10-K 1 form_10k.htm FORM 10-K form_10k.htm



UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
_________________________
 
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
 
x
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the fiscal year ended November 28, 2008
 
 
OR
 
o
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 
For the transition period from                        to                      
 
Commission file number: 0-15175
_________________________
 
ADOBE SYSTEMS INCORPORATED
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
Delaware
 
77-0019522
(State or other jurisdiction of
 
(I.R.S. Employer
incorporation or organization)
 
Identification No.)

 
345 Park Avenue, San Jose, California  95110-2704
(Address of principal executive offices and zip code)
 
(408) 536-6000
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
Title of Each Class
 
Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Common Stock, $0.0001 par value per share
 
The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC
(NASDAQ Global Select Market)

 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
_________________________
 
Indicate by checkmark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes x No o
 
Indicate by checkmark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes o No x
 
Indicate by checkmark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15 (d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports) and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x No o
 
Indicate by checkmark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. x
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer or a smaller reporting company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer, “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one): Large accelerated filer x Accelerated filer o Non-accelerated filer o (Do not check if a smaller reporting company) Smaller reporting company o
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes o No x
 
The aggregate market value of the registrant’s common stock, $0.0001 par value per share, held by non-affiliates of the registrant on May 30, 2008, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, was $20,399,247,623 (based on the closing sales price of the registrant’s common stock on that date). Shares of the registrant’s common stock held by each officer and director and each person who owns 5% or more of the outstanding common stock of the registrant have been excluded in that such persons may be deemed to be affiliates. This determination of affiliate status is not necessarily a conclusive determination for other purposes. As of January 16, 2009, 524,035,626 shares of the registrant’s common stock, $0.0001 par value per share, were issued and outstanding.
 
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
 
Portions of the Proxy Statement for the 2009 Annual Meeting of Stockholders (the “Proxy Statement”), to be filed within 120 days of the end of the fiscal year ended November 28, 2008, are incorporated by reference in Part III hereof. Except with respect to information specifically incorporated by reference in this Form 10-K, the Proxy Statement is not deemed to be filed as part hereof.
 
 


 
 

 

 
       
Page
PART I
       
         
Item 1.
   
3
Item 1A.
   
32
Item 1B.
   
41
Item 2.
   
41
Item 3.
   
42
Item 4.
   
43
         
PART II
       
         
Item 5.
   
43
Item 6.
   
46
Item 7.
   
47
Item 7A.
   
64
Item 8.
   
67
Item 9.
   
114
Item 9A.
   
114
Item 9B.
   
115
         
PART III
       
         
Item 10.
   
115
Item 11.
   
115
Item 12.
   
115
Item 13.
   
115
Item 14.
   
115
         
PART IV
       
         
Item 15.
   
116
     
 
117
 
119
 
120

 


Forward-Looking Statements
 
In addition to historical information, this Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements, including statements regarding product plans, future growth and market opportunities which involve risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from these forward-looking statements. Factors that might cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those discussed under Item 1A, Risk Factors. You should carefully review the risks described herein and in other documents we file from time to time with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”), including the Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q to be filed in 2009. When used in this report, the words “expects,” “could,” “would,” “may,” “anticipates,” “intends,” “plans,” “believes,” “seeks,” “targets,” “estimates,” “looks for,” “looks to” and similar expressions, as well as statements regarding our focus for the future, are generally intended to identify forward-looking statements. You should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements which speak only as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. We undertake no obligation to publicly release any revisions to the forward-looking statements or reflect events or circumstances after the date of this document.
 
PART I
 
 
Founded in 1982, Adobe Systems Incorporated is one of the largest and most diversified software companies in the world. We offer a line of creative, business and mobile software and services used by creative professionals, knowledge workers, consumers, original equipment manufacturer (“OEM”) partners, developers and enterprises for creating, managing, delivering and engaging with compelling content and experiences across multiple operating systems, devices and media. We distribute our products through a network of distributors, value-added resellers (“VARs”), systems integrators, independent software vendors (“ISVs”) and OEMs, direct to end users and through our own Web site at www.adobe.com. We also license our technology to hardware manufacturers, software developers and service providers, and we offer integrated software solutions to businesses of all sizes. We have operations in the Americas, Europe, Middle East and Africa (“EMEA”) and Asia. Our software runs on personal computers with Microsoft Windows, Apple Mac OS, Linux, UNIX and various non-PC platforms, depending on the product.
 
Adobe was originally incorporated in California in October 1983 and was reincorporated in Delaware in May 1997. We maintain executive offices and principal facilities at 345 Park Avenue, San Jose, California 95110-2704. Our telephone number is 408-536-6000. We maintain a Web site at www.adobe.com. Investors can obtain copies of our SEC filings from this site free of charge, as well as from the SEC Web site at www.sec.gov.
 
BUSINESS OVERVIEW
 
For more than 25 years, Adobe software and technologies have helped redefine how people engage with ideas and information—anytime, anywhere and through any medium. The impact of our solutions is evident across many industries and is felt by anyone who creates, views and interacts with information.
 
Today, through the delivery of powerful design, imaging and publishing software for print, Web, mobile and dynamic media production, and by delivering a technology platform, we help people express, share, manage and collaborate on their ideas in imaginative and meaningful new ways.
 
Our strategy is to address the needs of a variety of customers which include creative professionals—graphic designers, Web designers, videographers, photographers and professional publishers; knowledge workers—teams of workers who share and collaborate on high-value information; enterprise users—IT managers, line of business managers and executives; high-end consumers—digital imaging and digital video hobbyists and enthusiasts; application developers and OEM partners—mobile device manufacturers, printer manufacturers, Internet service providers and developers.
 
We execute against this strategy by delivering products that support industry standards and can be deployed across multiple computing environments. We also leverage the broad reach of our ubiquitous client technologies including our universal Adobe Reader, and our Adobe Flash Platform which enables the development of products and solutions that dramatically improves how businesses and governments engage with their customers, employees and constituents.  Our Adobe Flash Platform includes our broadly deployed Adobe Flash Player and our Adobe AIR software which enables developers to build and deploy rich media and Internet applications to client devices.  Together, these client technologies


allow users of our products and technologies to ensure reliable, secure and rich application experiences across devices, browsers and operating systems.
 
PRODUCTS AND SERVICES OVERVIEW
 
In fiscal 2008, we categorized our products and services into the following businesses: Creative Solutions, Business Productivity Solutions, Mobile and Device Solutions and Other.  We further broke our Business Productivity Solutions business into two reported segments:  Knowledge Worker and Enterprise.  We also broke our Other business into two reported segments:  i) Platform and ii) Print and Publishing.
 
Effective in the first quarter of fiscal 2009, we modified our segment reporting.  Our Creative Solutions segment and our Business Productivity Solutions business that is reported in two segments (Knowledge Worker and Enterprise), continue to be reported as they were in fiscal 2008.  Our Mobile and Device Solutions business, which was moved into our Platform business unit, will be reported as part of the Platform segment.
 
Accordingly, our five fiscal 2009 business segments are as follows:  Creative Solutions, Knowledge Worker, Enterprise, Platform, and Print and Publishing. This overview, organized by these segments, combines an explanation of our various market opportunities with a summary of our fiscal 2008 results and a discussion of our strategies to address our market opportunities in fiscal 2009 and beyond.
 
Creative Solutions Segment
 
Creative Solutions Market Opportunity
 
Our Creative Solutions segment focuses primarily on the needs of the creative professional customer. Creative professionals include graphic designers, production artists, Web designers and developers, user interface designers, writers, videographers, photographers and prepress professionals.  They use and rely on Adobe’s solutions for professional publishing, Web design and development, professional photography, video production, animation and motion graphic production and printing visually rich information.
 
Our software tools are used by creative professionals to create much of the printed and on-line information people see and read every day, including newspapers, magazines, Web sites, catalogs, advertisements, brochures, product documentation, books, memos, reports and banners. Our tools are also used to create and enhance visually rich content, including video, animation and mobile content, that is created by multimedia, film, television, audio and video producers who work in advertising, Web design, music, entertainment, corporate and marketing communications, product design, user interface design, sales training, printing, architecture and fine arts. Knowledge workers, hobbyists and high end consumers are also attracted to our creative products to create and deliver content that is of creative professional quality.
 
Our offerings in the Creative Solutions market extend to real-time rich media solutions which give business users the control to upload, manage, enhance and publish dynamic rich content with minimal IT support.  Our offerings also extend to the delivery of rich media through streaming media and a flexible development environment for creating and delivering innovative, interactive media applications.  Our media products and services enable broadcasters, events organizers and marketers to reach the broadest possible audience via our rich Flash Platform.
 
As technology continues to improve, the market dynamics for these creative professionals continue to evolve. Due to the constantly changing ways in which people choose to receive information, creative professionals look to their software tools as a means to make their information impactful and to repurpose content across a variety of media and applications. They desire greater efficiency from the software they use to streamline their publishing and content creation workflows and to effectively manage their assets. They also look for new and innovative ways to deliver their content and information to hand-held devices such as mobile handsets and consumer electronic devices.
 
Creative professional customers license upgrades and new units of our Creative Solutions products due to the high degree of innovative new features and significant productivity gained through their use. They also frequently purchase license upgrades and new units of these products when they buy new computers, or migrate to new or updated operating systems.
 


In addition, knowledge workers in enterprises, educators in schools and universities, and hobbyists at home license our Creative Solutions products. Knowledge workers desire professional-quality products to accomplish tasks such as creating visually-rich sales presentations, engineering or architectural proposals, real estate flyers and school year books. Educators utilize our solutions to educate future creative professionals, as well as create their course content and online eLearning-based lessons.  Hobbyists use our tools to create distinctive online communications and photo albums, community newsletters, Web blogs, animations, videos and Web sites for family, friends or community organizations.
 
With the increasing use of the Web as a means for marketing and advertising, we believe a key driver of our Creative Solutions business will also be the growing amount of Web site and mobile device content created by our customers to deliver impactful and compelling Web-based experiences for their constituents.
 
Another driver of our Creative Solutions business is the growth in the use of digital devices such as digital cameras, digital video cameras, multimedia-enabled computers, DVD players, scanners, Web-capable image and video-enabled handheld devices, cellular phones, gaming consoles and other non-PC Internet-connected devices. In addition, faster Internet broadband speeds make the Web a viable platform for the delivery of rich media, especially digital video. In turn, the growth in the use of high definition (“HD”) televisions and video is driving the need for HD-enhanced video tools to produce HD content for movies and commercial television, as well as the need to deliver or repurpose this content to be viewed on the Web.
 
As the use of digital photography and digital videography grows, we believe creative professionals and professional photographers throughout the world will continue to require software solutions to edit, enhance and manage their digital photographs and digital videos.  Increasingly, we expect these users to desire software solutions which leverage the Web as a platform to deliver the capabilities of some or all of the features they desire in desktop software.  In addition, we believe creative professionals and Web developers are increasing their use of digital video streams over the Web to create more compelling Web sites. We believe professional videographers are upgrading their systems to support HD video content creation, enhancement and delivery. We also believe hobbyists will use, with more frequency, digital imaging and digital video software and online hosted software services as they purchase more affordable digital cameras and digital video cameras.
 
Creative Solutions Business Summary
 
In fiscal 2008, we maintained our focus on driving adoption of our creative products which achieved record revenue in fiscal 2008 and collectively represented a majority of our overall revenue in the year.  During the first three quarters of the year, a key focus in our Creative Solutions business was on marketing and licensing Adobe Creative Suite version 3 (“CS3”) family of products.  Our CS3 family of products, which first shipped in fiscal 2007, incorporated Adobe technologies used by creative professionals into six Creative Suite editions and thirteen individual creative products, providing offerings for the various creative disciplines our customers desire.  These disciplines include end-user markets such as interactive design for print and Web, as well as rich media and digital video creation.  Licensing of CS3 products was solid during this time period, despite uncertain global economic conditions in our end-user markets.
 
In the fourth quarter of fiscal 2008, we introduced the successor to our CS3 family of products, Adobe Creative Suite version 4 (“CS4”) family of products.  The CS4 family of products includes six Creative Suite editions, thirteen individual creative products and seven services which enhance the overall capabilities of the product family.  Innovations in our CS4 family of products include enhanced features which allow users to work more efficiently, improved product integration among the various technologies within the Creative Suite products, better integrated workflow and collaboration capabilities, and significant performance improvements.  Our CS4 family of products launch included new versions of our individual creative products such as Adobe After Effects, Adobe Contribute, Adobe Dreamweaver, Adobe Encore, Adobe Fireworks, Adobe Flash Professional, Adobe InCopy, Adobe InDesign, Adobe Illustrator, Adobe Photoshop, Adobe Photoshop Extended, Adobe Premiere Pro and Adobe Soundbooth. Services include Adobe ConnectNow from Acrobat.com, Adobe Community Help, Adobe InContext Editing (ICE), Adobe Kuler, Adobe Media Player, Resource Central and Adobe Bridge Home. In addition to licensing the Creative Suite editions noted above, customers also license these individual products.  Product reviews and general industry commentary for our new CS4 family of products was positive.  However, we believe the global financial crisis and the general macro economic environment caused end-user demand for our new CS4 family of products to be weaker than we expected in the fourth quarter.
 


During the year, with both the CS3 and CS4 family of products, we also maintained our focus on meeting the digital imaging and video software needs of professional photographers, professional videographers, business users and hobbyists.  Adobe Photoshop is an essential tool in these customers’ workflows and they rely on Adobe’s digital imaging and video editing solutions to create and enhance many of the pictures and video we see everyday in print, on television, in movies and on the Web.  Combined, Photoshop, Photoshop Extended Edition and Photoshop Lightroom achieved strong market adoption and revenue results during the year.
 
In the dynamic media market, which includes users who require new and advanced digital video and animation technologies, we continued to focus on driving adoption of our new digital video-based technologies. In addition to our new versions of our dynamic media authoring tools that launched in the fourth quarter,  we released Adobe Flash Media Server 3 (“FMS”) in early 2008 which provides improved streaming capabilities, performance improvements and enhanced digital rights management capabilities.  The launch of FMS, which is licensed either directly by our customers or licensed through our Flash Video Streaming Service via Content Delivery Network (“CDN”) partners such as Akamai and Limelight, helped to accelerate broad adoption of Flash Video (“FLV”), the video file format compatible with Adobe Flash Player as the preferred format for delivery of digital video via the Web.  Because of the broad reach and ubiquity of our Flash client technologies, the growing adoption of our authoring tools and our video delivery capabilities via our Flash Player, it is estimated by the research agency comScore that more than 80% of worldwide video watched online is now in FLV format.
 
In the professional page layout market, we continued to drive market share gains during the year with our Adobe InDesign product. In addition to success with our stand-alone desktop version, we also saw the InDesign ecosystem continue to grow in fiscal 2008—our software and systems integrator partners successfully deployed new innovative workflow solutions based on InDesign and InDesign Server within enterprise-class newspaper, magazine and book publishing systems.  Similarly, in the Web layout and Web development markets, and in the illustration markets, we achieved strong revenue results driven respectively by the delivery of new versions of our Adobe Dreamweaver and Adobe Illustrator products.
 
Our Scene7 business, which provides businesses with an easy-to-use Web-based system to upload, manage, enhance and publish dynamic rich content, achieved strong year-over-year growth based on accelerated customer adoption of our solution.  To enhance our global Scene7 capabilities, in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2008 we acquired YaWah ApS, a European dynamic imaging software provider based in Denmark.
 
During the fourth quarter of fiscal 2008, we released version 7.0 of our Adobe Photoshop Elements software which is our digital imaging application targeted for amateur photographers and digital imaging hobbyists. In the same quarter, we released version 7.0 of Adobe Premiere Elements software which is our video editing software that can be used by hobbyists to enhance and share their digital video memories on DVDs. We also released a software bundle that includes the new versions of Adobe Photoshop Elements and Adobe Premiere Elements to target hobbyists who desire both applications in one affordable package. These new hobbyist product releases helped to generate record revenue in this product category during the year and contributed year-over-year revenue growth to our overall creative business.
 
Creative Solutions Business Strategy
 
In fiscal 2009, our Creative Solutions strategy will continue to focus on driving revenue growth and increasing market share of our products through the delivery of comprehensive software solutions that meet the evolving needs of our customers. To help drive this strategy, we will continue to market the benefits of our Creative Suite family of products while our engineering teams work on future product versions with a focus on improved integration between our products, as well as enhanced functionality and more efficient collaboration and workflow capabilities.
 
We believe that, while many of our customers have made the switch to our Creative Suite editions from individual creative products, there still remains a large opportunity to migrate customers from individual products to Creative Suite editions – particularly in emerging markets and other large geographic markets outside the United States where editions of our Creative Suite penetration is lower.  We also believe that some creative customers will continue to remain as users of the individual applications – and over time, there continues to exist an opportunity of upgrading these existing individual users to newer versions of the individual applications they regularly use.
 
As we update the capabilities of our creative solutions, we will continue to market the benefits of newer versions of our Creative Suite family of products to existing users to drive upgrades. We also will market the features of these products to
 


new users of creative applications — those who aspire to be creative professionals, or those at home or at work who wish to use the professional-level capabilities of our solutions, but are not trained creative professionals.
 
We intend to continue our efforts to be the recognized market leader in the professional page layout, Web layout and illustration software markets. In page layout, we will continue to add new features to our InDesign product with a focus on cross-media publishing workflows, as well as continue to enhance its integration with other products print professionals utilize in their workflows. In Web layout, we strive to continue to redefine the Web experience by offering the most feature-rich, market-leading solutions for Web site design and development with our Dreamweaver and Flash offerings.  In illustration, we will continue to innovate and develop new capabilities which we believe will preserve our Illustrator product as a leading graphics creation solution.
 
We plan to continue to work on enhancements for our Photoshop and Photoshop Extended product offerings to meet the evolving needs of professional photographers, creative professional customers (including graphic designers, Web designers and video producers) and imaging enthusiasts to drive upgrades and new user adoption. We also plan to add new capabilities to Adobe Photoshop Lightroom, our digital photography workflow tool for professional photographers. In addition, we continue to believe many customers will license the Photoshop product capabilities via our Creative Suite editions as opposed to licensing individual creative products.
 
With our set of professional digital video and motion graphic products, we strive to provide the market-leading, end-to-end digital video, motion graphic and animation platform for our customers. To grow this business, we will continue to market the advanced features, the cross-platform and cross-device capabilities, and the workflow benefits of this platform to creative professionals and videographers in the film, broadcast, corporate and event videography market segments.  We are also enhancing our FMS solution to deliver the highest quality video streaming capability and we are working with partners to deliver integrated video systems and video delivery services. With broad adoption of Adobe Flash Player and its high-quality video playback features, we will continue to work on advancing our seamless video authoring-to-playback workflow capability for those wishing to provide a rich video experience on the Web and to mobile devices.
 
To further our initiatives in digital video and motion graphics, we intend to extend our leadership position in Web video by continuing to support and drive the improvement of industry standards, as well as innovate and implement new content creation and delivery capabilities in our dynamic media products and Adobe Flash Player.  By focusing on the end-to-end video workflow needs of our customers, we believe we are uniquely positioned to provide the best solution for the creation and delivery of high-quality Web video content.  In addition, as the number of hobbyists desiring easy-to-use video editing solutions grows, we intend to enhance the video editing and DVD creation capabilities of our Adobe Premiere Elements and Adobe Premiere Express products for the sharing of digital video memories.
 
With our Scene7 solutions, we intend to market their capabilities to help customers automate the production and availability of rich media experiences, including zoom, dynamic sizing, personalization and interactive dynamic product catalogs.   In addition, we believe Scene7 will help Adobe build a robust Internet infrastructure, allowing us to further develop Scene7’s brand-name customer list and accelerate the online availability of Adobe technologies used by millions of creative professional and hobbyist users.
 
Creative Solutions Products
 
Adobe After Effects Professional—software used to create sophisticated animation, motion graphics and visual effects found in television broadcast, film, DVD authoring and the Web; provides 2D and 3D compositing, animation and visual effects tools, as well as advanced features such as motion tracking and stabilization, advanced keying and warping tools, more than 30 additional visual effects and additional audio effects.
 
Adobe Audition—a professional audio editing environment designed for demanding audio and video professionals; provides advanced audio mixing, editing and effects processing capabilities.
 
Adobe Creative Suite Design Premium—an integrated software solution that creative professionals can use as a platform for print, Web and mobile content publishing; combines Adobe Acrobat Pro, Adobe Dreamweaver, Adobe Flash Professional, Adobe Illustrator, Adobe InDesign and Adobe Photoshop Extended technologies with file management and integration technology called Version Cue, a file management and control center called Adobe Bridge, a tool used to produce innovative and compelling content for a broad range of mobile phones and consumer electronics devices called Adobe
 


Device Central, and Adobe Acrobat Connect Web conferencing software that enables users to instantly communicate and collaborate through easy-to-use, easy-to-access online personal meeting rooms.
 
Adobe Creative Suite Design Standard—an integrated software solution that creative professionals can utilize for professional design and print production, page layout, image editing, illustration and Adobe PDF workflows; combines Adobe Acrobat Pro, Adobe Illustrator, Adobe InDesign and Adobe Photoshop technologies, Version Cue, Adobe Bridge, Adobe Device Central and Adobe Acrobat Connect Web conferencing software.
 
Adobe Creative Suite Master Collection—an integrated software solution which provides all the tools creative professionals require to create content for every design discipline in one offering; provides capabilities for professional page layout, image editing, vector illustration, print production, Web site design/development, rich interactive content creation, visual effects and motion graphics, video capture/editing/production, DVD titling and digital audio production; includes Adobe Acrobat Pro, Adobe After Effects Professional, Adobe Contribute, Adobe Dreamweaver, Adobe Encore, Adobe Fireworks, Adobe Flash Professional, Adobe Illustrator, Adobe InDesign, Adobe Photoshop Extended, Adobe Premiere Pro and Adobe Soundbooth technologies, Version Cue, Adobe Bridge, Adobe Device Central, Adobe Acrobat Connect and Adobe Dynamic Link which enables intermediate rendering for a smoother workflow between video production tools.
 
Adobe Creative Suite Production Premium—an integrated software solution that provides creative professionals a complete post-production solution consisting of video, audio and design tools that can be utilized to create and deliver content to film, video, DVD, Blu-ray Disc, the Web and mobile devices; combines Adobe After Effects Professional, Adobe Encore, Adobe Flash Professional, Adobe Illustrator, Adobe Photoshop Extended, Adobe Premiere Pro and Adobe Soundbooth technologies, Version Cue, Adobe Bridge, Adobe Device Central, Adobe Acrobat Connect Web conferencing software and Adobe Dynamic Link.
 
Adobe Creative Suite Web Premium—an integrated software solution that provides creative professionals a complete solution for creating interactive Web sites, applications, user interfaces, presentations, mobile device content and other digital experiences; allows users to prototype Web projects, design Web site assets, build Web experiences and efficiently maintain and update Web content; combines Adobe Acrobat Pro, Adobe Contribute, Adobe Dreamweaver, Adobe Fireworks, Adobe Flash Professional, Adobe Illustrator and Adobe Photoshop Extended technologies, Version Cue, Adobe Bridge, Adobe Device Central, Adobe Acrobat Connect Web conferencing software and Adobe Dynamic Link.
 
Adobe Creative Suite Web Standard—an integrated software solution that provides a basic toolkit for Web designers and developers to prototype, design, develop and maintain Web sites, Web applications, interactive Web experiences and mobile content; combines Adobe Contribute, Adobe Dreamweaver, Adobe Fireworks and Adobe Flash Professional technologies, Version Cue, Adobe Bridge, Adobe Device Central and Adobe Acrobat Connect Web conferencing software.
 
Adobe Dreamweaver—a professional software development application used by designers and developers to create a broad range of Web solutions for publishing online commerce, customer service and online educational content; includes capabilities for visually designing HTML pages, coding HTML and application logic and working with application server technologies.
 
Adobe Encore—professional DVD authoring and creation software; provides a comprehensive set of design tools and integration with other Adobe software to create a streamlined DVD creation workflow; provides ability to output projects to recordable DVD formats including Blu-ray, ensuring a wide degree of playback compatibility.
 
Adobe Fireworks—a professional graphics design tool that allows users to rapidly prototype and design Web sites and Web application interfaces while giving professional designers and developers tools for creating images that can be deployed to Web browsers, Adobe Flash Player and Adobe AIR; integrates with Adobe Dreamweaver, Adobe Flash and Adobe Photoshop, and supports Adobe AIR application development.
 
Adobe Flash Media Interactive Server—a new configuration of our streaming media capabilities to deliver secure, high-quality video on demand, video blogging and messaging, Web conferencing and live video capabilities that can be viewed via Adobe Flash Player and Adobe AIR; provides a flexible development environment for creating and delivering interactive media applications; utilized by many industries, including media and entertainment, telecommunications, advertising, government and education.
 


Adobe Flash Media Streaming Server—a new, lower-cost version of our streaming media capabilities that can be used to deliver live streaming and video-on-demand streaming; configured for lower volume streaming of content that is suitable for small- and medium- size streaming needs.
 
Adobe Flash Professional—provides an advanced development environment for creating Internet applications which integrate animations, motion graphics, sound, text and additional video functionality; solutions built with Adobe Flash Professional are deployed via the Web to browsers and to devices that run Adobe Flash Player.
 
Adobe Graphics Server—imaging server software used to create and maintain digital graphics and images on frequently updated data-driven content, such as Web sites and printed catalogs, by automating the creation and the reuse of images; integrates with content management and e-commerce systems to automate workflows and eliminates the tedious manual tasks of refining and reformatting images for specific purposes.
 
Adobe Illustrator—a vector-based illustration design tool used to create compelling graphic artwork for print publications, Web sites and video production.
 
Adobe InCopy—an editorial tool for collaboration between writers, editors and copy-fitters; Adobe InCopy is a companion to Adobe InDesign.
 
Adobe InDesign—a page-layout application for publishing professionals; based on an open, object-oriented architecture that enables Adobe and its industry part­ners to deliver powerful publishing solutions for magazine, newspaper and other publishing applications.
 
Adobe InDesign Server—technology for third-party systems integrators and developers to use for building design-driven, server-based publishing solutions; brings the innovative design and typography features of InDesign software to the server platform and enables Adobe partners to provide new levels of automation and efficiency in high-end editorial workflows, collateral creation, variable data publishing and Web-based design solutions.
 
Adobe Media Player— A cross-platform media playback application based on Adobe AIR that allows users to create a personal catalog of television shows, movies and podcasts that can be watched online and offline.
 
Adobe OnLocation—direct-to-disk recording and monitoring software which helps generate superior quality video from an SD or HD camera connected to a laptop computer; formerly called DV Rack.
 
Adobe Photoshop—provides photo design, enhancement and editing capabilities for print, the Web and multi-media; used by graphic designers, professional photographers, Web designers, professional publishers and video professionals, as well as amateur photographers and digital imaging hobbyists.
 
Adobe Photoshop Elements—offers powerful yet easy-to-use photo editing functionality plus intuitive organizing, printing and sharing capabilities for amateur photographers and hobbyists who want to create professional-quality images for print and the Web.
 
Adobe Photoshop Express—a new Web-hosted application licensed to media portals for photo editing and sharing that utilizes Adobe’s award-winning imaging technologies.
 
Adobe Photoshop Extended—provides the capabilities of Adobe Photoshop, plus additional tools for editing 3D and motion-based content and performing image analysis; targeted for:  film, video and multimedia professionals;  graphic and Web designers using 3D and motion; manufacturing professionals; medical professionals; architects and engineers; and scientific researchers.
 
Adobe Photoshop Lightroom—software designed for professional photographers, it addresses their unique photography workflow needs by providing more efficient and powerful ways to import, select, develop and showcase large volumes of digital images.
 
Adobe Premiere Elements—a powerful yet easy-to-use video-editing software for home video editing; provides tools for hobbyists to quickly edit and enhance video footage with fun effects and transitions and create custom DVDs for sharing video with friends and family.
 


Adobe Premiere Express—new Adobe video remix and video editing software licensed to media portals such as MTV.com, Photobucket and YouTube to provide consumers with embedded access to industry leading Adobe video editing and enhancement technologies.
 
Adobe Premiere Pro—professional digital video-editing software used to create broadcast-quality content for video, film, DVD, multimedia and streaming over the Web.
 
Adobe Soundbooth—an application that provides video editors, designers and others who do not specialize in audio with the tools that they need to accomplish audio-based tasks in their everyday work, such as removing noise from recordings, polishing voiceovers and customizing music to fit a video or animation production.
 
Adobe Ultra—software used to transform digital video and HD keying into a practical daily production tool for all types of video professional users.
 
Adobe Visual Communicator—software used to create newscast-style video presentations that can be delivered via e-mail, CD, DVD, PowerPoint or live over the Internet.
 
Flash Video Streaming Service—either through direct sales, or together with leading CDN providers, Adobe offers hosted services for streaming on-demand video for the Adobe Flash Player runtime across high-performance networks; built with Adobe Flash Media Server, Flash Video Streaming Service provides an effective way to deliver FLV to large audiences without the overhead of setting up and maintaining streaming server hardware and network.
 
Ovation—software which allows users to enhance Microsoft PowerPoint slides into a richer visual experience to help deliver more impactful information, presentations and messages.
 
Photoshop.com—an online hosted service that provides customers with the ability to view, enhance and share their photos in fun ways; also provides photo backup services, the ability to obtain seasonal artwork and other inspiring ideas that can be utilized to enhance the photo viewing and sharing experience.
 
Scene7 On-Demand—provides an easy-to-use, Web-based system to upload, manage, enhance and publish dynamic rich content; used by many leading online retail Web sites to automate the production and availability of rich media experiences, including zoom, dynamic sizing, personalization and interactive dynamic product catalogs.
 
Vlog It!—software which allows users to easily create dynamic video blogs containing photos, audio, video clips and narration.
 
Business Productivity Solutions
 
The focus of our Business Productivity Solutions business is to provide solutions which meet the needs of enterprises and governments to improve their productivity, help automate business processes, improve collaboration and reduce time-to-market and costs.  Within our Business Productivity Solutions, we categorize our opportunities and our results into two distinct businesses:  Knowledge Worker and Enterprise.  Both businesses leverage our client platforms that include Adobe Reader, Adobe Flash Player and Adobe AIR.
 
Knowledge Worker Market Opportunity
 
As part of our Business Productivity Solutions focus, we address the needs of the knowledge worker customer whom we define as someone focused on creating and disseminating high-value information as part of their job on a regular basis. Knowledge workers include a wide variety of job functions—such as accountants, attorneys, administrative assistants, executives, architects, educators, engineers, graphic designers, insurance underwriters, software developers and stock analysts. These jobs typically require the sharing of information, either in an information dissemination (one-way) format, or in a collaborative (multi-way) format.
 
Knowledge workers must create information and content from a variety of sources and software applications, and be able to exchange this information within a reliable format that ensures coworkers and constituents can reliably and securely access the information. When appropriate, this information often needs to be protected or securely managed and controlled.
 


Collaboration among knowledge workers can occur through face-to-face meetings, via phone calls, through e-mail or through Web conferencing technologies. Knowledge workers who participate in collaborations with their colleagues may be located in offices next door to each other, or in different parts of the world. These team members may change with every project and either be part of an organization’s employee base, or be an external consultant or third-party partner.
 
We believe there is a significant opportunity to provide solutions which enable knowledge workers to communicate and collaborate across technical, geographical and social boundaries, both inside and outside of their companies. We believe that with such solutions, users can collaborate and efficiently manage feedback from their colleagues in both real time and on-demand, and control how, when and by whom information is accessed.
 
Since the early 1990s, our Acrobat family of products has provided for the reliable creation and exchange of electronic documents, regardless of platform or application source type. Users can collaborate on documents with electronic comments and tailor the security of a file in order to distribute reliable Adobe PDF documents that can be viewed, printed or interacted with utilizing the free Adobe Reader. Available in different versions which target a variety of user needs, Adobe Acrobat provides essential electronic document capabilities and services to help knowledge workers accomplish a wide range of ad hoc tasks involving digital documents ranging from simple publications to forms to mission critical engineering and architectural plans. Although Acrobat has achieved strong market adoption in document-intensive industries such as government, financial services, pharmaceutical, legal, aerospace, insurance and technical publishing, we believe there are tens of millions of users who need capabilities such as those provided by Acrobat who have not yet licensed an Acrobat-based solution.
 
In addition to sharing and collaborating on documents reliably across disparate platforms with Acrobat, we believe there is an adjacent market opportunity whereby knowledge workers will increasingly utilize Web conferencing, document co-authoring and Acrobat hosted service capabilities to more effectively collaborate and consult with their colleagues, partners and customers. We also believe businesses will increasingly utilize Web conferencing to improve how they train, market, sell and support their products and solutions to their customers.
 
Our Adobe Acrobat Connect Pro product provides capabilities via Adobe Flash Player for live Web conferencing, as well as delivering on-demand rich presentations through an on-premise server or as a hosted service. By integrating the Web conferencing functionality of Acrobat Connect Pro with Acrobat, Adobe Reader and Acrobat.com, we believe we can extend adoption of Web conferencing to a broader potential market and grow the use of such technology with an easy-to-adopt business model.
 
Our new Acrobat.com service provides centralized online file sharing and storage capabilities, as well as simple PDF creation, an online word processor and personal Web conferencing services with Adobe ConnectNow that is based on our Acrobat Connect Web conferencing solution.  In addition to complementing our Acrobat desktop solutions, Acrobat.com also serves as an introductory service for knowledge workers who wish to utilize PDF-creation capabilities and the Adobe Reader, but have not yet licensed an Acrobat desktop solution.
 
Knowledge Worker Business Summary
 
Our business targeting knowledge workers achieved record revenue and solid year-over-year growth in fiscal 2008. The largest component of this business was revenue generated by our Acrobat family of products.  Our Acrobat business benefitted from continued adoption of Adobe Acrobat version 8 throughout the year, as well as licensing of the new release of version 9 beginning in the third quarter of the year.
 
The version 9 product family offers enhanced features that allow workgroups to manage a range of essential business activities such as assembling documents from multiple sources, controlling security and access to sensitive information, enabling the creation and filling out of intelligent electronic forms and more effectively collaborating on documents and projects. In addition, the Acrobat 9 family of products allows users to unify a wide range of content into a PDF Portfolio.  Users can assemble documents, drawings, e-mail, spreadsheets and rich media — including audio, video, 3D and maps — in a single, compressed PDF Portfolio.  Other new version 9 features and enhancements include the ability to: create interactive, on-demand presentations using Adobe Presenter software; easily share video in PDF using FLV; improved security to help protect and control access to PDF documents; permanently remove sensitive information through the use of redaction tools to black out sensitive text, illustrations, or other information; easily create and manage electronic forms; enable anyone using
 


the free Adobe Reader to digitally sign documents, participate in shared document reviews and save forms locally; enable others to access design data such as 2D and 3D designs that include layers, dimensions and metadata; view and interact with PDF maps, including searching, measuring and marking up geospatially enabled PDF maps; and manage and track electronic document reviews through interactive document reviews that enable participants to see and build on each other’s comments, which can be sorted by author, date, or page. These enhanced capabilities helped to continue the increase of our penetration of Acrobat desktop licenses in enterprises, thereby helping our business to grow.
 
During the year, continued success with adoption of our Creative Suite products has also contributed to broader adoption of Acrobat in the creative professional market.  Acrobat Pro version 8 and Acrobat Pro version 9 are included in four of the six Creative Suite editions and utilization of Acrobat prepress, printing and collaboration functionality is a critical component of creative customer workflows.  As such, adoption of Acrobat through the Creative Suite family of products has resulted in an increasing amount of Acrobat revenue being reported in our Creative Solutions Segment during the year.
 
As indicated earlier, to supplement our Acrobat family of products, we introduced a beta version of our new hosted service Acrobat.com in the third quarter of fiscal 2008.  We experienced strong user signup for accounts on Acrobat.com and believe this compelling service will enhance the growth capabilities of the Acrobat family of products in the coming years.
 
Over the course of fiscal 2008, we also continued to focus on the Web conferencing market opportunity with our Acrobat Connect Pro product line which is licensed by customers as on-premise server-based software or as a hosted service. This approach focuses on charging meeting organizers for the ability to host meetings and allows for participants to join meetings for free utilizing Adobe Flash Player.
 
Knowledge Worker Strategy
 
In fiscal 2009, we plan to continue to market the benefits of our knowledge worker solutions to small and medium-sized businesses, large enterprises and government institutions around the world. With our Acrobat family of products, we intend to continue to increase our seat penetration in these markets through the utilization of our corporate and volume licensing programs. We intend to increase our focus on marketing and licensing Acrobat in targeted vertical markets such as education, financial services, telecommunications, government, manufacturing and the architecture, engineering and construction markets as well as expanding into emerging markets.
 
We also plan to continue to market the newest capabilities of our Acrobat version 9 family of products, including PDF Portfolios and integrated real-time collaboration, which provide additional value for users who require more advanced features and solutions.  In addition, we intend to market the easy-to-use hosted capabilities of our new Acrobat.com service to users requiring basic and easy-to-use document authoring, collaboration and file storage capabilities.
 
With our Acrobat Connect Pro product, we intend to increase awareness of our solution in targeted horizontal markets such as training and marketing, as well as targeted vertical markets such as manufacturing, financial services and telecommunications. We also intend to market the benefits of how our Acrobat and Acrobat Connect Pro solutions can be used together to meet the synchronous and asynchronous collaboration needs in the marketplace. With the broad distribution and reach of our free Adobe Reader, we also intend to expose the capabilities of Acrobat Connect Pro to potentially new users with a simple-to-adopt business model based on monthly or annual subscription fees.
 
Knowledge Worker Products
 
Adobe Acrobat.com—new service (currently in beta release) which provides centralized online file sharing and storage capabilities, as well as simple PDF creation, an online word processor called Buzzword and personal Web conferencing services with Adobe ConnectNow that is based on our Acrobat Connect Pro Web conferencing solution.
 
Adobe Acrobat Connect Pro—a rich Web-based communication system which enables organizations to reduce the costs of travel and increase the effectiveness of online training, marketing events, sales meetings and collaborative Web conferencing solutions which are instantly accessible by customers, partners and employees using Adobe Flash Player; consists of a core Connect Events Server or hosted service, and modules that provide specific application functionality, including Connect Training and Connect Events; can be deployed with either some or all of these components together; Connect Training allows organizations to build a complete online training system with Microsoft PowerPoint presentations
 


that include surveys, analysis, course administration and content management; Connect Events allows users to provide seminar and training sessions as well as to conduct business presentations through the Web.
 
Adobe Acrobat Standard—creates secure, reliable and compact Adobe PDF documents from desktop authoring applications such as Microsoft Office software, graphics applications and more; supports automated collaborative workflows with a rich set of commenting tools and review tracking features; includes everything needed to create and distribute rich electronic documents that can be viewed easily within leading Web browsers or on computer desktops via the free Adobe Reader.
 
Adobe Acrobat Pro—in addition to all the capabilities of Acrobat Standard, Acrobat Pro delivers specialized capabilities for creative professional and engineering users, such as pre-flighting, color separation and measuring tools; also allows users to insert FLV or H.264 video for direct playback in Adobe Acrobat and Adobe Reader, create dynamic XML forms with Adobe LiveCycle Designer ES and create PDF documents that enable Adobe Reader users to digitally sign PDF documents.
 
Adobe Acrobat Pro Extended—in addition to all the capabilities of Acrobat Pro, Acrobat Pro Extended enables collaboration between extended teams of designers and engineers to more securely and reliably communicate, visualize and document architectural and manufacturing designs using 3D data; allows users to insert and publish 3D designs from major CAD applications in Adobe PDF documents that can easily be shared with suppliers, partners and customers using the free Adobe Reader software; Acrobat Pro Extended also:  allows users to easily add audio, video and quizzes to PowerPoint slides to create rich, interactive presentations with Adobe Presenter; enables conversion of a variety of video formats to FLV for playback in PDF; and enables the creation of  PDF maps through the importing geospatial files that can retain metadata and coordinates.  Acrobat 9 Pro Extended includes Adobe LiveCycle Designer ES, Adobe Presenter, Adobe 3D Reviewer and Adobe 3D Capture Utility for UNIX.
 
Adobe Document Center—a hosted service that enables businesses to secure and manage Adobe PDF documents and other common business document files such as those in Microsoft Office formats.
 
Create Adobe PDF Online—a Web-based subscription service that provides for the easy conversion of Microsoft Office documents and other application files to Adobe PDF for the secure and reliable sharing of rich electronic documents that can be viewed easily within leading Web browsers or on computer desktops via the free Adobe Reader.
 
See below for other Knowledge Worker related products.
 
Enterprise Opportunity
 
Enterprises are under increasing pressure to save money, offer improved customer service, adhere to regulatory requirements and leverage existing investments in core systems. As a means to address these issues, a critical component of an organization’s business processes is the need to interact with data stored in enterprise applications. As this need expands beyond the core users of those applications, adapting systems to accommodate a diverse group of users – including those within and those external to the organization – has become an expensive and time-consuming endeavor. The outcome is a proliferation of manual workarounds that result in process inefficiencies, delays and poor quality of information.
 
In addition, enterprises have built Web applications which enjoy the reach of the Web but often fail to deliver a user interface with the ease of use and richness that users expect. This impedes utilization of these applications and increases training costs, and reduces the overall return on investment (“ROI”) that enterprises expect. Organizations are now looking to Rich Internet Applications (“RIA”) to boost their ROI for these Web applications by combining a rich graphical application interface with the universal reach of the Web.
 
We believe significant opportunities exist to help enterprises address these issues by making their business processes more efficient and their Web applications more engaging. To address these opportunities, we offer Adobe LiveCycle solutions to securely extend the reach of information, processes and services to engage with customers and constituents. Our solutions leverage our Adobe Reader and Adobe Flash Platform which help businesses and government agencies inspire commitment in their customers and constituents by engaging them — anywhere, anytime and in any medium through our universal clients and application solutions.
 


Adobe Reader and our Adobe Flash Platform ensure reliable, secure and rich application experiences across browsers, desktops and devices. The platform provides developers with an RIA programming model to integrate and optimize workflows and a server software framework to simplify integration and leverage existing enterprise infrastructures. We also offer services and other software components to accelerate the creation of compelling, relevant and actionable applications, either through RIAs or through intelligent electronic documents based on Adobe PDF.
 
We believe Adobe Reader and our Adobe Flash Platform revolutionize how enterprises and government agencies present, deliver, consume and interact with information and content. By providing an integrated client-server framework, toolset and server-side process orchestration engine for developers, designers and IT organizations, we believe our solutions allow our customers to:
 
 
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Engage their constituents with compelling experiences and intelligent documents—providing them with the ability to act upon information or tasks presented to them for improved and effective collaboration;
 
 
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Streamline and accelerate document-based processes so more work gets done;
 
 
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Simplify the creation and deployment of compelling, relevant and actionable applications;
 
 
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Augment existing enterprise infrastructures to deliver the next level of engagement with their stakeholders;
 
 
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Implement solutions which adhere to security and regulatory compliance requirements;
 
 
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Scale these solutions needs regardless of the size of their constituent populations; and
 
 
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Leverage Adobe Reader and Adobe Flash Platform to reach people inside and outside of their organizations, and across all desktops and devices.
 
Although our solutions address the needs of a diverse set of enterprise customers, we focus primarily on key vertical industries such as financial services, government, telecommunications, manufacturing and life sciences.  For these customers, we offer comprehensive, scalable, secure and reliable server products and tools to develop applications tailored to their specific information and business process requirements.
 
Adobe LiveCycle Enterprise Suite (“ES”) brings together Adobe PDF and Adobe Flash Platform technologies to provide capabilities which allow businesses and enterprises to more effectively engage customers, constituents, partners and employees in key business processes.  LiveCycle ES software is an integrated J2EE server solution that blends data capture, process management, information security, document generation and content services to help create and deliver rich and engaging applications that reduce paperwork, accelerate decision-making and help ensure regulatory compliance.
 
Key differentiating features in LiveCycle ES allow developers to build more engaging experiences that scale from paper forms to rich and interactive online applications, protect sensitive information and extend business processes that span from data capture through process orchestration to document generation — inside and outside an organization’s firewall.
 
A key enhancement in LiveCycle ES is the fusion of Adobe PDF with our Adobe Flex technologies which utilize the Flash file format and leverage our widely-used Adobe Flash Player technology.  With Flex, developers are able to combine the rich user interface of desktop software with the reach and ease of deployment of the Web and the processing power of desktop computers. This combination enables the delivery of more complex interactions than are currently supported by the Web browser model. Flex applications extend the server-based object model to client systems, improving interactivity by eliminating the constant page refreshes and context switches that users frequently experience. As a result, Flex applications enable organizations to provide users with a dramatically improved experience that supports the manipulation of data and information in ways that are impractical in a traditional browser-based environment.
 
The other primary component of our LiveCycle ES solutions utilizes Adobe PDF documents which interact with core business applications and integrate information contained in those documents into business processes. In addition to capturing the necessary fidelity for electronic forms, Adobe PDF documents are “intelligent” – they retain the best characteristics of paper documents, such as a familiar look, but add powerful business logic capabilities such as data calculation and validation and automated routing instructions. In addition, arbitrary data (including XML-based data) can be embedded inside of intelligent PDF documents for use or access in a business process. These features allow for more efficient
 


interaction with enterprise applications while still providing the ability for people to manually access and interact with the data when necessary.
 
Our LiveCycle ES products leverage our Adobe Reader software—with more than 500 million distributed copies of Adobe Reader, we have created a platform for extending high value business processes to a wide variety of end users. Adobe Reader is available on the most common operating system platforms free of charge, including Microsoft Windows, Apple Mac OS, Linux, various Unix-based platforms and portable device systems such as Palm OS, Pocket PC and the Symbian operating system for cellular phones. As a universal client, Adobe Reader enables users inside and outside the firewall to interact with intelligent PDF documents on most platforms, including desktops, laptops, PDAs, mobile phones and kiosks, regardless of the application used to author the document.
 
Enterprise Business Summary
 
In fiscal 2008, we generated record revenue in our Enterprise business with Adobe LiveCycle as we continued to achieve strong adoption in targeted markets such as government, financial services and manufacturing.  Helping to drive this success was the release of a substantial upgrade to our LiveCycle ES  product line during the year. This release included numerous usability and performance improvements as well as two new product modules:  Adobe LiveCycle Content Services ES and Adobe LiveCycle PDF Generator 3D ES.  In addition, our integration of Adobe LiveCycle with other software vendors’ platforms, including those from SAP AG and Parametric Technology Corporation (“PTC”), helped to further drive adoption during the year.
 
Enterprise Strategy
 
In fiscal 2009, we will continue to focus on offering more complete enterprise server-based solutions targeting the needs of governments and enterprises worldwide. We wish to help these customers develop and deliver self-service and assisted-service Web-based applications that blend rich user interfaces and documents with data capture, document collaboration, process management and document generation capabilities that are easy to use. We strive to provide solutions which are customer-centric and help the constituents of our customers work together on complex processes and bridge the digital and paper-based environments, and do so by providing capabilities that are accessible by anyone. We intend to provide such solutions directly through our consulting services organization, as well as together with software partners such as SAP AG and PTC, along with global and regional systems integrators we partner with that deliver comprehensive solutions to their customers.
 
We will continue to focus our go-to-market efforts on markets such as financial services, government, manufacturing and life sciences and work to augment our sales model to include more systems integrator partners.  We will also work to enhance our solutions offerings through investments in new software as a service capabilities for our enterprise server product family.
 
Enterprise Products
 
Data Capture
 
Adobe LiveCycle Barcoded Forms ES—server-based software application which enables organizations to accurately capture user-supplied information from fill-and-print paper forms that uses proven and dynamic 2D barcode technology online and offline to automate the extraction of data from paper forms and deliver it to core systems for processing; dramatically reduces costs, errors and time compared to manual data entry and solutions based on optical character recognition; barcodes are initially set up through creation of the form with Adobe’s Designer application; after the form is printed, signed and returned by users of the form, the barcode on the form is scanned and decoded, and form data obtained from the barcode is routed to the appropriate enterprise application through Adobe’s LiveCycle server products.
 
Adobe LiveCycle Data Services ES—high-performance, scalable and flexible framework that streamlines the development of RIAs using Adobe Flex and Adobe AIR; abstracts the complexity required to create server push–based applications and supports a rich set of features to create real-time solutions; utilizes powerful data services and simplifies data management problems such as tracking changes, synchronization, paging and conflict resolution; deployed as a standard J2EE Web application, which enables customers to leverage their existing infrastructure.
 


Adobe LiveCycle Forms ES—server-based software application that organizations can use to cost-effectively and securely extend their core business processes beyond their enterprise system; enables customers to create and deploy XML-based form templates as PDF, SWF, or HTML for use with Adobe Reader or Adobe Flash Player software, or with Web browsers; provides for the capture of data from submitted forms and the transfer of the data directly into an organization’s core business systems, thereby streamlining form-driven business processes and improving data accuracy.
 
Adobe LiveCycle Reader Extensions ES—server-based software application which lets enterprises easily share interactive Adobe PDF documents with external parties without requiring recipients of the documents to purchase Acrobat software that normally would be necessary to interact with the Adobe PDF documents they receive; unlocks features on an individual Adobe PDF document by document basis so that when such a file is opened in the free Adobe Reader, users have access to tools that normally would not be available in Adobe Reader, such as reviewing and commenting functions, digital signatures to electronically sign PDF documents, embedding file attachments, enabling database and Web service capabilities, and the ability to fill in form data, submit and save electronic documents locally.
 
Information Assurance
 
Adobe LiveCycle Digital Signatures ES—server-based software application that helps organizations automate the processing of electronic documents by providing batch-based capabilities to digitally sign and certify Adobe PDF documents, validate digital signatures and encrypt/decrypt Adobe PDF documents; safeguards information when it leaves a company’s network and integrates with existing public key infrastructures.
 
Adobe LiveCycle Rights Management ES—server-based software application that helps organizations manage information access securely with dynamic, persistent document control; allows for access control and auditing of Adobe PDF, Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, Microsoft PowerPoint, PTC Pro/ENGINEER, Dassault CATIA and Lattice XVL CAD document usage inside or outside the firewall, online or offline and across multiple document platforms; lets organizations know when a document has been viewed, printed or altered and restricts access so that only intended recipients can open, use and forward a document; allows for previously granted document permissions and access to be revoked; leverages Adobe Acrobat and Adobe Reader and other client plug-in software to author and view protected documents.
 
Document Output
 
Adobe LiveCycle Output ES—server-based solution which supports on-demand document processes including the generation of documents such as correspondence, confirmations, bids, or shipping labels; provides capabilities to merge XML data from back-end systems with Adobe LiveCycle Designer ES templates to generate documents in PDF, PDF/A, PostScript, PCL, or Zebra label formats; customers can customize electronic document packages by combining newly generated PDF documents with existing files from document repositories; customers can also convert PDF documents to print or image file formats and then route them automatically to support direct server-based printing or archiving operations.
 
Adobe LiveCycle PDF Generator ES—server-based software which automates the creation, assembly, distribution and archival of PDF documents in combination with critical business processes; converts a wide range of native and standard file formats, and can combine newly created PDF documents with existing files or pages to assemble customized PDF packages; supports direct server-based PDF printing or can convert PDF documents to a wide variety of formats, including image formats and PDF/A.
 
Adobe LiveCycle PDF Generator 3D ES—server-based software which extends Adobe LiveCycle PDF Generator ES with support for the conversion and integration of complex 2D and 3D CAD design and engineering product data into a single PDF document that can be shared using the Adobe Reader software without requiring a CAD application or viewer.
 
Adobe LiveCycle Production Print ES—server-based solution that performs high-volume jobs through efficient batch processes, generating documents such as statements, invoices, contracts, or welcome kits; merges XML, ASCII or other data types from back-end systems with Adobe LiveCycle Designer ES templates to generate documents in a broad range of print or electronic formats to support high volume production requirements; enables customers to print document packages by collecting multiple jobs over time and then grouping them to minimize mailing costs.
 


Process Management
 
Adobe LiveCycle Business Activity Monitoring ES—software that allows administrators and process participants to quickly identify bottlenecks, check progress and view other process information related to business transactions; comes in two versions:  Adobe LiveCycle Business Activity Monitoring (“BAM”) ES Standard, which allows for the monitoring of all LiveCycle processes with 16 out-of-the-box dashboards and, Adobe LiveCycle BAM ES Extended, which adds the ability to extend Adobe LiveCycle BAM ES to other enterprise business systems so that users can monitor business processes inside and outside the LiveCycle environment.
 
Adobe LiveCycle Process Management ES—server-based process management application that allows organizations to orchestrate people, systems, content and business rules into streamlined, end-to-end processes that are accessible to process participants through engaging user interfaces, online or offline; provides out-of-box dashboards to help users gain insights into business operations in real time and management tools to fix day-to-day operational problems and make long-term process improvements.
 
Content Services
 
Adobe LiveCycle Content Services ES—offers a library of services that can be used with other LiveCycle solution components to create content-rich engagement applications whereby end users can share and collaborate on content development in content spaces as part of a company’s business processes; supports check-in/check-out capabilities, keeps a complete audit history of all document actions and provides a fully integrated set of content services ranging from an enterprise content repository to social collaboration tools such as enterprise forums; also includes team collaboration capabilities such as forums and discussions, and provides Microsoft Office plug-ins that enable users to interact with the process engine and content repository using Microsoft Word and Microsoft Excel.
 
Adobe LiveCycle ES Connectors for ECM—solutions which enables Adobe LiveCycle customers to connect their LiveCycle applications with other industry-leading enterprise content management (“ECM”) systems, such as EMC Documentum, IBM FileNet and IBM Content Manager.
 
Other Knowledge Worker and Enterprise Related Products
 
Adobe Central Pro Output Server—a server-based software application for document generation that allows organizations to create personalized, customer-facing documents from any data source—including legacy, line-of-business, ERP or CRM applications; merges data with an electronic document template using a powerful processing engine to dynamically generate electronic documents such as purchase orders, invoices, statements and checks for delivery via Adobe PDF, the Web, e-mail, fax or print; works with Adobe Output Designer which is a companion tool used to create sophisticated document templates.
 
Adobe LiveCycle Designer ES—desktop software application which simplifies the creation and maintenance of intelligent XML based forms for deployment as Adobe PDF forms, HTML applications and Flash based RIAs; provides an intuitive, graphical design tool for creating XML templates that look exactly as the author intended and previewing them before deployment; it also simplifies adding intelligence to documents, such as business and routing logic, and binding form fields to arbitrary XML schemes for seamless integration with enterprise applications.
 
Adobe Output Designer—a design tool that allows users to create electronic document templates for use with Adobe solutions for document generation; aids in the creation of electronic documents that exactly replicate existing paper documents.
 
Adobe Output Pak for mySAP.com—a SAP-certified server-based software application for document generation that enables organizations to optimize their investment in their SAP solution by creating personalized, professional-looking, customer-facing documents; provides an easy, fast and cost-effective way to create and maintain documents for the SAP environment; integrates directly with an SAP system to extract information which is merged with a document template that defines the layout and formatting of the document; output can be in a variety of formats, including Adobe PDF, print, fax, e-mail and the Web.
 
Adobe Reader—software for reliable reviewing and printing of Adobe PDF documents on a variety of hardware and operating system platforms; when used with certain Adobe PDF documents created with Adobe LiveCycle Reader
 


Extensions Server, Adobe Acrobat Pro or Adobe Acrobat Pro Extended, Adobe Reader also can be used to enable collaborative workflows through the addition of collaboration features built into the Adobe PDF file; these features include review and markup tools that normally are not present in the standard Adobe Reader product.
 
Adobe Web Output Pak—a server-based software application for document generation; creates documents in PDF and HTML for presentation on the Web and in Wireless Markup Language for presentation to a wireless device; allows users to personalize and control the look of documents based on the data the documents contain.
 
BlazeDS—open source server-based Java remoting and Web messaging technology that enables developers to easily connect to back-end distributed data and push data in real-time to Adobe Flex and Adobe AIR applications for more responsive RIA experiences; previously available as part of Adobe LiveCycle Data Services ES, BlazeDS technologies is now freely available to developers.
 
Platform Segment
 
Central to our long-term strategy is our Adobe Flash Platform which enables the development of products and solutions that dramatically improves how Web developers and businesses engage with their customers. The Adobe Flash Platform includes client and developer technologies, such as Adobe Flash Player, Adobe Flash Lite, Adobe AIR, Adobe Flex and Adobe Flex Builder, and also encompasses products and technologies created and managed in other Adobe segments.
 
Platform Opportunity and Business Summary
 
Our Platform Business Unit focuses on the development, marketing and licensing of these Adobe Flash Platform technologies.  We have achieved penetration of Adobe Flash Player on more than 98 percent of Web-connected personal computers – making it the most widely distributed rich client software in the world. In addition, the cumulative distribution of Adobe Flash Lite, which is licensed by mobile handset and consumer electronic device manufacturers, is rapidly approaching one billion devices as of the Fall of 2008.
 
The broad reach of these Adobe Flash Platform technologies allows us to rapidly innovate with our desktop software and client runtime solutions – enabling our customers to deliver new and more engaging experiences to their constituents that leverage the latest advancements in operating systems, hardware and rich media technologies.
 
Due to the success and frequent electronic downloads of our client technologies, we have generated revenue through OEM relationships with companies such as Google, where we include their technologies as part of the download offerings of our client technologies.  In fiscal 2008, this OEM revenue represented a significant part of the overall revenue we reported in our Platform segment.
 
In the fourth quarter of fiscal 2008, we released Adobe Flash Player version 10.  Building on the broad success of version 9, Flash Player 10 adds new capabilities for creating special effects, native 3D transformations and animations.  It also provides advanced audio processing, graphics processing unit performance acceleration and enhanced text layout options and control.
 
In the fourth quarter of fiscal 2008, responsibility for the development and marketing of our mobile client solutions has been transferred to our Platform Business Unit.  As hundreds of millions of people around the world adopt Internet-connected hand-held phones and devices as a means to communicate, collaborate and entertain, as well as consumer electronic devices such as digital cameras, game consoles, music players and electronic educational toys, we believe a significant opportunity exists to offer our Adobe Flash Platform technologies for these devices to provide for the creation and delivery of rich content, user interfaces and data services which allow users to engage with information more easily and effectively.
 
We achieved record revenue results and strong unit adoption of our client software on mobile and consumer electronic devices during the fiscal year. As of October 2008, our Flash Lite client has been installed on more than 800 million devices worldwide – on over 430 different mobile handset models and over 140 different device models. This success has been driven by hardware OEM relationships with companies such as Nokia, Sony/Ericsson, LG Electronics, Motorola and Samsung.
 


In addition to key mobile OEM relationships we have established, we provide Flash Lite for Qualcomm BREW on the Verizon network. This relationship serves to broaden the Flash Lite ecosystem in the United States, driven by the ability for Verizon subscribers to view Flash based content on their BREW enabled handsets.
 
During the year, we also achieved strong unit adoption of our Flash Lite client on consumer electronics devices. Customers have licensed our Flash Lite for distribution on devices such as the Nintendo Wii and the Sony PlayStation Portable and PlayStation devices.
 
As part of our strategy to drive broad adoption of the Adobe Flash Platform on non-PC devices, in May of 2008 we announced the Open Screen Project.  Together with other industry leaders such as ARM, BBC, Cisco, Intel, Comcast, Nokia, Marvell, Motorola, MTV Networks, NBC Universal, NTT DoCoMo, Qualcomm, Sony Ericsson and Verizon, we intend to drive the industry towards a consistent, rich Internet experience that enables developers and designers to seamlessly publish content and applications across connected devices.  To achieve this goal, the Open Screen Project will utilize Adobe’s Flash Platform technologies such as Adobe Flash and Adobe AIR as a foundation for improved Web browsing and the delivery of RIAs on mobile handset and consumer electronic devices.
 
Another major focus of our Platform team is to broaden the reach and viability of the Adobe Flash Platform through the delivery of our new cross-platform client named Adobe AIR.  Based on Flash, PDF and HTML technologies, Adobe AIR enables the creation and delivery of Web-enabled desktop applications that run outside of a Web browser.  Adobe AIR based applications extend today’s Web browser-based applications to have the power and utility of desktop applications with capabilities such as access to the local file system, alerts and notifications, and the ability to work offline and then synchronize data when the application has online access again.  Developers of Adobe AIR applications are able to create persistent, branded desktop experiences which can be developed using standard Web technologies such as HTML, Ajax, Flash and PDF, as well as common audio and video formats.
 
Adoption of Adobe AIR has been substantial in its first six months of availability in fiscal 2008.  As of January 2009, there were more than 100 million AIR installations along with more than one million downloads of the AIR SDK developer tools used to create these applications.  Companies such as eBay, DirecTV, The NASDAQ Stock Market, FOX News, Salesforce.com, The New York Times, AOL, Atlantic Records and the BBC have already deployed commercial applications based on Adobe AIR.
 
Our Platform team also focuses on the development and delivery of our developer solutions such as Flex Builder and ColdFusion. These solutions ensure reliable, secure and rich application experiences across the broadest range of browsers, operating systems and devices.
 
Our Flex Builder integrated development environment (“IDE”) is used by developers to create and deploy rich browser and Adobe AIR based applications.  With the robust IDE of Flex Builder, as well as comprehensive charting tools and components, we believe it is the most efficient means for developers to create RIAs that deploy seamlessly across all browsers and operating systems.  With the release of Adobe AIR version 1 in early 2008, our Flex Builder revenue grew during the year as more developers utilized it to create Adobe Flash and Adobe AIR based applications.
 
Our ColdFusion product line provides fast and easy ways to build and deploy powerful Internet applications. Developers can extend or integrate ColdFusion with Java or .NET applications, connect to enterprise data and applications, create and interact via Web services, or interface with SMS on mobile devices or instant messaging clients. ColdFusion can also be used for business reporting, rich-forms generation, printable document generation, full-text search and graphing and charting—enabling customers to more fully engage their constituents with better Web experiences.  In fiscal 2008, our ColdFusion business continued to perform well through revenue generated from its existing customer base that benefits from a large and active developer community.
 
Platform Strategy
 
In fiscal 2009, we intend to innovate with and broadly market the Adobe Flash Platform to further the development of products and solutions that improve how businesses engage with their customers and employees.  As part of this strategy, we intend to release new versions of our client technologies, including enhanced versions that broaden our reach on more mobile devices ranging from high-end smart phones to lower-end feature phones.  We also intend to release new versions of our Adobe AIR client to broaden its capabilities and we intend to release new versions of Adobe Flex and Adobe Flex Builder to
 


improve developer productivity.  We also recently announced and intend to release Adobe Flash Catalyst, a new professional design tool for rapidly creating application interfaces and interactive content without having to write or understand programming code which we believe will substantially improve design and development workflows.
 
As part of the Open Screen Project, we have announced that we are removing the OEM licensing fees associated with our Adobe Flash Platform client technologies for mobile and consumer electronic devices with the next major release of these technologies which will adversely impact the revenue run rate for our mobile client technologies in fiscal 2009.
 
We intend to build upon the OEM relationships we have to monetize the downloads of our client technologies such as Adobe Flash Player, Adobe Reader and Adobe AIR.  By leveraging our developer engineering, marketing and evangelism capabilities, we intend to implement business models which balance our objectives of broad cross-platform client proliferation with this client monetization strategy.
 
To support our Adobe Flash Platform initiatives, we intend to continue our marketing efforts through developer community outreach and grassroots evangelism.  We will also work closely with partners to implement Adobe AIR client distribution relationships and continue to grow the Flex developer base, and we will assist partners and customers who will be developing key applications that utilize the Adobe Flash Platform.
 
We intend to continue our focus in improving integration of our Platform technologies with our Creative Suite solutions so that products such as Adobe Dreamweaver are able to provide development tools for Adobe AIR applications and products such as Adobe Photoshop, Adobe Illustrator and Adobe Fireworks are able to integrate with the Adobe Flash Platform more granularly through defined workflows with Adobe Flash Catalyst and Adobe Flex Builder.
 
Finally, we intend to deliver new product capabilities and Web-based services.  We will also continue to explore monetization opportunities for our technology platform solutions, as well as enhance our ColdFusion product line and drive upgrades with a new release.
 
Platform Products
 
Adobe AIR—desktop client software which allows developers to use existing Web development skills (e.g. HTML, Ajax, Flash and Flex) to build and deploy RIAs on the desktop and on non-PC devices.
 
Adobe ColdFusion—provides a server-scripting environment and a set of features used by organizations for building database-driven scalable applications that are accessible through Web browsers, Adobe Flash Player and Adobe AIR; built on an open Java technology architecture and can be deployed on third-party Java application servers that support the J2EE specification.
 
Adobe Flash Catalyst – an interaction design tool for prototyping RIAs and enabling design and development workflows throughout the application development cycle.
 
Adobe Flash Lite –client software used in a wide range of non-PC devices including mobile phones and consumer electronic devices; provides a subset of Adobe Flash Player functionality for viewing FLV files in mobile and device browsers.
 
Adobe Flash Player—the most widely distributed rich client software on PCs and consumer electronic devices, Adobe Flash Player provides a runtime environment for text, graphics, animations, sound, video, application forms and two-way communications.
 
Adobe Flex—a free, open source framework, compiler and debugger for developing RIAs targeting the Adobe Flash Platform; developers use Flex to compile and debug MXML and ActionScript files into the SWF format that executes in Adobe Flash Player and Adobe AIR.
 
Adobe Flex Builder—an Eclipse-based IDE for developing RIAs with the Adobe Flex framework for either Adobe Flash Player or Adobe AIR; developers utilize Flex Builder to quickly build and deploy applications that are expressive, intuitive and rich in interactivity.
 


Print and Publishing Segment
 
Our Print and Publishing business segment contains several of our products and services which address market opportunities ranging from the diverse publishing needs of technical and business publishing to our legacy type and OEM printing businesses.  These opportunities and the products we offer to address them, are reviewed below in the following OEM PostScript and Print and Publishing categories.
 
OEM PostScript Opportunity and Strategy
 
Graphics professionals and professional publishers require quality, reliability and efficiency in production printing, and we believe our printing technology provides advanced functional­ity to meet the sophisticated requirements of this marketplace. As high-end printing systems evolve and transition to fully digital, composite workflows, we believe we are uniquely positioned to be a supplier of software and technology based on the Adobe PostScript and Adobe PDF standards for use by this industry. We generate revenue by licensing our technology to OEMs that manufacture workflow software, printers and other output devices.
 
In fiscal 2008, we maintained our OEM PostScript revenue through continued innovation with PostScript technologies.  In 2009, we plan to continue to enhance PostScript and, along with PDF enhancements, establish PDF as the standard for variable data publishing and printing work flows.
 
OEM PostScript Products
 
Adobe PostScript—a printing and imaging page description language that delivers high quality output, cross-platform compatibility and top performance for graphically-rich printing output from corporate desktop printers to high-end publishing printers; gives users the power to create and print visually rich documents with total precision; licensed to printing equipment and workflow software manufacturers for integration into their printing products.
 
Adobe PDF Print Engine—a new, next-generation printing platform that enables complete, end-to-end PDF-based workflows using common PDF technology to generate, preview and print PDF documents; allows PDF documents to be rendered natively throughout a workflow, providing performance benefits which include eliminating the need to flatten transparent artwork.
 
Print and Publishing Opportunity and Strategy
 
In addition to the market opportunities and our businesses discussed previously, we offer a variety of products and solutions which address many different and unique publishing market needs. Our Print and Publishing Business Unit focuses on these solutions which address the diverse customer needs in markets such as technical document publishing and communication, business document publishing, CD-ROM publishing, eLearning solutions, on-line help systems and typography.
 
In fiscal 2009, we will continue to support these offerings to meet the diverse needs of each product’s user base.  In addition, we believe there to be an opportunity to enhance some of our offerings, particularly in the technical communication and eLearning markets, through a comprehensive offering of several of our products to provide a complete end-to-end solution.
 
Print and Publishing Products
 
Adobe Authorware—a legacy rich media authoring tool used to develop caption based eLearning on Windows and Macintosh based platforms; use of the product ranges from creating Web-based tutorials to simulations incorporating audio and video; applications developed with Adobe Authorware can be delivered on the Web, over corporate networks or on CD-ROM.
 
Adobe Captivate—enables users to rapidly create professional and engaging eLearning content –  including software simulation, quizzes, animation and multi-media – and deliver the content in Adobe Flash and other formats; the content can be created without any programming or multi-media skills and can be published to CD/DVDs and Learning Management Systems used in training, sales, marketing and  customer support applications; often used in combination with Acrobat
 


Connect, Adobe Captivate provides a robust technology solution to bring understanding and retention to end users of rapid training and eLearning solutions.
 
Adobe Contribute—an easy-to-use tool to update and publish Web content, designed for non-technical business users who need to make minor changes to intranet and Internet Web sites that conform to the structure, style, layout and site standards setup by a Web site administrator; streamlines the Web content maintenance process and provides Web site administrators with a set of simple content management functionality to manage and administer Web sites; also provides bloggers with a simple tool to create and update their blogs.
 
Adobe Director—a tool for creating professional multimedia content that combines images, text, audio and video into presentations, interactive experiences and prototypes; for Web sites, it provides users with the ability to deliver multimedia content that supports three dimensional content and animations for use in various markets, including education, games and commerce; also enables the creation of fixed-media content for CD titles and DVD titles in the entertainment, education and corporate training markets.
 
Adobe Font Folio OpenType Edition—contains more than 2,200 typefaces from the Adobe Type Library in OpenType format, offering a complete type solution for print, the Web, digital video or electronic documents.
 
Adobe FrameMaker—an application for authoring and publishing long, structured, content-rich docu­ments including books, documentation, technical manuals and reports; provides users a way to publish their content to multiple output formats, including print, Adobe PDF, HTML, XML and Microsoft Word.
 
Adobe JRun—a legacy application server solution based on the J2EE specification; integrates with our development tool offerings and is used to deploy applications for functions such as online banking and customer service.
 
Adobe PageMaker—software used to create high-quality documents simply and reliably with robust page layout tools, templates and stock art.
 
Adobe RoboHelp—an easy-to-use authoring tool used by developers and technical writers to create professional help systems and documentation for desktop and Web-based applications; utilizes support for HTML, PDF import/export, team authoring capabilities, as well as JavaHelp.
 
Adobe Shockwave Player—a rich media player used for deploying multimedia content for use in Internet solutions including education, training, games and commerce.
 
Adobe Technical Communication Suite—includes Adobe Acrobat Pro Extended, Adobe Captivate, Adobe FrameMaker and Adobe RoboHelp technologies; helps customers improve their workflows, especially technical communicators who want a single solution to meet their content creation and publishing needs.
 
Adobe Type Library—includes Adobe’s best-selling typefaces, plus Adobe Type Manager; makes it easy to create beautiful text for print, Web and video projects.
 
Adobe Type Classics for Learning—a low-cost, introductory font library designed for students and educators.
 
Adobe Type Manager—provides powerful, easy management of all PostScript Type 1, OpenType and TrueType fonts.
 
Adobe Type Sets—various collection packages of Adobe’s best-selling typefaces; makes it easy to create beautiful text for print, Web and video projects.
 
FreeHand MX—a professional vector graphics tool designers and illustrators use to create high quality images that can be scaled; supports developing images for print, the Web and Adobe Flash Player.
 
See Note 19 of our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for further information regarding our industry segments and geographic information.
 

 


COMPETITION
 
The markets for our products are characterized by intense competition, evolving industry standards and business models, disruptive software and hardware technology developments, frequent new product introductions, short product life cycles, price cutting with resulting downward pressure on gross margins and price sensitivity on the part of consumers. Our future success will depend on our ability to enhance our existing products, introduce new products on a timely and cost-effective basis, meet changing customer needs, extend our core technology into new applications and anticipate and respond to emerging standards, business models, software delivery methods and other technological changes.
 
Creative Solutions
 
In our Creative Solutions segment, we offer the Adobe Creative Suite in multiple editions which consist of combinations of several of our technologies.  In addition to offering the technologies within the Creative Suite editions, we also offer them as individual software applications.  These products compete with those from many companies, including Apple, Corel, Avid, Quark, Microsoft and others, as well as from various open source initiatives.
 
With respect to Microsoft, their Expression Studio competes with our Adobe Creative Suite family of products as well as individual Creative Solutions segment products. Expression Studio includes Microsoft Expression Design which competes with our Adobe Illustrator, Adobe Photoshop, Adobe Photoshop Lightroom and Adobe Fireworks products; Microsoft Expression Blend which competes with our Adobe Flash Professional product; Microsoft Expression Web which competes with our Adobe Dreamweaver product; and Microsoft Expression Media which provides digital asset management, basic image editing and video encoding/compression capabilities and competes with some aspects of our video and hobbyist-focused products. To compete with Adobe Flash, Microsoft markets its Silverlight product and technology which provides capabilities for the creation of media experiences and interactive applications for the Web that incorporate video, animation, interactivity and user interfaces.
 
We believe our Adobe Creative Suite family of products competes favor­ably on the basis of features and functionality, ease of use, product reliability, price and performance characteristics. The individual technologies within the Creative Suite editions also work well together, providing broader functionality and shortened product training time for the individual who uses multiple appli­cations to complete a project.
 
We also believe our individual Creative products compete favorably against those offered by our competitors, as discussed below.
 
Drawing and illustration products are characterized by feature-rich competition, brand awareness and price sensitivity. In addition to competition with Microsoft’s Expression Design product, our Adobe Illustrator product faces competition from companies such as ACDsee, Corel, Mediascape, Xara and the open source product called Karbon14. We believe our products compete favorably due to high awareness of their rich features, especially the drawing and illustration functionalities, the technical capabilities of the product and our ability to leverage core technologies from our other established products.
 
The demand for Web page layout and Web content creation tools is constantly evolving and highly volatile. In addition to competition with Microsoft’s Expression Blend and Web products, we believe Adobe Dreamweaver and Adobe Flash Professional face direct and indirect competition from desktop software companies such as Bare Bones Software and various proprietary and open source Web authoring tools. We also face competition from Ajax and Microsoft Visual Studio products, and other integrated development environments that enable developers to create Web applications from companies such as BEA Systems (a subsidiary of Oracle), Borland and IBM. We believe our products compare favorably to these applications; however, our market share may be constrained by Microsoft’s ability to target its Web software to users in markets it dominates. These target customers include users of Microsoft Office, Microsoft Windows operating system, the Microsoft Internet Explorer Web browser and Microsoft Visual Studio.
 
The needs of digital imaging and video editing software users are constantly evolving due to rapid technology and hardware advancements in digital cameras, digital video cameras, printers, personal computers, cellular phones and other new devices. Our software offerings, including Adobe Photoshop, Adobe Photoshop Extended, Adobe Photoshop Elements, Adobe Photoshop Lightroom, Adobe After Effects, Adobe Audition, Adobe Soundbooth, Adobe Encore, Adobe Premiere Elements and Adobe Premiere Pro, face competition from companies offering similar products. We also continue to face competition from new emerging products, including online based services which compete directly with our Photoshop.com,
 


Photoshop Express and Premiere Express offerings, as well as any new competitive products coming from the open source movement.
 
Our mid-range consumer offerings, including Adobe Photoshop Elements and Adobe Premiere Elements, are subject to intense competition, including customer price sensitivity, competitor brand awareness and competitor strength in OEM bundling and retail distribution. We face direct and indirect competition from a number of companies that market software which competes with ours, including ACD Systems, AI Soft (Japan), Apple, ArcSoft, Corel, i4 (Japan), Google, Kodak, Nova Development, Magix, Microsoft, Phase One, Photodex Corporation, Sonic, Pinnacle, Sony and Yahoo. In addition, we face competition from device, hardware and camera manufacturers such as Apple, Canon, Dell, Hewlett-Packard, Nikon, Sony and others as they try to differentiate their offerings by bundling, for free, their own digital imaging software, or those of our competitors. Similarly, we face potential competition from operating system manufacturers such as Apple and Microsoft as they integrate hobbyist-level digital imaging and image management features into their operating systems. Finally, we face potential competition from open source products, including Gimp for Linux.
 
We believe we compete favorably against other mid-range digital imaging, digital video and consumer-focused image management software applications with our Adobe Photoshop Elements and Adobe Premiere Elements products due to strong consumer awareness of our brand in digital imaging and digital video, our relationships with significant OEMs, positive recommendations for our products by market influencers, our increased focus on the retail software channel and strong feature sets.
 
In professional digital imaging, software applications compete based on product features, brand awareness and price sensitivity. In addition to competition with Microsoft’s Expression Design product, our Adobe Photoshop and Adobe Photoshop Lightroom products face direct and indirect competition from a number of companies including Apple and Corel. Our Adobe Photoshop products compete favorably due to high awareness of the Photoshop brand in digital imaging, the positive recommendations for our Photoshop product by market influencers, the features and technical capabilities of the product and our ability to leverage core features from our other established products.
 
Our Adobe InDesign product, used for professional page layout, faces significant competition. The main competitor, Quark, has a competitive product, Quark XPress, which has maintained a historically strong market share in the professional page layout market. Quark also benefits from an established industry infrastructure that has been built around the use of their XPress product in print shops and service bureaus, and through the development of third-party plug-in products. Barriers to the adoption of Adobe InDesign by Quark XPress customers include this infrastructure, as well as the cost of conversion, training and software/hardware procurement required to switch to InDesign. We have seen an increase in the adoption of InDesign software and we believe we will continue to see market share gains going forward due to a product offering that contains new innovative features, improved integration with our other products, our strong brand among users, positive reviews by industry experts, adoption of InDesign by major accounts which are influencers in their industries and improved infrastructure support by the industry for our overall solution.
 
Applications for digital video editing, motion graphics, special effects, audio creation and DVD authoring face increasing competition as video professionals and hobbyists migrate away from analog video and audio tools towards the use of digital camcorders and digital video production on their computers and DVD systems for rich media playback. Our Adobe After Effects, Adobe Audition, Adobe Encore,  Adobe Premiere Pro and Adobe Soundbooth software products, as well as the Adobe Production Studio which contains these products, face competition from companies such as Apple, Avid, Canopus, Sonic and Sony. Our Adobe Premiere Elements software product which is targeted for use by hobbyists, faces competition from companies such as Aist, Apple, ArcSoft, Avid, Broderbund, Corel, Cyberlink, Magix, Microsoft, Muvee and Sony – as well as video editing capabilities found in operating systems and other video editing solutions bundled by video camcorder manufacturers with their hardware offerings.
 
Adobe After Effects is a leader in professional compositing and visual effects due to its strong feature set and its integration with our other products that helps create a broad video editing platform for our customers. In professional digital video editing, we are an industry leader with Adobe Premiere Pro and compete favorably due to our strong feature set, our OEM relationships and the integration with our other products to create a broad digital video publishing platform for our customers.
 


Business Productivity Solutions
 
With our Adobe Acrobat business, we continue to face competition from Microsoft. Their Windows Vista operating system includes a proprietary digital rights management technology and a document format, called XML Paper Specification (“XPS”), which competes with Adobe PDF. In addition, Microsoft’s widely used Office product offers a feature to save Microsoft Office documents as PDF documents through a freely distributed plug-in. This PDF feature in Office competes with Adobe Acrobat. Microsoft has announced that it will add support for PDF directly in its Office products beginning in 2009 via SP2 for Office 2007. Given Microsoft’s market dominance, XPS, the PDF feature in Office and any other competitive Microsoft product or technology that is bundled as part of its Office product or operating system or made freely available, could harm our overall Adobe Acrobat market opportunity.
 
Our Adobe Acrobat product family also faces competition in the PDF file creation market from many clone products marketed by companies such as AdLib, Active PDF, Apple, Global Graphics, Nuance, Software995, Sourcenext and others. In addition, other PDF creation solutions can be found at a low cost, or for free, on the Web.
 
For customers that use Adobe Acrobat as part of document collaboration and document process management solutions, where electronic document delivery, exchange, collaboration, security and archival needs exist, our Acrobat product family faces compe­tition from entrenched office applications such as Microsoft Office and its integration with their SharePoint product. In the higher end of the electronic document market, Acrobat Pro and Acrobat Pro Extended provide features which compete with other creative professional PDF tool providers, such as Enfocus, Dalim and Zinio. In addition, we are targeting the architecture, engineering and construction electronic document collaboration market with our Acrobat Pro Extended product. The capabilities of our product in this market compete with some aspects of Autodesk’s 3D solution.
 
To address the threats from Microsoft and others, we are working to ensure our Adobe Acrobat applications stay at the forefront of innovation in emerging opportunities such as PDF document generation, document collaboration and document process management.
 
Our Web conferencing solution, Adobe Acrobat Connect Pro, faces competition from many Web conferencing vendors, including Cisco WebEx, Microsoft Office Live Meeting, IBM Lotus Sametime and Citrix GoToMeeting. Cisco WebEx is a market share leader and Microsoft has steadily increased its marketing of Microsoft Office Live Meeting. To address these and other smaller competitors in the Web conferencing space, we focus on providing a differentiated and enhanced user experience through our Adobe Flash Player.
 
The markets we address with our Adobe LiveCycle Enterprise Suite are influenced by evolving industry standards, rapid software and hardware technology developments, and new product introductions from competitors such as Microsoft and IBM.
 
Microsoft has already brought to market new products and technologies to address many of the emerging market needs we focus on with our Adobe LiveCycle family of products. Microsoft continues to offer its eForms solution called InfoPath in the Professional version of Microsoft Office 2007 and has added Office Forms Services which extends their forms to users as MS Outlook e-mail messages or to Web browsers rather than the InfoPath client.  They also continue to offer their Windows Rights Management Services in their Windows Server product which is designed to allow corporate networks to manage and enforce restrictions built into documents.
 
As discussed previously, Microsoft markets Windows Vista and Office which includes a document format called XPS which competes with Adobe PDF. Windows Vista also contains a proprietary digital rights management technology which competes with Adobe LiveCycle Rights Management ES. In addition, Microsoft’s most recent version of Office includes an updated version of its SharePoint product which competes with certain aspects of our Adobe LiveCycle products. Microsoft has also recently delivered technology called Windows Presentation Foundation and Silverlight which offers an alternative to building RIA applications within the Microsoft .NET framework.
 
In the electronic forms solution market, in addition to competition from Microsoft Infopath based solutions, we face competition from IBM through their eForms solution recently rebranded as Lotus Workplace Forms. Similarly, we face competition for document process management solutions from workflow solution vendors such as PegaSystems, Lombardi, Nuance and Ultimus.
 


We believe that our Adobe LiveCycle server product family competes favorably against these companies and formats in terms of the combined benefits of superior functionality, cross-platform visual page fidelity/reliability, multi-platform capability, file compression, printing and security of documents expressed using Adobe PDF. We also believe that Adobe PDF and its integration with XML, combined with the broad distribution of Adobe Reader on all leading hardware platforms, provide a universal multi-platform solution that is more compelling than our competitors’ offerings.
 
Platform
 
Our Adobe Flash Platform technologies, including Adobe Flash Player and Adobe AIR, face competition from Microsoft Silverlight, as well as alternative approaches to building RIAs – including Google Gears and JavaFX.  Our Adobe ColdFusion product family and our Adobe Flex Builder developer tool products face competition from major vendors including Microsoft, IBM, BEA (a subsidiary of Oracle) and Sun. Our ColdFusion products also compete with several technologies available today at no cost including the PHP and PERL programming environments that are available for the Apache Web server.
 
Beyond the competitive Microsoft threats previously discussed, vendors such as Tibco, JackBe, Backbase and NexaWeb offer potentially competitive solutions in the RIA market that we target with our open source Adobe Flex solution.  We also believe RIAs will make use of both open source Ajax frameworks and the open source Flex framework to create hybrid RIAs in the browser, and we anticipate increased adoption of AIR as a development platform for Ajax developers. With our Flash Media Server solution, we face competition from Microsoft with their Windows Media Server for Windows Media and Silverlight, as well as Move Networks, Real Networks, Apple and solutions which utilize HTTP delivery of video and rich media content via Web servers.
 
Our mobile and device solutions are influenced by evolving industry standards, rapid software and hardware technology developments and frequent new product and technology introductions by companies or open-source initiatives targeting similar opportunities. Technologies and products which could compete with Adobe Flash Lite include Java, Brew, Scalable Vector Graphics, Wireless Application Protocol, Apple Mac OS utilized on the Apple iPhone, Microsoft Windows Mobile, as well as solutions from the open source movement, vendors supplying clone versions of these products and technologies and vendors which choose to exclude the use of our solutions and technologies on their devices.
 
We believe our Adobe Flash Lite solution competes favorably against these technologies and solutions due to the distribution of Adobe Flash Player technology on a broad set of platforms, including PCs, cellular phones and consumer electronic devices.  We also believe our robust programming model and developer tools used to create video output for the Flash Player and the large Flash developer community and ecosystem which utilize our tools, are key assets in our ability to effectively compete in this market.  Further, the rich expressiveness of Flash which provides the capability to deliver audio, video, motion graphics, vector graphics and visual effects and results in rich user experiences and interfaces on mobile devices, is a key differentiation when compared to the capabilities of alternate solutions.
 
In the past year, the mobile industry experienced many announcements and introductions of new mobile devices and platforms – and we expect innovation and new announcements such as those seen in 2008 to continue in 2009.  We view these ongoing developments, including the Google Android project consisting of a group of more than 30 technology and mobile companies that are working to develop an open mobile platform, as new opportunities to deploy our technologies and solutions.  Just as we maintain a philosophy of cross-platform support in the personal computer desktop world for operating systems such as Microsoft Windows, Apple Mac OS, Unix and Linux, we expect to continue to enhance our support for a wide variety of mobile and consumer electronic platforms, and we intend to make our products and services available on viable, new entrant platforms as well.
 
Print and Publishing
 
Our Print and Publishing product line targets many markets. In technical authoring and publishing, our Adobe FrameMaker product faces competition from large-scale electronic publishing systems, XML-based publishing companies such as PTC, as well as lower-end desktop publishing products such as Microsoft Word. Competition is based on the quality and features of products, the level of customization and integration with other publishing system components, the number of hard­ware platforms supported, service and price. We believe we can successfully compete based upon the quality and features of the Adobe FrameMaker product and our extensive application programming interface.
 


In desktop publishing, our Adobe PageMaker product faces competition from other software products, including Microsoft Publisher. Competition is based on the quality and features of products, ease-of-use, printer service support and price. We believe we have a strong product and can successfully compete with these types of applications based upon the quality and features of the Adobe PageMaker product, its strong brand among users and its widespread adoption among printer service bureaus.
 
In printing technologies, we believe the principal competitive factors for OEMs in selecting a page description language or a printing technology are product capabilities, market leadership, reliability, price, support and engi­neering development assistance. We believe that our competitive advantages include our technology competency, OEM customer relationships and our intellectual property portfolio. Adobe PostScript faces competition from Hewlett-Packard’s proprietary PCL page description language and from developers of other page description languages based on the Post­Script language standard, including Global Graphics and Xionics. In addition, as previously discussed, Microsoft has shipped its next generation operating system called Windows Vista. It includes a new document format called XPS which competes with Adobe PDF and our Adobe PostScript technologies and solutions.
 
In the rapid eLearning authoring market, our Adobe Captivate product faces competition from general content development tools such as Microsoft PowerPoint, screen recording tools such as Techsmith’s Camtasia and more advanced eLearning and software simulation solutions such as Firefly, Lectora and Articulate. Competition in this market is based on speed of development and completeness of the features of products, ease-of-use and price. We believe our product can successfully compete based upon the strength of its broad range of features, its strong brand among users and its widespread adoption among training developers.
 
In Web content management, our Adobe Contribute product faces competition from solutions that provide for the simple creation of blogs and “Wikis,” as well as basic content publishing products such as Microsoft Word, Microsoft FrontPage, Microsoft Notepad, basic HTML editors like ezHTMLArea and ekTron, content management tools like Microsoft SharePoint and, large-scale Web content management systems from companies such as Interwoven, Vignette, IBM and Oracle. Competition in this market is based on usability, quality and features of products, the level of customization and integration with other Web content management components, the integration with Web design tools, the number of hardware platforms supported, service and price. We believe we can successfully compete based upon the usability and price of Adobe Contribute, its strong brand among users and integration with other Web content management components.
 
In multimedia content authoring, our Adobe Director product faces competition from a variety of multimedia content authoring tools. Competition is based on the quality and features of products, ease-of-use and price. We believe we have a strong product and can successfully compete based upon the quality and features of the Adobe Director product, its strong brand among users, its widespread adoption among content developers and publishers and the widespread proliferation of the Shockwave Player.
 
In technical Web authoring and publishing, our Adobe RoboHelp product faces competition from large-scale Web publishing systems, XML-based Web publishing companies, as well as lower-end publishing products such as Microsoft Word. Competition is based on the quality and features of products, the level of customization and integration with other publishing system components, the number of hardware platforms supported, service and price. We believe we can successfully compete based upon the quality and features of the Adobe RoboHelp product.
 
OPERATIONS
 
Marketing and Sales
 
We market and distribute our products through sales channels, which include distributors, retailers, software developers, systems integrators, ISVs and VARs, as well as through OEM and hardware bundle customers. We also market and license our products directly using our sales force and through our own Web site at www.adobe.com.
 
We support our worldwide distribution network and end user customers with international offices around the world, including locations in Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, India, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia,  Singapore, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Turkey and the United Kingdom.
 


We also license software with maintenance and support, which includes rights to upgrades, when and if available, support, updates and enhancements.
 
The table below lists our significant customers, as a percentage of net revenue for fiscal 2006 through 2008. As listed, our significant customers are distributors who sell products across our various segments.
 
 
2008
 
2007
 
2006
Ingram Micro
18
%
 
21
%
 
24
%
Tech Data
9
%
 
10
%
 
10
%
 
Receivables from our significant distributors, as a percentage of gross trade receivables for fiscal 2008 and 2007 are as follows:
 
 
2008
 
2007
Ingram Micro
18
%
 
19
%
Tech Data
8
%
 
10
%
 
Order Fulfillment for Physical Distribution
 
The procurement of the various components of packaged products, including CDs and printed materials, and the assembly of packages for retail and other applications products is controlled by our Global Supply Chain Management operations. We outsource our order fulfillment activities to third parties in the United States, Europe and Asia.
 
To date, we have not experienced significant difficulties in obtaining raw materials for the manufacture of our products or in the replication of CDs, printing and assembly of components. The backlog of orders from customers, as of January 16, 2009 and January 18, 2008, was approximately $6.4 million and $13.8 million, respectively.
 
Services and Support
 
We provide professional services, technical support and customer service to a wide variety of customers including consumers, creative professionals and business users. Our service and support revenue consists primarily of consulting fees, software maintenance and support fees and training fees.
 
Services
 
We have a global Professional Services team dedicated to developing and implementing solutions for enterprise customers in key vertical markets and to transfer technical expertise to our solution partners. The Professional Services team uses a comprehensive, customer-focused methodology to develop high quality solutions, which in turn deliver a competitive advantage to our enterprise customers. A portfolio of technical training courses is also available for desktop and server-based products to meet the needs of our enterprise customers and solution partners.
 
Support
 
A significant portion of our support revenue is composed of our extended enterprise maintenance and support offerings, which entitles customers to the right to receive product upgrades and enhancements during the term of the maintenance and support period, which is typically one year. Regional Support Centers are charged with providing timely, high quality technical expertise on Enterprise and Knowledge Worker products and solutions to meet the growing needs of our customers.
 
Our support revenue also includes support for our desktop products. We offer a range of support programs, from fee-based incidents to annual support contracts. Additionally, we provide extensive self-help and online technical support capabilities via the Web which allows customers quick and easy access to possible solutions. We provide product support through a combination of outsourced vendors and internal support centers.
 
We also offer Developer Support to partners and developer organizations. The Adobe Partner Connection Program focuses on providing developers with high-quality tools, software development kits, information and services.
 


As a registered owner of the current version of an Adobe desktop product, customers are eligible to receive Getting Started support on certain matters. Support for some products and in some countries may vary.
 
Training
 
We inform customers about the use of our products through on-line informational services on our Web site (www.adobe.com) and through a growing series of how to books published by Adobe Press pursuant to a joint publishing agreement with Peachpit Press. In addition, we develop tests to certify independent trainers who teach Adobe software classes. We sponsor workshops, work with professional associations and user groups, and conduct regular beta testing programs.
 
Investments
 
We own a limited partnership interest in Adobe Ventures IV L.P. (“Adobe Ventures”) that has invested in early stage companies with innovative technologies. We also make direct investments in privately-held companies. We enter into these investments with the intent of securing financial returns as well as for strategic purposes as they often increase our knowledge of emerging markets and technologies, as well as expand our opportunities to provide Adobe products and services. Adobe Ventures is managed by Granite Ventures, an independent venture capital firm and sole general partner of Adobe Ventures.
 
As previously disclosed, we plan to invest $100.0 million directly in venture capital, of which, approximately $33.5 million has already been invested. We expect the remaining balance will be invested over the next three to five years.
 
PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT
 
As the software industry is characterized by rapid technological change, a continuous high level of investment is required for the enhancement of existing products and services and the development of new products and services. We develop our software internally as well as acquire products or technology developed by others by purchasing the stock or assets of the business entity that held ownership rights to the technology. In other instances, we have licensed or purchased the intellectual property ownership rights of programs developed by others with license or technology transfer agreements that may obligate us to pay a flat license fee or royalties, typically based on a dollar amount per unit shipped or a percentage of the revenue generated by those programs.
 
During fiscal years ended November 28, 2008, November 30, 2007 and December 1, 2006, our research and development expenses were $662.1 million, $613.2 million and $539.7 million, respectively.
 
PRODUCT PROTECTION
 
We regard our software as proprietary and protect it under the laws of copyrights, patents, trademarks and trade secrets. We protect the source code of our software programs as trade secrets and make source code available to third parties only under limited circumstances and specific security and confidentiality constraints.
 
Our products are generally licensed to end users on a “right to use” basis pursuant to a license that restricts the use of the products to a designated number of devices. We also rely on copyright laws and on “shrink wrap” and electronic licenses that are not physically signed by the end user. Copyright protection may be unavailable under the laws of certain countries and the enforceability of “shrink wrap” and electronic licenses has not been conclusively determined in all jurisdictions.
 
Policing unauthorized use of computer software is difficult and software piracy is a persistent problem for the software industry. This problem is particularly acute in international markets. We conduct vigorous anti-piracy programs directly and through certain external software associations. In addition, we have activation technology in certain products to guard against illegal use and will continue to do so in certain future products.
 
EMPLOYEES  
 
As of January 16, 2009, we employed 7,335 people. We have not experienced work stoppages and believe our employee relations are good.
 


AVAILABLE INFORMATION
 
Our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to reports filed or furnished pursuant to Sections 13(a) and 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, are available free of charge on our Investor Relations Web site at www.adobe.com as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC. The information posted on our Web site is not incorporated into this report.
 
EXECUTIVE OFFICERS
 
Adobe’s executive officers as of January 16, 2009 are as follows:
 
Name
 
Age
 
Positions
Shantanu Narayen
 
45
 
President and Chief Executive Officer
Mark Garrett
 
51
 
Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer
Karen O. Cottle
 
59
 
Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary
Kevin Lynch
 
42
 
Senior Vice President, Chief Technology Officer
Johnny Loiacono
 
47
 
Senior Vice President, Creative Solutions Business Unit
Rob Tarkoff
 
40
 
Senior Vice President, Business Productivity Solutions
Matthew Thompson
 
50
 
Senior Vice President, Worldwide Field Operations
Richard T. Rowley
 
52
 
Vice President, Principal Accounting Officer
 
Mr. Narayen currently serves as Adobe’s President and Chief Executive Officer. Mr. Narayen joined Adobe in January 1998 as Vice President and General Manager of Adobe’s engineering technology group. In January 1999, he was promoted to Senior Vice President, Worldwide Products and in March 2001 he was promoted to Executive Vice President, Worldwide Product Marketing and Development. In January 2005, Mr. Narayen was promoted to President and Chief Operating Officer and in December 2007, he was appointed Chief Executive Officer of Adobe and joined the Adobe Board of Directors. Prior to joining Adobe, Mr. Narayen co-founded Pictra Inc., a digital photo sharing software company, in 1996. He was Director of Desktop and Collaboration products at Silicon Graphics Inc. and held various senior manager positions at Apple Inc. before founding Pictra. Mr. Narayen is also a director of Metavante Technologies, Inc., a banking and payment technology solutions provider.
 
Mr. Garrett joined Adobe in February 2007 as Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer. Mr. Garrett served as Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of the Software Group of EMC Corporation, a products, services and solutions provider for information management and storage, from June 2004 to January 2007, his most recent position since EMC’s acquisition of Documentum, Inc., an enterprise content management company, in December 2003. Mr. Garrett first joined Documentum as Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer in 1997, holding that position through October 1999 and then re-joining Documentum as Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer in 2002. Mr. Garrett is also a director of Informatica Corporation, a provider of enterprise data integration software and services.
 
Ms. Cottle joined Adobe in February 2002 as Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary. Prior to joining Adobe, Ms. Cottle served as General Counsel for Vitria Technology, Inc., a service-oriented business application software company from February 2000 to February 2002. From 1996 to 1999, Ms. Cottle served as Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary of Raychem Corporation.
 
Mr. Lynch currently serves as Adobe’s Chief Technology Officer and Senior Vice President of the Experience & Technology Organization.  Mr. Lynch joined Adobe as Chief Software Architect and Senior Vice President for Adobe’s Platform Business Unit through our acquisition of Macromedia, Inc. in December 2005.  At Macromedia, Mr. Lynch served as Chief Software Architect and President of Product Development, where he led Macromedia in advancing Web software including managing the initial development of Macromedia Dreamweaver and guiding Flash to its current widespread adoption across the Web. Prior to Macromedia, Mr. Lynch participated in a variety of technical and management roles in startups including Frame Technology and General Magic.
 


Mr. Loiacono joined Adobe in April 2006 as Senior Vice President of the Creative Solutions Business Unit.  Prior to joining Adobe, Mr. Loiacono served as Executive Vice President of software at Sun Microsystems, Inc., with responsibility for software technologies including the Solaris operating system, Java, Java Enterprise System suites, Java developer tools and Star Office.  Mr. Loiacono joined Sun Microsystems in 1987 and during his 19 year tenure he also served as General Manager of Sun Microsystems’s operating platform group, as well as Chief Marketing Officer.
 
Mr. Tarkoff currently serves as Adobe’s Senior Vice President of Business Productivity Solutions.  Mr. Tarkoff joined Adobe in April 2007 as Senior Vice President of Corporate Development.  Prior to joining Adobe, Mr. Tarkoff was Senior Vice President and General Manager of the Captiva Software Division and Senior Vice President of Business Development and Channels for the Software Group of EMC Corporation, a products, services and solutions provider for information management and storage, from December 2003 to April 2007.  Previously, Mr. Tarkoff was Executive Vice President and Chief Strategy Officer for Documentum, Inc., an enterprise content management company and Senior Vice President of Worldwide Business Development at Commerce One, a provider of business-to-business e-commerce solutions.
 
Mr. Thompson joined Adobe in January 2006 as Senior Vice President, Worldwide Field Operations. Prior to joining Adobe, Mr. Thompson served as Senior Vice President of Worldwide Sales at Borland Software Corporation, a software delivery optimization solutions provider, from October 2003 to December 2006. Prior to joining Borland, Mr. Thompson was Vice President of Worldwide Sales and Field Operations for Marimba, Inc., a provider of products and services for software change and configuration management, from February 2001 to January 2003. From July 2000 to January 2001, Mr. Thompson was Vice President of Worldwide Sales for Calico Commerce, Inc., a provider of eBusiness applications. Prior to joining Calico, Mr. Thompson spent six years at Cadence Design Systems, Inc., a provider of electronics design technologies. While at Cadence, from January 1998 to June 2000, Mr. Thompson served as Senior Vice President, Worldwide Sales and Field Operations and from April 1994 to January 1998 as Vice President, Worldwide Professional Services.
 
Mr. Rowley joined Adobe in November 2006 as Vice President, Corporate Controller and Principal Accounting Officer. Prior to joining Adobe, Mr. Rowley served as Vice President, Corporate Controller, Treasurer and Principal Accounting Officer at Synopsys, Inc., a semiconductor design software company, from December 2002 to September 2005 and from 1999 to December 2002, Mr. Rowley served as Vice President, Corporate Controller and Principal Accounting Officer. From 1994 to 1999, Mr. Rowley served in several finance-related positions at Synopsys. Mr. Rowley is a certified public accountant.
 


 
As previously discussed, our actual results could differ materially from our forward-looking statements. Factors that might cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those discussed below. These and many other factors described in this report could adversely affect our operations, performance and financial condition.
 
Adverse changes in general economic or political conditions in any of the major countries in which we do business could adversely affect our operating results.
 
As our business has grown, we have become increasingly subject to the risks arising from adverse changes in domestic and global economic and political conditions. Uncertainty about future economic and political conditions makes it difficult for us to forecast operating results and to make decisions about future investments. For example, the direction and relative strength of the global economy has recently been increasingly uncertain due to softness in the residential real estate and mortgage markets, volatility in fuel and other energy costs, difficulties in the financial services sector and credit markets, continuing geopolitical uncertainties and other macroeconomic factors affecting spending behavior. If economic growth in the United States and other countries’ economies is slowed, many customers may delay or reduce technology purchases or marketing spending. This could result in reductions in sales of our products, longer sales cycles, slower adoption of new technologies and increased price competition.
 
The current global financial crisis affecting the banking system and financial markets and the possibility that financial institutions may consolidate or go out of business have resulted in a tightening in the credit markets, a low level of liquidity in many financial markets, and extreme volatility in fixed income, credit, currency and equity markets. There could be a number of follow-on effects from the credit crisis on our business, including insolvency of certain of our key distributors, resellers, OEMs, retailers and systems integrators, ISVs and VARs (collectively referred to as “distributors”), which could impair our distribution channels, inability of customers, including our distributors, to obtain credit to finance purchases of our products, and failure of derivative counterparties and other financial institutions, which could negatively impact our treasury operations. Other income and expense could also vary from expectations depending on gains or losses realized on the sale or exchange of financial instruments, impairment charges related to investment securities as well as equity and other investments, interest rates, cash balances, and changes in fair value of derivative instruments. Any of these events would likely harm our business, results of operations and financial condition.
 
Political instability in any of the major countries we do business in would also likely harm our business, results of operations and financial condition.
 
If we cannot continue to develop, market and distribute new products or upgrades to existing products that meet customer requirements, our operating results could suffer.

The process of developing new high technology products and enhancing existing products is complex, costly and uncertain, and any failure by us to anticipate customers’ changing needs and emerging technological trends accurately could significantly harm our market share and results of operations. We must make long-term investments, develop or obtain appropriate intellectual property and commit significant resources before knowing whether our predictions will accurately reflect customer demand for our products. Our inability to extend our core technologies into new applications and new platforms and to anticipate or respond to technological changes could affect continued market acceptance of our products and our ability to develop new products. Additionally, any delay in the development, production, marketing or distribution of a new product or upgrade to an existing product could cause a decline in our revenue, earnings or stock price and could harm our competitive position.
 
We offer our desktop application-based products primarily on Windows and Macintosh platforms. We generally offer our server-based products on the Linux platform as well as the Windows and UNIX platforms. To the extent that there is a slowdown of customer purchases of personal computers on either the Windows or Macintosh platform or in general, or to the extent that significant demand arises for our products or competitive products on the Linux desktop or other platforms before we choose and are able to offer our products on these platforms our business could be harmed. Additionally, to the extent that
 


we have difficulty transitioning product or version releases to new Windows and Macintosh operating systems, or to the extent new releases of operating systems or other third party products make it more difficult for our products to perform, our business could be harmed.
 
Introduction of new products and business models by existing and new competitors could harm our competitive position and results of operations.
 
The markets for our products are characterized by intense competition, evolving industry standards and business models, disruptive software and hardware technology developments, frequent new product introductions, short product life cycles, price cutting, with resulting downward pressure on gross margins, and price sensitivity on the part of consumers. Our future success will depend on our ability to enhance our existing products, introduce new products on a timely and cost-effective basis, meet changing customer needs, extend our core technology into new applications, and anticipate and respond to emerging standards, business models, software delivery methods and other technological changes. For example, Microsoft Windows Vista operating system which contains a fixed document format, XPS, competes with Adobe PDF. Additionally, Microsoft Office 2007, which offers a feature to save Microsoft Office documents as PDF files through a freely distributed plug-in, competes with Adobe PDF creation (Microsoft has announced that it will add support for PDF directly in its Office products beginning in 2009 via SP2 for Office 2007). Microsoft Expression Studio competes with our Adobe Creative Suite family of products and Microsoft Silverlight and Visual Studio, Web development tools for RIAs, compete with Adobe Flash and Adobe Flex. Google Gears and Sun’s JavaFX, alternative approaches to building RIAs compete with Adobe Flash and Adobe AIR. Companies, such as Google, Sun, Apple and Microsoft, may introduce competing software offerings for free or open source vendors may introduce competitive products. In addition, recent advances in computing and communications technologies have made the software as a service (“SaaS”) business model viable. SaaS allows companies to provide applications, data and related services over the Internet. Providers use primarily advertising or subscription-based revenue models. We are exploring the deployment of our own SaaS strategies, but may not be able to develop the infrastructure and business models as quickly as our competitors. If any of these competing products or services achieve widespread acceptance, our operating results could suffer. In addition, consolidation has occurred among some of the competitors in our markets. Any further consolidations among our competitors may result in stronger competitors and may therefore harm our results of operations. For additional information regarding our competition and the risks arising out of the competitive environment in which we operate, see the section entitled “Competition” contained in Item 1 of this report.
 
If we fail to successfully manage transitions to new business models and markets, our results of operations could be negatively impacted.
 
We plan to release numerous new product offerings and employ new software delivery methods in connection with our transition to new business models. It is uncertain whether these strategies will prove successful or that we will be able to develop the infrastructure and business models as quickly as our competitors. Market acceptance of these new product and service offerings will be dependent on our ability to include functionality and usability in such releases that address certain customer requirements with which we have limited prior experience and operating history. Additionally, customer requirements for open standards or open source products could impact adoption or use with respect to some of our products. To the extent we incorrectly estimate customer requirements for such products or services or if there is a delay in market acceptance of such products or services, our business could be harmed.
 
From time to time we open source certain of our technology initiatives, provide broader open access to certain of our technology, such as our Open Screen Project, and release selected technology for industry standardization. These changes may have negative revenue implications and make it easier for our competitors to produce products similar to ours. If we are unable to respond to these competitive threats, our business could be harmed.
 
We are also devoting significant resources to the development of technologies and service offerings in markets where we have a limited operating history, including the enterprise, government and mobile and device markets. In the enterprise and government markets, we intend to increase our focus on vertical markets such as education, financial services, manufacturing, and the architecture, engineering and construction markets and horizontal markets such as training and marketing. These new offerings and markets require a considerable investment of technical, financial and sales resources, and
 


a scalable organization. Many of our competitors may have advantages over us due to their larger presence, larger developer network, deeper experience in the enterprise, government and mobile and device markets, and greater sales and marketing resources. In the mobile and device markets, our intent is to partner with device makers, manufacturers and telecommunications carriers to embed our technology on their platforms, and in the enterprise and government market our intent is to form strategic alliances with leading enterprise and government solutions and service providers to provide additional resources to further enable penetration of such markets. If we are unable to successfully enter into strategic alliances with device makers, manufacturers, telecommunication carriers and leading enterprise and government solutions and service providers, or if they are not as productive as we anticipate, our market penetration may not proceed as rapidly as we anticipate and our results of operations could be negatively impacted.
 
Revenue from our new businesses may be difficult to predict.
 
As previously discussed, we are devoting significant resources to the development of product and service offerings where we have a limited operating history. This makes it difficult to predict revenue and revenue may decline quicker than anticipated. Additionally, we have a limited history of licensing products in certain markets such as the government and enterprise market and may experience a number of factors that will make our revenue less predictable, including longer than expected sales and implementation cycles, decision to open source certain of our technology initiatives, potential deferral of revenue due to multiple-element revenue arrangements and alternate licensing arrangements. If any of our assumptions about revenue from our new businesses prove incorrect, our actual results may vary materially from those anticipated, estimated or projected.
 
We may incur substantial costs enforcing or acquiring intellectual property rights and defending against third-party claims as a result of litigation or other proceedings.
 
In connection with the enforcement of our own intellectual property rights, the acquisition of third-party intellectual property rights, or disputes relating to the validity or alleged infringement of third-party intellectual property rights, including patent rights, we have been, are currently and may in the future be subject to claims, negotiations or complex, protracted litigation. Intellectual property disputes and litigation are typically very costly and can be disruptive to our business operations by diverting the attention and energies of management and key technical personnel. Although we have successfully defended or resolved past litigation and disputes, we may not prevail in any ongoing or future litigation and disputes. Third party intellectual property disputes could subject us to significant liabilities, require us to enter into royalty and licensing arrangements on unfavorable terms, prevent us from manufacturing or licensing certain of our products, subject us to injunctions restricting our sale of products, cause severe disruptions to our operations or the markets in which we compete, or require us to satisfy indemnification commitments with our customers including contractual provisions under various license arrangements. In addition, we may incur significant costs in acquiring the necessary third party intellectual property rights for use in our products. Any of these could seriously harm our business.
 
We may not be able to protect our intellectual property rights, including our source code, from third-party infringers, or unauthorized copying, use, disclosure or malicious attack.
 
Although we defend our intellectual property rights and combat unlicensed copying and use of software and intellectual property rights through a variety of techniques, preventing unauthorized use or infringement of our rights is inherently difficult. We actively pursue software pirates as part of our enforcement of our intellectual property rights, but we nonetheless lose significant revenue due to illegal use of our software. If piracy activities increase, it may further harm our business.
 
Additionally, we take significant measures to protect the secrecy of our confidential information and trade secrets, including our source code. If unauthorized disclosure of our source code occurs, we could potentially lose future trade secret protection for that source code. The loss of future trade secret protection could make it easier for third parties to compete with our products by copying functionality, which could adversely affect our revenue and operating margins. We also seek to protect our confidential information and trade secrets through the use of non-disclosure agreements with our customers, contractors, vendors, and partners. However there is a risk that our confidential information and trade secrets may be
 


disclosed or published without our authorization, and in these situations it may be difficult and or costly for us to enforce our rights.
 
We also devote significant resources to maintaining the security of our products from malicious hackers who develop and deploy viruses, worms, and other malicious software programs that attack our products. Nevertheless, actual or perceived security vulnerabilities in our products could harm our reputation and lead some customers to seek to return products, to reduce or delay future purchases, to use competitive products or to make claims against us. Also, with the introduction of hosted services with some of our product offerings, our customers may use such services to share confidential and sensitive information. If a breach of security occurs on these hosted systems, we could be held liable to our customers. Additionally, such breaches could lead to interruptions, delays and data loss and protection concerns as well as harm to our reputation.

We may not realize the anticipated benefits of past or future acquisitions, and integration of these acquisitions may disrupt our business and management.
 
We have in the past and may in the future acquire additional companies, products or technologies. We may not realize the anticipated benefits of an acquisition and each acquisition has numerous risks. These risks include:
 
 
·
difficulty in assimilating the operations and personnel of the acquired company;
 
 
·
difficulty in effectively integrating the acquired technologies or products with our current products and technologies;
 
 
·
difficulty in maintaining controls, procedures and policies during the transition and integration;
 
 
·
disruption of our ongoing business and distraction of our management and employees from other opportunities and challenges;
 
 
·
difficulty integrating the acquired company’s accounting, management information, human resources and other administrative systems;
 
 
·
inability to retain key technical and managerial personnel of the acquired business;
 
 
·
inability to retain key customers, distributors, vendors and other business partners of the acquired business;
 
 
·
inability to achieve the financial and strategic goals for the acquired and combined businesses;
 
 
·
inability to take advantage of anticipated tax benefits as a result of unforeseen difficulties in our integration activities;
 
 
·
incurring acquisition-related costs or amortization costs for acquired intangible assets that could impact our operating results;
 
 
·
potential impairment of our relationships with employees, customers, partners, distributors or third-party providers of technology or products;
 
 
·
potential failure of the due diligence processes to identify significant problems, liabilities or other shortcomings or challenges of an acquired company or technology, including but not limited to, issues with the acquired company’s intellectual property, product quality or product architecture, revenue recognition or other accounting practices, employee, customer or partner issues or legal and financial contingencies;
 
 
·
exposure to litigation or other claims in connection with, or inheritance of claims or litigation risk as a result of, an acquisition, including but not limited to, claims from terminated employees, customers, former stockholders or other third parties;
 
 
·
incurring significant exit charges if products acquired in business combinations are unsuccessful;
 
 
·
potential inability to assert that internal controls over financial reporting are effective;
 


 
·
potential inability to obtain, or obtain in a timely manner, approvals from governmental authorities, which could delay or prevent such acquisitions; and
 
 
·
potential delay in customer and distributor purchasing decisions due to uncertainty about the direction of our product offerings.
 
Mergers and acquisitions of high technology companies are inherently risky, and ultimately, if we do not complete an announced acquisition transaction or integrate an acquired business successfully and in a timely manner, we may not realize the benefits of the acquisition to the extent anticipated.

Failure to manage our sales and distribution channels effectively could result in a loss of revenue and harm to our business.
 
A significant amount of our revenue for application products is from two distributors, Ingram Micro, Inc. and Tech Data Corporation, which represented 18% and 9% of our net revenue for fiscal 2008, respectively. We have multiple non-exclusive, independently negotiated distribution agreements with Ingram Micro and Tech Data and their subsidiaries covering our arrangements in specified countries and regions. Each of these contracts has an independent duration, is independent of any other agreement (such as a master distribution agreement) and any termination of one agreement does not affect the status of any of the other agreements. In fiscal 2008, no single agreement with these distributors was responsible for over 10% of our total net revenue. If any one of our agreements with these distributors were terminated, we believe we could make arrangements with new or existing distributors to distribute our products without a substantial disruption to our business; however, any prolonged delay in securing a replacement distributor could have a negative short-term impact on our results of operations.
 
Our distributors also sell our competitors’ products, and if they favor our competitors’ products for any reason, they may fail to market our products as effectively or to devote resources necessary to provide effective sales, which would cause our results to suffer. We also distribute some products through our OEM channel, and if our OEM partners decide not to bundle our applications on their devices, our results could suffer.
 
In addition, the financial health of our distributors and our continuing relationships with them are important to our success. Some of these distributors may be unable to withstand adverse changes in current economic conditions, which could result in insolvency of certain of our distributors and/or the inability of our distributors to obtain credit to finance purchases of our products. In addition, weakness in the end-user market could further negatively affect the cash flow of our distributors who could, in turn, delay paying their obligations to us, which would increase our credit risk exposure. Our business could be harmed if the financial condition of some of these distributors substantially weakens and we were unable to timely secure replacement distributors.
 
We also sell certain of our products through our direct sales force. Risks associated with this sales channel include a longer sales cycle associated with direct sales efforts, difficulty in hiring, retaining and motivating our direct sales force, and substantial amounts of training for sales representatives, including regular updates to cover new and upgraded products.
 
Catastrophic events may disrupt our business.
 
We are a highly automated business and rely on our network infrastructure and enterprise applications, internal technology systems and our Web site for our development, marketing, operational, support, hosted services and sales activities. A disruption or failure of these systems in the event of a major earthquake, fire, telecommunications failure, cyber-attack, war, terrorist attack, or other catastrophic event could cause system interruptions, reputational harm, delays in our product development, breaches of data security and loss of critical data and could prevent us from fulfilling our customers’ orders. Our corporate headquarters, a significant portion of our research and development activities, our data centers, and certain other critical business operations are located in San Jose, California, which is near major earthquake faults. We have developed certain disaster recovery plans and certain backup systems to reduce the potentially adverse effect of such events, but a catastrophic event that results in the destruction or disruption of any of our data centers or our critical business or information technology systems could severely affect our ability to conduct normal business operations and, as a result, our future operating results could be adversely affected.
 


Net revenue, margin or earnings shortfalls or the volatility of the market generally may cause the market price of our stock to decline.
 
The market price for our common stock has experienced significant fluctuations and may continue to fluctuate significantly. The market price for our common stock may be affected by a number of factors, including shortfalls in our net revenue, margins, earnings or key performance metrics, changes in estimates or recommendations by securities analysts, the announcement of new products or product enhancements by us or our competitors, quarterly variations in our or our competitors’ results of operations, developments in our industry; unusual events such as significant acquisitions, divestitures and litigation, general socio-economic, political or market conditions and other factors, including factors unrelated to our operating performance.
 
We are subject to risks associated with international operations which may harm our business.
 
We generate over 50% of our total revenue from sales to customers outside of the Americas. Sales to these customers subject us to a number of risks, including:
 
 
·
foreign currency fluctuations;
 
 
·
changes in government preferences for software procurement;
 
 
·
international economic, political and labor conditions;
 
 
·
tax laws (including U.S. taxes on foreign subsidiaries);
 
 
·
unexpected changes in, or impositions of, international legislative or regulatory requirements;
 
 
·
failure of foreign laws to protect our intellectual property rights adequately;
 
 
·
inadequate local infrastructure;
 
 
·
delays resulting from difficulty in obtaining export licenses for certain technology, tariffs, quotas and other trade barriers and restrictions;
 
 
·
transportation delays;
 
 
·
the burdens of complying with a variety of foreign laws, including consumer and data protection laws; and
 
 
·
other factors beyond our control, including terrorism, war, natural disasters and diseases.
 
If sales to any of our customers outside of the Americas are delayed or cancelled because of any of the above factors, our revenue may be negatively impacted.
 
In addition, approximately 43% of our employees are located outside the United States. This means we have exposure to changes in foreign laws governing our relationships with our employees, including wage and hour laws and regulations, fair labor standards, unemployment tax rates, workers’ compensation rates, citizenship requirements and payroll and other taxes, which likely would have a direct impact on our operating costs. We also intend to expand our international operations and international sales and marketing activities. Expansion in international markets has required, and will continue to require, significant management attention and resources. We may be unable to scale our infrastructure effectively, or as quickly as our competitors, in these markets, which would cause our results to suffer. Moreover, local laws and customs in many countries differ significantly from those in the United States. We incur additional legal compliance costs associated with our international operations and could become subject to legal penalties in foreign countries if we do not comply with local laws and regulations, which may be substantially different from those in the United States. In many foreign countries, particularly in those with developing economies, it is common to engage in business practices that are prohibited by United States regulations applicable to us such as the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Although we implement policies and procedures designed to ensure compliance with these laws, there can be no assurance that all of our employees, contractors and agents, as well as those companies to which we outsource certain of our business operations, including those based in or from countries
 


where practices which violate such United States laws may be customary, will not take actions in violation of our policies. Any such violation, even if prohibited by our policies, could have an adverse effect on our business.
 
We may incur losses associated with currency fluctuations and may not be able to effectively hedge our exposure.
 
Our operating results are subject to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates. We attempt to mitigate a portion of these risks through foreign currency hedging, based on our judgment of the appropriate trade-offs among risk, opportunity and expense. We have established a hedging program to partially hedge our exposure to foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations primarily for the Japanese Yen and the Euro. We regularly review our hedging program and make adjustments as necessary based on the judgment factors discussed above. Our hedging activities may not offset more than a portion of the adverse financial impact resulting from unfavorable movement in foreign currency exchange rates, which could adversely affect our financial condition or results of operations.
 
Changes in, or interpretations of, accounting principles could result in unfavorable accounting charges.
 
We prepare our consolidated financial statements in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”). These principles are subject to interpretation by the SEC and various bodies formed to interpret and create appropriate accounting principles. A change in these principles can have a significant effect on our reported results and may even retroactively affect previously reported transactions. Our accounting principles that recently have been or may be affected by changes in the accounting principles are as follows:
 
 
·
software revenue recognition;
 
 
·
accounting for stock-based compensation;
 
 
·
accounting for income taxes; and
 
 
·
accounting for business combinations and related goodwill.
 
For example, in the first quarter of fiscal 2006, we adopted SFAS No. 123 (revised 2004) (“SFAS 123R”), “Share-Based Payment” which requires the measurement of all stock-based compensation to employees, including grants of employee stock options, using a fair-value-based method and the recording of such expense in our consolidated statements of income. The adoption of SFAS 123R has had, and will continue to have, a significant adverse effect on our reported financial results.
 
We also adopted FIN 48 in the first quarter of fiscal 2008. The adoption of FIN 48 resulted in an increase to both assets and liabilities in our condensed consolidated balance sheet as of the beginning of fiscal 2008 and may create increased volatility in our future operating results.
 
In December 2007, the FASB issued SFAS No. 141 (revised 2007), (“SFAS 141R”), “Business Combinations,” which changes the accounting for business combinations including the measurement of acquirer shares issued in consideration for a business combination, the recognition of contingent consideration, the accounting for pre-acquisition gain and loss contingencies, the recognition of capitalized in-process research and development, the accounting for acquisition related restructuring liabilities, the treatment of acquisition related transaction costs and the recognition of changes in the acquirer’s income tax valuation allowance. SFAS 141R is effective for financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2008. We are in the process of evaluating the impact of the pending adoption of Statement 141R. We currently believe that the adoption of Statement 141R will result in the recognition of certain types of expenses in our results of operations that we currently capitalize pursuant to existing accounting standards and may also impact our financial statements in other ways.
 


If our goodwill or amortizable intangible assets become impaired we may be required to record a significant charge to earnings.
 
Under GAAP, we review our goodwill and amortizable intangible assets for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value may not be recoverable. Goodwill is required to be tested for impairment at least annually. Factors that may be considered a change in circumstances indicating that the carrying value of our goodwill or amortizable intangible assets may not be recoverable include a decline in stock price and market capitalization, future cash flows, and slower growth rates in our industry. We may be required to record a significant charge to earnings in our financial statements during the period in which any impairment of our goodwill or amortizable intangible assets is determined, resulting in an impact on our results of operations. For example, our Mobile and Device Solutions business, which will be reported as part of our Platform segment in fiscal 2009, is in an emerging market with high growth potential. We recently announced the Open Screen Project. As part of the project, we will be removing the license fees on the next major releases of Adobe Flash Player and Adobe AIR for devices. Accordingly, we would expect revenue from this segment to decrease beginning in the first quarter of fiscal 2009. Although we would expect this decrease to be offset in time by an increased demand for tooling products, server technologies, hosted services and applications, if future revenue or revenue forecasts for our Platform segment do not meet our expectations, we may be required to record a charge to earnings reflecting an impairment of recorded goodwill or intangible assets.
 
Changes in, or interpretations of, tax rules and regulations may adversely affect our effective tax rates.
 
We are a U.S. based multinational company subject to tax in multiple U.S. and foreign tax jurisdictions. Unanticipated changes in our tax rates could affect our future results of operations. Our future effective tax rates could be unfavorably affected by changes in, or interpretation of, tax rules and regulations in the jurisdictions in which we do business, by unanticipated decreases in the amount of revenue or earnings in countries with low statutory tax rates, by lapses of the availability of the U.S. research and development tax credit, or by changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets and liabilities.
 
In addition, we are subject to the continual examination of our income tax returns by the IRS and other domestic and foreign tax authorities, including a current examination by the IRS for our fiscal 2005, 2006 and 2007 tax returns. These examinations are expected to focus on our intercompany transfer pricing practices as well as other matters. We regularly assess the likelihood of outcomes resulting from these examinations to determine the adequacy of our provision for income taxes and have reserved for potential adjustments that may result from the current examination. We believe such estimates to be reasonable; however, there can be no assurance that the final determination of any of these examinations will not have an adverse effect on our operating results and financial position.
 
If we are unable to recruit and retain key personnel our business may be harmed.
 
Much of our future success depends on the continued service and availability of our senior management. These individuals have acquired specialized knowledge and skills with respect to Adobe. The loss of any of these individuals could harm our business. Our business is also dependent on our ability to retain, hire and motivate talented, highly skilled personnel. Experienced personnel in the information technology industry are in high demand and competition for their talents is intense, especially in the Bay Area, where many of our employees are located. We have relied on our ability to grant equity compensation as one mechanism for recruiting and retaining such highly skilled personnel. Recently enacted accounting regulations requiring the expensing of equity compensation may impair our ability to provide these incentives without incurring significant compensation costs. Additionally, the recent significant adverse volatility in our stock price has resulted in many employees’ stock option exercise prices exceeding the underlying stock’s market value as well as deterioration in the value of employees’ restricted stock units granted, thus lessening the effectiveness of retaining employees through stock-based awards. If we are unable to continue to successfully attract and retain key personnel, our business may be harmed.


Our investment portfolio may become impaired by deterioration of the capital markets.
 
Our cash equivalent and short-term investment portfolio as of November 28, 2008 consisted of US treasury securities, bonds of government agencies, obligations of foreign governments, corporate bonds and taxable money market mutual funds. We follow an established investment policy and set of guidelines to monitor and help mitigate our exposure to interest rate and credit risk. The policy sets forth credit quality standards and limits our exposure to any one issuer, as well as our maximum exposure to various asset classes.
 
As a result of current adverse financial market conditions, investments in some financial instruments, such as structured investment vehicles, sub-prime mortgage-backed securities and collateralized debt obligations, may pose risks arising from recent market liquidity and credit concerns. As of November 28, 2008, we had no direct holdings in these categories of investments and our indirect exposure to these financial instruments through our holdings in money market mutual funds was immaterial. As of November 28, 2008, we had no material impairment charges associated with our short-term investment portfolio relating to such adverse financial market conditions. Although we believe our current investment portfolio has very little risk of material impairment, we cannot predict future market conditions or market liquidity and can provide no assurance that our investment portfolio will remain materially unimpaired.
 
We may suffer losses from our equity investments which could harm our business.
 
We have investments and plan to continue to make future investments in privately-held companies, many of which are considered in the start-up or development stages. These investments are inherently risky, as the market for the technologies or products these companies have under development is typically in the early stages and may never materialize. Our investment activities can impact our net income. Future price fluctuations in these securities and any significant long-term declines in value of any of our investments could reduce our net income in future periods.
 
We rely on turnkey assemblers and any adverse change in our relationship with our turnkey assemblers could result in a loss of revenue and harm our business.
 
We currently rely on six turnkey assemblers of our products, with at least two turnkeys located in each major region we serve. If any significant turnkey assembler terminates its relationship with us, or if our supply from any significant turnkey assembler is interrupted or terminated for any other reason, we may not have enough time or be able to replace the supply of products replicated by that turnkey assembler to avoid serious harm to our business.
 


 
None.
 
 
The following table sets forth the location, approximate square footage and use of each of the principal properties used by Adobe during fiscal 2008. We lease or sublease all of these properties with the exception of our property in India, where we own the building and lease the land, and San Francisco where we own the building and land. All properties are leased under operating leases. Such leases expire at various times through 2028, with the exception of the land lease that expires in 2091. The annual base rent expense (including operating expenses, property taxes and assessments, as applicable) for all facilities is currently approximately $86.3 million and is subject to annual adjustments as well as changes in interest rates.
 
Location
     
Approximate
Square
Footage
 
Use
North America:
           
345 Park Avenue
San Jose, CA 95110, USA
   
378,000
   
Research, product development, sales and marketing, and administration
             
321 Park Avenue
San Jose, CA 95110, USA
   
321,000
   
Research, product development, sales and marketing
             
151 Almaden Boulevard
San Jose, CA 95110, USA
   
267,000
   
Product development, sales and administration
             
601 and 625 Townsend
San Francisco, CA 94103, USA
   
272,000
*
 
 
Research, product development, sales, marketing and administration
             
801 N. 34th Street-Waterfront
Seattle, WA 98103, USA
   
182,000
   
Product development, sales, technical support and administration
             
1-3 Riverside Center
275 Grove Street
Newton, MA 02466, USA
   
81,000
**
 
Research, product development, sales and marketing
             
333 Preston Street
Ottawa, Ontario K1S 1N4
   
125,000
   
Research, product development, sales, marketing and administration
             
India:
           
Adobe Towers, 1-1A, Sector 25A
Noida, U.P. 201301
   
191,000
   
Product development
             
Adobe Towers, Plot #6, Sector 127
Expressway, Noida, U.P. 201301
   
65,000
   
Product development
             
Salapuria Infinity, 3rd Floor
#5, Bannerghatta Road
Bangalore 560029
   
84,000
   
Research and product development
             
Japan:
           
Gate City Ohsaki East Tower
1-11-2 Ohsaki, Shinagawa-ku
Tokyo 141-0032
   
57,000
   
Product development, sales and marketing



Location
   
Approximate
Square
Footage
 
Use
China:            
Block A, SP Tower, 21st & 22nd Floor
Block D, SP Tower, 10th Floor
Tsinghua Science Park, Yard 1
Zhongguancun Donglu, Haidian District
Beijing, China
   
46,000
   
Research and product development
             
Germany:
           
Grobe Elbstrable 27
Hamburg 22767
   
36,000
   
Research and product development
             
Romania:
           
26 Z Timisoara Blvd, Anchor Plaza
Lujerului, Sector 6
Bucharest
   
22,000
***
 
Research and product development
             
UK:
           
3 Roundwood Avenue
Stockley Park, Uxbridge, UB11 1AY
   
22,000
   
Product development, sales, marketing and administration
_________________________________________
The total square footage is 346,000, of which we occupy 272,000 square feet, or approximately 79% of this facility; 74,000 square feet is unoccupied basement space.
 
** 
The total square footage is 348,000, of which we occupy 81,000 square feet, or approximately 23% of this facility.  The remaining square footage is subleased.
 
*** 
The total square footage is 44,000, of which we occupy 22,000 square feet, or approximately 50% of this facility.  The remaining square footage is subleased.
 
In general, all facilities are in good condition and are operating at an average capacity of approximately 85%.
 
 
In connection with our anti-piracy efforts, conducted both internally and through organizations such as the Business Software Alliance, from time to time we undertake litigation against alleged copyright infringers. Such lawsuits may lead to counter-claims alleging improper use of litigation or violation of other local laws. We believe we have valid defenses with respect to such counter-claims; however, it is possible that our consolidated financial position, cash flows or results of operations could be affected in any particular period by the resolution of one or more of these counter-claims.
 
From time to time, Adobe is subject to legal proceedings, claims and investigations in the ordinary course of business, including claims of alleged infringement of third-party patents and other intellectual property rights, commercial, employment and other matters. In accordance with GAAP, Adobe makes a provision for a liability when it is both probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of the loss can be reasonably estimated. These provisions are reviewed at least quarterly and adjusted to reflect the impacts of negotiations, settlements, rulings, advice of legal counsel and other information and events pertaining to a particular case. Litigation is inherently unpredictable. However, we believe that we have valid defenses with respect to the legal matters pending against Adobe. It is possible, nevertheless, that our consolidated financial position, cash flows or results of operations could be negatively affected by an unfavorable resolution of one or more of such proceedings, claims or investigations.
 


 
No matters were submitted to a vote of security holders during the quarter ended November 28, 2008.
 
PART II
 
 
Our common stock is traded on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol “ADBE.” On January 16, 2009, there were 1,728 holders of record of our common stock. Because many of such shares are held by brokers and other institutions on behalf of stockholders, we are unable to estimate the total number of stockholders represented by these record holders.
 
We did not pay any cash dividends on our common stock during fiscal 2008 or fiscal 2007. Under the terms of our credit agreement and lease agreements, we are not prohibited from paying cash dividends unless payment would trigger an event of default or one currently exists. The following table sets forth the high and low sales price per share of our common stock for the periods indicated.
 
   
Price Range
 
   
High
   
Low
 
Fiscal 2008:
           
First Quarter
  $ 44.62     $ 32.62  
Second Quarter
    44.06       30.79  
Third Quarter
    45.89       38.23  
Fourth Quarter
    43.14       20.75  
Fiscal Year
    45.89       20.75  
Fiscal 2007:
               
First Quarter
  $ 42.81     $ 37.52  
Second Quarter
    44.53       38.52  
Third Quarter
    44.58       38.75  
Fourth Quarter
    48.00       40.82  
Fiscal Year
    48.00       37.52  

 


 
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
 
Below is a summary of stock repurchases for the quarter ended November 28, 2008. See Note 12 of our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for information regarding our stock repurchase programs.
 
Plan/Period(1)
 
Shares
Repurchased(2)
   
Average
Price Per
Share
   
Maximum Number
of Shares that May
Yet Be Purchased
Under the Plan
   
Stock Repurchase Program I
                   
Beginning shares available to be repurchased as of August 29, 2008
                143,023,525   (3)  
August 30—September 26, 2008
                     
Structured repurchases
    1,019,649     $ 40.23            
September 27—October 24, 2008
                         
From employees(4)
    29     $ 26.00            
Structured repurchases
    1,023,240     $ 32.58            
Open market repurchases
    2,802,943     $ 35.67            
October 25—November 28, 2008
                         
Structured repurchases
    1,340,051     $ 23.84            
Adjustments to repurchase authority for net dilution
                  (3,338,382 ) (5) 
Total shares repurchased
    6,185,912               (6,185,912 )  
Ending shares available to be repurchased under Program I as of November 28, 2008
                    133,499,231   (6) 
_________________________________________
(1) 
Stock Repurchase Program I
 
In December 1997, our Board of Directors authorized Stock Repurchase Program I which is not subject to expiration. However, this repurchase program is limited to covering net dilution from stock issuances and is subject to business conditions and cash flow requirements as determined by our Board of Directors from time to time.
 
(2) 
All shares were purchased as part of publicly announced plans.
 
(3) 
Additional 109.0 million shares were issued for the acquisition of Macromedia which accounted for the majority of the repurchase authorization.
 
(4) 
The repurchases from employees represent shares cancelled when surrendered in lieu of cash payments for withholding taxes due.
 
(5) 
Adjustment of authority to reflect changes in the dilution from outstanding shares and options.
 
(6) 
The remaining authorization for the ongoing stock repurchase program is determined by combining all stock issuances, net of any cancelled, surrendered or exchanged shares less all stock repurchases under the ongoing plan, beginning in the first quarter of fiscal 1998.
 


Stock Performance Graph*
 
Five-Year Stockholder Return Comparison
 
The line graph below compares the cumulative stockholder return on our common stock with the cumulative total return of the Standard & Poor’s 500 Index (“S&P 500”) and the S&P 500 Software & Services Index for the five fiscal year period ending November 28, 2008. The stock price information shown on the graph below is not necessarily indicative of future price performance.
 
The following table and graph assume that $100.00 was invested on November 28, 2003 in our common stock, the S&P 500 Index and the S&P 500 Software & Services Index, with reinvestment of dividends.  For each reported year, our reported dates are the last trading dates of our fiscal year which ends on the Friday closest to November 30.
 
   
2004
   
2005
   
2006
   
2007
   
2008
 
Adobe Systems
  $ 152.59     $ 169.57     $ 190.81     $ 204.34     $ 112.30  
S&P 500 Index
    114.56       123.91       139.40       150.59       93.22  
S&P 500 Software & Services Index
    118.75       122.24       127.67       145.77       83.62  

 
GRAPH.JPG
 
_________________________________________
*
The material in this report is not deemed “filed” with the SEC and is not to be incorporated by reference into any of our filing under the Securities Act of 1933 or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, whether made before or after the date hereof and irrespective of any general incorporation language in any such filings.
 
 


 
The following selected consolidated financial data (presented in thousands, except per share amounts and employee data) is derived from our consolidated financial statements. This data should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto, and with Item 7, Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
 
   
Fiscal Years
 
   
2008
   
2007
   
2006
   
2005
   
2004
 
Operations:
                             
Revenue
  $ 3,579,889     $ 3,157,881     $ 2,575,300     $ 1,966,321     $ 1,666,581  
Gross profit
    3,217,259       2,803,187       2,282,843       1,853,743       1,562,203  
Income before income taxes
    1,078,508       947,190       679,727       765,776       608,645  
Net income(1)
    871,814       723,807       505,809       602,839       450,398  
Net income per share(1), (2)
                                       
Basic
    1.62       1.24       0.85       1.23       0.94  
Diluted
    1.59       1.21       0.83       1.19       0.91  
Cash dividends declared per common share
                      0.00625       0.025  
Financial position:(3)
                                       
Cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments
    2,019,202       1,993,854       2,280,879       1,700,834       1,313,221  
Working capital
    1,972,504       1,720,441       2,208,688       1,528,915       1,107,458  
Total assets
    5,821,598       5,713,679       5,962,548       2,440,315       1,958,632  
Long-term debt
    350,000                          
Stockholders’ equity
  $ 4,410,354     $ 4,649,982     $ 5,151,876     $ 1,865,164     $ 1,423,477  
Additional data:
                                       
Worldwide employees
    7,544       6,794       6,068       4,285       3,848  
_________________________________________
(1) 
In fiscal 2008, 2007 and 2006, net income and net income per share includes the impact of SFAS 123R stock-based compensation charges as well as the integration of Macromedia into our operations in fiscal 2006, neither of which were present in fiscal years 2005 and prior. See Notes 2 and 11 of our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for information regarding our Macromedia acquisition and stock-based compensation, respectively.
 
(2) 
On March 16, 2005, our Board of Directors approved a two-for-one stock split, in the form of a stock dividend, of our common stock payable on May 23, 2005 to stockholders of record as of May 2, 2005. Per share data, for all periods presented, have been adjusted to give effect to this stock split.
 
(3) 
Information associated with our financial position is as of the Friday closest to November 30 for the five fiscal periods through 2008.
 


 
The following discussion (presented in millions, except where indicated) should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and notes thereto.
 
In addition to historical information, this Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements, including statements regarding product plans, future growth and market opportunities which involve risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from these forward-looking statements. Factors that might cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those discussed in the section titled “Risk Factors” in Part 1, Item 1A of this report. You should carefully review the risks described herein and in other documents we file from time to time with the SEC, including the Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q to be filed in fiscal 2009. When used in this report, the words “expects,” “could,” “would,” “may,” “anticipates,” “intends,” “plans,” “believes,” “seeks,” “targets,” “estimates,” “looks for,” “looks to” and similar expressions, as well as statements regarding our focus for the future, are generally intended to identify forward-looking statements. You should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. We undertake no obligation to publicly release any revisions to the forward-looking statements or reflect events or circumstances after the date of this document.
 
BUSINESS OVERVIEW
 
Founded in 1982, Adobe Systems Incorporated is one of the largest and most diversified software companies in the world. We offer a line of creative, business and mobile software and services used by creative professionals, designers, knowledge workers, high-end consumers, OEM partners, developers and enterprises for creating, managing, delivering and engaging with compelling content and experiences across multiple operating systems, devices and media. We distribute our products through a network of distributors and dealers, VARs, systems integrators, ISVs and OEMs, direct to end users and through our own Web site at www.adobe.com. We also license our technology to hardware manufacturers, software developers and service providers, and we offer integrated software solutions to businesses of all sizes. We have operations in the Americas, EMEA and Asia. Our software runs on personal computers with Microsoft Windows, Apple OS, Linux, UNIX and various non-PC platforms, depending on the product.
 
CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND ESTIMATES
 
In preparing our consolidated financial statements in accordance with GAAP and pursuant to the rules and regulations of the SEC, we make assumptions, judgments and estimates that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses, and related disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities. We base our assumptions, judgments and estimates on historical experience and various other factors that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results could differ materially from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions. On a regular basis, we evaluate our assumptions, judgments and estimates. We also discuss our critical accounting policies and estimates with the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors.
 
We believe that the assumptions, judgments and estimates involved in the accounting for revenue recognition, stock-based compensation, goodwill impairment and income taxes have the greatest potential impact on our consolidated financial statements. These areas are key components of our results of operations and are based on complex rules which require us to make judgments and estimates, so we consider these to be our critical accounting policies. Historically, our assumptions, judgments and estimates relative to our critical accounting policies have not differed materially from actual results.
 
Revenue Recognition
 
We recognize revenue when all four revenue recognition criteria have been met: persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, we have delivered the product or performed the service, the fee is fixed or determinable and collection is probable. Determining whether and when some of these criteria have been satisfied often involves assumptions and judgments that can have a significant impact on the timing and amount of revenue we report. For example, for multiple element arrangements, we must: (1) determine whether and when each element has been delivered; (2) determine whether undelivered products or
 


services are essential to the functionality of the delivered products and services; (3) determine whether vendor-specific objective evidence (“VSOE”) of fair value exists for each undelivered element; and (4) allocate the total price among the various elements we must deliver. Changes in assumptions or judgments or changes to the elements in a software arrangement could cause a material increase or decrease in the amount of revenue that we report in a particular period.
 
In addition, we must estimate certain royalty revenue amounts due to the timing of securing information from our customers. While we believe we can make reliable estimates regarding these matters, these estimates are inherently subjective. Accordingly, our assumptions and judgments regarding future products and services as well as our estimates of royalty revenue could differ from actual events, thus materially impacting our financial position and results of operations.
 
Product revenue is recognized when the above criteria are met. We reduce the revenue recognized for estimated future returns, price protection and rebates at the time the related revenue is recorded. In determining our estimate for returns and in accordance with our internal policy regarding global channel inventory which is used to determine the level of product held by our distributors on which we have recognized revenue, we rely upon historical data, the estimated amount of product inventory in our distribution channel, the rate at which our product sells through to the end user, product plans and other factors. Our estimated provisions for returns can vary from what actually occurs. Product returns may be more or less than what was estimated. The amount of inventory in the channel could be different than what is estimated. Our estimate of the rate of sell through for product in the channel could be different than what actually occurs. There could be a delay in the release of our products. These factors and unanticipated changes in the economic and industry environment could make our return estimates differ from actual returns, thus materially impacting our financial position and results of operations.
 
We offer price protection to our distributors that allows for the right to a credit if we permanently reduce the price of a software product. When evaluating the adequacy of the price protection allowance, we analyze historical returns, current sell-through of distributor and retailer inventory of our products, changes in customer demand and acceptance of our products and other related factors. In addition, we monitor the volume of sales to our channel partners and their inventories. Changes to these assumptions or in the economic environment could result in higher returns or higher price protection costs in subsequent periods.
 
In the future, actual returns and price protection may materially exceed our estimates as unsold products in the distribution channels are exposed to rapid changes in consumer preferences, market conditions or technological obsolescence due to new platforms, product updates or competing products. While we believe we can make reliable estimates regarding these matters, these estimates are inherently subjective. Accordingly, if our estimates change, our returns and price protection reserves would change, which would impact the total net revenue we report.
 
Our consulting revenue is recognized using the proportionate performance method and is measured monthly based on input measures, such as on hours incurred to date compared to total estimated hours to complete, with consideration given to output measures, such as contract milestones, when applicable. Accordingly, our estimates of consulting revenue could differ from actual events and may materially impact our financial position and results of operations.
 
Stock-based Compensation
 
We account for stock-based compensation in accordance with SFAS 123R. Under the fair value recognition provisions of this statement, stock-based compensation cost is measured at the grant date based on the fair value of the award and is recognized as expense on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period, which is generally the vesting period.
 
We currently use the Black-Scholes option pricing model to determine the fair value of stock options and employee stock purchase plan shares. The determination of the fair value of stock-based awards on the date of grant using an option pricing model is affected by our stock price as well as assumptions regarding a number of complex and subjective variables. These variables include our expected stock price volatility over the expected term of the awards, actual and projected employee stock option exercise behaviors, the risk-free interest rate, estimated forfeitures and expected dividends.
 
We estimate the expected term of options granted by calculating the average term from our historical stock option exercise experience. We estimate the volatility of our common stock by using implied volatility in market traded options. Our decision to use implied volatility was based upon the availability of actively traded options on our common stock and our assessment that implied volatility is more representative of future stock price trends than historical volatility. We base the risk-free interest rate on zero-coupon yields implied from U.S. Treasury issues with remaining terms similar to the expected
 


term on the options. We do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future and therefore use an expected dividend yield of zero in the option pricing model. We are required to estimate forfeitures at the time of grant and revise those estimates in subsequent periods if actual forfeitures differ from those estimates. We use historical data to estimate pre-vesting option forfeitures and record stock-based compensation expense only for those awards that are expected to vest.
 
If we use different assumptions for estimating stock-based compensation expense in future periods or if actual forfeitures differ materially from our estimated forfeitures, the change in our stock-based compensation expense could materially affect our operating income, net income and net income per share.
 
Goodwill Impairment
 
We complete our goodwill impairment test on an annual basis, during the second quarter of our fiscal year, or more frequently, if changes in facts and circumstances indicate that an impairment in the value of goodwill recorded on our balance sheet may exist. In order to estimate the fair value of goodwill, we typically estimate future revenue, consider market factors and estimate our future cash flows. Based on these key assumptions, judgments and estimates, we determine whether we need to record an impairment charge to reduce the value of the asset carried on our balance sheet to its estimated fair value. Assumptions, judgments and estimates about future values are complex and often subjective. They can be affected by a variety of factors, including external factors such as industry and economic trends, and internal factors such as changes in our business strategy or our internal forecasts. Although we believe the assumptions, judgments and estimates we have made in the past have been reasonable and appropriate, different assumptions, judgments and estimates could materially affect our reported financial results.
 
Accounting for Income Taxes
 
We use the asset and liability method of accounting for income taxes. Under this method, income tax expense is recognized for the amount of taxes payable or refundable for the current year. In addition, deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the expected future tax consequences of temporary differences between the financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities, and for operating losses and tax credit carryforwards. Management must make assumptions, judgments and estimates to determine our current provision for income taxes and also our deferred tax assets and liabilities and any valuation allowance to be recorded against a deferred tax asset.
 
Our assumptions, judgments and estimates relative to the current provision for income taxes take into account current tax laws, our interpretation of current tax laws and possible outcomes of current and future audits conducted by foreign and domestic tax authorities. We have established reserves for income taxes to address potential exposures involving tax positions that could be challenged by tax authorities. In addition, we are subject to the continual examination of our income tax returns by the IRS and other domestic and foreign tax authorities, including a current examination by the IRS for our fiscal 2005, 2006 and 2007 tax returns. These examinations are expected to focus on our intercompany transfer pricing practices as well as other matters. Although we believe our assumptions, judgments and estimates are reasonable, changes in tax laws or our interpretation of tax laws and the resolution of the current and any future tax audits could significantly impact the amounts provided for income taxes in our consolidated financial statements.
 
Our assumptions, judgments and estimates relative to the value of a deferred tax asset take into account predictions of the amount and category of future taxable income, such as income from operations or capital gains income. Actual operating results and the underlying amount and category of income in future years could render our current assumptions, judgments and estimates of recoverable net deferred taxes inaccurate. Any of the assumptions, judgments and estimates mentioned above could cause our actual income tax obligations to differ from our estimates, thus materially impacting our financial position and results of operations.
 
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
Overview of 2008
 
During fiscal 2008, our software and technologies continued to redefine how people engage with ideas and information—anytime, anywhere and through virtually any medium.  Given our solid execution during the year, we were able to deliver strong revenue and earnings growth when compared to the previous year.
 


In our Creative Solutions segment, revenue increased by nine percent during fiscal 2008 as compared to fiscal 2007, based on continued adoption of our CS3 family of products during the first three quarters of fiscal 2008, as well as the release of our new CS4 family of products which began shipping in the fourth quarter of the year. Consisting of six Creative Suite editions and thirteen individual creative products, our CS4 family of products launch was the largest in our more than 25-year history.  Although reviews and market commentary about our new CS4 family of products were overwhelmingly positive, we believe revenue from the fourth quarter launch was significantly impacted by the global financial crisis that is affecting demand in the creative professional end user market.
 
Helping to drive the growth we achieved in our Creative Solutions business was a thirteen percent growth with our professional digital imaging products during fiscal 2008 as compared to fiscal 2007.  In addition, we achieved strong growth in our Scene7 business. Revenue increased by more than twenty percent with our digital imaging and digital video hobbyist markets with the introduction of new versions of our Adobe Photoshop Elements and Adobe Premiere Elements products during the fourth quarter.
 
Business Productivity Solutions achieved greater than fifteen percent increase in revenue during fiscal 2008 as compared to fiscal 2007.  This success was driven by continued adoption of our Acrobat 8 family of products, as well as adoption of its successor, Acrobat 9, which was released in the third quarter of the fiscal year. In addition, our execution in driving our enterprise business with our LiveCycle product family resulted in more than a thirty percent increase in revenue in this business during fiscal 2008 as compared to fiscal 2007, with revenue exceeding $250 million. We also continued to grow our Acrobat Connect Pro business which provides real-time collaboration capabilities via the Web utilizing our Adobe Flash Player.
 
Our Mobile and Device Solutions segment achieved greater than 100% growth during fiscal 2008 as compared to fiscal 2007, due to the ongoing success we have had targeting mobile operators, handset manufacturers and consumer electronic device manufactures with our Flash Lite technology. On May 1, 2008, we announced the Open Screen Project.  The project aims to enable a consistent runtime environment that will remove barriers for developers and designers as they publish content and applications across desktops and consumer devices, including phones, mobile Internet devices (“MIDs”) and set top boxes. As part of the project, we will be removing some restrictions on the use of some of our technology specifications and publishing several technology protocols.  We will also be removing the license fees on the next major releases of Adobe Flash Player and Adobe AIR for devices.  Accordingly, we expect revenue from Mobile and Device Solutions to decrease beginning in the first quarter of fiscal 2009. We would expect this decrease to be offset in time by an increased demand for tooling products, server technologies, services and applications.
 
In our other segments, revenue increased by fifteen percent compared to fiscal 2007 due primarily to higher revenue with our Platform business and the sustaining of revenue in our legacy Print and Publishing business. 
 
Revenue
 
   
Fiscal
2008
   
% Change
2008 to 2007
   
Fiscal
2007
   
% Change
2007 to 2006
   
Fiscal
2006
 
Product
  $ 3,396.5       12 %   $ 3,019.5       22 %   $ 2,484.7  
Percentage of total revenue
    95 %             96 %             96 %
Services and support
    183.4       33 %     138.4       53 %     90.6  
Percentage of total revenue
    5 %             4 %             4 %
Total revenue
  $ 3,579.9       13 %   $ 3,157.9       23 %   $ 2,575.3  
 
In fiscal 2008, we categorized our products into the following segments: Creative Solutions, Knowledge Worker, Enterprise, Mobile and Device Solutions, Platform and Print and Publishing products.
 
Our Creative Solutions segment focuses on delivering a complete professional line of integrated tools for a full range of creative and developer tasks to an extended set of customers.  Our Knowledge Worker segment focuses on the needs of knowledge worker customers, providing essential applications and services to help them reliably share information and collaborate effectively. This segment contains revenue generated by the Adobe Acrobat family of products. Our Enterprise segment provides server-based enterprise interaction solutions that automate people-centric processes and contains revenue generated by our LiveCycle line of products. The Mobile and Device Solutions segment provides solutions that create
 


compelling experiences through rich content, user interfaces and data services on mobile and non-PC devices such as cellular phones, consumer devices and Internet connected hand-held devices. The Platform segment provides developer solutions and technologies, including Adobe Flash Player, Adobe AIR and Flex Builder which are used to build rich application experiences. Finally, the Print and Publishing segment addresses market opportunities ranging from the diverse publishing needs of technical and business publishing, to our legacy type and OEM printing businesses.
 
We will adjust our reporting segments at the beginning of fiscal 2009 to reflect changes in how we manage our business as we enter the new fiscal year. We are combining our former Mobile and Device Solutions segment with our Platform segment. These segment reporting changes reflect changes we have made internally in terms of how we manage these businesses.
 
Our services and support revenue is composed of consulting, training and maintenance and support, primarily related to the licensing of our enterprise, developer and platform products. Our support revenue also includes technical support and developer support to partners and developer organizations related to our desktop products. Our maintenance and support offerings which entitle customers to receive product upgrades and enhancements or technical support, depending on the offering, is recognized ratably over the term of the arrangement.
 
Segment Information
 
   
Fiscal
2008
   
% Change
2008 to 2007
   
Fiscal
2007
   
% Change
2007 to 2006
   
Fiscal
2006
 
Creative Solutions
  $ 2,072.8       9 %   $ 1,899.0       32 %   $ 1,438.0  
Percentage of total revenue
    58 %             60 %             56 %
Knowledge Worker
    810.9       11 %     728.5       11 %     657.8  
Percentage of total revenue
    23 %             23 %             26 %
Enterprise
    253.0       32 %     191.3       21 %     158.2  
Percentage of total revenue
    7 %             6 %             6 %
Mobile and Device Solutions
    113.1       115 %     52.5       40 %     37.5  
Percentage of total revenue
    3 %             2 %             1 %
Platform
    118.5       46 %     80.9       19 %     68.1  
Percentage of total revenue
    3 %             3 %             3 %
Print and Publishing
    211.6       3 %     205.7       (5 )%     215.7  
Percentage of total revenue
    6 %             6 %             8 %
Total revenue
  $ 3,579.9       13 %   $ 3,157.9       23 %   $ 2,575.3  
 
Fiscal 2008 Revenue Compared to Fiscal 2007 Revenue
 
Revenue from our Creative Solutions segment increased $173.8 million during fiscal 2008 as compared to fiscal 2007 primarily due to ongoing adoption of our CS3 family of products, as well as the launch of our CS4 family of products in the fourth quarter of fiscal year.  We also achieved solid growth in our Scene7 business and with our hobbyist products. Also contributing to the increase in fiscal 2008 as compared to fiscal 2007 was an increase in certain unit average selling prices. Units sold remained relatively stable.
 
Revenue in our Knowledge Worker segment increased $82.4 million during fiscal 2008 as compared to fiscal 2007 primarily due to an increase in the licensing of our Acrobat 8 and new Acrobat 9 family of products. An increase in the number of units sold as well as a slight increase in certain unit average selling prices also contributed to higher revenue as compared to fiscal 2007.
 
Revenue from our Enterprise segment increased $61.7 million during fiscal 2008 as compared to fiscal 2007 primarily due to an increased adoption of our LiveCycle family of products and a larger number of enterprise solution transactions at a higher average transaction size.
 
Revenue from our Mobile and Device Solutions segment increased by $60.6 million during fiscal 2008 as compared to fiscal 2007 due to continued adoption of Flash Lite by mobile and non-PC device manufacturers. On May 1, 2008, we announced the Open Screen Project.  The project aims to enable a consistent runtime environment that will remove barriers
 


for developers and designers as they publish content and applications across desktops and consumer devices, including phones, MIDs and set top boxes. See Overview of 2008 for further information regarding the Open Screen Project.
 
Platform revenue increased by $37.6 million during fiscal 2008 as compared to fiscal 2007 primarily due to increased revenue related to Flash Player and the launch of Adobe AIR which resulted in increased revenue from our developer tools.
 
Revenue in our Print and Publishing business increased by $5.9 million during fiscal 2008 as compared to fiscal 2007, driven by ongoing adoption of our eLearning solutions as well as some of our legacy print and publishing products.
 
Fiscal 2007 Revenue Compared to Fiscal 2006 Revenue
 
Revenue from our Creative Solutions segment increased $461.0 million during fiscal 2007 as compared to fiscal 2006 primarily due to the launch of the English versions of our CS3 family of products in the second quarter of fiscal 2007 and the release of localized versions of our CS3 family of products during the third quarter of fiscal 2007. The increase in fiscal 2007 as compared to fiscal 2006 was also due to an increase in certain unit average selling prices. Increases in revenue were offset in part, by a slight decrease in the number of units sold.
 
Revenue from our Knowledge Worker segment increased $70.7 million during fiscal 2007 as compared to fiscal 2006 primarily due to an increase in the licensing of our new Acrobat 8 family of products.  The number of units sold as well as the average unit selling prices remained relatively stable during fiscal 2007 as compared to fiscal 2006.
 
Revenue from our Enterprise segment increased $33.1 million during fiscal 2007 as compared to fiscal 2006 primarily due to continued adoption of our LiveCycle family of products. Revenue also increased due to a larger number of enterprise solution transactions offset with a decrease in the average transaction size during fiscal 2007 as compared to fiscal 2006.
 
Revenue from our Mobile and Device Solutions segment increased $15.0 million during fiscal 2007 as compared to fiscal 2006 due to continued adoption of Flash Lite by mobile and non-PC device manufacturers, and our Flash Cast solutions by mobile operators.
 
Revenue from our Platform segment increased $12.8 million during fiscal 2007 as compared to fiscal 2006 due primarily to increased revenue related to Flash Player.
 
Revenue from our Print and Publishing segment decreased $10.0 million during fiscal 2007 as compared to fiscal 2006 due to lower revenue associated with some of our legacy products.
 
Geographic Information
 
   
Fiscal
2008
   
% Change
2008 to 2007
   
Fiscal
2007
   
% Change
2007 to 2006
   
Fiscal
2006
 
Americas
  $ 1,632.8       8 %   $ 1,508.9       19 %   $ 1,266.7  
Percentage of total revenue
    46 %             48 %             49 %
EMEA
    1,229.2       20 %     1,026.4       33 %     770.1  
Percentage of total revenue
    34 %             32 %             30 %
Asia
    717.9       15 %     622.6       16 %     538.5  
Percentage of total revenue
    20 %             20 %             21 %
Total revenue
  $ 3,579.9       13 %   $ 3,157.9       23 %   $ 2,575.3  
 
Fiscal 2008 Revenue by Geography Compared to Fiscal 2007 Revenue by Geography
 
Overall revenue in each of the geographic segments for fiscal 2008 increased compared to fiscal 2007 primarily due to the ongoing adoption of our CS3 family of products during the first half of the year, the launch of our CS4 family of products in the fourth quarter of the year, the launch of our Acrobat 9 family of products in the third quarter of the year and strong growth in our enterprise business.
 
Included in the overall increase in revenue were impacts associated with foreign currency. Revenue in EMEA measured in U.S. dollars was favorably impacted by approximately $69.3 million during fiscal 2008 as compared to fiscal 2007 primarily due to the strength of the Euro against the U.S. dollar. Additionally, during fiscal 2008 we had a hedging gain of
 


$13.2 million. Revenue in Asia was favorably impacted by approximately $39.6 million during fiscal 2008 as compared to fiscal 2007 primarily due to the strength of the Yen against the U.S. dollar.
 
Fiscal 2007 Revenue by Geography Compared to Fiscal 2006 Revenue by Geography
 
Overall revenue in each of the geographic segments for fiscal 2007 increased compared to fiscal 2006 primarily due to the launch of the English versions of our CS3 family of products in the second quarter of fiscal 2007, the release of the localized versions of our CS3 family of products during the third quarter of fiscal 2007 and success with our Acrobat 8 family of products.
 
Revenue in the Americas increased during fiscal 2007 as compared to fiscal 2006 primarily due to the launch of the English versions of our CS3 family of products during the second quarter of fiscal 2007 and increased revenue from the Acrobat 8 family of products.
 
Revenue in EMEA increased during fiscal 2007 as compared to fiscal 2006 due to the release of localized versions of our CS3 family of products and increases in revenue from the Acrobat Pro products.  Additionally, revenue in EMEA increased approximately $65.9 million due to the strength of the Euro against the U.S. dollar.
 
Revenue in Asia increased during fiscal 2007 as compared to fiscal 2006 due to the release of localized versions of our CS3 family of products.  Changes in the Yen over the U.S. dollar did not have a significant impact to revenue in Asia during fiscal 2007 as compared to fiscal 2006.
 
See Item 7A, Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk regarding foreign currency risks.
 
Product Backlog
 
With regard to our product backlog, the actual amount of backlog at any particular time may not be a meaningful indicator of future business prospects. Backlog is comprised of unfulfilled orders, excluding those associated with new product releases, those pending credit review and those not shipped due to the application of our global inventory policy. We had minimal backlog at the end of the third and fourth quarters of fiscal 2008. The comparable backlog at the end of the fourth quarter of fiscal 2007 was approximately 7% of fourth quarter fiscal 2007 revenue.
 
Cost of Revenue
 
   
Fiscal
2008
   
% Change
2008 to 2007
   
Fiscal
2007
   
% Change
2007 to 2006
   
Fiscal
2006
 
Product
  $ 266.4       (2 )%   $ 270.8       20 %   $ 226.5  
Percentage of total revenue
    7 %             9 %             9 %
Services and support
    96.2       15 %     83.9       27 %     66.0  
Percentage of total revenue
    3 %             3 %             3 %
Total cost of revenue
  $ 362.6       2 %   $ 354.7       21 %   $ 292.5  
 
Product
 
Cost of product revenue includes product packaging, third-party royalties, excess and obsolete inventory, amortization related to localization costs and acquired rights to use technology and the costs associated with the manufacturing of our products.
 
Cost of product revenue increased (decreased) due to the following:
 
   
% Change
2008 to 2007
 
% Change
2007 to 2006
Amortization of acquired rights to use technology
   
6
%
   
8
%
Royalties for licensed technologies
   
3
     
7
 
Localization costs related to our product launches
   
(1
)
   
10
 
Excess and obsolete inventory
   
(1
)
   
3
 
Amortization of purchased technology
   
(10
)
   
(11
)
Various individually insignificant items
   
1
     
3
 
Total change
   
(2
)%
   
20
%


Amortization of acquired rights to use technology increased primarily due to the fact that we entered into certain technology licensing arrangements totaling $100.4 million and $60.0 million during fiscal 2008 and fiscal 2007, respectively. Of this cost, an estimated $56.4 million and $44.8 million during fiscal 2008 and fiscal 2007, respectively, was related to future licensing rights and has been capitalized and will be amortized on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives up to fifteen years. Of the remaining costs, we estimated that approximately $27.2 million and $15.2 million was related to historical use of licensing rights which was expensed as cost of sales and the residual of $16.8 million for fiscal 2008 was expensed as general and administrative costs.  In connection with these licensing arrangements, we have the ability to acquire additional rights to use technology in the future. 
 
Royalty costs increased during fiscal 2007 as compared to fiscal 2006 primarily due to an increase in the number of licensed technology agreements during the year coupled with royalty costs associated with a legal settlement in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2007.
 
Localization costs which are amortized over the product life cycle, decreased during fiscal 2008 as compared to fiscal 2007 and increased during fiscal 2007 as compared to fiscal 2006 primarily due to increased costs during fiscal 2007 associated with the release of the localized versions of our CS3 family of products and the Acrobat 8 family of products.
 
Amortization of purchased technology decreased during fiscal 2008 as compared to fiscal 2007 and decreased during fiscal 2007 as compared to fiscal 2006, due to a decrease in amortization primarily associated with intangible assets purchased through the Macromedia acquisition at the beginning of fiscal 2006.
 
Services and Support
 
Cost of services and support revenue is primarily comprised of employee-related costs and associated costs incurred to provide consulting services, training and product support.
 
Cost of services and support revenue increased during fiscal 2008 as compared to fiscal 2007, primarily due to increases in compensation and related benefits driven by increases in headcount related to product support and utilization by customers of our consulting services.
 
Cost of services and support revenue increased during fiscal 2007 as compared to fiscal 2006, primarily due to increases in compensation and related benefits primarily as a result of headcount increases and increases in costs to support consulting engagements and product releases.
 
Operating Expenses
 
Research and Development, Sales and Marketing and General and Administrative Expenses
 
Included in compensation costs for fiscal 2008, 2007 and 2006 are compensation and related benefits, including stock-based compensation costs as a result of adopting SFAS 123R at the beginning of fiscal 2006. The increase in compensation costs during fiscal 2008 as compared to fiscal 2007 related to increases in headcount and stock-based compensation offset by decreases in profit sharing and employee bonuses based on company performance. Additionally, the increase in compensation for fiscal 2007 as compared to fiscal 2006 related to higher expense for profit sharing and employee bonuses based on company performance.
 
Research and Development
 
   
Fiscal
2008
   
% Change
2008 to 2007
   
Fiscal
2007
   
% Change
2007 to 2006
   
Fiscal
2006
 
Expenses
  $ 662.1       8 %   $ 613.2       14 %   $ 539.7  
Percentage of total revenue
    18 %             19 %             21 %
 
Research and development expenses consist primarily of salary and benefit expenses for software developers, contracted development efforts, related facilities costs and expenses associated with computer equipment used in software development.
 


Research and development expenses increased due to the following:
 
   
% Change
2008 to 2007
 
% Change
2007 to 2006
Compensation and related benefits associated with headcount growth
   
7
%
   
9
%
Compensation associated with incentive compensation and stock-based compensation
   
     
5
 
Various individually insignificant items
   
1
     
 
Total change
   
8
%
   
14
%
 
We believe that investments in research and development, including the recruiting and hiring of software developers, are critical to remaining competitive in the marketplace and are directly related to continued timely development of new and enhanced products. We will continue to focus on long-term opportunities available in our end markets and make significant investments in the development of our desktop application and server-based software products.
 
Sales and Marketing
 
   
Fiscal
2008
   
% Change
2008 to 2007
   
Fiscal
2007
   
% Change
2007 to 2006
   
Fiscal
2006
 
Expenses
  $ 1,089.3       11 %   $ 984.4       14 %   $ 867.1  
Percentage of total revenue
    30 %             31 %             34 %
 
Sales and marketing expenses consist primarily of salary and benefit expenses, sales commissions, travel expenses and related facilities costs for our sales, marketing, order management and global supply chain management personnel. Sales and marketing expenses also include the costs of programs aimed at increasing revenue, such as advertising, trade shows, public relations and other market development programs.
 
Sales and marketing expenses increased due to the following:
 
   
% Change
2008 to 2007
 
% Change
2007 to 2006
Compensation and related benefits associated with headcount growth
   
5
%
   
3
%
Marketing spending related to product launches and overall marketing efforts to further increase revenue
   
4
     
2
 
Compensation associated with incentive compensation and stock-based compensation
   
1
     
6
 
Various individually insignificant items
   
1
     
3
 
Total change
   
11
%
   
14
%
 
General and Administrative
 
   
Fiscal
2008
   
% Change
2008 to 2007
   
Fiscal
2007
   
% Change
2007 to 2006
   
Fiscal
2006
 
Expenses
  $ 337.3       23 %   $ 275.0       17 %   $ 234.6  
Percentage of total revenue
    9 %             9 %             9 %
 
General and administrative expenses consist primarily of compensation and benefit expenses, travel expenses and related facilities costs for our finance, facilities, human resources, legal, information services and executive personnel. General and administrative expenses also include outside legal and accounting fees, provision for bad debts, expenses associated with computer equipment and software used in the administration of the business, charitable contributions and various forms of insurance.
 

 
General and administrative expenses increased due to the following:
 
   
% Change
2008 to 2007
 
% Change
2007 to 2006
Allocation of costs associated with acquired rights to use technology
   
6
%
   
%
Compensation and related benefits associated with headcount growth
   
4
     
3
 
Charitable contributions
   
4
     
 
Compensation associated with incentive compensation and stock-based compensation
   
2
     
8
 
Professional and consulting fees
   
2
     
2
 
Provision for bad debt
   
2
     
 
Depreciation and amortization
   
1
     
2
 
Various individually insignificant items
   
2
     
2
 
Total change
   
23
%
   
17
%
 
Allocation of costs associated with acquired rights to use technology increased primarily due to the fact that we entered into certain technology licensing arrangements totaling $100.4 million and $60.0 million during fiscal 2008 and fiscal 2007, respectively. Of this cost, an estimated $56.4 million and $44.8 million during fiscal 2008 and fiscal 2007, respectively, was related to future licensing rights and has been capitalized and will be amortized on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives up to fifteen years. Of the remaining costs, we estimated that approximately $27.2 million and $15.2 million during fiscal 2008 and fiscal 2007, respectively, was related to historical use of licensing rights which was expensed as cost of sales and the residual of $16.8 million for fiscal 2008 was expensed as general and administrative costs. In connection with these licensing arrangements, we have the ability to acquire additional rights to use technology in the future. 
 
Charitable contributions represent funding of the Adobe Foundation which is a private foundation created to leverage human, technological and financial resources to drive social change and improve the communities in which we live and work.
 
Restructuring Charges
 
   
Fiscal
2008
   
% Change
2008 to 2007
   
Fiscal
2007
   
% Change
2007 to 2006
   
Fiscal
2006
 
Expenses
  $ 32.1       *     $ 0.6       (97 )%   $ 20.3  
Percentage of total revenue
    1 %             *               1 %
_________________________________________
Percentage is not meaningful.
 
Fiscal 2008 Restructuring Charges
 
In the fourth quarter of fiscal 2008, we initiated a restructuring program in order to reduce our operating costs and focus our resources on key strategic priorities impacting a total of approximately 560 full-time positions globally. In connection with this restructuring plan, we recorded restructuring charges totaling $29.2 million related to termination benefits for the elimination of approximately 460 of these full-time positions globally. As of November 28, 2008, $0.4 million was paid. The remaining accrual associated with these termination benefits is expected to be substantially paid during fiscal 2009. In fiscal 2009, we expect to record approximately $10.0 million to $13.0 million primarily related to the consolidation of leased facilities and approximately $6.0 million to $7.0 million related to employee severance arrangements for the elimination of approximately 100 of the remaining full-time positions globally. We expect to pay this facility related liability through fiscal 2013. Charges associated with these ongoing termination benefits were recorded in accordance with SFAS No. 112, “Employers’ Accounting for Postemployment Benefits,” and expected charges associated with the consolidation of leased facilities will be recorded in accordance with SFAS No. 146, “Accounting for Costs Associated with Exit or Disposal Activities.”
 


Macromedia Restructuring Charges
 
We acquired Macromedia on December 3, 2005 and in the first quarter of fiscal 2006, pursuant to Board of Directors’ approval, implemented a restructuring plan to eliminate approximately 313 positions held by Adobe employees worldwide, which impacted all functional areas. The reduction in force was completed in fiscal 2006. The restructuring plan also included costs related to the world-wide consolidation of facilities, the cancellation of certain contracts and the write-off of fixed assets located at facilities that have been vacated.
 
During fiscal 2008, we recorded charges of $2.9 million related to changes in estimates related to Macromedia facilities restructuring charges due to changes in sub-lease income estimates. Additionally, we have a $13.1 million liability for restructuring as of November 28, 2008 primarily associated with the Macromedia restructured facilities. We expect to pay this liability through fiscal 2011.
 
See Note 9 of our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for further information regarding our restructuring charges.
 
Amortization of Purchased Intangibles and Incomplete Technology
 
   
Fiscal
2008
   
% Change
2008 to 2007
   
Fiscal
2007
   
% Change
2007 to 2006
   
Fiscal
2006
 
Expenses
  $ 68.2       (6 )%   $ 72.4       4 %   $ 69.9  
Percentage of total revenue
    2 %             2 %             3 %
 
As a result of our acquisition of Macromedia in fiscal 2006, we acquired purchased intangibles which are amortized over their estimated useful lives of two to four years. In addition, during fiscal 2008 we completed one business combination and during fiscal 2007, we completed two business combinations and one asset acquisition. We acquired purchased intangibles through these acquisitions which are amortized over their estimated useful lives.
 
Amortization expense decreased during fiscal 2008 as compared to fiscal 2007, due to a decrease in amortization expense associated with intangible assets purchased through the Macromedia acquisition. Additionally, included in the amortization of purchased intangibles and incomplete technology for fiscal 2007 was $1.5 million related to the write-off of in-process research and development from an acquisition that occurred during the second quarter of fiscal 2007.
 
Non-operating Income
 
   
Fiscal
2008
   
% Change
2008 to 2007
   
Fiscal
2007
   
% Change
2007 to 2006
   
Fiscal
2006
 
Interest and other income, net
  $ 43.8       (47 )%   $ 82.7       23 %   $ 67.3  
Percentage of total revenue
    1 %             3 %             3 %
Interest expense
    (10.0 )     *       (.2 )     100 %     (.1 )
Percentage of total revenue
    *               *               *  
Investment gains and (losses), net
    16.4       131 %     7.1       (88 )%     61.2  
Percentage of total revenue
    * %             * %             2 %
Total non-operating income
  $ 50.2       (44 )%   $ 89.6       (30 )%   $ 128.4  
_________________________________________
Percentage is not meaningful.
 
Interest and Other Income, net
 
Interest and other income, net, included interest earned on cash, cash equivalents and short-term fixed income investments as well as foreign exchange gains and losses, including those from hedging revenue transactions primarily denominated in Euro and Japanese Yen currencies.
 
Interest and other income, net, decreased during fiscal 2008 as compared to fiscal 2007 primarily as a result of lower average invested balances due to cash used for our share repurchase programs, lower interest rates and increased hedging costs. Additionally, during fiscal 2008, interest and other income, net included losses on fixed income investments associated
 


with a write-down for an other-than-temporary impairment totaling approximately $1.3 million during the second quarter of fiscal 2008.
 
Interest and other income, net increased during fiscal 2007 as compared to fiscal 2006 primarily as a result of higher rates of return on invested cash and short-term investments.
 
Interest Expense
 
Interest expense for fiscal 2008, primarily represents interest associated with our credit facility. The outstanding balance as of November 28, 2008 was $350.0 million. Interest due under the credit facility is paid upon expiration of the London interbank offered rate (“LIBOR”) contract or at a minimum, quarterly.
 
Investment Gains and (Losses), net
 
Investment gains and (losses), net consist principally of realized gains or losses from the sale of marketable equity investments, other-than-temporary declines in the value of marketable and non-marketable equity securities and gains and losses associated with our interests in Adobe Ventures.
 
Investment gains and (losses), net fluctuated due to the following:
 
   
2008
   
2007
   
2006
 
                   
Net gains (losses) related to our investments in Adobe Ventures and cost method investments
  $ 15.9     $ 6.9     $ (6.5 )
Gains from sale of equity investments
    5.4       0.2       67.9  
Write-downs due to other-than-temporary declines in value of our marketable equity securities
    (4.9 )            
Losses on stock warrants
                (0.2 )
Total investment gains and (losses), net
  $ 16.4     $ 7.1     $ 61.2  

During fiscal 2008, investment gains and (losses), net increased as compared to fiscal 2007 due primarily to investment gains from our direct and Adobe Ventures investments.  Additionally, during fiscal 2008, we received cash and recognized a gain resulting from the expiration of the escrow period related to the sale of our investment in Atom Entertainment, Inc. that occurred during the fourth quarter of fiscal 2006.  Investment gains and (losses), net increased in fiscal 2006 when compared to fiscal 2007 due to the sale of our investment in Atom Entertainment, Inc.
 
Provision for Income Taxes
 
   
Fiscal
2008
   
% Change
2008 to 2007
   
Fiscal
2007
   
% Change
2007 to 2006
   
Fiscal
2006
 
Provision
  $ 206.7       (7 )%   $ 223.4