20-F 1 bonso3312013.htm FORM 20F

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 20-F

   
[   ] REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
OR 
[X] ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
  For the Fiscal Year Ended March 31, 2013
OR 
[   ] TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
OR 
[   ] SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
   
   

Commission File Number: 0-17601

 

BONSO ELECTRONICS INTERNATIONAL INC.

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

 

British Virgin Islands

(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

 

Unit 1404, 14/F, Cheuk Nang Centre,

9 Hillwood Road, Tsimshatsui

Kowloon, Hong Kong

(Address of principal executive offices)

 

Albert So, Chief Financial Officer

Tele: (852) 2605-5822 Fax: (852) 2691-1724

Email: albert@bonso.com

Unit 1404, 14/F, Cheuk Nang Centre,

9 Hillwood Road, Tsimshatsui

Kowloon, Hong Kong

(Name, Telephone, email and/or fax number and address of Company Contact Person)

 

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act: None.

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

 

COMMON STOCK, PAR VALUE $.003

 

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act: None.

 

Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report.

 

5,577,639 shares of common stock, $0.003 par value, at March 31, 2013 (including 330,736 shares that are held in treasury)

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act of 1933.

Yes [  ] No [X]

 

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

 

If the report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15D of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

 

Yes [  ] No [X]

 

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.

Yes [X] No [  ]

 

 Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes [   ]    No [X]

 

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, or a non-accelerated filer.

         
Large Accelerated Filer   [  ]   Accelerated Filer   [  ]   Non-accelerated filer   [X]
         

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the Registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:

     
U.S. GAAP   [X] International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board   [  ] Other [  ]
     

 

If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the Registrant has elected to follow:

 

Item 17 [  ] Item 18 [  ]

 

If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.)

 

Yes [  ] No [X]

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

         
 PART I      Page
         
 Item 1. Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisors     5
 Item 2.   Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable     5
 Item 3. Key Information     5
 Item 4. Information on the Company     20
 Item 4A.  Unresolved Staff Comments     29
 Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects     30
 Item 6.     Directors, Senior Management and Employees     44
 Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions     51
 Item 8. Financial Information     52
 Item 9. The Offer and Listing     52
 Item 10. Additional Information     53
 Item 11. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk     57
 Item 12. Description of Securities Other Than Equity Securities     58
        
 PART II       
         
 Item 13.   Defaults, Dividend Arrearages and Delinquencies     58
 Item 14. Material Modifications to the Rights of Security Holders and Use of Proceeds     58
 Item 15. Controls and Procedures     58
 Item 16. Reserved     59
 Item 16A. Audit Committee Financial Expert     59
 Item 16B. Code of Ethics     59
 Item 16C. Principal Accountant Fees and Services     60
 Item 16D. Exemptions from the Listing Standards for Audit Committees     61
 Item 16E. Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliates Purchasers     61
 Item 16F. Changes in Registrant’s Certifying Accountants     62
 Item 16G. Corporate Governance     62
 Item 16H. Mine Safety Disclosure     62
         
PART III       
         
 Item 17. Financial Statements     62
 Item 18. Financial Statements     F-1 to F-35
 Item 19. Exhibits     63
SIGNATURES      
         
         
         

 

 

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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This Annual Report on Form 20-F contains forward-looking statements. A forward-looking statement is a projection about a future event or result, and whether the statement comes true is subject to many risks and uncertainties. These statements often can be identified by the use of terms such as “may,” “will,” “expect,” “believe,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “approximate” or “continue,” or the negative thereof. The actual results or activities of the Company will likely differ from projected results or activities of the Company as described in this Annual Report, and such differences could be material.

 

Forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause the actual results and performance of the Company to be different from any future results, performance and achievements expressed or implied by these statements. In other words, our performance might be quite different from what the forward-looking statements imply. You should review carefully all information included in this Annual Report.

 

You should rely only on the forward-looking statements that reflect management's view as of the date of this Annual Report. We undertake no obligation to publicly revise or update these forward-looking statements to reflect subsequent events or circumstances. You should also carefully review the risk factors described in other documents we file from time to time with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). The Private Securities Reform Act of 1995 contains a safe harbor for forward-looking statements on which the Company relies in making such disclosures. In connection with the “safe harbor,” we are hereby identifying important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements made by us or on our behalf. Factors that might cause such a difference include, but are not limited to, those discussed in the section entitled “Risk Factors” under Item 3. - Key Information.

 

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND CURRENCY PRESENTATION

 

We prepare our consolidated financial statements in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America and publish our financial statements in United States Dollars.

 

REFERENCES

 

In this Annual Report, “China” refers to all parts of the People's Republic of China other than the Special Administrative Region of Hong Kong. The terms “Bonso,” “we,” “our,” “us,” “The Group” and the “Company” refer to Bonso Electronics International Inc. and, where the context so requires or suggests, our direct and indirect subsidiaries. References to “dollars,” “U.S. Dollars” or “US$” are to United States Dollars, “HK$” are to Hong Kong Dollars, “Euros” or “euro” are to the European Monetary Union's Currency, and “RMB” are to Chinese Renminbi.

 

 

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PART I

 

Item 1. Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisors

 

Not Applicable to Bonso.

 

Item 2. Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable

 

Not Applicable to Bonso.

 

Item 3. Key Information

 

A.Selected Financial Data.

 

The selected consolidated financial data as of March 31, 2012 and 2013 and for each of the three fiscal years ended March 31, 2013 are derived from the Audited Consolidated Financial Statements and notes which appear elsewhere in this Annual Report.

 

The Financial Statements are prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America and expressed in United States Dollars. The selected consolidated financial data set forth below as of March 31, 2009, 2010 and 2011, and for each of the two fiscal years in the period ended March 31, 2010, have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements that are not included in this Annual Report.  The selected consolidated financial data is qualified in their entirety by reference to, and should be read in conjunction with, the Consolidated Financial Statements and related notes included in the F pages of this Annual Report and Item 5. – “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” included in this Annual Report.

 

 

 

[REMAINDER OF THIS PAGE LEFT BLANK INTENTIONALLY]
SELECTED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL DATA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Statement of Operations Data

(in 000’s US$ except for shares and per share data)

 

   Year Ended March 31,
   2009 (1)(2)(3)  2010 (1)(2)  2011 (1)(2)  2012 (1)(2)  2013 (1)(2)
    $    $    $    $    $ 
Net sales   40,378    28,543    28,387    26,682    30,386 
Cost of sales   (34,707)   (23,693)   (24,760)   (22,782)   (25,263)
Gross margin   5,671    4,850    3,627    3,900    5,123 
Selling expenses   (649)   (375)   (249)   (267)   (268)
Salaries and related costs   (3,777)   (2,539)   (2,716)   (2,526)   (2,627)
Research and development expenses   (792)   (580)   (334)   (312)   (396)
Administration and general expenses   (4,602)   (2,011)   (1,959)   (2,492)   (2,402)
Gain from liquidation of subsidiary   —      —      —      1,448    —   
Loss from operations   (4,149)   (655)   (1,631)   (249)   (570)
Interest income   127    103    6    7    7 
Interest expenses   (209)   (69)   (56)   (87)   (68)
Foreign exchange loss   (279)   (522)   (130)   (703)   (261)
Gain on disposal of property   162    —      155    —      —   
Gain on disposal of intangible assets   —      —      41    —      —   
Other income   707    620    184    132    167 
Loss before income taxes and minority interest   (3,641)   (523)   (1,431)   (900)   (725)
Income tax (expense) benefit   (208)   (9)   —      (2)   (29)
Loss from continuing operations   (3,849)   (532)   (1,431)   (902)   (754)
Loss from discontinued operations   (3,735)   (126)   (129)   —      —   
Net loss   (7,584)   (658)   (1,560)   (902)   (754)

Loss per share

-          Continuing operations

-          Discontinued operations

-          Total

   

($0.73)

($0.72)

($1.45)

    

($0.10)

($0.03)

($0.13)

    

($0.27)

($0.02)

($0.29)

    

($0.17)

($0.00)

($0.17)

    

($0.14)

($0.00)

($0.14)

 
Weighted average shares   5,246,903    5,246,903    5,246,903    5,246,903    5,246,903 
Diluted weighted average shares   5,246,903    5,246,903    5,246,903    5,246,903    5,246,903 

 

(1) The diluted net loss per share was the same as the basic net loss per share as all potential ordinary shares, including the stock options, are anti-dilutive and therefore excluded from the computation of diluted net loss per share.

 

(2) The statement of operations presents continuing and discontinued operations in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

(3) The statement of operations for fiscal year ended March 31, 2009 was restated in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

 

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Balance Sheet Data

(in 000’s US$ except for shares and per share data)

 

   March 31,
    2009 (1)    2010 (1)    2011 (1)    2012 (1)    2013(1)
    $    $    $    $    $ 
Cash and cash equivalents   8,044    8,085    5,407    3,014    2,154 
Working capital of continuing operations   11,244    10,538    7,933    2,914    292 
Total assets of continuing operations   25,620    23,489    21,807    23,168    27,123 
Total assets of discontinued operations   3,819    200    5    —      —   
Total assets   29,439    23,689    21,812    23,168    27,123 
Current liabilities of continuing operations   6,993    6,789    6,285    9,293    13,942 
Long-term debts and capital leases   52    —      —      —      —   
Deferred income tax assets   —      —      —      —      —   
Total liabilities of continuing operations   9,654    9,403    8,899    11,890    16,537 
Total liabilities of discontinued operations   5,787    1,098    1,086    —      —   
Common stock   17    17    17    17    17 
Shareholders’ equity   13,998    13,188    11,827    11,278    10,586 
Dividends declared per share   —      —      —      —      —   

 

(1) The selected financial data for balance sheets presents continuing and discontinued operations in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

Risk Factors

 

You should carefully consider the following risks, together with all other information included in this Annual Report. The realization of any of the risks described below could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and future prospects.

 

Political, Legal, Economic and Other Uncertainties of Operations in China and Hong Kong

 

We Could Face Increased Currency Risks If China Does Not Maintain The Stability Of The Hong Kong Dollar or the Chinese Renminbi. The Hong Kong Dollar and the United States Dollar have been fixed at approximately 7.80 Hong Kong Dollars to 1.00 U.S. Dollar since 1983. The market exchange rate has not deviated materially from the level of HK$7.80 to US$1.00 since the peg was first established. However, in May 2005, the Hong Kong Monetary Authority broadened the trading band from the original rate of HK$7.80 per U.S. dollar to a rate range of HK$7.75 to HK$7.85 per U.S. dollar. The Hong Kong government has stated its intention to maintain the link at that rate. From 1994 until July 2005, the Chinese Renminbi had remained stable against the U.S. Dollar at approximately 8.28 to 1.00 U.S. Dollar. On July 21, 2005, the Chinese currency regime was altered to link the RMB to a “basket of currencies,” which includes the U.S. Dollar, Euro, Japanese Yen and Korean Won. Under the rules, the RMB is allowed to move 0.3% on a daily basis against the U.S. Dollar. The People's Bank of China, on May 21 2007, widened the RMB trading band from 0.3% daily movement against the U.S. Dollar to 0.5%. Following the removal of the U.S. Dollar peg, the RMB appreciated more than 20% against the U.S. Dollar over the following three years. Since July 2008, however, the RMB has traded within a narrow range against the U.S. Dollar. As a consequence, the RMB has fluctuated significantly since July 2008 against other freely traded currencies, in tandem with the U.S. Dollar. On June 20, 2010, the People’s Bank of China (“PBOC”) announced that the government of the People’s Republic of China (“PRC”) would further reform the RMB exchange rate regime and increase the flexibility of the exchange rate. It is difficult to predict how this new policy may impact the RMB exchange rate. As of July 15, 2013, the RMB was valued at 6.17 per U.S. Dollar. Any significant revaluation of the RMB may materially and adversely affect our cash flows, revenues, earnings and financial position and the value of our common shares and any dividends payable to our common shareholders in U.S. Dollars. In addition, the Chinese government continues to receive significant international pressure to further liberalize its currency policy and as a result may further change its currency policy. The Chinese government in the past has expressed its intention in the Basic Law of the PRC to maintain the stability of the Hong Kong currency after the sovereignty of Hong Kong was transferred to China in July 1997. However, there can be no assurance that the Hong Kong Dollar will remain pegged against the U.S. Dollar or that the Chinese Renminbi will not be allowed to fluctuate more than 0.5% on a daily basis. If the current exchange rate mechanism is changed, we shall face increased currency risks, which could have a material adverse effect upon the Company.

 

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We Face Significant Risks If The Chinese Government Changes Its Policies, Laws, Regulations, Or Tax Structure Or Its Current Interpretations Of Its Laws, Rules And Regulations Relating To Our Operations In China. Our manufacturing facility and the new manufacturing facility we are developing in Xinxing are located in China. As a result, our operations and assets are subject to significant political, economic, legal and other uncertainties. Changes in policies by the Chinese government resulting in changes in laws or regulations or the interpretation of laws or regulations, confiscatory taxation, changes in employment restrictions, restrictions on imports and sources of supply, import duties, corruption, currency revaluation or the expropriation of private enterprise could materially and adversely affect us. Over the past several years, the Chinese government has pursued economic reform policies, including the encouragement of private economic activity and greater economic decentralization. If the Chinese government does not continue to pursue its present policies that encourage foreign investment and operations in China, or if these policies are either not successful or are significantly altered, then our business operations in China could be adversely affected. We could even be subject to the risk of nationalization, which could result in the total loss of investment in that country. Following the Chinese government’s policy of privatizing many state-owned enterprises, the Chinese government has attempted to augment its revenues through increased tax collection. Continued efforts to increase tax revenues could result in increased taxation expenses being incurred by us. Economic development may be limited as well by the imposition of austerity measures intended to reduce inflation, the inadequate development of infrastructure and the potential unavailability of adequate power and water supplies, transportation and communications. If for any reason we were required to move our manufacturing operations outside of China, our profitability would be substantially impaired, our competitiveness and market position would be materially jeopardized and we might have to discontinue our operations.

 

Continuing Economic Weakness May Adversely Affect Our Earnings, Liquidity And Financial Position. The Company’s business has been challenging recently as a consequence of adverse worldwide economic conditions. In particular, there has been an erosion of global consumer confidence from concerns over declining asset values, price instability, geopolitical issues, the availability and cost of credit, rising unemployment and the stability and solvency of financial institutions, financial markets, businesses and sovereign nations. These concerns slowed global economic growth and resulted in recessions in many countries, including in the U.S., Europe and certain countries in Asia. The global economic weakness has negatively impacted our operating results since 2008. Overall, the economic outlook is uncertain as a result of concerns about the general global economy, the decreased rate of growth in China and the European Union. Recessionary conditions may return. If negative economic conditions return, a number of material adverse effects on our business could occur and could have a negative impact upon our results of operations. Further, slower overall growth of the Chinese economy may have a material adverse effect upon the Company and its results of operations.

 

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The Economy Of China Has Been Experiencing Significant Growth, Leading To Some Inflation and Increased Labor Costs. The economy in China has grown significantly over the past 20 years, which has resulted in inflation and an increase in the average cost of labor, especially in the coastal cities. China’s consumer price index, the broadest measure of inflation, rose 2.7% in June 2013 from the level in June 2012. China’s overall economy and the average wage in the PRC are expected to continue to grow. Continuing inflation and material increases in the cost of labor in China could diminish our competitive advantage. If the government tries to control inflation, it may have an adverse effect on the business climate and growth of private enterprise in the PRC. An economic slowdown may reduce our revenues. If inflation is allowed to proceed unchecked, our costs would likely increase, and there can be no assurance that we would be able to increase our prices to an extent that would offset the increase in our expenses.

 

Changes To PRC Tax Laws And Heightened Efforts By China’s Tax Authorities To Increase Revenues Are Expected To Subject Us To Greater Taxes.  Under PRC law before 2008, we were afforded a number of tax concessions by, and tax refunds from, China’s tax authorities on a substantial portion of our operations in China by reinvesting all or part of the profits attributable to our PRC manufacturing operations. However, on March 16, 2007, the Chinese government enacted a unified enterprise income tax law, or “EIT,” which became effective on January 1, 2008. Prior to the EIT, as a foreign invested enterprise, or “FIE,” located in Shenzhen of the PRC, our PRC subsidiaries enjoyed a national income tax rate of 15% and were exempted from the 3% local income tax. The preferential tax treatment to our subsidiaries in the PRC of qualifying for tax refunds as a result of reinvesting their profits earned in previous years in the PRC also expired on January 1, 2008. Under the EIT, apart from those qualified as high-tech enterprises, most domestic enterprises and FIEs will be subject to a single PRC enterprise income tax rate of 25%. We base our tax position upon the anticipated nature and conduct of our business and upon our understanding of the tax laws of the various administrative regions and countries in which we have assets or conduct activities. However, our tax position is subject to review and possible challenge by taxing authorities and to possible changes in law, which may have retroactive effect. We cannot determine in advance the extent to which some jurisdictions may require us to pay taxes or make payments in lieu of taxes.

 

We Face Risks By Operating In China, Because The Chinese Legal System Relating To Foreign Investment And Foreign Operations Such As Bonso’s Is Evolving And The Application Of Chinese Laws Is Uncertain. The legal system of China relating to foreign investments is continually evolving, and there can be no certainty as to the application of its laws and regulations in particular instances. The Chinese legal system is a civil law system based on written statutes. Unlike common law systems, it is a system in which decided legal cases have little precedential value. In 1979, the Chinese government began to promulgate a comprehensive system of laws and regulations governing economic matters in general. Legislation over the past 30 years has significantly enhanced the protections afforded to various forms of foreign investment in China. Enforcement of existing laws or agreements may be sporadic and implementation and interpretation of laws inconsistent. The Chinese judiciary is relatively inexperienced in enforcing the laws that exist, leading to a higher than usual degree of uncertainty as to the outcome of any litigation. Even where adequate law exists in China, it may not be possible to obtain swift and equitable enforcement of that law. Further, various disputes may be subject to the exercise of considerable discretion by agencies of the Chinese government, and forces and factors unrelated to the legal merits of a particular matter or dispute may influence their determination. Continued uncertainty relating to the laws in China and the application of the laws could have a material adverse effect upon us and our operations in China.

 

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We Could Be Adversely Affected If China Changes Its Economic Policies In The Shenzhen Special Economic Zone  Where We Operate. In August 1980, the Chinese government passed “Regulations for The Special Economy Zone of Guangdong Province” and officially designated a portion of Shenzhen as The Shenzhen Special Economy Zone. Foreign enterprises in these areas benefit from greater economic autonomy and special tax incentives than enterprises in other parts of China. Changes in the policies or laws governing The Shenzhen Special Economy Zone could have a material adverse effect on us. Moreover, economic reforms and growth in China have been more successful in certain provinces than others, and the continuation or increase of these disparities could affect the political or social stability of China, which could have a material adverse effect on us and our operations near Shenzhen.

 

Controversies Affecting China’s Trade With The United States Could Harm Our Results Of Operations Or Depress Our Stock Price. While China has been granted permanent most favored nation trade status in the United States through its entry into the World Trade Organization, controversies between the United States and China may arise that threaten the status quo involving trade between the United States and China. These controversies could materially and adversely affect our business by, among other things, causing our products in the United States to become more expensive, resulting in a reduction in the demand for our products by customers in the United States, which would have a material adverse effect upon us and our results of operations. Further, political or trade friction between the United States and China, whether or not actually affecting our business, could also materially and adversely affect the prevailing market price of our common shares.

 

If Our Factories Were Destroyed Or Significantly Damaged As A Result of Fire, Flood Or Some Other Natural Disaster, We Would Be Adversely Affected. All of our products are manufactured at our manufacturing facilities located in Shenzhen, China, and Xinxing, Guangdong, China. Fire-fighting and disaster relief or assistance in China may not be as developed as in Western countries. We currently maintain property damage insurance aggregating approximately $33 million covering our stock in trade, goods and merchandise, furniture and equipment and buildings. We do not maintain business interruption insurance. Investors are cautioned that material damage to, or the loss of, our factories due to fire, severe weather, flood or other act of God or cause, even if insured, could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, business and prospects.

 

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Our Results Could Be Harmed If We Have To Comply With New Environmental Regulations. Our operations create some environmentally sensitive waste that may increase in the future depending on the nature of our manufacturing operations. The general issue of the disposal of hazardous waste has received increasing attention from China’s national and local governments and foreign governments and agencies and has been subject to increasing regulation. Our business and operating results could be materially and adversely affected if we were to increase expenditures to comply with any new environmental regulations affecting our operations.

 

Enforcement Of The Labor Contract Law, Minimum Wage Increases And Future Changes In The Labor Laws In China May Result In The Continued Increase In Labor Costs. On June 29, 2007, the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress of China enacted the Labor Contract Law, which became effective on January 1, 2008. The Labor Contract Law introduces specific provisions related to fixed-term employment contracts, part-time employment, probation, consultation with labor union and employee assemblies, employment without a written contract, dismissal of employees, severance and collective bargaining, which together represent enhanced enforcement of labor laws and regulations. According to the Labor Contract Law, an employer is obliged to sign an unlimited-term labor contract with any employee who has worked for the employer for 10 consecutive years. Further, if an employee requests or agrees to renew a fixed-term labor contract that has already been entered into twice consecutively, the resulting contract must have an unlimited term, with certain exceptions. The employer must also pay severance to an employee in nearly all instances where a labor contract, including a contract with an unlimited term, is terminated or expires. In addition, the government has continued to introduce various new labor-related regulations after the Labor Contract Law. Among other things, new annual leave requirements mandate that annual leave ranging from 5 to 15 days is available to nearly all employees and further require that the employer compensate an employee for any annual leave days the employee is unable to take in the amount of three times his daily salary, subject to certain exceptions. In addition, as the interpretation and implementation of these new regulations are still evolving, we cannot assure you that our employment practices do not, or will not, violate the Labor Contract Law and other labor-related regulations. Between the fiscal years ended March 31, 2009 and 2013, we experienced an increase in the cost of labor caused by the increase in the minimum hourly rate. In accordance with the new minimum wage set by the local authorities, we increased the minimum wage for labor from RMB 1,100 (or approximately $162) per month to RMB 1,320 (or approximately $206) per month beginning April 1, 2011. The minimum wage was increased to RMB 1,500 (or approximately $238) per month beginning February 1, 2012. The minimum wage was increased to RMB 1,600 (or approximately $254) per month beginning March 1, 2013. We believe that increased labor costs in China will have a significant effect on our total production costs and results of operations and that we will not be able to continue to increase our production at our manufacturing facilities without substantially increasing our non-production salaries and related costs. This increase in minimum wage will increase our labor costs by 6.7%, or approximately $267,000, annually. If we are subject to severe penalties or incur significant liabilities in connection with the enforcement of the Labor Contract Law, disputes or investigations, our business and results of operations may be adversely affected. We started hiring workers to work in our Xinxing factory during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2013. The minimum wage at Xinxing was RMB 1,010 (or approximately $160) beginning May 1, 2013. Any future changes in the labor laws in the PRC could result in our having to pay increased labor costs. There can be no assurance that the labor laws will not change, which may have a material adverse effect upon our business and our results of operations.

 

 

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If We Were To Lose Our Existing Banking Facilities Or Those Facilities Were Substantially Decreased Or Less Favorable Terms Were Imposed Upon Us, The Company Could Be Materially And Adversely Affected. We maintain a banking facility with Hang Seng Bank Limited, which is subject to renewal on an annual basis. We use this banking facility to fund our working capital requirements. In recent months, the credit markets in Hong Kong and throughout the world have tightened and experienced extraordinary volatility and uncertainty. We have had discussions with several of our banks and believe that the availability of our banking facility will continue on terms that are acceptable to us. However, as a result of changes in the capital or other legal requirements applicable to Hang Seng Bank Limited or if our financial position and operations were to deteriorate further, our costs of borrowing could increase or the terms of our banking facility could be changed so as to impact our liquidity. If we are unable to obtain needed capital on terms acceptable to us, our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be materially adversely affected.

 

Risk Factors Relating to Our Business

 

We Depend Upon Our Largest Customers For A Significant Portion Of Our Sales Revenue, And We Cannot Be Certain That Sales To These Customers Will Continue. If Sales To These Customers Do Not Continue, Then Our Sales Will Decline And Our Business Will Be Negatively Impacted. We have relied upon three customers for a significant portion of our sales. During the fiscal years ended March 31, 2011, 2012 and 2013, these three customers accounted for approximately 74%, 81% and 83% of sales, respectively. During the fiscal year ended March 31, 2013, 52% of our sales were to a single customer (66% during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012). We do not enter into long-term contracts with our customers but manufacture based upon purchase orders and therefore cannot be certain that sales to these customers will continue. The loss of any of our largest customers would likely have a material negative impact on our sales revenue and our business.

 

Defects In Our Products Could Impair Our Ability To Sell Our Products Or Could Result In Litigation And Other Significant Costs. Detection of any significant defects in our products may result in, among other things, delay in time-to-market, loss of market acceptance and sales of our products, diversion of development resources, injury to our reputation or increased warranty costs. Because our products are complex, they may contain defects that cannot be detected prior to shipment. These defects could harm our reputation, which could result in significant costs to us and could impair our ability to sell our products. The costs we may incur in correcting any product defects may be substantial and could decrease our profit margins.

 

Since certain of our products are used in applications that are integral to our customers’ businesses, errors, defects or other performance problems could result in financial or other damages to our customers, which would likely result in adverse effects upon our business with these customers. If we were involved in any product liability litigation, even if it were unsuccessful, it would be time-consuming and costly to defend. Further, our product liability insurance may not be adequate to cover claims.

 

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Our Sales Through Retail Merchants Result In Seasonality, Susceptibility To A Downturn In The Retail Economy And Sales Variances Resulting From Retail Promotional Programs. Many of our other customers sell to retail merchants. Accordingly, these portions of our customer base are susceptible to a further downturn in the retail economy. A greater number of our sales of scales products occur between the months of July and October in preparation of the Christmas holiday. Throughout the remainder of the year, our products do not appear to be subject to significant seasonal variation. However, past sales patterns may not be indicative of future performance.

 

Our Customers Are Dependent On Shipping Companies For Delivery Of Our Products, And Interruptions To Shipping Could Materially And Adversely Affect Our Business And Operating Results. Typically, we sell our products either F.O.B. Hong Kong or Yantian (Shenzhen), and our customers are responsible for the transportation of products from Hong Kong or Yantian (Shenzhen) to their final destinations. Our customers rely on a variety of carriers for product transportation through various world ports. A work stoppage, strike or shutdown of one or more major ports or airports could result in shipping delays materially and adversely affecting our customers, which in turn could have a material adverse effect on our business and operating results. Similarly, an increase in freight surcharges due to rising fuel costs or general price increases could materially and adversely affect our business and operating results.

 

Customer Order Estimates May Not Be Indicative Of Actual Future Sales. Some of our customers have provided us with forecasts of their requirements for our products over a period of time. We make many management decisions based on these customer estimates, including purchasing materials, hiring personnel and other matters that may increase our production capacity and costs. If a customer reduces its orders from prior estimates after we have increased our production capabilities and costs, this reduction may decrease our net sales and we may not be able to reduce our costs to account for this reduction in customer orders. Many customers do not provide us with forecasts of their requirements for our products. If those customers place significant orders, we may not be able to increase our production quickly enough to fulfill the customers’ orders. The inability to fulfill customer orders could damage our relationships with customers and reduce our net sales.

 

Pressure By Our Customers To Reduce Prices And Agree To Long-Term Supply Arrangements May Cause Our Net Sales Or Profit Margins To Decline. Our customers are under pressure to reduce prices of their products. Therefore, we expect to experience increasing pressure from our customers to reduce the prices of our products. Continuing pressure to reduce the price of our products could have a material adverse effect upon our business and operating results. Our customers frequently negotiate supply arrangements with us well in advance of placing orders for delivery within a year, thereby requiring us to commit to price reductions before we can determine if we can achieve the assumed cost reductions. We believe we must reduce our manufacturing costs and obtain higher volume orders to offset declining average sales prices. Further, if we are unable to offset declining average sales prices, our gross profit margins will decline, which would have a material adverse effect upon our results of operations.

 

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We Depend Upon Our Key Personnel, And The Loss Of Any Key Personnel, Or Our Failure To Attract And Retain Key Personnel, Could Adversely Affect Our Future Performance, Including Product Development, Strategic Plans, Marketing And Other Objectives. The loss or failure to attract and retain key personnel could significantly impede our performance, including product development, strategic plans, marketing and other objectives. Our success depends to a substantial extent not only on the ability and experience of our senior management, but particularly upon Anthony So, our Chairman of the Board. We do not have key man life insurance on Mr. So. To the extent that the services of Mr. So would be unavailable to us, we would be required to obtain another person to perform the duties Mr. So otherwise would perform. We may be unable to employ another qualified person with the appropriate background and expertise to replace Mr. So on terms suitable to us.

 

Certain Subsidiaries Of The Company Received On-going Enquiries From The Local Tax Authorities During The Year. If The Subsidiaries Were Finally Held Liable For Such Additional Taxation, Our Consolidated Net Income And The Value Of Your Investment Could Be Substantially Reduced. During the fiscal years ended March 31, 2011, 2012 and 2013, certain of our subsidiaries were, and continue to be, subject to enquiries from the local tax authorities. Upon the adoption of ASC 740 (formerly FIN 48), “Accounting for Uncertainty in Income Taxes — An Interpretation of FASB Statement No. 109,” or FIN 48, the Company recorded a provision of approximately $2,164,000 in relation to uncertain tax positions as of April 1, 2007. The assessment is subject to final determination by the local tax authorities and may be different from what we have recorded as a provision. As such, there can be no assurance that the inquiry will not result in the imposition of additional income tax expense on the Group, which could have a material adverse effect upon the Group and its results of operations. According to the requirement from the local tax authorities, the Company has purchased tax reserve certificates for approximately $1,710,000 for the fiscal years in review, for the potential payment to the tax authority.

 

Contractual Arrangements We Have Entered Into Among Us And Our Subsidiaries May Be Subject To Scrutiny By The Respective Tax Authorities, And A Finding That Bonso And Its Subsidiaries Owe Additional Taxes Could Substantially Reduce Our Consolidated Net Income And The Value Of Your Investment. We could face material and adverse tax consequences if the respective tax authorities determine that the contractual arrangements among our subsidiaries and Bonso do not represent an arm’s length price and adjust Bonso’s, or any of its subsidiaries’, income in the form of a transfer pricing adjustment. Bonso did not consider it necessary to make tax provision in this respect. However, there can be no assurance that the assessment performed by the local tax authorities will result in the same position. A transfer pricing adjustment could, among other things, result in a reduction, for tax purposes, of expense deductions recorded by Bonso or any of its subsidiaries, which could in turn increase its tax liabilities. In addition, the tax authorities may impose late payment fees and other penalties on our affiliated entities for underpaid taxes. Our consolidated net income may be materially and adversely affected if our affiliated entities’ tax liabilities increase or if they are found to be subject to late payment fees or other penalties.

 

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Increased Prices For Raw Materials May Have A Negative Impact Upon Us. The price level of raw materials remained stable in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2013, compared to that in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012. However, we experienced increased costs of component parts due to the increase in the price of oil used in the production of components such as plastic resin, steel and other raw materials during fiscal year ended March 31, 2012. If oil prices continue to increase in the future, it will likely result in an increase in the costs of components to us, as well as an increase in our operating expenses, which may have a material adverse effect upon our business and results of operations.

 

We May Face An Increased Shortage Of Factory Workers. During the fiscal years ended March 31, 2011, 2012 and 2013, we reduced our full workforce in Shenzhen, PRC as we prepare to transit our operations to a new factory in Xinxing. See “Employees” below. There can be no assurance that we will not experience an increased need for workers in China in the future or that we can adequately staff our factories, including our new factory in Xinxing. The inability to adequately staff our factories could have a material adverse impact on production, which could lead to delays in shipments or missed sales. In the event that we have delayed or lost sales, we may need to deliver goods by air at our cost to ensure that our products arrive on time, which would likely result in an increase in air freight costs and vendor fines and could result in missed sales, any of which could have a material adverse effect upon our business and our results from operations.

 

Recent Changes In The PRC’s Labor Law Could Penalize Bonso If It Needs To Make Additional Workforce Reductions. In June 2007, the National People’s Congress of the PRC enacted new labor law legislation called the Labor Contract Law, which became effective on January 1, 2008. It formalizes workers’ rights concerning overtime hours, pensions, layoffs, employment contracts and the role of trade unions. Considered as one of the strictest labor laws in the world, among other things, this new law requires an employer to conclude an “open-ended employment contract” with any employee who either has worked for the employer for 10 years or more or has had two consecutive fixed-term contracts. An “open-ended employment contract” is in effect a lifetime, permanent contract, which is terminable only in specified circumstances, such as a material breach of the employer’s rules and regulations, or for a serious dereliction of duty. Under the new law, downsizing by 20% or more of each individual entity may occur only under specified circumstances, such as a restructuring undertaken pursuant to China’s Enterprise Bankruptcy Law, or where a company suffers serious difficulties in production and/or business operations. Also, if we lay off more than 20 employees at one time, we have to communicate with the labor union of our Company and report to the District Labor Bureau. During the fiscal year ended March 31, 2013, we recognized a write-back for severance payment of $98,000 in anticipation of reducing our full workforce in Shenzhen, PRC as we transit our operations to a new factory in Xinxing, and the accumulated provision was $743,000 as of March 31, 2013. (2012: $841,000). This accrued severance payment allowance is reviewed every year. We may incur much higher costs under China’s labor laws if we are forced to downsize again, and accordingly, this new labor law may exacerbate the adverse effect of the economic environment on our financial results and financial condition.

 

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We Face Increasing Competition In Our Industry And May Not Be Able To Successfully Compete With Our Competitors. Our business is in an industry that is becoming increasingly competitive, and many of our competitors, both local and international, have substantially greater technical, financial and marketing resources than we have. As a result, we may be unable to compete successfully with these competitors. We compete with scale manufacturers in the Far East, the United States, and Europe. We believe that our principal competitors in the scale are other original equipment manufacturer (“OEM”) and original design manufacturer (“ODM”) manufacturers, and all companies engaged in the branded, ODM and OEM business. The scale market is highly competitive, and we face pressures on pricing and lower margins, as evidenced by the decline in margins that we have experienced with our scale products. Lower margins may affect our ability to cover our costs, which could have a material negative impact on our operations and our business.

 

We Are Controlled By Our Management, Whose Interests May Differ From Those Of The Other Shareholders. As of June 30, 2013, Mr. Anthony So, our founder and Chairman, beneficially owns approximately 40.9% of the issued shares of our common stock. Due to his stock ownership, Mr. So may be in a position to elect the board of directors and, therefore, to control our business and affairs, including certain significant corporate actions such as acquisitions, the sale or purchase of assets and the issuance and sale of our securities. Mr. So may be able to prevent or cause a change in control of the Company. We also may be prevented from entering into transactions that could be beneficial to us without Mr. So’s consent. The interest of our largest shareholder may differ from the interests of other shareholders.

 

Due To Inherent Limitations, There Can Be No Assurance That Our System Of Disclosure And Internal Controls And Procedures Will Be Successful In Preventing All Errors Or Fraud Or In Informing Management Of All Material Information In A Timely Manner. Our disclosure controls and internal controls and procedures may not prevent all errors and all fraud. A control system, no matter how well-conceived and operated, can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurance that the objectives of the control system are met. Further, the design of a control system reflects that there are resource constraints, and the benefits of controls must be considered relative to their costs. Because of the inherent limitations in all control systems, no evaluation of controls can provide absolute assurance that all control issues and instances of fraud, if any, within the company have been or will be detected. These inherent limitations include the realities that judgments in decision-making can be faulty and that breakdowns can occur simply because of error or mistake. Additionally, controls can be circumvented by the individual acts of some persons, by collusion of two or more people or by circumvention of the internal control procedures. The design of any system of controls also is based in part upon certain assumptions about the likelihood of future events, and there can be no assurance that any design will succeed in achieving its stated goals under all potential future conditions; over time, a control may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate. Because of the inherent limitations in a cost-effective control system, misstatements due to error or fraud may occur and may not be detected.

 

Compliance Costs With The Securities Laws And Regulations Pursuant To The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 Will Increase Our Costs. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 that became law in July 2002 has required changes in some of our corporate governance, securities disclosure, accounting and compliance practices. In response to the requirements of that act, the Securities and Exchange Commission and NASDAQ have promulgated new rules on a variety of subjects. Compliance with these rules, as well as with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, including, but not limited to, compliance with Section 404 that requires management to assess the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting, has increased our legal, financial and accounting costs, and we expect the cost of compliance with these new rules to be permanent. Further, the new rules may increase the expenses associated with our director and officer liability insurance.

 

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Our Operating Results And Stock Price Are Subject To Wide Fluctuations. Our quarterly and annual operating results are affected by a wide variety of factors that could materially and adversely affect net sales, gross profit and profitability. This could result from any one or a combination of factors, many of which are beyond our control. Results of operations in any period should not be considered indicative of results to be expected in any future period, and fluctuations in operating results may also result in fluctuations in the market price of our common stock.

 

Our Results Could Be Affected By Changes In Currency Exchange Rates. Changes in currency rates involving the Hong Kong Dollar or Chinese Renminbi could increase our expenses. During the fiscal years ended March 31, 2011, 2012 and 2013, our financial results were affected by currency fluctuations, resulting in a total foreign exchange loss of approximately $130,000, $703,000 and $261,000, respectively. Generally, our revenues are collected in United States Dollars. Our costs and expenses are paid in United States Dollars, Hong Kong Dollars, and Chinese Renminbi. We face a variety of risks associated with changes among the relative value of these currencies. Appreciation of the Chinese Renminbi against the Hong Kong Dollar and the United States Dollar would increase our expenses when translated into United States Dollars and could materially and adversely affect our margins and results of operations. If the trend of Chinese Renminbi appreciation continues against the Hong Kong Dollar and the United States Dollar, our operating costs will further increase and our financial results will be adversely affected. In addition, a significant devaluation in the Chinese Renminbi or Hong Kong Dollar could have a material adverse effect upon our results of operations. If we determined to pass onto our customers through price increases the effect of increases in the Chinese Renminbi relative to the Hong Kong Dollar and the United States Dollar, it would make our products more expensive in global markets, such as the United States and the European Union. This could result in the loss of customers, who may seek, and be able to obtain, products and services comparable to those we offer in lower-cost regions of the world. If we did not increase our prices to pass on the effect of increases in the Chinese Renminbi relative to the Hong Kong Dollar and the United States Dollar, our margins and profitability would suffer.

 

Protection And Infringement Of Intellectual Property. We have no patents, licenses, franchises, concessions or royalty agreements that are material to our business. We have obtained a trademark registration in Hong Kong for the marks BONSO and MODUS in connection with certain electronic apparatus. Unauthorized parties may attempt to copy aspects of our products or trademarks or to obtain and use information that we regard as proprietary. Policing unauthorized use of our products is difficult. Our means of protecting our proprietary rights may not be adequate. In addition, the laws of some foreign countries do not protect our proprietary rights to as great an extent as do the laws of the United States. Our failure to adequately protect our proprietary rights may allow third parties to duplicate our products or develop functionally equivalent or superior technology. In addition, our competitors may independently develop similar technology or design around our proprietary intellectual property.

 

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Further, we may be notified that we are infringing patents, trademarks, copyrights or other intellectual property rights owned by other parties. In the event of an infringement claim, we may be required to spend a significant amount of money to develop a non-infringing alternative or to obtain licenses. We may not be successful in developing such an alternative or obtaining a license on reasonable terms, if at all. Any litigation, even without merit, could result in substantial costs and diversion of resources and could have a material adverse affect on our business and results of operations.

 

Cancellations Or Delays In Orders Could Materially And Adversely Affect Our Gross Margins And Operating Income. Sales to our OEM customers are primarily based on purchase orders we receive from time to time rather than firm, long-term purchase commitments. Although it is our general practice to purchase raw materials only upon receiving a purchase order, for certain customers we will occasionally purchase raw materials based on such customers’ rolling forecasts. Further, during times of potential component shortages we have purchased, and may continue to purchase, raw materials and component parts in the expectation of receiving purchase orders for products that use these components. In the event actual purchase orders are delayed, are not received or are cancelled, we would experience increased inventory levels or possible write-downs of raw material inventory that could materially and adversely affect our business and operating results.

 

We Generally Have No Written Agreements With Suppliers To Obtain Components, And Our Margins And Operating Results Could Suffer From Increases In Component Prices. We are typically responsible for purchasing components used in manufacturing products for our customers. We generally do not have written agreements with our suppliers of components. This typically results in our bearing the risk of component price increases because we may be unable to procure the required materials at a price level necessary to generate anticipated margins from the orders of our customers. Prices of components may increase in the future for a variety of reasons. Accordingly, additional increases in component prices could materially and adversely affect our gross margins and results of operations.

 

Certain Legal Consequences of Foreign Incorporation and Operations

 

Judgments Against The Company And Management May Be Difficult To Obtain Or Enforce. We are a holding corporation organized as an International Business Company under the laws of the British Virgin Islands (“BVI”), and our principal operating subsidiaries are organized under the laws of Hong Kong and the laws of the PRC. Our principal executive offices are located in Hong Kong and the PRC. Outside the United States, it may be difficult for investors to enforce judgments obtained against us in actions brought in the United States, including actions predicated upon the civil liability provisions of United States federal securities laws. In addition, most of our officers and directors reside outside the United States, and the assets of these persons are located outside the United States. As a result, it may not be possible for investors to effect service of process within the United States upon these persons or to enforce against the Company or these persons judgments predicated upon the liability provisions of United States federal securities laws. Our Hong Kong counsel and our British Virgin Islands counsel have advised that there is substantial doubt as to the enforceability against us or any of our directors or officers in original actions or in actions for enforcement of judgments of United States courts in claims for liability based on the civil liability provisions of United States federal securities law.

 

 

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Because We Are Incorporated In The British Virgin Islands, You May Not Have The Same Protections As Shareholders Of U.S. Corporations. We are organized under the laws of the British Virgin Islands. Principles of law relating to matters affecting the validity of corporate procedures, the fiduciary duties of our management, directors and controlling shareholders and the rights of our shareholders differ from, and may not be as protective of shareholders as, those that would apply if we were incorporated in a jurisdiction within the United States. Our directors have the power to take certain actions without shareholder approval, including amending our Memorandum or Articles of Association, which are the terms used in the British Virgin Islands for a corporation’s charter and bylaws, respectively, and approving certain fundamental corporate transactions, including reorganizations, certain mergers or consolidations and the sale or transfer of assets. In addition, there is doubt that the courts of the British Virgin Islands would enforce liabilities predicated upon United States federal securities laws.

 

Future Issuances Of Preference Shares Could Materially And Adversely Affect The Holders Of Our Common Shares Or Delay Or Prevent A Change Of Control. Our Memorandum and Articles of Association provide the ability to issue an aggregate of 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock in four classes. While no preferred shares are currently issued or outstanding, we may issue preferred shares in the future. Future issuance of preferred shares could materially and adversely affect the rights of the holders of our common shares, dilute the common shareholders’ holdings or delay or prevent a change of control.

 

Our Shareholders Do Not Have The Same Protections Or Information Generally Available To Shareholders Of U.S. Corporations Because The Reporting Requirements For Foreign Private Issuers Are More Limited Than Those Applicable To Public Corporations Organized In The United States. We are a foreign private issuer within the meaning of rules promulgated under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the “Exchange Act”). We are not subject to certain provisions of the Exchange Act applicable to United States public companies, including: the rules under the Exchange Act requiring the filing with the SEC of quarterly reports on Form 10-Q or current reports on Form 8-K, the sections of the Exchange Act regulating the solicitation of proxies, consents or authorizations in respect to a security registered under the Exchange Act and the sections of the Exchange Act requiring insiders to file public reports of their stock ownership and trading activities and establishing insider liability for profits realized from any “short-swing” trading transaction (i.e., a purchase and sale, or sale and purchase, of the issuer’s equity securities within six months or less). Because we are not subject to these rules, our shareholders are not afforded the same protections or information generally available to investors in public companies organized in the United States.

 

Our Board’s Ability To Amend Our Charter Without Shareholder Approval Could Have Anti-Takeover Effects That Could Prevent A Change In Control. As permitted by the laws of the British Virgin Islands, our Memorandum and Articles of Association may be amended by our board of directors without shareholder approval. This includes amendments to increase or reduce our authorized capital stock. Our board’s ability to amend our charter documents without shareholder approval could have the effect of delaying, deterring or preventing a change in control of Bonso, including a tender offer to purchase our common shares at a premium over the current market price.

 

 

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We Have Not Paid Dividends Since 2007 And May Not Pay Dividends In The Future. We have not paid dividends on our Common Stock since 2007, and we may not be able to declare dividends, or the board of directors may decide not to declare dividends, in the future. We will determine the amounts of any dividends when and if they are declared, in the future at the time of declaration.

 

Item 4. Information on the Company

 

History and Development of the Company

 

Bonso Electronics International Inc. was formed on August 8, 1988 as a limited liability International Business Company under the laws of the British Virgin Islands under the name “Golden Virtue Limited.” On September 14, 1988, we changed our name to Bonso Electronics International, Inc. We operate under the BVI Business Companies Act.

 

Effective as of May 1, 2001 we acquired 100% of the equity of Korona Haushaltswaren GmbH & Co. KG, a limited liability partnership registered in Germany (“Korona”). Korona markets consumer scale products throughout Europe to retail merchandisers and distributors. These products feature contemporary designs using the latest materials and attractive packaging. Effective March 31, 2009, we sold assets of Korona to Beurer GmbH, including inventories, accounts receivable, toolings and intellectual property rights. Korona completed its liquidation in February 2012.

 

Effective as of August 1, 2002, we acquired 51% of the equity of Gram Precision Scales Inc. (“Gram Precision”). Gram Precision was primarily engaged in the distribution and marketing of pocket scales in the United States, Canada and Europe. Effective November 1, 2008, we sold our 51% of the equity of Gram Precision to Mohan Thadani, the founder of Gram Precision.

 

In April 2007, we formed a new wholly-owned subsidiary, Bonso USA, Inc., a Nevada corporation (“Bonso USA”), to focus on the sales of industrial scales in the U.S. market. Bonso USA is dormant and no business activities are being conducted.

 

Our corporate administrative matters are conducted through our registered agent, HWR Services Limited, P.O. Box 71, Road Town, Tortola, British Virgin Islands. Our principal executive offices are located at Unit 1404, 14/F, Cheuk Nang Centre, 9 Hillwood Road, Tsimshatsui, Kowloon, Hong Kong. Our telephone number is (852) 2605-5822, our facsimile number is (852) 2691-1724, our e-mail address is info@bonso.com and our website is www.bonso.com.

 

 

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Our principal capital expenditures on property, plant and equipment over the last three years are set forth below:

 

   2011  2012  2013
Property plant & equipment and land use rights  $1,397,000   $3,415,000   $2,214,000 

 

Our capital expenditures include construction-in-progress and the purchase of machinery used in the production of certain of our products.

 

In November, 2006, Bonso entered into a land purchase agreement with Xincheng Hi-Tech Industrial Estate to acquire the land use right of a piece of land consisting of 133,500 square meters for future expansion of the Company’s operations in Xinxing. This new piece of land is more than triple the size of the land upon which the Company's facilities are located in Shenzhen, China. The land transfer was completed in 2009. The first phase of construction of the new manufacturing facility was completed in calendar year 2012.

 

All of the foregoing capital expenditures were financed principally from internally generated funds.

 

Business Overview

 

Bonso Electronics International Inc. designs, develops, produces and sells electronic sensor-based and wireless products for private label original equipment manufacturers (individually “OEM” or, collectively, “OEM's”), original brand manufacturers (individually “OBM” or, collectively, “OBM's”) and original design manufacturers (individually “ODM” or, collectively, “ODM's”).

 

Since 1989, we have manufactured all of our products in China in order to take advantage of the lower overhead costs and competitive labor rates. Our factory is currently located in Shenzhen, China, about 50 miles from Hong Kong. The convenient location permits us to easily manage manufacturing operations from Hong Kong and facilitates transportation of our products out of China through the ports of Hong Kong and Yantian (Shenzhen). The first phase of construction of our new manufacturing facility in Xinxing was completed in calendar year 2012, and we began production in Xinxing factory during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2013. We will move all production processes from our Shenzhen factory to Xinxing factory during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2014, after which we will rent out the Shenzhen factory to a third party as a source of rental income.

 

Products

 

Our sensor-based scale products include bathroom, kitchen, office, jewelry, laboratory, postal and industrial scales that are used in consumer, commercial and industrial applications. These products accounted for 91% of revenue for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011, 95% for 2012 and 90% for 2013. We believe that our bathroom and industrial scales will continue to be a major portion of our scales revenue as we are able to secure orders from our major customers.

 

We no longer produces wireless telecommunications products. Previously, our products included two-way radios and cordless telephones that were used in consumer and commercial applications. These products accounted for 7% of revenue for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011, 0% for 2012 and 0% for 2013. Our decision to stop manufacturing these telecommunications products was based upon the decline in our profit margins associated with these products.

 

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The Company has begun to produce certain electrical pet care products, including a bark control device. These products accounted for 8% of revenue for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2013 (2012: 3%).

 

We also receive revenue from certain customers for the development and manufacture of tooling and molding for scales, telecommunication and pet electronics products. Generally, these tools and moulds are used by us for the manufacture of products. We also generate some sales of scrap materials. These revenues accounted for approximately 2% of net sales for the fiscal years ended March 31, 2011, 2% for 2012 and 2% for 2013.

 

The following table sets forth the percentage of net sales for each of the product lines mentioned above for the fiscal years ended March 31, 2011, 2012, and 2013:

 

   Year ended March 31,
Product Line  2011  2012  2013
Scales   91%   95%   90%
Telecommunication Products   7%   0%   0%
Electronic Pet Products   0%   3%   8%
Others   2%   2%   2%
Total   100%   100%   100%

 

Business Strategy

 

We believe that our future growth depends upon our ability to strengthen our customer base by enhancing and diversifying our products, increasing the number of customers and expanding into additional markets while maintaining or increasing sales of our products to existing customers. Our future growth and our ability to become profitable are also dependent upon our ability to control production costs and increase production capacity. Our strategy to achieve these goals is as follows:

 

Product Enhancement And Diversification. We continually seek to improve and enhance our existing products in order to provide a longer product life-cycle and to meet increasing customer demands for additional features. Our research and development staff are currently working on a variety of projects to enhance our existing scale products and in the postal scale/meter area. Further, we are developing certain electrical pet care products. See “Products, Research and Development/Competition” below.

 

Maintaining And Expanding Business Relations With Existing Customers. We promote relationships with our significant customers through regular communication, including visiting certain of our customers in their home countries and providing direct access to our manufacturing and quality control personnel. This access, together with our concern for quality, has resulted in a relatively low level of defective products. Moreover, we believe that our emphasis on timely delivery, good service and low cost has contributed, and will continue to contribute, to good relations with our customers and increased orders. Further, we solicit suggestions from our customers for product enhancement and when feasible, plan to develop and incorporate the enhancements suggested by our customers into our products.

 

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Controlling Production Costs. In 1989, recognizing that labor cost was a major factor permitting effective competition in the consumer electronic products industry, we relocated all of our manufacturing operations to China to take advantage of the large available pool of lower-cost manufacturing labor. We located our manufacturing facilities within 50 miles of Hong Kong in order to facilitate transportation of our products to markets outside of China while benefiting from the advantages associated with manufacturing in China and in the Shenzhen Special Economy Zone. As noted below under “Increasing Production Capacity” we are moving our production from Shenzhen to Xinxing, and we expect to realize a reduction in our labor costs as a result.

 

We are actively seeking to control production costs by such means as redesigning our existing products in order to decrease material and labor costs, controlling the number of our employees, increasing the efficiency of workers by providing regular training and tools and redesigning the flow of our production lines.

 

Increasing Production Capacity. In November 2006, Bonso entered into a land purchase agreement to acquire 133,500 square meters of land use right for future expansion in Xinxing, China. The construction of the new manufacturing facility began during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2010 and the first phase was completed in calendar year 2012. We intend to carefully monitor our capacity needs and to expand capacity as necessary.

 

Customers and Marketing

 

We sell our products primarily in the United States and Europe. Customers for our products are primarily OEM’s, OBM’s and ODM’s which market the products under their own brand names. We continue to market our products to OEM’s, OBM’s and ODM’s at trade shows and via e-mail, our website and facsimile.

 

Net export sales to customers by geographic area constituting 10% or more of total sales of the Company, consisted of the following for each of the three years ended March 31, 2011, 2012 and 2013.

 

   Year ended March 31:
   2011  2012  2013
   $ in thousands  %  $ in thousands  %  $ in thousands  %
United States of America   18,893    67    19,940    75    23,804    78 
Germany   5,557    20    4,985    18    5,121    17 
Total   24,450         24,925         28,925      

 

We maintain a marketing and sales team of eight people. Also, our experienced engineering teams work directly with our customers to develop and tailor our products to meet the customers’ specific needs. We market our products primarily through a combination of direct contact by our experienced in-house technical sales staff and our sales representatives and through the use of direct mail catalogues and product literature. During the fiscal years ended March 31, 2011, 2012 and 2013, we recorded total commission payments of approximately $3,000, $4,000 and $1,000, respectively. In addition, our marketing teams contact existing and potential customers by telephone, mail and facsimile and in person.

 

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Our major sensor-based electronic scale products customers and their percentage of sales for the prior three fiscal years are below:

 

Percent of Sales – Year ended March 31:

Electronics Sensor Customers  2011  2012  2013
Sunbeam Products, Inc.   60%   66%   52%
Fitbit, Inc.   0%   1%   18%
Kern + Sohn GMBH   14%   14%   13%

 

Component Parts and Suppliers

 

We purchase over 1,000 different component parts from more than 100 major suppliers and are not dependent upon any single supplier for key components. We purchase components for our products primarily from suppliers in Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Hong Kong and China.

 

The price of oil and other raw materials increased during the fiscal years ended March 31, 2011 and 2012 resulting in an increase of our component part prices. We have taken steps to reduce our exposure to any inability to obtain components by forecasting with an increased buffer rate and placing orders for components earlier and allowing for longer delivery lead times. Because of these actions, we do not expect to experience any difficulty in obtaining needed component parts for our products. The price level of raw materials remained stable in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2013, compared to that in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012.

 

Quality Control 

 

We have received ISO 9001:2000 certification from Det Norske Veritas Certification B.V., the Netherlands. The ISO 9001:2000 certification was awarded to our subsidiary, Bonso Electronics Limited and to Bonso Electronics Limited’s subsidiary Bonso Electronics (Shenzhen) Company Limited. We have also received certification according to the Environmental Management Standards of ISO 14001:2004, the Occupational Health and Safety Management Standard of OHSAS 18001 and management system for medical devices of ISO13485:2003.

 

ISO 9001 is one of the ISO 9000 series of quality system standards developed by the International Organization for Standardization, a worldwide federation of national standards bodies. ISO 9001 provides a model for quality assurance (and continuous improvement) in product development, manufacturing, installation and servicing that focuses on meeting customer requirements.

 

By integrating the Occupational Health and Safety Management Standard of OHSAS 18001 into our quality and environmental systems, we have created a total Integrated Management System (IMS) - Quality, Environment and Health and Safety by combining ISO9001, ISO 14001 and OHSAS 18001 into one Quality/Environment/Health and Safety registration.

 

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ISO 13485 certification ensures that we have implemented and maintained a quality system for the design and manufacture of medical devices and allows us to develop and manufacture safe and effective medical devices should we chose to do so in the future.

 

The European Union has enacted the Restriction of the Use of Certain Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive (“RoHS”). RoHS prohibits the use of certain substances, including lead, in certain products. We believe that we are in compliance with RoHS and have a supply of compliant components from suppliers.

 

The Company provides to certain customers an additional one to two percent of certain products ordered in lieu of a warranty, which are recognized as cost of sales when these products are shipped to customers from our facility. In addition, certain products sold by the Company are subject to a limited product quality warranty. The Company accrues for estimated incurred but unidentified quality issues based upon historical activity and known quality issues if a loss is probable and can be reasonably estimated. The standard limited warranty period is one to three years. Quality returns, refunds, rebates and discounts are recorded net of sales if they are within the warranty period. All sales are based upon firm orders with fixed terms and conditions, which generally cannot be modified. Historically, we have not experienced material differences between our estimated amounts of quality returns, refunds, rebates and discounts and the actual results. In all contracts, there is no price protection or similar privilege in relation to the sale of goods.

 

Patents, Licenses, Trademarks, Franchises, Concessions and Royalty Agreements

 

We have obtained a trademark registration in Hong Kong and China for the marks BONSO and MODUS in connection with certain electronic apparatus.

 

We rely on a combination of patent, trademark and trade secret laws, employee and third party non-disclosure agreements and other intellectual property protection methods to protect our proprietary rights. There can be no assurance that third parties will not assert infringement or other claims against us with respect to any existing or future products. We cannot assure you that licenses would be available if any of our technology was successfully challenged by a third party, or if it became desirable to use any third-party technology to enhance the Company’s products. Litigation to protect our proprietary information or to determine the validity of any third-party claims could result in a significant expense to us and divert the efforts of our technical and management personnel, whether or not such litigation is determined in our favor.

 

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While we have no knowledge that we are infringing upon the proprietary rights of any third party, there can be no assurance that such claims will not be asserted in the future with respect to existing or future products. Any such assertion by a third party could require us to pay royalties, to participate in costly litigation and defend licensees in any such suit pursuant to indemnification agreements, or to refrain from selling an alleged infringing product or service.

 

Product Research and Development

 

The major responsibility of the product design, research and development personnel is to develop and produce designs to the satisfaction of, and in accordance with, the specifications provided by the OEM's, OBM's and ODM's. We believe our engineering and product development capabilities are important to the future success of our business. As an ODM, we take specifications that are provided to us by the customer and design a product to meet those specifications. Some of our product design, research and development activities are customer funded and are under agreements with specific customers for specific products. To reduce costs, we conduct our research and development at our facilities in China. We principally employ Chinese engineers and technicians at costs that are substantially lower than those that would be required in Hong Kong. At March 31, 2013, we employed 25 individuals in Hong Kong and China for our engineering staff, who are at various times engaged in research and development. The major responsibility of the product design and research and development personnel is to develop and produce designs of scales products to the satisfaction of, and in accordance with, the specifications provided by the ODM's and OEM's. We anticipate hiring additional research and development personnel to meet the increased demand for scale products.

 

Competition

 

The manufacture and sale of electronic sensor-based and wireless products is highly competitive. Competition is primarily based upon unit price, product quality, reliability, product features and management’s reputation for integrity. Accordingly, reliance is placed on research and development of new products, line extensions and technological, quality and other continuous product improvement. There can be no assurance that we will enjoy the same degree of success in these efforts in the future. Research and development expenses aggregated approximately $334,000 during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011, $312,000 during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012 and $396,000 during fiscal year ended March 31, 2013.

 

Seasonality

 

Generally, the first calendar quarter of each year is typically the slowest sales period because our manufacturing facilities in China are closed for two weeks for the Chinese New Year holidays to permit employees to travel to their homes in China. In addition, sales during the first calendar quarter of scales products usually dip following the increase in sales during the Christmas season. A greater number of our sales of scales products occur between the months of July and October for shipment in preparation of the Christmas holiday. Throughout the remainder of the year, our products do not appear to be subject to significant seasonal variation. However, past sales patterns may not be indicative of future performance.

 

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Transportation

 

Typically, we sell products either F.O.B. Hong Kong or Yantian (Shenzhen), which means that our customers are responsible for the transportation of finished products from Hong Kong or Yantian (Shenzhen) to their final destination. Transportation of components and finished products to and from the point of shipment is by truck. To date, we have not been materially affected by any transportation problems. However, transportation difficulties affecting air cargo or shipping, such as an extended closure of ports that materially disrupts the flow of our customers’ products into the United States, could materially and adversely affect our sales and margins if, as a result, our customers delay or cancel orders or seek concessions to offset expediting charges they incurred pending resolution of the problems causing the port closures.

 

Government Regulation

 

We are subject to comprehensive and changing foreign, federal, provincial, state and local environmental requirements, including those governing discharges to the air and water, the handling and disposal of solid and hazardous waste and the remediation of contamination associated with releases of hazardous substances. We believe that we are in compliance with current environmental requirements. Nevertheless, we use hazardous substances in our operations and, as is the case with manufacturers in general, if a release of hazardous substances occurs on or from our properties we may be held liable and may be required to pay the cost of remediation. The amount of any resulting liability could be material.

 

Foreign Operations

 

A significant amount of our products are manufactured at our factories located in China. While China has been granted permanent most favored nation trade status in the United States through its entry into the World Trade Organization, controversies between the United States and China may arise that threaten the status quo involving trade between the United States and China. These controversies could materially and adversely affect our business by, among other things, causing our products in the United States to become more expensive, resulting in a reduction in the demand for our products by customers in the United States.

 

Sovereignty over Hong Kong reverted to China on July 1, 1997. The 1984 Sino-British Joint Declaration, the 1990 Basic Law of Hong Kong, the 1992 United States-Hong Kong Policy Act and other agreements provide some indication of the business climate we believe will continue to exist in Hong Kong. Hong Kong remains a Special Administrative Region (“SAR”) of China, with certain autonomies from the Chinese government. Hong Kong is a full member of the World Trade Organization. It has separate customs territory from China, with separate tariff rates and export control procedures. It has a separate intellectual property registration system. The Hong Kong Dollar is legal tender in the SAR, freely convertible and not subject to foreign currency exchange controls by China. The SAR government has sole responsibility for tax policies, though the Chinese government must approve the SAR’s budgets. Notwithstanding the provisions of these international agreements, we cannot be assured of the continued stability of political, legal, economic or other conditions in Hong Kong. No treaty exists between Hong Kong and the United States providing for the reciprocal enforcement of foreign judgments. Accordingly, Hong Kong courts might not enforce judgments predicated on the federal securities laws of the United States, whether arising from actions brought in the United States or, if permitted, in Hong Kong.

 

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Organizational Structure

 

We have two wholly-owned Hong Kong subsidiaries, Bonso Electronics Limited (“BEL”) and Bonso Advanced Technology Limited (“BATL”). Both BEL and BATL were organized under the laws of Hong Kong and are responsible for the design, development, manufacture and sale of our products.

 

BEL has one active Hong Kong subsidiary, Bonso Investment Limited (“BIL”). BIL was organized under the laws of Hong Kong and has been used to acquire and hold our investment properties in Hong Kong and China.

 

BEL also has one active PRC subsidiary, Bonso Electronics (Shenzhen) Company, Limited, which is organized under the laws of the PRC and is used to manufacture our products.

 

BATL has one active PRC subsidiary, Bonso Advanced Technology (Xinxing) Company, Limited, which is organized under the laws of the PRC and is used to acquire and hold our new manufacturing facility that is being constructed in Xinxing, China.

 

We also have another wholly-owned British Virgin Islands subsidiary, Modus Enterprise International Inc.

 

As of March 31, 2009, Modus Enterprise International Inc. owned 100% of Korona. Korona was engaged in marketing, distributing and retailing consumer bathroom and kitchen scale products throughout Europe. Effective March 31, 2009, we sold certain assets of Korona to Beurer GmbH, and Korona completed its liquidation during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012.

 

Effective November 1, 2008, we sold our 51% of the equity of Gram Precision to Mohan Thadani, the founder of Gram Precision. Gram Precision was primarily engaged in the distribution and marketing of pocket and industrial scales in the United States, Canada and Europe.

 

In April 2007, we formed a wholly-owned subsidiary, Bonso USA, a Nevada corporation. Bonso USA is dormant and no business activities are being conducted.

 

Property, Plant and Equipment

 

British Virgin Islands

 

Our corporate administrative offices are located at Cragmuir Chambers, Road Town, Tortola, British Virgin Islands and corporate administrative matters are conducted through our registered agent, HWR Services Limited, located at P.O. Box 71, Road Town, Tortola, British Virgin Islands.

 

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Hong Kong

 

We own a residential property in Hong Kong, which is located at Savanna Garden, House No. 27, Tai Po, New Territories, Hong Kong. House No. 27 consists of approximately 2,475 square feet plus a 177 square foot terrace and a 2,308 square foot garden area. The use of House No. 27 is provided as quarters to Mr. Anthony So, the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of the Company.

 

China

 

Our Shenzhen factory in China is located at Shenzhen in the DaYang Synthetical Development District, close to the border between Hong Kong and China. This factory consists of two factory buildings, which contain approximately 186,000 square feet, two workers’ dormitories, containing approximately 103,000 square feet, a canteen and recreation center of approximately 26,000 square feet, an office building, consisting of approximately 26,000 square feet, and two staff quarters for our supervisory employees, consisting of approximately 34,000 square feet, for a total of approximately 375,000 square feet. The Group entered into a rental agreement in June 2013 to rent out the Shenzhen factory to a third party from August 2013 to August 2019, and will receive rental income starting from October 2013.

 

We also own one residential property in Shenzhen, which is located at Lakeview Mansion, B-20C, Hujinju Building No. 63, Xinan Road, Boacheng Baoan Shenzhen, China. It consists of approximately 1,591 square feet and is rented to an unaffiliated third party for an aggregate monthly rental of RMB 2,300, or approximately $370.

 

We also own two office units in Beijing, namely Units 12 and 13 on the third floor, Block A of Sunshine Plaza in Beijing, China. Unit 12 consists of 1,102 square feet and Unit 13 consists of 1,860 square feet. One Unit is rented to an unaffiliated third party for an aggregate monthly rental of approximately RMB 15,000, or approximately $2,430, while the other unit is rented to another unaffiliated third party for an aggregate monthly rental of approximately RMB 9,000 or approximately $1,460.

Our Xinxing factory is located in Xinxing High-Tech Industrial Estate, Xinxing, Yunfu City, Guangdong, China. This factory land area is 1,448,000 square feet, with one factory building consisting of 225,000 square feet, one warehouse consisting of 62,000 square feet, and three dormitories consisting of 85,000 square feet in total.

Adequacy of Facilities

 

We believe our manufacturing complexes will be adequate for our reasonably foreseeable needs.

 

Item 4A. Unresolved Staff Comments

 

Not Applicable to Bonso.

 

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Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects

 

The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with Item 3. – “Key Information – Selected Financial Data” and the Consolidated Financial Statements and Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report.

 

Overview

 

During the fiscal year ended March 31, 2013, the Company experienced increased revenues. Our overall sales increased due to higher demand for our products.

 

We derive our revenues principally from the sale of sensor-based scales manufactured in China, which represent 90% of total sales for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2013. As mentioned in Item 3. – “Key Information – Risk Factors,” we are dependent upon a limited number of major customers for a significant portion of our revenues. Our revenues and business operation are subject to fluctuation if there is a loss of orders from any of our largest customers. Further, the pricing of our scale products is becoming increasingly competitive, especially to our customers in the United States and Germany, who contributed approximately 95% of our revenue during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2013.

 

During the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011, net sales from continuing operations were approximately $28,387,000, and net loss was approximately $1,560,000. During the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012, net sales from continuing operations were approximately $26,682,000, and net loss was approximately $902,000. During the fiscal year ended March 31, 2013, net sales from continuing operations were approximately $30,386,000, and net loss was approximately $754,000.

 

Labor costs per worker are increasing in China. In accordance with the new minimum wage set by the local authorities, we increased the minimum wage for labor from RMB 1,320 (or approximately $206) per month beginning April 1, 2011, to RMB 1,500 (or approximately $238) per month beginning February 1, 2012, and then to RMB 1,600 (or approximately $254) per month beginning March 1, 2013. We believe that increased labor costs in China will have a significant effect on our total production costs and results of operations and that we will not be able to continue to increase our production at our manufacturing facilities without substantially increasing our non-production salaries and related costs. This increase in minimum wage will increase our labor costs by 6.7%, or approximately $267,000, annually. Our labor costs represented approximately 15.8% of our total production costs in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2013, compared to 17.8% in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012. The decrease in overall labor costs were the result of transferring production processes from our Shenzhen factory to our Xinxing factory. We started hiring workers to work in our Xinxing factory during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2013. Management believes that we will be able to decrease our overall labor costs after we have moved all of our operations to the new Xinxing facility, because the minimum wage at Xinxing was RMB 1,010 (or approximately $160) beginning May 1, 2013. There can be no assurance that labor costs will not further increase or that any additional increase in labor costs will not have a material adverse effect upon our results of operations.

 

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We have not experienced significant difficulties in obtaining raw materials for our products, and management does not anticipate any such difficulties in the foreseeable future. Prices of raw materials increased during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011, but did not vary significantly during the fiscal years ended March 31, 2013 and 2012. There can be no assurance that raw material costs will not fluctuate or that any additional increase in raw material costs will not have a material adverse effect upon our results of operations.

 

Operating Results

 

The following table sets forth selected income data as a percentage of net sales for the periods indicated:

   Fiscal Year Ended March 31,
Statement of Operations Data  2011  2012  2013
    %    %    % 
Net sales   100.0    100.0    100.0 
Cost of sales   (87.2)   (85.4)   (83.1)
Gross margin   12.8    14.6    16.9 
Selling expenses   (0.9)   (1.0)   (0.9)
Salaries and related costs   (9.6)   (9.5)   (8.6)
Research and development expenses   (1.2)   (1.2)   (1.3)
Administration and general expenses   (6.9)   (9.3)   (7.9)
Gain from disposal of subsidiary   —      5.4    —   
Loss from operations   (5.7)   (1.0)   (1.8)
Interest income   0.0    0.0    0.0 
Interest expenses   (0.2)   (0.3)   (0.2)
Foreign exchange loss   (0.5)   (2.6)   (0.9)
Other income   1.3    0.5    0.5 
Loss before income taxes   (5.0)   (3.4)   (2.4)
Income tax expenses   (0.0)   (0.0)   (0.1)
Loss from continuing operations   (5.0)   (3.4)   (2.5)
Loss from discontinued operations   (0.5)   —      —   
Net loss   (5.5)   (3.4)   (2.5)

 

Fiscal year ended March 31, 2013 compared to fiscal year ended March 31, 2012

 

Net Sales. Our sales increased approximately $3,704,000, or 13.9%, from approximately $26,682,000 for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012 to approximately $30,386,000 for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2013. The increase in sales was primarily due to an increased demand for our scales products.

 

Gross Margin. Gross margin as a percentage of revenue increased to approximately 16.9% during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2013, as compared to approximately 14.6% during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012. The higher gross margin was primarily the result of the reduced labor costs due to increase in efficiency and transfer of production processes to our Xinxing factory. Our labor costs represented approximately 15.8% of our total production costs in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2013, compared to 17.8% in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012.

 

Selling Expenses. Selling expenses increased slightly by approximately $1,000 from approximately $267,000 for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012 to approximately $268,000 for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2013, or 0.4%.

 

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Salaries And Related Costs. Salaries and related costs increased by approximately $101,000, or 4.0%, from approximately $2,526,000 for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012 to approximately $2,627,000 for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2013. The increase in salaries and related costs was primarily the result of increase in salary of staff in China in accordance with the increase in minimum wage.

 

Research And Development. Research and development expenses increased approximately $84,000, or 26.9%, from approximately $312,000 for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012 to approximately $396,000 for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2013. The increase in research and development was primarily the result of increased headcount of engineers in accordance with increased projects during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2013. Research and development expenses account for 1.3% of net revenue for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2013, and for 1.2% of net revenue for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012.

 

Administration And General Expenses. Administration and general expenses decreased by approximately $90,000, or 3.7%, from approximately $2,492,000 for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012 to approximately $2,402,000 for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2013. The decrease is primarily attributable to the fact that for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012, the Company paid approximately $565,000 to a bank under a bank guarantee that the Company had provided for Gram Precision, which was offset by significantly higher utility costs associated with the operation of two factories during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2013.

 

Gain from Liquidation of Subsidiary. Since Korona was liquidated during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012, the Company recorded a gain of approximately $1,448,000. There was no gain from liquidation of a subsidiary during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2013.

 

Loss From Operations. As a result of the factors described above, loss from operations increased by 128.9% from a loss of approximately $249,000 for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012 to a loss of approximately $570,000 for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2013.

 

Interest Income. Interest income remained at approximately $7,000 for the fiscal years ended March 31, 2013 and 2012.

 

Interest Expenses. Interest expenses decreased approximately $19,000, or 21.8%, from approximately $87,000 for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012 to approximately $68,000 for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2013. This decrease was primarily the result of an increase in utilization of factoring with lower interest rate during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2013.

 

Foreign Exchange Loss. Foreign exchange loss decreased approximately $442,000, or 62.9%, from approximately $703,000 for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012 to approximately $261,000 for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2013. This decrease was primarily the result of the decreased magnitude of appreciation of the Chinese Renminbi compared to the United States Dollar during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2013.

 

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Other Income. Other income increased approximately $35,000, or 26.5%, from approximately $132,000 for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012 to approximately $167,000 for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2013. The increase was primarily the result of the increase in rental income and gain from forward contracts during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2013.

 

Income Tax Expense. Income tax expense was $29,000 during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2013, as compared to $2,000 during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012. The income tax expense is primarily due to the under provision for taxation for fiscal year ended March 31, 2012.

 

Net Loss. As a result of the factors described above, net loss decreased from a loss of approximately $902,000 for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012 to a loss of approximately $754,000 for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2013, a decrease in loss of approximately $148,000, or 16.4%.

 

Foreign Currency Translation Adjustments. Foreign currency translation adjustments, net of tax, decreased from approximately $353,000 for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012 to a gain of approximately $62,000 for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2013, a decrease of approximately $291,000, or 82.4%. The decreased foreign currency translation adjustment, net of tax, was primarily the result of reduced fluctuation of the Chinese Renminbi against the United States Dollar.

 

Comprehensive Loss. As a result of the factors described above, comprehensive loss increased from a loss of approximately $549,000 for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012 to a loss of approximately $692,000 for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2013, an increase of approximately $143,000, or 26.0%.

 

Fiscal year ended March 31, 2012 compared to fiscal year ended March 31, 2011

 

Net Sales. Our sales decreased approximately $1,705,000, or 6.0%, from approximately $28,387,000 for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011 to approximately $26,682,000 for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012. The decrease in sales was primarily the result of the overall decrease in demand for our products.

 

Gross Margin. Gross margin as a percentage of revenue increased to approximately 14.6% during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012, as compared to approximately 12.8% during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011. The higher gross margin was primarily the result of reduced manufacturing cost due to increase in efficiency.

 

Selling Expenses. Selling expenses increased by approximately $18,000 from approximately $249,000 for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011 to approximately $267,000 for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012, or 7.2%. Local freight costs and related selling expenses increased during the year due to increased shipping costs during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012.

 

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Salaries And Related Costs. Salaries and related costs decreased by approximately $190,000, or 7.0%, from approximately $2,716,000 for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011 to approximately $2,526,000 for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012. The decrease in salaries and related costs was primarily the result of decreased headcount in Hong Kong and China.

 

Research And Development. Research and development expenses decreased approximately $22,000, or 6.6%, from approximately $334,000 for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011 to approximately $312,000 for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012. The decrease in research and development was primarily the result of decreased headcount of engineers during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012.

 

Administration And General Expenses. Administration and general expenses increased by approximately $533,000, or 27.2%, from approximately $1,959,000 for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011 to approximately $2,492,000 for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012. The increase was primarily the result of a payment of approximately $565,000 to Gram Precision's bank as Gram Precision was under liquidation and the Company had a guarantee to that bank to secure Gram Precision's banking facilities, which continued from the fiscal year ended March 31, 2008 when Gram Precision was a subsidiary of the Company.

 

Gain from Liquidation of Subsidiary. Since Korona was liquidated during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012, the Company recorded a gain of approximately $1,448,000.

 

Loss From Operations. As a result of the factors described above, loss from operations decreased by 86.0% from a loss of approximately $1,631,000 for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011 to a loss of approximately $249,000 for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012.

 

Interest Income. Interest income increased by $1,000, or 16.7%, from approximately $6,000 for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011 to approximately $7,000 for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012. The increase was the result of increased deposits in savings accounts during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012.

 

Interest Expenses. Interest expenses increased approximately $31,000, or 55.4%, from approximately $56,000 for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011 to approximately $87,000 for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012. This increase was primarily the result of an increase in utilization of the Company’s banking facilities during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012.

 

Foreign Exchange Loss. Foreign exchange loss increased approximately $573,000, or 440.8%, from approximately $130,000 for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011 to approximately $703,000 for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012. This increase was primarily the result of the appreciation of the Chinese Renminbi compared to the United States Dollar during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012.

 

Other Income. Other income decreased approximately $52,000, or 28.3%, from approximately $184,000 for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011 to approximately $132,000 for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012. The decrease was primarily the result of the decrease in recoverable bad debt from the sale of Gram Precision that was previously impaired. During the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011, the Company recovered $45,000, while the Company recovered $0 during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012.

 

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Income Tax Expense. Income tax expense was $2,000 during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012, as compared to $0 during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011. The income tax expense is a result of gains in a subsidiary during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012.

 

Loss from Discontinued Operations. Loss from discontinued operations decreased approximately $129,000 from $129,000 for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011 to approximately $0 for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012. The decrease was the result of no activities for the discontinued operations, and the discontinued operations were liquidated during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012.

 

Net Loss. As a result of the factors described above, net loss decreased from a loss of approximately $1,560,000 for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011 to a loss of approximately $902,000 for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012, a decrease in loss of approximately $658,000, or 42.2%.

 

Foreign Currency Translation Adjustments. Foreign currency translation adjustments, net of tax, increased from approximately $199,000 for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011 to a gain of approximately $353,000 for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012, an increase of approximately $154,000, or 77.4%. The increased foreign currency translation adjustment, net of tax, was primarily the result of fluctuation of the Chinese Renminbi against the United States Dollar.

 

Comprehensive Loss. As a result of the factors described above, comprehensive loss decreased from a loss of approximately $1,361,000 for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011 to a loss of approximately $549,000 for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012, a decrease of approximately $812,000, or 59.7%.

 

Impact of Inflation

 

We believe that inflation had an impact on our business during the fiscal years ended March 31, 2012 and 2013. The minimum wage increased from RMB 1,100 (or approximately $162) per month beginning July 1, 2010 to RMB 1,320 (or approximately $206) per month beginning April 1, 2011, and was later increased to RMB 1,500 (or approximately $238) per month beginning February 1, 2012, and to RMB 1,600 (or approximately $254) per month beginning March 1, 2013. As a result, we believe that inflation will continue to increase our operating costs and cost of raw materials and have a significant impact upon us in the future. We have generally been able to modify and improve our product designs so that we could either increase the prices of our products or lower the production costs in order to keep pace with inflation. Oil prices have been volatile in recent years. If oil prices increase, it will likely result in an increase in the cost of components to us, as well as an increase in our operating expenses, which will have a material adverse effect upon our business and results of operations. Further, the increase in labor costs and operating costs in the PRC had a material impact on our profitability.

 

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Taxation

 

The companies comprising the Group are subject to tax on an entity basis on income arising in, or derived from, Hong Kong, and the PRC. The current rate of taxation of the subsidiary operating in Hong Kong is 16.5%. The Group is not subject to income taxes in the British Virgin Islands.

 

The tax rates for our subsidiary in PRC were 24% in 2011 and 25% in 2012 and beyond. There is no tax payable in Hong Kong on offshore profit or on dividends paid to Bonso Electronics Limited by its subsidiaries or to us by Bonso Electronics Limited. Therefore, our overall effective tax rate may be lower than that of most United States corporations; however, this advantage could be materially and adversely affected by changes in the tax laws of the British Virgin Islands, Hong Kong or China.

 

On March 16, 2007, the Chinese government enacted a unified enterprise income tax law, or “EIT,” which became effective on January 1, 2008. Prior to the EIT, as a foreign invested enterprise, or “FIE,” located in Shenzhen of the PRC, our PRC subsidiaries enjoyed a national income tax rate of 15% and were exempted from the 3% local income tax. The preferential tax treatment to our subsidiaries in the PRC of qualifying for tax refunds as a result of reinvesting their profits earned in previous years in the PRC also expired on January 1, 2008. Under the EIT, apart from those qualified as high-tech enterprises, most domestic enterprises and FIEs will be subject to a single PRC enterprise income tax rate of 25% in year 2012 and afterward.

 

Efforts by the Chinese government to increase tax revenues could result in decisions or interpretations of the tax laws by the Chinese tax authorities that are unfavorable to us and which increase our future tax liabilities or deny our expected refunds. Changes in Chinese tax laws or their interpretation or application may subject us to additional Chinese taxation in the future.

 

No reciprocal tax treaty regarding withholding taxes exists between the United States and the British Virgin Islands. Under current British Virgin Islands law, dividends, interest or royalties paid by us to individuals are not subject to tax as long as the recipient is not a resident of the British Virgin Islands. If we were to pay a dividend, we would not be liable to withhold any tax, but shareholders would receive gross dividends, irrespective of their residential or national status.

 

During the fiscal years ended March 31, 2011, 2012 and 2013, certain of our subsidiaries were, and continue to be, subject to inquiries from the local tax authorities. Upon the adoption of ASC 740 (formerly FIN 48), “Accounting for Uncertainty in Income Taxes — An Interpretation of FASB Statement No. 109,” the Company recorded a provision of approximately $2,164,000 in relation to uncertain tax positions as of April 1, 2007. The assessment is subject to final determination by the local tax authorities and may be different from what we have recorded as a provision. As such, there can be no assurance that the inquiry will not result in imposing additional income tax expense on the Group, which could have a material adverse effect upon the Group and its results of operations. According to the requirement from the local tax authorities, the Company has purchased tax reserve certificates for approximately $1,710,000 for the fiscal years in review, for the potential payment to the tax authority.

 

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Contractual arrangements we have entered into among us and our subsidiaries in different locations may be subject to scrutiny by respective tax authorities, and a finding against the Company and its subsidiaries may result in additional tax liabilities that could substantially reduce our consolidated net income. We could face material and adverse tax consequences if respective tax authorities determine that the contractual arrangements among our subsidiaries and Bonso do not represent an arm’s length price and adjust Bonso’s or its subsidiaries’ income. Our consolidated net income may be materially and adversely affected if our affiliated entities’ tax liabilities increase.

 

Dividends, if any, paid to any United States resident or citizen shareholder are treated as dividend income for United States federal income tax purposes. Such dividends are not eligible for the 70% dividends-received deduction allowed to United States corporations on dividends from a domestic corporation under Section 243 of the United States Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Internal Revenue Code”). Various Internal Revenue Code provisions impose special taxes in certain circumstances on non-United States corporations and their shareholders. You are urged to consult your tax advisor with regard to such possibilities and your own tax situation.

 

In addition to United States federal income taxation, shareholders may be subject to state and local taxes upon their receipt of dividends.

 

Foreign Currency Exchange Rates

 

We sell most of our products to international customers. Our principal export markets are North America (mainly the United States), Europe (mainly Germany) and Asia. Other markets are other European countries (such as the United Kingdom), Australia and Africa. Sales to international customers are made directly by us to our customers. We sell all of our products in United States Dollars and pay for our material components principally in United States Dollars and Hong Kong Dollars. A very small portion of the components used are paid for in Japanese Yen. Most factory expenses incurred are paid in Chinese Renminbi. Because the Hong Kong Dollar is pegged to the United States Dollar, in the past our only material foreign exchange risk previously arose from potential fluctuations in the Chinese Renminbi and a devaluation in United States Dollars. For the reasons discussed in the paragraphs below, management believes that it may be possible that there will be some fluctuation in the coming year. During the fiscal year ended March 31, 2013, we experienced a foreign currency loss of approximately $261,000.

 

A summary of our debts from our banking facilities utilized as at March 31, 2012 and 2013 which was subjected to foreign currency risk is as follows:

 

    March 31, 2012    March 31, 2013 
    $ in thousands    $ in thousands 
           
Hong Kong dollars   1,870    3,813 

 

The amount above is due within one year.

 

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Fluctuations in the value of the Hong Kong Dollar have not been significant since October 17, 1983, when the Hong Kong government tied the value of the Hong Kong Dollar to that of the United States Dollar. However, there can be no assurance that the value of the Hong Kong Dollar will continue to be tied to that of the United States Dollar. China adopted a floating currency system on January 1, 1994, unifying the market and official rates of foreign exchange. China approved current account convertibility of the Chinese Renminbi on July 1, 1996, followed by formal acceptance of the International Monetary Fund’s Articles of Agreement on December 1, 1996. These regulations eliminated the requirement for prior government approval to buy foreign exchange for ordinary trade transactions, though approval is still required to repatriate equity or debt, including interest thereon. From 1994 until July 2005, the Chinese Renminbi had remained stable against the U.S. Dollar at approximately 8.28 to 1.00 U.S. Dollar. On July 21, 2005, the Chinese currency regime was altered to link the RMB to a “basket of currencies,” which includes the United States Dollar, Euro, Japanese Yen and Korean Won. Under the rules, the RMB is allowed to move 0.3% on a daily basis against the United States Dollar. The People's Bank of China, on May 21 2007, widened the RMB trading band from 0.3% daily movement against the United States Dollar to 0.5%. On June 20, 2010, the PBOC announced that the PRC government would further reform the RMB exchange rate regime and increase the flexibility of the exchange rate. It is difficult to predict how this new policy may impact the RMB exchange rate. As of July 15, 2013, the RMB was valued at 6.17 per U.S. Dollar. There can be no assurance that these currencies will remain stable or will fluctuate to our benefit.

 

To manage our exposure to foreign currency and translation risks, we may purchase currency exchange forward contracts, currency options, or other derivative instruments, provided such instruments may be obtained at suitable prices.

 

Liquidity and Capital Resources

 

We have financed our growth and cash needs to date primarily from internally generated funds and bank debt. We do not use off-balance sheet financing arrangements, such as securitization of receivables or obtaining access to assets through special purpose entities, as sources of liquidity. Our primary uses of cash have been to fund expansions and upgrades of our manufacturing facilities.

 

Operating activities used $187,000 of net cash for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2013, as compared to $474,000 of net cash generated from operating activities during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012. This increase in the amount of cash used by operating activities was primarily attributable to the increase in trade receivables and income tax recoverable as of March 31, 2013, when compared to that of March 31, 2012.

 

As of March 31, 2013, we had approximately $2,154,000 in cash and cash equivalents, as compared to $3,014,000 in cash and cash equivalents as of March 31, 2012. Working capital at March 31, 2013 was approximately $292,000, as compared to $2,914,000 at March 31, 2012. The decrease in working capital is the result of an increase in investing activities for a total of approximately $2,214,000 for acquisition of intangible assets and property, plant and equipment. We believe there are no material restrictions (including foreign exchange controls) on the ability of our subsidiaries to transfer funds to us in the form of cash dividends, loans, advances or product/material purchases. We believe our working capital is sufficient for our present requirements.

 

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As of March 31, 2013, we had approximately $2,759,000 in net trade receivables, as compared to $2,081,000 as of March 31, 2012. This increase of $678,000 was primarily attributable to increased sales close to the end of the fiscal year, compared to that of March 31, 2012.

 

As of March 31, 2013, we had approximately $5,460,000 in inventories, as compared to $4,105,000 as of March 31, 2012. This increase of $1,355,000 was primarily attributable to increase of inventory in projection of the higher sales amount after March 31, 2013.

 

As of March 31, 2013, we had a total of approximately $10,069,000 in notes payable and accounts payable, as compared to $6,902,000 as of March 31, 2012. The increase of $3,167,000 was primarily attributable to the increased accounts payable and notes payable due to the increase in material purchases as a result of increased orders received as of March 31, 2013, compared to that of March 31, 2012.

 

As of March 31, 2013, we had in place general banking facilities with one financial institution with amounts available aggregating approximately $10,000,000 (2012: $8,183,000). Such facilities include the ability to obtain overdrafts, letters of credit, short-term notes payable, factoring, short-term loans and long-term loans. As of March 31, 2013, we had utilized approximately $3,813,000 from these general banking facilities. Interest on this indebtedness fluctuates with the prime rate and the Hong Kong Interbank Offer Rate as set by the Hong Kong Bankers Association. The bank credit facilities are collateralized by our bank guarantee. Our bank credit facilities are due for renewal annually. We anticipate that the banking facilities will be renewed on substantially the same terms and our utilization in the next year will remain at a similar level as that in the current year. During the fiscal years ended March 31, 2012 and 2013, we paid a total of approximately $87,000 and $68,000, respectively, in interest on indebtedness for continuing operations.

 

Our current ratio decreased from 1.31 as of March 31, 2012 to 1.02 as of March 31, 2013. Our quick ratio decreased from 0.87 as of March 31, 2012 to 0.63 as of March 31, 2013.

 

The minimum wage was increased to RMB 1,320 (or approximately $206) beginning April 1, 2011, and was later increased to RMB 1,500 (or approximately $238) per month beginning February 1, 2012, and to RMB 1,600 (or approximately $254) per month beginning March 1, 2013. This increase in minimum wage will increase our labor costs by 6.7%, or approximately $267,000, annually. Management expects that we will have lower labor costs once our entire manufacturing operation has been moved to Xinxing.

 

During the fiscal year ending March 31, 2014, we expect we will need to expend approximately $260,000  on the leasehold improvement of our facility in Xinxing, China.

 

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We believe that our cash flows from operations, our current cash balance and funds available under our working capital and credit facilities will be sufficient to meet our working capital needs and planned capital expenditures for at least the next 12 to 24 months. However, a decrease in the demand for our products or increase in our costs of goods sold or expenses may affect our internally generated funds, and we would further look to our banking facilities to meet our working capital demands.

 

Commitments

 

The following table sets forth information with respect to our commitments as of March 31, 2013:

 

    Payments due by Period
   Total    Within 1 year    Within 1 to 3 years    Within 3 to 5 years    More than 5 years 
    $ in thousands    $ in thousands    $ in thousands    $ in thousands    $ in thousands 
Notes payable and bank overdrafts and loans (1)  $3,813   $3,813   $0   $0   $0 
Operating leases  $0   $0   $0   $0   $0 
Capital leases  $0   $0   $0   $0   $0 
Construction in Xinxing  $260   $260   $0   $0   $0 
Interest on capital leases  $0   $0   $0   $0   $0 
Income tax liabilities (2)  $2,595   $0   $2,595   $0   $0 
Total  $6,668   $4,073   $2,595   $0   $0 

 

(1) Represents amounts due within one year under our banking facilities agreement.

(2) Effective April 1, 2007, the Company adopted ASC 740. As a result of the adoption of ASC 740, the Company recognized an approximately $1,170,000 increase in the liability for unrecognized tax benefits and penalties of approximately $994,000, which were accounted for as a reduction to the April 1, 2007 balance of retained earnings. The Company assessed its tax position during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2013 and concluded that the same tax liability was carried forward.

 

For a discussion of interest rates on our notes payable and short-term loans, see “Item 11. - Qualitative and Quantitative Disclosures About Market Risk” below.

Critical Accounting Policies 

 

The methods, estimates and judgments we use in applying our most critical accounting policies have a significant impact on the results we report in our financial statements. The SEC has defined the most critical accounting policies as the ones that are most important to the portrayal of our financial condition and results and require us to make our most difficult and subjective judgments, often as a result of the need to make estimates of matters that are inherently uncertain. Based on this definition, our most critical policies include inventories, impairment, trade receivables and deferred income taxes.

 

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Below, we discuss these policies further, as well as the estimates and judgments involved. We believe that our other policies either do not generally require us to make estimates and judgments that are as difficult or as subjective, or it is less likely that they would have a material impact on our reported results of operations for a given period. For a discussion of all our significant accounting policies, see footnote 1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report.

 

Inventories

 

Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value with cost determined on a first-in, first-out basis. Net realizable value is the price at which inventories can be sold in the normal course of business after allowing for the costs of completion and disposal. The Company continuously reviews slow-moving and obsolete inventory and assesses any inventory obsolescence based on inventory levels, material composition and expected usage as of that date.

 

Revenue Recognition

 

No revenue is recognized unless there is persuasive evidence of an arrangement, the price to the buyer is fixed or determinable, delivery has occurred and collectability of the sales price is reasonably assured. Revenue is recognized when title and risk of loss transfers to the customer, which is generally when the product is leaving the ports of Hong Kong or Shenzhen as designated by our customers. Shipping costs billed to our customers are included within revenue. Associated costs are classified in cost of sales.

 

The Company provides to certain customers an additional one to two percent of certain products ordered in lieu of a warranty, which are recognized as cost of sales when these products are shipped to customers from our facilities. In addition, certain products sold by the Company are subject to a limited product quality warranty. The Company accrues for estimated incurred but unidentified quality issues based upon historical activity and known quality issues if a loss is probable and can be reasonably estimated. The standard limited warranty period is one to three years. Quality returns, refunds, rebates and discounts are recorded net of sales if they are within the warranty period. All sales are based upon firm orders with fixed terms and conditions, which generally cannot be modified. Historically, we have not experienced material differences between our estimated amounts of quality returns, refunds, rebates and discounts and the actual results. In all contracts, there is no price protection or similar privilege in relation to the sale of goods.

Due to similar contractual terms, the Company’s revenue recognition policies do not differ among its significant product lines (i.e., sensor based scales versus wireless products) and among various marketing venues used by the Company (i.e., distributors and direct sales force) and do not vary in different parts of the world.

 

Long-Lived Assets Including Goodwill and Other Acquired Intangible Assets

 

Long-lived assets held and used by the Group and intangible assets, excluding goodwill, are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of such assets may not be recoverable. The Group evaluates recoverability of assets to be held and used by comparing the carrying amount of an asset to future net undiscounted cash flows to be generated by the asset. If such assets are considered to be impaired, the impairment loss is measured by the amount by which the carrying amount of the assets exceeds the fair value of the assets calculated using a discounted future cash flows analysis.

 

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Trade Receivables

 

Provision is made against trade receivables to the extent that collection is considered to be doubtful. This provision is primarily determined from our monthly aging analysis. It also requires judgment regarding the collectability of certain receivables, as certain receivables may be identified as collectible that are subsequently uncollectible and which could result in a subsequent write-off of the related receivable to the statement of operations. Most of the Company’s trade receivables are generally unsecured, except for two customers with receivables covered by credit insurance. To determine the necessity of a provision, the Company analyzes the age of the receivables and the customer’s ability to pay based on past payment history, financial statements and various information of the customer. Any change in the collectability of accounts receivable that were not previously provided for could significantly change the calculation of such provision and the results of our operations.

 

Income Taxes, Deferred Income Taxes

 

The Company complies with ASC 740 which prescribes a recognition threshold and measurement attributes for the financial statement recognition and measurement of a tax position taken or expected to be taken in a tax return. ASC 740 also provides guidance on derecognition, classification, interest and penalties, accounting in interim periods, disclosure and transition. Only tax positions that meet the more-likely-than-not recognition threshold at the effective date may be recognized or continue to be recognized upon adoption of ASC 740. The Company’s accounting policy is to treat interest and penalties as a component of income taxes.

 

Amounts in the consolidated financial statements related to income taxes are calculated using the principles of ASC 740. ASC 740 requires recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been included in the financial statements or tax returns. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the temporary differences between the financial reporting basis and the tax basis of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. Future tax benefits, such as net operating loss carry forwards, are recognized as deferred tax assets. Recognized deferred tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance if, based on the weight of available evidence, it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax asset will not be realized.

 

Research and Development, Patents and Licenses, Etc.

 

We believe that our engineering and product development capabilities are important to the future success of our business. We have successfully lowered the costs of our research and development team by moving most research and development activities to our facility in China and principally employing Chinese engineers and technicians at costs that are substantially lower than those that would be required in Hong Kong. Research and development costs are expensed in the financial period during which they are incurred.

 

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Trend Information

 

Although we are optimistic about our future in the manufacture and sale of sensor-based scales products, we are dependent upon a limited number of customers for a significant portion of our revenues, and the loss of any of these customers could have a material adverse effect upon us and our results of operations. As of March 31, 2013, our backlog of manufacturing orders was $8,033,000 as compared to $8,459,000 as of March 31, 2012. We expect that the demand for our products will increase in the fiscal year ending March 31, 2014, compared with that in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2013.

 

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

 

We do not have any off-balance sheet arrangements that have, or are reasonably likely to have, a current or future effect on our financial condition, changes in financial condition, revenues or expenses, results of operations, liquidity, capital expenditures or capital resources that are material to investors.

 

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

 

The new accounting pronouncements in the United States that may be relevant to the Group are as follows:

 

In July 2012, the FASB issued Accounting Standard Update No. 2012-02, “Intangibles—Goodwill and Other (Topic 350) Testing Indefinite-Lived Intangible Assets for Impairment” (“ASU 2012-02”), which affords an entity the option to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether the existence of events and circumstances indicates that it is more likely than not that an indefinite-lived intangible asset is impaired. If, after assessing the totality of events and circumstances, an entity concludes that it is not more likely than not that the indefinite-lived intangible asset is impaired, then the entity is not required to take further action. However, if an entity concludes otherwise, then it is required to determine the fair value of the indefinite-lived intangible asset and perform the quantitative impairment test by comparing the fair value with the carrying amount. The amendments are effective for annual and interim impairment tests performed for fiscal years beginning after September 15, 2012. Early adoption is permitted, including for annual and interim impairment tests performed as of a date before July 27, 2012, if a public entity’s financial statements for the most recent annual or interim period have not yet been issued. The Company does not believe that adoption of ASU 2012-02 will have a significant impact on its financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

 

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Item 6. Directors, Senior Management and Employees

 

Directors and Senior Management

 

Our board of directors and executive officers are listed below: 

 

Name Age Position with Bonso
    
Anthony So  70   Chairman of the Board, Chief Executive Officer and
    Director, President and Treasurer
Andrew So  27   Director, Chief Operating Officer
Kim Wah Cuung  55  

Director of Engineering and Research and Development

       and Director
Woo-Ping Fox  64   Director
Henry F. Schlueter  62   Director and Assistant Secretary
Albert So         35   Director, Chief Financial Officer and Secretary

 

ANTHONY SO is the founder of Bonso. He has been our Chairman of the Board of Directors since July 1988. He was appointed as the Chief Executive Officer and President on November 16, 2006. Mr. So received his BSE degree in civil engineering from National Taiwan University in 1967 and a Master degree in Business Administration (“MBA”) from the Hong Kong campus of the University of Hull, Hull, England in 1994. Mr. So has been Chairman of the Hong Kong GO Association since 1986 and also served as Chairman of the Alumni Association of National Taiwan University for the 1993-1994 academic years. Mr. So has served as a trustee of the Chinese University of Hong Kong, New Asia College since 1994.

 

ANDREW SO joined the Company in August 2009 and has been a director since February 25, 2012.  Mr. So currently holds the position of Chief Operating Officer and oversees the Company’s daily operations.   Mr. So graduated with distinctions in 2008 from the University of Toronto, Canada, with a Bachelor of Commerce degree (BComm). From 2008 to 2009, prior to his employment with the Company, Mr. So worked as a Derivatives Analyst at State Street Trust Company Canada, Toronto, Canada.

 

KIM WAH CHUNG has been a director since September 21, 1994. Mr. Chung has been employed by us since 1981 and currently holds the position of Director of Engineering and Research and Development. Mr. Chung is responsible for all research projects and product development. Mr. Chung’s entire engineering career has been spent with Bonso, and he has been involved in all of our major product developments. Mr. Chung graduated with honors in 1981 from the Chinese University of Hong Kong with a Bachelor of Science degree in electronics.

 

WOO-PING FOK was elected to our Board of Directors on September 21, 1994. Mr. Fok has practiced law in Hong Kong since 1991 and is a Consultant with Messrs. C.K. Mok & Co. Mr. Fok’s major areas of practice include conveyancing and real property law, corporations and business law, commercial transactions and international trade with a special emphasis in China trade matters. Mr. Fok was admitted to the Canadian Bar as a Barrister & Solicitor in December 1987 and was a partner in the law firm of Woo & Fok, a Canadian law firm with its head office in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. In 1991, Mr. Fok was qualified to practice as a Solicitor of England & Wales, a Solicitor of Hong Kong and a Barrister & Solicitor of Australian Capital Territory.

 

HENRY F. SCHLUETER has been a director since October 2001 and has been our Assistant Secretary since October 6, 1988. Since 1992, Mr. Schlueter has been the Managing Director of Schlueter & Associates, P.C., a law firm, practicing in the areas of securities, mergers and acquisitions, finance and corporate law. Mr. Schlueter has served as our United States corporate and securities counsel since 1988. From 1989 to 1991, prior to establishing Schlueter & Associates, P.C., Mr. Schlueter was a partner in the Denver, Colorado office of Kutak Rock (formerly Kutak, Rock & Campbell), and from 1984 to 1989, he was a partner in the Denver office of Nelson & Harding. Mr. Schlueter is a member of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, the Colorado and Denver Bar Associations, and the Wyoming State Bar.

 

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ALBERT SO was appointed as the Chief Financial Offer of the Company in March 2009. Mr. So was first employed as the Financial Controller of the Company in January 2008 and as a management trainee of the Company in November 2004.  Mr. So has been a director since March 1, 2013. Prior to his employment as a management trainee of the Company, Mr. So was a student.  Mr. So is a Certified Management Accountant, Financial Risk Manager, and received a Master degree in Business Administration from Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, and a Bachelor degree in Mathematics from Simon Fraser University in Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada.

 

Anthony So, the Company’s President, Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of the Board of Directors is the father of Andrew So, the Company’s Chief Operating Officer, and Albert So, the Company’s Chief Financial Officer.

 

No arrangement or understanding exists between any such director or officer and any other persons pursuant to which any director or executive officer was elected as a director or executive officer. Our directors are elected annually and serve until their successors take office or until their death, resignation or removal. The executive officers serve at the pleasure of the Board of Directors.

 

Compensation

 

The aggregate amount of compensation paid by us and our subsidiaries during the year ended March 31, 2013 to all directors, former directors and officers as a group for services in all capacities was $1,339,000. Total compensation for the benefit of Anthony So was $857,000, for the benefit of Kim Wah Chung was $160,000, for the benefit of Andrew So was $124,000, for the benefit of Albert So was $124,000 and for the benefit of Henry F. Schlueter was an aggregate of $74,000. The $74,000 listed as having been paid for the benefit of Mr. Schlueter was paid to his law firm, Schlueter & Associates, P.C., for legal services rendered. The amount for the year ended March 31, 2013, included unpaid vacation payments of $57,000, $9,000, $5,000 for Anthony So, Kim Wah Chung, and Albert So, respectively.

We did not set aside or accrue any amounts to provide pension, retirement or similar benefits for directors and officers for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2013, other than contributions to our Provident Fund Plan, which aggregated $16,000 for officers and directors.

Employment Agreements

We have employment agreements with Anthony So and Kim Wah Chung. Mr. So’s employment agreement provides for a maximum yearly salary of approximately $800,000 per year plus bonus, and Mr. Chung’s employment agreement provides for a maximum yearly salary of approximately $200,000 per year plus bonus, as stated in their respective employment agreements, which expired on March 31, 2013. One of the properties of the Group in Hong Kong is also provided to Mr. So as part of his compensation. Mr. So’s employment agreement contained a provision under which we would have been obligated to pay Mr. So all compensation for the remainder of his employment agreement and five times his annual salary and bonus compensation if a change of control, as defined in his employment agreement occurs. Both employment agreements with Anthony So and Kim Wah Chung were renewed automatically, and the respective employment agreements will expire on March 31, 2014.

 

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Options of Directors and Senior Management

 

The following table provides information concerning options owned by the directors and senior management at March 31, 2013.

 

 

Name

 

 

Number of Common Shares Subject to

Stock Options

 

 

Exercise Price

Per Share

 

 

 

Expiration Date

              
Woo-Ping Fok   10,000   $6.12   March 25, 2014
    10,000   $6.20   September 12, 2014
    10,000   $4.50   December 4, 2015
Henry F. Schlueter   10,000   $6.12   March 25, 2014
    10,000   $6.20   September 12, 2014
    10,000   $4.50   December 4, 2015

 

Directors

 

Except as mentioned above, our directors do not receive any additional monetary compensation for serving in their capacities. All directors are reimbursed for all reasonable expenses incurred in connection with their services as a director.

 

Employee retirement benefits

 

(a)With effect from January 1, 1988, BEL, a wholly-owned foreign subsidiary of the Company in Hong Kong, implemented a defined contribution plan (the “Plan”) with a major international assurance company to provide life insurance and retirement benefits for its employees. All permanent full time employees who joined BEL before December 2000, excluding factory workers, are eligible to join the provident fund plan. Eligible employees of the Plan are required to contribute 5% of their monthly salary, while BEL is required to contribute from 5% to 10% based on the eligible employee’s salary, depending on the number of years of the eligible employee’s service.

 

The Mandatory Provident Fund (the “MPF”) was introduced by the Hong Kong Government and commenced in December 2000. BEL joined the MPF by implementing a plan with a major international assurance company. All permanent Hong Kong full time employees who joined BEL on or after December 2000, excluding factory workers, are eligible to join the MPF. Eligible employees’ and the employer’s contributions to the MPF are both at 5% of the eligible employee’s monthly salary and are subject to a maximum mandatory contribution of HK$1,000 (US$128) monthly. The maximum mandatory contribution was increased to HK$1,250 (US$160) monthly starting from June 1, 2012.

 

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Pursuant to the relevant PRC regulations, the Group is required to make contributions for each employee, at rates based upon the employee’s standard salary base as determined by the local Social Security Bureau, to a defined contribution retirement scheme organized by the local Social Security Bureau in respect of the retirement benefits for the Group’s employees in the PRC.

 

(b)The contributions to each of the above schemes are recognized as employee benefit expense when they are due and are charged to the consolidated statement of income (loss). The Group’s total contributions to the above schemes for the years ended March 31, 2011, 2012 and 2013 amounted to approximately $318,000, $239,000 and $225,000, respectively. The Group has no other obligation to make payments in respect of retirement benefits of the employees.

 

Board Practices

 

All directors hold office until our next annual meeting of shareholders or until their respective successors are duly elected and qualified or their positions are earlier vacated by resignation or otherwise. All executive officers are appointed by the Board and serve at the pleasure of the Board. There are no director service contracts providing for benefits upon termination of employment or directorship.

 

NASDAQ Exemptions and Home Country Practices

 

NASDAQ Marketplace Rule 4350 provides that foreign private issuers may elect to follow certain home country corporate governance practices so long as they provide NASDAQ with a letter from outside counsel in its home country certifying that the issuer 's corporate governance practices are not prohibited by home country law.

 

On July 19, 2005, we submitted a letter to NASDAQ certifying that certain of Bonso’s corporate governance practices are not prohibited by the relevant laws of the British Virgin Islands. We will follow British Virgin Island law in respect to the following requirements:

 

A majority of Bonso’s board of directors will not be independent;
Bonso will not have a nominating committee;
Bonso will not have a compensation committee;
Bonso’s independent directors will not meet in executive session; and
Bonso’s audit committee may have only one member.

 

Audit Committee

 

Mr. Woo Ping Fok and Mr. Henry F. Schlueter are the members of the Audit Committee. Mr. Fok is “independent” as defined in the NASDAQ listing standards, and Mr. Schlueter may not be considered “independent” since his law firm serves as Bonso’s United States counsel.

 

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The Audit Committee was established to: (i) review and approve the scope of audit procedures employed by our independent auditors; (ii) review and approve the audit reports rendered by our independent auditors; (iii) approve the audit fee charged by the independent auditors; (iv) report to the Board of Directors with respect to such matters; (v) recommend the selection of independent auditors; and (vi) discharge such other responsibilities as may be delegated to it from time to time by the Board of Directors. Effective as of August 17, 2000, the Board of Directors adopted a formal charter for its Audit Committee, which was amended effective June 30, 2005.

 

Employees

 

At March 31, 2013, we employed a total of 1,127 persons, as compared to 1,299 persons at March 31, 2012 and 1,487 persons at March 31, 2011; 13 employees in Hong Kong (12 in 2012 and 14 in 2011), 1,114 employees in China (1,287 in 2012 and 1,473 in 2011). Employees are not covered by collective bargaining agreements. We consider our global labor practices and employee relations to be good.

 

Share Ownership

 

The following table shows the number of shares of common stock beneficially owned by our directors and executive officers as of June 30, 2013:

 

Name   Shares of Common Stock Owned of Record    Options Held    Total Number of Shares of Common Stock Beneficially Owned    Percent of Beneficial Ownership 
                     
Anthony So   2,281,770 (1)    0    2,281,770    40.9%
Kim Wah Chung
   93,700    0    93,700    1.7%
Henry F. Schlueter
   34,000    30,000 (2)    64,000    1.1%
Woo-Ping Fok
   66,507    30,000 (3)    96,507    1.7%
Andrew So
   0    0    0    0%
Albert So   0    0    0    0%
All Directors and Officers as a group (6 persons)
   2,475,977    60,000    2,535,977    45.0%

 

Note: The number of shares outstanding is 5,246,903 shares, with 5,577,639 total number of shares issued, which includes 330,736 shares in treasury. The calculations above are based upon the number of shares issued of 5,577,639.
                     

 

(1)Includes 1,143,421 shares of common stock owned of record by a corporation that is wholly owned by a trust of which Mr. So is the sole beneficiary.
(2)Includes options to purchase 10,000 shares of common stock at an exercise price of $6.12 expiring on March 25, 2014, options to purchase 10,000 shares of common stock at an exercise price of $6.20 per share expiring on September 12, 2014 and options to purchase 10,000 shares of common stock at an exercise price of $4.50 per share expiring on December 4, 2015.
(3)Includes options to purchase 10,000 shares of common stock at an exercise price of $6.12 expiring on March 25, 2014, options to purchase 10,000 shares of common stock at an exercise price of $6.20 per share expiring on September 12, 2014 and options to purchase 10,000 shares of common stock at an exercise price of $4.50 per share expiring on December 4, 2015.

 

48 

 

 

 
 

 

Stock Option and Bonus Plans

 

The 1996 Stock Option Plan

 

In October 1996, our stockholders adopted the 1996 Stock Option Plan (the “Employees’ Plan”), which provides for the grant of options to purchase an aggregate of not more than 400,000 shares of our common stock. In January 2000, our shareholders approved the proposal of the Board of Directors to increase from 400,000 to 900,000 in the aggregate the number of options to purchase common stock under the Employees’ Plan. The purpose of the Employees’ Plan is to make options available to management and employees in order to encourage them to secure or increase on reasonable terms their stock ownership and to encourage them to remain with the Company.

 

The Employees’ Plan is administered by a committee appointed by the Board of Directors which determines the persons to be granted options under the Employees’ Plan, the number of shares subject to each option, the exercise price of each option and the option period, subject to the requirement that no option may be exercisable more than ten years after the date of grant. The exercise price of an option may be less than the fair market value of the underlying shares of common stock. No options granted under the Employees’ Plan are transferable by the optionee other than by will or the laws of descent and distribution, and each option will be exercisable during the lifetime of the optionee only by such optionee.

 

The exercise price of an option granted pursuant to the Employees’ Plan may be paid in cash, by the surrender of options, in common stock, in other property, including the optionee’s promissory note, or by a combination of the above, at our discretion.

 

During the fiscal year ended March 31, 2013, no options were granted under the Employees’ Plan.

 

The 2004 Stock Option Plan

 

On March 23, 2004, our stockholders adopted the 2004 Stock Option Plan (the “2004 Plan”), which provides for the grant of up to six hundred thousand (600,000) shares of the Company’s common stock in the form of stock options, subject to certain adjustments as described in the 2004 Plan.

 

The purpose of the 2004 Plan is to secure key employees to remain in the employ of the Company and to encourage such employees to secure or increase on reasonable terms their common stock ownership in the Company. The Company believes that the 2004 Plan promotes continuity of management and increased incentive and personal interest in the welfare of the Company.

 

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The 2004 Plan is administered by a committee appointed by the Board of Directors, which consists of at least two but not more than three members of the Board, one of whom shall be a non-employee of the Company. The committee members currently are Anthony So and Woo-Ping Fok. The committee determines the specific terms of the options granted, including the employees to be granted options under the plan, the number of shares subject to each option grant, the exercise price of each option and the option period, subject to the requirement that no option may be exercisable more than 10 years after the date of grant. The exercise price of an option may be less than the fair market value of the underlying shares of common stock. No options granted under the plan will be transferable by the optionee other than by will or the laws of descent and distribution, and each option will be exercisable during the lifetime of the optionee only by the optionee.

 

The exercise price of an option granted pursuant to the 2004 Plan may be paid in cash, by the surrender of options, in common stock, in other property, including a promissory note from the optionee, or by a combination of the above, at the discretion of the Committee.

 

As of March 31, 2013, no options had been granted under the 2004 Plan.

 

2004 Stock Bonus Plan

 

On September 7, 2004, our stockholders adopted the 2004 Stock Bonus Plan (the “Stock Bonus Plan”), which authorizes the issuance of up to five hundred thousand (500,000) shares of the Company’s Common Stock in the form of stock a stock bonus.

 

The purpose of this Stock Bonus Plan is to: (i) induce key employees to remain in the employ of the Company or of any subsidiary of the Company; (ii) encourage such employees to secure or increase their stock ownership in the Company; and (iii) reward employees, non-employee directors, advisors and consultants for services rendered, or to be rendered, to or for the benefit of the Company or any of its subsidiaries. The Company believes that the Stock Bonus Plan will promote continuity of management and increased incentive and personal interest in the welfare of the Company.

 

The Stock Bonus Plan shall be administered by a committee appointed by the Board of Directors which consists of at least two but not more than three members of the Board, one of whom shall be a non-employee of the Company. The Committee members currently are Anthony So and Woo-Ping Fok. The Committee has the authority, in its sole discretion: (i) to determine the parties to receive bonus stock, the times when they shall receive such awards, the number of shares to be issued and the time, terms and conditions of the issuance of any such shares; (ii) to construe and interpret the terms of the Stock Bonus Plan; (iii) to establish, amend and rescind rules and regulations for the administration of the Stock Bonus Plan; and (iv) to make all other determinations necessary or advisable for administering the Stock Bonus Plan.

 

As of March 31, 2013, no shares had been granted under the Stock Bonus Plan.

 

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Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions

 

Major shareholders

 

We are not directly or indirectly owned or controlled by any foreign government or by another corporation. The following table sets forth, as of June 30, 2013, beneficial ownership of our common stock by each person, to the best of our knowledge, known to own beneficially 5% or more of our common stock outstanding as of such date. Except as otherwise indicated, all shares are owned directly and hold equal voting rights.

 

 

 

 

 

Name

   

 

Shares of Common Stock Owned

    

 

 

 

Options to Purchase Common Stock

    

 

 

Percent of Beneficial Ownership (1)

 
                
Anthony So   2,281,770 (2)    —      40.9%
W. Douglas Moreland   501,400    —      8.99%
CAS Corporation   290,654    —      5.21%

 

(1)Based on beneficial ownership of both shares of common stock and of options to purchase common stock that are immediately exercisable. The calculations above are based upon the number of shares issued of 5,577,639.
(2)Includes 1,143,421 shares of common stock owned of record by a corporation that is wholly owned by a trust of which Mr. So is the sole beneficiary. Effective March 31, 2011, John Stewart Jackson, IV, a former director of the Company sold 455,575 shares of $0.003 par value of the Company in a private sale of stock to Anthony So for gross proceeds of One Million One Hundred Thirty Eight Thousand Nine Hundred Thirty Seven Dollars and Fifty cents (USD$1,138,937.50), or $2.50 per share.   Effective March 31, 2011, Anthony So purchased 200,000 shares of $0.003 par value common stock of Bonso in a private purchase of stock from an individual for gross proceeds of Three Hundred and Twenty Thousand Dollars (USD$320,000), or $1.60 per share.

 

There are no arrangements known to us which may at a subsequent date result in a change in control of the Company.

 

Related Party Transactions

 

During the fiscal years ended March 31, 2011, 2012 and 2013, we paid Schlueter & Associates, P.C. an aggregate of $87,000, $68,000 and $74,000, respectively for legal fees. Mr. Henry F. Schlueter, a director of the Company, is the Managing Director of Schlueter & Associates, P.C.

 

Interests of Experts and Counsel

 

Not Applicable to Bonso.

 

Legal Proceedings

 

Not Applicable to Bonso.

 

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Item 8. Financial Information

 

Financial Statements

 

Our Consolidated Financial Statements are set forth under Item 18. - Financial Statements.

 

Item 9. The Offer and Listing

 

Offer and Listing Details

 

Our common stock is traded only in the United States over-the-counter market. It is quoted on the NASDAQ Capital Market under the trading symbol “BNSO.” The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, the range of high and low closing sales prices per share reported by NASDAQ. The quotations represent prices between dealers and do not include retail markup, markdown or commissions and may not necessarily represent actual transactions.

 

The following table sets forth the high and low sale prices for each of the last five years:

 

Period    High    Low 
            
April 1, 2008 to March 31, 2009   $2.45   $0.03 
April 1, 2009 to March 31, 2010    $1.42   $0.63 
April 1, 2010 to March 31, 2011   $2.44   $0.86 
April 1, 2011 to March 31, 2012    $2.80   $1.07 
April 1, 2012 to March 31, 2013   $1.88   $0.88 

 

 

The following table sets forth the high and low sale prices during each of the quarters in the two-year period ended June 30, 2013.

 

Period  High  Low
             
 July 1, 2011 to September 30, 2011   $2.80   $1.33 
 October 1, 2011 to December 31, 2011   $1.51   $1.07 
 January 1, 2012 to March 31, 2012   $1.35   $1.13 
 April 1, 2012 to June 30, 2012   $1.88   $0.92 
 July 1, 2012 to September 30, 2012   $1.10   $0.88 
 October 1, 2012 to December 31, 2012   $1.72   $0.97 
 January 1, 2013 to March 31, 2013   $1.66   $1.25 
 April 1, 2013 to June 30, 2013   $1.56   $1.33 

 

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The following table sets forth the high and low sale prices during each of the most recent six months.

 Period    High    Low 
             
 January 2013   $1.55   $1.25 
 February 2013   $1.66   $1.34 
 March 2013   $1.61   $1.31 
 April 2013   $1.48   $1.34 
 May 2013   $1.49   $1.33 
 June 2013   $1.56   $1.38 

 

On July 15, 2013, the closing price of our common stock was $1.55. Of the 5,577,639 shares of common stock issued as of June 30, 2013, 5,246,903 shares were outstanding, 3,161,877 shares were held in the United States by 177 holders of record and 330,736 shares were held by the Company as treasury stock. We have 185 shareholders of record and estimate that we have 511 shareholders holding their stock in street name (who have not objected to their names being disclosed to us).

 

Transfer and Warrant Agent

 

The transfer agent and registrar for the common stock is Computershare, 1745 Gardena Avenue #200, Glendale, California 91204.

 

Item 10. Additional Information

 

Share Capital

 

Our authorized capital is $170,000, consisting of 23,333,334 shares of common stock, $0.003 par value per share, and 10,000,000 authorized shares of preferred stock, $0.01 par value, divided into 2,500,000 shares each of class A preferred stock, class B preferred stock, class C preferred stock and class D preferred stock. Information with respect to the number of shares of common stock outstanding at the beginning and at the end of the last three fiscal years is presented in the Consolidated Statements of Changes in Shareholders’ Equity for the fiscal years ended March 31, 2011, 2012 and 2013 included herein in Item 18.

 

At June 30, 2013, there were 5,577,639 shares of our common stock issued, 5,246,903 shares were outstanding, and 330,736 shares were held by the Company in treasury. All shares were fully paid. In addition, we had outstanding 110,000 options to purchase common stock as follows:

 

 Number of Options    Exercise Price per Share   Expiration Date
           
 40,000   $6.12   March 25, 2014
 40,000   $6.20   September 12, 2014
 30,000   $4.50   December 4, 2015

 

At June 30, 2013, there were no shares of our preferred stock outstanding.

 

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Memorandum and Articles of Association

 

We are registered in the British Virgin Islands and have been assigned company number 9032 in the register of companies. Our registered agent is HWR Services Limited at Craigmuir Chambers, P.O. Box 71, Road Town, Tortola, British Virgin Islands. The object or purpose of the Company is to engage in any act or activity that is not prohibited under British Virgin Islands law as set forth in Paragraph 4 of our Memorandum of Association. As an International Business Company, we are prohibited from doing business with persons resident in the British Virgin Islands, owning real estate in the British Virgin Islands or acting as a bank or insurance company. We do not believe that these restrictions materially affect our operations.

 

Paragraph 57(c) of our Amended Articles of Association (the “Articles”) provides that a director may be counted as one of a quorum in respect of any contract or arrangement in which the director is materially interested; however, if the agreement or transaction cannot be approved by a resolution of directors without counting the vote or consent of any interested director, the agreement or transaction may only be validated by approval or ratification by a resolution of the members. Paragraph 53 of the Articles allows the directors to vote compensation to themselves in respect of services rendered to the Company. Paragraph 66 of the Articles provides that the directors may by resolution exercise all the powers of the Company to borrow money and to mortgage or charge its undertakings and property or any part thereof, to issue debentures, debenture stock and other securities whenever money is borrowed or as security for any debt, liability or obligation of ours or of any third party. Such borrowing powers can be altered by an amendment to the Articles. There is no provision in the Articles for the mandatory retirement of directors. Directors are not required to own shares of the Company in order to serve as directors.

 

Our authorized share capital is $170,000, divided into 23,333,334 shares of common stock, $0.003 par value, and 10,000,000 authorized shares of preferred stock, $0.01 par value. Holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each whole share on all matters to be voted upon by shareholders, including the election of directors. Holders of our common stock do not have cumulative voting rights in the election of directors. All of our common shares are equal to each other with respect to liquidation and dividend rights. Holders of our common shares are entitled to receive dividends if and when declared by our board of directors out of funds legally available therefor under British Virgin Islands law. In the event of our liquidation, all assets available for distribution to the holders of our common shares are distributable among them according to their respective holdings. Holders of our common stock have no preemptive rights to purchase any additional unissued common shares. No shares of our preferred stock have been issued; however, the board of directors has the ability to determine the rights, preferences and restrictions of the preferred stock at their discretion.

 

Paragraph 7 of the Memorandum of Association provides that without prejudice to any special rights previously conferred on the holders of any existing shares, any share may be issued with such preferred, deferred or other special rights or such restrictions, whether in regard to dividend, voting, return of capital or otherwise, as the directors may from time to time determine.

 

Paragraph 10 of the Memorandum of Association provides that if at any time the authorized share capital is divided into different classes or series of shares, the rights attached to any class or series may be varied with the consent in writing of the holders of not less than three-fourths of the issued shares of any other class or series of shares which may be affected by such variation.

 

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Paragraph 105 of the Articles of Association provides that our Memorandum and Articles of Association may be amended by a resolution of members or a resolution of directors. Thus, our board of directors without shareholder approval may amend our Memorandum and Articles of Association. This includes amendments to increase or reduce our authorized capital stock. Our ability to amend our Memorandum and Articles of Association without shareholder approval could have the effect of delaying, deterring or preventing a change in control of the Company, including a tender offer to purchase our common shares at a premium over the then current market price.

 

Provisions in respect of the holding of general meetings and extraordinary general meetings are set out in Paragraphs 68 through 77 of the Articles and under the International Business Companies Act. The directors may convene meetings of the members at such times and in such manner and places as the directors consider necessary or desirable, and they shall convene such a meeting upon the written request of members holding more than 30% of the votes of our outstanding voting shares.

 

British Virgin Islands law and our Memorandum and Articles of Association impose no limitations on the right of nonresident or foreign owners to hold or vote our securities. There are no provisions in the Memorandum and Articles of Association governing the ownership threshold above which shareholder ownership must be disclosed.

 

A copy of our Memorandum and Articles of Association, as amended, was filed as an exhibit to our Registration Statement on Form F-2 (SEC File No. 333-32524).

 

Material Contracts

 

The following summarizes each material contract, other than contracts entered into in the ordinary course of business, to which Bonso or any subsidiary of Bonso is a party, for the two years immediately preceding the filing of this report:

 

We signed a Banking Facility Letter dated February 1, 2013 with Hang Seng Bank for an HK$78,000,000 letter of credit, trust receipt facility, export D/P bills, export trade loan, factoring and overdraft facility. A copy of this Banking Facilities Letter is attached to this Annual Report on Form 20-F as Exhibit 4.1 and is incorporated herein by this reference.

We signed a rental agreement dated June 28, 2013 with Shenzhen Mei Ya Print Co, Ltd., for renting out the Shenzhen factory for six years. An abridged, English translation of the rental agreement is attached to this Annual Report on Form 20-F as Exhibit 4.2 and is incorporated herein by this reference.

 

Exchange Controls

 

There are no exchange control restrictions on payments of dividends on our common stock or on the conduct of our operations either in Hong Kong, where our principal executive offices are located, or the British Virgin Islands, where we are incorporated. Other jurisdictions in which we conduct operations may have various exchange controls. Taxation and repatriation of profits regarding our China operations are regulated by Chinese laws and regulations. With respect to our PRC subsidiaries, with the exception of a requirement that approximately 11% of profits be reserved for future developments and staff welfare, there are no restrictions on the payment of dividends and the removal of dividends from China once all taxes are paid and assessed and losses, if any, from previous years have been made good. To date, these controls have not had, and are not expected to have, a material impact on our financial results. There are no material British Virgin Islands laws that impose foreign exchange controls on us or that affect the payment of dividends, interest or other payments to holders of our securities who are not residents of the British Virgin Islands. British Virgin Islands law and our Memorandum and Articles of Association impose no limitations on the right of nonresident or foreign owners to hold or vote our securities.

 

55

 

 

 
 

 

Taxation

 

No reciprocal tax treaty regarding withholding exists between the United States and the British Virgin Islands. Under current British Virgin Islands law, dividends, interest or royalties paid by us to individuals are not subject to tax as long as the recipient is not a resident of the British Virgin Islands. If we were to pay a dividend, we would not be liable to withhold any tax, but shareholders would receive gross dividends, if any, irrespective of their residential or national status.

 

Dividends, if any, paid to any United States resident or citizen shareholder are treated as dividend income for United States federal income tax purposes. Such dividends are not eligible for the 70% dividends-received deduction allowed to United States corporations on dividends from a domestic corporation under Section 243 of the Internal Revenue Code. Various Internal Revenue Code provisions impose special taxes in certain circumstances on non-United States corporations and their shareholders. You are urged to consult your tax advisor with regard to such possibilities and your own tax situation.

 

A foreign corporation will be treated as a passive foreign investment company (“PFIC”) for United States federal income tax purposes if, after applying relevant look-through rules with respect to the income and assets of subsidiaries, 75% or more of its gross income consists of certain types of passive income or 50% or more of the gross value of its assets is attributable to assets that produce passive income or are held for the production of passive income. For this purpose, passive income generally includes dividends, interest, royalties, rents (other that rents and royalties derived in the active conduct of a trade or business), annuities and gains from assets that produce passive income. We presently believe that we are not a PFIC and do not anticipate becoming a PFIC. This is, however, a factual determination made on an annual basis and is subject to change. If we were to be classified as a PFIC in any taxable year, (i) U.S. holders would generally be required to treat any gain on sales of our shares held by them as ordinary income and to pay an interest charge on the value of the deferral of their United States federal income tax attributable to such gain and (ii) distributions paid by us to our United States holders could also be subject to an interest charge. In addition, we would not provide information to our United States holders that would enable them to make a “qualified electing fund” election under which, generally, in lieu of the foregoing treatment, our earnings would be currently included in their United States federal income.

 

In addition to United States federal income taxation, shareholders may be subject to state and local taxes upon their receipt of dividends.

 

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Documents on Display

 

You may read and copy documents referred to in this Annual Report on Form 20-F that have been filed with the SEC at the SEC’s Public Reference Room, 450 Fifth Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. You may obtain information on the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. You can also obtain copies of our SEC filings by going to the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov.

 

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” the information we file with the SEC. This means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document filed separately with the SEC. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be part of this Annual Report on Form 20-F.

 

Item 11. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

 

We are exposed to a certain level of interest rate risk and foreign currency exchange risk.

 

Interest Rate Risk

 

Our interest rate risk primarily arises from our long-term debt and our general banking facilities. As at March 31, 2013, there was no long-term debt. We had utilized approximately $3,813,000 of our total banking facilities of $10,000,000. Based on the maturity profile and composition of our long-term debt and general banking facilities, including the fact that our banking facilities are at variable interest rates, we estimate that changes in interest rates will not have a material impact on our operating results or cash flows. We intend to manage our interest rate risk through appropriate borrowing strategies. We have not entered into interest rate swap or risk management agreements; however, it is possible that we may do so in the future.

 

A summary of our debts as at March 31, 2013 which were subjected to variable interest rates is as below:

 

    March 31,    Interest 
    2013    Rate 
           
Notes payable  $2,276,000    HIBOR + 2.5% 
Bank overdraft - secured  $180,000    PRIME + 1% 
Factoring  $332,000    HIBOR + 1.5% 
Short-term loan  $1,025,000    HIBOR + 2.25% 

 

(Note: HIBOR is the Hong Kong Interbank Offer Rate)

 

All the balances above are due within one year.

 

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A change in the interest rate of 1% will increase or decrease the interest expense of the Company by approximately $21,000.

 

For further information concerning our banking facilities, the interest rates payable and repayment terms, please see Note 7 to our Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report.

 

Foreign Currency Exchange Rates

 

For a discussion of our Foreign Currency Exchange Risk, See Item 5. - Operating and Financial Review and Prospects, “Foreign Currency Exchange Rates.”

 

Item 12. Description of Securities Other Than Equity Securities

 

Not applicable to Bonso.

 

PART II

 

Item 13. Defaults, Dividend Arrearages and Delinquencies

 

None.

 

Item 14. Material Modifications to the Rights of Security Holders and Use of Proceeds

 

None.

 

Item 15. Controls and Procedures

 

The Company’s management, with the participation of its Chief Executive Officer and the Chief Financial Officer, conducted an evaluation of our disclosure controls and procedures, as defined in paragraph (e) of Rule 13a-15 or 15d-15 under the Exchange Act, as of March 31, 2013.

 

Based on this evaluation, Anthony So, the Chief Executive Officer, and Albert So, the Chief Financial Officer, have concluded that, as of March 31, 2013, the Company’s disclosure controls and procedures were effective to provide reasonable assurance that information required to be disclosed by the Company in reports it files or submits under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the rules and forms of the SEC, and included controls and procedures designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Company in such reports is accumulated and communicated to the Company’s management, including the Company’s Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, as appropriate, to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure.

 

Management’s Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting

 

Management of the Company is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting, as such term is defined in Exchange Act Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f). The Company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with applicable generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that: (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the Company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the Company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the Company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

 

58

 

 

 
 

 

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

 

The Company’s management has evaluated the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of March 31, 2013 based upon criteria established in Internal Control Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission. Based on the assessment, the Company’s management, including its Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, concluded that, as of March 31, 2013, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting was effective based on these criteria.

 

Changes in internal controls over financial reporting

 

There were no changes in the Company’s internal controls over financial reporting during the year ended March 31, 2013 that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.

 

Item 16. Reserved

 

Item 16A. Audit Committee Financial Expert

 

Henry F. Schlueter is a member of the Company’s Audit Committee and is deemed to be a financial expert. Mr. Schlueter, the Company’s outside securities counsel, may not be deemed to be “independent” within the definition of “independence” published by NASDAQ.

 

Item 16B. Code of Ethics

 

We have adopted a code of ethics that applies to our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer. We intend to disclose any changes in, or waivers from, our code of ethics by filing a Form 6-K. Stockholders may request a free copy in print form from our Chief Financial Officer at:

 

Bonso Electronics International, Inc.

Unit 1404, 14/F, Cheuk Nang Centre

9 Hillwood Road, Tsimshatsui

Kowloon

Hong Kong

 

59

 

 

 
 

 

Item 16C. Principal Accountant Fees and Services

 

Audit Committee’s Pre-approval Policies and Procedure

 

The Audit Committee must pre-approve the audit and non-audit services performed by the independent auditor in order to assure that the provision of such services does not impair the auditor's independence. Before the Company or any of its subsidiaries engage the independent auditor to render a service, the engagement must be either:

 

(1) specifically approved by the Audit Committee; or

(2) entered into pursuant to this Pre-Approval Policy.

The term of any pre-approval is 12 months from the date of pre-approval, unless the Audit Committee specifically provides for a different period. The Audit Committee may periodically revise the list of pre-approved services.

 

The Audit Committee may delegate pre-approval authority to one or more of its members. The member or members to whom such authority is delegated shall report any pre-approval decisions to the Audit Committee at its next scheduled meeting. The Audit Committee may not delegate to management the Audit Committee's responsibilities to pre-approve services performed by the independent auditor.

 

The Audit Committee must specifically pre-approve the terms of the annual audit services engagement. The Audit Committee shall approve, if necessary, any changes in terms resulting from changes in audit scope, Company structure or other matters. In addition to the annual audit services engagement approved by the Audit Committee, the Audit Committee may grant pre-approval for other audit services, which are those services that only the independent auditor reasonably can provide.

 

The Audit Committee may grant pre-approval to those permissible non-audit services classified as other services that it believes would not impair the independence of the auditor, including those that are routine and recurring services.

 

The Audit Committee may consider the amount or range of estimated fees as a factor in determining whether a proposed service would impair the auditor's independence. Where the Audit Committee has approved an estimated fee for a service, the pre-approval applies to all services described in the approval. However, in the event the invoice in respect of any such service is materially in excess of the estimated amount or range, the Audit Committee must approve such excess amount prior to payment of the invoice. The Audit Committee expects that any requests to pay invoices in excess of the estimated amounts will include an explanation as to the reason for the overage. The Company’s independent auditor will be informed of this policy.

 

60

 

 

 
 

 

The Company’s management shall inform the Audit Committee of each service performed by the independent auditor pursuant to this Pre-Approval Policy. Requests or applications to provide services that require separate approval by the Audit Committee shall be submitted to the Audit Committee by both the independent auditor and the Chief Financial Officer and must include a joint statement as to whether, in their view, the request or application is consistent with the SEC’s and the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States)’s rules on auditor independence.

 

The Audit Fees indicated below was pre-approved by the Audit Committee before the auditor commenced their work.

 

Audit Fees

 

The aggregate fees billed by Moore Stephens for professional services rendered for the audit of the Company’s annual consolidated financial statements for the fiscal years ended March 31, 2013 and 2012 were $180,000 and $180,000, respectively.

Audit Related Fees

 

There were no fees billed by Moore Stephens for professional services rendered for assurance and related services that were reasonably related to the performance of the audit and are not reported above under “Audit Fees” for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2013 and for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012.

 

Tax Fees

 

The aggregate fees billed by a company controlled by Moore Stephens for professional services rendered for tax compliance for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2013 were approximately $3,600 and $6,000 for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012.

 

Item 16D. Exemptions from the Listing Standards for Audit Committees

 

Pursuant to NASDAQ Marketplace Rule 4350(a), a foreign private issuer may follow its home country practice in lieu of Rule 4350, which sets forth the qualitative Listing Requirements for NASDAQ listed companies. Rule 4350 requires, among other things, that a listed company have at least three members on its audit committee. The Company currently has an audit committee consisting of two directors, one of whom is deemed to be “independent” as defined in NASDAQ Marketplace Rule 4200. The Company has obtained a letter from independent counsel in the British Virgin Islands certifying that having a single member audit committee is not prohibited by British Virgin Island law. See “NASDAQ Exemptions and Home Country Practices.”

 

Item 16E. Purchasers of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers

 

In August of 2001, the Company's Board of Directors authorized a program for the Company to repurchase up to $500,000 of its common stock. This repurchase program does not obligate the Company to acquire any specific number of shares or acquire shares over any specified period of time. No stocks had been repurchased up to March 31, 2006. On November 16, 2006, the Company's Board of Directors authorized an additional $1,000,000 for the Company’s repurchase of its common stock under the same repurchase program. This authorization to repurchase shares increased the amount authorized for repurchase from $500,000 to $1,500,000. During the fiscal year ended March 31, 2007, 260,717 shares valued at $1,328,560 were purchased under this program. No shares were repurchased during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2008. During the fiscal year ended March 31, 2009, 70,019 shares valued at $133,765 were purchased under this program. No shares were repurchased during the fiscal years ended March 31, 2011, 2012 and 2013. The Company may from time to time repurchase shares of its Common Stock under this program.

 

61

 

 

 
 

 

Item 16F. Changes in Registrant’s Certifying Accountants.

 

Not applicable to Bonso.

 

Item 16G. Corporate Governance.

 

For a discussion of the ways in which the Company’s corporate governance differs from those followed by domestic companies under the NASDAQ Marketplace listing requirements, see “NASDAQ Exemptions and Home Country Practices” above.

 

Item 16H. Mine Safety Disclosure.

 

Not applicable to Bonso.

 

PART III

 

Item 17. Financial Statements

 

Not applicable.

 

Item 18. Financial Statements

 

The following Financial Statements are filed as part of this Annual Report:

 

Page 
     
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm  F-1 
Consolidated Balance Sheets as of March 31, 2012 and 2013  F-2 
Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss) for the years ended March 31, 2011, 2012 and 2013  F-3 
Consolidated Statements of Changes in Stockholders’ Equity for the years ended March 31, 2011, 2012 and 2013  F-4 
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the years ended    
March 31, 2011, 2012 and 2013  F-5 
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements  F-6 through F-35 

 

 

62

 

 

 
 

  


Item 19. Exhibits

 

 4.1Banking Facility Letter, dated February 1, 2013 between Bonso and the Hang Seng Bank Limited
   
4.2Rental agreement (abridged English translation), dated June 28, 2013 between Bonso and Shenzhen Mei Ya Print Co., Ltd.

 

11.1Code of Ethics For Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer (1)

 

12.1Certification of Officer Pursuant to Section 1350, as adopted pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002

 

12.2Certification of Officer Pursuant to Section 1350, as adopted pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002

 

13.1Certification Pursuant to 18 U.S.C. 1350 as adopted pursuant to Section 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002

 

13.2Certification Pursuant to 18 U.S.C. 1350 as adopted pursuant to Section 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002

 

(1)Filed as an Exhibit on Form 20-F filed with the Commission on August 13, 2004.

 

63

 

 

 

 

 
 

SIGNATURE

 

The registrant hereby certifies that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form 20-F and that it has duly caused and authorized the undersigned to sign this Annual Report on its behalf.

 

 

    
   BONSO ELECTRONICS INTERNATIONAL INC.
    
    
    
Dated August 15, 2013   /s/ Anthony So
   Anthony So, Chairman of the Board, Chief Executive Officer, Treasurer and Director
    
    
Dated August 15, 2013   /s/ Albert So
   Albert So, Chief Financial Officer and Secretary

 

 

 64

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

 

Bonso Electronics International Inc.

(Incorporated in the British Virgin Islands)

 

Consolidated Financial Statements

 

March 31, 2013

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
 

Bonso Electronics International Inc.

Index to Consolidated Financial Statements

 

 

 

Contents Pages
   
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm F-1
   
Consolidated Balance Sheets as of March 31, 2012 and 2013 F-2
   
Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss for the years ended March 31, 2011, 2012 and 2013 F-3
   
Consolidated Statements of Changes in Stockholders’ Equity for the years ended March 31, 2011, 2012 and 2013 F-4
   
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the years ended March 2011, 2012 and 2013 F-5
   
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements F-6 to F-35
   

 

 

 .

 
 

 

 

 

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

 

 

 

 

To the Board of Directors and Stockholders of

Bonso Electronics International Inc.

 

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Bonso Electronics International Inc. and subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of March 31, 2012 and 2013 and the related consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss, changes in stockholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended March 31, 2013. These consolidated financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these consolidated financial statements based on our audits.

 

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement. The Company is not required to have, nor were we engaged to perform, an audit of its internal control over financial reporting. Our audits included consideration of internal control over financial reporting as a basis for designing audit procedures that are appropriate in the circumstances, but not for the purposes of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion. An audit includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. An audit also includes assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

 

In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the consolidated financial position of the Company as of March 31, 2012 and 2013, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended March 31, 2013, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

 

 

/s/ Moore Stephens

Moore Stephens

Certified Public Accountants

Hong Kong

August 15, 2013

 

-F-1-

 

 

 

 

 
 

Bonso Electronics International Inc.

Consolidated Balance Sheets

(Expressed in United States Dollars)

      March 31
   Note  2012  2013
      $ in thousands  $ in thousands
Assets               
                
Current assets               
Cash and cash equivalents        3,014    2,154 
Trade receivables, net   2    2,081    2,759 
Other receivables, deposits and prepayments        1,104    1,425 
Inventories   3    4,105    5,460 
Income tax recoverable        1,903    2,436 
  Current assets of discontinued operations   11    —      —   
Total current assets        12,207    14,234 
                
Deferred income tax assets   8    —      —   
                
                
                
Other intangible assets, net   6    3,990    4,590 
                
Property, plant and equipment               
Buildings        9,948    13,704 
Construction-in-progress        5,264    2,616 
Plant and machinery        21,377    21,565 
Furniture, fixtures and equipment        3,260    3,521 
Motor vehicles        449    444 
         40,298    41,850 
  Less: accumulated depreciation and impairment        (33,327)   (33,551)
Property, plant and equipment, net   4    6,971    8,299 
  Non-current assets of discontinued operations   11    —      —   
  Total assets        23,168   27,123 
Liabilities and stockholders’ equity               
                
Current liabilities               
                
Bank overdrafts - secured   7    —      180 
Notes payable   7    1,870    2,276 
Accounts payable        5,032    7,793 
Accrued charges and deposits        2,347    2,329 
Income tax liabilities   8    44    7 
Short-term bank loans   7    —      1,357 
  Current liabilities of discontinued operations   11   —      —   
Total current liabilities        9,293    13,942 
                
Income tax liabilities   8    2,595    2,595 
                
Deferred income tax liabilities   8    2    —   
                
Commitments   10           
                
Stockholders’ equity               
  Common stock par value $0.003 per share               
- authorized shares - 23,333,334               
- issued shares: 2012 and 2013 - 5,577,639,
- outstanding shares: 2012 and 2013 - 5,246,903
        17    17 
  Additional paid-in capital        21,765    21,765 
  Treasury stock at cost: 2012 and 2013 - 330,736 shares   12    (1,462)   (1,462)
  Accumulated deficit        (11,834)   (12,588)
  Accumulated other comprehensive income        2,792    2,854 
         11,278    10,586 
                
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity        23,168   27,123 

 

See notes to these consolidated financial statements

 

 

-F-2-

 

 

 
 

Bonso Electronics International Inc.

Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss

(Expressed in United States Dollars)

 

      Year ended March 31,
   Note  2011  2012  2013
      $ in thousands  $ in thousands  $ in thousands
             
             
Net sales   18    28,387    26,682    30,386 
Cost of sales        (24,760)   (22,782)   (25,263)
                  
Gross profit        3,627    3,900    5,123 
                     
Selling expenses        (249)   (267)   (268)
Salaries and related costs        (2,716)   (2,526)   (2,627)
Research and development expenses        (334)   (312)   (396)
Administration and general expenses        (1,959)   (2,492)   (2,402)
Gain from liquidation of subsidiary        —      1,448    —   
                  
Loss from operations   18    (1,631)   (249)   (570)
Interest income        6    7    7 
Interest expense        (56)   (87)   (68)
Foreign exchange loss        (130)   (703)   (261)
Gain on disposal of property        155    —      —   
Gain on disposal of intangible assets        41    —      —   
Other income        184    132    167 
                  
Loss before income taxes        (1,431)   (900)   (725)
Income tax expense   8    —      (2)   (29)
                  
Loss from continuing operations        (1,431)   (902)   (754)
Loss from discontinued operations, net of tax   11    (129)   —      —   
                  
Net loss        (1,560)   (902)   (754)
                     
Other comprehensive income, net of tax:                    
Foreign currency translation adjustments, net of tax        199    353    62 
                  
Comprehensive loss       (1,361)  (549)  (692)
                  
                     
Loss per share                    
                     
Weighted average number of shares outstanding   17   5,246,903   5,246,903   5,246,903 
                  
                     
- basic and diluted                    
  -Continuing operations        (0.27)   (0.17)   (0.14)
  -Discontinued operations        (0.02)   —      —   
                  
        (0.29)  (0.17)  (0.14)
                  
                     

See notes to these consolidated financial statements

 

-F-3-

 

 

 
 

 

 

Bonso Electronics International Inc.

Consolidated Statements of Changes in Stockholders’ Equity

(Expressed in United States Dollars)


 

    Common stock       Treasury stock           Accumulated        
                                        other        
                                      comprehensive        
                Additional     Treasury               income-foreign     Total  
    Shares     Amount     paid-in     Shares     Amount     Accumulated     currency     stockholders’  
    Issued     outstanding     capital     held     outstanding     deficit     adjustments     equity  
          $ in thousands     $ in thousands           $ in thousands     $ in thousands     $ in thousands     $ in thousands  
                                                 
                                                                 
Balance, March 31, 2010     5,577,639       17       21,765       330,736       (1,462 )     (9,372 )     2,240       13,188  
Net loss     -       -       -       -       -       (1,560 )     -       (1,560 )
Foreign exchange translation adjustment     -       -       -     -       -       -       199       199  
                                                                 
Balance, March 31, 2011     5,577,639       17       21,765       330,736       (1,462 )     (10,932 )     2,439       11,827  
Net loss     -       -       -       -       -       (902 )     -       (902 )
Foreign exchange translation adjustment     -       -       -       -       -       -       353       353  
                                                                 
Balance, March 31, 2012     5,577,639       17       21,765       330,736       (1,462 )     (11,834 )     2,792       11,278  
Net loss     -       -       -       -       -       (754 )     -       (754 )
Foreign exchange translation adjustment     -       -       -       -       -       -       62       62  
                                                                 
Balance, March 31, 2013     5,577,639       17       21,765       330,736       (1,462 )     (12,588 )     2,854       10,586  
                                                                 
                                                                 


See notes to these consolidated financial statements

 

-F-4-

 

 
 

 

Bonso Electronics International Inc.

Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

(Expressed in United States Dollars)

   Year Ended March 31,
   2011  2012  2013
   $ in thousands  $ in thousands  $ in thousands
          
Cash flows from operating activities               
Net loss   (1,560)   (902)   (754)
Loss from discontinued operations   129    —      —   
                
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash provided by operating activities:               
Depreciation   99    54    120 
Amortization   208    176    226 
Gain on disposal of property, plant and equipment    (155)   (15)   (2)
Gain on disposal of intangible assets   (41)   —      —   
Write off of accounts payable   (32)   —      —   
Inventory allowance   98    283    —  
Reversal of bad debts   (45)   —      —   
Gain from liquidation of subsidiary   —      (1,448)   —   
                
Changes in assets and liabilities:               
Trade receivables   58    (770)   (678)
Other receivables, deposits and prepayments   651    (396)   (321)
Inventories   44    460    (1,355)
Income tax recoverable   (375)   41    (533)
Notes payable   (762)   537    406 
Accounts payable   127    2,303    2,761 
Accrued charges and deposits   265    148    (18)
Income tax liabilities   17    20    (37)
Deferred income tax liabilities   —      (17)   (2 )
             
Operating activities of continuing operations   (1,274)   474    (187)
Operating activities of discontinued operations   84    —      —   
             
Net cash (used in) / generated from operating activities   (1,190)   474    (187)
Cash flows from investing activities               
  Proceeds from disposal of intangible assets   513    —      —   
  Proceeds from disposal of property, plant and equipment   252    25    2 
  Acquisition of property, plant and equipment   (1,397)   (3,415)   (1,412)
  Acquisition of intangible assets   (682)   —      (802)
             
Investing activities of continuing operations   (1,314)   (3,390)   (2,212)
Investing activities of discontinued operations   —      —      —   
             
Net cash used in investing activities   (1,314)   (3,390)   (2,212)
Cash flows from financing activities               
  Capital lease payments   (52)   —      —   
  (Repayment of) / net advance from banking facilities   (68)   —      1,537 
             
Financing activities of continuing operations   (120)   —      1,537 
Financing activities of discontinued operations   —      —      —   
             
Net cash (used in) / generated from financing activities   (120)   —      1,537 
                
Net decrease in cash and cash equivalents   (2,624)   (2,916)   (862)
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents held in foreign currencies   (78)   518    2 
Cash and cash equivalents, beginning of year   8,114    5,412    3,014 
             
Cash and cash equivalents, end of year   5,412    3,014    2,154 
                
Less: cash and cash equivalents at the end of the year – discontinued operations   (5)   —      —   
             
Cash and cash equivalents at the end of the year – continuing operations  5,407   3,014   2,154 
             
Supplemental disclosure of cash flow information               
Cash paid during the year for:               
Interest paid   56    87    68 
Income tax paid, net of refund   —      —      90 
                
Non-cash investing and financing activities:               
Interest Income   6    7    7 
                

See notes to these consolidated financial statements

 

-F-5-

 

 

 

 
 


Bonso Electronics International Inc.

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

(Expressed in United States Dollars)

 

1Description of business and significant accounting policies

 

Bonso Electronics International Inc. (“the Company”) and its subsidiaries (collectively, the “Group”) are engaged in the designing, manufacturing and selling of a comprehensive line of electronic scales and weighing instruments, telecommunications products, pet electronics products and other products.
   
The consolidated financial statements have been prepared in United States dollars and in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America. The preparation of consolidated financial statements requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the dates of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. Significant estimates made by management include allowances made against inventories and trade receivables, and the valuation of long-lived assets. Actual results could differ from those estimates.

 

The Group sustained operating losses in fiscal years ended March 31, 2011, 2012 and 2013, including a net loss of $754,000 in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2013.

 

Notwithstanding the operating losses sustained in the last three fiscal years, the accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared on a going concern basis. Management believes the Group will have sufficient working capital to meet its financing requirements based upon their experience and their assessment of the Group’s projected performance, credit facilities and banking relationships.

 

Pursuant to an agreement signed on March 30, 2009, Korona Haushaltswaren GmbH & Co. KG (“Korona”), an indirect subsidiary of the Company, agreed to sell all of its major assets, comprising trade receivables, inventories, intellectual property rights and toolings, to a third party purchaser at a consideration of approximately EUR 1,990,000 (or USD 2,606,000). The Group decided to liquidate Korona after the completion of the sale. As a result, the figures of Korona are included as discontinued operations (see note 11). The liquidation of Korona was completed in February 2012.

 

The significant accounting policies are as follows:

 

(a)Principles of consolidation

 

The consolidated financial statements include the financial statements of the Company and its subsidiaries after elimination of inter-company accounts and transactions.

 

Acquisitions of companies have been consolidated from the date on which control of the net assets and operations was transferred to the Group.

 

Acquisitions of companies are accounted for using the purchase method of accounting.

 

(b)Cash and cash equivalents

 

Cash and cash equivalents are short-term, highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less. Cash equivalents are stated at cost, which approximates fair value because of the short-term maturity of these instruments.

 

-F-6-

 

 

 
 

Bonso Electronics International Inc.

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

(Expressed in United States Dollars)

 

1Description of business and significant accounting policies (Continued)

 

(c)Inventories

 

Inventories are stated at the lower of cost, as determined on a first-in, first-out basis, or market. Costs of inventories include purchase and related costs incurred in bringing the products to their present location and condition. Market value is determined by reference to the selling price after the balance sheet date or to management estimates based on prevailing market conditions. The Company routinely reviews its inventories for their salability and for indications of obsolescence to determine if inventory carrying values are higher than market value. Some of the significant factors the Company considers in estimating the market value of its inventories include the likelihood of changes in market and customer demand and expected changes in market prices for its inventories. As of March 31, 2012, inventories were stated at market value, which is lower than their costs by approximately $283,000.

 

(d)Trade receivables

 

Trade receivables are recorded at the invoiced amount, net of allowances for doubtful accounts and sales returns. The allowance for doubtful accounts is the Group’s best estimate of the amount of probable credit losses in the Group’s existing trade receivables. Bad debt expense is included in the administrative and general expenses.

 

The Group recognizes an allowance for doubtful receivables to ensure accounts and other receivables are not overstated due to uncollectibility. Allowance for doubtful receivables is maintained for all customers based on a variety of factors, including the length of time the receivables are past due, significant one-time events and historical experience. An additional allowance for individual accounts is recorded when the Group becomes aware of customers’ or other debtors’ inability to meet their financial obligations, such as bankruptcy filings or deterioration in the customer’s or other debtor’s operating results or financial position. If circumstances related to customers or debtors change, estimates of the recoverability of receivables will be further adjusted.

 

(e)Deferred income taxes

 

Amounts in the consolidated financial statements related to income taxes are calculated using the principles of ASC 740 “Income Taxes”. ASC 740 requires recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been included in the financial statements or tax returns. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the temporary differences between the financial reporting bases and tax bases of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. Future tax benefits, such as net operating loss carry forwards, are recognized as deferred tax assets. Recognized deferred tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance if, based on the weight of available evidence, it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized.

 

 

-F-7-

 

 

 
 

Bonso Electronics International Inc.

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

(Expressed in United States Dollars)

 

1Description of business and significant accounting policies (Continued)

 

(f)Lease prepayments

 

Lease prepayments represent the cost of land use rights in the People’s Republic of China (“PRC”). Land use rights held by the Company are included in intangible assets, reclassified from property, plant and equipment. The granted useful life of the land use rights is 50 years. They are stated at cost and amortized on a straight-line basis over the period of rights of 30 years, in accordance with the business licenses with 30 years of useful life. 

   
(g)Other tangible assets

 

Other intangible assets represented taxi licenses which were stated at cost and are amortized on a straight-line basis over the related granted useful life of 50 years, the shorter of the remaining term of the license period or the expected useful life to the Group. Taxi licenses entitle the Group to operate five taxis for 50 years in Shenzhen, PRC. The purpose of holding these licenses is to generate additional income. All five taxi licenses were disposed of in July 2010, for a total consideration of $513,000, resulting in a gain on disposal of $41,000.
   
(h)Property, plant and equipment

 

(i)Property, plant and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation. Leasehold land and buildings are depreciated on a straight-line basis over 15 to 50 years, representing the shorter of the remaining term of the lease or the expected useful life to the Group.

 

(ii)Other categories of property, plant and equipment are carried at cost and depreciated using the straight-line method over their expected useful lives to the Group. The principal annual rates used for this purpose are:

 

Plant and machinery -10%
Furniture, fixtures and equipment -20%
Motor vehicles -20%

 

(iii)The cost of major improvements and betterments is capitalized, whereas the cost of maintenance and repairs is expensed in the year when they are incurred.

 

(iv)Any gain or loss on disposal is included in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss.

 

 

-F-8-

 

 

 
 

 

Bonso Electronics International Inc.

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

(Expressed in United States Dollars)

 

1Description of business and significant accounting policies (Continued)
   
(i)Impairment of long-lived assets including other intangible assets

 

Long-lived assets held and used by the Group and intangible assets are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of such assets may not be recoverable. The Group evaluates recoverability of assets to be held and used by comparing the carrying amount of an asset to future net undiscounted cash flows to be generated by the asset. If such assets are considered to be impaired, the impairment loss is measured by the amount by which the carrying amount of the assets exceeds the fair value of the assets calculated using a discounted future cash flows analysis. Provisions for impairment made on other long-lived assets are disclosed in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss. The Group is going to transfer all its production process to the factory in Xinxing, PRC. As a result, the Group performed an assessment of the value of the land and buildings of the factory in Shenzhen, PRC, and no provision for impairment was made by the Group (2012: $nil; 2011: $nil) based on the assessment.

 

(j)Capital and operating leases

 

Costs in respect of operating leases are charged against income on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Leasing agreements, which transfer to the Group substantially all the benefits and risks of ownership of an asset, are treated as if the asset had been purchased outright. The assets are included in property, plant and equipment (“capital leases”) and the capital element of the lease commitments is shown as an obligation under capital leases. The lease rentals are treated as consisting of capital and interest elements. The capital element is applied to reduce the outstanding obligation and the interest element is charged against profit so as to give a consistent periodic rate of charge on the remaining balance outstanding at the end of each accounting period. Assets held under capital leases are depreciated over the useful lives of the equivalent owned assets. 

 

(k)Revenue recognition

  

No revenue is recognized unless there is persuasive evidence of an arrangement, the price to the buyer is fixed or determinable, delivery has occurred and collectibility of the sales price is reasonably assured. Revenue is recognized when title and risk of loss are transferred to customers, which is generally the point at which products are leaving the ports of Hong Kong or Shenzhen as designated by our customers.  Shipping costs billed to the Company’s customers are included within revenue. Associated costs are classified as part of cost of sales.

 

The Company provides to certain customers an additional one to two percent of the quantity of certain products ordered in lieu of a warranty, which are recognized as cost of sales when these products are shipped to customers from the Company’s facilities. In addition, certain products sold by the Company are subject to a limited product quality warranty. The Company accrues for estimated incurred but unidentified quality issues based upon historical activity and known quality issues if a loss is probable and can be reasonably estimated. The standard limited warranty period is one to three years. Quality returns, refunds, rebates and discounts are recorded net of sales at the time of sale and estimated based on past history. All sales are based upon firm orders with fixed terms and conditions, which generally cannot be modified. Historically, the Company has not experienced material differences between its estimated amounts of quality returns, refunds, rebates and discounts and the actual results. In all contracts, there is no price protection or similar privilege in relation to the sale of goods.

 

-F-9-

 

 

 
 

 

Bonso Electronics International Inc.

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

(Expressed in United States Dollars)

 

1Description of business and significant accounting policies (Continued)

 

(l)Research and development costs

 

Research and development costs include salaries, utilities and contractor fees that are directly attributable to the conduct of research and development progress primarily related to the development of new design of products. Research and development costs are expensed in the financial period in which they are incurred.

   
(m)Advertising

 

Advertising costs are expensed as incurred and are included within selling expenses. Advertising costs were approximately $2,000, $5,000 and $26,000 for the fiscal years ended March 31, 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively.

 

(n)Income taxes

 

The Company complies with ASC 740 for uncertainty in income taxes recognized in financial statements. ASC 740 prescribes a recognition threshold and measurement attributes for the financial statement recognition and measurement of a tax position taken or expected to be taken in a tax return. ASC 740 also provides guidance on derecognition, classification, interest and penalties, accounting in interim periods, disclosure and transition. The Company’s accounting policy is to treat interest and penalties as components of income taxes.

 

(o)Foreign currency translations

 

(i)The Group’s functional currency is the United States dollar. The financial statements of foreign subsidiaries where the United States dollar is the functional currency and which have transactions denominated in non-United States dollar currencies are translated into United States dollars at the exchange rates existing on that date. The translation of local currencies into United States dollars creates transaction adjustments which are included in net loss. Exchange differences are recorded in the statements of operations and comprehensive loss.
   

(ii)The financial statements of foreign subsidiaries, where non-United States dollar currencies are the functional currencies, are translated into United States dollars using exchange rates in effect at period end for assets and liabilities and average exchange rates during each reporting period for statement of operations. Adjustments resulting from translation of these financial statements are reflected as a separate component of shareholders’ equity in accumulated other comprehensive income.

  

(p)Stock options and warrants

 

Stock options have been granted to employees, directors and non-employee directors. Upon exercise of the options, a holder can acquire shares of common stock of the Company at an exercise price determined by the board of directors. The options are exercisable based on the vesting terms stipulated in the option agreements or plan.

 

The Company follows the guidance of ASC 718, Accounting for Stock Options and Other Stock-Based Compensation. ASC 718 requires companies to record compensation expense for share-based awards issued to employees and directors in exchange for services provided. The amount of the compensation expense is based on the estimated fair value of the awards on their grant dates and is recognized over the required service periods. Our share-based awards include stock options and restricted stock awards. The estimated fair value underlying our calculation of compensation expense for stock options is based on the Black-Scholes pricing model. Forfeitures of share-based awards are estimated at the time of grant and revised, if necessary, in subsequent periods if our estimates change based on the actual amount of forfeitures we have experienced.

 

-F-10-

 

 

 
 

Bonso Electronics International Inc.

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

(Expressed in United States Dollars)

 

1Description of business and significant accounting policies (Continued)

  

(q)Recent accounting pronouncements

 

In July 2012, the FASB issued Accounting Standard Update No. 2012-02, “Intangibles—Goodwill and Other (Topic 350) Testing Indefinite-Lived Intangible Assets for Impairment” (“ASU 2012-02”), which affords an entity the option to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether the existence of events and circumstances indicates that it is more likely than not that an indefinite-lived intangible asset is impaired. If, after assessing the totality of events and circumstances, an entity concludes that it is not more likely than not that the indefinite-lived intangible asset is impaired, then the entity is not required to take further action. However, if an entity concludes otherwise, then it is required to determine the fair value of the indefinite-lived intangible asset and perform the quantitative impairment test by comparing the fair value with the carrying amount. The amendments are effective for annual and interim impairment tests performed for fiscal years beginning after September 15, 2012. Early adoption is permitted, including for annual and interim impairment tests performed as of a date before July 27, 2012, if a public entity’s financial statements for the most recent annual or interim period have not yet been issued. The Company does not believe that adoption of ASU 2012-02 will have a significant impact on its financial position, results of operations or cash flows.


We believe there is no additional new accounting guidance adopted, but not yet effective that is relevant to the readers of our financial statements. However, there are numerous new proposals under development which, if and when enacted, may have a significant impact on our financial reporting.

 

(r)Fair value of financial instruments

 

The Group complies with ASC 820, “Fair Value Measurements” (“ASC 820”). ASC 820 clarifies the definition of fair value, prescribes methods for measuring fair value and establishes a fair value hierarchy to classify the inputs used in measuring fair value as follows:

 

Level 1-Inputs are unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities available at the measurement date.

 

Level 2-Inputs are unadjusted quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets, quoted prices for identical or similar assets and liabilities in markets that are not active, inputs other than quoted prices that are observable and inputs derived from or corroborated by observable market data.

 

Level 3-Inputs are unobservable inputs which reflect the reporting entity's own assumptions on what assumptions the market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability based on the best available information.


-F-11-


 

 

 
 

Bonso Electronics International Inc.

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

(Expressed in United States Dollars)

 

2Allowance for doubtful accounts

 

Changes in the allowance for doubtful accounts as of March 31, 2011, 2012 and 2013 comprise:

 

    2011    2012    2013
    $ in thousands    $ in thousands    $ in thousands
               
Balance, April 1   1,460    1,415    1,415
Write back for the year   (45)   —      —  
            
Balance, March 31   1,415    1,415    1,415

 

Most of the Company’s trade receivables are generally unsecured, except for two customers with receivables covered by credit insurance under a factoring agreement.

 

As of March 31, 2011, the Company had collected $45,000 from Gram Precision Scales Inc. (“Gram”). The Company believed that the recoverability of the remaining $1,415,000 was doubtful, and continued to include this amount in allowance for doubtful accounts as of March 31, 2012 and March 31, 2013.

 

3Inventories

 

The components of inventories as of March 31, 2012 and 2013 are as follows:
   
    2012    2013 
    $ in thousands    $ in thousands 
           
Raw materials   1,477    1,904 
Work in progress   1,512    2,487 
Finished goods   1,116    1,069 
    ───────    ─────── 
    4,105    5,460 
    ═══════    ═══════ 

 

During the year ended March 31, 2013, the Company has disposed of obsolete inventories of approximately $1,303,000 together with an allowance for inventories of approximately $1,303,000, which resulted in no extra charge to the consolidated statements of operations under cost of sales. During the year ended March 31, 2012, based upon material composition and expected usage, the Company established an allowance for obsolete inventories of approximately $283,000, which was charged to the consolidated statements of operations under cost of sales.