory bodies. RGA’s subsidiaries meet the minimum capital requirements in their respective jurisdictions, except for Timberlake Re. See Note 14 – “Collateral Finance Facility” in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information. The Company cannot predict the effect that any proposed or future legislation or rule making in the countries in which it operates may have on the financial condition or operations of the Company or its subsidiaries.

Insurance Holding Company Regulations

RGA Reinsurance, Parkway Re, Rockwood Re, Castlewood Re and RCM are subject to regulation under the insurance and insurance holding company statutes of Missouri. The Missouri insurance holding company laws and regulations generally require insurance and reinsurance subsidiaries of insurance holding companies to register and file with the Missouri Department of Insurance, Financial Institutions and Professional Registration (“MDI”), certain reports describing, among other information, their capital structure, ownership, financial condition, certain intercompany transactions, and general business operations. The Missouri insurance holding company statutes and regulations also require prior approval of, or in certain circumstances, prior notice to the MDI of certain material intercompany transfers of assets, as well as certain transactions between insurance companies, their parent companies and affiliates.

Under current Missouri insurance laws and regulations, unless (i) certain filings are made with the MDI, (ii) certain requirements are met, including a public hearing, and (iii) approval or exemption is granted by the Director of the MDI, no person may acquire any voting security or security convertible into a voting security of an insurance holding company, such as RGA, which controls a Missouri insurance company, or merge with such an insurance holding company, if as a result of such transaction such person would “control” the insurance holding company. “Control” is presumed to exist under Missouri law if a person directly or indirectly owns or controls 10% or more of the voting securities of another person. New model insurance holding company standards promulgated by the NAIC during 2010 will likely be adopted by the state of Missouri before the end of 2014 to require greater disclosure to regulators of matters within the RGA group of companies.

Restrictions on Dividends and Distributions

Current Missouri law, applicable to RCM, and its wholly-owned subsidiary, RGA Reinsurance, permits the payment of dividends or distributions which, together with dividends or distributions paid during the preceding twelve months, do not exceed the greater of (i) 10% of statutory capital and surplus as of the preceding December 31, or (ii) statutory net gain from operations for the preceding calendar year. Any proposed dividend in excess of this amount is considered an “extraordinary dividend” and may not be paid until it has been approved, or a 30-day waiting period has passed during which it has not been disapproved, by the Director of the MDI. Additionally, dividends may be paid only to the extent the insurer has unassigned surplus (as opposed to contributed surplus). Pursuant to these restrictions, RCM’s and RGA Reinsurance’s allowable dividends without prior approval for 2013 are approximately $169.2 million and $164.5 million, respectively. Any dividends paid by RGA Reinsurance would be paid to RCM, which in turn has the ability to pay dividends to RGA. The MDI allows RCM to pay a dividend to RGA to the extent RCM received the dividend from RGA Reinsurance, without limitation related to the level of unassigned surplus. Historically, RGA has not relied upon dividends from its subsidiaries to fund its obligations. However, the regulatory limitations described here could limit the Company’s financial flexibility in the future should it choose to or need to use subsidiary dividends as a funding source for its obligations.

 

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In contrast to current Missouri law, the NAIC Model Insurance Holding Company Act (the “Model Act”) defines an extraordinary dividend as a dividend or distribution which, together with dividends or distributions paid during the preceding twelve months, exceeds the lesser of (i) 10% of statutory capital and surplus as of the preceding December 31, or (ii) statutory net gain from operations for the preceding calendar year. The Company is unable to predict whether, when, or in what form Missouri will enact a new measure for extraordinary dividends.

Missouri insurance laws and regulations also require that the statutory surplus of RCM and RGA Reinsurance following any dividend or distribution be reasonable in relation to their outstanding liabilities and adequate to meet their financial needs. The Director of the MDI may call for a rescission of the payment of a dividend or distribution by RGA Reinsurance or RCM that would cause their statutory surplus to be inadequate under the standards of the Missouri insurance regulations.

Pursuant to the South Carolina Director of Insurance, Timberlake Re may declare dividends after June 2012 subject to a minimum Total Adjusted Capital threshold, as defined by the NAIC’s RBC regulation. As of December 31, 2012, Timberlake Re did not meet the minimum required threshold. Nevertheless, Timberlake Re may pay dividends in accordance with any filed request to make such payments if the South Carolina Director of Insurance has approved such request. Any dividends paid by Timberlake Re would be paid to Timberlake Financial, which in turn is subject to contractual limitations on the amount of dividends it can pay to RCM.

Dividend payments from other subsidiaries are subject to the regulations in the country of domicile, which are generally based on their earnings and/or capital level.

Default or Liquidation

In the event that RGA defaults on any of its debt or other obligations, or becomes the subject of bankruptcy, liquidation, or reorganization proceedings, the creditors and stockholders of RGA will have no right to proceed against the assets of any of the subsidiaries of RGA. If any of RGA’s reinsurance subsidiaries were to be liquidated or dissolved, the liquidation or dissolution would be conducted in accordance with the rules and regulations of the appropriate governing body in the state or country of the subsidiary’s domicile. The creditors of any such reinsurance company, including, without limitation, holders of its reinsurance agreements and state guaranty associations (if applicable), would be entitled to payment in full from such assets before RGA, as a direct or indirect stockholder, would be entitled to receive any distributions or other payments from the remaining assets of the liquidated or dissolved subsidiary.

Federal Regulation

With enactment of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act during 2010, discussions will continue in the Congress of the United States concerning the future of the McCarran-Ferguson Act, which exempts the “business of insurance” from most federal laws, including anti-trust laws, to the extent such business is subject to state regulation. With the McCarran-Ferguson Act exemption for the business of insurance, a reinsurer may set rate, underwriting and claims handling standards for its ceding company clients to follow. Judicial decisions narrowing the definition of what constitutes the “business of insurance” and repeal or modification of the McCarran-Ferguson Act may limit the ability of the Company, and RGA Reinsurance in particular, to share information with respect to matters such as rate setting, underwriting, and claims management. Likewise, discussions may again resume in the Congress of the United States concerning potential future regulation of insurance and reinsurance at the Federal level. It is not possible to predict the effect of such decisions or changes in the law on the operation of the Company, but it is now more likely than in the past that insurance or reinsurance may be regulated at the Federal level in the U.S. The impact of the U.S. Federal Government’s involvement in insurance or reinsurance regulation may have the effect of allowing foreign competitors to provide reinsurance to U.S. insurers with reduced collateral requirements. This may ultimately lower the cost at which RGA Reinsurance’s competitors are able to provide reinsurance to U.S. insurers. In addition, the vesting of authority in the U.S. Federal Reserve to review the solvency of certain financial institutions deemed systemically important could impose an additional layer of solvency regulation upon selected insurers and reinsurers. While it is not expected that any RGA entity would be deemed to be systemically important and become the subject to this additional scrutiny, the potential exists for one or more of RGA Re’s clients to be given the designation subjecting the client’s reinsurance programs to scrutiny by the Federal Reserve.

Environmental Considerations

Federal, state and local environmental laws and regulations apply to the Company’s ownership and operation of real property. Inherent in owning and operating real property are the risks of hidden environmental liabilities and the costs of any required clean-up. Under the laws of certain states, contamination of a property may give rise to a lien on the property to secure recovery of the costs of clean-up. In several states, this lien has priority over the lien of an existing mortgage against such property. In addition, in some states and under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (“CERCLA”), the Company may be liable, in certain circumstances, as an “owner” or “operator,” for costs of cleaning-up releases or threatened releases of hazardous substances at a property mortgaged to it. The Company

 

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also risks environmental liability when it forecloses on a property mortgaged to it, although Federal legislation provides for a safe harbor from CERCLA liability for secured lenders that foreclose and sell the mortgaged real estate, provided that certain requirements are met. However, there are circumstances in which actions taken could still expose the Company to CERCLA liability. Application of various other federal and state environmental laws could also result in the imposition of liability on the Company for costs associated with environmental hazards.

The Company routinely conducts environmental assessments prior to taking title to real estate through foreclosure on real estate collateralizing mortgages that it holds. Although unexpected environmental liabilities can always arise, the Company seeks to minimize this risk by undertaking these environmental assessments and complying with its internal procedures, and as a result, the Company believes that any costs associated with compliance with environmental laws and regulations or any clean-up of properties would not have a material adverse effect on the Company’s results of operations.

Underwriting

Facultative. The Company has developed underwriting policies, procedures and standards with the objective of controlling the quality of business written as well as its pricing. The Company’s underwriting process emphasizes close collaboration between its underwriting, actuarial, and administration departments. Management periodically updates these underwriting policies, procedures, and standards to account for changing industry conditions, market developments, and changes occurring in the field of medical technology. These policies, procedures, and standards are documented in electronic underwriting manuals made available to all the Company’s underwriters. The Company regularly performs internal reviews of both its underwriters and underwriting process.

The Company’s management determines whether to accept facultative reinsurance business on a prospective insured by reviewing the application, medical information and other underwriting information appropriate to the age of the prospective insured and the face amount of the application. An assessment of medical and financial history follows with decisions based on underwriting knowledge, manual review and consultation with the Company’s medical directors as necessary. Many facultative applications involve individuals with multiple medical impairments, such as heart disease, high blood pressure, and diabetes, which require a complex underwriting/mortality assessment. The Company employs medical directors and medical consultants to assist its underwriters in making these assessments.

Automatic. The Company’s management determines whether to write automatic reinsurance business by considering many factors, including the types of risks to be covered; the ceding company’s retention limit and binding authority, product, and pricing assumptions; and the ceding company’s underwriting standards, financial strength and distribution systems. For automatic business, the Company ensures that the underwriting standards, procedures and guidelines of its ceding companies are priced appropriately and consistent with the Company’s expectations. To this end, the Company conducts periodic reviews of the ceding companies’ underwriting and claims personnel and procedures.

Pricing

Automatic and Facultative. The Company has pricing actuaries dedicated in every geographic market and in every product category who develop reinsurance treaty rates following the Company’s policies, procedures and standards. Pricing is based on the Company’s own mortality and persistency experience with $2.9 trillion of life reinsurance in force. This experience provides a robust database on which to base mortality and lapse assumptions. Pricing also takes into account industry and client-specific experience. Management has established a high-level oversight of the processes and results of these activities, which includes peer reviews in every market as well as centralized procedures and processes for reviewing and auditing pricing activities.

Operations

Generally, the Company’s business has been obtained directly, rather than through brokers. The Company has an experienced sales and marketing staff that works to provide responsive service and maintain existing relationships.

The Company’s administration, auditing, valuation and finance departments are responsible for treaty compliance auditing, financial analysis of results, generation of internal management reports, and periodic audits of administrative and underwriting practices. A significant effort is focused on periodic audits of administrative and underwriting practices, and treaty compliance of clients.

The Company’s claims departments review and verify reinsurance claims, obtain the information necessary to evaluate claims, and arrange for timely claims payments. Claims are subjected to a detailed review process to ensure that the risk was properly ceded, the claim complies with the contract provisions, and the ceding company is current in the payment of reinsurance premiums to the Company. In addition, the claims departments monitor both specific claims and the overall claims handling procedures of ceding companies.

 

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Customer Base

The Company provides reinsurance products primarily to the largest life insurance companies in the world. In 2012, the Company’s five largest clients generated approximately $1,913.5 million or 23.2% of the Company’s gross premiums. In addition, 16 other clients each generated annual gross premiums of $100.0 million or more, and the aggregate gross premiums from these clients represented approximately 29.4% of the Company’s gross premiums. No individual client generated 10% or more of the Company’s total gross premiums. For the purpose of this disclosure, companies that are within the same insurance holding company structure are combined.

Competition

Reinsurers compete on the basis of many factors, including financial strength, pricing and other terms and conditions of reinsurance agreements, reputation, service, and experience in the types of business underwritten. The Company’s competition includes other reinsurance companies as well as other providers of financial services. The Company believes that its primary competitors on a global basis are currently the following, or their affiliates: Munich Re, Swiss Re, Hannover Re, SCOR Global Re and Generali. However, within the reinsurance industry, this can change from year to year.

Employees

As of December 31, 2012, the Company had 1,766 employees located throughout the world. None of these employees are represented by a labor union.

 

C.

Segments

The Company obtains substantially all of its revenues through reinsurance agreements that cover a portfolio of life and health insurance products, including term life, credit life, universal life, whole life, group life and health, joint and last survivor insurance, critical illness, disability income as well as asset-intensive (e.g., annuities) and financial reinsurance. Generally, the Company, through various subsidiaries, has provided reinsurance for mortality, morbidity, and lapse risks associated with such products. With respect to asset-intensive products, the Company has also provided reinsurance for investment-related risks.

The following table sets forth the Company’s premiums attributable to each of its segments for the periods indicated on both a gross assumed basis and net of premiums ceded to third parties:

Gross and Net Premiums by Segment

(in millions)

 

     Year Ended December 31,  
     2012      2011      2010  
     Amount      % of Total      Amount      % of Total      Amount      % of Total  

Gross Premiums:

                 

U.S.

   $         4,525.0         55.0 %        $ 4,189.7                 54.4 %        $         3,993.7         55.4 %    

Canada

     968.6         11.8             940.1         12.2             1,077.8         15.0       

Europe & South Africa

     1,338.0         16.2             1,224.4         15.9             950.9         13.2       

Asia Pacific

     1,391.8         16.9             1,341.3         17.4             1,170.7         16.3       

Corporate and Other

     9.2         0.1             8.7         0.1             7.8         0.1       
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

   $ 8,232.6         100.0 %        $ 7,704.2         100.0 %        $ 7,200.9                 100.0 %    
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Net Premiums:

                 

U.S.

   $ 4,322.9         54.7 %        $ 3,992.7         54.4 %        $ 3,797.1         57.0 %    

Canada

     915.7         11.6             835.3         11.4             797.2         12.0       

Europe & South Africa

     1,308.5         16.5             1,194.5         16.3             918.5         13.8       

Asia Pacific

     1,350.3         17.1             1,304.5         17.8             1,139.1         17.1       

Corporate and Other

     9.2         0.1             8.7         0.1             7.8         0.1       
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

   $ 7,906.6                 100.0 %        $         7,335.7         100.0 %        $ 6,659.7         100.0 %    
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

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The following table sets forth selected information concerning assumed life reinsurance business in force by segment for the periods indicated. The term “in force” refers to insurance policy face amounts or net amounts at risk.

Reinsurance Business In Force by Segment

(in billions)

 

     As of December 31,  
     2012      2011      2010  
     Amount      % of Total      Amount      % of Total      Amount      % of Total  

U.S.

   $         1,395.6         47.7 %        $         1,348.5         50.6 %        $         1,340.5         52.8 %    

Canada

     389.7         13.3             344.9         12.9             324.1         12.8       

Europe & South Africa

     602.5         20.6             513.4         19.3             467.6         18.4       

Asia Pacific

     539.8         18.4             457.6         17.2             408.1         16.0       
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

   $ 2,927.6                 100.0 %        $ 2,664.4                 100.0 %        $ 2,540.3                 100.0 %    
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Reinsurance business in force reflects the addition or acquisition of new life reinsurance business, offset by terminations (e.g., life and group contract terminations, lapses of underlying policies, deaths of insureds, and recapture), changes in foreign exchange, and any other changes in the amount of insurance in force. As a result of terminations and other changes, assumed in force amounts at risk of $163.4 billion, $304.8 billion, and $112.4 billion were released in 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively. In 2011, the Asia Pacific segment experienced significant production relative to group business in Australia somewhat offset by the termination of group contracts.

The following table sets forth selected information concerning assumed new business volume by segment for the indicated periods. The term “volume” refers to insurance policy face amounts or net amounts at risk.

New Business Volume by Segment

(in billions)

 

     Year Ended December 31,  
     2012      2011      2010  
     Amount      % of Total      Amount      % of Total      Amount      % of Total  

U.S.

   $         151.4         35.5 %        $         110.5         25.8 %        $         142.2         43.4 %    

Canada

     49.0         11.5             51.1         11.9             51.1         15.6       

Europe & South Africa

     136.0         31.9             148.3         34.6             103.6         31.6       

Asia Pacific

     90.2         21.1             119.0         27.7             30.7         9.4       
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

   $ 426.6                 100.0 %        $ 428.9                 100.0 %        $ 327.6                 100.0 %    
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Additional information regarding the operations of the Company’s segments and geographic operations is contained in Note 15 – “Segment Information” in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

U.S. Operations

The U.S. operations represented 54.7%, 54.4% and 57.0% of the Company’s net premiums in 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively. The U.S. operations market traditional life and health reinsurance, reinsurance of asset-intensive products, and financial reinsurance, primarily to large U.S. life insurance companies.

Traditional Reinsurance

The U.S. Traditional sub-segment provides life and health reinsurance to domestic clients for a variety of products through yearly renewable term agreements, coinsurance, and modified coinsurance. This business has been accepted under many different rate scales, with rates often tailored to suit the underlying product and the needs of the ceding company. Premiums typically vary for smokers and non-smokers, males and females, and may include a preferred underwriting class discount. Reinsurance premiums are paid in accordance with the treaty, regardless of the premium mode for the underlying primary insurance. This business is made up of facultative and automatic treaty business. In 2010, the Company acquired Reliastar Life Insurance Company’s group life and health reinsurance business, expanding the U.S. Traditional sub-segment’s products.

Automatic business is generated pursuant to treaties which generally require that the underlying policies meet the ceding company’s underwriting criteria, although in certain cases such policies may be rated substandard. In contrast to facultative reinsurance, reinsurers do not engage in underwriting assessments of each risk assumed through an automatic treaty.

 

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As the Company does not apply its underwriting standards to each policy ceded to it under automatic treaties, the U.S. operations generally require ceding companies to retain a portion of the business written on an automatic basis, thereby increasing the ceding companies’ incentives to underwrite risks with due care and, when appropriate, to contest claims diligently.

The U.S. facultative reinsurance operation involves the assessment of the risks inherent in (i) multiple impairments, such as heart disease, high blood pressure, and diabetes; (ii) cases involving large policy face amounts; and (iii) financial risk cases, i.e., cases involving policies disproportionately large in relation to the financial characteristics of the proposed insured. The U.S. operations’ marketing efforts have focused on developing facultative relationships with client companies because management believes facultative reinsurance represents a substantial segment of the reinsurance activity of many large insurance companies and also serves as an effective means of expanding the U.S. operations’ automatic business. In 2012, 2011 and 2010, approximately 20.4%, 20.4%, and 20.6%, respectively, of the U.S. gross premiums were written on a facultative basis.

Only a portion of approved facultative applications ultimately result in reinsurance, as applicants for impaired risk policies often submit applications to several primary insurers, which in turn seek facultative reinsurance from several reinsurers. Ultimately, only one insurance company and one reinsurer are likely to obtain the business. The Company tracks the percentage of declined and placed facultative applications on a client-by-client basis and generally works with clients to seek to maintain such percentages at levels deemed acceptable. As the Company applies its underwriting standards to each application submitted to it facultatively, it generally does not require ceding companies to retain a portion of the underlying risk when business is written on a facultative basis.

In addition, several of the Company’s U.S. clients have purchased life insurance policies insuring the lives of their executives. These policies have generally been issued to fund deferred compensation plans and have been reinsured with the Company. The Company’s consolidated balance sheets included interest-sensitive contract reserves of $1.3 billion as of both December 31, 2012 and 2011, and policy loans of $1.3 billion and $1.2 billion as of December 31, 2012 and 2011, respectively, associated with this business.

Asset-Intensive Reinsurance

Asset-intensive reinsurance primarily concentrates on the investment risk within underlying annuities and corporate-owned life insurance policies. These reinsurance agreements are mostly structured as coinsurance, coinsurance with funds withheld, or modified coinsurance of primarily investment risk such that the Company recognizes profits or losses primarily from the spread between the investment earnings and the interest credited on the underlying annuity contract liabilities. Reinsurance of such business was reflected in interest-sensitive contract liabilities of approximately $11.5 billion and $6.9 billion as of December 31, 2012 and 2011, respectively. The increase in 2012 was associated with a large fixed annuity transaction executed in the second quarter of 2012.

Annuities are normally limited by the size of the deposit from any single depositor. The Company also reinsures certain indexed annuities, variable annuity products that contain guaranteed minimum death or living benefits and corporate-owned life insurance products. Corporate-owned life insurance normally involves a large number of insureds associated with each deposit, and the Company’s underwriting guidelines limit the size of any single deposit. The individual policies associated with any single deposit are typically issued within pre-set guaranteed issue parameters.

The Company primarily targets highly-rated, financially secure companies as clients for asset-intensive business. These companies may wish to limit their own exposure to certain products. Ongoing asset/liability analysis is required for the management of asset-intensive business. The Company performs this analysis internally, in conjunction with asset/liability analysis performed by the ceding companies.

Financial Reinsurance

The Company’s U.S. Financial Reinsurance sub-segment assists ceding companies in meeting applicable regulatory requirements while enhancing their financial strength and regulatory surplus position. The Company commits cash or assumes regulatory insurance liabilities from the ceding companies. Generally, such amounts are offset by receivables from ceding companies that are repaid by the future profits from the reinsured block of business. The Company structures its financial reinsurance transactions so that the projected future profits of the underlying reinsured business significantly exceed the amount of regulatory surplus provided to the ceding company.

The Company primarily targets highly-rated insurance companies for financial reinsurance due to the credit risk associated with this business. A careful analysis is performed before providing any regulatory surplus enhancement to the ceding company. This analysis is intended to ensure that the Company understands the risks of the underlying insurance product and that the transaction has a high likelihood of being repaid through the future profits of the underlying business. If the future profits of the business are not sufficient to repay the Company or if the ceding company becomes financially

 

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distressed and is unable to make payments under the treaty, the Company may incur losses. A staff of actuaries and accountants track experience for each treaty on a quarterly basis in comparison to models of expected results.

Customer Base

The U.S. operations market life reinsurance primarily to the largest U.S. life insurance companies. The Company estimates that approximately 90 of the top 100 U.S. life insurance companies, based on premiums, are clients. The treaties underlying this business generally are terminable by either party on 90 days written notice, but only with respect to future new business. Existing business generally is not terminable, unless the underlying policies terminate or are recaptured. In 2012, the five largest clients generated approximately $1,511.4 million or 33.4% of U.S. operation’s gross premiums. In addition, 39 other clients each generated annual gross premiums of $20.0 million or more, and the aggregate gross premiums from these clients represented approximately 55.6% of U.S. operation’s gross premiums. For the purpose of this disclosure, companies that are within the same insurance holding company structure are combined.

Canada Operations

The Canada operations represented 11.6%, 11.4%, and 12.0% of the Company’s net premiums in 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively. In 2012, this segment assumed $49.0 billion in new business, predominately representing recurring new business, as opposed to in force transactions. Approximately 83.6% of the 2012 recurring new business was written on an automatic basis.

The Company operates in Canada primarily through RGA Canada, a wholly-owned subsidiary. RGA Canada is a leading life reinsurer in Canada, based on new individual life insurance production. It assists clients with capital management and mortality and morbidity risk management and is primarily engaged in traditional individual life reinsurance, as well as creditor, group life and health, critical illness, and longevity reinsurance. Creditor insurance covers the outstanding balance on personal, mortgage or commercial loans in the event of death, disability or critical illness and is generally shorter in duration than traditional life insurance.

Clients include most of the life insurers in Canada, although the number of life insurers is much smaller compared to the U.S. In 2012, the five largest clients generated approximately $513.9 million or 53.1% of Canada operation’s gross premiums. In addition, nine other clients each generated annual gross premiums of $20.0 million or more, and the aggregate gross premiums from these clients represented approximately 37.2% of Canada operation’s gross premiums. For the purpose of this disclosure, companies that are within the same insurance holding company structure are combined.

RGA Canada employs its own underwriting, actuarial, claims, pricing, accounting, systems, marketing and administrative staff in offices located in Montreal and Toronto.

Europe & South Africa Operations

The Europe & South Africa operations represented 16.5%, 16.3%, and 13.8% of the Company’s net premiums in 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively. This segment serves clients from subsidiaries, licensed branch offices and/or representative offices located in France, Germany, India, Ireland, Italy, Mexico, the Netherlands, Poland, South Africa, Spain, the UAE and the UK. These offices operate primarily through the Company’s subsidiaries RGA International and RGA South Africa.

The principal types of reinsurance for this segment include life and health products through yearly renewable term and coinsurance agreements, the reinsurance of critical illness coverage that provides a benefit in the event of the diagnosis of a pre-defined critical illness and the reinsurance of longevity risk related to payout annuities. The reinsurance agreements of critical illness coverage may be either facultative or automatic agreements. Premiums earned from critical illness coverage represented 19.0% of the total net premiums for this segment in 2012.

In 2012, the UK operations generated approximately $816.9 million, or 61.1% of the segment’s gross premiums. In 2012, the five largest clients generated approximately $671.5 million or 50.2% of Europe & South Africa operation’s gross premiums. In addition, nine other clients each generated annual gross premiums of $20.0 million or more, and the aggregate gross premiums from these clients represented approximately 23.0% of Europe & South Africa operation’s gross premiums. For the purpose of this disclosure, companies that are within the same insurance holding company structure are combined.

RGA’s operations in the UK, Continental Europe, South Africa, India and Mexico employ their own underwriting, actuarial, claims, pricing, accounting, marketing, and administration staffs with additional support provided by the Company’s corporate staff in the U.S. Divisional management through RGA International Corporation, based in Toronto, also provides services for these and other international markets.

 

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Asia Pacific Operations

The Asia Pacific operations represented 17.1%, 17.8%, and 17.1% of the Company’s net premiums in 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively. The Company has a presence in the Asia Pacific region with licensed branch offices and/or representative offices in Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, New Zealand, Labuan (Malaysia) and China. The Company also established a reinsurance subsidiary in Australia in January 1996.

The principal types of reinsurance for this segment include life, critical illness, health, disability income, superannuation, and financial reinsurance. Superannuation is the Australian government mandated compulsory retirement savings program. Superannuation funds accumulate retirement funds for employees, and in addition, offer life and disability insurance coverage. Reinsurance agreements may be either facultative or automatic agreements covering primarily individual risks and, in some markets, group risks. Premiums earned from critical illness coverage represented 16.6% of the total net premiums for this segment in 2012.

The Australian operations generated approximately $730.9 million, or 52.5% of the total gross premiums for the Asia Pacific operations in 2012. In 2012, the five largest clients generated approximately $551.0 million or 39.6% of Asia Pacific operation’s gross premiums. In addition, 15 other clients each generated annual gross premiums of $20.0 million or more, and the aggregate gross premiums from these clients represented approximately 40.0% of Asia Pacific operation’s gross premiums. For the purpose of this disclosure, companies that are within the same insurance holding company structure are combined.

The Hong Kong, Labuan, Japan, Taiwan, China and South Korea offices provide full reinsurance services and are supported by the Company’s U.S. and International Division Sydney office. RGA Australia employs its own underwriting, actuarial, claims, pricing, accounting, systems, marketing, and administration service with additional support provided by the Company’s U.S. and International Division Sydney offices.

Corporate and Other

Corporate and Other operations include investment income from invested assets not allocated to support segment operations and undeployed proceeds from the Company’s capital raising efforts, in addition to unallocated investment related gains or losses. Corporate expenses consist of the offset to capital charges allocated to the operating segments within the policy acquisition costs and other insurance expenses line item, unallocated overhead and executive costs, and interest expense related to debt. Additionally, Corporate and Other includes results from, among others, RGA Technology Partners, Inc. (“RTP”), a wholly-owned subsidiary that develops and markets technology solutions for the insurance industry and the investment income and expense associated with the Company’s collateral finance facilities.

 

D.

Financial Information About Foreign Operations

The Company’s foreign operations are primarily in Canada, the Asia Pacific region, Europe, and South Africa. Revenue, income (loss) before income taxes, which include investment related gains (losses), interest expense, depreciation and amortization, and identifiable assets attributable to these geographic regions are identified in Note 15 – “Segment Information” in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements. Although there are risks inherent to foreign operations, such as currency fluctuations and restrictions on the movement of funds, as described in Item 1A – “Risk Factors”, the Company’s financial position and results of operations have not been materially adversely affected thereby to date.

 

E.

Available Information

Copies of the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports are available free of charge through the Company’s website (www.rgare.com) as soon as reasonably practicable after the Company electronically files such reports with the Securities and Exchange Commission (www.sec.gov). Information provided on such websites does not constitute part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

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Item 1A.         RISK FACTORS

In the Risk Factors below, we refer to the Company as “we,” “us,” or “our”. Investing in our securities involves certain risks. Any of the following risks could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, or financial condition and could result in a loss of your investment. These risks are not exclusive, and additional risks to which we are subject include, but are not limited to, the factors mentioned under “Forward-Looking and Cautionary Statements” in Item 7 below and the risks of our businesses described elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Additional risks that are not currently known to us or that we currently believe are immaterial may adversely affect our businesses, results of operations, financial condition or liquidity. Many of these risks are interrelated and occur under similar business and economic conditions, and the occurrence of certain of them may in turn cause the emergence, or exacerbate the effect, of others. Such a combination could materially increase the severity of the impact on our operations, liquidity and financial condition.

Risks Related to Our Business

A downgrade in our ratings or in the ratings of our reinsurance subsidiaries could adversely affect our ability to compete.

Our financial strength and credit ratings are important factors in our competitive position. Rating organizations periodically review the financial performance and condition of insurers, including our reinsurance subsidiaries. These ratings are based on an insurance company’s ability to pay its obligations and are not directed toward the protection of investors. Rating organizations assign ratings based upon several factors. While most of the factors considered relate to the rated company, some of the factors relate to general economic conditions and circumstances outside the rated company’s control. The various rating agencies periodically review and evaluate our capital adequacy in accordance with their established guidelines and capital models. In order to maintain our existing ratings, we may commit from time to time to manage our capital at levels commensurate with such guidelines and models. If our capital levels are insufficient to fulfill any such commitments, we could be required to reduce our risk profile by, for example, retroceding some of our business or by raising additional capital by issuing debt, hybrid, or equity securities. Any such actions could have a material adverse impact on our earnings or materially dilute our shareholders’ equity ownership interests.

Any downgrade in the ratings of our reinsurance subsidiaries could adversely affect their ability to sell products, retain existing business, and compete for attractive acquisition opportunities. Ratings are subject to revision or withdrawal at any time by the assigning rating organization. A rating is not a recommendation to buy, sell or hold securities, and each rating should be evaluated independently of any other rating. We believe that the rating agencies consider the ratings of a parent company when assigning a rating to a subsidiary of that company. The ability of our subsidiaries to write reinsurance partially depends on their financial condition and is influenced by their ratings. In addition, a downgrade in the rating or outlook of RGA, among other factors, could adversely affect our ability to raise and then contribute capital to our subsidiaries for the purpose of facilitating their operations and growth. A downgrade could also increase our own cost of capital. For example, the facility fee and interest rate for our syndicated revolving credit facility are based on our senior long-term debt ratings. A decrease in those ratings could result in an increase in costs for that credit facility and others. Also, if there is a downgrade in the rating of RGA, or any of our rated subsidiaries, some of our reinsurance contracts would require us to post collateral to secure our obligations under these reinsurance contracts. Accordingly, we believe a ratings downgrade of RGA, or any of our rated subsidiaries, could have a negative effect on our ability to conduct business.

We cannot assure you that actions taken by ratings agencies would not result in a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations. In addition, it is unclear what effect, if any, a ratings change would have on the price of our securities in the secondary market.

We make assumptions when pricing our products relating to mortality, morbidity, lapsation, investment returns and expenses, and significant deviations in experience could negatively affect our financial results.

Our life reinsurance contracts expose us to mortality risk, which is the risk that the level of death claims may differ from that which we assumed in pricing our reinsurance contracts. Some of our reinsurance contracts expose us to morbidity risk, which is the risk that an insured person will become critically ill or disabled. Our risk analysis and underwriting processes are designed with the objective of controlling the quality of the business and establishing appropriate pricing for the risks we assume. Among other things, these processes rely heavily on our underwriting, our analysis of mortality and morbidity trends, lapse rates, expenses and our understanding of medical impairments and their effect on mortality or morbidity.

We expect mortality, morbidity and lapse experience to fluctuate somewhat from period to period, but believe they should remain reasonably predictable over a period of many years. Mortality, morbidity or lapse experience that is less favorable than the mortality, morbidity or lapse rates that we used in pricing a reinsurance agreement will negatively affect our net income because the premiums we receive for the risks we assume may not be sufficient to cover the claims and profit

 

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margin. Furthermore, even if the total benefits paid over the life of the contract do not exceed the expected amount, unexpected increases in the incidence of deaths or illness can cause us to pay more benefits in a given reporting period than expected, adversely affecting our net income in any particular reporting period. Likewise, adverse experience could impair our ability to offset certain unamortized deferred acquisition costs and adversely affect our net income in any particular reporting period. We perform annual tests to establish that deferred policy acquisition costs remain recoverable at all times. These tests require us to make a significant number of assumptions. If our financial performance significantly deteriorates to the point where a premium deficiency exists, a cumulative charge to current operations will be recorded which may adversely affect our net income in a particular reporting period.

RGA is an insurance holding company, and our ability to pay principal, interest and/or dividends on securities is limited.

RGA is an insurance holding company, with our principal assets consisting of the stock of our reinsurance company subsidiaries, and substantially all of our income is derived from those subsidiaries. Our ability to pay principal and interest on any debt securities or dividends on any preferred or common stock depends, in part, on the ability of our reinsurance company subsidiaries, our principal sources of cash flow, to declare and distribute dividends or to advance money to RGA. We are not permitted to pay common stock dividends or make payments of interest or principal on securities which rank equal or junior to our subordinated debentures and junior subordinated debentures, until we pay any accrued and unpaid interest on such debentures. Our reinsurance company subsidiaries are subject to various statutory and regulatory restrictions, applicable to insurance companies generally, that limit the amount of cash dividends, loans and advances that those subsidiaries may pay to us. Covenants contained in some of our debt agreements and regulations relating to capital requirements affecting some of our more significant subsidiaries also restrict the ability of certain subsidiaries to pay dividends and other distributions and make loans to us. In addition, we cannot assure you that more stringent dividend restrictions will not be adopted, as discussed below under “Our reinsurance subsidiaries are highly regulated, and changes in these regulations could negatively affect our business.”

As a result of our insurance holding company structure, in the event of the insolvency, liquidation, reorganization, dissolution or other winding-up of one of our reinsurance subsidiaries, all creditors of that subsidiary would be entitled to payment in full out of the assets of such subsidiary before we, as shareholder, would be entitled to any payment. Our subsidiaries would have to pay their direct creditors in full before our creditors, including holders of any class of common stock, preferred stock or debt securities of RGA, could receive any payment from the assets of such subsidiaries.

If our investment strategy is unsuccessful, we could suffer losses.

The success of our investment strategy is crucial to the success of our business. In particular, we structure our investments to match our anticipated liabilities under reinsurance treaties to the extent we believe necessary. If our calculations with respect to these reinsurance liabilities are incorrect, or if we improperly structure our investments to match such liabilities, we could be forced to liquidate investments prior to maturity at a significant loss.

Our investment guidelines permit us to invest up to 10% of our investment portfolio in non-investment grade fixed maturity securities. Those guidelines also permit us to make and invest in commercial mortgage loans. While any investment carries some risk, the risks associated with lower-rated securities are greater than the risks associated with investment grade securities. The risk of loss of principal or interest through default is greater because lower-rated securities are usually unsecured and are often subordinated to an issuer’s other obligations. Additionally, the issuers of these securities frequently have relatively high debt levels and are thus more sensitive to difficult economic conditions, specific corporate developments and rising interest rates, which could impair an issuer’s capacity or willingness to meet its financial commitment on such lower-rated securities. As a result, the market price of these securities may be quite volatile, and the risk of loss is greater.

The success of any investment activity is affected by general economic conditions, which may adversely affect the markets for interest-rate-sensitive securities, mortgages and equity securities, including the level and volatility of interest rates and the extent and timing of investor participation in such markets. Unexpected volatility or illiquidity in the markets in which we directly or indirectly hold positions could adversely affect us. For additional information on risks related to our investments, see “Risks Related to Our Investments” below.

Interest rate fluctuations could negatively affect the income we derive from the difference between the interest rates we earn on our investments and interest we pay under our reinsurance contracts.

Significant changes in interest rates expose reinsurance companies to the risk of reduced investment income or actual losses based on the difference between the interest rates earned on investments and the credited interest rates paid on outstanding reinsurance contracts. Both rising and declining interest rates can negatively affect the income we derive from these interest rate spreads. During periods of rising interest rates, we may be contractually obligated to reimburse our clients for the greater amounts they credit on certain interest-sensitive products. However, we may not have the ability to

 

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immediately acquire investments with interest rates sufficient to offset the increased crediting rates on our reinsurance contracts. During periods of falling interest rates, our investment earnings will be lower because new investments in fixed maturity securities will likely bear lower interest rates. We may not be able to fully offset the decline in investment earnings with lower crediting rates on underlying annuity products related to certain of our reinsurance contracts. Our asset/liability management programs and procedures may not reduce the volatility of our income when interest rates are rising or falling, and thus we cannot assure you that changes in interest rates will not affect our interest rate spreads.

Changes in interest rates may also affect our business in other ways. Higher interest rates may result in increased surrenders on interest-based products of our clients which may affect our fees and our earnings on those products. Lower interest rates may result in lower sales of certain insurance and investment products of our customers, which would reduce the demand for our reinsurance of these products. In December 2012, U.S. Federal Reserve officials indicated that economic conditions in the U.S. would likely warrant an exceptionally low federal funds rate until at least 2014. If interest rates remain low for an extended period of time, it may affect our results of operations, financial position and cash flows.

The availability and cost of collateral, including letters of credit, asset trusts and other credit facilities, could adversely affect our operations and financial condition.

Regulatory reserve requirements in various jurisdictions in which we operate may be significantly higher than the reserves required under GAAP. Accordingly, we reinsure, or retrocede, business to affiliated and unaffiliated reinsurers to reduce the amount of regulatory reserves and capital we are required to hold in certain jurisdictions. A regulation in the United States, commonly referred to as Regulation XXX, requires a relatively high level of regulatory, or statutory, reserves that U.S. life insurance and life reinsurance companies must hold on their statutory financial statements for various types of life insurance business, primarily certain level term life products. The reserve levels required under Regulation XXX increase over time and are normally in excess of reserves required under GAAP. The degree to which these reserves will increase and the ultimate level of reserves will depend upon the mix of our business and future production levels in the United States. Based on the assumed rate of growth in our current business plan, and the increasing level of regulatory reserves associated with some of this business, we expect the amount of required regulatory reserves to grow significantly.

In order to reduce the effect of Regulation XXX, our principal U.S. operating subsidiary, RGA Reinsurance Company, has retroceded Regulation XXX-related reserves to affiliated and unaffiliated reinsurers. Additionally, some of our reinsurance subsidiaries in other jurisdictions enter into various reinsurance arrangements with affiliated and unaffiliated reinsurers from time to time in order to reduce statutory capital and reserve requirements. We retrocede business to our affiliates to help reduce the amount of regulatory capital required in certain jurisdictions, such as the U.S. and the UK. The capital required to support the business in the affiliates reflects more realistic expectations than the original jurisdiction of the business, where capital requirements are often considered to be quite conservative. As a general matter, for us to reduce regulatory reserves on business that we retrocede, the affiliated or unaffiliated reinsurer must provide an equal amount of collateral. Such collateral may be provided through a capital markets securitization, in the form of a letter of credit from a commercial bank or through the placement of assets in trust for our benefit.

In connection with these reserve requirements, we face the following risks:

 

   

The availability of collateral and the related cost of such collateral in the future could affect the type and volume of business we reinsure and could increase our costs.

 

   

We may need to raise additional capital to support higher regulatory reserves, which could increase our overall cost of capital.

 

   

If we, or our retrocessionaires, are unable to obtain or provide sufficient collateral to support our statutory ceded reserves, we may be required to increase regulatory reserves. In turn, this reserve increase could significantly reduce our statutory capital levels and adversely affect our ability to satisfy required regulatory capital levels, unless we are able to raise additional capital to contribute to our operating subsidiaries.

 

   

Because term life insurance is a particularly price-sensitive product, any increase in insurance premiums charged on these products by life insurance companies, in order to compensate them for the increased statutory reserve requirements or higher costs of insurance they face, may result in a significant loss of volume in their life insurance operations, which could, in turn, adversely affect our life reinsurance operations.

We cannot assure you that we will be able to implement actions to mitigate the effect of increasing regulatory reserve requirements.

 

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We could be forced to sell investments at a loss to cover policyholder withdrawals, recaptures of reinsurance treaties or other events.

Some of the products offered by our insurance company customers allow policyholders and contract holders to withdraw their funds under defined circumstances. Our reinsurance subsidiaries manage their liabilities and configure their investment portfolios so as to provide and maintain sufficient liquidity to support anticipated withdrawal demands and contract benefits and maturities under reinsurance treaties with these customers. While our reinsurance subsidiaries own a significant amount of liquid assets, a portion of their assets are relatively illiquid. Unanticipated withdrawal or surrender activity could, under some circumstances, require our reinsurance subsidiaries to dispose of assets on unfavorable terms, which could have an adverse effect on us. Reinsurance agreements may provide for recapture rights on the part of our insurance company customers. Recapture rights permit these customers to reassume all or a portion of the risk formerly ceded to us after an agreed upon time, usually ten years, subject to various conditions.

Recapture of business previously ceded does not affect premiums ceded prior to the recapture, but may result in immediate payments to our insurance company customers and a charge to income for costs that we deferred when we acquired the business but are unable to recover upon recapture. Under some circumstances, payments to our insurance company customers could require our reinsurance subsidiaries to dispose of assets on unfavorable terms.

Changes in the equity markets, interest rates and/or volatility affects the profitability of variable annuities with guaranteed living benefits that we reinsure; therefore, such changes may have a material adverse effect on our business and profitability.

We reinsure variable annuity products that include guaranteed minimum living benefits. These include guaranteed minimum withdrawal benefits (“GMWB”), guaranteed minimum accumulation benefits (“GMAB”) and guaranteed minimum income benefits (“GMIB”). The amount of reserves related to these benefits is based on their fair value and is affected by changes in equity markets, interest rates and volatility. Accordingly, strong equity markets, increases in interest rates and decreases in volatility will generally decrease the fair value of the liabilities underlying the benefits.

Conversely, a decrease in the equity markets along with a decrease in interest rates and an increase in volatility will generally result in an increase in the fair value of the liabilities underlying the benefits, which has the effect of increasing the amount of reserves that we must carry. Such an increase in reserves would result in a charge to our earnings in the quarter in which we increase our reserves. We maintain a customized dynamic hedge program that is designed to mitigate the risks associated with income volatility around the change in reserves on guaranteed benefits. However, the hedge positions may not be effective to exactly offset the changes in the carrying value of the guarantees due to, among other things, the time lag between changes in their values and corresponding changes in the hedge positions, high levels of volatility in the equity markets and derivatives markets, extreme swings in interest rates, contract holder behavior different than expected, and divergence between the performance of the underlying funds and hedging indices. These factors, individually or collectively, may have a material adverse effect on our net income, capital levels, financial condition or liquidity.

We are exposed to foreign currency risk.

We are a multi-national company with operations in numerous countries and, as a result, are exposed to foreign currency risk to the extent that exchange rates of foreign currencies are subject to adverse change over time. The U.S. dollar value of our net investments in foreign operations, our foreign currency transaction settlements and the periodic conversion of the foreign-denominated earnings to U.S. dollars (our reporting currency) are each subject to adverse foreign exchange rate movements. Approximately 40% of our revenues and 30% of our fixed maturity securities available for sale were denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar as of and for the year ended December 31, 2012. We use foreign denominated revenues and investments to fund foreign denominated expenses and liabilities when possible to mitigate exposure to foreign currency fluctuations.

We depend on the performance of others, and their failure to perform in a satisfactory manner would negatively affect us.

In the normal course of business, we seek to limit our exposure to losses from our reinsurance contracts by ceding a portion of the reinsurance to other insurance enterprises or retrocessionaires. We cannot assure you that these insurance enterprises or retrocessionaires will be able to fulfill their obligations to us. As of December 31, 2012, the retrocession pool members participating in our excess retention pool that have been reviewed by A.M. Best Company, were rated “A-”, the fourth highest rating out of fifteen possible ratings, or better except for one pool member that was rated “B++.” We are also subject to the risk that our clients will be unable to fulfill their obligations to us under our reinsurance agreements with them.

We rely upon our insurance company clients to provide timely, accurate information. We may experience volatility in our earnings as a result of erroneous or untimely reporting from our clients. We work closely with our clients and monitor

 

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their reporting to minimize this risk. We also rely on original underwriting decisions made by our clients. We cannot assure you that these processes or those of our clients will adequately control business quality or establish appropriate pricing.

For some reinsurance agreements, the ceding company withholds and legally owns and manages assets equal to the net statutory reserves, and we reflect these assets as funds withheld at interest on our balance sheet. In the event that a ceding company was to become insolvent, we would need to assert a claim on the assets supporting our reserve liabilities. We attempt to mitigate our risk of loss by offsetting amounts for claims or allowances that we owe the ceding company with amounts that the ceding company owes to us. We are subject to the investment performance on the withheld assets, although we do not directly control them. We help to set, and monitor compliance with, the investment guidelines followed by these ceding companies. However, to the extent that such investment guidelines are not appropriate, or to the extent that the ceding companies do not adhere to such guidelines, our risk of loss could increase, which could materially adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. During 2012, interest earned on funds withheld represented 4.0% of our consolidated revenues. Funds withheld at interest totaled $5.6 billion and $5.4 billion at December 31, 2012 and 2011, respectively.

We use the services of third-party investment managers to manage certain assets where our investment management expertise is limited. We rely on these investment managers to provide investment advice and execute investment transactions that are within our investment policy guidelines. Poor performance on the part of our outside investment managers could negatively affect our financial performance.

As with all financial services companies, our ability to conduct business depends on consumer confidence in the industry and our financial strength. Actions of competitors, and financial difficulties of other companies in the industry, and related adverse publicity, could undermine consumer confidence and harm our reputation.

Natural and man-made disasters, catastrophes, and events, including terrorist attacks, epidemics and pandemics, may adversely affect our business and results of operations.

Natural disasters and terrorist attacks, as well as epidemics and pandemics, can adversely affect our business and results of operations because they accelerate mortality and morbidity risk. Terrorist attacks on the United States and in other parts of the world and the threat of future attacks could have a negative effect on our business.

We believe our reinsurance programs are sufficient to reasonably limit our net losses for individual life claims relating to potential future natural disasters and terrorist attacks. However, the consequences of further natural disasters, terrorist attacks, armed conflicts, epidemics and pandemics are unpredictable, and we may not be able to foresee events that could have an adverse effect on our business.

We operate in a competitive industry which could adversely affect our market share.

The reinsurance industry is highly competitive, and we encounter significant competition in all lines of business from other reinsurance companies, as well as competition from other providers of financial services. Our competitors vary by geographic market, and many of our competitors have greater financial resources than we do. Our ability to compete depends on, among other things, our ability to maintain strong financial strength ratings from rating agencies, pricing and other terms and conditions of reinsurance agreements, and our reputation, service, and experience in the types of business that we underwrite. However, competition from other reinsurers could adversely affect our competitive position.

Our target market is generally large life insurers. We compete based on the strength of our underwriting operations, insights on mortality trends based on our large book of business, and responsive service. We believe our quick response time to client requests for individual underwriting quotes and our underwriting expertise are important elements to our strategy and lead to other business opportunities with our clients. Our business will be adversely affected if we are unable to maintain these competitive advantages or if our international strategy is not successful.

Tax law changes or a prolonged economic downturn could reduce the demand for insurance products, which could adversely affect our business.

Under the Internal Revenue Code, income tax payable by policyholders on investment earnings is deferred during the accumulation period of some life insurance and annuity products. To the extent that the Internal Revenue Code is revised to reduce the tax-deferred status of life insurance and annuity products, or to increase the tax-deferred status of competing products, all life insurance companies would be adversely affected with respect to their ability to sell such products, and, depending on grandfathering provisions, by the surrenders of existing annuity contracts and life insurance policies. In addition, life insurance products are often used to fund estate tax obligations. The estate tax provisions of the Internal Revenue Code have been revised frequently in the recent past. If Congress adopts legislation in the future to reduce or eliminate the estate tax, our U.S. life insurance company customers could face reduced demand for some of their life insurance products, which in turn could negatively affect our reinsurance business. We cannot predict whether any tax

 

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legislation impacting corporate taxes or insurance products will be enacted, what the specific terms of any such legislation will be or whether, if at all, any legislation would have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

A general economic downturn or a downturn in the equity and other capital markets could adversely affect the market for many life insurance and annuity products. Factors including consumer spending, business investment, government spending, the volatility and strength of the capital markets, deflation and inflation all affect the economic environment and thus the amount of profitability of our business. An economic downturn may yield higher unemployment, lower family income, lower corporate earnings, lower business investment and lower consumer spending, and could result in decreased demand for life insurance and annuity products. Because we obtain substantially all of our revenues through reinsurance arrangements that cover a portfolio of life insurance products, as well as annuities, our business would be harmed if the market for annuities or life insurance was adversely affected. Therefore, adverse changes in the economy could affect earnings negatively and could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. In addition, the market for annuity reinsurance products is currently not well developed, and we cannot assure you that such market will develop in the future.

Our reinsurance subsidiaries are highly regulated, and changes in these regulations could negatively affect our business.

Our reinsurance subsidiaries are subject to government regulation in each of the jurisdictions in which they are licensed or authorized to do business. Governmental agencies have broad administrative power to regulate many aspects of the insurance business, which may include premium rates, marketing practices, advertising, policy forms, and capital adequacy. These agencies are concerned primarily with the protection of policyholders rather than shareholders or holders of debt securities. Moreover, insurance laws and regulations, among other things, establish minimum capital requirements and limit the amount of dividends, tax distributions, and other payments our reinsurance subsidiaries can make without prior regulatory approval, and impose restrictions on the amount and type of investments we may hold. The State of Missouri also regulates RGA as an insurance holding company.

Recently, insurance regulators have increased their scrutiny of insurance holding companies in the United States. Much of the additional scrutiny is on activities of the insurance company’s entire group which includes the group’s parent company and any non-insurance subsidiaries. While the laws have not extended regulation to RGA and its non-insurance subsidiaries, the manner in which the insurance regulators regulate RGA’s insurance subsidiaries is now influencing the activities of all other entities within the Company. In 2010, the National Association of Insurance Commissioners, or “NAIC”, amended its Model Insurance Holding Company System Regulatory Act to provide for an expanded supervision of insurance groups operating in the United States. The scope of these changes includes a review of enterprise risk management programs as well as expanded review of agreements between licensed insurers and their group members. Ten states have either adopted these new standards or are in the process of adopting these standards. It is expected that Missouri will adopt these new standards as law before 2015.

At the United States Federal level, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act established a Federal Solvency Oversight Counsel to identify financial institutions, including insurers and reinsurers that are systemically important to the United States financial system. A finding that RGA, or one of its U.S. subsidiaries, is systemically important could ultimately subject the identified entity to additional capital requirements based on business levels and asset mix and other supervision. Such additional scrutiny might also impact RGA’s ability to pay dividends. While we do not currently anticipate that the Financial Solvency Oversight Counsel will find RGA to be systemically important, we anticipate that one or more of RGA’s client insurance companies will be designated systemically important. Designation of one or more of RGA’s client insurance companies could impact RGA through additional scrutiny of the client’s reinsurance programs with the Company, including a consideration of the volume of business ceded by the insurer to the Company. Moreover, we cannot assure you that more stringent restrictions will not be adopted from time to time in other jurisdictions in which our reinsurance subsidiaries are domiciled, which could, under certain circumstances, significantly reduce dividends or other amounts payable to us by our subsidiaries unless they obtain approval from insurance regulatory authorities. We cannot predict the effect that any NAIC recommendations or proposed or future legislation or rule-making in the United States or elsewhere may have on our financial condition or operations.

Acquisitions and significant transactions involve varying degrees of risk that could affect our profitability.

We have made, and may in the future make, strategic acquisitions, either of selected blocks of business or other companies. The success of these acquisitions depends on, among other factors, our ability to appropriately price the acquired business. Additionally, acquisitions may expose us to operational challenges and various risks, including:

 

   

the ability to integrate the acquired business operations and data with our systems;

 

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the availability of funding sufficient to meet increased capital needs;

 

   

the ability to fund cash flow shortages that may occur if anticipated revenues are not realized or are delayed, whether by general economic or market conditions or unforeseen internal difficulties; and

 

   

the possibility that the value of investments acquired in an acquisition, may be lower than expected or may diminish due to credit defaults or changes in interest rates and that liabilities assumed may be greater than expected (due to, among other factors, less favorable than expected mortality or morbidity experience).

A failure to successfully manage the operational challenges and risks associated with or resulting from significant transactions, including acquisitions, could adversely affect our financial condition or results of operations.

Our international operations involve inherent risks.

In 2012, approximately 33.6% of our net premiums and 13.0% of income before income taxes came from our operations in Europe & South Africa and Asia Pacific. One of our strategies is to grow these international operations. International operations subject us to various inherent risks. In addition to the regulatory and foreign currency risks identified above, other risks include the following:

 

   

managing the growth of these operations effectively, particularly given the recent rates of growth;

 

   

changes in mortality and morbidity experience and the supply and demand for our products that are specific to these markets and that may be difficult to anticipate;

 

   

political and economic instability in the regions of the world where we operate;

 

   

uncertainty arising out of foreign government sovereignty over our international operations; and

 

   

potentially uncertain or adverse tax consequences, including the repatriation of earnings from our non-U.S. subsidiaries.

We cannot assure you that we will be able to manage these risks effectively or that they will not have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Our risk management policies and procedures could leave us exposed to unidentified or unanticipated risk, which could negatively affect our business or result in losses.

Our risk management policies and procedures to identify, monitor, and manage both internal and external risks may not predict future exposures, which could be different or significantly greater than expected. These identified risks may not be the only risks facing us. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us, or that we currently deem to be immaterial, may adversely affect our business, financial condition and/or operating results.

Unanticipated events affecting our disaster recovery systems and business continuity planning could impair our ability to conduct business.

In the event of a disaster such as a natural catastrophe, an industrial accident, a blackout, a computer virus, a terrorist attack or war, unanticipated problems with our disaster recovery systems could have a material adverse impact on our ability to conduct business and on our results of operations and financial position, particularly if those problems affect our computer-based data processing, transmission, storage and retrieval systems and destroy valuable data. We depend heavily upon computer systems to provide reliable service, data and reports. Like other global companies, we have experienced threats to our data and systems from time to time, but we have not experienced a material breach of cyber security. Administrative and technical controls, security measures and other preventative actions we take to reduce the risk of such incidents and protect our information technology may not be sufficient to prevent physical and electronic break-ins, and similar disruptions from unauthorized tampering with our computer systems. In addition, in the event that a significant number of our managers were unavailable in the event of a disaster, our ability to effectively conduct business could be severely compromised. These interruptions also may interfere with our clients’ ability to provide data and other information and our employees’ ability to perform their job responsibilities.

Risks Related to Our Investments

Adverse capital and credit market conditions may significantly affect our ability to meet liquidity needs, access to capital and cost of capital.

The capital and credit markets experience varying degrees of volatility and disruption. In some periods, the markets have exerted downward pressure on availability of liquidity and credit capacity for certain issuers.

 

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We need liquidity to pay our operating expenses, interest on our debt and dividends on our capital stock and to replace certain maturing liabilities. Without sufficient liquidity, we will be forced to curtail our operations, and our business will suffer. The principal sources of our liquidity are reinsurance premiums under reinsurance treaties and cash flow from our investment portfolio and other assets. Sources of liquidity in normal markets also include proceeds from the issuance of a variety of short-and long-term instruments, including medium-and long-term debt, subordinated and junior subordinated debt securities, capital securities and common stock.

In the event current resources do not satisfy our needs, we may have to seek additional financing. The availability of additional financing will depend on a variety of factors such as market conditions, the general availability of equity, credit, the volume of trading activities, the overall availability of credit to the financial services industry, our credit ratings and credit capacity, as well as the possibility that customers or lenders could develop a negative perception of our long-or short-term financial prospects. Similarly, our access to funds may be impaired if regulatory authorities or rating agencies take negative actions against us. Our internal sources of liquidity may prove to be insufficient, and in such case, we may not be able to successfully obtain additional financing on favorable terms, or at all.

Disruptions, uncertainty or volatility in the capital and credit markets may also limit our access to capital required to operate our business, most significantly our reinsurance operations. Such market conditions may limit our ability to replace, in a timely manner, maturing liabilities; satisfy statutory capital requirements; generate fee income and market-related revenue to meet liquidity needs; and access the capital necessary to grow our business. As such, we may be forced to delay raising capital, issue shorter tenor securities than we prefer, or bear an unattractive cost of capital which could decrease our profitability and significantly reduce our financial flexibility. At various points during the past few years, our credit spreads widened considerably. Further, our ability to finance our statutory reserve requirements is limited in the current marketplace. If capacity continues to be limited for a prolonged period of time, our ability to obtain new funding for such purposes may be hindered and, as a result, it may limit or adversely affect our ability to write additional business in a cost-effective manner. Our results of operations could be materially adversely affected by disruptions in the financial markets.

Difficult conditions in the global capital markets and the economy generally may materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Our results of operations, financial condition, cash flows and statutory capital position are materially affected by conditions in the global capital markets and the economy generally, both in the United States and elsewhere around the world. Poor economic conditions, volatility and disruptions in capital markets or financial asset classes can have an adverse effect on our business because our investment portfolio and some of our liabilities are sensitive to changing market factors. Additionally, disruptions in one market or asset class can also spread to other markets or asset classes. Volatile conditions have continued to characterize financial markets at times and negatively affected market liquidity conditions. Economic uncertainties and weakness and disruption of the financial markets around the world have led to concerns over capital markets access and the solvency of certain European Union member states, including Portugal, Ireland, Italy, Greece and Spain, and of financial institutions that have significant direct or indirect exposure to debt issued by these countries. See “Investments” in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Liquidity and Capital Resources” for a discussion of RGA’s exposure to sovereign and private European Union debt.

Concerns over U.S. fiscal policy and the trajectory of the U.S. national debt could have severe repercussions to the U.S. and global credit and financial markets, further exacerbate concerns over sovereign debt and could disrupt economic activity in the U.S. and elsewhere. As a result, our access to, or cost of, liquidity may deteriorate. In 2011, S&P downgraded the AAA rating on U.S. Treasury securities to AA+ with a negative outlook, and in January 2013 Fitch warned that it may downgrade its credit rating of U.S. national debt. As a result of uncertainty regarding U.S. national debt, the market value of some of our investments may decrease, and our capital adequacy could be adversely affected. Further downgrades, together with the sustained current trajectory of the U.S. national debt, could have adverse effects on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

These events and continuing market upheavals may have an adverse effect on us, in part because we have a large investment portfolio and are also dependent upon customer behavior. Our revenues may decline in such circumstances and our profit margins may erode. In addition, in the event of extreme prolonged market events, such as the global credit crisis, we could incur significant investment-related losses. Even in the absence of a market downturn, we are exposed to substantial risk of loss due to market volatility.

The liquidity and value of some of our investments may become significantly diminished.

We hold certain investments that may lack liquidity, such as privately placed fixed maturity securities, mortgage loans, policy loans, and equity real estate. Even some of our very high quality assets have become more illiquid as a result of the recent challenging market conditions.

 

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If we require significant amounts of cash on short notice in excess of normal cash requirements or are required to post or return collateral in connection with our investment portfolio, derivatives transactions or securities lending activities, we may have difficulty selling these investments in a timely manner, be forced to sell them for less than we otherwise would have been able to realize, or both.

The defaults or deteriorating credit of other financial institutions could adversely affect us.

We have exposure to many different industries and counterparties, and routinely execute transactions with counterparties in the financial services industry, including brokers and dealers, insurance companies, commercial banks, investment banks, investment funds and other institutions. Many of these transactions expose us to credit risk in the event of default of our counterparty. In addition, with respect to secured and other transactions that provide for us to hold collateral posted by the counterparty, our credit risk may be exacerbated when the collateral we hold cannot be liquidated at prices sufficient to recover the full amount of our exposure. We also have exposure to these financial institutions in the form of unsecured debt instruments, derivative transactions and equity investments. There can be no assurance that any such losses or impairments to the carrying value of these assets would not materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.

Defaults on our mortgage loans and volatility in performance may adversely affect our profitability.

Our mortgage loans face default risk and are principally collateralized by commercial properties. Mortgage loans are stated on our balance sheet at unpaid principal balance, adjusted for any unamortized premium or discount, deferred fees or expenses, and are net of valuation allowances. We establish valuation allowances for estimated impairments as of the balance sheet date. Such valuation allowances are based on the excess carrying value of the loan over the present value of expected future cash flows discounted at the loan’s original effective interest rate, the value of the loan’s collateral if the loan is in the process of foreclosure or otherwise collateral dependent, or the loan’s market value if the loan is being sold. At December 31, 2012, we had valuation allowances of $11.6 million related to our mortgage loans. The performance of our mortgage loan investments, however, may fluctuate in the future. An increase in the default rate of our mortgage loan investments could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.

Further, any geographic or sector concentration of our mortgage loans may have adverse effects on our investment portfolios and consequently on our consolidated results of operations or financial condition. While we seek to mitigate this risk by having a broadly diversified portfolio, events or developments that have a negative effect on any particular geographic region or sector may have a greater adverse effect on the investment portfolios to the extent that the portfolios are concentrated. Moreover, our ability to sell assets relating to such particular groups of related assets may be limited if other market participants are seeking to sell at the same time.

Our valuation of fixed maturity and equity securities and derivatives include methodologies, estimations and assumptions that are subject to differing interpretations and could result in changes to investment valuations that may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations or financial condition.

Fixed maturity, equity securities and short-term investments, which are reported at fair value on the consolidated balance sheet, represent the majority of our total cash and invested assets. We have categorized these securities into a three-level hierarchy, based on the priority of the inputs to the respective valuation technique. The fair value hierarchy gives the highest priority to quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (Level 1) and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs (Level 3). An asset or liability’s classification within the fair value hierarchy is based on the lowest level of significant input to its valuation. For example, a Level 3 fair value measurement may include inputs that are observable (Levels 1 and 2) and unobservable (Level 3). Therefore, gains and losses for such assets and liabilities categorized within Level 3 may include changes in fair value that are attributable to both observable market inputs (Levels 1 and 2) and unobservable market inputs (Level 3).

The determination of fair values in the absence of quoted market prices is based on: (i) valuation methodologies; (ii) securities we deem to be comparable; and (iii) assumptions deemed appropriate based on market conditions specific to the security. The fair value estimates are made at a specific point in time, based on available market information and judgments about financial instruments, including estimates of the timing and amounts of expected future cash flows and the credit standing of the issuer or counterparty. Factors considered in estimating fair value include: coupon rate, maturity, estimated duration, call provisions, sinking fund requirements, credit rating, industry sector of the issuer, and quoted market prices of comparable securities. The use of different methodologies and assumptions may have a material effect on the estimated fair value amounts.

During periods of market disruption including periods of significantly rising or high interest rates, rapidly widening credit spreads or illiquidity, it may be difficult to value certain of our securities, such as alternative residential mortgage loan (“Alt-A”) securities and subprime mortgage-backed securities, if trading becomes less frequent and/or market data becomes less observable. There may be certain asset classes that were in active markets with significant observable data that become

 

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illiquid due to the financial environment. In such cases, more securities may fall to Level 3 and thus require more subjectivity and management judgment. As such, valuations may include inputs and assumptions that are less observable or require greater estimation as well as valuation methods that are more sophisticated or require greater estimation thereby resulting in values that may be less than the value at which the investments may be ultimately sold. Further, rapidly changing and/or disruptive credit and equity market conditions could materially impact the valuation of securities as reported within our consolidated financial statements and the period-to-period changes in value could vary significantly. Decreases in value may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations or financial condition.

The reported value of our relatively illiquid types of investments, our investments in the asset classes described in the paragraph above and, at times, our high quality, generally liquid asset classes, do not necessarily reflect the lowest current market price for the asset. If we were forced to sell certain of our assets in disruptive and/or volatile market conditions, there can be no assurance that we will be able to sell them for the prices at which we have recorded them and we may be forced to sell them at significantly lower prices.

The determination of the amount of allowances and impairments taken on our investments is highly subjective and could materially affect our results of operations or financial position.

The determination of the amount of allowances and impairments vary by investment type and is based upon our periodic evaluation and assessment of known and inherent risks associated with the respective asset class. Such evaluations and assessments are revised as conditions change and new information becomes available. Management updates its evaluations regularly and reflects changes in allowances and impairments in operations as such evaluations are revised.

For example, the cost of our fixed maturity and equity securities is adjusted for impairments in value deemed to be other-than-temporary in the period in which the determination is made. The assessment of whether impairments have occurred is based on management’s case-by-case evaluation of the underlying reasons for the decline in fair value. Our management considers a wide range of factors about the security issuer and uses their best judgment in evaluating the cause of the decline in the estimated fair value of the security and in assessing the prospects for near-term recovery. Inherent in management’s evaluation of the security are assumptions and estimates about the operations of the issuer and its future earnings potential. There can be no assurance that our management has accurately assessed the level of impairments taken, or allowances reflected in our financial statements and their potential impact on regulatory capital. Furthermore, additional impairments or additional allowances may be needed in the future.

Defaults, downgrades or other events impairing the value of our fixed maturity securities portfolio may reduce our earnings.

We are subject to the risk that the issuers, or guarantors, of fixed maturity securities we own may default on principal and interest payments they owe us. At December 31, 2012, the fixed maturity securities of $22.3 billion in our investment portfolio represented 65.2% of our total cash and invested assets. The occurrence of a major economic downturn (or a prolonged downturn in the economy), acts of corporate malfeasance, widening risk spreads, or other events that adversely affect the issuers or guarantors of these securities could cause the value of our fixed maturity securities portfolio and our net income to decline and the default rate of the fixed maturity securities in our investment portfolio to increase. A ratings downgrade affecting issuers or guarantors of particular securities, or similar trends that could worsen the credit quality of issuers, such as the corporate issuers of securities in our investment portfolio, could also have a similar effect. With economic uncertainty, credit quality of issuers or guarantors could be adversely affected. Any event reducing the value of these securities other than on a temporary basis could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Our investments are reflected within the consolidated financial statements utilizing different accounting bases and accordingly we may not have recognized differences, which may be significant, between cost and fair value in our consolidated financial statements.

Our principal investments are in fixed maturity and equity securities, short-term investments, mortgage loans, policy loans, funds withheld at interest and other invested assets. The carrying value of such investments is as follows:

 

   

Fixed maturity and equity securities are classified as available-for-sale and are reported at their estimated fair value. Unrealized investment gains and losses on these securities are recorded as a separate component of accumulated other comprehensive income or loss, net of related deferred acquisition costs and deferred income taxes.

 

   

Short-term investments include investments with remaining maturities of one year or less, but greater than three months, at the time of acquisition and are stated at amortized cost, which approximates fair value.

 

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Mortgage and policy loans are stated at unpaid principal balance. Additionally, mortgage loans are adjusted for any unamortized premium or discount, deferred fees or expenses, net of valuation allowances.

 

   

Funds withheld at interest represent amounts contractually withheld by ceding companies in accordance with reinsurance agreements. The value of the assets withheld and interest income are recorded in accordance with specific treaty terms.

 

   

We use the cost method of accounting for investments in real estate joint ventures and other limited partnership interests in which we have a minor equity investment and virtually no influence over the joint ventures or the partnership’s operations. The equity method of accounting is used for investments in real estate joint ventures and other limited partnership interests in which we have significant influence over the operating and financing decisions but are not required to be consolidated. These investments are reflected in other invested assets on the balance sheet.

Investments not carried at fair value in our consolidated financial statements — principally, mortgage loans, policy loans, real estate joint ventures, and other limited partnerships — may have fair values that are substantially higher or lower than the carrying value reflected in our consolidated financial statements. Each of such asset classes is regularly evaluated for impairment under the accounting guidance appropriate to the respective asset class.

Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock

We may not pay dividends on our common stock.

Our shareholders may not receive future dividends. Historically, we have paid quarterly dividends ranging from $0.027 per share in 1993 to $0.24 per share in 2012. All future payments of dividends, however, are at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on our earnings, capital requirements, insurance regulatory conditions, operating conditions, and such other factors as our board of directors may deem relevant. The amount of dividends that we can pay will depend in part on the operations of our reinsurance subsidiaries. Under certain circumstances, we may be contractually prohibited from paying dividends on our common stock due to restrictions associated with certain of our debt securities.

Certain provisions in our articles and bylaws may delay or prevent a change in control, which could adversely affect the price of our common stock.

Certain provisions in our articles of incorporation and bylaws, as well as Missouri law, may delay or prevent a change of control of RGA, which could adversely affect the price of our common stock. Our articles of incorporation and bylaws contain some provisions that may make the acquisition of control of RGA without the approval of our board of directors more difficult, including provisions relating to the nomination, election and removal of directors, the structure of the board of directors and limitations on actions by our shareholders. In addition, Missouri law also imposes some restrictions on mergers and other business combinations between RGA and holders of 20% or more of our outstanding common stock.

These provisions may have unintended anti-takeover effects. These provisions of our articles of incorporation and bylaws and Missouri law may delay or prevent a change in control of RGA, which could adversely affect the price of our common stock.

Applicable insurance laws may make it difficult to effect a change of control of RGA.

Before a person can acquire control of a U.S. insurance company, prior written approval must be obtained from the insurance commission of the state where the domestic insurer is domiciled. Missouri insurance laws and regulations provide that no person may acquire control of us, and thus indirect control of our Missouri reinsurance subsidiaries, including RGA Reinsurance, unless:

 

   

such person has provided certain required information to the Missouri Department of Insurance; and

 

   

such acquisition is approved by the Director of Insurance of the State of Missouri, to whom we refer as the Missouri Director of Insurance, after a public hearing.

Under Missouri insurance laws and regulations, any person acquiring 10% or more of the outstanding voting securities of a corporation, such as our common stock, is presumed to have acquired control of that corporation and its subsidiaries.

Canadian federal insurance laws and regulations provide that no person may directly or indirectly acquire “control” of or a “significant interest” in our Canadian insurance subsidiary, RGA Canada, unless:

 

   

such person has provided information, material and evidence to the Canadian Superintendent of Financial Institutions as required by him; and

 

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such acquisition is approved by the Canadian Minister of Finance.

For this purpose, “significant interest” means the direct or indirect beneficial ownership by a person, or group of persons acting in concert, of shares representing 10% or more of a given class, and “control” of an insurance company exists when:

 

   

a person, or group of persons acting in concert, beneficially owns or controls an entity that beneficially owns securities, such as our common stock, representing more than 50% of the votes entitled to be cast for the election of directors and such votes are sufficient to elect a majority of the directors of the insurance company, or

 

   

a person has any direct or indirect influence that would result in control in fact of an insurance company.

Prior to granting approval of an application to directly or indirectly acquire control of a domestic or foreign insurer, an insurance regulator may consider such factors as the financial strength of the applicant, the integrity of the applicant’s board of directors and executive officers, the applicant’s plans for the future operations of the domestic insurer and any anti-competitive results that may arise from the consummation of the acquisition of control.

Issuing additional shares may dilute the value or affect the price of our common stock.

Our board of directors has the authority, without action or vote of the shareholders, to issue any or all authorized but unissued shares of our common stock, including securities convertible into, or exchangeable for, our common stock and authorized but unissued shares under our stock option and other equity compensation plans. In the future, we may issue such additional securities, through public or private offerings, in order to raise additional capital. Any such issuance will dilute the percentage ownership of shareholders and may dilute the per share projected earnings or book value of the common stock. In addition, option holders may exercise their options at any time when we would otherwise be able to obtain additional equity capital on more favorable terms.

The price of our common stock may fluctuate significantly.

The overall market and the price of our common stock may continue to fluctuate as a result of many factors in addition to those discussed in the preceding risk factors. These factors, some or all of which are beyond our control, include:

 

   

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our operating results;

 

   

changes in expectations as to our future financial performance or changes in financial estimates of securities analysts;

 

   

success of our operating and growth strategies;

 

   

investor anticipation of strategic and technological threats, whether or not warranted by actual events;

 

   

operating and stock price performance of other comparable companies; and

 

   

realization of any of the risks described in these risk factors or those set forth in any subsequent Annual Report on Form 10-K or Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q.

In addition, the stock market has historically experienced volatility that often has been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of particular companies. These broad market and industry fluctuations may adversely affect the trading price of our common stock, regardless of our actual operating performance.

The occurrence of various events may adversely affect the ability of RGA and its subsidiaries to fully utilize any net operating losses (“NOL”s) and other tax attributes.

RGA and its subsidiaries may, from time to time, have a substantial amount of NOLs and other tax attributes, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, to offset taxable income and gains. Events outside of our control may cause RGA (and, consequently, its subsidiaries) to experience an “ownership change” under Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code and the related Treasury regulations, and limit the ability of RGA and its subsidiaries to utilize fully such NOLs and other tax attributes.

In general, an ownership change occurs when, as of any testing date, the percentage of stock of a corporation owned by one or more “5-percent shareholders,” as defined in the Internal Revenue Code and the related Treasury regulations, has increased by more than 50 percentage points over the lowest percentage of stock of the corporation owned by such shareholders at any time during the three-year period preceding such date. In general, persons who own 5% or more (by value) of a corporation’s stock are 5-percent shareholders, and all other persons who own less than 5% (by value) of a corporation’s stock are treated, together, as a single, public group 5-percent shareholder, regardless of whether they own an

 

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aggregate of 5% or more (by value) of a corporation’s stock. If a corporation experiences an ownership change, it is generally subject to an annual limitation, which limits its ability to use its NOLs and other tax attributes to an amount equal to the equity value of the corporation multiplied by the federal long-term tax-exempt rate. If we were to experience an ownership change, we could potentially have in the future higher U.S. federal income tax liabilities than we would otherwise have had and it may also result in certain other adverse consequences to RGA.

Item 1B.         UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

The Company has no unresolved staff comments from the Securities and Exchange Commission.

Item 2.         PROPERTIES

The Company leases its headquarters facility in Chesterfield, Missouri, which consists of approximately 197,354 square feet. In addition, the Company leases approximately 339,308 square feet of office space in 33 locations throughout the U.S., Canada, Europe, South Africa, and the Asia Pacific region.

Most of the Company’s leases in the U.S. and other countries have lease terms of three to five years, although some leases have terms of up to 15 years. As provided in Note 12 – “Commitments and Contingent Liabilities” in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, the rental expense on operating leases for office space and equipment totaled $19.5 million for 2012.

The Company believes its facilities have been generally well maintained and are in good operating condition. The Company believes the facilities are sufficient for its current requirements. In November 2012, the Company announced its intent to build a new world headquarters in Chesterfield, Missouri, which will replace its current leased headquarters, to meet its projected future capacity needs.

Item 3.         LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

The Company is subject to litigation in the normal course of its business. The Company currently has no material litigation. A legal reserve is established when the Company is notified of an arbitration demand or litigation or is notified that an arbitration demand or litigation is imminent, it is probable that the Company will incur a loss as a result and the amount of the probable loss is reasonably capable of being estimated.

Item 4.         MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.

PART II

Item 5.         MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS, AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Information about the market price of the Company’s common equity, dividends and related stockholder matters is contained in Item 8 within Note 19 – “Quarterly Results of Operations (Unaudited)” and in Item 1 under the caption Regulation – “Restrictions on Dividends and Distributions”. Additionally, insurance companies are subject to statutory regulations that restrict the payment of dividends. See Item 1 under the caption Regulation – “Restrictions on Dividends and Distributions”. See Item 8, Note 3 – “Stock Transactions” in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for information regarding board approved stock repurchase plans.

Set forth below is a graph for the Company’s common stock for the period beginning December 31, 2007 and ending December 31, 2012. The graph compares the cumulative total return on the Company’s common stock, based on the market price of the common stock and assuming reinvestment of dividends, with the cumulative total return of companies in the Standard & Poor’s 500 Stock Index and the Standard & Poor’s Insurance (Life/Health) Index. The indices are included for comparative purposes only. They do not necessarily reflect management’s opinion that such indices are an appropriate measure of the relative performance of the Company’s common stock, and are not intended to forecast or be indicative of future performance of the common stock.

 

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LOGO

 

     Cumulative Total Return  
     12/07      12/08      12/09      12/10      12/11      12/12  

Reinsurance Group of America, Incorporated

     $     100.00         $     82.19         $     92.35         $     105.12         $     103.35         $     107.51   

S & P 500

     100.00         63.00         79.68         91.68         93.61         108.59   

S & P Life & Health Insurance

     100.00         51.68         59.73         74.82         59.32         67.98   

Item 6.         SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

The following selected financial data has been derived from the Company’s audited consolidated financial statements. The statement of income data for the years ended December 31, 2012, 2011 and 2010, and the balance sheet data at December 31, 2012 and 2011 have been derived from the Company’s audited financial statements included elsewhere herein. The statement of income data for the years ended December 31, 2009 and 2008, and the balance sheet data at December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008 have been derived from the Company’s audited financial statements not included herein. The selected financial data set forth below should be read in conjunction with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere herein.

 

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Selected Consolidated Financial and Operating Data

(in millions, except per share and operating data)

 

     As of or For the Years Ended December 31,  
Income Statement Data    2012      2011      2010      2009      2008  

Revenues:

              

Net premiums

   $ 7,906.6       $ 7,335.7       $ 6,659.7       $ 5,725.2       $ 5,349.3   

Investment income, net of related expenses

     1,436.2         1,281.2         1,238.7         1,122.5         871.3   

Investment related gains (losses), net:

              

Other-than-temporary impairments on fixed maturity securities

     (15.9)         (30.9)         (31.9)         (128.8)         (113.3)   

Other-than-temporary impairments on fixed maturity securities transferred to (from) accumulated other comprehensive income

     (7.6)         3.9         2.0         16.0         --   

Other investment related gains (losses), net

     277.6         (9.1)         241.9         146.9         (533.9)   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total investment related gains (losses), net

     254.1         (36.1)         212.0         34.1         (647.2)   

Other revenues

     244.0         248.7         151.3         185.0         107.8   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total revenues

     9,840.9         8,829.5         8,261.7         7,066.8         5,681.2   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Benefits and expenses:

              

Claims and other policy benefits

     6,666.0         6,225.2         5,547.1         4,819.4         4,461.9   

Interest credited

     379.9         316.4         310.0         323.7         233.2   

Policy acquisition costs and other insurance expenses

     1,306.5         990.1         1,137.6         1,010.0         399.3   

Other operating expenses

     451.8         419.3         362.0         294.9         242.9   

Interest expense

     105.3         102.6         91.0         69.9         76.2   

Collateral finance facility expense

     12.2         12.4         7.8         8.3         28.7   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total benefits and expenses

     8,921.7         8,066.0         7,455.5         6,526.2         5,442.2   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Income from continuing operations before income taxes

     919.2         763.5         806.2         540.6         239.0   

Provision for income taxes

     287.3         217.5         270.5         167.6         78.8   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Income from continuing operations

     631.9         546.0         535.7         373.0         160.2   

Loss from discontinued accident and health operations, net of income taxes

     --         --         --         --         (11.0)   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Net income

   $ 631.9       $ 546.0       $ 535.7       $ 373.0       $ 149.2   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Basic Earnings Per Share

              

Continuing operations

   $ 8.57       $ 7.42       $ 7.32       $ 5.12       $ 2.51   

Discontinued operations

     --         --         --         --         (0.18)   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Net Income

   $ 8.57       $ 7.42       $ 7.32       $ 5.12       $ 2.33   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Diluted Earnings Per Share

              

Continuing operations

   $ 8.52       $ 7.37       $ 7.17       $ 5.09       $ 2.45   

Discontinued operations

     --         --         --         --         (0.16)   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Net Income

   $ 8.52       $ 7.37       $ 7.17       $ 5.09       $ 2.29   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Weighted average diluted shares, in thousands

     74,153         74,108         74,694         73,327         65,271   

Dividends per share on common stock

   $ 0.84       $ 0.60       $ 0.48       $ 0.36       $ 0.36   

Balance Sheet Data

              

Total investments

   $       32,912.2       $       24,964.6       $       22,666.6       $       19,224.1       $       15,610.7   

Total assets

     40,360.4         31,634.0         28,670.2         24,905.8         21,385.2   

Policy liabilities(1)

     27,886.6         21,139.7         19,647.2         17,643.6         16,045.5   

Short-term debt

     --         --         200.0         --         --   

Long-term debt

     1,815.3         1,414.7         1,016.4         1,216.1         918.2   

Collateral finance facility

     652.0         652.0         850.0         850.0         850.0   

Trust preferred securities

     --         --         159.4         159.2         159.0   

Total stockholders’ equity

     6,910.2         5,818.7         4,765.4         3,639.8         2,435.9   

Total stockholders’ equity per share

     93.47         79.31         64.96         49.87         33.54   

Operating Data (in billions)

              

Assumed ordinary life reinsurance in force

   $ 2,927.6       $ 2,664.4       $ 2,540.3       $ 2,325.1       $ 2,108.1   

Assumed new business production

     426.6         428.9         327.6         321.0         305.0   

 

(1)

Policy liabilities include future policy benefits, interest-sensitive contract liabilities, and other policy claims and benefits.

 

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Item 7.         MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Forward-Looking and Cautionary Statements

This report contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 including, among others, statements relating to projections of the strategies, earnings, revenues, income or loss, ratios, future financial performance, and growth potential of the Company. The words “intend,” “expect,” “project,” “estimate,” “predict,” “anticipate,” “should,” “believe,” and other similar expressions also are intended to identify forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements are inherently subject to risks and uncertainties, some of which cannot be predicted or quantified. Future events and actual results, performance, and achievements could differ materially from those set forth in, contemplated by, or underlying the forward-looking statements.

Numerous important factors could cause actual results and events to differ materially from those expressed or implied by forward-looking statements including, without limitation, (1) adverse capital and credit market conditions and their impact on the Company’s liquidity, access to capital and cost of capital, (2) the impairment of other financial institutions and its effect on the Company’s business, (3) requirements to post collateral or make payments due to declines in market value of assets subject to the Company’s collateral arrangements, (4) the fact that the determination of allowances and impairments taken on the Company’s investments is highly subjective, (5) adverse changes in mortality, morbidity, lapsation or claims experience, (6) changes in the Company’s financial strength and credit ratings and the effect of such changes on the Company’s future results of operations and financial condition, (7) inadequate risk analysis and underwriting, (8) general economic conditions or a prolonged economic downturn affecting the demand for insurance and reinsurance in the Company’s current and planned markets, (9) the availability and cost of collateral necessary for regulatory reserves and capital, (10) market or economic conditions that adversely affect the value of the Company’s investment securities or result in the impairment of all or a portion of the value of certain of the Company’s investment securities, that in turn could affect regulatory capital, (11) market or economic conditions that adversely affect the Company’s ability to make timely sales of investment securities, (12) risks inherent in the Company’s risk management and investment strategy, including changes in investment portfolio yields due to interest rate or credit quality changes, (13) fluctuations in U.S. or foreign currency exchange rates, interest rates, or securities and real estate markets, (14) adverse litigation or arbitration results, (15) the adequacy of reserves, resources and accurate information relating to settlements, awards and terminated and discontinued lines of business, (16) the stability of and actions by governments and economies in the markets in which the Company operates, including ongoing uncertainties regarding the amount of United States sovereign debt and the credit ratings thereof, (17) competitive factors and competitors’ responses to the Company’s initiatives, (18) the success of the Company’s clients, (19) successful execution of the Company’s entry into new markets, (20) successful development and introduction of new products and distribution opportunities, (21) the Company’s ability to successfully integrate and operate reinsurance business that the Company acquires, (22) action by regulators who have authority over the Company’s reinsurance operations in the jurisdictions in which it operates, (23) the Company’s dependence on third parties, including those insurance companies and reinsurers to which the Company cedes some reinsurance, third-party investment managers and others, (24) the threat of natural disasters, catastrophes, terrorist attacks, epidemics or pandemics anywhere in the world where the Company or its clients do business, (25) changes in laws, regulations, and accounting standards applicable to the Company, its subsidiaries, or its business, (26) the effect of the Company’s status as an insurance holding company and regulatory restrictions on its ability to pay principal of and interest on its debt obligations, and (27) other risks and uncertainties described in this document and in the Company’s other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”).

Forward-looking statements should be evaluated together with the many risks and uncertainties that affect the Company’s business, including those mentioned in this document and the cautionary statements described in the periodic reports the Company files with the SEC. These forward-looking statements speak only as of the date on which they are made. The Company does not undertake any obligations to update these forward-looking statements, even though the Company’s situation may change in the future. The Company qualifies all of its forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements. For a discussion of these risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in the forward-looking statements, you are advised to see Item 1A – “Risk Factors”.

Overview

RGA is an insurance holding company that was formed on December 31, 1992. The consolidated financial statements include the assets, liabilities, and results of operations of RGA, RGA Reinsurance, RCM, RGA Barbados, RGA Americas, RGA Atlantic, RGA Canada, RGA Australia and RGA International as well as other subsidiaries, which are primarily wholly owned (collectively, the Company).

The Company is primarily engaged in the reinsurance of individual and group coverages for traditional life and health, longevity, disability income, annuity and critical illness products, and financial reinsurance. RGA and its predecessor,

 

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the Reinsurance Division of General American Life Insurance Company, a Missouri life insurance company, have been engaged in the business of life reinsurance since 1973. Approximately 66.3% of the Company’s 2012 net premiums were from its operations in North America, represented by its U.S. and Canada segments.

The Company derives revenues primarily from renewal premiums from existing reinsurance treaties, new business premiums from existing or new reinsurance treaties and income earned on invested assets.

The Company’s primary business is life and health reinsurance, which involves reinsuring life insurance policies that are often in force for the remaining lifetime of the underlying individuals insured, with premiums earned typically over a period of 10 to 30 years. Each year, however, a portion of the business under existing treaties terminates due to, among other things, lapses or voluntary surrenders of underlying policies, deaths of insureds, and the exercise of recapture options by ceding companies.

As is customary in the reinsurance business, clients continually update, refine, and revise reinsurance information provided to the Company. Such revised information is used by the Company in preparation of its financial statements and the financial effects resulting from the incorporation of revised data are reflected in the current period.

The Company’s long-term profitability primarily depends on the volume and amount of death claims incurred and the ability to adequately price the risks it assumes. While death claims are reasonably predictable over a period of many years, claims become less predictable over shorter periods and are subject to significant fluctuation from quarter to quarter and year to year. The maximum amount of individual life coverage the Company retains per life varies by market and can be as high as $8.0 million. In certain limited situations the Company has retained more than $8.0 million per individual life. Exposures in excess of these retention amounts are typically retroceded to retrocessionaires; however, the Company remains fully liable to the ceding company for the entire amount of risk it assumes. The Company believes its sources of liquidity are sufficient to cover potential claims payments on both a short-term and long-term basis.

The Company has five geographic-based or function-based operational segments, each of which is a distinct reportable segment: U.S., Canada, Europe & South Africa, Asia Pacific and Corporate and Other. The U.S. operations provide traditional life, long-term care, group life and health reinsurance, annuity and financial reinsurance products. During 2012, the Company issued its first fee-based synthetic guaranteed investment contracts, which include investment-only, stable value contracts, to retirement plans. The Canada operations reinsure traditional individual life products as well as creditor reinsurance, group life and health reinsurance, non-guaranteed critical illness products and longevity reinsurance. Europe & South Africa operations include a variety of life and health products, critical illness and longevity business throughout Europe and in South Africa, in addition to other markets the Company is developing. The principle types of reinsurance in Asia Pacific include life, critical illness, health, disability income, superannuation and financial reinsurance. Corporate and Other includes results from, among others, RTP, a wholly-owned subsidiary that develops and markets technology solutions for the insurance industry, interest expense related to debt and the investment income and expense associated with the Company’s collateral finance facility. The Company measures segment performance based on profit or loss from operations before income taxes.

The Company allocates capital to its segments based on an internally developed economic capital model, the purpose of which is to measure the risk in the business and to provide a consistent basis upon which capital is deployed. The economic capital model considers the unique and specific nature of the risks inherent in RGA’s businesses. As a result of the economic capital allocation process, a portion of investment income and investment related gains and losses is credited to the segments based on the level of allocated capital. In addition, the segments are charged for excess capital utilized above the allocated economic capital basis. This charge is included in policy acquisition costs and other insurance expenses.

The Company is one of the leading life reinsurers in North America based on premiums and the amount of life reinsurance in force. Based on an industry survey of 2011 information prepared by Munich American at the request of the Society of Actuaries Reinsurance Section (“SOA survey”), the Company has the second largest market share in North America as measured by individual life insurance in force. The Company’s approach to the North American market has been to:

 

   

focus on large, high quality life insurers as clients;

 

   

provide quality facultative underwriting and automatic reinsurance capacity; and

 

   

deliver responsive and flexible service to its clients.

In 1994, the Company began using its North American underwriting expertise and industry knowledge to expand into international markets and now has operations in Australia, Barbados, Bermuda, China, France, Germany, Hong Kong, India, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Singapore, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Taiwan, the UAE and the UK. The Company generally starts new operations from the ground up in these markets as

 

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opposed to acquiring existing operations, and it often enters these markets to support its North American clients as they expand internationally. Based on information from competitors’ annual reports, the Company believes it is the third largest global life and health reinsurer in the world based on 2011 life and health reinsurance premiums. The Company conducts business with the majority of the largest U.S. and international life insurance companies. The Company has also developed its capacity and expertise in the reinsurance of asset-intensive products (primarily annuities and corporate-owned life insurance) and financial reinsurance.

Industry Trends

The Company believes that the following trends in the life insurance industry will continue to create demand for life reinsurance.

Outsourcing of Mortality. The SOA survey indicates that U.S. life reinsurance in force has more than doubled from $4.6 trillion in 2001 to $9.6 trillion at year-end 2011. The Company believes this trend reflects the continued utilization by life insurance companies of reinsurance to manage capital and mortality risk and to develop competitive products. However, the survey results indicate a decline in the percentage of new business being reinsured in recent years, which has caused premium growth rates in the U.S. life reinsurance market to moderate. The Company believes the decline in new business being reinsured is likely a reaction by ceding companies to a broad-based increase in reinsurance rates in the market, stronger capital positions maintained by ceding companies in recent years and a desire by ceding companies to adjust their risk profiles. However, the Company believes reinsurers will continue to be an integral part of the life insurance market due to their ability to efficiently aggregate a significant volume of life insurance in force, creating economies of scale and greater diversification of risk. As a result of having larger amounts of data at their disposal compared to primary life insurance companies, reinsurers tend to have better insights into mortality trends, creating more efficient pricing for mortality risk.

Capital Management. Changing regulatory environments, most notably in Europe, rating agencies and competitive business pressures are causing life insurers to evaluate reinsurance as a means to:

 

   

manage risk-based capital by shifting mortality and other risks to reinsurers, thereby reducing amounts of reserves and capital they need to maintain;

 

   

release capital to pursue new business initiatives; and

 

   

unlock the capital supporting, and value embedded in, non-core product lines.

Consolidation and Reorganization Within the Life Reinsurance and Life Insurance Industry. As a result of consolidations over the last decade within the life reinsurance industry, there are fewer competitors. According to the SOA survey, as of December 31, 2011, the top five companies held approximately 73.3% of the market share in North America based on life reinsurance in force. As a consequence, the Company believes the life reinsurance pricing environment will remain attractive for the remaining life reinsurers, particularly those with a significant market presence and strong ratings.

The SOA surveys indicate that the authors obtained information from participating or responding companies and do not guarantee the accuracy and completeness of their information. Additionally, the surveys do not survey all reinsurance companies, but the Company believes most of its principal competitors are included. While the Company believes these surveys to be generally reliable, the Company has not independently verified their data.

Additionally, merger and acquisition transactions within the life insurance industry continue. The Company believes that reorganizations and consolidations of life insurers will continue. As reinsurance services are increasingly used to facilitate these transactions and manage risk, the Company expects demand for its products to continue.

Changing Demographics of Insured Populations. The aging of the population in North America is increasing demand for financial products among “baby boomers” who are concerned about protecting their peak income stream and are considering retirement and estate planning. The Company believes that this trend is likely to result in continuing demand for annuity products and life insurance policies, larger face amounts of life insurance policies and higher mortality and longevity risk taken by life insurers, all of which should fuel the need for insurers to seek reinsurance coverage. The Company continues to follow a two-part business strategy to capitalize on industry trends.

Continue Growth of North American Mortality Business. The Company’s strategy includes continuing to grow each of the following components of its North American mortality operations:

 

   

Facultative Reinsurance. Based on discussions with the Company’s clients, an industry survey and informal knowledge about the industry, the Company believes it is a leader in facultative underwriting in North America. The Company intends to maintain that status by emphasizing its underwriting standards, prompt response on quotes, competitive pricing, capacity, value added services and flexibility in meeting customer needs. The Company believes its facultative business has allowed it to develop close, long-standing client

 

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relationships and generate additional business opportunities with its facultative clients. The Company has processed over 300,000 facultative submissions annually in 2011 and 2012.

 

   

Automatic Reinsurance. The Company intends to expand its presence in the North American automatic reinsurance market by using its mortality expertise and breadth of products and services to gain additional market share.

 

   

In Force Block Reinsurance. There are occasions to grow the business by reinsuring in force blocks, as insurers and reinsurers seek to exit various non-core businesses and increase financial flexibility in order to, among other things, redeploy capital and pursue merger and acquisition activity. The Company continually seeks these types of opportunities.

Continue Expansion Into Selected Markets and Products. The Company’s strategy includes building upon the expertise and relationships developed in its North American business platform to continue its expansion into selected markets and products, including:

 

   

International Markets. Management believes that international markets offer opportunities for long-term growth, and the Company intends to capitalize on these opportunities by establishing a presence in selected markets. Since 1994, the Company has entered new markets internationally, including, in the mid-to-late 1990’s, Australia, Hong Kong, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, South Africa, Spain, Taiwan and the UK, and beginning in 2002, China, India and South Korea. The Company received regulatory approval to open a representative office in China in 2005, opened representative offices in Poland and Germany in 2006, opened new offices in France and Italy in 2007, opened a representative office in the Netherlands in 2009 and commenced operations in the UAE in 2011. Before entering new markets, the Company evaluates several factors including:

 

  ¡    

the size of the insured population,

 

  ¡    

competition,

 

  ¡    

the level of reinsurance penetration,

 

  ¡    

regulation,

 

  ¡    

existing clients with a presence in the market, and

 

  ¡    

the economic, social and political environment.

As previously indicated, the Company generally starts new operations in these markets from the ground up as opposed to acquiring existing operations, and it often enters these markets to support its large international clients as they expand into additional markets. Many of the markets that the Company has entered since 1994, or may enter in the future, are not utilizing life reinsurance, including facultative life reinsurance, at the same levels as the North American market, and therefore, the Company believes these markets represent opportunities for increasing reinsurance penetration. In particular, management believes markets such as Japan and South Korea are beginning to realize the benefits that reinsurers bring to the life insurance market. Markets such as China and India represent longer-term opportunities for growth as the underlying direct life insurance markets grow to meet the needs of growing middle class populations. Additionally, the Company believes that regulatory changes (e.g., Solvency II) in European markets, may cause ceding companies to reduce counterparty exposure to their existing life reinsurers and reinsure more business, creating opportunities for the Company.

 

   

Asset-intensive Reinsurance and Other Products. The Company intends to continue leveraging its existing client relationships and reinsurance expertise to create customized reinsurance products and solutions. Industry trends, particularly the increased pace of consolidation and reorganization among life insurance companies and changes in products and product distribution, are expected to enhance existing opportunities for asset-intensive reinsurance and other products. The Company began reinsuring annuities with guaranteed minimum benefits on a limited basis in 2007. To date, most of the Company’s asset-intensive reinsurance business has been written in the U.S.; however, the Company believes opportunities outside of the U.S. may further develop in the near future, particularly expanding its operations in Japan. The Company also provides longevity reinsurance in the UK and Canada, and in 2008 entered the U.S. healthcare reinsurance market with a primary focus on long-term care and Medicare supplement insurance. In 2010, the Company expanded into the group reinsurance market in North America with the acquisition of Reliastar Life Insurance Company’s U.S. and Canada operations.

 

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Results of Operations

Consolidated

Consolidated net income increased $85.8 million, or 15.7%, and $10.3 million, or 1.9%, in 2012 and 2011, respectively. Diluted earnings per share on net income were $8.52 in 2012 compared to $7.37 in 2011 and $7.17 in 2010. The increase in net income in 2012 is primarily due to an increase in investment related gains and an increase in net premiums in all segments. The increase in investment related gains reflects a favorable change in the value of embedded derivatives within the U.S. segment due to the effect of tightening credit spreads and a reduction in the benchmark interest rate in the U.S. debt markets. During 2012, the Company executed a large fixed deferred annuity reinsurance transaction in its U.S. Asset-Intensive sub-segment. The Company deployed approximately $350.0 million of capital to support this transaction, which increased the Company’s invested asset base by approximately $5.4 billion.

The increase in net income in 2011 is primarily due to increased net premiums and investment income and the recognition in other revenues of gains on the repurchase of collateral finance facility securities of $65.6 million. Largely offsetting the increase in net income in 2011 was an unfavorable change in the value of embedded derivatives within the U.S. segment due to the impact of widening credit spreads and lower interest rate environment in the U.S. debt markets and poor equity market performance, as compared to 2010. Foreign currency exchange fluctuations resulted in a decrease in net income of approximately $4.5 million and an increase of approximately $10.3 million in 2012 and 2011, respectively.

The Company recognizes in consolidated net income, changes in the fair value of embedded derivatives on modified coinsurance (“modco”) or coinsurance with funds withheld treaties, equity-indexed annuity treaties (“EIAs”) and variable annuity products. The change in the value of embedded derivatives related to reinsurance treaties written on a modco or funds withheld basis are subject to the general accounting principles for Derivatives and Hedging related to embedded derivatives. The unrealized gains and losses associated with these embedded derivatives, after adjustment for deferred acquisition costs, increased net income by $33.1 million in 2012 and reduced it by $36.4 million in 2011, respectively, as compared to the prior years. Changes in benchmark rates used in the fair value estimates of embedded derivatives associated with EIAs affect the amount of unrealized gains and losses the Company recognizes. The unrealized gains and losses associated with EIAs, after adjustment for deferred acquisition costs and retrocession, increased net income by $7.3 million in 2012 and reduced it by $6.9 million in 2012 and 2011, respectively, as compared to the prior years. The change in the Company’s liability for variable annuities associated with guaranteed minimum living benefits affects the amount of unrealized gains and losses the Company recognizes. The unrealized gains and losses associated with guaranteed minimum living benefits, after adjustment for deferred acquisition costs, increased net income by $36.6 million in 2012 and reduced it by $25.2 million in 2011, respectively, as compared to the prior years.

The combined changes in these three types of embedded derivatives, after adjustment for deferred acquisition costs and retrocession, resulted in an increase of approximately $77.0 million and a decrease of approximately $68.5 million in consolidated net income in 2012 and 2011, respectively, as compared to the prior years. These fluctuations do not affect current cash flows, crediting rates or spread performance on the underlying treaties. Therefore, management believes it is helpful to distinguish between the effects of changes in these embedded derivatives and the primary factors that drive profitability of the underlying treaties, namely investment income, fee income, and interest credited.

Consolidated net premiums increased $570.9 million, or 7.8%, and $676.0 million, or 10.2%, in 2012 and 2011, respectively, due to growth in life reinsurance in force. Foreign currency fluctuations relative to the prior year affected net premiums unfavorably by approximately $62.6 million in 2012 and favorably by approximately $167.7 million in 2011. Consolidated assumed life insurance in force was $2,927.6 billion, $2,664.4 billion and $2,540.3 billion as of December 31, 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively. Foreign currency fluctuations affected the increases in assumed life insurance in force positively by $34.2 billion in 2012 and negatively by $32.5 billion in 2011. The Company added new business production, measured by face amount of insurance in force, of $426.6 billion, $428.9 billion and $327.6 billion during 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively. Premiums on U.S. health and group related coverages contributed $164.6 million and $88.6 million to the increase in net premiums in 2012 and 2011, respectively. In addition, new group treaties in Australia contributed approximately $81.0 billion to the increase in 2011. Management believes industry consolidation and the established practice of reinsuring mortality risks should continue to provide opportunities for growth, albeit at rates less than historically experienced in some markets.

Consolidated investment income, net of related expenses, increased $155.0 million, or 12.1%, and $42.5 million, or 3.4%, in 2012 and 2011, respectively. The increases in investment income in 2012 and 2011 reflect a larger average invested asset base somewhat offset by lower effective investment portfolio yields. Contributing to the increase in investment income in 2012 was $129.8 million of investment income associated with a large fixed annuity transaction executed in the second quarter of 2012. Average invested assets at amortized cost, excluding funds withheld and other spread business, totaled $16.6 billion, $15.3 billion and $13.7 billion in 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively. The average yield earned on investments,

 

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excluding funds withheld and other spread business, was 4.98%, 5.28% and 5.46% in 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively. The average yield will vary from year to year depending on a number of variables, including the prevailing interest rate and credit spread environment, changes in the mix of the underlying investments and cash balances, and the timing of dividends and distributions on certain investments. A continued low interest rate environment in the U.S. and Canada is expected to put downward pressure on this yield in future reporting periods.

Total investment related gains (losses), net, improved by $290.2 million in 2012 and declined by $248.1 million in 2011. The improvement in 2012 is primarily due to a favorable change in the value of embedded derivatives related to guaranteed minimum living benefits of $328.8 million and a favorable change in the value of embedded derivatives associated with reinsurance treaties written on a modco or funds withheld basis of $202.2 million offset by a decrease in the fair value of derivatives used to hedge the embedded derivative liabilities associated with guaranteed minimum living benefits of $261.6 million. The decline in 2011 was primarily due to unfavorable changes in the value of embedded derivatives associated with reinsurance treaties written on a modco or funds withheld basis of $247.5 million, unfavorable changes in the embedded derivatives related to guaranteed minimum living benefits of $195.4 million, partially offset by an increase in net hedging gains related to the liabilities associated with guaranteed minimum living benefits of $173.6 million. See Note 4 – “Investments” and Note 5 – “Derivative Instruments” in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information on investment related gains (losses), net, and derivatives. Investment income and investment related gains and losses are allocated to the operating segments based upon average assets and related capital levels deemed appropriate to support segment operations.

The consolidated provision for income taxes represented approximately 31.3%, 28.5% and 33.5%, of pre-tax income for 2012, 2011, and 2010, respectively. In 2011 the Company recognized an income tax benefit associated with previously enacted reductions in federal statutory tax rates and adjustments to various provincial statutory tax rates in Canada. This 2007 enactment included phased in effective dates through 2012. These adjustments in tax rates should have been recognized beginning in 2007, when the Canadian tax legislation was enacted. The Company recorded a cumulative tax benefit adjustment of $30.7 million in 2011 in “Provision for income taxes” to correct the deferred tax liabilities that were not properly adjusted. If the impact of the tax rates had been recorded in the prior years, the Company estimates that it would have recognized approximately $3.0 million, $6.0 million, $9.0 million, and $12.0 million of tax benefit in the years ended 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010, respectively. The effective tax rates for 2012, 2011 and 2010 are affected by earnings of non-U.S. subsidiaries in which the Company is permanently reinvested whose statutory tax rates are less than the U.S. statutory tax rate of 35.0%, Subpart F income and differences in tax bases in foreign jurisdictions.

Critical Accounting Policies

The Company’s accounting policies are described in Note 2 – “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements. The Company believes its most critical accounting policies include the capitalization and amortization of deferred acquisition costs (“DAC”); the establishment of liabilities for future policy benefits and incurred but not reported claims; the valuation of investments and investment impairments; the valuation of embedded derivatives; and accounting for income taxes. The balances of these accounts require extensive use of assumptions and estimates, particularly related to the future performance of the underlying business.

Differences in experience compared with the assumptions and estimates utilized in the justification of the recoverability of DAC, in establishing reserves for future policy benefits and claim liabilities, or in the determination of other-than-temporary impairments to investment securities can have a material effect on the Company’s results of operations and financial condition.

Deferred Acquisition Costs

Costs of acquiring new business, which vary with and are primarily related to the production of new business, have been deferred to the extent that such costs are deemed recoverable from future premiums or gross profits. Such costs include commissions and allowances as well as certain costs of policy issuance and underwriting. Non-commission costs related to the acquisition of new and renewal insurance contracts may be deferred only if they meet the following criteria:

 

   

Incremental direct costs of a successful contract acquisition.

 

   

Portions of employees’ salaries and benefits directly related to time spent performing specified acquisition activities for a contract that has been acquired or renewed.

 

   

Other costs directly related to the specified acquisition or renewal activities that would not have been incurred had that acquisition contract transaction not occurred.

 

   

Advertising costs that meet the capitalization criteria in other GAAP guidance (i.e., certain direct-response marketing).

 

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The Company tests the recoverability for each year of business at issue before establishing additional DAC. The Company also performs annual tests to establish that DAC remain recoverable at all times, and if financial performance significantly deteriorates to the point where a deficiency exists, a cumulative charge to current operations will be recorded. No such adjustments related to DAC recoverability were made in 2012, 2011 or 2010.

DAC related to traditional life insurance contracts are amortized with interest over the premium-paying period of the related policies in proportion to the ratio of individual period premium revenues to total anticipated premium revenues over the life of the policy. Such anticipated premium revenues are estimated using the same assumptions used for computing liabilities for future policy benefits.

DAC related to interest-sensitive life and investment-type policies are amortized over the lives of the policies, in proportion to the actual and estimated gross profits expected to be realized from mortality, investment income less interest credited, and expense margins.

Liabilities for Future Policy Benefits and Incurred but not Reported Claims

Liabilities for future policy benefits under long-term life insurance policies (policy reserves) are computed based upon expected investment yields, mortality and withdrawal (lapse) rates, and other assumptions, including a provision for adverse deviation from expected claim levels. The Company primarily relies on its own valuation and administration systems to establish policy reserves. The policy reserves the Company establishes may differ from those established by the ceding companies due to the use of different mortality and other assumptions. However, the Company relies upon its ceding company clients to provide accurate data, including policy-level information, premiums and claims, which is the primary information used to establish reserves. The Company’s administration departments work directly with its clients to help ensure information is submitted by them in accordance with the reinsurance contracts. Additionally, the Company performs periodic audits of the information provided by ceding companies. The Company establishes reserves for processing backlogs with a goal of clearing all backlogs within a ninety-day period. The backlogs are usually due to data errors the Company discovers or computer file compatibility issues, since much of the data reported to the Company is in electronic format and is uploaded to its computer systems.

The Company periodically reviews actual historical experience and relative anticipated experience compared to the assumptions used to establish aggregate policy reserves. Further, the Company establishes premium deficiency reserves if actual and anticipated experience indicates that existing aggregate policy reserves, together with the present value of future gross premiums, are not sufficient to cover the present value of future benefits, settlement and maintenance costs and to recover unamortized acquisition costs. The premium deficiency reserve is established through a charge to income, as well as a reduction to unamortized acquisition costs and, to the extent there are no unamortized acquisition costs, an increase to future policy benefits. Because of the many assumptions and estimates used in establishing reserves and the long-term nature of the Company’s reinsurance contracts, the reserving process, while based on actuarial science, is inherently uncertain. If the Company’s assumptions, particularly on mortality, are inaccurate, its reserves may be inadequate to pay claims and there could be a material adverse effect on its results of operations and financial condition.

Claims payable for incurred but not reported losses are determined using case-basis estimates and lag studies of past experience. The time lag from the date of the claim or death to the date when the ceding company reports the claim to the Company can be several months and can vary significantly by ceding company, business segment and product type. Incurred but not reported claims are estimates on an undiscounted basis, using actuarial estimates of historical claims expense, adjusted for current trends and conditions. These estimates are continually reviewed and the ultimate liability may vary significantly from the amount recognized, which are reflected in net income in the period in which they are determined.

Valuation of Investments and Other-than-Temporary Impairments

The Company primarily invests in fixed maturity securities, mortgage loans, short-term investments, and other invested assets. For investments reported at fair value, the Company utilizes, when available, fair values based on quoted prices in active markets that are regularly and readily obtainable. Generally, these are very liquid investments and the valuation does not require management judgment. When quoted prices in active markets are not available, fair value is based on market valuation techniques, market comparable pricing and the income approach. The Company may utilize information from third parties, such as pricing services and brokers, to assist in determining the fair value for certain investments; however, management is ultimately responsible for all fair values presented in the Company’s financial statements. This includes responsibility for monitoring the fair value process, ensuring objective and reliable valuation practices and pricing of financial instruments, and approving changes to valuation methodologies and pricing sources. The selection of the valuation technique(s) to apply considers the definition of an exit price and the nature of the investment being valued and significant expertise and judgment is required.

 

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Fixed maturity securities are classified as available-for-sale and are carried at fair value. Unrealized gains and losses on fixed maturity securities classified as available-for-sale, less applicable deferred income taxes as well as related adjustments to deferred acquisition costs, if applicable, are reflected as a direct charge or credit to accumulated other comprehensive income (“AOCI”) in stockholders’ equity on the consolidated balance sheets.

See “Investments” in Note 2 – “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” and Note 6 – “Fair Value of Assets and Liabilities” in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information regarding the valuation of the Company’s investments.

Mortgage loans on real estate are carried at unpaid principal balances, net of any unamortized premium or discount and valuation allowances. For a discussion regarding the valuation allowance for mortgage loans see “Mortgage Loans on Real Estate” in Note 2 – “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

In addition, investments are subject to impairment reviews to identify when a decline in value is other-than-temporary. Other-than-temporary impairment losses related to non-credit factors are recognized in AOCI whereas the credit loss portion is recognized in investment related gains (losses), net. See “Other-than-Temporary Impairment” in Note 2 – “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for a discussion of the policies regarding other-than-temporary impairments.

Valuation of Embedded Derivatives

The Company reinsures certain annuity products that contain terms that are deemed to be embedded derivatives, primarily equity-indexed annuities and variable annuities with guaranteed minimum benefits. The Company assesses each identified embedded derivative to determine whether it is required to be bifurcated under the general accounting principles for Derivatives and Hedging. If the instrument would not be reported in its entirety at fair value and it is determined that the terms of the embedded derivative are not clearly and closely related to the economic characteristics of the host contract, and that a separate instrument with the same terms would qualify as a derivative instrument, the embedded derivative is bifurcated from the host contract and accounted for as a freestanding derivative. Such embedded derivatives are carried on the consolidated balance sheets at fair value with the host contract.

Additionally, reinsurance treaties written on a modified coinsurance or funds withheld basis are subject to the general accounting principles for Derivatives and Hedging related to embedded derivatives. The majority of the Company’s funds withheld at interest balances are associated with its reinsurance of annuity contracts, the majority of which are subject to the general accounting principles for Derivatives and Hedging related to embedded derivatives. Management believes the embedded derivative feature in each of these reinsurance treaties is similar to a total return swap on the assets held by the ceding companies.

The valuation of the various embedded derivatives requires complex calculations based on actuarial and capital markets inputs and assumptions related to estimates of future cash flows and interpretations of the primary accounting guidance continue to evolve in practice. See “Derivative Instruments” in Note 2 – “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” and Note 6 – “Fair Value of Assets and Liabilities” in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information regarding the valuation of the Company’s embedded derivatives.

Income Taxes

The Company provides for federal, state and foreign income taxes currently payable, as well as those deferred due to temporary differences between the financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities and are recognized in net income or in certain cases in other comprehensive income. The Company’s accounting for income taxes represents management’s best estimate of various events and transactions considering the laws enacted as of the reporting date.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities resulting from temporary differences between the financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities are measured at the balance sheet date using enacted tax rates in the relevant jurisdictions expected to apply to taxable income in the years the temporary differences are expected to reverse.

The realization of deferred tax assets depends upon the existence of sufficient taxable income within the carryback or carryforward periods under the tax law in the applicable tax jurisdiction. The Company has significant deferred tax assets related to net operating and capital losses. The Company has projected its ability to utilize its U.S. and foreign net operating losses and has determined that all of the U.S. losses are expected to be utilized prior to their expiration and established a valuation allowance on the portion of the foreign deferred tax assets the Company believes more likely than not that deferred income tax assets will not be realized. The Company completed an extensive analysis of its capital losses and has determined that sufficient unrealized capital gains exist within its investment portfolios that should offset any capital loss realized. In addition, it is the Company’s intention to hold all unrealized loss securities until maturity or until their market value recovers.

 

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However, future unforeseen circumstances could create a situation in which the Company would prematurely sell securities in an unrealized loss position.

The Company will establish a valuation allowance if management determines, based on available information, that it is more likely than not that deferred income tax assets will not be realized. Significant judgment is required in determining whether valuation allowances should be established as well as the amount of such allowances. When making such determination, consideration is given to, among other things, the following:

 

(i)

future taxable income exclusive of reversing temporary differences and carryforwards;

 

(ii)

future reversals of existing taxable temporary differences;

 

(iii)

taxable income in prior carryback years; and

 

(iv)

tax planning strategies.

Any such changes could significantly affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements in the year these changes occur. The Company accounts for its total liability for uncertain tax positions considering the recognition and measurement thresholds established in general accounting principles for income taxes. The tax effects of a position are recognized in the consolidated statement of income only if it is more likely than not to be sustained upon examination by the appropriate taxing authority. Unrecognized tax benefits due to tax uncertainties that do not meet the more likely than not criteria are included within other liabilities and are charged to earnings in the period that such determination is made. The Company classifies interest related to tax uncertainties as interest expense whereas penalties related to tax uncertainties are classified as a component of income tax.

U.S. Operations

U.S. operations consist of two major sub-segments: Traditional and Non-Traditional. The Traditional sub-segment primarily specializes in individual mortality-risk reinsurance and to a lesser extent, group, health and long-term care reinsurance. The Non-Traditional sub-segment consists of Asset-Intensive and Financial Reinsurance.

 

For the year ended December 31, 2012          Non-Traditional        
     Traditional     Asset-Intensive      Financial
Reinsurance
    Total U.S.  

(dollars in thousands)

         

Revenues:

         

Net premiums

   $         4,308,780      $ 14,095       $ --      $         4,322,875   

Investment income, net of related expenses

     535,589        497,431         1,068        1,034,088   

Investment related gains (losses), net:

         

Other-than-temporary impairments on fixed maturity securities

     (10,608)        (1,566)         --        (12,174)   

Other-than-temporary impairments on fixed maturity securities transferred to (from) accumulated other comprehensive income

     (6,303)        --         --        (6,303)   

Other investment related gains (losses), net

     14,441        207,211         (141     221,511   
  

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total investment related gains (losses), net

     (2,470     205,645         (141     203,034   

Other revenues

     4,616        112,016         46,005        162,637   
  

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total revenues

     4,846,515        829,187         46,932        5,722,634   
  

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Benefits and expenses:

         

Claims and other policy benefits

     3,732,717        12,724         --        3,745,441   

Interest credited

     55,667        322,857         --        378,524   

Policy acquisition costs and other insurance expenses

     598,875        245,579         4,567        849,021   

Other operating expenses

     91,161        12,442         9,635        113,238   
  

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total benefits and expenses

     4,478,420        593,602         14,202        5,086,224   
  

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Income before income taxes

   $ 368,095      $         235,585       $         32,730      $ 636,410   
  

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

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For the year ended December 31, 2011           Non-Traditional         
     Traditional      Asset-Intensive      Financial
Reinsurance
     Total U.S.  

(dollars in thousands)

           

Revenues:

           

Net premiums

   $         3,979,489       $ 13,189       $ --       $         3,992,678   

Investment income, net of related expenses

     495,650                 362,722         164         858,536   

Investment related gains (losses), net:

           

Other-than-temporary impairments on fixed maturity securities

     (14,493)         (6,519)         (57)         (21,069)   

Other-than-temporary impairments on fixed maturity securities transferred to (from) accumulated other comprehensive income

     2,980         756         12         3,748   

Other investment related gains (losses), net

     55,724         (101,771)         (83)         (46,130)   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total investment related gains (losses), net

     44,211         (107,534)         (128)         (63,451)   

Other revenues

     3,401         87,518         36,373         127,292   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total revenues

     4,522,751         355,895         36,409         4,915,055   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Benefits and expenses:

           

Claims and other policy benefits

     3,458,279         14,277         --         3,472,556   

Interest credited

     59,891         255,354         --         315,245   

Policy acquisition costs and other insurance expenses

     555,511         42,717         3,191         601,419   

Other operating expenses

     85,106         8,217         6,875         100,198   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total benefits and expenses

     4,158,787         320,565         10,066         4,489,418   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Income before income taxes

   $ 363,964       $ 35,330       $         26,343       $ 425,637   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
For the year ended December 31, 2010           Non-Traditional         
     Traditional      Asset-Intensive      Financial
Reinsurance
     Total U.S.  

(dollars in thousands)

           

Revenues:

           

Net premiums

   $ 3,775,951       $ 21,130       $ --       $ 3,797,081   

Investment income, net of related expenses

     480,115         385,410         273         865,798   

Investment related gains (losses), net:

           

Other-than-temporary impairments on fixed maturity securities

     (6,200)         (4,387)         --         (10,587)   

Other-than-temporary impairments on fixed maturity securities transferred to (from) accumulated other comprehensive income

     620         (34)         --         586   

Other investment related gains (losses), net

     30,404         171,332         (86)         201,650   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total investment related gains (losses), net

     24,824         166,911         (86)         191,649   

Other revenues

     1,720         86,598         23,507         111,825   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total revenues

     4,282,610         660,049         23,694         4,966,353   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Benefits and expenses:

           

Claims and other policy benefits

     3,214,336         15,273         --         3,229,609   

Interest credited

     64,472         245,496         --         309,968   

Policy acquisition costs and other insurance expenses

     547,149         257,549         2,014         806,712   

Other operating expenses

     78,917         10,797         4,223         93,937   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total benefits and expenses

     3,904,874         529,115         6,237         4,440,226   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Income before income taxes

   $ 377,736       $ 130,934       $ 17,457       $ 526,127   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Income before income taxes for the U.S. operations segment increased by $210.8 million, or 49.5%, and decreased by $100.5 million, or 19.1%, in 2012 and 2011, respectively. The increase in income before income taxes in 2012 can primarily be attributed to the Asset-Intensive sub-segment. The increase in Asset-Intensive income before income taxes in 2012 is due to the effect of changes in credit spreads on the fair value of embedded derivatives associated with treaties written on a modified coinsurance or funds withheld basis and a new fixed annuity coinsurance transaction entered into during the year. Also contributing to the increase in income in 2012 was the net effect of the embedded derivative supporting the guaranteed minimum living benefits associated with the Company’s variable annuities, after adjustments for related deferred acquisition expenses. The decrease in income before income taxes in 2011 can be partially attributed to an increase in investment related losses related to the unfavorable impact of changes in credit spreads and interest rates on the fair value of embedded

 

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derivatives associated with treaties written on a modco or funds withheld basis. In addition, unfavorable claims experience in the U.S. Traditional sub-segment also contributed to the decrease in income before income taxes in 2011.

Traditional Reinsurance

The U.S. Traditional sub-segment provides life and health reinsurance to domestic clients for a variety of products through yearly renewable term, coinsurance and modified coinsurance agreements. These reinsurance arrangements may involve either facultative or automatic agreements.

Income before income taxes for the U.S. Traditional sub-segment increased by $4.1 million, or 1.1%, and decreased by $13.8 million, or 3.6% in 2012 and 2011, respectively. The increase in income before income taxes in 2012 is primarily due to slightly more favorable mortality experience in 2012 compared to 2011. Investment income increased $39.9 million due to a higher invested asset base, however this was more than offset by a decrease in net investment related gains of $46.7 million. The decrease in income before income taxes in 2011 can be primarily attributed to unfavorable mortality experience, largely offset by an increase in investment related gains and additional investment income. In 2011, the loss ratio in this sub-segment increased 1.8% over 2010. Investment related gains and investment income increased by $19.4 million and $15.4 million, respectively, in 2011 compared to 2010.

Net premiums increased $329.3 million, or 8.3%, and $203.5 million, or 5.4% in 2012 and 2011, respectively. These increases in net premiums were driven primarily by the growth in individual life business in force and health and group related coverages. The sub-segment added new life business production, measured by face amount of insurance in force, of $151.4 billion, $110.5 billion and $141.2 billion during 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively. Total face amount of life business in force was $1,393.3 billion, $1,343.0 billion and $1,334.8 billion as of December 31, 2012, 2011, and 2010, respectively. Contributing to the increase was a large in force block transaction of $42.4 billion which contributed $64.8 million to the increase in net premiums in 2012. In addition, premiums on health and group related coverages contributed $164.6 million and $88.6 million to the increase in net premiums in 2012 and 2011, respectively.

Net investment income increased $39.9 million, or 8.1%, and $15.5 million, or 3.2%, in 2012 and 2011, respectively, primarily due to growth in the average invested asset base partially offset by lower yields in both years. Investment related gains decreased by $46.7 million and increased by $19.4 million in 2012 and 2011, respectively. Investment income and investment related gains and losses are allocated to the various operating segments based on average assets and related capital levels deemed appropriate to support segment operations. Investment performance varies with the composition of investments and the relative allocation of capital to the operating segments.

Claims and other policy benefits as a percentage of net premiums (“loss ratios”) were 86.6%, 86.9% and 85.1% in 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively. The increase in the percentage in 2011 was primarily due to normal volatility in mortality claims and an increase in group reinsurance claims associated with disability, medical and life coverages. Although reasonably predictable over a period of years, claims experience is typically volatile over shorter periods.

Interest credited expense decreased $4.2 million, or 7.1%, and $4.6 million, or 7.1%, in 2012 and 2011, respectively. The variances in interest credited expense are largely offset by variances in investment income. The decrease in 2012 is the result of one treaty in which the most prevalent credited loan rate decreased from 4.8% to 3.5% partially offset by a slight increase in its asset base. The decrease in 2011 was driven primarily by the same treaty with a decrease in the credited loan rate to 4.8% in 2011 compared to 5.6% in 2010. Interest credited in this sub-segment relates to amounts credited on cash value products which also have a significant mortality component. Income before income taxes is affected by the spread between the investment income and the interest credited on the underlying products.

Policy acquisition costs and other insurance expenses as a percentage of net premiums were 13.9%, 14.0% and 14.5% in 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively. Overall, while these ratios are expected to remain in a predictable range, they may fluctuate from period to period due to varying allowance levels within coinsurance-type arrangements. In addition, the amortization pattern of previously capitalized amounts, which are subject to the form of the reinsurance agreement and the underlying insurance policies, may vary. Also, the mix of first year coinsurance business versus yearly renewable term business can cause the percentage to fluctuate from period to period.

Other operating expenses increased $6.1 million, or 7.1%, and $6.2 million, or 7.8% in 2012 and 2011, respectively. Other operating expenses, as a percentage of net premiums, were 2.1% in each of 2012, 2011 and 2010. The expense ratio tends to fluctuate only slightly from period to period due to maturity and scale of this sub-segment.

Asset-Intensive Reinsurance

The U.S. Asset-Intensive sub-segment primarily assumes investment risk within underlying annuities and corporate-owned life insurance policies. Most of these agreements are coinsurance, coinsurance with funds withheld or modco

 

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whereby the Company recognizes profits or losses primarily from the spread between the investment income earned and the interest credited on the underlying deposit liabilities, as well as fees associated with variable annuity account values.

Impact of certain derivatives:

Income for the asset-intensive business tends to be volatile due to changes in the fair value of certain derivatives, including embedded derivatives associated with reinsurance treaties structured on a modco or funds withheld basis, as well as embedded derivatives associated with the Company’s reinsurance of EIAs and variable annuities with guaranteed minimum benefit riders. Fluctuations occur period to period primarily due to changing investment conditions including, but not limited to, interest rate movements (including risk-free rates and credit spreads), implied volatility and equity market performance, all of which are factors in the calculations of fair value. Therefore, management believes it is helpful to distinguish between the effects of changes in these derivatives, net of related hedging activity, and the primary factors that drive profitability of the underlying treaties, namely investment income, fee income (included in other revenues), and interest credited. These fluctuations are considered unrealized by management and do not affect current cash flows, crediting rates or spread performance on the underlying treaties.

The following table summarizes the asset-intensive results and quantifies the impact of these embedded derivatives for the periods presented. Revenues before certain derivatives, benefits and expenses before certain derivatives, and income before income taxes and certain derivatives, should not be viewed as substitutes for GAAP revenues, GAAP benefits and expenses, and GAAP income before income taxes.

 

For the year ended December 31,    2012      2011      2010  

(dollars in thousands)

        

Revenues:

        

Total revenues

   $         829,187       $         355,895       $         660,049   

Less:

        

Embedded derivatives – modco/funds withheld treaties

     117,055         (89,648)         160,274   

Guaranteed minimum benefit riders and related free standing derivatives

     49,392         (17,851)         3,912   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Revenues before certain derivatives

     662,740         463,394         495,863   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Benefits and expenses:

        

Total benefits and expenses

     593,602         320,565         529,115   

Less:

        

Embedded derivatives – modco/funds withheld treaties

     75,849         (75,546)         115,920   

Guaranteed minimum benefit riders and related free standing derivatives

     27,862         (7,339)         5,935   

Equity-indexed annuities

     5,264         16,507         5,882   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Benefits and expenses before certain derivatives

     484,627         386,943         401,378   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Income (loss) before income taxes:

        

Income (loss) before income taxes

     235,585         35,330         130,934   

Less:

        

Embedded derivatives – modco/funds withheld treaties

     41,206         (14,102)         44,354   

Guaranteed minimum benefit riders and related free standing derivatives

     21,530         (10,512)         (2,023)   

Equity-indexed annuities

     (5,264)         (16,507)         (5,882)   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Income before income taxes and certain derivatives

     178,113         76,451         94,485   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Embedded Derivatives - Modco/Funds Withheld Treaties - Represents the change in the fair value of embedded derivatives on funds withheld at interest associated with treaties written on a modco or funds withheld basis. The fair value changes of embedded derivatives on funds withheld at interest associated with treaties written on a modco or funds withheld basis are reflected in revenues, while the related impact on deferred acquisition expenses is reflected in benefits and expenses. Changes in the fair value of the embedded derivative are driven by changes in investment credit spreads, including the Company’s own credit risk. Generally, an increase in investment credit spreads, ignoring changes in the Company’s own credit risk, will have a negative impact on the fair value of the embedded derivative (decrease in income). Changes in fair values of these embedded derivatives are net of an increase (decrease) in revenues of $(62.7) million, $23.1 million and $(32.2) million for the years ended December 31, 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively, associated with the Company’s own credit risk. A 10% increase in the Company’s own credit risk rate would have increased revenues in 2012 by approximately $0.3 million. Conversely, a 10% decrease in the Company’s own credit risk rate would have decreased revenues in 2012 by approximately $0.3 million.

 

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In 2012, the change in fair value of the embedded derivative increased revenues by $117.1 million and related deferred acquisition expenses increased benefits and expenses by $75.8 million, for a positive pre-tax income impact of $41.2 million, primarily due to a decrease in investment credit spreads. In 2011, the change in fair value of the embedded derivative decreased revenues by $89.6 million and related deferred acquisition expenses decreased benefits and expenses by $75.5 million, for a negative pre-tax income impact of $14.1 million. The decrease in 2011 can primarily be attributed to a recapture of a retrocession agreement related to a funds withheld treaty. Also contributing to the decrease in 2011 was an increase in investment credit spreads.

Guaranteed Minimum Benefit Riders - Represents the impact related to guaranteed minimum benefits associated with the Company’s reinsurance of variable annuities. The fair value changes of the guaranteed minimum benefits along with the changes in fair value of the free standing derivatives (interest rate swaps, financial futures and equity options), purchased by the Company to substantially hedge the liability are reflected in revenues, while the related impact on deferred acquisition expenses is reflected in benefits and expenses. Changes in fair values of these embedded derivatives are net of an increase in revenues of $16.5 million in 2012 associated with the Company’s own credit risk. Changes in fair values of embedded derivatives on variable annuity contracts associated with the Company’s own credit risk for the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2010 were not material. A 10% increase in the Company’s own credit risk rate would have increased revenues by approximately $1.6 million in 2012. Conversely, a 10% decrease in the Company’s own credit risk rate would have decreased revenues by approximately $1.6 million in 2012.

In 2012, the change in the fair value of the guaranteed minimum benefits, after allowing for changes in the associated free standing derivatives to substantially economically hedge risk, increased revenues by $49.4 million and related deferred acquisition expenses increased benefits and expenses by $27.9 million for a positive pre-tax income impact of $21.5 million. In 2011, the change in the fair value of the guaranteed minimum benefits, after allowing for changes in the associated free standing derivatives to economically hedge risk, decreased revenues by $17.9 million and related deferred acquisition expenses decreased benefits and expenses by $7.3 million for a negative pre-tax income impact of $10.5 million.

Equity-Indexed Annuities - Primarily represents the impact of changes in the benchmark rate on the calculation of the fair value of embedded derivative liabilities associated with EIAs, after adjustments for related deferred acquisition expenses. In 2012 and 2011, expenses increased $5.3 million and $16.5 million respectively.

Discussion and analysis before certain derivatives:

Income before income taxes and certain derivatives increased by $101.7 million and decreased by $18.0 million in 2012 and 2011, respectively. The increase in income in 2012 was in part due to net changes in investment related gains and losses associated with the funds withheld and coinsurance portfolios and their related DAC impact. Funds withheld capital gains and losses are reported through investment income while coinsurance activity is reflected in investment related gains (losses), net. In addition, income earned on a new fixed annuity coinsurance transaction also contributed to the increase in earnings in 2012 compared to 2011. The decrease in income in 2011 can be attributed to a decrease in net investment related gains of $24.5 million combined with a decline in the broader U.S. financial markets and the related unfavorable impact on the underlying annuity account values. Lower annuity account values lead to a reduction in expected fund based fees collected in future periods. This lower expectation of future revenue lead to an increase in the amortization of deferred acquisition costs in 2011. The decrease in income before income taxes in 2011 was partially offset by income related to the aforementioned recapture of a retrocession agreement on an existing funds withheld treaty.

Revenue before certain derivatives increased by $199.3 million and decreased by $32.5 million in 2012 and 2011, respectively. The increase in 2012 was driven primarily by an increase in investment income and other investment related gains related to the aforementioned new fixed annuity coinsurance transaction. In addition, other revenues in 2012 increased $27.1 million due primarily to the amortization of the deferred profit liability associated with the new fixed annuity coinsurance transaction. The decrease in 2011 was driven by changes in investment income related to equity options held in a funds withheld portfolio associated with EIAs. Increases and decreases in investment income related to equity options were mostly offset by corresponding increases and decreases in interest credited expense.

Benefits and expenses before certain derivatives increased by $97.7 million and decreased by $14.4 million in 2012 and 2011, respectively. The increase in 2012 was primarily due to an increase in interest credited related to the new fixed annuity coinsurance transaction. The decrease in 2011 was primarily due to changes in the interest credited expense related to equity option income on funds withheld EIAs. These changes were mostly offset by corresponding increases or decreases in investment income.

The invested asset base supporting this sub-segment increased by $5.4 billion and $0.3 billion in 2012 and 2011, respectively. The growth in the asset base in 2012 was driven by the new fixed annuity coinsurance transaction executed during the year. As of December 31, 2012 and 2011, $4.2 billion of the invested assets were funds withheld at interest, of which 92.3% and 90.2%, respectively, was associated with one client.

 

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Financial Reinsurance

U.S. Financial Reinsurance sub-segment income before income taxes consists primarily of net fees earned on financial reinsurance transactions. Additionally, a portion of the business is brokered business in which the Company does not participate in the assumption of risk. The fees earned from financial reinsurance contracts and brokered business are reflected in other revenues, and the fees paid to retrocessionaires are reflected in policy acquisition costs and other insurance expenses.

Income before income taxes increased by $6.4 million, or 24.2%, and $8.9 million, or 50.9%, in 2012 and 2011, respectively. The increases in 2012 and 2011 were primarily related to additional fees from financial reinsurance.

At December 31, 2012, 2011 and 2010, the amount of reinsurance assumed from client companies, as measured by pre-tax statutory surplus, risk based capital and other financial reinsurance structures, was $2.7 billion, $2.0 billion and $1.7 billion, respectively. The increase in 2012 can primarily be attributed to an increase in the number of new transactions entered into in 2012 and is consistent with the increase in related income. Fees earned from this business can vary significantly depending on the size of the transactions and the timing of their completion, and therefore, can fluctuate from period to period.

Canada Operations

The Company conducts reinsurance business in Canada primarily through RGA Life Reinsurance Company of Canada (“RGA Canada”), a wholly-owned subsidiary. RGA Canada assists clients with capital management activity and mortality and morbidity risk management, and is primarily engaged in traditional individual life reinsurance, as well as creditor, group life and health, critical illness, and longevity reinsurance. Creditor insurance covers the outstanding balance on personal, mortgage or commercial loans in the event of death, disability or critical illness and is generally shorter in duration than traditional life insurance.

 

For the year ended December 31,    2012      2011      2010  

(dollars in thousands)

        

Revenues:

        

Net premiums

   $ 915,764       $ 835,298       $ 797,206   

Investment income, net of related expenses

     190,337         188,304         169,136   

Investment related gains (losses), net:

        

Other-than-temporary impairments on fixed maturity securities

     --         --         --   

Other-than-temporary impairments on fixed maturity securities transferred to (from) accumulated other comprehensive income

     --         --         --   

Other investment related gains (losses), net

     27,659         26,996         12,682   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total investment related gains (losses), net

     27,659         26,996         12,682   

Other revenues

     6,504         5,433         1,146   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total revenues

             1,140,264                 1,056,031                 980,170   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Benefits and expenses:

        

Claims and other policy benefits

     706,716         673,105         656,358   

Interest credited

     28         --         --   

Policy acquisition costs and other insurance expenses

     206,337         180,712         172,210   

Other operating expenses

     40,212         37,261         29,864   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total benefits and expenses

     953,293         891,078         858,432   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Income before income taxes

   $ 186,971       $ 164,953       $ 121,738   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Income before income taxes increased by $22.0 million, or 13.3%, and $43.2 million, or 35.5%, in 2012 and 2011, respectively. The increase in income in 2012 is primarily due to a decrease in reserves of $16.2 million for a block of group creditor business as a result of a refinement of estimates and $6.3 million of income from the recapture of a previously assumed block of individual life business. The increase in income in 2011 is primarily due to an increase in net investment related gains of $14.3 million and improved traditional individual life mortality experience compared to prior year. In addition, contributing to the increase in income in 2011 is $3.3 million of income from the recapture of a previously assumed block of individual life business. Foreign currency exchange fluctuation in the Canadian dollar resulted in a decrease in income before income taxes of approximately $0.9 million in 2012 and an increase of approximately $5.7 million in 2011.

Net premiums increased $80.5 million, or 9.6%, and $38.1 million, or 4.8%, in 2012 and 2011, respectively. Foreign currency exchange fluctuation in the Canadian dollar resulted in a decrease in net premiums of approximately $9.0

 

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million in 2012 and an increase in net premiums of $31.3 million in 2011. Premiums increased in 2012 and 2011 primarily due to new business from both new and existing treaties. Excluding the impact of foreign exchange, reinsurance in force increased 11.5% and 8.9% in 2012 and 2011, respectively. The increase in premiums in 2011 was largely offset by a decrease in longevity reinsurance of $40.8 million. In 2010, the Company completed its first longevity in force reinsurance transaction and reported a one-time advance premium of $43.3 million, which represents the majority of the decrease in longevity premiums in 2011. In addition, creditor premiums increased by $23.9 million and $1.3 million in 2012 and 2011, respectively. The segment added new business production, measured by face amount of insurance in force, of $49.0 billion, $51.1 billion and $51.1 billion during 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively. The face amount of reinsurance in force totaled approximately $389.7 billion, $344.9 billion, and $324.1 billion at December 31, 2012, 2011, and 2010, respectively. Premium levels can be significantly influenced by currency fluctuations, large transactions, mix of business and reporting practices of ceding companies, and therefore may fluctuate from period to period.

Net investment income increased $2.0 million, or 1.1%, and $19.2 million, or 11.3%, in 2012 and 2011, respectively. The effect of changes in the Canadian dollar exchange rates resulted in an decrease in net investment income of approximately $2.9 million and an increase of $6.3 million in 2012 and 2011, respectively. Investment income and investment related gains and losses are allocated to the segments based upon average assets and related capital levels deemed appropriate to support segment operations. Investment performance varies with the composition of investments and the relative allocation of capital to the operating segments. The increases in investment income, excluding the impact of foreign exchange, were mainly the result of increases in the allocated asset base of 0.6% and 7.3% in 2012 and 2011, respectively, due to growth in the underlying business volume offset by decreases in investment yields.

Other revenues increased by $1.1 million and $4.3 million in 2012 and 2011, respectively. The increase in 2012 was primarily due to fees earned from the modification of existing treaties and a fee earned from the recapture of a previously assumed block of individual life business. The increase in 2011 was primarily due to a $4.9 million fee earned from the recapture of a previously assumed block of individual life business.

Loss ratios for this segment were 77.2%, 80.6% and 82.3% in 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively. The decrease in the 2012 loss ratio was primarily due to the aforementioned $16.2 million decrease in reserves for a block of group creditor business. Excluding creditor business, loss ratios for this segment were 90.9%, 92.1% and 94.4% in 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively. Historically, the loss ratio increased primarily as the result of several large permanent level premium in force blocks assumed in 1997 and 1998. These blocks are mature blocks of long-term permanent level premium business in which mortality as a percentage of net premiums is expected to be higher than historical ratios. The nature of permanent level premium policies requires the Company to set up actuarial liabilities and invest the amounts received in excess of early-year claims costs to fund claims in later years when premiums, by design, continue to be level as compared to expected increasing mortality or claim costs. Excluding creditor business, claims and other policy benefits, as a percentage of net premiums and investment income were 71.8%, 72.0% and 74.6% in 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively. The decrease in the loss ratio for 2011 compared to 2010 is due to improved traditional individual life mortality experience.

Policy acquisition costs and other insurance expenses as a percentage of net premiums totaled 22.5%, 21.6% and 21.6% in 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively. Policy acquisition costs and other insurance expenses as a percentage of net premiums for traditional individual life business were 12.7%, 12.6% and 13.8% in 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively. Overall, while these ratios are expected to remain in a predictable range, they may fluctuate from period to period due to varying allowance levels and product mix. In addition, the amortization pattern of previously capitalized amounts, which are subject to the form of the reinsurance agreement and the underlying insurance policies, may vary.

Other operating expenses increased $3.0 million, or 7.9%, and $7.4 million, or 24.8%, in 2012 and 2011, respectively. The effect of changes in the Canadian dollar exchange rates resulted in a decrease in operating expenses of approximately $0.3 million in 2012 and an increase of $1.1 million in 2011. Other operating expenses as a percentage of net premiums were 4.4%, 4.5% and 3.7% in 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively. The 2011 increase in other operating expenses as a percentage of net premiums in 2011 is primarily due to office relocation expenses.

 

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Europe & South Africa Operations

The Europe & South Africa segment includes operations in the UK, South Africa, France, Germany, India, Italy, Mexico, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain and the UAE. The segment provides reinsurance for a variety of life and health products through yearly renewable term and coinsurance agreements, critical illness coverage and longevity risk related to payout annuities. Reinsurance agreements may be facultative or automatic agreements covering primarily individual risks and, in some markets, group risks.

 

For the year ended December 31,    2012      2011      2010  

(dollars in thousands)

        

Revenues:

        

Net premiums

   $         1,308,462       $         1,194,477       $         918,513   

Investment income, net of related expenses

     45,576         44,351         37,039   

Investment related gains (losses), net:

        

Other-than-temporary impairments on fixed maturity securities

     --         (332)         (2,429)   

Other-than-temporary impairments on fixed maturity securities transferred to (from) accumulated other comprehensive income

     --         --         --   

Other investment related gains (losses), net

     11,574         6,332         5,013   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total investment related gains (losses), net

     11,574         6,000         2,584   

Other revenues

     6,679         5,031         2,099   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total revenues

     1,372,291         1,249,859         960,235   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Benefits and expenses:

        

Claims and other policy benefits

     1,134,219         1,001,921         734,392   

Policy acquisition costs and other insurance expenses

     51,236         59,217         60,192   

Other operating expenses

     112,889         105,619         93,526   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total benefits and expenses

     1,298,344         1,166,757         888,110   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Income before income taxes

   $ 73,947       $ 83,102       $ 72,125   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Income before income taxes decreased by $9.2 million, or 11.0%, and increased by $11.0 million, or 15.2%, in 2012 and 2011, respectively. The decrease in income before income taxes in 2012 was primarily due to unfavorable claims experience in the UK. The increase in income before income taxes in 2011 was primarily due to an increase in net premiums in the UK, South Africa, Italy, Spain, India and the UAE offset by unfavorable claims experience in South Africa, Mexico and the UAE. Foreign currency exchange fluctuations contributed to a decrease in income before income taxes of approximately $5.9 million in 2012 and an increase of approximately $0.9 million in 2011.

Net premiums grew by $114.0 million, or 9.5%, and $276.0 million, or 30.0%, in 2012 and 2011, respectively. These increases were the result of new business from both new and existing treaties including an increase associated with reinsurance of longevity risk in the UK of $39.0 million and $54.7 million in 2012 and 2011, respectively. In addition, net premiums in 2012 and 2011 include approximately $110.1 million and $64.7 million, respectively, associated with single premium in force transactions in Italy. The segment added new business production, measured by face amount of insurance in force, of $136.0 billion, $148.3 billion and $103.6 billion during 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively. The face amount of reinsurance in force totaled approximately $602.5 billion, $513.4 billion, and $467.6 billion at December 31, 2012, 2011, and 2010, respectively. During 2012, there were unfavorable foreign currency exchange fluctuations, particularly with the British pound, the Euro and the South African rand weakening against the U.S. dollar which decreased net premiums by approximately $51.6 million in 2012 as compared to 2011. During 2011, there were favorable foreign currency exchange fluctuations, particularly with the British pound, the Euro and the South African rand strengthening against the U.S. dollar, which increased net premiums by approximately $31.3 million in 2011 as compared to 2010. Premium levels can be significantly influenced by currency fluctuations, large transactions and reporting practices of ceding companies and therefore can fluctuate from period to period.

A portion of the net premiums for the segment, in each period presented, relates to reinsurance of critical illness coverage, primarily in the UK. This coverage provides a benefit in the event of the diagnosis of a pre-defined critical illness. Net premiums earned from this coverage totaled $248.6 million, $244.8 million and $224.1 million in 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively.

Net investment income increased $1.2 million, or 2.8%, and $7.3 million, or 19.7%, in 2012 and 2011, respectively. The increases can be primarily attributed to growth in the average invested asset base of 21.3% and 36.2% in 2012 and 2011, respectively, largely offset by decreases in investment yields. Investment income and investment related gains and losses are allocated to the various operating segments based on average assets and related capital levels deemed appropriate to support segment operations. Investment performance varies with the composition of investments and the relative allocation of capital to the operating segments.

 

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Loss ratios for this segment were 86.7%, 83.9% and 80.0% in 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively. The increase in the loss ratio in 2012 was due to unfavorable claims experience, primarily from UK critical illness and mortality coverages. The increase in the loss ratio in 2011 was due to unfavorable claims experience, primarily in South Africa, Mexico and the UAE. Although reasonably predictable over a period of years, claims experience is typically volatile over shorter periods. Management views recent experience as normal volatility that is inherent in the business.

Policy acquisition costs and other insurance expenses as a percentage of net premiums were 3.9%, 5.0% and 6.6% for 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively. The decreases in policy acquisition costs and other insurance expenses in 2012 and 2011 are related to a decrease in the amortization of deferred acquisition costs affected by the mix of business, primarily in the UK. These percentages fluctuate due to timing of client company reporting, variations in the mixture of business and the relative maturity of the business. In addition, as the segment grows, renewal premiums, which have lower allowances than first-year premiums, represent a greater percentage of the total net premiums.

Other operating expenses increased $7.3 million, or 6.9%, and $12.1 million, or 12.9%, in 2012 and 2011, respectively. Foreign currency exchange fluctuations contributed to a decrease of approximately $3.9 million and an increase of approximately $1.4 million in operating expenses in 2012 and 2011, respectively. Other operating expenses as a percentage of net premiums totaled 8.6%, 8.8% and 10.2% in 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively. These decreases in expenses as a percentage of net premiums reflect sustained growth in net premiums for this segment.

While concerns continue in 2012 relating to the European sovereign debt and European economies, approximately 78.8% of revenues for the segment were earned outside of the eurozone in 2012. Approximately 15.2% of the segment’s revenues were earned in Spain, Italy and Portugal in 2012.

Asia Pacific Operations

The Asia Pacific segment includes operations in Australia, Hong Kong, Japan, Malaysia, Singapore, New Zealand, South Korea, Taiwan and mainland China. The principal types of reinsurance include life, critical illness, disability income, superannuation, and financial reinsurance. Superannuation is the Australian government mandated compulsory retirement savings program. Superannuation funds accumulate retirement funds for employees, and, in addition, offer life and disability insurance coverage. Reinsurance agreements may be facultative or automatic agreements covering primarily individual risks and in some markets, group risks.

 

For the year ended December 31,    2012      2011      2010  

(dollars in thousands)

        

Revenues:

        

Net premiums

   $         1,350,330       $         1,304,490       $         1,139,065   

Investment income, net of related expenses

     83,387         84,837         71,827   

Investment related gains (losses), net:

        

Other-than-temporary impairments on fixed maturity securities

     --         (336)         --   

Other-than-temporary impairments on fixed maturity securities transferred to (from) accumulated other comprehensive income

     --         --         --   

Other investment related gains (losses), net

     8,990         7,350         6,153   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total investment related gains (losses), net

     8,990         7,014         6,153   

Other revenues

     52,838         34,073         26,419   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total revenues

     1,495,545         1,430,414         1,243,464   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Benefits and expenses:

        

Claims and other policy benefits

     1,079,699         1,076,833         926,383   

Interest credited

     1,311         1,149         --   

Policy acquisition costs and other insurance expenses

     252,041         201,130         149,453   

Other operating expenses

     117,116         109,068         93,746   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total benefits and expenses

     1,450,167         1,388,180         1,169,582   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Income before income taxes

   $ 45,378       $ 42,234       $ 73,882   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Income before income taxes increased by $3.1 million, or 7.4%, and decreased by $31.6 million, or 42.8%, in 2012 and 2011, respectively. The increase in income in 2012 was primarily due to strong revenue growth in Hong Kong, Southeast Asia and Japan partially offset by both adverse claims experience and a net increase of $46.5 million in benefit reserves in Australia. The decrease in income in 2011 was affected by $24.0 million in reserve increases related to updated termination assumptions for Australia disability income business and an increase in incurred but not reported claims for

 

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Australian individual and group life business in addition to adverse claims experience. Foreign currency exchange fluctuations contributed to a decrease in income before income taxes of approximately $0.8 million in 2012 and an increase of approximately $5.8 million in 2011.

Net premiums increased by $45.8 million, or 3.5%, and $165.4 million, or 14.5%, in 2012 and 2011, respectively. Premiums in 2012 increased in most markets primarily due to new treaties and increased production under existing treaties, notably Hong Kong and Southeast Asia by $52.0 million and Australia and New Zealand, which increased by $25.0 million. These increases are partially offset by decreases in Japan and Korea. Premiums in 2011 increased in most markets due to new treaties and increased production under existing treaties, particularly in Australia and New Zealand which increased by $153.8 million and Hong Kong and Southeast Asia which increased by $18.9 million, compared to 2010. The segment added new business production, measured by face amount of insurance in force, of $90.2 billion, $119.0 billion and $30.7 billion during 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively. The face amount of reinsurance in force totaled approximately $539.8 billion, $457.6 billion, and $408.1 billion at December 31, 2012, 2011, and 2010, respectively. Foreign currency exchange fluctuations contributed to a decrease in net premiums of approximately $2.0 million in 2012 and an increase of approximately $105.3 million in 2011. Premium levels can be significantly influenced by currency fluctuations, large transactions and reporting practices of ceding companies and can fluctuate from period to period.

A portion of the net premiums for the segment, in each period presented, relates to reinsurance of critical illness coverage. This coverage provides a benefit in the event of the diagnosis of a pre-defined critical illness. Reinsurance of critical illness in the Asia Pacific operations is offered primarily in South Korea, Australia and Hong Kong. Net premiums from this coverage totaled $224.4 million, $157.3 million, and $186.2 million in 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively.

Net investment income decreased $1.5 million, or 1.7%, and increased by $13.0 million, or 18.1%, in 2012 and 2011, respectively. The decrease in 2012 was primarily due to lower investment yields. The increase in 2011 was primarily due to growth in assets related to asset-intensive treaties offset in part by decreases in investment yields. Investment income and investment related gains and losses are allocated to the various operating segments based on average assets and related capital levels deemed appropriate to support segment operations. Investment performance varies with the composition of investments and the relative allocation of capital to the operating segments.

Other revenues increased by $18.8 million, or 55.1%, and $7.7 million, or 29.0%, in 2012 and 2011, respectively. The primary source of other revenues is fees from financial reinsurance treaties in Japan. The increase in other revenues in 2012 is largely due to a transaction with a client in Australia which resulted in a one-time fee income amount of $12.2 million. The transaction did not have a significant impact on income before taxes because the amount is offset by additional amortization of deferred acquisition costs, net of the release of reserves. Other revenues in 2012 also reflected fees from two new financial reinsurance treaties in Japan. The increase in other revenues in 2011 is primarily due to a new financial reinsurance treaty executed during that year. At December 31, 2012 and 2011, the amount of reinsurance assumed from client companies, as measured by pre-tax statutory surplus, risk based capital and other financial reinsurance structures was $2.1 billion and $1.9 billion, respectively. Fees earned from this business can vary significantly depending on the size of the transactions and the timing of their completion and therefore can fluctuate from period to period.

Loss ratios for this segment were 80.0%, 82.5% and 81.3% for 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively. While Australia experienced adverse individual and group claims experience as well as a net $46.5 million increase in claim liabilities for group life, and total and permanent disability (“TPD”) reinsurance business in 2012, loss ratios decreased for most other offices. Australia’s additional claim liabilities were primarily associated with group treaties that exhibited emerging negative claims development. The increase in the loss ratio in 2011 compared with 2010 was due to $24.0 million in reserve increases related to updated termination assumptions for Australia disability income business and an increase in incurred but not reported claims for Australian individual and group life business, a higher level of individual life claims in Australia and the estimated losses from the Japan and New Zealand earthquakes. Although reasonably predictable over a period of years, death claims are typically volatile over shorter periods. Management views recent experience as normal volatility that is inherent in the business. Loss ratios will fluctuate due to timing of client company reporting, variations in the mixture of business and the relative maturity of the business.

Interest credited expense increased by $0.2 million and $1.1 million in 2012 and 2011, respectively. The increases were due to contractual interest related to a new asset-intensive treaty in Japan entered into in 2011.

Policy acquisition costs and other insurance expenses as a percentage of net premiums were 18.7%, 15.4% and 13.1% for 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively. The increase in the ratio in 2012 was due to additional amortization of deferred acquisition costs which largely offsets the one-time fee related to the aforementioned transaction with a client in Australia. The ratio of policy acquisition costs and other insurance expenses as a percentage of net premiums should generally decline as the business matures; however, the percentage does fluctuate periodically due to variations in the mixture of business.

 

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Other operating expenses increased $8.0 million, or 7.4%, and $15.3 million, or 16.3%, in 2012 and 2011, respectively. Foreign currency exchange fluctuations contributed approximately $0.3 million and $4.5 million to the increase in operating expenses in 2012 and 2011, respectively. Other operating expenses as a percentage of net premiums totaled 8.7%, 8.4% and 8.2% in 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively. The timing of premium flows and the level of costs associated with the entrance into and development of new markets in the Asia Pacific segment may cause other operating expenses as a percentage of net premiums to fluctuate over periods of time.

Corporate and Other

Corporate and Other revenues include investment income and investment related gains and losses from unallocated invested assets. Corporate and Other expenses consist of the offset to capital charges allocated to the operating segments within the policy acquisition costs and other insurance expenses line item, unallocated overhead and executive costs, interest expense related to debt, and the investment income and expense associated with the Company’s collateral finance facility. Additionally, Corporate and Other includes results from, among others, RTP, a wholly-owned subsidiary that develops and markets technology solutions for the insurance industry.

 

For the year ended December 31,    2012      2011      2010  

(dollars in thousands)

        

Revenues:

        

Net premiums

   $ 9,165       $ 8,744       $ 7,815   

Investment income, net of related expenses

     82,818         105,169         94,860   

Investment related gains (losses), net:

        

Other-than-temporary impairments on fixed maturity securities

     (3,734)         (9,136)         (18,904)   

Other-than-temporary impairments on fixed maturity securities transferred to (from) accumulated other comprehensive income

     (1,315)         176         1,459   

Other investment related gains (losses), net

     7,928         (3,655)         16,407   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total investment related gains (losses), net

     2,879         (12,615)         (1,038)   

Other revenues

     15,315         76,881         9,871   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total revenues

     110,177         178,179         111,508   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Benefits and expenses:

        

Claims and other policy benefits

     (76)         768         413   

Interest credited

     52         -        14   

Policy acquisition costs and other insurance expenses (income)

     (52,165)         (52,457)         (50,978)   

Other operating expenses

     68,304         67,194         50,898   

Interest expenses

     105,348         102,638         90,996   

Collateral finance facility expense

     12,197         12,391         7,856   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total benefits and expenses

             133,660                 130,534                 99,199   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Income (loss) before income taxes

   $ (23,483)       $ 47,645       $ 12,309   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Income before income taxes decreased by $71.1 million, or 149.3%, and increased by $35.3 million, or 287.1%, in 2012 and 2011, respectively. The decrease in income in 2012 is primarily due to a $61.6 million decrease in other revenue and a $22.4 million decrease in investment income. The increase in income in 2011 is primarily due to a $67.0 million increase in other revenues and a $10.3 million increase in investment income partially offset by a $11.6 million increase in interest expense and a $16.3 million increase in other operating expenses.

Total revenues decreased $68.0 million, or 38.2%, and increased $66.7 million, or 59.8%, in 2012 and 2011, respectively. The decrease in revenues in 2012 is largely due to a $61.6 million decrease in other revenue due to gains on the repurchase of collateral finance facility securities of $65.6 million in 2011 and a $22.4 million decrease in investment income due to lower investment yields. The increase in revenues in 2011 was primarily due to a $65.6 million gain on the aforementioned repurchase of collateral finance facility securities and a $10.3 million increase in investment income, primarily due to growth in the invested asset base.

Total benefits and expenses increased $3.1 million or 2.4%, and $31.3 million or 31.6%, in 2012 and 2011, respectively. The increase in benefits and expenses in 2012 is primarily due to an increase in interest expense of $2.7 million largely due to interest expense related to uncertain tax positions of $2.7 million. The increase in total benefits and expenses in 2011 was primarily due to an increase in other operating expenses related to employee compensation as well as a loss associated with the redemption and remarketing associated with Preferred Income Equity Redeemable Securities of $4.4 million. This loss reflects the recognition of the unamortized issuance costs of the original preferred securities. Also contributing to the increase in 2011 was interest expense related to uncertain tax positions which increased by $8.5 million

 

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and interest on a higher level of outstanding debt. Collateral finance facility expense increased $4.5 million related to a collateral financing arrangement transacted with an international bank.

Deferred Acquisition Costs

DAC related to interest-sensitive life and investment-type contracts is amortized over the lives of the contracts, in relation to the present value of estimated gross profits (“EGP”) from mortality, investment income, and expense margins. The EGP for asset-intensive products include the following components: (1) estimates of fees charged to policyholders to cover mortality, surrenders and maintenance costs; (2) expected interest rate spreads between income earned and amounts credited to policyholder accounts; and (3) estimated costs of administration. EGP is also reduced by the Company’s estimate of future losses due to defaults in fixed maturity securities as well as the change in reserves for embedded derivatives. DAC is sensitive to changes in assumptions regarding these EGP components, and any change in such assumptions could have an effect on the Company’s profitability.

The Company periodically reviews the EGP valuation model and assumptions so that the assumptions reflect best estimates of future experience. Two assumptions are considered to be most significant: (1) estimated interest spread, and (2) estimated future policy lapses. The following table reflects the possible change that would occur in a given year if assumptions, as a percentage of current deferred policy acquisition costs related to asset-intensive products ($1,039.2 million as of December 31, 2012), are changed as illustrated:

 

Quantitative Change in Significant Assumptions

   One-Time Increase in
DAC
  One-Time Decrease in
DAC

Estimated interest spread increasing (decreasing) 25 basis points from the current spread

   1.46 %   -1.59 %

Estimated future policy lapse rates decreasing (increasing) 20% on a permanent basis (including surrender charges)

   0.64 %   -0.50 %

In general, a change in assumption that improves the Company’s expectations regarding EGP is going to have the effect of deferring the amortization of DAC into the future, thus increasing earnings and the current DAC balance. DAC can be no greater than the initial DAC balance plus interest and would be subject to recoverability testing which is ignored for purposes of this analysis. Conversely, a change in assumption that decreases EGP will have the effect of speeding up the amortization of DAC, thus reducing earnings and lowering the DAC balance. The Company also adjusts DAC to reflect changes in the unrealized gains and losses on available-for-sale fixed maturity securities since these changes affect EGP. This adjustment to DAC is reflected in accumulated other comprehensive income.

The DAC associated with the Company’s non-asset-intensive business is less sensitive to changes in estimates for investment yields, mortality and lapses. In accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, the estimates include provisions for the risk of adverse deviation and are not adjusted unless experience significantly deteriorates to the point where a premium deficiency exists.

The following table displays DAC balances for asset-intensive business and non-asset-intensive business by segment as of December 31, 2012:

 

(dollars in thousands)    Asset-Intensive DAC      Non-Asset-Intensive DAC      Total DAC  

U.S.

   $         1,039,180       $         1,527,029       $         2,566,209   

Canada

     --         271,146         271,146   

Europe & South Africa

     --         322,181         322,181   

Asia Pacific

     --         459,738         459,738   

Corporate and Other

     --         --         --   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

   $ 1,039,180       $ 2,580,094       $ 3,619,274   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

As of December 31, 2012, the Company estimates that all of its DAC balance is collateralized by surrender fees due to the Company and the reduction of policy liabilities, in excess of termination values, upon surrender or lapse of a policy.

 

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Liquidity and Capital Resources

Current Market Environment

The current U.S. interest rate environment is negatively affecting the Company’s earnings. The average investment yield, excluding funds withheld and other spread business, has decreased 30 basis points in 2012 as compared to 2011. In addition, the Company’s insurance liabilities, in particular its annuity products, are sensitive to changing market factors. Results of operations in 2012 reflect favorable changes in the value of embedded derivatives as credit spreads tightened compared to 2011. Conversely, results of operations in 2011 reflect unfavorable changes in the value of embedded derivatives as credit spreads widened compared to 2010. There has been continued improvement in gross unrealized gains on fixed maturity and equity securities available-for-sale, which were $2,871.4 million and $2,306.6 million at December 31, 2012 and 2011, respectively. Gross unrealized losses have totaled $133.6 million and $292.5 million at December 31, 2012 and 2011, respectively. The increase in the gross unrealized gains is primarily due to lower interest rates.

The Company continues to be in a position to hold any investment security showing an unrealized loss until recovery, provided it remains comfortable with the credit of the issuer. As indicated above, gross unrealized gains on investment securities of $2,871.4 million are well in excess of gross unrealized losses of $133.6 million as of December 31, 2012. Historically low interest rates continued to put pressure on the Company’s investment yield. In January 2012, U.S. Federal Reserve officials indicated that economic conditions in the U.S. would likely warrant exceptionally low federal funds rate through 2014. The Company does not rely on short-term funding or commercial paper and to date it has experienced no liquidity pressure, nor does it anticipate such pressure in the foreseeable future.

The Company projects its reserves to be sufficient and it would not expect to write down deferred acquisition costs or be required to take any actions to augment capital, even if interest rates remain at current levels for the next five years, assuming all other factors remain constant. While the Company has felt the pressures of sustained low interest rates and volatile equity markets and may continue to do so, its business operations are not overly sensitive to these risks. Although management believes the Company’s current capital base is adequate to support its business at current operating levels, it continues to monitor new business opportunities and any associated new capital needs that could arise from the changing financial landscape.

The Holding Company

RGA is an insurance holding company whose primary uses of liquidity include, but are not limited to, the immediate capital needs of its operating companies, dividends paid to its shareholders, repurchase of common stock and interest payments on its indebtedness (See Note 13—“Debt” in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements). RGA recognized interest expense of $143.3 million, $111.6 million and $96.6 million in 2012, 2011, and 2010, respectively. RGA made capital contributions to subsidiaries of $70.4 million, $105.6 million and $74.0 million in 2012, 2011, and 2010, respectively. Dividends to shareholders were $61.9 million, $44.2 million and $35.2 million in 2012, 2011, and 2010, respectively. RGA made principal payments on debt of $200.0 million in 2011. The primary sources of RGA’s liquidity include proceeds from its capital raising efforts, interest income on undeployed corporate investments, interest income received on surplus notes with RGA Reinsurance, RCM and Rockwood Re and dividends from operating subsidiaries. RGA recognized interest and dividend income of $86.4 million, $245.6 million and $128.5 million in 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively. Net proceeds from unaffiliated long-term debt issuance were $393.7 million and $394.4 million in 2012 and 2011, respectively. Proceeds from affiliated long-term debt issuance were $500.0 million in 2011. As the Company continues its expansion efforts, RGA will continue to be dependent upon these sources of liquidity. As of December 31, 2012 and 2011, RGA held $722.3 million and $583.6 million, respectively, of cash and cash equivalents, short-term and other investments and fixed maturity investments. See “Part IV – Item 15(a)(2) Financial Statement Schedules – Schedule II – Condensed Financial Information of Registrant” for more information regarding RGA’s financial information.

The Company, through a wholly-owned subsidiary, has committed to provide statutory reserve support to a third-party through 2035, in exchange for a fee, by funding a loan if certain defined events occur. Such statutory reserves are required under the U.S. Valuation of Life Policies Model Regulation (commonly referred to as Regulation XXX for term life insurance policies and Regulation A-XXX for universal life secondary guarantees). The maximum potential obligation under this commitment is $560.0 million. The third-party has recourse to RGA should the subsidiary fail to provide the required funding, however, as of December 31, 2012, the Company does not believe that it will be required to provide any funding under this commitment as the occurrence of the defined events is considered remote.

RGA established an intercompany revolving credit facility where certain subsidiaries can lend to or borrow from each other and from RGA in order to manage capital and liquidity more efficiently. The intercompany revolving credit facility, which is a series of demand loans among RGA and its affiliates, is permitted under applicable insurance laws. This facility reduces overall borrowing costs by allowing RGA and its operating companies to access internal cash resources instead of incurring third-party transaction costs. The statutory borrowing and lending limit for RGA’s Missouri-domiciled

 

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insurance subsidiaries is currently the lesser of 3% of the insurance company’s admitted assets and 25% of its surplus, in both cases, as of its most recent year-end. There were no amounts outstanding under the intercompany revolving credit facility as of December 31, 2012 and 2011.

The Company believes that it has sufficient liquidity for the next 12 months to fund its cash needs under various scenarios that include the potential risk of early recapture of reinsurance treaties and higher than expected death claims. Historically, the Company has generated positive net cash flows from operations. However, in the event of significant unanticipated cash requirements beyond normal liquidity, the Company has multiple liquidity alternatives available based on market conditions and the amount and timing of the liquidity need. These options include borrowings under committed credit facilities, secured borrowings, the ability to issue long-term debt, preferred securities or common equity and, if necessary, the sale of invested assets subject to market conditions.

The Company did not have any significant changes in its capital structure during 2012; however, in anticipation of the redemption and remarketing of RGA’s trust preferred securities as discussed below in “Debt,” RGA purchased 3.0 million shares of its outstanding common stock from MetLife, Inc. in February 2011, at a price of $61.14 per share, reflecting the most recent closing price of the Company’s common stock. The purchased common shares were placed into treasury for general corporate purposes.

In March 2011, RGA entered into an accelerated share repurchase (“ASR”) agreement with a financial counterparty. Under the ASR agreement, RGA purchased 2.5 million shares of its outstanding common stock at an initial price of $59.76 per share and an aggregate price of approximately $149.4 million. The purchase price was funded from cash on hand. The counterparty completed its purchases during the second quarter of 2011 and as a result, RGA was required to pay $4.3 million to the counterparty for the final settlement which resulted in a final price of $61.47 per share on the repurchased common stock. The common shares repurchased were placed into treasury to be used for general corporate purposes.

The Company’s share repurchase transactions described above were intended to offset share dilution associated with the issuance of approximately 5.5 million common shares from the exercise of warrants as discussed below in “Debt”.

During the third quarter of 2011, RGA repurchased 838,362 shares of common stock under a previously approved stock repurchase program for $43.1 million. The common shares repurchased were placed into treasury to be used for general corporate purposes.

In July 2012, the Company’s quarterly dividend was increased to $0.24 per share from $0.18 per share. All future payments of dividends are at the discretion of RGA’s board of directors and will depend on the Company’s earnings, capital requirements, insurance regulatory conditions, operating conditions, and other such factors as the board of directors may deem relevant. The amount of dividends that RGA can pay will depend in part on the operations of its reinsurance subsidiaries.

See Note 3—“Stock Transactions”, Note 13 – “Debt” and Note 20 – “Subsequent Events” in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information regarding the Company’s securities transactions.

Statutory Dividend Limitations

RCM and RGA Reinsurance are subject to Missouri statutory provisions that restrict the payment of dividends. They may not pay dividends in any 12-month period in excess of the greater of the prior year’s statutory net gain from operations or 10% of statutory capital and surplus at the preceding year-end, without regulatory approval. The applicable statutory provisions only permit an insurer to pay a shareholder dividend from unassigned surplus. Any dividends paid by RGA Reinsurance would be paid to RCM, its parent company, which in turn has restrictions related to its ability to pay dividends to RGA. RCM’s primary asset is its investment in RGA Reinsurance. As of January 1, 2013, RCM and RGA Reinsurance could pay maximum dividends, without prior approval, of approximately $169.2 million and $164.5 million, respectively. The MDI allows RCM to pay a dividend to RGA to the extent RCM received the dividend from RGA Reinsurance, without limitation related to the level of unassigned surplus. Dividend payments from other subsidiaries are subject to regulations in the jurisdiction of domicile, which are generally based on their earnings and/or capital level.

The dividend limitations for RCM and RGA Reinsurance are based on statutory financial results. Statutory accounting practices differ in certain respects from accounting principles used in financial statements prepared in conformity with GAAP. Significant differences include the treatment of deferred acquisition costs, deferred income taxes, required investment reserves, reserve calculation assumptions and surplus notes.

Debt

Certain of the Company’s debt agreements contain financial covenant restrictions related to, among others, liens, the issuance and disposition of stock of restricted subsidiaries, minimum requirements of consolidated net worth, maximum ratios of debt to capitalization and change of control provisions. The Company is required to maintain a minimum

 

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consolidated net worth, as defined in the debt agreements, of $2.8 billion, calculated as of the last day of each fiscal quarter. Also, consolidated indebtedness, calculated as of the last day of each fiscal quarter, cannot exceed 35% of the sum of the Company’s consolidated indebtedness plus adjusted consolidated net worth. A material ongoing covenant default could require immediate payment of the amount due, including principal, under the various agreements. Additionally, the Company’s debt agreements contain cross-default covenants, which would make outstanding borrowings immediately payable in the event of a material uncured covenant default under any of the agreements, including, but not limited to, non-payment of indebtedness when due for an amount in excess of $100.0 million, bankruptcy proceedings, or any other event which results in the acceleration of the maturity of indebtedness. As of December 31, 2012 and 2011, the Company had $1,815.3 million and $1,414.7 million, respectively, in outstanding borrowings under its debt agreements and was in compliance with all covenants under those agreements. The ability of the Company to make debt principal and interest payments depends on the earnings and surplus of subsidiaries, investment earnings on undeployed capital proceeds, and the Company’s ability to raise additional funds. There currently are no repayments of debt due over the next five years.

The Company enters into derivative agreements with counterparties that reference either the Company’s debt rating or its financial strength rating. If either rating is downgraded in the future it could trigger certain terms in the Company’s derivative agreements, which could negatively affect overall liquidity. For the majority of the Company’s derivative agreements, there is a termination event should the long-term senior debt ratings drop below either BBB+ (S&P) or Baa1 (Moody’s) or the financial strength ratings drop below either A—(S&P) or A3 (Moody’s).

The Company may borrow up to $850.0 million in cash and obtain letters of credit in multiple currencies on its revolving credit facility that expires in December 2015. As of December 31, 2012, the Company had no cash borrowings outstanding and $402.9 million in issued, but undrawn, letters of credit under this facility. As of December 31, 2012, the average interest rate on long-term debt outstanding was 5.99% compared to 5.94% at the end of 2011.

On August 21, 2012, RGA issued 6.20% Fixed-To-Floating Rate Subordinated Debentures due September 15, 2042 with a face amount of $400.0 million. These subordinated debentures have been registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission. The net proceeds from the offering were approximately $393.7 million and will be used for general corporate purposes. Capitalized issue costs were approximately $6.3 million.

On May 27, 2011, RGA issued 5.00% Senior Notes due June 1, 2021 with a face amount of $400.0 million. These senior notes have been registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission. The net proceeds from the offering were approximately $394.4 million and were used to fund the payment of the RGA’s $200.0 million senior notes that matured in December 2011 and for general corporate purposes. Capitalized issue costs were approximately $3.4 million.

On March 4, 2011, RGA completed the remarketing of approximately 4.5 million trust preferred securities with an aggregate accreted value of approximately $158.2 million that were initially issued as a component of its Trust Preferred Income Equity Redeemable Securities (“PIERS Units”). When issued, each PIERS Unit initially consisted of a preferred security and a warrant to purchase at any time prior to December 15, 2050, 1.2508 shares of RGA common stock. Approximately 4.4 million of the warrants were exercised on March 4, 2011, at a price of $35.44 per warrant, resulting in the issuance of approximately 5.5 million shares. The warrant exercise price was paid to RGA. Remaining warrants were redeemed in cash at their redemption amount of $14.56 per warrant. As a result of the remarketing, the remarketed preferred securities had a fixed accreted value of $35.44 per security with a fixed annual distribution rate of 2.375% and were repaid on June 5, 2011, the revised maturity date. In the first quarter of 2011, RGA recorded a $4.4 million pre-tax loss, included in other operating expenses, related to the recognition of the unamortized issuance costs of the original preferred securities.

Based on the historic cash flows and the current financial results of the Company, management believes RGA’s cash flows will be sufficient to enable RGA to meet its obligations for at least the next 12 months.

Collateral Finance Facilities and Statutory Reserve Funding

The Company uses various internal and third-party reinsurance arrangements and funding sources to manage statutory reserve strain, including reserves associated with Regulation XXX, and collateral requirements. Assets in trust and letters of credit are often used as collateral in these arrangements. See “Assets in Trust” and “Letters of Credit” below for more information.

Regulation XXX, implemented in the U.S. for various types of life insurance business beginning January 1, 2000, significantly increased the level of reserves that U.S. life insurance and life reinsurance companies must hold on their statutory financial statements for various types of life insurance business, primarily certain level premium term life products. The reserve levels required under Regulation XXX increase over time and are normally in excess of reserves required under GAAP. In situations where primary insurers have reinsured business to reinsurers that are unlicensed and unaccredited in the U.S., the reinsurer must provide collateral equal to its reinsurance reserves in order for the ceding company to receive statutory financial statement credit. In order to manage the effect of Regulation XXX on its statutory financial statements, RGA Reinsurance has retroceded a majority of Regulation XXX reserves to unaffiliated and affiliated unlicensed reinsurers.

 

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RGA Reinsurance’s statutory capital may be significantly reduced if the unaffiliated or affiliated reinsurer is unable to provide the required collateral to support RGA Reinsurance’s statutory reserve credits and RGA Reinsurance cannot find an alternative source for collateral.

In June 2006, RGA’s subsidiary, Timberlake Financial, issued $850.0 million of Series A Floating Rate Insured Notes due June 2036 in a private placement. The notes were issued to fund the collateral requirements for statutory reserves required by the U.S. Valuation of Life Policies Model Regulation (commonly referred to as Regulation XXX) on specified term life insurance policies reinsured by RGA Reinsurance and retroceded to Timberlake Re. Proceeds from the notes, along with a $112.8 million direct investment by the Company, were deposited into a series of accounts that collateralize the notes and are not available to satisfy the general obligations of the Company. As of December 31, 2012, the Company held assets in trust and in custody of $909.2 million, of which $33.2 million were held in a Debt Service Coverage account to cover interest payments on the notes. Interest on the notes accrues at an annual rate of 1-month LIBOR plus a base rate margin, payable monthly and totaled $6.9 million and $7.1 million in 2012 and 2011, respectively. The payment of interest and principal on the notes is insured through a financial guaranty insurance policy by a monoline insurance company whose parent company is operating under Chapter 11 bankruptcy. The notes represent senior, secured indebtedness of Timberlake Financial without legal recourse to RGA or its other subsidiaries.

Timberlake Financial relies primarily upon the receipt of interest and principal payments on a surplus note and dividend payments from its wholly-owned subsidiary, Timberlake Re, a South Carolina captive insurance company, to make payments of interest and principal on the notes. The ability of Timberlake Re to make interest and principal payments on the surplus note and dividend payments to Timberlake Financial is contingent upon the South Carolina Department of Insurance’s regulatory approval. As of December 31, 2012, Timberlake Re’s surplus totaled $33.0 million. Reserve decreases and statutory profits are expected to increase capital and surplus above $35.0 million by year-end 2014. Since Timberlake Re’s capital and surplus fell below the minimum requirement in its licensing order of $35.0 million, it has been required, since the second quarter of 2011, to request approval on a quarterly rather than annual basis and provide additional scenario testing results. Approval to pay interest on the surplus note was granted through March 28, 2013. In the event Timberlake Re did not receive approval to pay Timberlake Financial interest on the surplus notes, Timberlake Financial would still be obligated to pay the interest on its notes. Timberlake Financial has the ability to make such payments until its invested assets in the Debt Service Coverage account are exhausted, at which time, the financial guarantor would be responsible for payment.

During 2011, the Company repurchased $198.5 million face amount of the Timberlake Financial notes for $130.8 million, which was the market value at the date of the purchases. The notes were purchased by RGA Reinsurance. As a result, the Company recorded pre-tax gains of $65.6 million, after fees, in other revenues in 2011.

The Company’s consolidated balance sheets include the assets of Timberlake Financial, a wholly-owned subsidiary, recorded as fixed maturity investments and other invested assets, which consists of restricted cash and cash equivalents, with the liability for the notes recorded as collateral finance facility. The Company’s consolidated statements of income include the investment return of Timberlake Financial as investment income and the cost of the facility is reflected in collateral finance facility expense.

In 2010, Manor Re obtained $300.0 million of collateral financing through 2020 from an international bank which enabled Manor Re to deposit assets in trust to support statutory reserve credit for an affiliated reinsurance transaction. The bank has recourse to RGA should Manor Re fail to make payments or otherwise not perform its obligations under this financing. Interest on the collateral financing accrues at an annual rate of 3-month LIBOR plus a base rate margin, payable quarterly and totaled $5.3 million in both 2012 and 2011.

During 2011, to enhance liquidity and capital efficiency within the group, various operating subsidiaries purchased $500.0 million of newly issued RGA subordinated debt. Similarly, RGA also purchased $475.0 million of surplus notes issued by its newly formed subsidiary Rockwood Re. These intercompany debt securities are eliminated for consolidated financial reporting.

Based on the growth of the Company’s business and the pattern of reserve levels under Regulation XXX associated with term life business and other statutory reserve requirements, the amount of ceded reserve credits is expected to grow. This growth will require the Company to obtain additional letters of credit, put additional assets in trust, or utilize other funding mechanisms to support the reserve credits. If the Company is unable to support the reserve credits, the regulatory capital levels of several of its subsidiaries may be significantly reduced. The reduction in regulatory capital would not directly affect the Company’s consolidated shareholders’ equity under GAAP; however, it could affect the Company’s ability to write new business and retain existing business.

 

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Assets in Trust

Some treaties give ceding companies the right to request that the Company place assets in trust for the benefit of the cedant to support statutory reserve credits in the event of a downgrade of the Company’s ratings to specified levels, generally non-investment grade levels, or if minimum levels of financial condition are not maintained. As of December 31, 2012, these treaties had approximately $1,522.1 million in statutory reserves. Assets placed in trust continue to be owned by the Company, but their use is restricted based on the terms of the trust agreement. Securities with an amortized cost of $2,140.7 million were held in trust for the benefit of certain RGA subsidiaries to satisfy collateral requirements for reinsurance business at December 31, 2012. Additionally, securities with an amortized cost of $7,549.0 million as of December 31, 2012 were held in trust to satisfy collateral requirements under certain third-party reinsurance treaties. Under certain conditions, the Company may be obligated to move reinsurance from one subsidiary of RGA to another subsidiary of RGA or make payments under a given treaty. These conditions include change in control or ratings of the subsidiary, insolvency, nonperformance under a treaty, or loss of reinsurance license of such subsidiary. If the Company was ever required to perform under these obligations, the risk to the Company on a consolidated basis under the reinsurance treaties would not change; however, additional capital may be required due to the change in jurisdiction of the subsidiary reinsuring the business, which could lead to a strain on liquidity.

Proceeds from the notes issued by Timberlake Financial and the Company’s direct investment in Timberlake Financial were deposited into a series of trust accounts as collateral and are not available to satisfy the general obligations of the Company. As of December 31, 2012 the Company held deposits in trust and in custody of $909.2 million for this purpose, which is not included above. See “Collateral Finance Facility” above for additional information on the Timberlake notes.

Letters of Credit

The Company has obtained bank letters of credit in favor of various affiliated and unaffiliated insurance companies from which the Company assumes business. These letters of credit represent guarantees of performance under the reinsurance agreements and allow ceding companies to take statutory reserve credits. Certain of these letters of credit contain financial covenant restrictions similar to those described in the “Debt” discussion above. At December 31, 2012, there were approximately $45.4 million of outstanding bank letters of credit in favor of third parties. Additionally, the Company utilizes letters of credit to secure statutory reserve credits when it retrocedes business to its subsidiaries, including Parkway Re, Timberlake Re, Rockwood Re, RGA Americas, RGA Barbados and RGA Atlantic. The Company cedes business to its affiliates to help reduce the amount of regulatory capital required in certain jurisdictions, such as the U.S. and the UK. The capital required to support the business in the affiliates reflects more realistic expectations than the original jurisdiction of the business, where capital requirements are often considered to be quite conservative. As of December 31, 2012, $763.5 million in letters of credit from various banks were outstanding, but undrawn, backing reinsurance between the various subsidiaries of the Company. See Note 12—“Commitments and Contingent Liabilities” in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for information regarding the Company’s letter of credit facilities.

In 2006, the Company entered into a reinsurance agreement that requires it to post collateral for a portion of the business being reinsured. As part of the collateral requirements, a third party financial institution has issued a letter of credit for the benefit of the ceding company (the “beneficiary”), which may draw on the letter of credit to be reimbursed for valid claim payments not made by RGA pursuant to the reinsurance treaty. RGA is not a direct obligor under the letter of credit. To the extent the letter of credit is drawn by the beneficiary, reimbursement to the third party financial institution will be through reduction in amounts owed to RGA by the third party financial institution under a secured structured loan. RGA’s liability under the reinsurance agreement will be reduced by any amount drawn by the ceding company under the letter of credit. As of December 31, 2012, the structured loan totaled $208.6 million and the amount of the letter of credit totaled $235.9 million. The structured loan is recorded in “other invested assets” on RGA’s consolidated balance sheets.

Reinsurance Operations

Reinsurance agreements, whether facultative or automatic, generally provide recapture provisions. Most U.S.-based reinsurance treaties include a recapture right for ceding companies, generally after 10 years. Outside of the U.S., treaties primarily include a mutually agreed upon recapture provision. Recapture rights permit the ceding company to reassume all or a portion of the risk formerly ceded to the reinsurer. In some situations, the Company has the right to place assets in trust for the benefit of the ceding party in lieu of recapture. Additionally, certain treaties may grant recapture rights to ceding companies in the event of a significant decrease in RGA Reinsurance’s NAIC risk based capital ratio or financial strength rating. The RBC ratio trigger varies by treaty, with the majority between 125% and 225% of the NAIC’s company action level. Financial strength rating triggers vary by treaty with the majority of the triggers reached if RGA Reinsurance’s financial strength rating falls five notches from its current rating of “AA-” to the “BBB” level on the S&P scale. Recapture of business previously ceded does not affect premiums ceded prior to the recapture of such business, but would reduce premiums in subsequent periods. Upon recapture, the Company would reflect a net gain or loss on the settlement of the

 

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assets and liabilities associated with the treaty. In some cases, the ceding company is required to pay the Company a recapture fee. The Company estimates approximately $341.7 billion of its gross assumed in force business, as of December 31, 2012, was subject to treaties where the ceding company could recapture in the event minimum levels of financial condition or ratings were not maintained.

Guarantees

RGA has issued guarantees to third parties on behalf of its subsidiaries for the payment of amounts due under certain reinsurance treaties, securities borrowing arrangements and office lease obligations, whereby if a subsidiary fails to meet an obligation, RGA or one of its other subsidiaries will make a payment to fulfill the obligation. In limited circumstances, treaty guarantees are granted to ceding companies in order to provide additional security, particularly in cases where RGA’s subsidiary is relatively new, unrated, or not of significant size, relative to the ceding company. Liabilities supported by the treaty guarantees, before consideration for any legally offsetting amounts due from the guaranteed party, totaled $686.0 million and $697.5 million as of December 31, 2012 and 2011, respectively, and are reflected on the Company’s consolidated balance sheets in future policy benefits. As of December 31, 2012 and 2011, the Company’s exposure related to treaty guarantees, net of assets held in trust, was $463.5 million and $467.5 million, respectively. Potential guaranteed amounts of future payments will vary depending on production levels and underwriting results. Guarantees related to borrowed securities provide additional security to third parties should a subsidiary fail to make principal and/or interest payments when due. As of December 31, 2012, RGA’s obligation related to borrowed securities guarantees was $87.5 million. RGA has issued payment guarantees on behalf of two of its subsidiaries in the event the subsidiaries fail to make payment under their office lease obligations, the exposure of which was $10.1 million as of December 31, 2012.

In addition, the Company indemnifies its directors and officers pursuant to its charters and by-laws. Since this indemnity generally is not subject to limitation with respect to duration or amount, the Company does not believe that it is possible to determine the maximum potential amount due under this indemnity in the future.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

At December 31, 2012, the Company’s commitments to fund investments were $176.7 million in limited partnerships, $22.2 million in commercial mortgage loans and $68.5 million in private placement investments. At December 31, 2011, the Company’s commitments to fund investments were $156.6 million in limited partnerships, $33.6 million in commercial mortgage loans and $100.0 million in private placement investments. The Company anticipates that the majority of its current commitments will be invested over the next five years; however, these commitments could become due any time at the request of the counterparties. Investments in limited partnerships and private placements are carried at cost or reported using the equity method and included in other invested assets in the consolidated balance sheets. Bank loans are carried at fair value and included in fixed maturities available-for-sale.

The Company has not engaged in trading activities involving non-exchange-traded contracts reported at fair value, nor has it engaged in relationships or transactions with persons or entities that derive benefits from their non-independent relationship with the Company.

Cash Flows

The Company’s principal cash inflows from its reinsurance operations include premiums and deposit funds received from ceding companies. The primary liquidity concerns with respect to these cash flows are early recapture of the reinsurance contract by the ceding company and lapses of annuity products reinsured by the Company. The Company’s principal cash inflows from its invested assets result from investment income and the maturity and sales of invested assets. The primary liquidity concern with respect to these cash inflows relates to the risk of default by debtors and interest rate volatility. The Company manages these risks very closely. See “Investments” and “Interest Rate Risk” below.

Additional sources of liquidity to meet unexpected cash outflows in excess of operating cash inflows and current cash and equivalents on hand include selling short-term investments or fixed maturity securities and drawing funds under existing credit facilities, under which the Company had availability of $447.1 million as of December 31, 2012. The Company also has $546.8 million of funds available through collateralized borrowings from the Federal Home Loan Bank of Des Moines (“FHLB”).

The Company’s principal cash outflows relate to the payment of claims liabilities, interest credited, operating expenses, income taxes, and principal and interest under debt and other financing obligations. The Company seeks to limit its exposure to loss on any single insured and to recover a portion of benefits paid by ceding reinsurance to other insurance enterprises or reinsurers under excess coverage and coinsurance contracts (See Note 2, “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements). The Company performs annual financial reviews of its retrocessionaires to evaluate financial stability and performance. The Company has never experienced a material default in connection with retrocession arrangements, nor has it experienced any difficulty in collecting claims recoverable from retrocessionaires; however, no assurance can be given as to the future performance of such retrocessionaires nor to the

 

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recoverability of future claims. The Company’s management believes its current sources of liquidity are adequate to meet its cash requirements for the next 12 months.

The Company’s net cash flows provided by operating activities for the years ended December 31, 2012, 2011 and 2010 were $1,974.5 million, $1,309.5 million and $1,842.7 million, respectively. Cash flows from operating activities are affected by the timing of premiums received, claims paid, and working capital changes. The Company believes the short-term cash requirements of its business operations will be sufficiently met by the positive cash flows generated. Additionally, the Company believes it maintains a high quality fixed maturity portfolio that can be sold, if necessary, to meet the Company’s short—and long-term obligations.

Net cash used in investing activities for the years ended December 31, 2012, 2011 and 2010 were $1,968.0 million, $905.8 million and $1,720.5 million, respectively. Contributing to the net cash used in investing activities in 2012 is the investment of proceeds from the issuance of $400.0 million in subordinated debentures during the year. Cash flows from investing activities primarily reflect the sales, maturities and purchases of fixed maturity securities related to the management of the Company’s investment portfolios and the investment of excess cash generated by operating and financing activities. Cash flows from investing activities also include the investment activity related to mortgage loans, policy loans, funds withheld at interest, short-term investments and other invested assets.

Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities for the years ended December 31, 2012, 2011 and 2010 were $281.9 million, $102.0 million and $(193.4) million, respectively. Contributing to the net cash provided by financing activities in 2012 is the proceeds from the issuance of $400.0 million in subordinated debentures during the year. Cash flows from financing activities primarily reflects the Company’s capital management efforts, treasury stock activity, dividends to stockholders, changes in collateral for derivative positions and the activity related to universal life and other investment type policies and contracts.

Contractual Obligations

The following table displays the Company’s contractual obligations, including obligations arising from its reinsurance business (in millions):

 

     Payment Due by Period  
     Total      Less than 1 Year      1-3 Years      4-5 Years      After 5 Years  

Future policy benefits(1)

   $ 7,184.9       $ (425.1)       $ (723.7)       $ (597.7)       $ 8,931.4   

Interest-sensitive contract liabilities(2)

         18,256.9             1,575.1             3,178.6             2,774.1             10,729.1   

Long-term debt, including interest

     4,138.2         109.1         327.2         492.8         3,209.1   

Collateral financing, including interest(3)

     1,034.2         10.3         42.4         131.5         850.0   

Other policy claims and benefits

     3,160.3         3,160.3         --         --         --   

Operating leases

     64.5         14.6         19.5         11.5         18.9   

Limited partnerships

     176.7         176.7         --         --         --   

Investment purchase and loan commitments

     90.7         90.7         --         --         --   

Payables for collateral received under derivative transactions

     136.4         136.4         --         --         --   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

   $ 34,242.8       $ 4,848.1       $ 2,844.0       $ 2,812.2       $ 23,738.5   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

(1)

Future policyholder benefits include liabilities related primarily to the Company’s reinsurance of life and health insurance products. Amounts presented in the table above represent the estimated obligations as they become due to ceding companies for benefits under such contracts, and also include future premiums, allowances and other amounts due to or from the ceding companies as the result of the Company’s assumptions of mortality, morbidity, policy lapse and surrender risk as appropriate to the respective product. Total payments may vary materially from prior years due to the assumption of new treaties or as a result of changes in projections of future experience. All estimated cash payments presented in the table above are undiscounted as to interest, net of estimated future premiums on policies currently in force and gross of any reinsurance recoverable. The sum of the undiscounted estimated cash flows shown for all years in the table is an obligation of $7,184.9 million compared to the discounted liability amount of $11,372.9 million included on the consolidated balance sheet, substantially all due to the effects of discounting the estimated cash flows in the balance sheet liability. The time value of money is not factored into the calculations in the table above. In addition, differences will arise due to changes in the projection of future benefit payments compared with those developed when the reserve was established. Expected premiums exceed expected policy benefit payments and allowances due to the nature of the reinsurance treaties, which generally have increasing premium rates that exceed the increasing benefit payments.

 

(2)

Interest-sensitive contract liabilities include amounts related to the Company’s reinsurance of asset-intensive products, primarily deferred annuities and corporate-owned life insurance. Amounts presented in the table above represent the estimated obligations as they become due both to and from ceding companies relating to activity of the underlying policyholders. Amounts presented in the table above represent the estimated obligations under such contracts undiscounted as to interest, including assumptions related to surrenders, withdrawals, premium persistency, partial withdrawals, surrender charges, annuitizations, mortality, future interest credited rates and policy loan utilization. The sum of the obligations shown for all years in the table of $18,256.9 million exceeds the liability amount of $13,353.5 million included on the consolidated balance sheet principally due to the lack of discounting and accounting for separate account contracts.

 

(3)

Includes the Manor Re collateral financing arrangement that does not appear on the consolidated balance sheets due to a master netting agreement where the Company holds a term deposit note of equal value from the counterparty.

 

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Excluded from the table above are net deferred income tax liabilities, unrecognized tax benefits, and accrued interest related to unrecognized tax benefits of $2,095.8 million, $245.6 million, and $49.6 million, respectively, for which the Company cannot reliably determine the timing of payment. Current income tax payable is also excluded from the table.

The net funded status of the Company’s qualified and nonqualified pension and other postretirement liabilities included within other liabilities has been excluded from the amounts presented in the table above. As of December 31, 2012, the Company had a net unfunded balance of $97.2 million related to qualified and nonqualified pension and other postretirement liabilities. See Note 10 – “Employee Benefit Plans” in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for information related to the Company’s obligations and funding requirements for pension and other post-employment benefits.

Asset / Liability Management

The Company actively manages its cash and invested assets using an approach that is intended to balance quality, diversification, asset/liability matching, liquidity and investment return. The goals of the investment process are to optimize after-tax, risk-adjusted investment income and after-tax, risk-adjusted total return while managing the assets and liabilities on a cash flow and duration basis.

The Company has established target asset portfolios for each major insurance product, which represent the investment strategies intended to profitably fund its liabilities within acceptable risk parameters. These strategies include objectives and limits for effective duration, yield curve sensitivity and convexity, liquidity, asset sector concentration and credit quality.

The Company’s asset-intensive products are primarily supported by investments in fixed maturity securities reflected on the Company’s balance sheet and under funds withheld arrangements with the ceding company. Investment guidelines are established to structure the investment portfolio based upon the type, duration and behavior of products in the liability portfolio so as to achieve targeted levels of profitability. The Company manages the asset-intensive business to provide a targeted spread between the interest rate earned on investments and the interest rate credited to the underlying interest-sensitive contract liabilities. The Company periodically reviews models projecting different interest rate scenarios and their effect on profitability. Certain of these asset-intensive agreements, primarily in the U.S. operating segment, are generally funded by fixed maturity securities that are withheld by the ceding company.

The Company’s liquidity position (cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments) was $1,548.0 million and $1,051.4 million at December 31, 2012 and 2011, respectively. Cash and cash equivalents includes cash collateral received from derivative counterparties of $136.4 million and $241.5 million as of December 31, 2012 and 2011, respectively. This unrestricted cash collateral is included in cash and cash equivalents and the obligation to return it is included in other liabilities in the Company’s consolidated balance sheets. Liquidity needs are determined from valuation analyses conducted by operational units and are driven by product portfolios. Periodic evaluations of demand liabilities and short-term liquid assets are designed to adjust specific portfolios, as well as their durations and maturities, in response to anticipated liquidity needs.

The Company participates in a securities borrowing program whereby securities, which are not reflected on the Company’s consolidated balance sheets, are borrowed from a third party. The Company is required to maintain a minimum of 100% of the market value of the borrowed securities as collateral. The Company had borrowed securities with an amortized cost of $87.5 million and $150.0 million as of December 31, 2012 and 2011, respectively, which was equal to the market value in both periods. The borrowed securities are used to provide collateral under an affiliated reinsurance transaction.

The Company also participates in a repurchase/reverse repurchase program in which securities, reflected as investments on the Company’s consolidated balance sheets, are pledged to a third party. In return, the Company receives securities from the third party with an estimated fair value equal to a minimum of 100% of the securities pledged. The securities received are not reflected on the Company’s consolidated balance sheets. As of December 31, 2012 the Company had pledged securities with an amortized cost of $290.2 million and an estimated fair value of $305.9 million, in return the Company received securities with an estimated fair value of $342.0 million. There were no securities pledged or received under this program as of December 31, 2011. In addition to its security agreements with third parties, certain RGA’s subsidiaries have entered into intercompany securities lending agreements to more efficiently source securities for lending to third parties and to provide for more efficient regulatory capital management.

RGA Reinsurance is a member of the FHLB and holds $32.3 million of common stock in the FHLB, which is included in other invested assets on the Company’s consolidated balance sheets. RGA Reinsurance occasionally enters into traditional funding agreements with the FHLB but had no outstanding traditional funding agreements with the FHLB at December 31, 2012 or 2011. The Company’s average outstanding balance of traditional funding agreements was $6.1 million during 2012. The Company’s average outstanding balance of traditional funding agreements was $23.2 million

 

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during 2011. Interest on traditional funding agreements with the FHLB is reflected in interest expense on the Company’s consolidated statements of income.

In addition, RGA Reinsurance has also entered into funding agreements with the FHLB under guaranteed investment contracts whereby RGA Reinsurance has issued the funding agreements in exchange for cash and for which the FHLB has been granted a blanket lien on RGA Reinsurance’s commercial and residential mortgage-backed securities and commercial mortgage loans used to collateralize RGA Reinsurance’s obligations under the funding agreements. RGA Reinsurance maintains control over these pledged assets, and may use, commingle, encumber or dispose of any portion of the collateral as long as there is no event of default and the remaining qualified collateral is sufficient to satisfy the collateral maintenance level. The funding agreements and the related security agreements represented by this blanket lien provide that upon any event of default by RGA Reinsurance, the FHLB’s recovery is limited to the amount of RGA Reinsurance’s liability under the outstanding funding agreements. The amount of the Company’s liability for the funding agreements with the FHLB under guaranteed investment contracts was $500.0 million and $197.7 million at December 31, 2012 and 2011, respectively, which is included in interest sensitive contract liabilities. The advances on these agreements are collateralized primarily by commercial and residential mortgage-backed securities and commercial mortgage loans. The amount of collateral exceeds the liability and is dependent on the type of assets collateralizing the guaranteed investment contracts.

Investments

Management of Investments

The Company’s investment and derivative strategies involve matching the characteristics of its reinsurance products and other obligations and to seek to closely approximate the interest rate sensitivity of the assets with estimated interest rate sensitivity of the reinsurance liabilities. The Company achieves its income objectives through strategic and tactical asset allocations, security and derivative strategies within an asset/liability management and disciplined risk management framework. Derivative strategies are employed within the Company’s risk management framework to help manage duration, currency, and other risks in assets and/or liabilities and to replicate the credit characteristics of certain assets. For a discussion of the Company’s risk management process see “Market Risk” in the “Enterprise Risk Management” section below.

The Company’s portfolio management groups work with the Enterprise Risk Management function to develop the investment policies for the assets of the Company’s domestic and international investment portfolios. All investments held by the Company, directly or in a funds withheld at interest reinsurance arrangement, are monitored for conformance with the Company’s stated investment policy limits as well as any limits prescribed by the applicable jurisdiction’s insurance laws and regulations. See Note 4 – “Investments” in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information regarding the Company’s investments.

Portfolio Composition

The Company had total cash and invested assets of $34.2 billion and $25.9 billion at December 31, 2012 and 2011, respectively, as illustrated below (dollars in thousands):

 

     2012      2011  

Fixed maturity securities, available-for-sale

   $         22,291,614       $         16,200,950   

Mortgage loans on real estate

     2,300,587         991,731   

Policy loans

     1,278,175         1,260,400   

Funds withheld at interest

     5,594,182         5,410,424   

Short-term investments

     288,082         88,566   

Other invested assets

     1,159,543         1,012,541   

Cash and cash equivalents

     1,259,892         962,870   
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total cash and invested assets

   $ 34,172,075       $ 25,927,482   
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

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Investment Yield

The following table presents consolidated average invested assets at amortized cost, net investment income and investment yield, excluding funds withheld at interest and spread related business. Funds withheld at interest assets and other spread related business are primarily associated with the reinsurance of annuity contracts on which the Company earns an interest rate spread between assets and liabilities. Fluctuations in the yield on funds withheld assets and other spread related business are substantially offset by a corresponding adjustment to the interest credited on the liabilities (dollars in thousands).

 

                                                                                                                       
                          Increase /(Decrease)  
     2012      2011      2010          2012              2011      

Average invested assets at amortized cost

   $     16,555,144      $     15,288,576      $     13,716,003        8.3%         11.5%   

Net investment income

     823,987        806,655        749,408        2.1%         7.6%   

Investment yield (ratio of net investment

income to average invested assets)

     4.98%         5.28%         5.46%         (0.30)%         (0.18)%   

The current low U.S. interest rate environment is negatively affecting the Company’s earnings through reinvestment of maturing assets and investment of new liability cash flows. Investment yield decreased in 2012 and 2011 due primarily to slightly lower yields on several asset classes including fixed maturity securities, mortgage loans and policy loans. The lower yields are due primarily to a lower interest rate environment which decreases the yield on new investment purchases, although this is offset by the increase in average invested assets, resulting in a slight increase in investment income.

Fixed Maturity and Equity Securities Available-for-Sale

See “Fixed Maturity and Equity Securities Available-for-Sale” in Note 4 – “Investments” in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for tables that provide the amortized cost, unrealized gains and losses, estimated fair value of fixed maturity and equity securities, and the other-than-temporary impairments in AOCI by sector as of December 31, 2012 and 2011.

The Company’s fixed maturity securities are invested primarily in corporate bonds, mortgage—and asset-backed securities, and U.S. and Canadian government securities. As of December 31, 2012 and 2011, approximately 94.2% and 95.5%, respectively, of the Company’s consolidated investment portfolio of fixed maturity securities were investment grade.

Important factors in the selection of investments include diversification, quality, yield, call protection and total rate of return potential. The relative importance of these factors is determined by market conditions and the underlying reinsurance liability and existing portfolio characteristics. The largest asset class in which fixed maturity securities were invested was in corporate securities, which represented approximately 55.5% of total fixed maturity securities at December 31, 2012, compared to 46.0% at December 31, 2011. The Company’s investment in corporate securities was diversified between financial institutions, industrials and utilities sectors; however, during 2012, RGA shifted its corporate portfolio toward the industrial sector away from the financial sector for added diversification and better risk return characteristics as financial credit spreads tightened throughout the year. See “Corporate Fixed Maturity Securities” in Note 4 – “Investments” in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for tables showing the major industry types which comprise the corporate fixed maturity holdings at December 31, 2012 and 2011.

As of December 31, 2012, the Company’s investments in Canadian and Canadian provincial government securities represented 18.2% of the fair value of total fixed maturity securities compared to 23.9% of the fair value of total fixed maturity securities at December 31, 2011. These assets are primarily high quality, long duration provincial strips whose valuation is closely linked to the interest rate curve. The Company’s holdings in Canadian securities were the largest contributor to the net unrealized gain reported in the accumulated other comprehensive income reflected in the Company’s consolidated balance sheets. These assets are longer in duration and held primarily for asset/liability management to meet Canadian regulatory requirements. See “Fixed Maturity and Equity Securities Available-for-Sale” in Note 4 – “Investments” in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for tables showing the various sectors as of December 31, 2012 and 2011.

The creditworthiness of Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal and Spain, commonly referred to as “Europe’s peripheral region” is under ongoing stress and uncertainty due to high debt levels and economic weakness. The Company did not have material exposure to sovereign fixed maturity securities, which includes global government agencies, from Europe’s peripheral region as of December 31, 2012 and 2011. In addition, the Company did not purchase or sell credit protection, through credit default swaps, referenced to sovereign entities of Europe’s peripheral region. The tables below show the Company’s exposure to sovereign fixed maturity securities originated in countries other than Europe’s peripheral region, included in “Other foreign government, supranational and foreign government-sponsored enterprises,” in Note 4 – “Investments,” as of December 31, 2012 and 2011 (dollars in thousands):

 

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December 31, 2012:           Estimated
     Fair Value    
        
         Amortized Cost                 % of Total      

Australia

   $ 472,188       $ 483,629         30.9 %   

Japan

     291,955         297,025         19.0      

United Kingdom

     130,792         139,826         8.9      

Cayman Islands

     69,172         77,912         5.0      

South Africa

     63,721         66,372         4.2      

South Korea

     52,613         55,563         3.5      

Germany

     51,413         54,602         3.5      

New Zealand

     53,593         54,092         3.5      

France

     45,342         48,761         3.1      

Other

     258,578         287,421         18.4      
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

   $ 1,489,367       $ 1,565,203         100.0 %   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
December 31, 2011:           Estimated
     Fair Value    
        
         Amortized Cost                 % of Total      

Australia

   $ 437,713       $ 446,694         39.1 %   

Japan

     214,994         219,276         19.2      

United Kingdom

     118,618         130,106         11.4      

Germany

     72,926         75,741         6.6      

New Zealand

     51,547         51,544         4.5      

South Africa

     37,624         38,528         3.4      

South Korea

     30,592         32,025         2.8      

Other

     139,927         148,792         13.0      
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

   $ 1,103,941       $ 1,142,706         100.0 %   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

As of December 31, 2012, the Company’s investment in sovereign fixed maturity securities represented 7.0% of the fair value of total fixed maturity securities compared to 7.1% of the fair value of total fixed maturity securities at December 31, 2011. The Company’s largest exposures to sovereign fixed maturity securities remain Australia, Japan, and the UK, although the concentration of securities within these countries has decreased as the overall sovereign portfolio has become more diversified.

The tables below show the Company’s exposure to non-sovereign fixed maturity and equity securities, based on the security’s country of issuance, from Europe’s peripheral region as of December 31, 2012 and 2011 (dollars in thousands):

 

                                                  
December 31, 2012:           Estimated
     Fair Value    
        
           Amortized Cost                 % of Total      

Financial institutions:

        

Ireland

   $ 4,093       $ 4,520         3.8 %   

Spain

     38,422         39,920         33.7      
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total financial institutions

     42,515         44,440         37.5      
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Other:

        

Ireland

     38,852         41,019         34.6      

Italy

     6,434         6,653         5.6      

Spain

     24,725         26,547         22.3      
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total other

     70,011         74,219         62.5      
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

   $   112,526       $   118,659         100.0 %   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

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December 31, 2011:           Estimated
     Fair Value    
        
         Amortized Cost                 % of Total      

Financial institutions:

        

Ireland

   $ 4,084       $ 4,397         5.9 %   

Spain

     25,565         20,378         27.6      
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total financial institutions

     29,649         24,775         33.5      
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Other:

        

Ireland

     12,474         13,149         17.8      

Italy

     2,898         2,808         3.8      

Spain

     34,459         33,137         44.9      
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total other

     49,831         49,094         66.5      
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

   $   79,480       $   73,869         100.0 %   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Strong improvement in European financial markets, as the governments of the European Union have demonstrated willingness to negotiate a solution to the region’s debt problems during 2012, has resulted in unrealized gains in both financial institutions and all other fixed maturity and equity securities held by the Company that were issued within the region.

The Company references rating agency designations in some of its investments disclosures. These designations are based on the ratings from nationally recognized statistical rating organizations, primarily those assigned by S&P. In instances where a S&P rating is not available the Company references the rating provided by Moody’s and in the absence of both the Company will generally assign equivalent ratings based on information from the National Association of Insurance Commissioners (“NAIC”) or other rating agency. The NAIC assigns securities quality ratings and uniform valuations called “NAIC Designations” which are used by insurers when preparing their statutory filings. The NAIC assigns designations to publicly traded as well as privately placed securities. The designations assigned by the NAIC range from class 1 to class 6, with designations in classes 1 and 2 generally considered investment grade (BBB or higher rating agency designation). NAIC designations in classes 3 through 6 are generally considered below investment grade (BB or lower rating agency designation).

The quality of the Company’s available-for-sale fixed maturity securities portfolio, as measured at fair value and by the percentage of fixed maturity securities invested in various ratings categories, relative to the entire available-for-sale fixed maturity security portfolio, at December 31, 2012 and 2011 was as follows (dollars in thousands):

 

          December 31, 2012      December 31, 2011  

NAIC

Designation

  

Rating Agency

Designation

   Amortized Cost      Estimated
    Fair  Value    
         % of Total           Amortized Cost       Estimated
    Fair  Value    
         % of Total      
1    AAA/AA/A    $ 12,059,154       $ 14,300,571         64.2 %       $ 10,087,612       $ 11,943,633         73.7 %   
2    BBB      6,186,536         6,692,929         30.0            3,283,937         3,522,411         21.8      
3    BB      694,349         712,712         3.2            446,610         436,001         2.7      
4    B      444,996         444,035         2.0            244,645         210,222         1.3      
5    CCC and lower      118,738         95,906         0.4            95,128         71,410         0.4      
6    In or near default      55,659         45,461         0.2            24,948         17,273         0.1      
     

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
       Total    $ 19,559,432       $ 22,291,614         100.0 %       $ 14,182,880       $ 16,200,950         100.0 %   
     

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

The Company’s fixed maturity portfolio includes structured securities. The following table shows the types of structured securities the Company held at December 31, 2012 and 2011 (dollars in thousands):

 

     December 31, 2012      December 31, 2011  
            Estimated
     Fair Value    
            Estimated
     Fair Value    
 
     Amortized Cost         Amortized Cost     

Residential mortgage-backed securities:

           

Agency

   $ 497,918       $ 555,535       $ 561,156       $ 619,010   

Non-agency

     471,349         486,529         606,109         608,224   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total residential mortgage-backed securities

     969,267         1,042,064         1,167,265         1,227,234   

Commercial mortgage-backed securities

     1,608,376         1,698,903         1,233,958         1,242,219   

Asset-backed securities

     700,455         691,555         443,974         401,991   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

   $ 3,278,098       $ 3,432,522       $ 2,845,197       $ 2,871,444   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

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The residential mortgage-backed securities include agency-issued pass-through securities and collateralized mortgage obligations. A majority of the agency-issued pass-through securities are guaranteed or otherwise supported by the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation, Federal National Mortgage Association, or the Government National Mortgage Association. As of December 31, 2012 and 2011, the weighted average credit rating of the residential mortgage-backed securities was “A+” and “AA,” respectively. The principal risks inherent in holding mortgage-backed securities are prepayment and extension risks, which will affect the timing of when cash will be received and are dependent on the level of mortgage interest rates. Prepayment risk is the unexpected increase in principal payments from the expected, primarily as a result of owner refinancing. Extension risk relates to the unexpected slowdown in principal payments from the expected. In addition, non-agency mortgage-backed securities face credit risk should the borrower be unable to pay the contractual interest or principal on their obligation. The Company monitors its mortgage-backed securities to mitigate exposure to the cash flow uncertainties associated with these risks.

As of December 31, 2012 and 2011, the Company had exposure to commercial mortgage-backed securities with amortized costs totaling $1,969.4 million and $1,595.1 million, and estimated fair values of $2,090.0 million and $1,615.9 million. Those amounts include exposure to commercial mortgage-backed securities held directly in the Company’s investment portfolios of fixed maturity securities, as well as securities held by ceding companies that support the Company’s funds withheld at interest investment. The securities are highly rated with weighted average credit ratings of approximately “A+” at December 31, 2012 and 2011. During 2011, commercial mortgage-backed securities were sold in the portfolios held by ceding companies supporting the funds withheld at interest investments in an effort to reduce exposure to subordinated commercial mortgage-backed securities. Approximately 30.3% and 40.2% of commercial mortgage-backed securities, based on estimated fair value, were classified in the “AAA” category at December 31, 2012 and 2011, respectively. The decrease in the ratings was primarily attributable to the repositioning of assets to achieve target yields in underlying portfolios. The Company recorded $14.2 million, $12.4 million and $8.0 million of other-than-temporary impairments in its direct investments in commercial mortgage-backed securities for the years ended December 31, 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively. The following tables summarize the Company’s commercial mortgage-backed securities by rating and underwriting year at December 31, 2012 and 2011 (dollars in thousands):

 

December 31, 2012:    AAA      AA      A  

Underwriting Year

     Amortized Cost        Estimated
Fair Value
       Amortized Cost        Estimated
Fair Value
       Amortized Cost        Estimated
Fair Value
 

2005 & Prior

   $ 69,810       $ 75,706       $ 129,430       $ 141,189       $ 99,840       $ 103,112   

2006

     243,222         270,756         59,773         66,862         85,198         93,688   

2007

     182,456         201,131         32,810