10-K 1 tol-20131031x10k.htm 10-K TOL-2013.10.31-10K



UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
x
 
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
 
For the fiscal year ended October 31, 2013
 
 
or
o
 
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT of 1934
 
 
For the transition period from           to
Commission file number 1-9186
TOLL BROTHERS, INC.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
23-2416878
(State or other jurisdiction of
(I.R.S. Employer
incorporation or organization)
Identification No.)
250 Gibraltar Road, Horsham, Pennsylvania
19044
(Address of principal executive offices)
(Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code
(215) 938-8000
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock (par value $.01)*
 
New York Stock Exchange
Guarantee of Toll Brothers Finance Corp. 4.95% Senior Notes due 2014
 
New York Stock Exchange
Guarantee of Toll Brothers Finance Corp. 5.15% Senior Notes due 2015
 
New York Stock Exchange
* Includes associated Right to Purchase Series A Junior Participating Preferred Stock
 
 
    
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:    None

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Act.
Yes o No x
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of Registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer, “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large accelerated filer x
 
Accelerated filer o
 
Non-accelerated filer o
 
Smaller reporting company o
 
 
(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
 
 
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes o No x
As of April 30, 2013, the aggregate market value of the Common Stock held by non-affiliates (all persons other than executive officers and directors of Registrant) of the Registrant was approximately $5,268,597,000.
As of December 19, 2013, there were approximately 177,283,000 shares of Common Stock outstanding.
Documents Incorporated by Reference: Portions of the proxy statement of Toll Brothers, Inc. with respect to the 2014 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, scheduled to be held on March 12, 2014, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this report.









TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 




PART I
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
General
Toll Brothers, Inc., a Delaware corporation formed in May 1986, began doing business through predecessor entities in 1967. When this report uses the words “we,” “us,” “our,” and the “Company,” they refer to Toll Brothers, Inc. and its subsidiaries, unless the context otherwise requires. References herein to “fiscal 2013,” “fiscal 2012,” “fiscal 2011,” “fiscal 2010,” “fiscal 2009,” and “fiscal 2008” refer to our fiscal years ended October 31, 2013, October 31, 2012, October 31, 2011, October 31, 2010, October 31, 2009, and October 31, 2008, respectively. References herein to “fiscal 2014” refer to our fiscal year ending October 31, 2014.
We design, build, market and arrange financing for detached and attached homes in luxury residential communities. We cater to move-up, empty-nester, active-adult, age-qualified and second-home buyers in the United States. We also build and sell homes in urban infill markets through Toll City Living® ("City Living"). At October 31, 2013, we were operating in 19 states. In the five years ended October 31, 2013, we delivered 15,688 homes from 512 communities, including 4,184 homes from 297 communities in fiscal 2013.
In fiscal 2010, we formed Gibraltar Capital and Asset Management LLC (“Gibraltar”) to invest in distressed real estate opportunities. Gibraltar focuses primarily on residential loans and properties, from unimproved ground to partially and fully improved developments, as well as commercial opportunities.
Over the past several years, we have acquired control of a number of land parcels as for-rent apartment projects, including two student housing sites, totaling approximately 4,600 units. These projects, which are located in the metro-Boston to metro-Washington, D.C. corridor, are being developed or will be developed with partners under the brand names Toll Brothers Apartment Living and Toll Brothers Campus Living. Through Toll Brothers Realty Trust (“Trust”), we also have interests in approximately 1,500 operating apartment units in the Washington, D.C. area and in Princeton Junction, NJ.
In November 2013, we entered into an agreement to acquire the home building business of Shapell Industries, Inc. ("Shapell") for $1.60 billion in cash, subject to adjustment. Shapell designs, constructs and markets single-family detached and attached homes and develops land in master-planned communities and neighborhoods throughout coastal Northern and Southern California. See "Recent Developments" below for more information.
We operate our own land development, architectural, engineering, mortgage, title, landscaping, security monitoring, lumber distribution, house component assembly, and manufacturing operations. We also develop, own and operate golf courses and country clubs, which generally are associated with several of our master planned communities. We have investments in a number of joint ventures to develop land for the sole use of the venture participants, including ourselves, and to develop land for sale to the joint venture participants and to unrelated builders. We are a participant in joint ventures with unrelated parties to develop luxury condominium projects, including for-sale and rental residential units and commercial space, a single master planned community, and a high-rise luxury for-sale condominium/hotel project. In addition, we formed and own interests in the Trust and Toll Brothers Realty Trust II (“Trust II”) to invest in commercial real estate opportunities.
Our communities are generally located on land we have either acquired and developed or acquired fully-approved and, in some cases, improved. We also operate through a number of joint ventures. At October 31, 2013, we were operating in the following major suburban and urban residential markets:
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania metropolitan area
Lehigh Valley area of Pennsylvania
Central and northern New Jersey
Virginia and Maryland suburbs of Washington, D.C.
Boston, Massachusetts metropolitan area
Fairfield, Hartford and New Haven Counties, Connecticut
Westchester and Dutchess Counties, New York
Boroughs of Manhattan and Brooklyn in New York City
Los Angeles, California metropolitan area

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San Francisco Bay, Sacramento and San Jose areas of northern California
San Diego and Palm Springs, California areas
Phoenix, Arizona metropolitan area
Raleigh and Charlotte, North Carolina metropolitan areas
Dallas, San Antonio and Houston, Texas metropolitan areas
Southeast and southwest coasts and the Jacksonville and Orlando areas of Florida
Las Vegas and Reno, Nevada metropolitan areas
Detroit, Michigan metropolitan area
Chicago, Illinois metropolitan area
Denver, Colorado metropolitan area
Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota metropolitan area, and
Seattle, Washington metropolitan area
In recognition of our achievements, we have received numerous awards from national, state and local home builder publications and associations. In 2012, we were named Builder of the Year by Professional Builder Magazine. We are the first two-time recipient of this award.
We believe that, in fiscal 2012, the housing market began to recover from the significant slowdown that started in the fourth quarter of our fiscal year ended October 31, 2005. During fiscal 2012 and and the first nine months of fiscal 2013, we saw a strong recovery in the number and value of new sales contracts signed. Our net contracts signed in fiscal 2012 and 2013, as compared to fiscal 2011, increased approximately 50% and 90%, respectively, in the number of net contracts signed and 59% and 126%, respectively, in the value of net contracts signed. Although the number and value of fiscal 2012 and 2013 net contracts signed increased over fiscal 2011, they were still significantly below what we recorded in fiscal 2005. We have witnessed a leveling of demand which began in the fourth quarter of our fiscal 2013 and has continued into fiscal 2014. We believe this to be a temporary pause triggered by a rapid rise in interest rates and home prices and the uncertainty from the political discord in Washington.
We are still affected by the 2006-2011 downturn in the housing market. We believe the downturn started with a decline in consumer confidence, an overall softening of demand for new homes and an oversupply of homes available for sale. The downturn was exacerbated by, among other things, a decline in the overall economy, increased unemployment, the large number of homes that were vacant and homes that had been foreclosed on due to the economic downturn, a fear of job loss, a decline in home prices and the resulting reduction in home equity, the inability of some of our home buyers, or some prospective buyers of their homes, to sell their current homes, the deterioration in the credit markets, and the direct and indirect impact of the turmoil in the mortgage loan market. We believe that, as the national unemployment rate declines and confidence improves, pent-up demand will begin to be released.
For information and analysis of recent trends in our operations and financial condition, see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in Item 7 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K (“Form 10-K”), and for financial information about our results of operations, assets, liabilities, stockholders’ equity and cash flows, see the accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements and Notes thereto in Item 15(a)1 of this Form 10-K.
At October 31, 2013, we had 567 communities containing approximately 48,628 home sites that we owned or controlled through options. Of the 567 communities, 288 communities containing approximately 20,479 home sites were residential communities under construction (“current communities”) and 279, containing 28,149 home sites, were future communities. Of our 288 current communities, 232 were offering homes for sale, 38 were sold out but not all homes had been completed and delivered, 3 communities had homes to deliver but had been temporarily shut down and are expected to re-open in fiscal 2014, and 15 communities were preparing to re-open. Of the 20,479 home sites in current communities, 16,800 were available for sale and 3,679 were under agreement of sale but not yet delivered (“backlog”). We expect to be selling from 250 to 290 communities by October 31, 2014, including communities we expect to acquire in the Shapell acquisition. Of the approximately 48,628 total home sites that we owned or controlled through options at October 31, 2013, we owned approximately 33,967 and controlled approximately 14,661 through options. Included in the 279 future communities are 25 communities containing 2,609 home sites that had previously been open but that we shut down due to the slowdown in the housing market.

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At October 31, 2013, we were offering homes in 232 communities at prices, excluding customized options, lot premiums and sales incentives, generally ranging from $170,000 to $1,900,000 with some homes offered at prices substantially higher than $2,000,000. During fiscal 2013, we delivered 4,184 homes at an average base price of approximately $556,000. On average, our home buyers added approximately 20.7%, or $115,000 per home, in customized options and lot premiums to the base price of homes we delivered in fiscal 2013, as compared to 18.6% or $96,000 per home in fiscal 2012 and 19.5% or $101,000 in fiscal 2011.
We had a backlog of $2.63 billion (3,679 homes) at October 31, 2013, $1.67 billion (2,569 homes) at October 31, 2012 and $981.1 million (1,667 homes) at October 31, 2011. Of the homes in backlog at October 31, 2013, approximately 96.5% are scheduled to be delivered by October 31, 2014.
Because of the length of time that it takes to obtain the necessary approvals on a property, complete the land improvements on it, and deliver a home after a home buyer signs an agreement of sale, we are subject to many risks. We attempt, where possible, to reduce certain risks by controlling land for future development through options (also referred to herein as “land purchase contracts” or “option and purchase agreements”), thus allowing the necessary governmental approvals to be obtained before acquiring title to the land; we also generally commence construction of a detached home only after executing an agreement of sale and receiving a substantial down payment from the buyer and we use subcontractors to perform home construction and land development work on a fixed-price basis.
Recent Developments
Agreement to Acquire Shapell

On November 6, 2013, we entered into a purchase and sale agreement (the “Purchase Agreement”) with Shapell Investment Properties, Inc. to acquire all of the equity interests in Shapell Industries, Inc., a Delaware corporation (“Shapell”), for an aggregate all-cash purchase price of $1.60 billion (the “Acquisition”), which amount is subject to adjustment in accordance with the terms of the Purchase Agreement. Pursuant to the Purchase Agreement, we have agreed to acquire the single-family residential real property development business of Shapell, including a portfolio of approximately 5,200 home sites in California. We have not agreed to acquire Shapell’s commercial and multi-family units, which the seller will retain as a separate business.

The Purchase Agreement contains customary representations, warranties and covenants of the parties. The closing of the Acquisition is subject to the completion of the separation of Shapell’s commercial and multi-family units, subject to limited exceptions, the completion of pending buy-outs by Shapell of minority interests in certain joint ventures and other customary closing conditions and is expected to occur in the first calendar quarter of 2014.

Shapell was founded in 1955 as a home construction company that built custom-quality single-family home communities in Southern California. Shapell designs, constructs and markets single-family detached and attached homes and develops land in master-planned communities and neighborhoods throughout coastal Northern and Southern California. Shapell’s revenues from home building totaled $354 million, $252 million, $272 million and $274 million for 2010, 2011, 2012 and the eight-month period ended August 31, 2013, respectively. Shapell has delivered over 70,000 homes and built over 7,000 apartments since 1955.

Shapell’s home building operation has 18 active selling communities concentrated in 15 locations. It is organized in two geographic regions, Northern California and Southern California, within which it is focused on a select number of premium markets.    

Following the closing of the Acquisition, we expect to selectively sell approximately $500 million of assets to reduce land concentration and outstanding borrowings; however, the timing and size of any asset sale transactions will be dependent on market and other factors, some of which are outside of our control. We make no assurance that we will be able to complete asset sale transactions on attractive terms or at all.

We intend to use the net proceeds of the equity offering and senior note offerings completed in November 2013, borrowings under our $1.04 billion credit facility, other financial resources available to us, and, if needed, borrowings under the 364-day unsecured revolving credit facility, as more fully described below, to finance the Acquisition and to pay related fees and expenses.


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Equity Offering

In November 2013, we issued 7.2 million shares of our common stock, par value $0.01 per share, at a price to the public of $32.00 per share (the “equity offering”). We received $220.8 million of net proceeds from the issuance.

Senior Note Offerings

In November 2013, we issued $350 million principal amount of 4.0% Senior Notes due 2018 (the “4.0% Senior Notes”) and $250 million principal amount of 5.625% Senior Notes due 2024 (the “5.625% Senior Notes”) through Toll Brothers Finance Corp. We received $596.2 million of net proceeds from the issuance of the 4.0% Senior Notes and the 5.625% Senior Notes. If (i) the Purchase Agreement is terminated on any date prior to May 31, 2014, (ii) we publicly announce on any date prior to May 31, 2014 that the Acquisition will not be pursued or (iii) the Acquisition is not consummated prior to May 31, 2014, then we will be required to redeem each series of notes at 100% of the aggregate principal amount of such series, together with accrued and unpaid interest on such notes from November 21, 2013 up to, but not including, the applicable special mandatory redemption date.

364-Day Senior Unsecured Revolving Credit Facility

We have received a definitive financing commitment from a number of banks for a $500 million, 364-day senior unsecured revolving credit facility. The availability of borrowings under this facility is subject to our entering into a definitive agreement with the banks and will be subject to customary conditions. Amounts borrowed thereunder are expected to accrue interest at the London interbank offered rate plus a margin determined pursuant to a leverage ratio-based pricing grid expected to range from 1.25% to 2.25% per annum.

Sale of Toll Brothers Realty Trust II Assets
In December 2013, Trust II sold substantially all of its assets to an unrelated party. As a result of this sale, we expect to realize a profit of approximately $20 million in the first quarter of fiscal 2014 representing our share of the gain on the sale. This gain will be included in income from unconsolidated entities in our Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Our Communities
Our communities are generally located in affluent suburban areas near major highways providing access to major cities. We also currently operate in the affluent urban markets of Hoboken and Jersey City, New Jersey; New York City, New York; and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The following table lists the 19 states in which we were operating at October 31, 2013 and the fiscal years in which we or our predecessors commenced operations:
State
 
Fiscal year of entry
 
State
 
Fiscal year of entry
Pennsylvania
 
1967
 
Texas
 
1995
New Jersey
 
1982
 
Florida
 
1995
Delaware
 
1987
 
Arizona
 
1995
Massachusetts
 
1988
 
Nevada
 
1998
Maryland
 
1988
 
Illinois
 
1998
Virginia
 
1992
 
Michigan
 
1999
Connecticut
 
1992
 
Colorado
 
2001
New York
 
1993
 
Minnesota
 
2005
California
 
1994
 
Washington
 
2012
North Carolina
 
1994
 
 
 
 
We market our high-quality homes to upscale luxury home buyers, generally comprised of those persons who have previously owned a principal residence and who are seeking to buy a larger or more desirable home — the so-called “move-up” market. We believe our reputation as a developer of homes for this market enhances our competitive position with respect to the sale of our smaller, more moderately priced, detached homes, as well as our attached homes.
We also market to the 50+ year-old “empty-nester” market, which we believe has strong growth potential. We have developed a number of home designs with features such as one-story living and first-floor master bedroom suites, as well as communities with recreational amenities such as golf courses, marinas, pool complexes, country clubs and recreation centers that we believe

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appeal to this category of home buyers. We have integrated certain of these designs and features in some of our other home types and communities.
We develop active-adult, age-qualified communities for households in which at least one member is 55 years of age. As of October 31, 2013, we were selling from 25 such communities and expect to open additional age-qualified communities during the next few years. Of the value and number of net contracts signed in fiscal 2013, approximately 9% and 12%, respectively, were in active-adult communities; in fiscal 2012, approximately 8% and 10%, respectively, were in such communities and in fiscal 2011, approximately 10% and 13% of the value and number of net contracts signed were in active-adult communities.
In order to serve a growing market of affluent move-up families, empty-nesters and young professionals seeking to live in or close to major cities, we have developed and are developing a number of high-density, high-, mid- and low-rise urban luxury communities. These communities are currently marketed under the Toll City Living brand. These communities, which we are currently developing or planning on our own or through joint ventures, are located in Phoenix, Arizona; Hoboken, New Jersey; the boroughs of Manhattan and Brooklyn, New York; and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and its suburbs.
We believe that the demographics of the move-up, empty-nester, active-adult, age-qualified and second-home upscale markets will provide us with the potential for growth in the coming decade. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the number of households earning $100,000 or more (in constant 2012 dollars) at September 2013 stood at 26.9 million, or approximately 22% of all U.S. households. This group has grown at three times the rate of increase of all U.S. households since 1980. According to Harvard University's June 2012 "The State of the Nation's Housing," the growth and aging of the current population, assuming the economic recovery is sustained over the next few years, supports the addition of about 1.2 million new household formations per year during the next decade.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, during the period 1970 through 2006, total housing starts in the United States averaged approximately 1.59 million per year, while in the period 2007 through 2012, total housing starts averaged approximately 0.8 million per year. In addition, based on the trend of household formations in relation to population growth during the period 2000 through 2007, the number of household formations formed in the four-year period of 2008 through 2012 was approximately 2.9 million less than would have been expected.
We develop individual stand-alone communities as well as multi-product, master planned communities. We currently have 19 master planned communities that we are developing ourselves or, in one instance, with a joint venture partner. Our master planned communities, many of which include golf courses and other country club-type amenities, enable us to offer multiple home types and sizes to a broad range of move-up, empty-nester, active-adult and second-home buyers. We seek to realize efficiencies from shared common costs, such as land development and infrastructure, over the several communities within the master planned community. We currently have master planned communities in the states of Arizona, Connecticut, Florida, Illinois, Maryland, Massachusetts, Nevada, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Virginia and Washington.
Each of our detached home communities offers several home plans with the opportunity for home buyers to select various exterior styles. We design each community to fit existing land characteristics. We strive to achieve diversity among architectural styles within a community by offering a variety of house models and several exterior design options for each model, preserving existing trees and foliage whenever practicable, and curving street layouts to allow relatively few homes to be seen from any vantage point. Normally, homes of the same type or color may not be built next to each other. Our communities have attractive entrances with distinctive signage and landscaping. We believe that our added attention to community detail avoids a “development” appearance and gives each community a diversified neighborhood appearance that enhances home values.
Our traditional attached home communities generally offer one- to four-story homes, provide for limited exterior options, and often include commonly owned recreational facilities such as clubhouses, playing fields, swimming pools and tennis courts.
Our Homes
In most of our detached home communities, we offer a number of different house floor plans, each with several substantially different architectural styles. In addition, the exterior of each basic floor plan may be varied further by the use of stone, stucco, brick or siding. Our traditional attached home communities generally offer several different floor plans with two, three or four bedrooms.
We offer some of the same basic home designs in similar communities; however, we are continuously developing new designs to replace or augment existing ones to ensure that our homes reflect current consumer tastes. We use our own architectural staff and also engage unaffiliated architectural firms to develop new designs. During the past fiscal year, we introduced 142 new

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models for our Traditional Home Building product (88 detached models and 54 attached models) and a significant number of designs for our City Living product.
In our Traditional Home Building product communities, a wide selection of options are available to home buyers for additional charges. The number and complexity of options in our Traditional Home Building product typically increase with the size and base selling price of our homes. Major options include additional garages, extra fireplaces, guest suites, finished lofts, and other additional rooms.
The table below provides the average value of options purchased by our home buyers, including lot premiums, and the value of the options as a percent of the base selling price of the homes purchased in fiscal 2013, 2012 and 2011.
 
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
 
 
Option value ($ thousands)
 
Percent of base selling price
 
Option value ($ thousands)
 
Percent of base selling price
 
Option value ($ thousands)
 
Percent of base selling price
Traditional Home Building Product
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
    Detached
 
138

 
24.0
%
 
124

 
23.1
%
 
136

 
24.5
%
    Attached
 
54

 
13.5
%
 
51

 
12.7
%
 
50

 
12.1
%
City Living Product
 
26

 
2.1
%
 
23

 
3.2
%
 
26

 
3.3
%
In general, our attached homes and City Living products do not offer significant structural options to our home buyer and thus they have a smaller option value as a percentage of base selling price.
As a result of our wide product and geographic diversity, we have a wide range of base sales prices. The general range of base sales prices for our different lines of homes at October 31, 2013, was as follows:
Traditional Home Building Product
 
 
 
    Detached homes
 
 
 
     Move-up
$
236,000

to
$
819,000

     Executive
250,000

to
996,000

     Estate
324,000

to
1,924,000

     Active-adult, age-qualified
195,000

to
765,000

   Attached homes
 
 
 
     Flats
$
267,000

to
$
1,584,000

     Townhomes/Carriage homes
172,000

to
668,000

     Active-adult, age-qualified
205,000

to
529,000

 City Living Product
 
 
 
     Flats
$
267,000

to
$
840,000

     High-rise/mid-rise
380,000

to
3,352,000

A number of projects that we are developing are offering units at prices substantially in excess of those listed above.
At October 31, 2013, we were selling from 232 communities, compared to 224 communities at October 31, 2012 and 215 communities at October 31, 2011. In addition, at October 31, 2013, we had 40 communities that were temporarily closed due to market conditions of which we currently expect to reopen approximately 15 of them prior to October 31, 2014. We expect to be selling from 250 to 290 communities at October 31, 2014, including Shapell communities.

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The following table summarizes certain information with respect to our residential communities under development at October 31, 2013:
 
 
Total number of communities
 
Number of selling communities
 
Homes approved
 
Homes closed
 
Homes under contract but not closed
 
Home sites available
Traditional Home Building:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
North
 
72

 
56

 
9,831

 
4,265

 
948

 
4,618

Mid-Atlantic
 
73

 
61

 
10,618

 
4,473

 
902

 
5,243

South
 
75

 
62

 
8,066

 
3,035

 
956

 
4,075

West
 
62

 
47

 
5,351

 
2,100

 
675

 
2,576

Traditional Home Building
 
282

 
226

 
33,866

 
13,873

 
3,481

 
16,512

City Living
 
6

 
6

 
536

 
50

 
198

 
288

Total
 
288

 
232

 
34,402

 
13,923

 
3,679

 
16,800

At October 31, 2013, significant site improvements had not yet commenced on approximately 8,618 of the 16,800 available home sites. Of the 16,800 available home sites, 980 were not yet owned by us but were controlled through options.
Of our 288 communities under development at October 31, 2013, a total of 232 were offering homes for sale; 38 were sold out but not all homes had been completed and delivered; 3 communities had backlog to deliver but had been temporarily shut down and are expected to re-open in fiscal 2014; and 15 communities were preparing to re-open. Of the 232 communities in which homes were being offered for sale at October 31, 2013, a total of 187 were detached home communities and 45 were attached home communities. At October 31, 2013, we had 395 homes (exclusive of model homes) under construction or completed but not under contract in our traditional communities, of which 224 were in detached home communities and 171 were in attached home communities. In addition, we had 126 units that were temporarily being held as rental units. At October 31, 2013, we had 177 homes (exclusive of model homes) under construction or completed but not under contract, in five City Living communities.
At the end of each fiscal quarter, we review the profitability of each of our operating communities. For those communities operating below certain profitability thresholds, we estimate the expected future cash flow for each of those communities. For each community whose estimated cash flow is not sufficient to recover its carrying value, we estimate the fair value of the community in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) and recognize an impairment charge for the difference between the estimated fair value of the community and its carrying value. In fiscal 2013, 2012 and 2011, we recognized impairment charges related to operating communities of $3.3 million, $13.1 million and $17.1 million, respectively.
For more information regarding revenues, net contracts signed, income (loss) before income taxes, and assets by segment, see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Segments” in Item 7 of this Form 10-K.
Land Policy
Before entering into an agreement to purchase a land parcel, we complete extensive comparative studies and analyses that assist us in evaluating the acquisition. Historically, we have attempted to enter into option agreements to purchase land for future communities; however, in order to obtain better terms or prices, or due to competitive pressures, we acquire property outright from time to time. We have also entered into several joint ventures with other builders or developers to develop land for the use of the joint venture participants or for sale to outside parties. In addition, we have, at times, acquired the underlying mortgage on a property and subsequently obtained title to that property.
We generally attempt, where possible, to enter into agreements to purchase land, referred to in this Form 10-K as “land purchase contracts,” “purchase agreements,” “options” or “option agreements,” on a non-recourse basis, thereby limiting our financial exposure to the amounts expended in obtaining any necessary governmental approvals, the costs incurred in the planning and design of the community and, in some cases, some or all of our deposit. The use of these agreements may increase the price of land that we eventually acquire, but reduces our risk by allowing us to obtain the necessary development approvals before acquiring the land or allowing us to delay the acquisition to a later date. Historically, as approvals were obtained, the value of the purchase agreements and land generally increased; however, in any given time period, this may not happen. We have the ability to extend some of these purchase agreements for varying periods of time, in some cases by making an additional payment and, in other cases, without making any additional payment. Our purchase agreements are typically subject to numerous conditions including, but not limited to, the ability to obtain necessary governmental approvals for the proposed

7



community. Our deposit under an agreement may be returned to us if all approvals are not obtained, although pre-development costs may not be recoverable. We generally have the right to cancel any of our agreements to purchase land by forfeiture of some or all of the deposits we have made pursuant to the agreement. In recent years, we have had more success in negotiating land parcels for immediate purchase since many sellers were in financial distress, not in a position to wait for our obtaining land approvals, or unwilling to take the financial risk of not completing the sale. As a result, the percentage of our home sites owned is much higher than our historical percentages.
In response to the decline in market conditions during the 2006-2011 downturn in the housing industry, we re-evaluated and renegotiated or canceled many of our land purchase contracts. In addition, we sold, and may continue to sell, certain parcels of land that we identified as non-strategic. As a result, we reduced our home sites controlled from a high of approximately 91,200 at April 30, 2006 to approximately 48,628 at October 31, 2013.
Based on our experience during prior downturns in the housing industry, we believe that attractive land acquisition opportunities arise in difficult times for those builders that have the financial strength to take advantage of them. In the current environment, we believe our strong balance sheet, liquidity, access to capital, broad geographic presence, diversified product line, experienced personnel and national brand name all position us well for such opportunities now and in the future. Based on our belief that the housing market has begun to recover, the increased attractiveness of land available for purchase and the revival of demand in certain areas, we have begun to increase our land positions. During fiscal 2013 and 2012, we acquired control of approximately 12,462 home sites (net of options terminated) and, approximately 6,100 home sites (net of options terminated), respectively. At October 31, 2013, we controlled approximately 48,628 home sites, as compared to approximately 40,350 home sites at October 31, 2012 and 37,497 home sites at October 31, 2011. At October 31, 2013, we had a commitment to acquire a parcel of land for $79.3 million which we intend to develop with a joint venture partner into approximately 6,500 home sites; we expect to acquire up to 1,750 of them and the joint venture expects to sell the remaining home sites to outside builders. In December 2013, the joint venture was formed and the joint venture acquired the land. In addition, in November 2013, we entered into an agreement to acquire the home building business of Shapell, including a portfolio of approximately 5,200 home sites for $1.60 billion in cash, subject to adjustment. See "Recent Developments" above for more information.
Our ability to continue development activities over the long-term will be dependent, among other things, upon a suitable economic environment and our continued ability to locate and enter into options or agreements to purchase land, obtain governmental approvals for suitable parcels of land, and consummate the acquisition and complete the development of such land.
The following is a summary of home sites for future communities that we either owned or controlled through purchase agreements at October 31, 2013, as distinguished from those communities currently under development:
 
 
Number of communities
 
Number of home sites
Traditional Home Building:
 
 
 
 
North
 
50

 
5,096

Mid-Atlantic
 
76

 
7,560

South
 
41

 
5,682

West
 
99

 
7,960

Traditional Home Building
 
266

 
26,298

City Living
 
13

 
1,851

Total
 
279

 
28,149

Of the 28,149 planned home sites at October 31, 2013, we owned 14,468 and controlled 13,681 through options and purchase agreements. At October 31, 2013, the aggregate purchase price of land parcels subject to option and purchase agreements in operating communities and future communities was approximately $1.36 billion (including $61.7 million of land to be acquired from joint ventures in which we have invested). Of the $1.36 billion of land purchase commitments, we paid or deposited $77.0 million and, if we acquire all of these land parcels, we will be required to pay an additional $1.29 billion. The purchases of these land parcels are scheduled over the next several years. We have additional land parcels under option that have been excluded from the aforementioned aggregate purchase price since we do not believe that we will complete the purchase of these land parcels and no additional funds will be required from us to terminate these contracts. These land parcels have either been written off or written down to the estimated amount that we expect to recover on them when the contracts are terminated.
We evaluate all of the land owned or optioned for future communities on an ongoing basis for continued economic and market feasibility. During each of the fiscal years ended October 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011, such feasibility analyses resulted in

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approximately $1.2 million, $1.7 million and $34.8 million, respectively, of capitalized costs related to land owned or optioned for future communities being charged to cost of revenues because such costs were no longer deemed to be recoverable or exceeded the properties’ fair value.
We have a substantial amount of land currently under control for which approvals have been obtained or are being sought. We devote significant resources to locating suitable land for future development and obtaining the required approvals on land under our control. There can be no assurance that the necessary development approvals will be secured for the land currently under our control or for land which we may acquire control of in the future or that, upon obtaining such development approvals, we will elect to complete the purchases of land under option or complete the development of land that we own. We generally have been successful in obtaining governmental approvals in the past. We believe that we have an adequate supply of land in our existing communities and proposed communities (assuming that all properties are developed) to maintain our operations at current levels for several years.
Community Development
We typically expend considerable effort in developing a concept for each community, which includes determining the size, style and price range of the homes; the layout of the streets and individual home sites; and the overall community design. After the necessary governmental subdivision and other approvals have been obtained, which may take several years, we improve the land by clearing and grading it; installing roads, underground utility lines and recreational amenities; erecting distinctive entrance structures; and staking out individual home sites.
Each community is managed by a project manager. Working with sales staff, construction managers, marketing personnel and, when required, other in-house and outside professionals such as accountants, engineers, architects and legal counsel, a project manager is responsible for supervising and coordinating the various developmental steps such as land approval, land acquisition, marketing, selling, construction and customer service, and monitoring the progress of work and controlling expenditures. Major decisions regarding each community are made in consultation with senior members of our management team.
The most significant variable affecting the timing of our revenue stream, other than housing demand, is the opening of the community for sale, which generally occurs shortly after receipt of final land regulatory approvals. Receipt of approvals permits us to begin the process of obtaining executed sales contracts from home buyers. Although our sales and construction activities vary somewhat by season, which can affect the timing of closings, any such seasonal effect is relatively insignificant compared to the effect of the timing of receipt of final regulatory approvals, the opening of the community and the subsequent timing of closings. In the recent housing slowdown, we delayed the opening of new communities and temporarily shut down a number of operating communities to reduce operating expenses and conserve cash.
We act as a general contractor for most of our projects. Subcontractors perform all home construction and land development work, generally under fixed-price contracts. We purchase most of the materials we use to build our homes and in our land development activities directly from the manufacturers or producers. We generally have multiple sources for the materials we purchase and we have not experienced significant delays due to unavailability of necessary materials. See “Manufacturing/Distribution Facilities” in Item 2 of this Form 10-K.
Our construction managers coordinate subcontracting activities and supervise all aspects of construction work and quality control. One of the ways in which we seek to achieve home buyer satisfaction is by providing our construction managers with incentive compensation arrangements based upon each home buyer’s satisfaction, as expressed by the buyers’ responses on pre- and post-closing questionnaires.
We maintain insurance, subject to deductibles and self-insured amounts, to protect us against various risks associated with our activities, including, among others, general liability, “all-risk” property, construction defects, workers’ compensation, automobile and employee fidelity. We accrue for our expected costs associated with the deductibles and self-insured amounts.
Marketing and Sales
We believe that our marketing strategy for our Traditional Home Building product, which emphasizes our more expensive “Estate” and “Executive” lines of homes, has enhanced our reputation as a builder-developer of high-quality upscale housing. We believe this reputation results in greater demand for all of our lines of homes. We generally include attractive decorative features such as chair rails, crown moldings, dentil moldings, vaulted and coffered ceilings and other aesthetic elements, even in our less expensive homes, based on our belief that this additional construction expense enhances our product and improves our marketing and sales effort.

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In determining the prices for our homes, we utilize, in addition to management’s extensive experience, an internally developed value analysis program that compares our homes with homes offered by other builders in each local marketing area. In our application of this program, we assign a positive or negative dollar value to differences between our product features and those of our competitors, such as house and community amenities, location and reputation.
We expend great effort and cost in designing and decorating our model homes, which play an important role in our marketing. In our models, we create an attractive atmosphere, which may include bread baking in the oven, fires burning in fireplaces, and music playing in the background. Interior decorating varies among the models and is carefully selected to reflect the lifestyles of prospective buyers.
We typically have a sales office in each community that is staffed by our own sales personnel. Sales personnel are generally compensated with both salary and commission. A significant portion of our sales is also derived from the introduction of customers to our communities by local cooperating realtors.
Increasingly, the internet is an important resource we use in marketing and providing information to our customers. Visitors to our website, www.tollbrothers.com, can obtain detailed information regarding our communities and homes across the country, take panoramic or video tours of our homes and design their own home based upon our available floor plans and options. We also advertise in newspapers, in other local and regional publications, and on billboards. We also use color brochures to market our communities.
Due to the weak market conditions over the past several years and in an effort to promote the sales of homes, including the significant number of speculative homes that we had due to sales contract cancellations, we increased the amount of sales incentives offered to home buyers. These incentives varied by type and amount on a community-by-community and home-by-home basis. As demand in the housing market has strengthened, we have significantly reduced the amount of sales incentives offered to our home buyers.
All of our homes are sold under our limited warranty as to workmanship and mechanical equipment. Many homes also come with a limited ten-year warranty as to structural integrity.
We have a two-step sales process. The first step takes place when a potential home buyer visits one of our communities and decides to purchase one of our homes, at which point the home buyer signs a non-binding deposit agreement and provides a small, refundable deposit. This deposit will reserve, for a short period of time, the home site or unit that the home buyer has selected and locks in the base price of the home. Because these deposit agreements are non-binding, they are not recorded as signed contracts, nor are they recorded in backlog. Deposit rates are tracked on a weekly basis to help us monitor the strength or weakness in demand in each of our communities. If demand for homes in a particular community is strong, senior management determines whether the base selling prices in that community should be increased. If demand for the homes in a particular community is weak, we determine whether or not sales incentives and/or discounts on home prices should be adjusted.
The second step in the sales process occurs when we actually sign a binding agreement of sale with the home buyer and the home buyer gives us a cash down payment which is generally non-refundable. Cash down payments currently average approximately 7.9% of the total purchase price of a home, although, historically, they have averaged approximately 7% of the total purchase price of a home. Between the time that the home buyer signs the non-binding deposit agreement and the binding agreement of sale, he or she is required to complete a financial questionnaire that gives us the ability to evaluate whether the home buyer has the financial resources necessary to purchase the home. If we determine that the home buyer is not financially qualified, we will not enter into an agreement of sale with the home buyer. During fiscal 2013, 2012 and 2011, our customers signed gross contracts for $3.80 billion (5,556 homes), $2.67 billion (4,341 homes) and $1.71 billion (2,965 homes), respectively. During fiscal 2013, fiscal 2012 and fiscal 2011, our home buyers canceled home purchase contracts with a value of $169.5 million (262 homes), $107.3 million (182 homes) and $102.8 million (181 homes), respectively. Contract cancellations in a fiscal year include all contracts canceled in that fiscal year, whether signed in that fiscal year or signed in prior fiscal years. When we report net contracts signed, the number and value of contracts signed are reported net of all cancellations occurring during the reporting period, whether signed in that reporting period or in a prior period. Only outstanding agreements of sale that have been signed by both the home buyer and us as of the end of the period for which we are reporting are included in backlog. As a result of cancellations, we retained $2.5 million, $3.2 million and $2.1 million of customer deposits in fiscal 2013, 2012 and 2011, respectively. These retained deposits are included in Other income-net in our Consolidated Statements of Operations.

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Customer Mortgage Financing
Our mortgage subsidiary provides mortgage financing for a portion of our home closings. Our mortgage subsidiary determines whether the home buyer qualifies for the mortgage he or she is seeking based upon information provided by the home buyer and other sources. For those home buyers that qualify, our mortgage subsidiary provides the home buyer with a mortgage commitment that specifies the terms and conditions of a proposed mortgage loan based upon then-current market conditions.
Information about the number and amount of loans funded by our mortgage subsidiary is contained in the table below.
Fiscal year
 
Total
Toll Brothers, Inc. settlements (a)
 
TBI Mortgage Company
financed settlements*(b)
 
Gross
capture rate (b/a)
 
Amount
financed (in thousands)
2013
 
4,184

 
1,803

 
43.1%
 
$
717,335

2012
 
3,286

 
1,572

 
47.8%
 
$
585,732

2011
 
2,611

 
1,361

 
52.1%
 
$
508,880

2010
 
2,642

 
1,451

 
54.9%
 
$
530,575

2009
 
2,965

 
1,341

 
45.2%
 
$
489,269

*
TBI Mortgage Company financed settlements exclude brokered and referred loans which amounted to approximately  10.7%,10.7%, 11.5%, 5.8% and 5.0% of our closings in fiscal 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively.
Prior to the actual closing of the home and funding of the mortgage, the home buyer may lock in an interest rate based upon the terms of the commitment. At the time of rate lock, our mortgage subsidiary agrees to sell the proposed mortgage loan to one of several outside recognized mortgage financing institutions (“investors”) who are willing to honor the terms and conditions, including the interest rate, committed to the home buyer. We believe that these investors have adequate financial resources to honor their commitments to our mortgage subsidiary. At October 31, 2013, our mortgage subsidiary was committed to fund $893.3 million of mortgage loans. Of these commitments, $248.0 million, as well as $107.9 million of mortgage loans receivable, have “locked-in” interest rates. Our mortgage subsidiary funds its commitments through a combination of its own capital, capital provided from us, its loan facility and from the sale of mortgage loans to various investors. Our mortgage subsidiary has commitments from investors to acquire all $355.9 million of these locked-in loans and receivables. Our home buyers have not locked in the interest rate on the remaining $645.3 million.
There has been significant media attention given to mortgage put-backs, a practice by which a buyer of a mortgage loan tries to recoup losses from the loan originator. We do not believe this is a material issue for our mortgage subsidiary. Of the approximately 17,521 loans sold by our mortgage subsidiary since November 1, 2004, only 31 have been the subject of either actual indemnification payments or take-backs or contingent liability loss provisions related thereto. We believe that this is due to (i) our typical home buyer's financial position and sophistication, (ii) on average, our home buyers who use mortgage financing to purchase a home pay approximately 30% of the purchase price in cash, (iii) our general practice of not originating certain loan types such as option adjustable rate mortgages and down payment assistance products, and our origination of few sub-prime and high loan-to-value/no documentation loans, (iv) our elimination of “early payment default” provisions from each of our agreements with our mortgage investors several years ago, and (v) the quality of our controls, processes and personnel in our mortgage subsidiary. We have entered into two agreements with investors that contain limited early payment default provisions. At October 31, 2013, we had not sold any loans under these agreements. We believe that these limited early payment default provisions will not expose us to a significant risk.
The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act provides for a number of new requirements relating to residential mortgage lending practices. These include, among others, minimum standards for mortgages and related lender practices, the definitions and parameters of a Qualified Mortgage and a Qualified Residential Mortgage, future risk retention requirements, limitations on certain fees, prohibition of certain tying arrangements, and remedies for borrowers in foreclosure proceedings in the event that a lender violates fee limitations or minimum standards. We do not believe that the effect of these requirements on our mortgage subsidiary will be significant, although it will restrict us from providing a comprehensive package of services to our home buyer due to fee restrictions imposed upon our home buyers as to what they are permitted to pay to our affiliated businesses.

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Competition
The home building business is highly competitive and fragmented. We compete with numerous home builders of varying sizes, ranging from local to national in scope, some of which have greater sales and financial resources than we do. Sales of existing homes, whether by a homeowner or by a financial institution that has acquired a home through a foreclosure, also provide competition. We compete primarily on the basis of price, location, design, quality, service and reputation. We also believe our financial stability, relative to many others in our industry, is a favorable competitive factor as more home buyers focus on builder solvency.
We continue to see reduced competition from the small and mid-sized private builders that had been our primary competitors in the luxury market. We believe that many of these builders are no longer in business and that access to capital by the remaining ones is already severely constrained. We envision that there will be fewer and more selective lenders serving our industry as the market rebounds and those lenders likely will gravitate to the home building companies that offer them the greatest security, the strongest balance sheets and the broadest array of potential business opportunities. While some builders may re-emerge with new capital, the scarcity of attractive land is a further impediment to their re-emergence. We believe that this reduced competition, combined with attractive long-term demographics, will reward those well-capitalized builders that can persevere through the current challenging environment.
We believe that geographic and product diversification, access to lower-cost capital and strong demographics benefit those builders, like us, who can control land and persevere through the increasingly difficult regulatory approval process. We believe that these factors favor a large publicly traded home building company with the capital and expertise to control home sites and gain market share. We also believe that over the past five years, many builders and land developers reduced the number of home sites that were taken through the approval process. The process continues to be difficult and lengthy, and the political pressure from no-growth proponents continues to increase, but we believe our expertise in taking land through the approval process and our already-approved land positions will allow us to grow in the years to come as market conditions improve.
Regulation and Environmental Matters
We are subject to various local, state and federal statutes, ordinances, rules and regulations concerning zoning, building design, construction and similar matters, including local regulations that impose restrictive zoning and density requirements in order to limit the number of homes that can eventually be built within the boundaries of a particular property or locality. In a number of our markets, there has been an increase in state and local legislation authorizing the acquisition of land as dedicated open space, mainly by governmental, quasi-public and non-profit entities. In addition, we are subject to various licensing, registration and filing requirements in connection with the construction, advertisement and sale of homes in our communities. The impact of these laws has been to increase our overall costs, and may have delayed the opening of communities or caused us to conclude that development of particular communities would not be economically feasible, even if any or all necessary governmental approvals were obtained. See “Land Policy” in this Item 1. We also may be subject to periodic delays or may be precluded entirely from developing communities due to building moratoriums in one or more of the areas in which we operate. Generally, such moratoriums relate to insufficient water or sewage facilities or inadequate road capacity.
In order to secure certain approvals in some areas, we may be required to provide affordable housing at below market rental or sales prices. The impact on us depends on how the various state and local governments in the areas in which we engage, or intend to engage, in development implement their programs for affordable housing. To date, these restrictions have not had a material impact on us.
We also are subject to a variety of local, state and federal statutes, ordinances, rules and regulations concerning protection of public health and the environment (“environmental laws”). The particular environmental laws that apply to any given community vary greatly according to the location and environmental condition of the site and the present and former uses of the site. Complying with these environmental laws may result in delays, may cause us to incur substantial compliance and other costs, and/or may prohibit or severely restrict development in certain environmentally sensitive regions or areas.
We maintain a policy of engaging independent environmental consultants to evaluate land for the potential of hazardous or toxic materials, wastes or substances before consummating an acquisition. Because we generally have obtained such assessments for the land we have purchased, we have not been significantly affected to date by the presence of such materials.
Our mortgage subsidiary is subject to various state and federal statutes, rules and regulations, including those that relate to licensing, lending operations and other areas of mortgage origination and financing. The impact of those statutes, rules and regulations can increase our home buyers’ cost of financing, increase our cost of doing business, as well as restrict our home buyers’ access to some types of loans.

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Gibraltar
In fiscal 2010, we formed Gibraltar to invest in distressed real estate opportunities. Gibraltar focuses primarily on residential loans and properties, from the raw ground to partially and fully improved developments, as well as commercial opportunities. At October 31, 2013, Gibraltar had investments in distressed loans of approximately $36.4 million, investments in foreclosed real estate of $73.0 million and $25.7 million invested in a joint venture in which it is a 20% participant with two unrelated parties to purchase a 40% interest in an entity that owns and controls a portfolio of loans and real estate.
Toll Brothers Apartment Living/Toll Brothers Campus Living
Over the past several years, we have acquired control of a number of land parcels as for-rent apartment projects, including two student housing sites, totaling approximately 4,600 units. These projects, which are located in the metro-Boston to metro-Washington, D.C. corridor, are being developed or will be developed with partners under the brand names Toll Brothers Apartment Living and Toll Brothers Campus Living. A number of these sites had been acquired by us as part of a larger purchase or were originally acquired to develop as for-sale homes. Of the 4,600 planned units, 1,500 are owned by joint ventures in which we have a 50% interest; approximately 1,600 are owned by us; 1,200 of them are under contract to be purchased; and 300 of them are under letters of intent. Through the Trust, we also have interests in approximately 1,500 operating apartment units in the Washington, D.C. area and in Princeton Junction, NJ.
Employees
At October 31, 2013, we employed 3,019 persons full-time. At October 31, 2013, we were subject to one collective bargaining agreement that covered less than 2% of our employees. We consider our employee relations to be good.
Available Information
Our principal internet address is www.tollbrothers.com. We make our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and any amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 available through our website, free of charge, as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). The contents of our website are not, however, a part of this Form 10-K.
FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
Certain information included in this report or in other materials we have filed or will file with the SEC (as well as information included in oral statements or other written statements made or to be made by us) contains or may contain forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. You can identify these statements by the fact that they do not relate to matters of strictly historical or factual nature and generally discuss or relate to estimates or other expectations regarding future events. They contain words such as “anticipate,” “estimate,” “expect,” “project,” “intend,” “plan,” “believe,” “may,” “can,” “could,” “might,” “should” and other words or phrases of similar meaning in connection with any discussion of future operating or financial performance. Such statements may include, but are not limited to, information related to: anticipated operating results; home deliveries; financial resources and condition; changes in revenues; changes in profitability; changes in margins; changes in accounting treatment; cost of revenues; selling, general and administrative expenses; interest expense; inventory write-downs; unrecognized tax benefits; anticipated tax refunds; sales paces and prices; effects of home buyer cancellations; growth and expansion; joint ventures in which we are involved; anticipated results from our investments in unconsolidated entities; the ability to acquire land and pursue real estate opportunities; the ability to gain approvals and open new communities; the ability to sell homes and properties; the ability to deliver homes from backlog; the ability to secure materials and subcontractors; the ability to produce the liquidity and capital necessary to expand and take advantage of opportunities; legal proceedings and claims; and consummation of the proposed transaction with Shapell including the related financings and subsequent sale of assets.
From time to time, forward-looking statements also are included in other periodic reports on Forms 10-Q and 8-K, in press releases, in presentations, on our website and in other materials released to the public. Any or all of the forward-looking statements included in this report and in any other reports or public statements made by us are not guarantees of future performance and may turn out to be inaccurate. This can occur as a result of incorrect assumptions or as a consequence of known or unknown risks and uncertainties. Many factors mentioned in this report or in other reports or public statements made by us, such as government regulation and the competitive environment, will be important in determining our future performance. Consequently, actual results may differ materially from those that might be anticipated from our forward-looking statements.

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Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date they are made. We undertake no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.
For a discussion of factors that we believe could cause our actual results to differ materially from expected and historical results see “Item 1A — Risk Factors” below. This discussion is provided as permitted by the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, and all of our forward-looking statements are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements contained or referenced in this section.
EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF THE REGISTRANT
Information about our executive officers is incorporated by reference from Part III, Item 10 of this Form 10-K.
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
The recent improvement in the home building industry has stabilized and may not continue. A reversal of the recovery or a further slowdown in the home building industry would likely further adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We believe that, in fiscal 2012, the housing market began to recover from the significant slowdown that started in the fourth quarter of our fiscal year end October 31, 2005. During fiscal 2012 and the first nine months of fiscal 2013, we saw a strong recovery in the number of new sales contracts signed. We have witnessed a leveling of demand which began in the fourth quarter of our fiscal 2013 and has continued into fiscal 2014. We believe this to be a temporary pause triggered by a rapid rise in interest rates and home prices and uncertainty from the political discord in Washington.
The downturn in the home building industry, which we believe began in the fourth quarter of our fiscal 2005, has been one of the most severe in U.S. history. The downturn, which we believe started with a decline in consumer confidence, a decline in home prices and an oversupply of homes available for sale, was exacerbated by, among other things, a decline in the overall economy, high unemployment, fear of job loss, volatility in the securities markets, the number of homes that are or will be available for sale due to foreclosures, an inability of home buyers to sell their current homes, a tightening of standards in the credit markets, and the direct and indirect impact of the turmoil in the mortgage loan market. All of these factors have contributed to the significant decline in the demand for new homes.
As a result of this downturn, our sales and results of operations were adversely affected; we incurred significant inventory impairments and other write-offs; our gross margins declined significantly from historical levels; and we incurred substantial losses from operations, after write-offs, during fiscal 2011, 2010, 2009 and 2008. We cannot predict the continuation of the recovery, nor can we provide assurance that should the recovery not continue, our responses, or the government’s attempts to address the poor economic conditions will be successful. If the recovery does not continue or the poor economic conditions persist or worsen, they may adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
Adverse changes in economic conditions in markets where we conduct our operations and where prospective purchasers of our homes live could reduce the demand for homes and, as a result, could continue to adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
Additional adverse changes in economic conditions in markets where we conduct our operations and where prospective purchasers of our homes live have had and may continue to have a negative impact on our business. Adverse changes in employment levels, job growth, consumer confidence, interest rates and population growth, or an oversupply of homes for sale may reduce demand and depress prices for our homes and cause home buyers to cancel their agreements to purchase our homes. This, in turn, could continue to adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
Increases in cancellations of existing agreements of sale could have an adverse effect on our business.
Our backlog reflects agreements of sale with our home buyers for homes that have not yet been delivered. We have received a deposit from our home buyer for each home reflected in our backlog, and generally we have the right to retain the deposit if the home buyer does not complete the purchase. In some cases, however, a home buyer may cancel the agreement of sale and receive a complete or partial refund of the deposit for reasons such as state and local law, the home buyer’s inability to obtain mortgage financing, his or her inability to sell his or her current home or our inability to complete and deliver the home within the specified time. If the current industry recovery does not continue or a further decline in economic conditions occurs, or if mortgage financing becomes less available, more home buyers may cancel their agreements of sale with us, which would have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

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The home building industry is highly competitive, and if others are more successful or offer better value to our customers, our business could decline.
We operate in a very competitive environment, which is characterized by competition from a number of other home builders in each market in which we operate. We compete with large national and regional home building companies and with smaller local home builders for land, financing, raw materials and skilled management and labor resources. We also compete with the resale, also referred to as the “previously owned or existing” home market, which has increased significantly due to the large number of homes that are vacant, and homes that have been foreclosed on or will be foreclosed on, due to the current economic downturn. An oversupply of homes available for sale and the heavy discounting of home prices by some of our competitors could again adversely affect demand for our homes and the results of our operations. Increased competition could require us to further increase our selling incentives and/or reduce our prices. If we are unable to compete effectively in our markets, our business could decline disproportionately to that of our competitors.
If we are not able to obtain suitable financing, our interest rates are increased or our credit ratings are lowered, our business and results of operations may decline.
Our business and results of operations depend substantially on our ability to obtain financing, whether from bank borrowings or from financing in the public debt markets. Our revolving credit facility matures in July 2018 and $2.32 billion of our senior notes become due and payable at various times from November 2013 through September 2032. We cannot be certain that we will be able to continue to replace existing financing or find additional sources of financing in the future.
If we are not able to obtain suitable financing at reasonable terms or replace existing debt and credit facilities when they become due or expire, our costs for borrowings will likely increase and our revenues may decrease, or we could be precluded from continuing our operations at current levels.
Increases in interest rates can make it more difficult and/or expensive for us to obtain the funds we need to operate our business. The amount of interest we incur, on our revolving bank credit facility fluctuates based on changes in short-term interest rates, the amount of borrowings we incur and the ratings that national rating agencies assign to our outstanding debt securities. Increases in interest rates generally and/or any downgrading in the ratings that national rating agencies assign to our outstanding debt securities could increase the interest rates we must pay on any subsequent issuances of debt securities, and any such ratings downgrade could also make it more difficult for us to sell such debt securities.
If we cannot obtain letters of credit and surety bonds, our ability to operate may be restricted.
We use letters of credit and surety bonds to secure our performance under various construction and land development agreements, escrow agreements, financial guarantees and other arrangements. Should banks decline to issue letters of credit or surety companies decline to issue surety bonds, our ability to operate could be significantly restricted and could have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
If our home buyers or our home buyers’ buyers are not able to obtain suitable financing, our results of operations may decline.
Our results of operations also depend on the ability of our potential home buyers to obtain mortgages for the purchase of our homes. The uncertainties in the mortgage markets and their impact on the overall mortgage market, including the tightening of credit standards and increased government regulation, could adversely affect the ability of our customers to obtain financing for a home purchase, thus preventing our potential home buyers from purchasing our homes. Moreover, future increases in the cost of home mortgage financing could prevent our potential home buyers from purchasing our homes. In addition, where our potential home buyers must sell their existing homes in order to buy a home from us, increases in mortgage costs and/or lack of availability of mortgages could prevent the buyers of our potential home buyers’ existing homes from obtaining the mortgages they need to complete their purchases, which would result in our potential home buyers’ inability to buy a home from us. Similar risks apply to those buyers whose contracts are in our backlog of homes to be delivered. If our home buyers, potential buyers or buyers of our home buyers’ current homes cannot obtain suitable financing, our sales and results of operations would be adversely affected.
If our ability to resell mortgages to investors is impaired, our home buyers will be required to find alternative financing.
Generally, when our mortgage subsidiary closes a mortgage for a home buyer at a previously locked-in rate, it already has an agreement in place with an investor to acquire the mortgage following the closing. Should the resale market for our mortgages decline or the underwriting standards of our investors become more stringent, our ability to sell future mortgages could be adversely affected and we would either have to commit our own funds to long term investments in mortgage loans, which

15



could, among other things, delay the time when we recognize revenues from home sales on our statements of operations or our home buyers would be required to find an alternative source of financing. If our home buyers cannot obtain another source of financing in order to purchase our homes, our sales and results of operations could be adversely affected.
If land is not available at reasonable prices, our sales and results of operations could decrease.
In the long term, our operations depend on our ability to obtain land at reasonable prices for the development of our residential communities. Due to the recent downturn in our business, our supply of available home sites, both owned and optioned, decreased from a peak of approximately 91,200 home sites controlled at April 30, 2006 to approximately 48,628 at October 31, 2013. In the future, changes in the general availability of land, competition for available land, availability of financing to acquire land, zoning regulations that limit housing density, and other market conditions may hurt our ability to obtain land for new residential communities at prices that will allow us to make a reasonable profit. If the supply of land appropriate for development of our residential communities becomes more limited because of these factors, or for any other reason, the cost of land could increase and/or the number of homes that we are able to sell and build could be reduced.
If the market value of our land and homes drops, our results of operations will likely decrease.
The market value of our land and housing inventories depends on market conditions. We acquire land for expansion into new markets and for replacement of land inventory and expansion within our current markets. If housing demand decreases below what we anticipated when we acquired our inventory, we may not be able to make profits similar to what we have made in the past, may experience less than anticipated profits, and/or may not be able to recover our costs when we sell and build homes. Due to the significant decline in our business during 2006 to 2011, we recognized significant write-downs of our inventory. In fiscal 2012 and the first nine months of fiscal 2013, we have seen a recovery in our business, although not back to 2005 levels. We have witnessed a leveling of demand which began in the fourth quarter of our fiscal 2013 and has continued into fiscal 2014. We believe this to be a temporary pause. If the current recovery in market conditions does not resume or market conditions worsen, we may have to recognize additional write-downs of our inventories and/or may have to sell land or homes at a loss.
We participate in certain joint ventures where we may be adversely impacted by the failure of the joint venture or its participants to fulfill their obligations.
We have investments in and commitments to certain joint ventures with unrelated parties. These joint ventures may borrow money to help finance their activities. In certain circumstances, the joint venture participants, including ourselves, are required to provide guarantees of certain obligations relating to the joint ventures. As a result of the 2006-2011 downturn in the home building industry, some of these joint ventures or their participants have or may become unable or unwilling to fulfill their respective obligations. In addition, in most of these joint ventures, we do not have a controlling interest and as a result, we are not able to require these joint ventures or their participants to honor their obligations or renegotiate them on acceptable terms. If the joint ventures or their participants do not honor their obligations, we may be required to expend additional resources or suffer losses, which could be significant.
Government regulations and legal challenges may delay the start or completion of our communities, increase our expenses or limit our home building activities, which could have a negative impact on our operations.
The approval of numerous governmental authorities must be obtained in connection with our development activities, and these governmental authorities often have broad discretion in exercising their approval authority. We incur substantial costs related to compliance with legal and regulatory requirements. Any increase in legal and regulatory requirements may cause us to incur substantial additional costs, or in some cases cause us to determine that the property is not feasible for development.
Various local, state and federal statutes, ordinances, rules and regulations concerning building, zoning, sales and similar matters apply to and/or affect the housing industry. Governmental regulation affects construction activities as well as sales activities, mortgage lending activities and other dealings with home buyers. The industry also has experienced an increase in state and local legislation and regulations that limit the availability or use of land. Municipalities may also restrict or place moratoriums on the availability of utilities, such as water and sewer taps. In some areas, municipalities may enact growth control initiatives, which will restrict the number of building permits available in a given year. In addition, we may be required to apply for additional approvals or modify our existing approvals because of changes in local circumstances or applicable law. If municipalities in which we operate take actions like these, it could have an adverse effect on our business by causing delays, increasing our costs or limiting our ability to operate in those municipalities. Further, we may experience delays and increased expenses as a result of legal challenges to our proposed communities, whether brought by governmental authorities or private parties.

16



Our mortgage subsidiary is subject to various state and federal statutes, rules and regulations, including those that relate to licensing, lending operations and other areas of mortgage origination and financing. The impact of those statutes, rules and regulations can increase our home buyers’ cost of financing, increase our cost of doing business, as well as restrict our home buyers’ access to some types of loans.
Increases in taxes or government fees could increase our costs, and adverse changes in tax laws could reduce demand for our homes.
Increases in real estate taxes and other local government fees, such as fees imposed on developers to fund schools, open space, road improvements, and/or provide low and moderate income housing, could increase our costs and have an adverse effect on our operations. In addition, increases in local real estate taxes could adversely affect our potential home buyers who may consider those costs in determining whether to make a new home purchase and decide, as a result, not to purchase one of our homes. In addition, any changes in the income tax laws that would reduce or eliminate tax deductions or incentives to homeowners, such as a change limiting the deductibility of real estate taxes or interest on home mortgages, could make housing less affordable or otherwise reduce the demand for housing, which in turn could reduce our sales and hurt our results of operations.
Adverse weather conditions, natural disasters and other conditions could disrupt the development of our communities, which could harm our sales and results of operations.
Adverse weather conditions and natural disasters, such as hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes, floods and fires, can have serious effects on our ability to develop our residential communities. We also may be affected by unforeseen engineering, environmental or geological conditions or problems. Any of these adverse events or circumstances could cause delays in the completion of, or increase the cost of, developing one or more of our residential communities and, as a result, could harm our sales and results of operations.
If we experience shortages or increased costs of labor and supplies or other circumstances beyond our control, there could be delays or increased costs in developing our communities, which could adversely affect our operating results.
Our ability to develop residential communities may be adversely affected by circumstances beyond our control, including work stoppages, labor disputes and shortages of qualified trades people, such as carpenters, roofers, electricians and plumbers; changes in laws relating to union organizing activity; lack of availability of adequate utility infrastructure and services; our need to rely on local subcontractors who may not be adequately capitalized or insured; and shortages, delays in availability, or fluctuations in prices of building materials. Any of these circumstances could give rise to delays in the start or completion of, or could increase the cost of, developing one or more of our residential communities. We may not be able to recover these increased costs by raising our home prices because the price for each home is typically set months prior to its delivery pursuant to the agreement of sale with the home buyer. If that happens, our operating results could be harmed.
We are subject to one collective bargaining agreement that covers approximately 2% of our employees. We have not experienced any work stoppages due to strikes by unionized workers, but we cannot assure you that there will not be any work stoppages due to strikes or other job actions in the future. We use independent contractors, many of which are non-unionized, to construct our homes. At any given point in time, those subcontractors, who are not yet represented by a union, may be unionized.
Product liability claims and litigation and warranty claims that arise in the ordinary course of business may be costly, which could adversely affect our business.
As a home builder, we are subject to construction defect and home warranty claims arising in the ordinary course of business. These claims are common in the home building industry and can be costly. In addition, the costs of insuring against construction defect and product liability claims are high, and the amount of coverage offered by insurance companies is currently limited. There can be no assurance that this coverage will not be further restricted and become more costly. If the limits or coverages of our current and former insurance programs prove inadequate, or we are not able to obtain adequate, or reasonably priced, insurance against these types of claims in the future, or the amounts currently provided for future warranty or insurance claims are inadequate, we may experience losses that could negatively impact our financial results.

17



Our cash flows and results of operations could be adversely affected if legal claims are brought against us and are not resolved in our favor.
Claims have been brought against us in various legal proceedings that have not had, and are not expected to have, a material adverse effect on our business or financial condition. Should such claims be resolved in an unfavorable manner or should additional claims be filed in the future, it is possible that our cash flows and results of operations could be adversely affected.
We could be adversely impacted by the loss of key management personnel.
Our future success depends, to a significant degree, on the efforts of our senior management. Our operations could be adversely affected if key members of our senior management leave our employ. As a result of a decline in our stock price, previous retention mechanisms, such as equity awards, have diminished in value and, therefore, may become less effective as incentives for our senior management to continue to remain employed with us.
Changes in tax laws or the interpretation of tax laws may negatively affect our operating results.
We believe that our recorded tax balances are adequate; however, it is not possible to predict the effects of possible changes in the tax laws or changes in their interpretation and whether they could have a material adverse impact on our operating results. We have filed claims for refunds of taxes paid in prior years based upon certain filing positions we believe are appropriate. If the Internal Revenue Service disagrees with these filing positions, we may have to return some of the refunds we have received.
We may not be able to realize all of our deferred tax assets.
At October 31, 2013, we had $341.7 million of federal and state deferred tax assets against which we have recognized valuation allowances of $55.7 million. Losses for federal income tax purposes can generally be carried forward for a period of 20 years. At October 31, 2013, the Company expects to utilize all prior year federal tax loss carryforwards resulting from losses incurred for federal income tax purposes during fiscal years 2011 and 2012 on its fiscal 2013 federal income tax return. In order to realize our net federal deferred tax assets, we must generate sufficient taxable income in the future.
We also file tax returns in the various states in which we do business. Each state has its own statutes regarding the use of tax loss carryforwards. Some of the states in which we do business do not allow for the carry forward of losses while others allow for carry forwards for 5 years to 20 years. In order to realize our net state deferred tax assets, we must generate sufficient taxable income within the periods allowed by statutes to carry forward losses.
In the construction of a high-rise building, whether a for-sale or a for-rental property, we incur significant costs before we can begin construction, sell and deliver the units to our customers or commence the collection of rent and recover our costs. We may be subject to delays in construction which could lead to higher costs which could adversely affect our operating results. Changing market conditions during the construction period could negatively impact selling prices and rents which could adversely affect our operating results.
Before a high-rise building generates any revenues, we make material expenditures to acquire land, to obtain permits, development approvals and entitlements and to construct the building. It generally takes several years for us to acquire the land and construct, market and deliver units or lease units in a high-rise building. Completion times vary on a building-by-building basis depending on the complexity of the project, its stage of development when acquired, and the regulatory and community issues involved. As a result of these potential delays in the completion of a building, we face the risk that demand for housing may decline during the period and we may be forced to sell or lease units at a loss or for prices that generate lower profit margins than we anticipated. Furthermore, after a delay during construction, we may face increased costs due to construction costs that exceed our initial expectations as a result of inflation or other causes and/or asset carrying costs (including interest on funds used to acquire land construct the building) can be significant and can adversely affect our operating results. If values decline, we may also be required to make material write-downs of the book value of the building in accordance with GAAP .
Our business is seasonal in nature, so our quarterly operating results may fluctuate.
Our quarterly operating results fluctuate with the seasons; normally, a significant portion of our agreements of sale are entered into with customers in the winter and spring months. Construction of one of our traditional homes typically proceeds after signing the agreement of sale with our customer and can require 12 months or more to complete. Weather-related problems may occur in the late winter and early spring, delaying starts or closings or increasing costs and reducing profitability. In addition, delays in opening new communities or new sections of existing communities could have an adverse impact on home sales and revenues. Expenses are not incurred and recognized evenly throughout the year. Because of these factors, our quarterly operating results may be uneven and may be marked by lower revenues and earnings in some quarters than in others.

18



We invest in distressed loans and real estate related assets at significant discounts; however, if the real estate markets deteriorate significantly, we could suffer losses.
We formed Gibraltar to invest in distressed real estate opportunities. Our investments have involved acquisitions of portfolios or interests in portfolios of distressed loans, some of which have been converted to real estate owned; however, these investments present many risks in addition to those inherent in normal lending activities, including the risk that the recovery of the United States real estate markets will not take place for many years and that the value of our investments are not recoverable. There is also the possibility that, if we cannot liquidate our investments as expected, we would be required to reduce the value at which they are carried on our financial statements.
Decreases in the market value of our investments in marketable securities could have an adverse impact on our results of operations.
We have a significant amount of funds invested in marketable securities during the year, the market value of which is subject to changes from period to period. Decreases in the market value of our marketable securities could have an adverse impact on our results of operations.
Future terrorist attacks against the United States or increased domestic or international instability could have an adverse effect on our operations.

Future terrorist attacks against the United States or any foreign country or increased domestic or international instability could significantly reduce the number of new contracts signed, increase the number of cancellations of existing contracts and/or increase our operating expenses which could adversely affect our business.
Information technology failures and data security breaches could harm our business.

As part of our normal business activities, we use information technology and other computer resources to carry out important operational activities and to maintain our business records. Our computer systems, including our back-up systems, are subject to interruption or damage from power outages, computer and telecommunications failures, computer viruses, security breaches (including through cyber-attack and data theft), catastrophic events such as fires, floods, tornadoes and hurricanes and usage errors. If our computer systems and our back-up systems are compromised, degraded, damaged, breached, or cease to function properly, we could suffer interruptions in our operations or unintentionally allow misappropriation of proprietary or confidential information (including information about our home buyers and business partners), which could damage our reputation and require us to incur significant costs to remediate or otherwise resolve these issues.

We cannot be assured that the proposed Acquisition of Shapell will be completed.

There are a number of risks and uncertainties relating to the Acquisition of Shapell. For example, the Acquisition may not be completed, or may not be completed in the time frame, on the terms or in the manner currently anticipated, as a result of a number of factors, including, among other things, the failure of one or more of the conditions to closing in the Purchase Agreement. There can be no assurance that the conditions to closing of the Acquisition will be satisfied or waived or that other events will not intervene to delay or result in the failure to close the Acquisition. The Purchase Agreement may be terminated by the parties thereto under certain circumstances, including, without limitation, if the Acquisition has not been completed by March 31, 2014 (subject to extension in certain limited circumstances and exceptions). Any delay in closing or a failure to close could have a negative impact on our business.
We may fail to realize the growth prospects and other benefits anticipated as a result of the acquisition of Shapell.
The success of the Acquisition will depend, in part, on our ability to realize the anticipated business opportunities and growth prospects from combining our businesses with those of Shapell. We may never realize these business opportunities and growth prospects. Integrating Shapell’s operations will require significant efforts and expenditures. Our management might have its attention diverted while trying to integrate operations and corporate and administrative infrastructures and the cost of integration may exceed our expectations. We may also be required to make unanticipated capital expenditures or investments in order to maintain, improve or sustain Shapell’s operations or take write-offs or impairment charges and may be subject to unanticipated or unknown liabilities relating to Shapell and its business. We might experience increased competition that limits our ability to expand our business, and we might not be able to capitalize on expected business opportunities. We might be over-invested in the California market. If any of these factors limit our ability to integrate the businesses successfully or on a timely basis, the expectations of future results of operations following the Acquisition might not be met, including, without

19



limitation, our belief that the Acquisition will be accretive to earnings in the first year, excluding transaction expenses, and the amount we expect to receive from Shapell’s homes under construction.
In addition, we and Shapell have operated and, until the completion of the Acquisition, will continue to operate independently. It is possible that the integration process could result in the loss of key employees, the disruption of each company’s ongoing businesses, tax costs or inefficiencies, or inconsistencies in standards, controls, information technology systems, procedures and policies, any of which could adversely affect our ability to achieve the anticipated benefits of the Acquisition and could harm our financial performance.
We will incur significant transaction and acquisition-related integration costs in connection with the Acquisition.
We are currently developing a plan to integrate the operations of Shapell after the completion of the Acquisition. Although we anticipate achieving synergies in connection with the Acquisition, we also expect to incur costs to implement such cost savings measures. We cannot currently identify the timing, nature and amount of all such charges. The significant transaction costs and acquisition-related integration costs could materially adversely affect our results of operations in the period in which such charges are recorded or our cash flow in the period in which any related costs are actually paid. Although we believe that the elimination of duplicative costs, as well as the realization of other efficiencies related to the integration of the businesses, will offset incremental transaction and acquisition-related costs over time, this net benefit may not be achieved in the near term, or at all. We have identified some, but not all, of the actions necessary to achieve our anticipated cost and operational savings. Accordingly, the cost and operational savings may not be achievable in our anticipated amount or timeframe or at all.
We and Shapell will be subject to business uncertainties while the Acquisition is pending that could adversely affect our and its business.
Uncertainty about the effect of the Acquisition on employees and customers may have an adverse effect on us and Shapell. Although we and Shapell intend to take actions to reduce any adverse effects, these uncertainties may impair our and their ability to attract, retain and motivate key personnel until the Acquisition is completed and for a period of time thereafter. These uncertainties could cause customers, suppliers and others that deal with us and Shapell to seek to change existing business relationships with us and Shapell. Employee retention could be reduced during the pendency of the Acquisition, as employees may experience uncertainty about their future roles. If, despite our and Shapell’s retention efforts, key employees depart because of concerns relating to the uncertainty and difficulty of the integration process or a desire not to remain with us, our business could be harmed.
The Acquisition may be subject to receipt of consent or approval from governmental authorities that could delay or prevent the completion of the Acquisition or that could cause the abandonment of the Acquisition.
To complete the Acquisition, we and Shapell may need to obtain approvals or consents from, or make filings with, certain applicable governmental authorities. While we and Shapell each believe that we will receive all required approvals for the Acquisition, there can be no assurance as to the receipt or timing of receipt of these approvals. If any such approvals are required, the receipt of such approvals may be conditional upon actions that the parties are not obligated to take under the Purchase Agreement and other related agreements, which could result in the termination of the Purchase Agreement by us or the seller, or, if such approvals are received, their terms could have a detrimental impact on us following the completion of the Acquisition. A substantial delay in obtaining any required authorizations, approvals or consents, or the imposition of unfavorable terms, conditions or restrictions contained in such authorizations, approvals or consents, could prevent the completion of the Acquisition or have an adverse effect on the anticipated benefits of the Acquisition, thereby adversely impacting our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Our proposed acquisition of Shapell may expose us to unknown liabilities.
Because we have agreed to acquire all the outstanding equity interests of Shapell, our acquisition of Shapell will generally be subject to all of its liabilities, other than certain excluded liabilities as set forth in the Purchase Agreement. If there are unknown liabilities or other obligations, including contingent liabilities, our business could be materially affected. We may learn additional information about Shapell that adversely affects us, such as unknown liabilities, including liabilities under environmental laws, issues that could affect our ability to comply with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, or issues that could affect our ability to comply with other applicable laws. Also, Shapell may have less cash on hand at closing than we expect.


20



To reduce land concentration and outstanding borrowings, we expect to sell a significant amount of assets.

Following the closing of the Acquisition, we expect to selectively sell approximately $500 million of assets to reduce land concentration and outstanding borrowings; however, the timing and size of any asset sale transactions will be dependent on market and other factors, some of which are outside of our control. We make no assurance that we will be able to complete asset sale transactions on attractive terms or at all.
ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.
ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
Headquarters
Our corporate office, which we lease from an unrelated party, contains approximately 200,000 square feet and is located in Horsham, Pennsylvania.
Manufacturing/Distribution Facilities
We own a manufacturing facility of approximately 300,000 square feet located in Morrisville, Pennsylvania; a manufacturing facility of approximately 186,000 square feet located in Emporia, Virginia; and a manufacturing facility of approximately 134,000 square feet in Knox, Indiana. We lease, from an unrelated party, a facility of approximately 56,000 square feet located in Fairless Hills, Pennsylvania. In addition, we own a 34,000 square foot manufacturing, warehouse and office in Culpepper, Virginia. At these facilities, we manufacture open wall panels, roof and floor trusses, and certain interior and exterior millwork to supply a portion of our construction needs. These facilities supply components used in our North, Mid-Atlantic and South geographic segments. These operations also permit us to purchase wholesale lumber, plywood, windows, doors, certain other interior and exterior millwork and other building materials to supply to our communities. We believe that increased efficiencies, cost savings and productivity result from the operation of these plants and from the wholesale purchase of materials.
Office and Other Facilities
We own or lease from unrelated parties office and warehouse space and golf course facilities in various locations, none of which are material to our business.
ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
We are involved in various claims and litigation arising principally in the ordinary course of business. We believe that adequate provision for resolution of all current claims and pending litigation has been made for probable losses and the disposition of these matters will not have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and liquidity or on our financial condition.
ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not Applicable


21



PART II
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Shares of our common stock are listed on the New York Stock Exchange ("NYSE") under the symbol “TOL”. The following table sets forth, for the fiscal quarters indicated, the reported high and low sales prices per share of our common stock as reported on the New York Stock Exchange.
 
Three months ended
 
October 31
 
July 31
 
April 30
 
January 31
2013
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
       High
$
35.01

 
$
39.24

 
$
37.94

 
$
38.35

       Low
$
29.64

 
$
30.31

 
$
29.87

 
$
28.50

2012
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  High
$
37.07

 
$
31.33

 
$
25.79

 
$
23.67

Low
$
28.39

 
$
23.83

 
$
21.78

 
$
16.78

The closing price of our common stock on the NYSE on the last trading day of our fiscal years ended October 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011 was $32.88, $33.01 and $17.44, respectively. At December 19, 2013, there were approximately 754 record holders of our common stock.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
During the three months ended October 31, 2013, we repurchased the following shares under our repurchase program:
Period
 
Total
number of
shares purchased (a)(b)
 
Average
price
paid per share
 
Total number
of shares
purchased as
part of a
publicly
announced plan or program (c)
 
Maximum
number
of shares that
may yet be
purchased
under the plan or program (c)
 
 
(in thousands)
 
 
 
(in thousands)
 
(in thousands)
August 1 to August 31, 2013
 
1
 
$
31.01

 
1
 
8,270

September 1 to September 30, 2013
 
4
 
$
32.62

 
 
8,270

October 1 to October 31, 2013
 
1
 
$
31.35

 
1
 
8,269

Total
 
6
 
 
 
2
 


(a)
Our stock incentive plans permit participants to exercise non-qualified stock options using a “net exercise” method. In a net exercise, we generally withhold from the total number of shares that otherwise would be issued to the participant upon exercise of the stock option that number of shares having a fair market value at the time of exercise equal to the option exercise price and applicable income tax withholdings, and remit the remaining shares to the participant. During the three months ended October 31, 2013, the net exercise method was employed to exercise options to acquire 500,000 shares of our common stock; we withheld 395,092 of the shares subject to the options to cover $12.7 million of aggregate option exercise price and income tax withholdings and issued the remaining 104,908 shares to the participants. In addition, our stock incentive plans permit us to withhold from the total number of shares that otherwise would be issued to a restricted stock unit recipient upon distribution that number of shares having a fair value at the time of distribution equal to the applicable income tax withholdings due and remit the remaining shares to the restricted stock unit recipient. During the three months ended October 31, 2013, we withheld 60 of the shares subject to restricted stock units to cover $2,000 of income tax withholdings and we issued the remaining 127 shares to the recipients. The shares withheld in connection with the net exercise method are not included in the total number of shares purchased in the table above.
(b)
Our stock incentive plans also permit participants to use the fair market value of Company common stock they own to pay for the exercise of stock options (“stock swap method”). During the three months ended October 31, 2013, the Company received 4,034 shares with an average fair market value per share of $32.61 for the exercise of 6,534 options using the stock swap method. The shares used under the stock swap method are included in the total number of shares purchased in the table above.

22



(c)
On March 20, 2003, our Board of Directors authorized the repurchase of up to 20 million shares of our common stock in open market transactions or otherwise, for the purpose of providing shares for our various employee benefit plans. The Board of Directors did not fix an expiration date for the repurchase program.
Except as set forth above, we did not repurchase any of our equity securities during the three-month period ended October 31, 2013.
Stockholder Return Performance Graph
The following graph and chart compares the five-year cumulative total return (assuming an investment of $100 was made on October 31, 2008 and that dividends, if any, were reinvested) from October 31, 2008 to October 31, 2013, for (a) our common stock, (b) the Standard & Poor’s Homebuilding Index (the “S&P Homebuilding Index”) and (c) the Standard & Poor’s 500 Composite Stock Index (the “S&P 500 Index”):
Comparison of 5 Year Cumulative Total Return Among Toll Brothers, Inc., the S&P 500 Index, and the S&P Homebuilding Index
October 31:
 
2008
 
2009
 
2010
 
2011
 
2012
 
2013
Toll Brothers, Inc.
 
100.00

 
74.91

 
77.60

 
75.43

 
142.78

 
142.21

S&P 500
 
100.00

 
109.80

 
127.94

 
138.29

 
159.32

 
202.61

S&P Homebuilding
 
100.00

 
108.92

 
106.00

 
101.73

 
241.35

 
232.47

Dividends
We have not paid any cash dividends on our common stock to date and expect that, for the foreseeable future, we will not do so. Rather, we expect to follow a policy of retaining earnings in order to finance our business and, from time to time, repurchase shares of our common stock. The payment of dividends is within the discretion of our Board of Directors and any decision to pay dividends in the future will depend upon an evaluation of a number of factors, including our results of

23



operations, capital requirements, our operating and financial condition, and any contractual limitations then in effect. Our bank credit agreement requires us to maintain a minimum tangible net worth (as defined in the agreement), which restricts the amount of dividends we may pay. At October 31, 2013, under the most restrictive provisions of our bank credit agreement, we could have paid up to approximately $1.00 billion of cash dividends.
ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
The following tables set forth selected consolidated financial and housing data at and for each of the five fiscal years in the period ended October 31, 2013. It should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and Notes thereto, listed in Item 15(a)1 of this Form 10-K beginning at page F-1 and Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations included in Item 7 of this Form 10-K.
Summary Consolidated Statements of Operations and Balance Sheets (amounts in thousands, except per share data):
Year ended October 31:
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
 
2010
 
2009
Revenues
 
$
2,674,299

 
$
1,882,781

 
$
1,475,881

 
$
1,494,771

 
$
1,755,310

Income (loss) before income taxes
 
$
267,697

 
$
112,942

 
$
(29,366
)
 
$
(117,187
)
 
$
(496,465
)
Net income (loss)
 
$
170,606

 
$
487,146

 
$
39,795

 
$
(3,374
)
 
$
(755,825
)
Earnings (loss) per share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
 
$
1.01

 
$
2.91

 
$
0.24

 
$
(0.02
)
 
$
(4.68
)
Diluted
 
$
0.97

 
$
2.86

 
$
0.24

 
$
(0.02
)
 
$
(4.68
)
Weighted average number of shares outstanding:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
 
169,288

 
167,346

 
167,140

 
165,666

 
161,549

Diluted
 
177,963

 
170,154

 
168,381

 
165,666

 
161,549

At October 31:
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
 
2010
 
2009
Cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities
 
$
825,480

 
$
1,217,892

 
$
1,139,912

 
$
1,236,927

 
$
1,908,894

Inventory
 
$
4,650,412

 
$
3,732,703

 
$
3,416,723

 
$
3,241,725

 
$
3,183,566

Total assets
 
$
6,827,459

 
$
6,181,044

 
$
5,055,246

 
$
5,171,555

 
$
5,634,444

Debt:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Loans payable
 
$
107,222

 
$
99,817

 
$
106,556

 
$
94,491

 
$
472,854

Senior debt
 
2,321,442

 
2,080,463

 
1,490,972

 
1,544,110

 
1,587,648

Senior subordinated debt
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


 
47,872

Mortgage company loan facility
 
75,000

 
72,664

 
57,409

 
72,367

 
27,015

Total debt
 
$
2,503,664

 
$
2,252,944

 
$
1,654,937

 
$
1,710,968

 
$
2,135,389

Equity
 
$
3,339,164

 
$
3,127,871

 
$
2,592,551

 
$
2,559,013

 
$
2,516,482

Housing Data
Year ended October 31:
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
 
2010
 
2009
Closings:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Number of homes
 
4,184

 
3,286

 
2,611

 
2,642

 
2,965

Value (in thousands)
 
$
2,674,299

 
$
1,882,781

 
$
1,475,881

 
$
1,494,771

 
$
1,755,310

Net contracts signed:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Number of homes
 
5,294

 
4,159

 
2,784

 
2,605

 
2,450

Value (in thousands)
 
$
3,633,908

 
$
2,557,917

 
$
1,604,827

 
$
1,472,030

 
$
1,304,656


24



At October 31:
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
 
2010
 
2009
Backlog:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Number of homes
 
3,679

 
2,569

 
1,667

 
1,494

 
1,531

Value (in thousands)
 
$
2,629,466

 
$
1,669,857

 
$
981,052

 
$
852,106

 
$
874,837

Number of selling communities
 
232

 
224

 
215

 
195

 
200

Home sites:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Owned
 
33,967

 
31,327

 
30,199

 
28,891

 
26,872

Controlled
 
14,661

 
9,023

 
7,298

 
5,961

 
5,045

Total
 
48,628

 
40,350

 
37,497

 
34,852

 
31,917


ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS ("MD&A")
This discussion and analysis is based on, should be read with, and is qualified in its entirety by, the Consolidated Financial Statements and Notes thereto included in Item 15(a)1 of this Form 10-K, beginning at page F-1.  It also should be read in conjunction with the disclosure under "Forward-Looking Statements" in Part 1 of this Form 10-K.
When this report uses the words “we,” “us,” “our,” and the “Company,” they refer to Toll Brothers, Inc. and its subsidiaries, unless the context otherwise requires. References herein to “fiscal 2013,” “fiscal 2012,” “fiscal 2011,” “fiscal 2010,” “fiscal 2009,” and “fiscal 2008” refer to our fiscal years ended October 31, 2013, October 31, 2012, October 31, 2011, October 31, 2010, October 31, 2009, and October 31, 2008, respectively. References herein to “fiscal 2014” refer to our fiscal year ending October 31, 2014.
Unless otherwise stated in this report, net contracts signed represents a number or value equal to the gross number or value of contracts signed during the relevant period, less the number or value of contracts canceled during the relevant period, which includes contracts that were signed during the relevant period and in prior periods.
OVERVIEW
Our Business
We design, build, market and arrange financing for detached and attached homes in luxury residential communities. We cater to move-up, empty-nester, active-adult, age-qualified and second-home buyers in the United States. We also build and sell homes in urban infill markets through Toll City Living® ("City Living"). At October 31, 2013, we were operating in 19 states. In the five years ended October 31, 2013, we delivered 15,688 homes from 512 communities, including 4,184 homes from 297 communities in fiscal 2013.
In fiscal 2010, we formed Gibraltar Capital and Asset Management LLC (“Gibraltar”) to invest in distressed real estate opportunities. Gibraltar focuses primarily on residential loans and properties, from unimproved ground to partially and fully improved developments, as well as commercial opportunities.
Over the past several years, we have acquired control of a number of land parcels as for-rent apartment projects, including two student housing sites, totaling approximately 4,600 units. See "Toll Brothers Apartment Living/Toll Brothers Campus Living" section of this "Overview". Through Toll Brothers Realty Trust (“Trust”), we also have interests in approximately 1,500 operating apartment units in the Washington, D.C. area and in Princeton Junction, NJ.
We operate our own land development, architectural, engineering, mortgage, title, landscaping, security monitoring, lumber distribution, house component assembly, and manufacturing operations. We also develop, own and operate golf courses and country clubs, which generally are associated with several of our master planned communities. We have investments in a number of joint ventures to develop land for the sole use of the venture participants, including ourselves, and to develop land for sale to the joint venture participants and to unrelated builders. We are a participant in joint ventures with unrelated parties to develop luxury condominium projects, including for-sale and rental residential units and commercial space, a single master planned community, and a high-rise luxury for-sale condominium/hotel project. In addition, we formed and own interests in Toll Brothers Realty Trust II (“Trust II”) to invest in commercial real estate opportunities.

25



Fiscal 2013 Financial Highlights
In the twelve-month period ended October 31, 2013, we recognized $2.67 billion of revenues and net income of $170.6 million, as compared to $1.88 billion of revenues and net income of $487.1 million in fiscal 2012. The fiscal 2012 net income included an income tax benefit of $394.7 million related to the reversal of deferred tax asset valuation allowances.
At October 31, 2013, we had $825.5 million of cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities on hand and approximately $958.4 million available under our $1.04 billion revolving credit facility that matures in August 2018. During fiscal 2013, we issued $400 million of senior notes and repaid $163.9 million of senior notes that matured in fiscal 2013.

Acquisition

In November 2013, we entered into a purchase and sale agreement (the “Purchase Agreement”) to acquire all of the equity interests in Shapell Industries, Inc. (“Shapell”), for an aggregate all-cash purchase price of $1.60 billion, which amount is subject to adjustment in accordance with the terms of the Purchase Agreement. We have agreed to acquire the single-family residential real property development business of Shapell, including a portfolio of approximately 5,200 home sites in California. We intend to use the net proceeds of the equity offering and the senior note offerings consummated in November 2013, borrowings under our $1.04 billion credit facility, other financial resources available to us, and, if needed, borrowings under the 364-day unsecured revolving credit commitment to finance the Acquisition. See Note 1, "Significant Accounting Policies - Subsequent Events" of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in this Form 10-K.

Shapell was founded in 1955 as a home construction company that built custom-quality single-family home communities in Southern California. Shapell designs, constructs and markets single-family detached and attached homes and develops land in master-planned communities and neighborhoods throughout coastal Northern and Southern California. Shapell’s revenues from home building totaled $354 million, $252 million, $272 million and $274 million for 2010, 2011, 2012 and the eight-month period ended August 31, 2013, respectively. Shapell has delivered over 70,000 homes and built over 7,000 apartments since 1955.

Shapell’s home building operation has 18 active selling communities concentrated in 15 locations. It is organized in two geographic regions, Northern California and Southern California, within which it is focused on a select number of premium markets.    

Following the closing of the acquisition, we expect to selectively sell approximately $500 million of assets to reduce land concentration and outstanding borrowings; however, the timing and size of any asset sale transactions will be dependent on market and other factors, some of which are outside of our control. We make no assurance that we will be able to complete asset sale transactions on attractive terms or at all.
Our Challenging Business Environment and Current Outlook
We believe that, in fiscal 2012, the housing market began to recover from the significant slowdown that started in the fourth quarter of our fiscal year ended October 31, 2005. During fiscal 2012 and the first nine months of fiscal 2013, we saw a strong recovery in the number and value of new sales contracts signed. Our net contracts signed in fiscal 2012 and 2013, as compared to fiscal 2011, increased approximately 50% and 90%, respectively, in the number of net contracts signed and 59% and 126%, respectively, in the value of net contracts signed. Although the number and value of fiscal 2012 and 2013 net contracts signed increased over fiscal 2011, they were still significantly below what we recorded in fiscal 2005. We have witnessed a leveling of demand which began in the fourth quarter of our fiscal 2013 and has continued into fiscal 2014. We believe this to be a temporary pause triggered by a rapid rise in interest rates and home prices and uncertainty from the political discord in Washington.
We are still affected by the 2006-2011 downturn in the housing market. We believe the downturn started with a decline in consumer confidence, an overall softening of demand for new homes and an oversupply of homes available for sale. The downturn was exacerbated by, among other things, a decline in the overall economy, increased unemployment, the large number of homes that were vacant and homes that had been foreclosed on due to the economic downturn, a fear of job loss, a decline in home prices and the resulting reduction in home equity, the inability of some of our home buyers, or some prospective buyers of their homes, to sell their current homes, the deterioration in the credit markets, and the direct and indirect impact of the turmoil in the mortgage loan market. We believe that, as the national unemployment rate declines and confidence improves, pent-up demand will begin to be released.
We believe that the demographics of the move-up, empty-nester, active-adult, age-qualified and second-home upscale markets will provide us with the potential for growth in the coming decade. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the number of

26



households earning $100,000 or more (in constant 2012 dollars) at September 2013 stood at 26.9 million, or approximately 22% of all U.S. households. This group has grown at three times the rate of increase of all U.S. households since 1980. According to Harvard University's June 2012 "The State of the Nation's Housing," the growth and aging of the current population, assuming the economic recovery is sustained over the next few years, supports the addition of about 1.2 new household formations per year during the next decade.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, during the period 1970 through 2006, total housing starts in the United States averaged approximately 1.6 million per year, while in the period 2007 through 2012, total housing starts averaged approximately 0.8 million per year. In addition, based on the trend of household formations in relation to population growth during the period 2000 through 2007, the number of households formations formed in the four year period of 2008 through 2011 was approximately 2.9 million less than would have been expected.
In the 2006-2011 downturn, in many markets, the pipeline of approved and improved home sites dwindled as many builders and developers lacked both the capital and the economic benefit for bringing sites through approvals. Therefore, we believe that, as demand continues to strengthen, builders and developers with approved land in well-located markets will be poised to benefit. We believe that this will be particularly true for us because our land portfolio is heavily weighted in the metro-Washington, DC to metro-Boston corridor where land is scarce, approvals are more difficult to obtain and overbuilding has been relatively less prevalent than in the Southeast and Western regions.
We continue to believe that many of our communities are in desirable locations that are difficult to replace and in markets where approvals have been increasingly difficult to achieve. We believe that many of these communities have substantial embedded value that may be realized in the future as the housing recovery strengthens.
Competitive Landscape
Based on our experience during prior downturns in the housing industry, we believe that attractive land acquisition opportunities arise in difficult times for those builders that have the financial strength to take advantage of them. In the current environment, we believe our strong balance sheet, liquidity, access to capital, broad geographic presence, diversified product line, experienced personnel, and national brand name all position us well for such opportunities now and in the future.
We continue to see reduced competition from the small and mid-sized private builders that had been our primary competitors in the luxury market. We believe that many of these builders are no longer in business and that access to capital by the remaining private builders is already severely constrained. We envision that there are fewer and more selective lenders serving our industry as the market rebounds and that those lenders likely will gravitate to the home building companies that offer them the greatest security, the strongest balance sheets and the broadest array of potential business opportunities. While some builders may re-emerge with new capital, the scarcity of attractive land is a further impediment to their re-emergence. We believe that reduced competition, combined with attractive long-term demographics, will reward those well-capitalized builders that can persevere through the current challenging environment.
We believe that geographic and product diversification, access to lower-cost capital and strong demographics benefit those builders, like us, who can control land and persevere through the increasingly difficult regulatory approval process. We believe that these factors favor a large publicly traded home building company with the capital and expertise to control home sites and gain market share. We also believe that over the past five years, many builders and land developers reduced the number of home sites that were taken through the approval process. The process continues to be difficult and lengthy, and the political pressure from no-growth proponents continues to increase, but we believe our expertise in taking land through the approval process and our already-approved land positions will allow us to grow in the years to come as market conditions improve.
Land Acquisition and Development
Because of the length of time that it takes to obtain the necessary approvals on a property, complete the land improvements on it, and deliver a home after a home buyer signs an agreement of sale, we are subject to many risks. In certain cases, we attempt to reduce some of these risks by utilizing one or more of the following methods: controlling land for future development through options (also referred to herein as “land purchase contracts” or “option and purchase agreements”), thus allowing the necessary governmental approvals to be obtained before acquiring title to the land; generally commencing construction of a detached home only after executing an agreement of sale and receiving a substantial down payment from the buyer; and using subcontractors to perform home construction and land development work on a fixed-price basis.
In response to the decline in market conditions over the past several years, we re-evaluated and renegotiated or canceled many of our land purchase contracts. In addition, we sold, and may continue to sell, certain parcels of land that we identified as non-strategic. As a result, we reduced our land position from a high of approximately 91,200 home sites at April 30, 2006 to a low

27



of approximately 31,700 home sites at January 31, 2010. Based on our belief that the housing market has begun to recover, the increased attractiveness of land available for purchase and the revival of demand in certain areas, we have begun to increase our land positions. During fiscal 2013 and 2012, we acquired control of approximately 12,500 home sites (net of options terminated) and 6,100 home sites (net of options terminated), respectively. In November 2013, we agreed to acquire all of the equity interests in the single-family residential real property development business of Shapell, including a portfolio of approximately 5,200 home sites in California. See "Overview - Acquisition" in this MD&A for more information about the Shapell acquisition.
At October 31, 2013, we controlled approximately 48,628 home sites of which we owned approximately 33,967. Significant improvements were completed on approximately 12,554 of the 33,967 home sites. At October 31, 2013, we were selling from 232 communities, compared to 224 at October 31, 2012 and 215 communities at October 31, 2011.
We expect to be selling from 250 to 290 communities at October 31, 2014. At October 31, 2013, we had 25 communities that were temporarily closed due to market conditions and that we do not expect to re-open in fiscal 2014.
Availability of Customer Mortgage Financing
We maintain relationships with a widely diversified group of mortgage financial institutions, many of which are among the largest and, we believe, most reliable in the industry. We believe that regional and community banks continue to recognize the long-term value in creating relationships with high-quality, affluent customers such as our home buyers, and these banks continue to provide such customers with financing.
We believe that our home buyers generally are, and should continue to be, better able to secure mortgages due to their typically lower loan-to-value ratios and attractive credit profiles as compared to the average home buyer. Nevertheless, in recent years, tightened credit standards have shrunk the pool of potential home buyers and hindered accessibility of or eliminated certain loan products previously available to our home buyers. Our home buyers continue to face stricter mortgage underwriting guidelines, higher down payment requirements and narrower appraisal guidelines than in the past. In addition, some of our home buyers continue to find it more difficult to sell their existing homes as prospective buyers of their homes may face difficulties obtaining a mortgage. In addition, other potential buyers may have little or negative equity in their existing homes and may not be able or willing to purchase a larger or more expensive home.
While the range of mortgage products available to a potential home buyer is not what it was in the period 2005 through 2007, we have seen improvements over the past several years. Indications from industry participants, including commercial banks, mortgage banks, mortgage real estate investment trusts and mortgage insurance companies are that availability, parameters and pricing of jumbo loans are all improving. We believe that improvement should not only enhance financing alternatives for existing jumbo buyers, but also help to offset the reduction in Fannie Mae/Freddie Mac-eligible loan amounts in some markets. Based on the mortgages provided by our mortgage subsidiary, we do not expect the change in the Fannie Mae/Freddie Mac-eligible loan amounts to have a significant impact on our business.
There has been significant media attention given to mortgage put-backs, a practice by which a buyer of a mortgage loan tries to recoup losses from the loan originator. We do not believe this is a material issue for our mortgage subsidiary. Of the approximately 17,521 loans sold by our mortgage subsidiary since November 1, 2004, only 31 have been the subject of either actual indemnification payments or take-backs or contingent liability loss provisions related thereto. We believe that this is due to (i) our typical home buyer's financial position and sophistication, (ii) on average, our home buyers who use mortgage financing to purchase a home pay approximately 30% of the purchase price in cash, (iii) our general practice of not originating certain loan types such as option adjustable rate mortgages and down payment assistance products, and our origination of few sub-prime and high loan-to-value/no documentation loans, (iv) our elimination of “early payment default” provisions from each of our agreements with our mortgage investors several years ago, and (v) the quality of our controls, processes and personnel in our mortgage subsidiary. We have entered into two agreements with investors that contain limited early payment default provisions. At October 31, 2013, we had not sold any loans under these agreements. We believe that these limited early payment default provisions will not expose us to a significant risk.
The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act provides for a number of new requirements relating to residential mortgage lending practices. These include, among others, minimum standards for mortgages and related lender practices, the definitions and parameters of a Qualified Mortgage and a Qualified Residential Mortgage, future risk retention requirements, limitations on certain fees, prohibition of certain tying arrangements, and remedies for borrowers in foreclosure proceedings in the event that a lender violates fee limitations or minimum standards. We do not believe that the effect of these requirements on our mortgage subsidiary will be significant, although it will restrict us from providing a comprehensive package of services to our home buyer due to fee restrictions imposed upon our home buyers as to what they are permitted to pay to our affiliated businesses.

28



Gibraltar
We continue to look for distressed real estate opportunities through Gibraltar. Gibraltar continues to selectively review new opportunities, including bank portfolios and other distressed real estate investments.
In fiscal 2013, Gibraltar acquired four loans directly and invested in a loan participation for an aggregate purchase price of approximately $26.0 million. The loans are secured by retail shopping centers, residential land and golf courses located in seven states.
At October 31, 2013, Gibraltar had investments in distressed loans of approximately $36.4 million, investments in foreclosed real estate of $73.0 million and an investment in a structured asset joint venture of $25.7 million. In fiscal 2013, 2012 and 2011, we recognized income, including its equity in the earnings from its investment in a structured asset joint venture, of $15.9 million, $7.2 million and $6.9 million from the Gibraltar operations, respectively.
Toll Brothers Apartment Living/Toll Brothers Campus Living
Over the past several years, we have acquired control of a number of land parcels as for-rent apartment projects, including two student housing sites, totaling approximately 4,600 units. These projects, which are located in the metro-Boston to metro-Washington, D.C. corridor, are being developed or will be developed with partners under the brand names Toll Brothers Apartment Living and Toll Brothers Campus Living. A number of these sites had been acquired by us as part of a larger purchase or were originally acquired to develop as for-sale homes. Of the 4,600 planned units, 1,500 are owned by joint ventures in which we have a 50% interest; approximately 1,600 are owned by us; 1,200 of them are under contract to be purchased; and 300 of them are under letters of intent. Through the Trust, we also have interests in approximately 1,500 operating apartment units in the Washington, D.C. area and in Princeton Junction, NJ.
CONTRACTS AND BACKLOG
The aggregate value of net sales contracts signed increased 42.1% in fiscal 2013, as compared to fiscal 2012, and 59.4% in fiscal 2012, as compared to fiscal 2011. The value of net sales contracts signed was $3.63 billion (5,294 homes) in fiscal 2013, $2.56 billion (4,159 homes) in fiscal 2012 and $1.60 billion (2,784 homes) in fiscal 2011. The increase in the aggregate value of net contracts signed in fiscal 2013, as compared to fiscal 2012, was the result of a 27.3% increase in the number of net contracts signed, and a 11.6% increase in the average value of each contract signed. The increase in the number of net contracts signed in fiscal 2013, as compared to fiscal 2012, was primarily due to the continued recovery in the U.S. housing market in fiscal 2013 and the reduced competition from the small and mid-sized private builders that had been our primary competitors in the luxury market. The increase in the average value of each contract signed in fiscal 2013, as compared to fiscal 2012, was due primarily to a change in mix of contracts signed to more expensive areas, higher priced products, increased prices and reduced incentives given on new contracts signed.
The increase in the aggregate value of net contracts signed in fiscal 2012, as compared to fiscal 2011, was the result of a 49.4% increase in the number of net contracts signed, and a 6.7% increase in the average value of each contract signed. The increase in the number of net contracts signed in fiscal 2012, as compared to fiscal 2011, was primarily due to the continued recovery in the U.S. housing market in fiscal 2013, reduced competition from the small and mid-sized private builders that had been our primary competitors in the luxury market and a 10% increase in the average number of selling communities in fiscal 2012, as compared to fiscal 2011.
Backlog consists of homes under contract but not yet delivered to our home buyers ("backlog"). The value of our backlog at October 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011 was $2.63 billion (3,679 homes), $1.67 billion (2,569 homes) and $981.1 million (1,667 homes), respectively. Of the homes in backlog at October 31, 2013, approximately 96.5% are scheduled to be delivered by October 31, 2014. The 57.5% and 43.2% increase in the value and number of homes in backlog at October 31, 2013, as compared to October 31, 2012, was due to the increase in the number and the average value of net contracts signed in fiscal 2013, as compared to fiscal 2012, offset, in part, by the increase in the aggregate value and number of our deliveries in fiscal 2013, as compared to the aggregate value and number of deliveries in fiscal 2012.
The 70.2% and 54.1% increase in the value and number of homes in backlog at October 31, 2012 as compared to October 31, 2011, was due to the 59.4% and 49.4% increase, respectively, in the number and average value of net contracts signed in fiscal 2012, as compared to fiscal 2011 and the higher value and number of homes in backlog at October 31, 2011, as compared to October 31, 2010, offset, in part, by the increase in the aggregate value and number of our deliveries in fiscal 2012, as compared to the aggregate value and number of deliveries in fiscal 2011.
For more information regarding revenues, net contracts signed and backlog by geographic segment, see “Segments” in this MD&A.

29



CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES
We believe the following critical accounting policies reflect the more significant judgments and estimates used in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements.
Inventory
Inventory is stated at cost unless an impairment exists, in which case it is written down to fair value in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”). In addition to direct land acquisition, land development and home construction costs, costs also include interest, real estate taxes and direct overhead related to development and construction, which are capitalized to inventory during periods beginning with the commencement of development and ending with the completion of construction. For those communities that have been temporarily closed, no additional capitalized interest is allocated to the community’s inventory until it re-opens, and other carrying costs are expensed as incurred. Once a parcel of land has been approved for development and we open the community, it can typically take four or more years to fully develop, sell and deliver all the homes in that community. Longer or shorter time periods are possible depending on the number of home sites in a community and the sales and delivery pace of the homes in a community. Our master planned communities, consisting of several smaller communities, may take up to ten years or more to complete. Because our inventory is considered a long-lived asset under GAAP, we are required to regularly review the carrying value of each of our communities and write down the value of those communities when we believe the values are not recoverable.
Current Communities: When the profitability of a current community deteriorates, the sales pace declines significantly or some other factor indicates a possible impairment in the recoverability of the asset, the asset is reviewed for impairment by comparing the estimated future undiscounted cash flow for the community to its carrying value. If the estimated future undiscounted cash flow is less than the community’s carrying value, the carrying value is written down to its estimated fair value. Estimated fair value is primarily determined by discounting the estimated future cash flow of each community. The impairment is charged to cost of revenues in the period in which the impairment is determined. In estimating the future undiscounted cash flow of a community, we use various estimates such as: (i) the expected sales pace in a community, based upon general economic conditions that will have a short-term or long-term impact on the market in which the community is located and on competition within the market, including the number of home sites available and pricing and incentives being offered in other communities owned by us or by other builders; (ii) the expected sales prices and sales incentives to be offered in a community; (iii) costs expended to date and expected to be incurred in the future, including, but not limited to, land and land development costs, home construction costs, interest costs and overhead costs; (iv) alternative product offerings that may be offered in a community that will have an impact on sales pace, sales price, building cost or the number of homes that can be built in a particular community; and (v) alternative uses for the property, such as the possibility of a sale of the entire community to another builder or the sale of individual home sites.
Future Communities: We evaluate all land held for future communities or future sections of current communities, whether owned or optioned, to determine whether or not we expect to proceed with the development of the land as originally contemplated. This evaluation encompasses the same types of estimates used for current communities described above, as well as an evaluation of the regulatory environment in which the land is located and the estimated probability of obtaining the necessary approvals, the estimated time and cost it will take to obtain those approvals and the possible concessions that will be required to be given in order to obtain them. Concessions may include cash payments to fund improvements to public places such as parks and streets, dedication of a portion of the property for use by the public or as open space or a reduction in the density or size of the homes to be built. Based upon this review, we decide (i) as to land under contract to be purchased, whether the contract will likely be terminated or renegotiated, and (ii) as to land we own, whether the land will likely be developed as contemplated or in an alternative manner, or should be sold. We then further determine whether costs that have been capitalized to the community are recoverable or should be written off. The write-off is charged to cost of revenues in the period in which the need for the write-off is determined.
The estimates used in the determination of the estimated cash flows and fair value of both current and future communities are based on factors known to us at the time such estimates are made and our expectations of future operations and economic conditions. Should the estimates or expectations used in determining estimated fair value deteriorate in the future, we may be required to recognize additional impairment charges and write-offs related to current and future communities.

30



We provided for inventory impairment charges and the expensing of costs that we believed not to be recoverable in each of the three fiscal years ended October 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011 as shown in the table below (amounts in thousands).
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
Land controlled for future communities
$
1,183

 
$
451

 
$
17,752

Land owned for future communities

 
1,218

 
17,000

Operating communities
3,340

 
13,070

 
17,085

 
$
4,523

 
$
14,739

 
$
51,837

The table below provides, for the periods indicated, the number of operating communities that we reviewed for potential impairment, the number of operating communities in which we recognized impairment charges, the amount of impairment charges recognized, and, as of the end of the period indicated, the fair value of those communities, net of impairment charges ($ amounts in thousands).
 
 
 
 
Impaired operating communities
Three months ended:
 
Number of
communities tested
 
Number of communities
 
Fair value of
communities,
net of
impairment charges
 
Impairment charges
Fiscal 2013:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
January 31
 
60
 
2
 
$
5,377

 
$
700

April 30
 
79
 
1
 
$
749

 
340

July 31
 
76
 
1
 
$
191

 
100

October 31
 
63
 
2
 
$
6,798

 
2,200

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
$
3,340

Fiscal 2012:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
January 31
 
113
 
8
 
$
49,758

 
$
6,425

April 30
 
115
 
2
 
$
22,962

 
2,560

July 31
 
115
 
4
 
$
6,609

 
2,685

October 31
 
108
 
3
 
$
9,319

 
1,400

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
$
13,070

Fiscal 2011:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
January 31
 
143
 
6
 
$
56,105

 
$
5,475

April 30
 
142
 
9
 
$
40,765

 
10,725

July 31
 
129
 
2
 
$
867

 
175

October 31
 
114
 
3
 
$
3,367

 
710

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
$
17,085

Income Taxes — Valuation Allowance
Significant judgment is applied in assessing the realizability of deferred tax assets. In accordance with GAAP, a valuation allowance is established against a deferred tax asset if, based on the available evidence, it is more-likely-than-not that such asset will not be realized. The realization of a deferred tax asset ultimately depends on the existence of sufficient taxable income in either the carryback or carryforward periods under tax law. We assess the need for valuation allowances for deferred tax assets based on GAAP's “more-likely-than-not” realization threshold criteria. In our assessment, appropriate consideration is given to all positive and negative evidence related to the realization of the deferred tax assets. Forming a conclusion that a valuation allowance is not needed is difficult when there is significant negative evidence such as cumulative losses in recent years. This assessment considers, among other matters, the nature, consistency and magnitude of current and cumulative income and losses, forecasts of future profitability, the duration of statutory carryback or carryforward periods, our experience with operating loss and tax credit carryforwards being used before expiration, and tax planning alternatives.
Our assessment of the need for a valuation allowance on our deferred tax assets includes assessing the likely future tax consequences of events that have been recognized in our consolidated financial statements or tax returns. Changes in existing

31



tax laws or rates could affect our actual tax results and our future business results may affect the amount of our deferred tax liabilities or the valuation of our deferred tax assets over time. Our accounting for deferred tax assets represents our best estimate of future events.
Due to uncertainties in the estimation process, particularly with respect to changes in facts and circumstances in future reporting periods (carryforward period assumptions), actual results could differ from the estimates used in our analysis. Our assumptions require significant judgment because the residential home building industry is cyclical and is highly sensitive to changes in economic conditions. If our results of operations are less than projected and there is insufficient objectively verifiable positive evidence to support the “more-likely-than-not” realization of our deferred tax assets, a valuation allowance would be required to reduce or eliminate our deferred tax assets.
Our deferred tax assets consist principally of the recognition of losses primarily driven by inventory impairments and impairments of investments in and advances to unconsolidated entities. In accordance with GAAP, we assessed whether a valuation allowance should be established based on our determination of whether it was “more likely than not” that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets would not be realized. In fiscal 2009, we recorded valuation allowances against substantially all of our deferred tax assets. We believed that the continued downturn in the housing market, the uncertainty as to its length and magnitude, our continued recognition of impairment charges, and our recent operating losses were significant negative evidence of the need for a valuation allowance against our deferred tax assets.

At October 31, 2013, we expect to utilize all prior year federal tax loss carryforwards resulting from losses incurred for federal income tax purposes during fiscal years 2011 and 2012 on our fiscal 2013 federal income tax return.
We file tax returns in the various states in which we do business. Each state has its own statutes regarding the use of tax loss carryforwards. Some of the states in which we do business do not allow for the carry forward of losses while others allow for carry forwards for 5 years to 20 years.
At October 31, 2012, we re-evaluated the evidence related to the need for our deferred tax asset valuation allowances and determined that the valuation allowances on our federal deferred tax assets and certain state deferred tax assets were no longer needed because of sufficient positive objective evidence. That evidence principally consisted of (i) an indication that the events and conditions that gave rise to significant reported losses in recent years were unlikely to recur in the foreseeable future, (ii) a return to profitability in 2012, (iii) strong backlog evidencing that profitability would likely increase in 2013, and (iv) long net operating loss carryfoward periods that provided evidence that even without significant growth these deferred tax assets would more likely than not be realized. Some of the evidence considered was as follows:
We incurred pre-tax losses from 2008 through 2011 totaling $1.1 billion. These losses were driven primarily by impairments of land, options, inventory and joint ventures which aggregated approximately $1.53 billion during that period. The impairment charges were triggered by the most severe and longest downturn in the U.S. housing industry.
We generated pre-tax income of $132.1 million in the six-month period ended October 31, 2012. This included generating pre-tax income in five out of the previous six consecutive quarters ended October 31, 2012. Our operations had been profitable in each of the last ten quarters ended October 31, 2012, excluding impairment charges.
Impairment charges in fiscal 2012 decreased to $14.7 million due to the strength of the recovery in the housing industry and the lower carrying value of our inventories and joint venture investments as a result of the significant writedowns recognized on them over the period from 2005 through 2011.
The value of new contracts signed in fiscal 2012 increased 59% over fiscal 2011. Our cancellation rate of 4.2% in units and 4.0% in value in fiscal 2012 was the lowest it has been since before 2006.
We expected significant revenue and pre-tax income growth in fiscal 2013 which was supported by our backlog as well as the continued improvement in housing industry trends. Our backlog at October 31, 2012, which totaled $1.67 billion, was the highest it had been since 2008. Our backlog is a strong indicator of our next eight months of operations as we require a signed agreement of sale and a significant cash deposit for a sale to be included in backlog. We had objective and verifiable positive evidence, summarized more fully below, that we would continue to be profitable in fiscal 2013 due to our backlog. That positive evidence in tandem with other positive evidence provided the basis for overcoming the negative evidence. Even without growth in our profits over 2012 levels of profitability, we would realize our federal deferred tax assets in less than 10 years.
Based on our belief that the recovery in the housing market would be sustained, we expected to continue to grow revenues and be profitable beyond fiscal 2013.

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Housing market indices showed positive gains in fiscal 2012. Unemployment rates continued to decrease from October 2010, consumer confidence showed continued improvement, and housing affordability was at near record levels. The October 2012 seasonally adjusted annual rate of housing starts was 894,000, as compared to 630,000 in October 2011 which represented an increase of 42%. The improvement in the housing market had been experienced by all the major public home builders. The financial community and economists were optimistic regarding the housing trends going into 2013.
There was significant pent-up demand for housing that we believed would support a prolonged recovery. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, during the period 1970 through 2007, total housing starts in the United States averaged approximately 1.26 million per year, while in the period 2008 through 2011, total housing starts averaged approximately 0.66 million per year. In addition, based on the trend of household formations in relation to population growth during the period 2000 through 2007, the number of household formations in the four-year period of 2008 through 2011 was approximately 2.3 million less than would have been expected.
We believed that the demographics of the move-up, empty-nester, active-adult, age-qualified and second-home upscale markets would provide us with the potential for growth in the coming decade. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the number of households earning $100,000 or more (in constant 2011 dollars) at September 2011 stood at 25.4 million, or approximately 17.3% of all U.S. households. This group grew at three times the rate of increase of all U.S. households since 1980. According to Harvard University's June 2012 "The State of the Nation's Housing," the growth and aging of the current population and assuming the economic recovery is sustained over the next few years supports the addition of about one million new household formations per year during the next decade.
We emerged from the downturn with reduced competition and increased market share. We believed that many home builders in the areas in which we operated were no longer in business and that access to capital by the remaining ones was severely constrained. The seasonally adjusted annual rate of housing starts in October 2012 increased 42% over the October 2011 rate, whereas the increase in the number of our signed contracts in fiscal 2012 was 49%. The excess of our contracts signed versus the housing starts evidenced the additional market share we gained over the past year.
Based on the above re-evaluation, we reversed $394.7 million of federal and state deferred tax asset valuation allowances in fiscal 2012. In fiscal 2013, we continued to re-evaluate our need for a state deferred tax asset valuation allowance and updated our fiscal 2012 analysis. Based upon our better than forecasted operating results in fiscal 2013, our significantly higher backlog at October 31, 2013 and improved forecast of results of operations in fiscal 2014, we reversed an additional $4.6 million of state deferred tax asset valuation allowances in fiscal 2013.
Revenue and Cost Recognition
The construction time of our homes is generally less than one year, although some homes may take more than one year to complete. Revenues and cost of revenues from these home sales are recorded at the time each home is delivered and title and possession are transferred to the buyer. For detached homes, closing normally occurs shortly after construction is substantially completed.
For our standard attached and detached homes, land, land development and related costs, both incurred and estimated to be incurred in the future, are amortized to the cost of homes closed based upon the total number of homes to be constructed in each community. Any changes resulting from a change in the estimated number of homes to be constructed or in the estimated costs subsequent to the commencement of delivery of homes are allocated to the remaining undelivered homes in the community. Home construction and related costs are charged to the cost of homes closed under the specific identification method. For our master planned communities, the estimated land, common area development and related costs, including the cost of golf courses, net of their estimated residual value, are allocated to individual communities within a master planned community on a relative sales value basis. Any changes resulting from a change in the estimated number of homes to be constructed or in the estimated costs are allocated to the remaining home sites in each of the communities of the master planned community.
For high-rise/mid-rise projects, land, land development, construction and related costs, both incurred and estimated to be incurred in the future, are generally amortized to the cost of units closed based upon an estimated relative sales value of the units closed to the total estimated sales value. Any changes resulting from a change in the estimated total costs or revenues of the project are allocated to the remaining units to be delivered.
Forfeited customer deposits are recognized in other income-net in our Consolidated Statements of Operations in the period in which we determine that the customer will not complete the purchase of the home and we have the right to retain the deposit.

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Sales Incentives: In order to promote sales of our homes, we grant our home buyers sales incentives from time-to-time. These incentives will vary by type of incentive and by amount on a community-by-community and home-by-home basis. Incentives that impact the value of the home or the sales price paid, such as special or additional options, are generally reflected as a reduction in sales revenues. Incentives that we pay to an outside party, such as paying some or all of a home buyer’s closing costs, are recorded as an additional cost of revenues. Incentives are recognized at the time the home is delivered to the home buyer and we receive the sales proceeds.
OFF-BALANCE SHEET ARRANGEMENTS
We have investments in and advances to various unconsolidated entities. Our investments in these entities are accounted for using the equity method of accounting. At October 31, 2013, we had investments in and advances to these entities of $403.1 million, and were committed to invest or advance $92.1 million to these entities if they require additional funding. The unconsolidated entities in which we have investments generally finance their activities with a combination of partner equity and debt financing. In some instances, we and our partners have guaranteed debt of certain unconsolidated entities which may include any, or all, of the following: (i) project completion including any cost overruns, in whole or in part, (ii) repayment guarantees, generally covering a percentage of the outstanding loan, (iii) indemnification of the lender from environmental matters of the unconsolidated entity and (iv) indemnification of the lender from “bad boy acts” of the unconsolidated entity or its partners.
In some instances, the guarantees provided in connection with loans to an unconsolidated entity are joint and several. In these situations, we generally have a reimbursement agreement with our partner that provides that neither party is responsible for more than its proportionate share of the guarantee. However, if the joint venture partner does not have adequate financial resources to meet its obligations under the reimbursement agreement, we may be liable for more than our proportionate share.
We believe that as of October 31, 2013, in the event we become legally obligated to perform under a guarantee of the obligation of an unconsolidated entity due to a triggering event, the collateral should be sufficient to repay a significant portion of the obligation. If it is not, we and our partners would need to contribute additional capital to the venture. At October 31, 2013, the unconsolidated entities that have guarantees related to debt had loan commitments aggregating $279.0 million and had borrowed an aggregate of $65.7 million. We estimate that our maximum potential exposure under these guarantees, if the full amount of the loan commitments were borrowed, would be $279.0 million before any reimbursement from the our partners. Based on the amounts borrowed at October 31, 2013, our maximum potential exposure under these guarantees is estimated to be $65.7 million before any reimbursement from our partners.
In addition, we have guaranteed approximately $11.6 million of ground lease payments and insurance deductibles for three joint ventures.
For more information regarding these unconsolidated entities, see Note 4, "Investments in and Advances to Unconsolidated Entities" in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in this Form 10-K.
The trends, uncertainties or other factors that have negatively impacted our business and the industry in general have also impacted the unconsolidated entities in which we have investments. We review each of our investments on a quarterly basis for indicators of impairment. A series of operating losses of an investee, the inability to recover our invested capital, or other factors may indicate that a loss in value of our investment in the unconsolidated entity has occurred. If a loss exists, we further review to determine if the loss is other than temporary, in which case, we write down the investment to its fair value. The evaluation of our investment in an unconsolidated entity entails a detailed cash flow analysis using many estimates including but not limited to expected sales pace, expected sales prices, expected incentives, costs incurred and anticipated, sufficiency of financing and capital, competition, market conditions and anticipated cash receipts, in order to determine projected future distributions.
Each of the unconsolidated entities evaluates its inventory in a similar manner as we do. See “Inventory” above for more detailed disclosure on our evaluation of inventory. If a valuation adjustment is recorded by an unconsolidated entity related to its assets, our proportionate share is reflected in our Consolidated Statement of Operations with a corresponding decrease to our investment in unconsolidated entities.
We are a party to several joint ventures with unrelated parties to develop and sell land that is owned by the joint venture. We recognize our proportionate share of the earnings from the sale of home sites to other builders, including our joint venture partners. We do not recognize earnings from the home sites we purchase from these ventures but reduce our cost basis in the home sites by our share of the earnings from those home sites.
We are also a party to a number of other joint ventures. We recognize our proportionate share of the earnings and losses of these unconsolidated entities.

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In fiscal 2011, we recognized an impairment charge in connection with the settlement of a lawsuit by one of our joint ventures. As a result of the settlement, we recorded a charge of $25.7 million above amounts previously provided. The impairment was attributable to our investment in South Edge LLC, and its successor entity, Inspirada Builders, LLC (collectively, "Inspirada"). Inspirada settled litigation regarding a loan made by a syndicate of lenders to it having a principal balance of $327.9 million, for which we had executed certain completion guarantees and conditional repayment guarantees. We paid $57.6 million in November 2011 to settle this matter. The disposition of the above matter did not have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and liquidity or on our financial condition.
In fiscal 2011, due to the deterioration of the market in which one of our home building joint ventures operated, we determined that there was an other-than-temporary impairment of our investment in this joint venture; based on this determination, we recognized $15.2 million in impairment charges against the carrying value of our investment in this joint venture.
Pursuant to the Securities and Exchange Commission Regulation S-X, TMF Kent Partners, LLC (“TMF”) and KTL 303 LLC (“KTL”) were deemed significant joint ventures for the fiscal year ended October 31, 2011. We have a 50% ownership interest in TMF and KTL. For fiscal 2013 and 2012, TMF and KTL were not deemed to be significant joint ventures. These entities were formed to construct and market several luxury condominium buildings in the metro-New York market.

In December 2013, Trust II sold substantially all of its assets to an unrelated party. As a result of this sale, we expect to realize a profit of approximately $20 million in the first quarter of fiscal 2014 representing our share of the gain on the sale. This gain will be included in income from unconsolidated entities in our Consolidated Statements of Operations.
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following table compares certain items in our Consolidated Statements of Operations for fiscal 2013, 2012 and 2011 ($ amounts in millions):
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
 
$
 
%
 
$
 
%
 
$
 
%
Revenues
2,674.3

 
 
 
1,882.8

 
 
 
1,475.9

 
 
Cost of revenues
2,133.3

 
79.8
 
1,532.1

 
81.4
 
1,260.8

 
85.4
Selling, general and administrative
339.9

 
12.7
 
287.3

 
15.3
 
261.4

 
17.7
 
2,473.2

 
92.5
 
1,819.4

 
96.6
 
1,522.1

 
103.1
Income (loss) from operations
201.1

 
 
 
63.4

 
 
 
(46.2
)
 
 
Other:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Income (loss) from unconsolidated entities
14.4

 
 
 
23.6

 
 
 
(1.2
)
 
 
Other income - net
52.2

 
 
 
25.9

 
 
 
23.4

 
 
Interest expense

 

 

 

 
(1.5
)
 

Expenses related to early retirement of debt


 
 
 


 
 
 
(3.8
)
 
 
Income (loss) before income taxes
267.7

 
 
 
112.9

 
 
 
(29.4
)
 
 
Income tax provision (benefit) (a)
97.1

 
 
 
(374.2
)
 
 
 
(69.2
)
 
 
Net income
170.6

 
 
 
487.1

 
 
 
39.8

 
 
Note: Amounts may not add due to rounding.
(a) In fiscal 2012, we recognized a reversal of $394.7 million of federal and state deferred tax asset valuation allowances. See “Critical Accounting Policies - Income Taxes - Valuation Allowance” in this MD&A for information regarding the reversal of valuation allowances against our net deferred tax assets.
FISCAL 2013 COMPARED TO FISCAL 2012
REVENUES AND COST OF REVENUES
Revenues in fiscal 2013 were higher than those for fiscal 2012 by approximately $791.5 million, or 42.0%. This increase was attributable to a 27.3% increase in the number of homes delivered and a 11.6% increase in the average price of the homes delivered. In fiscal 2013, we delivered 4,184 homes with a value of $2.67 billion, as compared to 3,286 homes in fiscal 2012 with a value of $1.88 billion. The increase in the number of homes delivered in fiscal 2013, as compared to fiscal 2012, was primarily due to the 54.1% higher number of homes in backlog at the beginning of fiscal 2013, as compared to the beginning of fiscal 2012, and the 40.4% increase in the number of net contracts signed in the first six months of fiscal 2013, as compared to the comparable period of fiscal 2012. The increase in the average price of homes delivered in fiscal 2013, as compared to fiscal 2012, was primarily attributable to a shift in the number of homes delivered to more expensive areas and/or products and

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increases in selling prices in fiscal 2013.
Cost of revenues as a percentage of revenues was 79.8% in fiscal 2013, as compared to 81.4% in fiscal 2012. We recognized inventory impairment charges and write-offs of $4.5 million in fiscal 2013 and $14.7 million in fiscal 2012. Cost of revenues as a percentage of revenues, excluding impairments, was 79.6% of revenues in fiscal 2013, as compared to 80.6% in fiscal 2012. The decrease in cost of revenues as a percentage of revenues, excluding inventory impairment charges, as a percentage of revenue in fiscal 2013, as compared to fiscal 2012, was due primarily to lower materials, labor, interest and closing costs, improved absorption of job overhead due to the increased number of homes closed in fiscal 2013, as compared to fiscal 2012, and the reduced impact on costs in fiscal 2013, as compared to fiscal 2012 from the application of purchase accounting on the homes delivered from the acquisition of CamWest Development LLC (“CamWest”) in November 2011, offset, in part, by the increased cost of land and land improvements in fiscal 2013, as compared to fiscal 2012.
SELLING, GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENSES (“SG&A”)
SG&A increased by $52.6 million in fiscal 2013, as compared to fiscal 2012. As a percentage of revenues, SG&A was 12.7% in fiscal 2013, as compared to 15.3% in fiscal 2012. The decline in SG&A as a percentage of revenues was due to SG&A increasing by 18.3% while revenues increased 42.0%. The dollar increase in SG&A costs was due primarily to increased compensation, information technology, insurance, sales and marketing costs and the expensing of costs incurred for the pending acquisition of Shapell.
INCOME FROM UNCONSOLIDATED ENTITIES
We are a participant in several unconsolidated entities. We recognize our proportionate share of the earnings and losses from these entities. The trends, uncertainties or other factors that have negatively impacted our business and the industry in general, and which are discussed in the “Overview” section of this MD&A, have also impacted the unconsolidated entities in which we have investments. Most of our unconsolidated entities are land development projects or high-rise/mid-rise construction projects and do not generate revenues and earnings for a number of years during the development of the property. Once development is complete, these unconsolidated entities will generally, over a relatively short period of time, generate revenues and earnings until all of the assets of the entity are sold. Because there is not a steady flow of revenues and earnings from these entities, the earnings recognized from these entities will vary significantly from quarter-to-quarter and year-to-year.
In fiscal 2013, we recognized $14.4 million of income from unconsolidated entities, as compared to $23.6 million in fiscal 2012. In fiscal 2012, we recognized a $2.3 million recovery of costs previously incurred related to a joint venture. The $6.9 million decrease in income in fiscal 2013, as compared to fiscal 2012, excluding the recovery recognized in fiscal 2012, was due principally to lower income in fiscal 2013, as compared to fiscal 2012, generated from two condominium joint ventures due to their substantial completion in fiscal 2012, offset, in part, by higher income realized from Gibraltar's Structured Asset Joint Venture, a distribution received in fiscal 2013 from the Trust in excess of our cost basis, and a land development joint venture that sold a large parcel of land to an outside developer in fiscal 2013, as compared to fiscal 2012.
OTHER INCOME - NET
Other income - net includes the gains and losses from our ancillary businesses, income from Gibraltar, interest income, management fee income, retained customer deposits, income/losses on land sales and other miscellaneous items.
In fiscal 2013 and 2012, other income - net was $52.2 million and $25.9 million, respectively. Fiscal 2013 other income-net includes $13.2 million of income from the previously-disclosed settlement of derivative litigation. Excluding these settlement proceeds, the increase in other income - net in fiscal 2013, as compared to fiscal 2012, was due to increased income from our Gibraltar operations, increased income from our ancillary operations, higher earnings from land sales and higher other miscellaneous income in fiscal 2013, as compared to fiscal 2012. These increases were offset, in part, by lower retained customer deposits in fiscal 2013 period, as compared to fiscal 2012.
INCOME BEFORE INCOME TAXES
In fiscal 2013, we reported income before income tax benefit of $267.7 million, as compared to $112.9 million in fiscal 2012.
INCOME TAX PROVISION (BENEFIT)
We recognized an income tax provision of $97.1 million in fiscal 2013, as compared to an income tax benefit of $374.2 million in fiscal 2012. The tax provision in fiscal 2013 included the reversal of $4.6 million of state deferred tax asset valuation allowances and the recording of $3.2 million of new state tax deferred asset valuation allowances. The tax benefit in fiscal 2012 included the reversal of $394.7 million of federal and state deferred tax asset valuation allowances. See “Critical Accounting

36



Policies - Income Taxes - Valuation Allowance” in this MD&A for information regarding the reversal of valuation allowances against our net deferred tax assets.
Excluding the changes in the deferred tax valuation allowances, we recognized a $98.4 million tax provision in fiscal 2013. Based upon the federal statutory rate of 35%, our federal tax provision would have been $93.7 million. The difference between the tax provision recognized and the tax provision based on the federal statutory rate was due primarily to the reversal of $5.6 million of previously accrued taxes and related interest on uncertain tax positions (net of federal tax provision), offset, in part, by $3.7 million of accrued interest and penalties (net of federal tax provision) and an $11.4 million provision for state income taxes, net of federal income tax benefit. The reversal of previously accrued taxes and related interest on uncertain tax positions is due primarily to the expiration of the statute of limitations on these items.
Excluding the reversal of the deferred tax valuation allowances, we recognized a tax provision of $20.5 million in fiscal 2012. Based upon the federal statutory rate of 35%, our federal tax provision would have been $39.5 million. The difference between the tax provision excluding the reversal of deferred tax valuation allowances and the tax provision based on the federal statutory rate was due primarily to the reversal of $34.2 million of previously accrued taxes and related interest on uncertain tax positions (net of federal tax provision) due to the expiration of statute of limitations of the applicable filings or the completion of audits during fiscal 2012, offset, in part, by the recognition of $4.7 million of state income tax provision (net of federal tax benefit), a $5.5 million provision on uncertain tax positions (net of federal tax provision) taken in fiscal 2012 and $5.0 million of accrued interest and penalties.
FISCAL 2012 COMPARED TO FISCAL 2011
REVENUES AND COST OF REVENUES
Revenues in fiscal 2012 were higher than those for fiscal 2011 by approximately $406.9 million, or 27.6%. This increase was primarily attributable to an increase in the number of homes delivered. In fiscal 2012, we delivered 3,286 homes with a value of $1.88 billion, as compared to 2,611 homes in fiscal 2011 with a value of $1.48 billion. The increase in the number of homes delivered in fiscal 2012, as compared to fiscal 2011, was primarily due to the higher number of homes in backlog at the beginning of fiscal 2012, as compared to the beginning of fiscal 2011, the increased number of homes delivered from available inventory, the 37.1% increase in the number of net contracts signed in the first six months of fiscal 2012, as compared to the comparable period of fiscal 2011, and deliveries from our November 2011 acquisition of CamWest. In fiscal 2012, we delivered 201 homes with a sales value of $99.7 million from our CamWest operations.
Cost of revenues as a percentage of revenues was 81.4% in fiscal 2012, as compared to 85.4% in fiscal 2011. We recognized inventory impairment charges and write-offs of $14.7 million in fiscal 2012 and $51.8 million in fiscal 2011. Cost of revenues as a percentage of revenues, excluding impairments, was 80.6% of revenues in fiscal 2012, as compared to 81.9% in fiscal 2011. The decrease in cost of revenues, excluding inventory impairment charges, as a percentage of revenue in fiscal 2012, as compared to fiscal 2011, was due primarily to lower interest costs in fiscal 2012 and increased deliveries in fiscal 2012 from two of our high-rise buildings which had significantly higher margins than our normal product, offset, in part, by the impact on costs from the application of purchase accounting on the homes delivered from the acquisition of CamWest in November 2011. In fiscal 2012 and 2011, interest cost as a percentage of revenues was 4.6% and 5.3%, respectively.
SELLING, GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENSES (“SG&A”)
SG&A increased by $25.9 million in fiscal 2012, as compared to fiscal 2011. As a percentage of revenues, SG&A was 15.3% in fiscal 2012, as compared to 17.7% in fiscal 2011. The increase in SG&A was due primarily to increased compensation costs and increased sales and marketing costs. The increased compensation costs and increased sales and marketing costs were due primarily to the increased number of communities we had open in fiscal 2012, the increase in net sales contracts taken and the number of homes delivered in fiscal 2012, as compared to fiscal 2011. The decline in SG&A, as a percentage of revenues, was due to SG&A increasing by 9.9% while revenues increased 27.6%. The decline in the SG&A percentage was due in part to only a portion of these expenses varying directly with the amount of revenues recognized while an additional portion of these expenses were semi-fixed.
INTEREST EXPENSE
Interest incurred on average home building indebtedness in excess of average qualified assets is charged directly to the Consolidated Statement of Operations in the period incurred. Interest expensed directly to the Consolidated Statement of Operations in fiscal 2011 was $1.5 million. Due to the increase in qualified assets, we did not have any directly expensed interest from home building indebtedness in fiscal 2012.

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INCOME (LOSS) FROM UNCONSOLIDATED ENTITIES
We are a participant in several unconsolidated entities. We recognize our proportionate share of the earnings and losses from these entities. The trends, uncertainties or other factors that have negatively impacted our business and the industry in general, and which are discussed in the “Overview” section of this MD&A, have also impacted the unconsolidated entities in which we have investments. Most of our unconsolidated entities are land development projects or high-rise/mid-rise construction projects and do not generate revenues and earnings for a number of years during the development of the property. Once development is complete, these unconsolidated entities will generally, over a relatively short period of time, generate revenues and earnings until all of the assets of the entity are sold. Because there is not a steady flow of revenues and earnings from these entities, the earnings recognized from these entities will vary significantly from quarter-to-quarter and year-to-year.
In fiscal 2012, we recognized $23.6 million of income from unconsolidated entities, as compared to $1.2 million of loss in fiscal 2011. The loss in fiscal 2011 included $40.9 million of impairment charges that we recognized on our investments in unconsolidated entities. No impairment charges were recognized in fiscal 2012. In fiscal 2012, we recognized a $2.3 million recovery of costs we previously incurred. The $18.4 million decrease in income in fiscal 2012, as compared to fiscal 2011, excluding the impairment charges recognized in fiscal 2011 and the recovery recognized in fiscal 2012, was due principally to lower income generated from two of our condominium joint ventures, primarily due to the delivery of fewer units in fiscal 2012 than in fiscal 2011, a distribution received in fiscal 2011 from the Trust in excess of our cost basis in it, and lower income realized from our structured asset joint venture in fiscal 2012, as compared to fiscal 2011 due primarily to the favorable settlement in fiscal 2011 of a large distress loan. The decrease in the number of units delivered in fiscal 2012 was due to fewer units being available for delivery due to the sellout or near sellout of units in those condominium joint ventures in the early part of fiscal 2012.
OTHER INCOME - NET
Other income - net includes the gains and losses from our ancillary businesses, income from Gibraltar, interest income, management fee income, retained customer deposits, income/losses on land sales and other miscellaneous items.
In fiscal 2012 and 2011, other income - net was $25.9 million and $23.4 million, respectively. The increase in other income - net in fiscal 2012, as compared to fiscal 2011, was due to increased income from our ancillary operations, primarily from our Gibraltar operations and improved performance from our golf operations in fiscal 2012, as compared to fiscal 2011, as well as increases in retained customer deposits and rental income in fiscal 2012, as compared to fiscal 2011. These increases were offset, in part, by lower management fee income, lower interest income and a profit participation payment received in fiscal 2011 from a fiscal 2009 sale of a non-core asset.
EXPENSES RELATED TO EARLY RETIREMENT OF DEBT
In fiscal 2011, we purchased $55.1 million of our senior notes in the open market at various prices and expensed $3.8 million related to the premium paid on, and other debt redemption costs of, our senior notes. In fiscal 2012, we did not have any expenses related to the early retirement of debt.
INCOME BEFORE INCOME TAXES
In fiscal 2012, we reported income before income tax benefit of $112.9 million, as compared to a loss before income tax benefit of $29.4 million in fiscal 2011.
INCOME TAX BENEFIT
We recognized a $374.2 million tax benefit in fiscal 2012, including the reversal of $394.7 million of federal and state deferred tax asset valuation allowances. See “Critical Accounting Policies - Income Taxes - Valuation Allowance” in this MD&A for information regarding the reversal of valuation allowances against our net deferred tax assets.
Excluding the reversal of the deferred tax valuation allowances, we recognized a tax provision of $20.5 million. Based upon the federal statutory rate of 35%, our federal tax provision would have been $39.5 million. The difference between the tax provision excluding the reversal of deferred tax valuation allowances and the tax provision based on the federal statutory rate was due primarily to the reversal of $34.2 million of previously accrued taxes on uncertain tax positions due to the expiration of statute of limitations of the applicable filings or the completion of audits during fiscal 2012, offset, in part, by the recognition of $4.7 million of state income tax provision (net of federal tax benefit), a $5.5 million provision on uncertain tax positions taken in fiscal 2012 and $5.0 million of accrued interest and penalties.

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We recognized a $69.2 million tax benefit in fiscal 2011. Based upon the federal statutory rate of 35%, our tax benefit would have been $10.3 million. The difference between the tax benefit recognized and the tax benefit based on the federal statutory rate was due primarily to the reversal of $52.3 million of previously accrued taxes on uncertain tax positions that were resolved during fiscal 2011, a reversal of prior valuation allowances of $25.7 million that were no longer needed, an increase of deferred tax assets, net of $25.9 million and a tax benefit for state income taxes, net of federal benefit of $1.0 million. The impact of these items were offset, in part, by $43.9 million of net new deferred tax valuation allowances and $3.1 million of accrued interest and penalties.
CAPITAL RESOURCES AND LIQUIDITY
Funding for our business has been, and continues to be, provided principally by cash flow from operating activities before inventory additions, unsecured bank borrowings and the public debt and equity markets. At October 31, 2013, we had $825.5 million of cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities on hand and approximately $958.4 million available under our $1.04 billion revolving credit facility which extends to August 2018. Cash used in operating activities during fiscal 2013 was $569.0 million primarily for the acquisition of inventory, the origination of mortgage loans, net of sales to outside investors, and the purchase of commercial property for development, offset in part, from pre-tax income from operations, an increase in our accounts payable and accrued expenses, an increase in customer deposits and a decrease in restricted cash. In fiscal 2013, cash provided by our investing activities was $332.7 million, including $417.8 million of sales and redemptions of marketable securities, and $97.2 million of cash received as returns on our investments in unconsolidated entities, distressed loans and foreclosed real estate. The cash provided by investing activities was offset, in part, by $36.2 million of purchases of marketable securities, $93.4 million of investments in joint venture projects, $26.2 million of investments in distressed loans and foreclosed real estate and $26.6 million in purchases of property and equipment. We generated $230.4 million of cash from financing activities in fiscal 2013, primarily from the issuance of $400 million of 4.375% Senior Notes due 2023, $15.8 million from the proceeds of our stock-based benefit plans and a tax benefit of $24.4 million from our stock-based compensation plans. The cash provided by financing activities was offset, in part, by the repayment at maturity of $59.1 million of our 6.875% Senior Notes in November 2012, the repayment at maturity of $104.8 million of our 5.95% Senior Notes in September 2013, $31.0 million of loans payable repayments, net of new borrowings and $15.4 million for the repurchase of our common stock.
At October 31, 2012, we had $1.22 billion of cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities on hand and approximately $814.9 million available under our $885 million revolving credit facility which extended to October 2014. Cash used in operating activities during fiscal 2012 was $171.5 million primarily from the acquisition of inventory, the origination of mortgage loans, net of sales to outside investors, and the reduction of our accounts payable and accrued expenses, offset in part from pre-tax income from operations. In fiscal 2012, cash used in our investing activities was $560.5 million, including $580.0 million of purchases of marketable securities, $144.7 million for the acquisition of the assets of CamWest, $217.2 million to fund new joint venture projects, $30.1 million for investments in a non-performing loan portfolio and $11.9 million for the purchase of property and equipment. The cash used in investing activities was offset, in part, by $368.3 million of sales and redemptions of marketable securities, $55.1 million of cash received as returns on our investments in unconsolidated entities and in non-performing loan portfolios and foreclosed real estate. We generated $604.6 million of cash from financing activities in fiscal 2012, primarily from the issuance of $300 million of 5.875% Senior Notes due 2022 in February 2012, the issuance of $287.5 million of 0.5% Senior Exchangeable Notes due 2017 in September 2012, $33.7 million from the proceeds of our stock-based benefit plans and $15.3 million of net new borrowings under our mortgage company warehouse facility. The cash provided by financing activities was offset, in part, by $28.4 million of cash used to repay loans payable, net of new borrowings.
At October 31, 2011, we had $1.14 billion of cash and cash equivalents and marketable securities on hand and approximately $784.7 million available under our $885 million revolving credit facility that extended to October 2014. In fiscal 2011, cash flow provided by operating activities was $58.8 million. Cash provided by operating activities during fiscal 2011 was primarily from our earnings before inventory and joint venture impairments, depreciation and amortization, the receipt of a $154.3 million federal income tax refund and a decrease in restricted cash, offset, in part, by an increase in inventory. We used $80.4 million of cash in our investing activities in fiscal 2011, primarily for investments made in non-performing loan portfolios and marketable securities and the purchase of property, construction and office equipment, offset, in part, by the return of investments from unconsolidated entities and from our non-performing loan portfolios. We also used $111.1 million of cash in financing activities in fiscal 2011, principally for the $58.8 million redemption of senior notes, the net repayment of $31.4 million of loans payable and the purchase of $49.1 million of treasury stock, offset, in part by proceeds received from our stock-based benefit plans.
In general, our cash flow from operating activities assumes that, as each home is delivered, we will purchase a home site to replace it. Because we own several years’ supply of home sites, we do not need to buy home sites immediately to replace those that we deliver. In addition, we generally do not begin construction of our detached homes until we have a signed contract with the home buyer, although in the past several years, due to the increase in the number of attached-home communities from

39



which we were operating (all of the units of which are generally not sold prior to the commencement of construction), the number of speculative homes in our inventory increased significantly. Should our business remain at its current level or decline, we believe that our inventory levels would decrease as we complete and deliver the homes under construction but do not commence construction of as many new homes, as we complete the improvements on the land we already own and as we sell and deliver the speculative homes that are currently in inventory, resulting in additional cash flow from operations. In addition, we might delay or curtail our acquisition of additional land, as we did during the period April 2006 through January 2010, which would further reduce our inventory levels and cash needs. At October 31, 2013, we owned or controlled through options 48,628 home sites; as compared to 40,350 at October 31, 2012; 37,497 at October 31, 2011; and 91,200 at April 30, 2006, the high point of our home sites owned and controlled. Of the 48,628 home sites owned or controlled through options at October 31, 2013, we owned 33,967. Of our owned home sites at October 31, 2013, significant improvements were completed on approximately 12,554 of them.
In November 2013, we agreed to acquire all of the equity interests in Shapell, consisting of Shapell's single-family residential real property development business, including a portfolio of approximately 5,200 home sites in California. See "Overview - Acquisition" in this MD&A for more information about the Shapell acquisition.
At October 31, 2013, the aggregate purchase price of land parcels under option and purchase agreements was approximately $1.36 billion (including $61.7 million of land to be acquired from joint ventures in which we have invested). Of the $1.36 billion of land purchase commitments, we had paid or deposited $77.0 million and, if we acquire all of these land parcels, we will be required to pay an additional $1.29 billion. The purchases of these land parcels are scheduled over the next several years. We have additional land parcels under option that have been excluded from the aforementioned aggregate purchase amounts since we do not believe that we will complete the purchase of these land parcels and no additional funds will be required from us to terminate these contracts. At October 31, 2013, we also had a purchase commitment to acquire a parcel of land for approximately $79.3 million which we intend to develop with a joint venture partner; we expect to acquire up to 1,750 home sites from the joint venture and the joint venture expects to sell the remaining home sites to outside builders. In December 2013, the joint venture was formed and the joint venture acquired the land.
During the past several years, we have had a significant amount of cash invested in either short-term cash equivalents or short-term interest-bearing marketable securities. In addition, we have made a number of investments in unconsolidated entities related to the acquisition and development of land for future home sites or in entities that are constructing or converting apartment buildings into luxury condominiums. Our investment activities related to marketable securities and to investments in and distributions of investments from unconsolidated entities are contained in the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows under “Cash flow provided by (used in) investing activities.”
In August 2013, we entered into an $1.04 billion revolving credit facility with 15 banks, which extends to August 2018. At October 31, 2013, we had no outstanding borrowings under the credit facility but had outstanding letters of credit of approximately $76.6 million. At October 31, 2013, interest would have been payable on borrowings under our credit facility at 2.75% (subject to adjustment based upon our debt rating and leverage ratios) above the Eurodollar rate or at other specified variable rates as selected by us from time to time. We are obligated to pay an undrawn commitment fee of 0.63% (subject to adjustment based upon our debt rating and leverage ratios) based on the average daily unused amount of the credit facility. Under the terms of the credit facility, we are not permitted to allow our maximum leverage ratio (as defined in the credit agreement) to exceed 1.75 to 1.00, and we are required to maintain a minimum tangible net worth (as defined in the credit agreement) of approximately $2.28 billion at October 31, 2013. At October 31, 2013, our leverage ratio was approximately 0.49 to 1.00, and our tangible net worth was approximately $3.28 billion. At October 31, 2013, based upon the minimum tangible net worth requirement, our ability to pay dividends was limited to an aggregate amount of approximately $1.00 billion or the repurchase of our common stock of approximately $1.49 billion. In addition, at October 31, 2013, we had $12.7 million of letters of credit outstanding that were not part of our new credit facility; these letters of credit were collateralized by $12.7 million of cash deposits.
We believe that we will be able to continue to fund our current operations and meet our contractual obligations through a combination of our existing cash resources and existing sources of credit. Due to the uncertainies in the economy and for home builders in general, we cannot be certain that we will be able to replace existing financing or find sources of additional financing in the future.
INFLATION
The long-term impact of inflation on us is manifested in increased costs for land, land development, construction and overhead. We generally contract for land significantly before development and sales efforts begin. Accordingly, to the extent land acquisition costs are fixed, increases or decreases in the sales prices of homes will affect our profits. Prior to the recent sustained downturn in the economy and the decline in demand for homes, the sales prices of our homes generally increased

40



over time. Because the sales price of each of our homes is fixed at the time a buyer enters into a contract to purchase a home and because we generally contract to sell our homes before we begin construction, any inflation of costs in excess of those anticipated may result in lower gross margins. We generally attempt to minimize that effect by entering into fixed-price contracts with our subcontractors and material suppliers for specified periods of time, which generally do not exceed one year. The 2006-2011 downturn in the housing market and related slowdown in the home building industry and the decline in the sales prices of our homes in that period, without a corresponding reduction in the costs, had an adverse impact on our profitability.
In general, housing demand is adversely affected by increases in interest rates and housing costs. Interest rates, the length of time that land remains in inventory and the proportion of inventory that is financed affect our interest costs. If we are unable to raise sales prices enough to compensate for higher costs, or if mortgage interest rates increase significantly, affecting prospective buyers’ ability to adequately finance home purchases, our revenues, gross margins and net income would be adversely affected. Increases in sales prices, whether the result of inflation or demand, may affect the ability of prospective buyers to afford new homes.
CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS
The following table summarizes our estimated contractual payment obligations at October 31, 2013 (amounts in millions):
 
2014
 
2015 – 2016
 
2017 – 2018
 
Thereafter
 
Total
Senior notes (a)
$
384.5

 
$
500.6

 
$
555.1

 
$
1,553.6

 
$
2,993.8

Loans payable (a)
34.2

 
32.1

 
10.2

 
54.8

 
131.3

Mortgage company warehouse loan (a)
76.7

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
76.7

Operating lease obligations
9.6

 
14.8

 
9.3

 
3.7

 
37.4

Purchase obligations (b)
1,015.8

 
550.8

 
139.9

 
66.8

 
1,773.3

Retirement plans (c)
4.8

 
10.8

 
15.5

 
51.3

 
82.4

Other
0.4

 
0.7

 
 
 
 
 
1.1

 
$
1,526.0

 
$
1,109.8

 
$
730.0

 
$
1,730.2

 
$
5,096.0

(a)
Amounts include estimated annual interest payments until maturity of the debt. Of the amounts indicated, $2.3 billion of the senior notes, $107.2 million of loans payable, and $75.0 million of the mortgage company warehouse loan were recorded on the October 31, 2013 Consolidated Balance Sheet.
(b)
Amounts represent our expected acquisition of land under options or purchase agreements and the estimated remaining amount of the contractual obligation for land development agreements secured by letters of credit and surety bonds. Amounts do not include the purchase price of $1.60 billion to acquire all of the equity interests in Shapell. See "Overview - Acquisition" in this MD&A for more information on Shapell.
(c)
Amounts represent our obligations under our deferred compensation, supplemental executive retirement plans and our 401(k) salary deferral savings plans. Of the total amount indicated, $55.3 million was recorded on the October 31, 2013 Consolidated Balance Sheet.
SEGMENTS
At October 31, 2013, we determined that we operate in two segments: Traditional Home Building and City Living, our urban development division. Amounts reported in prior years have been reclassified to conform to the fiscal 2013 presentation.
Within Traditional Home Building, we operate in four geographic segments around the United States: the North, consisting of Connecticut, Illinois, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New Jersey and New York; the Mid-Atlantic, consisting of Delaware, Maryland, Pennsylvania and Virginia; the South, consisting of Florida, North Carolina and Texas; and the West, consisting of Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada and Washington. In fiscal 2011, we discontinued the sale of homes in South Carolina. The operations of South Carolina were immaterial to the South geographic segment.

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The following tables summarize information related to revenues, net contracts signed, total revenues and  income (loss) before income taxes by segment for fiscal years 2013, 2012 and 2011. Information related to backlog at October 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011 and assets by segment at October 31, 2013 and 2012 has also been provided. (Note: Amounts in tables may not add due to rounding.)
Units Delivered and Revenues ($ amounts in millions):
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
 
Units
 
Units
 
Units
 
$
 
$
 
$
Traditional Home Building:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
North
874

 
687

 
654

 
485.0

 
350.7

 
320.8

Mid-Atlantic
1,146

 
958

 
816

 
652.9

 
535.7

 
465.1

South
1,018

 
624

 
514

 
641.3

 
361.8

 
273.3

West
1,009

 
744

 
484

 
724.4

 
437.9

 
309.6

Traditional Home Building
4,047

 
3,013

 
2,468

 
2,503.6

 
1,686.1

 
1,368.8

City Living
137

 
273

 
143

 
170.7

 
196.7

 
107.1

 Total
4,184

 
3,286

 
2,611

 
2,674.3

 
1,882.8

 
1,475.9

Net Contracts Signed ($ amounts in millions):
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
 
Units
 
Units
 
Units
 
$
 
$
 
$
Traditional Home Building:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
North
1,197

 
821

 
634

 
697.5

 
445.2

 
327.8

Mid-Atlantic
1,414

 
1,115

 
849

 
851.3

 
625.5

 
480.0

South
1,225

 
931

 
662

 
831.4

 
582.1

 
378.6

West
1,177

 
1,037

 
467

 
966.6

 
653.7

 
282.4

Traditional Home Building
5,013

 
3,904

 
2,612

 
3,346.8

 
2,306.5

 
1,468.8

City Living
281

 
255

 
172

 
287.1

 
251.4

 
136.0

 Total
5,294

 
4,159

 
2,784

 
3,633.9

 
2,557.9

 
1,604.8

Backlog at October 31 ($ amounts in millions):
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
 
Units
 
Units
 
Units
 
$
 
$
 
$
Traditional Home Building:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
North
948

 
625

 
491

 
562.5

 
350.0

 
255.4

Mid-Atlantic
902

 
634

 
477

 
573.0

 
374.5

 
284.7

South
956

 
749

 
442

 
673.5

 
483.5

 
263.2

West
675

 
507

 
185

 
593.2

 
351.0

 
121.6

Traditional Home Building
3,481

 
2,515

 
1,595

 
2,402.2

 
1,559.0

 
924.9

City Living
198

 
54

 
72

 
227.3

 
110.9

 
56.2

 Total
3,679

 
2,569

 
1,667

 
2,629.5

 
1,669.9

 
981.1


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Revenues and Income (Loss) Before Income Taxes ($ amounts in millions):
 
Revenues
 
Income (loss) before income taxes
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
Traditional Home Building:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
North
$
485.0

 
$
350.7

 
$
320.8

 
$
32.7

 
$
13.9

 
$
11.5

Mid-Atlantic
652.9

 
535.7

 
465.1

 
79.8

 
63.0

 
48.8

South
641.3

 
361.8

 
273.3

 
67.9

 
18.9

 
(25.3
)
West
724.4

 
437.9

 
309.6

 
111.3

 
39.4

 
(27.1
)
Traditional Home Building
2,503.6

 
1,686.1

 
1,368.8

 
291.7

 
135.2

 
7.9

City Living
170.7

 
196.7

 
107.1

 
53.3

 
61.9

 
39.2

Corporate and other
 
 
 
 
 
 
(77.3
)
 
(84.2
)
 
(76.5
)
Total
$
2,674.3

 
$
1,882.8

 
$
1,475.9

 
$
267.7

 
$
112.9

 
$
(29.4
)
Corporate and other is comprised principally of general corporate expenses such as the offices of the Executive Chairman, Chief Executive Officer and President, and the corporate finance, accounting, audit, tax, human resources, risk management, marketing and legal groups, directly expensed interest, offset, in part, by interest income, income from our ancillary businesses, and income from a number of our unconsolidated entities.
Total Assets ($ amounts in millions):
 
At October 31,
 
2013
 
2012
Traditional Home Building:
 
 
 
North
$
963.6

 
$
757.4

Mid-Atlantic
1,231.4

 
1,155.7

South
954.0

 
800.2

West
1,290.4

 
904.4

Traditional Home Building
4,439.4

 
3,617.7

City Living
674.3

 
487.0

Corporate and other
1,713.8

 
2,076.3

Total
$
6,827.5

 
$
6,181.0

Corporate and other is comprised principally of cash and cash equivalents, marketable securities, deferred tax assets and the assets of the Company’s Gibraltar investments, manufacturing facilities and mortgage subsidiary.
FISCAL 2013 COMPARED TO FISCAL 2012
North
Revenues in fiscal 2013 were higher than those in fiscal 2012 by $134.3 million, or 38.3%. The increase in revenues was primarily attributable to a 27.2% increase in the number of homes delivered and an increase of 8.7% in the average selling price of the homes delivered. The increase in the number of homes delivered in fiscal 2013, as compared to fiscal 2012, was primarily due to a higher backlog at October 31, 2012, as compared to October 31, 2011. The increase in the average price of homes delivered in fiscal 2013, as compared to fiscal 2012, was primarily attributable to a shift in the number of homes delivered to more expensive areas and/or products and increases in selling prices in fiscal 2013.
The value of net contracts signed in fiscal 2013 was $697.5 million, a 56.7% increase from the $445.2 million of net contracts signed during fiscal 2012. This 56.7% increase was primarily due to a 45.8% increase in the number of net contracts signed and a 7.5% increase in the average value of each net contract. The increase in the number of net contracts signed was primarily due to an improvement in home buyer demand in fiscal 2013 as compared to fiscal 2012. The increase in the average sales price of net contracts signed in fiscal 2013, as compared to fiscal 2012, was primarily attributable to a shift in the number of contracts signed to more expensive areas and/or products and increases in selling prices in fiscal 2013.

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In fiscal 2013, we reported income before income taxes of $32.7 million, as compared to $13.9 million in fiscal 2012. This increase in income was primarily attributable to higher earnings from the increased revenues in fiscal 2013, as compared to fiscal 2012, offset, in part, by higher SG&A. The increase in SG&A was due primarily to increased compensation, sales and marketing costs
Mid-Atlantic
Revenues in fiscal 2013 were higher than those in fiscal 2012 by $117.2 million, or 21.9%. The increase in revenues was primarily attributable to a 19.6% increase in the number of homes delivered and a 1.9% increase in the average selling price of the homes delivered. The increase in the number of homes delivered in fiscal 2013, as compared to fiscal 2012, was primarily due to a higher backlog at October 31, 2012, as compared to October 31, 2011, primarily in Pennsylvania and Virgina. The increase in the average price of homes delivered in fiscal 2013, as compared to fiscal 2012, was primarily attributable to a shift in the number of homes delivered to more expensive areas and/or products and increases in selling prices in fiscal 2013.
The value of net contracts signed during fiscal 2013 increased by $225.8 million, or 36.1%, from fiscal 2012. The increase was due to a 26.8% increase in the number of net contracts signed and a 7.3% increase in the average value of each net contract. The increase in the number of net contracts signed was primarily due to an increase in home buyer demand in fiscal 2013, as compared to fiscal 2012. The increase in the average sales price of net contracts signed was primarily due to a shift in the number of contracts signed to more expensive areas and/or products and increases in selling prices in fiscal 2013.
We reported income before income taxes in fiscal 2013 and 2012 of $79.8 million and $63.0 million, respectively. The increase in the income before income taxes in fiscal 2013 was primarily due to higher earnings from the increased revenues and lower inventory impairment charges in fiscal 2013, as compared to fiscal 2012, offset, in part, by higher SG&A in fiscal 2013, as compared to fiscal 2012. We recognized inventory impairment charges of $0.5 million and $6.0 million in fiscal 2013 and 2012, respectively.
South
Revenues in fiscal 2013 were higher than those in fiscal 2012 by $279.5 million, or 77.3%. This increase was attributable to a 63.1% increase in the number of homes delivered and a 8.7% increase in the average price of the homes delivered. The increase in the number of homes delivered in fiscal 2013, as compared to fiscal 2012, was primarily due to a higher backlog at October 31, 2012, as compared to October 31, 2011, which was the result of an increase in the number of net contracts signed in fiscal 2012 as compared to fiscal 2011. The increase in the average price of the homes delivered in fiscal 2013, as compared to fiscal 2012, was primarily attributable to a shift in the number of homes delivered to more expensive areas and/or products and increases in selling prices in fiscal 2013.
In fiscal 2013, the value of net contracts signed increased by $249.3 million, or 42.8%, as compared to fiscal 2012. The increase was attributable to increases of 31.6% and 8.5% in the number and average value of net contracts signed, respectively. The increase in the number of net contracts signed in fiscal 2013, as compared to fiscal 2012, was primarily due to increased demand in fiscal 2013. The increase in the average sales price of net contracts signed was primarily due to a shift in the number of contracts signed to more expensive areas and/or products and increases in selling prices in fiscal 2013.
We reported income before income taxes of $67.9 million in fiscal 2013, as compared to $18.9 million in fiscal 2012. The increase in the income before income taxes was primarily due higher earnings from the increased revenues and lower inventory impairment charges in fiscal 2013, as compared to fiscal 2012, offset, in part, by higher SG&A in fiscal 2013, as compared to fiscal 2012. We recognized inventory impairment charges of $2.4 million and $5.2 million in fiscal 2013 and 2012, respectively.
West
Revenues in fiscal 2013 were higher than those in fiscal 2012 by $286.5 million, or 65.4%. The increase in revenues was attributable to a 35.6% increase in the number of homes delivered and a 22.0% increase in the average sales price of the homes delivered. The increase in the number of homes delivered was primarily due to a higher backlog at October 31, 2012, as compared to October 31, 2011, which was the result of an increase in the number of net contracts signed in fiscal 2012 as compared to fiscal 2011. The increase in the average price of the homes delivered was primarily due to a shift in the number of homes delivered to more expensive products and/or locations and increases in selling prices in fiscal 2013.
The value of net contracts signed during fiscal 2013 increased $312.9 million, or 47.9%, as compared to fiscal 2012. This increase was due to a 13.5% increase in the number of net contracts signed and a 30.3% increase in the average value of each net contract signed. The increase in the number of net contracts signed was primarily due to increased demand in fiscal 2013.

44



The increase in the average sales price of net contracts signed was primarily due to a shift in the number of contracts signed to more expensive areas and/or products and increases in base selling prices in fiscal 2013.
In fiscal 2013, we reported income before income taxes of $111.3 million, as compared to $39.4 million in fiscal 2012. The increase in income before income taxes was primarily due to higher earnings from the increased revenues and lower cost of revenues as a percentage of revenues in fiscal 2013, as compared to fiscal 2012, offset, in part, by higher SG&A in fiscal 2013. Cost of revenues as a percentage of revenues was 78.3% of revenues in fiscal 2013, as compared to 82.7% in fiscal 2012. The decrease in cost of revenues as a percentage of revenues in fiscal 2013, as compared to fiscal 2012, was primarily due to a shift in the number of homes delivered to better margin products and/or locations and the impact of purchase accounting on the homes delivered in fiscal 2012 from our acquisition of CamWest.
City Living
Revenues in fiscal 2013 were lower than those in fiscal 2012 by $26.0 million, or 13.2%. The decrease in revenues was primarily attributable to a 49.8% decrease in the number of homes delivered, offset, in part, by an increase of 72.9% in the average selling price of the homes delivered. The decrease in the number of homes delivered in fiscal 2013, as compared to fiscal 2012, was primarily due to a decrease in the number of homes delivered in two of our high-rise buildings located in the New York and New Jersey urban markets which substantially settled out in fiscal 2012, partially offset by the commencement of closing at The Touraine, a high-rise building located in the New York urban market. The increase in the average price of homes delivered in the fiscal 2013 period, as compared to the fiscal 2012 period, was primarily attributable to closings at The Touraine. In fiscal 2013, we closed 21 units at The Touraine with an average sales price of $4.2 million for each unit. Excluding The Touraine, the average selling price of the homes delivered decreased by 2.3% primarily due to an increase in the number of homes delivered in the Philadelphia urban market which has lower average sales prices than other City Living markets.
The value of net contracts signed in fiscal 2013 was $287.1 million, a 14.2% increase from the $251.4 million of net contracts signed during fiscal 2012. This increase was primarily due to a 10.2% increase in the number of net contracts signed and a 3.6% increase in the average value of each net contract. The increase in the number of net contracts signed was primarily due to two high-rise buildings located in the New York and New Jersey urban markets (160 East 22nd Street in Manhattan and Maxwell Place in Hoboken, New Jersey) that opened in fiscal 2013, offset, in part, by net contracts signed in fiscal 2012 at two high-rise building which commenced sales in the second half of fiscal 2011. The increase in the average sales price of net contracts signed in fiscal 2013, as compared to fiscal 2012, was primarily attributable due to a shift in the number of contracts signed to more expensive areas and/or products and increases in base selling prices in fiscal 2013, as compared to the fiscal 2012 period.
In fiscal 2013, we reported income before income taxes of $53.3 million, as compared to $61.9 million in fiscal 2012. This decrease in income was primarily attributable to a decrease in income from unconsolidated entities from $15.2 million in fiscal 2012 to $1.2 million in fiscal 2013 and lower earnings from decreased revenues in fiscal 2013, as compared to 2012, partially offset by lower cost of revenues as a percentage of revenues in fiscal 2013, as compared to fiscal 2012. The decrease in income from unconsolidated entities was due principally to a decrease in income generated from two of our high-rise joint ventures where there were fewer units remaining for sale since fiscal 2012 as they have closed most or all of their condominium units. Cost of revenues as a percentage of revenues was 65.7% and 70.4% in fiscal 2013 and 2012, respectively. The decrease in cost of revenues as a percentage of revenue in fiscal 2013, as compared to fiscal 2012, was primarily due to the increase in the number of homes delivered at The Touraine which had better margins than other City Living locations.
Other
In fiscal 2013 and 2012, other loss before income taxes was $77.3 million and $84.2 million, respectively. The decrease in fiscal 2013, as compared to fiscal 2012, was primarily due to $13.2 million of income from the previously-disclosed settlement of derivative litigation in fiscal 2013, increased income from our Gibraltar operations and investment in its structured asset joint venture, increased income from our ancillary operations, and higher earnings from land sales in fiscal 2013, as compared to fiscal 2012, partially offset by higher unallocated SG&A in fiscal 2013. The increase in unallocated SG&A in fiscal 2013 was primarily due to higher compensation, office and information technology expenses as a result of the increase in our business activity.
FISCAL 2012 COMPARED TO FISCAL 2011
North
Revenues in fiscal 2012 were higher than those in fiscal 2011 by $29.9 million, or 9.3%. The increase in revenues was primarily attributable to a 5.0% increase in the number of homes delivered and an increase of 4.1% in the average selling price

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of the homes delivered. The increase in the number of homes delivered in fiscal 2012, as compared to fiscal 2011, was primarily due to an increase in the number of net contracts signed in fiscal 2012 as compared to fiscal 2011. The increase in the average price of homes delivered in fiscal 2012, as compared to fiscal 2011, was primarily attributable to a shift in the number of homes delivered to more expensive areas and/or products.
The value of net contracts signed in fiscal 2012 was $445.2 million, a 35.8% increase from the $327.8 million of net contracts signed during fiscal 2011. This increase was primarily due to a 29.5% increase in the number of net contracts signed and a 4.9% increase in the average value of each net contract. The increase in the number of net contracts signed was primarily due to a 9% increase in the number of selling communities and an improvement in home buyer demand in fiscal 2012 as compared to fiscal 2011. The increase in the average sales price of net contracts signed in fiscal 2012, as compared to fiscal 2011, was primarily attributable to a shift in the number of homes delivered to more expensive areas and/or products.
In fiscal 2012, we reported income before income taxes of $13.9 million, as compared to $11.5 million in fiscal 2011. This increase in income was primarily attributable to higher earnings from the increased revenues and lower inventory impairment charges in fiscal 2012, as compared to fiscal 2011, offset, in part, by higher SG&A. In fiscal 2012 and 2011, we recognized inventory impairment charges of $1.8 million and $3.8 million, respectively.
Mid-Atlantic
Revenues in fiscal 2012 were higher than those in fiscal 2011 by $70.6 million, or 15.2%. The increase in revenues was primarily attributable to a 17.4% increase in the number of homes delivered, partially offset by a 1.9% decrease in the average selling price of the homes delivered. The increase in the number of homes delivered in fiscal 2012, as compared to fiscal 2011, was primarily due to a higher backlog at October 31, 2011, as compared to October 31, 2010, primarily in Pennsylvania and Virginia. The decrease in the average price of homes delivered in fiscal 2012, as compared to fiscal 2011, was primarily attributable to a shift in the number of homes delivered to less expensive areas and/or products.
The value of net contracts signed during fiscal 2012 increased by $145.5 million, or 30.3%, from fiscal 2011. The increase was due to a 31.3% increase in the number of net contracts signed, partially offset by a 0.8% decrease in the average value of each net contract. The increase in the number of net contracts signed was primarily due to a 10% increase in the number of selling communities and an increase in home buyer demand in fiscal 2012, as compared to fiscal 2011. The decrease in the average sales price of net contracts signed was primarily due to a shift in the number of contracts signed to less expensive areas and/or products in fiscal 2012, as compared to fiscal 2011.
We reported income before income taxes in fiscal 2012 and 2011 of $63.0 million and $48.8 million, respectively. The increase in the income before income taxes in fiscal 2012 was primarily due to higher earnings from the increased revenues in fiscal 2012, as compared to fiscal 2011, offset, in part, by higher inventory impairment charges and SG&A in fiscal 2012, as compared to fiscal 2011. We recognized inventory impairment charges of $6.0 million and $4.3 million in fiscal 2012 and 2011, respectively.
South
Revenues in fiscal 2012 were higher than those in fiscal 2011 by $88.5 million, or 32.4%. This increase was attributable to a 21.4% increase in the number of homes delivered and a 9.0% increase in the average price of the homes delivered. The increase in the number of homes delivered in fiscal 2012, as compared to fiscal 2011, was primarily due to a higher backlog at October 31, 2011, as compared to October 31, 2010, which was the result of an increase in the number of net contracts signed in fiscal 2011 as compared to fiscal 2010. The increase in the average price of the homes delivered in fiscal 2012, as compared to fiscal 2011, was primarily attributable to a shift in the number of homes delivered to more expensive areas and/or products in fiscal 2012, as compared to fiscal 2011.
In fiscal 2012, the value of net contracts signed increased by $203.5 million, or 53.8%, as compared to fiscal 2011. The increase was attributable to increases of 40.6% and 9.3% in the number and average value of net contracts signed, respectively. The increase in the number of net contracts signed in fiscal 2012, as compared to fiscal 2011, was primarily due to increased demand and an increase in the number of selling communities in fiscal 2012, as compared to fiscal 2011. The increase in the average sales price of net contracts signed was primarily due to a shift in the number of contracts signed to more expensive areas and/or products in fiscal 2012, as compared to fiscal 2011.
We reported income before income taxes of $18.9 million in fiscal 2012, as compared to a loss before income taxes of $25.3 million in fiscal 2011. The increase in the income before income taxes was primarily due to lower inventory impairment charges in fiscal 2012, as compared to fiscal 2011, $15.2 million of impairment charges that we recognized on one of our investments in unconsolidated entities in fiscal 2011 which did not recur in 2012, and higher earnings from the increased

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revenues in fiscal 2012, as compared to fiscal 2011. In fiscal 2012 and 2011, we recognized inventory impairment charges of $5.2 million and $20.8 million, respectively.
West
Revenues in fiscal 2012 were higher than those in fiscal 2011 by $128.3 million, or 41.4%. The increase in revenues was attributable to a 53.7% increase in the number of homes delivered, offset, in part, by an 8.0% decrease in the average sales price of the homes delivered. The increase in the number of homes delivered was primarily attributable to home deliveries in Washington from CamWest. The decrease in the average price of the homes delivered was primarily due to a shift in the number of homes delivered to less expensive products and/or locations, primarily in Arizona and Washington, in fiscal 2012, as compared to fiscal 2011.
The value of net contracts signed during fiscal 2012 increased $371.3 million, or 131.5%, as compared to fiscal 2011. This increase was due to a 122.1% increase in the number of net contracts signed and a 4.2% increase in the average value of each net contract signed. The increase in the number of net contracts signed was due to the addition of communities in Washington from CamWest where we entered into 254 net contracts in fiscal 2012 and an increase in the number of selling communities and demand in other states in fiscal 2012, as compared to fiscal 2011.
In fiscal 2012, we reported income before income taxes of $39.4 million, as compared to a loss before income taxes of $27.1 million in fiscal 2011. The increase in income before income taxes was primarily due to a $25.7 million impairment charge that we recognized on our South Edge investment in fiscal 2011 which did not recur in fiscal 2012, a $22.1 million decrease in inventory impairment charges and write-offs and higher earnings from the increased amount of revenues in fiscal 2012, as compared to fiscal 2011, offset, in part, by higher cost of revenues, excluding inventory impairment charges and interest, as a percentage of revenues, in fiscal 2012, as compared to fiscal 2011. In fiscal 2011, we recognized inventory impairment charges and write-offs of $22.9 million, as compared to $0.8 million in fiscal 2012. Cost of revenues as a percentage of revenues, excluding impairments and interest, was 78.2% of revenues in fiscal 2012, as compared to 75.9% in fiscal 2011. The increase in cost of revenues, excluding inventory impairment charges and interest, as a percentage of revenue in fiscal 2012, as compared to fiscal 2011, was primarily due to the impact of purchase accounting on the homes delivered in fiscal 2012 from our acquisition of CamWest, offset, in part, by improved margins in California and Nevada.
City Living
Revenues in fiscal 2012 were higher than those in fiscal 2011 by $89.6 million, or 83.7%. The increase in revenues was primarily attributable to a 90.9% increase in the number of homes delivered, partially offset by a decrease of 3.8% in the average selling price of the homes delivered. The increase in the number of homes delivered in fiscal 2012, as compared to fiscal 2011, was primarily due to the commencement of settlements in fiscal 2012 at two of our high-rise buildings located in the New York and New Jersey urban markets and to a higher backlog at October 31, 2011, as compared to October 31, 2010. The decrease in the average price of homes delivered in fiscal 2012, as compared to fiscal 2011, was primarily attributable to a shift in the number of homes delivered to less expensive areas and/or products.
The value of net contracts signed in fiscal 2012 was $251.4 million, an 84.8% increase from the $136.0 million of net contracts signed during fiscal 2011. This increase was primarily due to a 48.3% increase in the number of net contracts signed and a 24.6% increase in the average value of each net contract. The increase in the number of net contracts signed was primarily due to three high-rise buildings located in the New York and New Jersey urban markets that opened in the second half of fiscal 2011 and an improvement in home buyer demand in fiscal 2012 as compared to fiscal 2011. The increase in the average sales price of net contracts signed in fiscal 2012, as compared to fiscal 2011, was primarily attributable to sales at two of our high-rise buildings located in the New York urban market that opened in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2011. In fiscal 2012, we signed 74 contracts at these buildings with an average sales value of approximately $1.8 million each, as compared to 12 contacts with an average sales value of approximately $1.6 million in fiscal 2011.
In fiscal 2012, we reported income before income taxes of $61.9 million, as compared to $39.2 million in fiscal 2011. This increase in income was primarily attributable to higher earnings from the increased revenues and lower cost of revenues as a percentage of revenues, in fiscal 2012, as compared to fiscal 2011, offset, in part, by a decrease in income from unconsolidated entities from $31.9 million in fiscal 2011 to $15.2 million in fiscal 2012 and by higher SG&A. The lower cost of revenues as a percentage of revenues was primarily due to the initial closings at two of our high-rise buildings located in the New York and New Jersey urban markets which had higher margins than our other City Living markets. The $16.7 million decrease in income from unconsolidated entities in fiscal 2012 was due principally to a decrease in income generated from two of our high-rise joint ventures where unit availability has diminished since fiscal 2011 as they have closed most or all of their condominium units.

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Other
In fiscal 2012 and 2011, other loss before income taxes was $84.2 million and $76.5 million, respectively. The increase in the loss in fiscal 2012, as compared to fiscal 2011, was primarily due to higher unallocated SG&A in fiscal 2012, as compared to fiscal 2011, offset, in part, by an increase of income recognized from our Gibraltar operations in fiscal 2012, as compared to fiscal 2011. The increase in unallocated SG&A in fiscal 2012, as compared to fiscal 2011, was primarily due to increased compensation costs in fiscal 2012, as compared to fiscal 2011, and a reduction in SG&A in fiscal 2011 from an insurance claim recovery.
ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
We are exposed to market risk primarily due to fluctuations in interest rates. We utilize both fixed-rate and variable-rate debt. For fixed-rate debt, changes in interest rates generally affect the fair market value of the debt instrument, but not our earnings or cash flow. Conversely, for variable-rate debt, changes in interest rates generally do not affect the fair market value of the debt instrument but do affect our earnings and cash flow. We do not have the obligation to prepay fixed-rate debt prior to maturity and, as a result, interest rate risk and changes in fair market value should not have a significant impact on such debt until we are required to refinance such debt.
At October 31, 2013, our debt obligations, principal cash flows by scheduled maturity, weighted-average interest rates and estimated fair value were as follows ($ amounts in thousands):
 
 
Fixed-rate debt
 
Variable-rate debt (a)
Fiscal year of maturity
 
Amount
 
Weighted-
average
interest rate (%)
 
Amount
 
Weighted-
average
interest rate (%)
2014
 
$
297,899