10-K 1 nsc1231201410-k.htm 10-K NSC 12.31.2014 10-K

UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, DC 20549
FORM 10-K
 
(X)       ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
for the fiscal year ended DECEMBER 31, 2014
 
(   )      TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
for the transition period from ___________ to___________ 
Commission file number 1-8339 
 
NORFOLK SOUTHERN CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter) 
Virginia
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation)
 
52-1188014
(IRS Employer Identification No.)
Three Commercial Place
Norfolk, Virginia
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
23510-2191
Zip Code
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code:
 
(757) 629-2680
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
 
 
Title of each Class
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
Norfolk Southern Corporation
 
 
Common Stock (Par Value $1.00)
 
New York Stock Exchange
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: NONE
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes (X)  No (  )
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act. Yes (  )  No (X)
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant:  (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes (X)   No (  )
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulations S-T during the preceding 12 months.  Yes (X)   No (  )
 
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of the Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.  (X)
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, or a non-accelerated filer or smaller reporting company. See definitions of  “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer (X)        Accelerated filer (  )        Non-accelerated filer (  )        Smaller reporting company (  )
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes (  )   No (X)
 
The aggregate market value of the voting common equity held by non-affiliates at June 30, 2014, was $31,787,780,476 (based on the closing price as quoted on the New York Stock Exchange on that date).
 
The number of shares outstanding of each of the registrant’s classes of common stock, at January 31, 2015: 307,411,965 (excluding 20,320,777 shares held by the registrant's consolidated subsidiaries).
 
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE:

Portions of the Registrant’s definitive proxy statements to be filed electronically pursuant to Regulation 14A not later than 120 days after the end of the fiscal year, are incorporated herein by reference in Part III.




TABLE OF CONTENTS

NORFOLK SOUTHERN CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

 
 
 
Page
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

K 2


PART I
 
NORFOLK SOUTHERN CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
 
Item 1.  Business and Item 2.  Properties
 
GENERAL – Our company, Norfolk Southern Corporation, is a Norfolk, Virginia based company that owns a major freight railroad, Norfolk Southern Railway Company.  We were incorporated on July 23, 1980, under the laws of the Commonwealth of Virginia.  Our common stock (Common Stock) is listed on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) under the symbol “NSC.”
 
Unless indicated otherwise, Norfolk Southern Corporation and its subsidiaries, including Norfolk Southern Railway Company, are referred to collectively as NS, we, us, and our. 
 
We are primarily engaged in the rail transportation of raw materials, intermediate products, and finished goods primarily in the Southeast, East, and Midwest and, via interchange with rail carriers, to and from the rest of the United States.  We also transport overseas freight through several Atlantic and Gulf Coast ports.  We provide comprehensive logistics services and offer the most extensive intermodal network in the eastern half of the United States.
 
We make available free of charge through our website, www.nscorp.com, our annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and all amendments to those reports as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with or furnished to the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).  In addition, the following documents are available on our website and in print to any shareholder who requests them:
Corporate Governance Guidelines
Charters of the Committees of the Board of Directors
The Thoroughbred Code of Ethics
Code of Ethical Conduct for Senior Financial Officers
Categorical Independence Standards for Directors
Norfolk Southern Corporation Bylaws


K 3


RAILROAD OPERATIONS At December 31, 2014, our railroads operated approximately 20,000 miles of road in 22 states and the District of Columbia.
 
Our system reaches many individual industries, electric generating facilities, mines (in western Virginia, eastern Kentucky, southern and northern West Virginia, western Pennsylvania, and southern Illinois and Indiana), distribution centers, transload facilities, and other businesses located in our service area.



Corridors with heaviest freight volume:
New York City area to Chicago (via Allentown and Pittsburgh)
Chicago to Macon (via Cincinnati, Chattanooga, and Atlanta)
Appalachian coal fields of Virginia, West Virginia, and Kentucky to Norfolk, Virginia and Sandusky, Ohio
Cleveland to Kansas City
Birmingham to Meridian
Memphis to Chattanooga

K 4


The miles operated, which include major leased lines between Cincinnati, Ohio, and Chattanooga, Tennessee, and an exclusive operating agreement for trackage rights over property owned by North Carolina Railroad Company, were as follows:
 
 
Mileage Operated at December 31, 2014
 
Miles
of
Road
 
Second
and
Other
Main
Track
 
Passing
Track,
Crossovers
and
Turnouts
 
Way and
Yard
Switching 
 
Total 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Owned
14,991

 
2,754

 
1,974

 
8,274

 
27,993

Operated under lease, contract or trackage
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


rights
4,768

 
1,914

 
398

 
834

 
7,914

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total
19,759

 
4,668

 
2,372

 
9,108

 
35,907


Triple Crown Operations Triple Crown Services Company (Triple Crown), one of our subsidiaries, provides bimodal truckload transportation service primarily utilizing RoadRailer® trailers, a hybrid technology that facilitates both over-the-road and on-the-rail transportation utilizing enclosed trailers that are pulled over the highways in tractor-trailer configuration and over the rails by locomotives.  In addition, Triple Crown utilizes conventional trailers that are also moved on rail flatcars.  Triple Crown provides service in the eastern United States, as well as Ontario and Quebec, through a network of terminals strategically located in 13 cities.
 
The following table sets forth certain statistics relating to our railroads’ operations for the past 5 years:
 
 
Years ended December 31,
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
 
2010
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenue ton miles (billions)
205

 
194

 
186

 
192

 
182

Freight train miles traveled (millions)
74.8

 
74.8

 
76.3

 
75.7

 
72.6

Revenue per ton mile
$
0.0567

 
$
0.0581

 
$
0.0595

 
$
0.0582

 
$
0.0523

Revenue ton miles per employee-hour worked
3,576
 
3,376

 
3,153

 
3,207

 
3,218

Ratio of railway operating expenses to railway operating
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 revenues
69.2
%
 
71.0%

 
71.7%

 
71.2%

 
71.9%



K 5


RAILWAY OPERATING REVENUES Total railway operating revenues were $11.6 billion in 2014.  Following is an overview of our three major market groups.
 
COAL  Revenues from coal accounted for about 21% of our total railway operating revenues in 2014.  We handled 141.8 million tons, or 1.3 million carloads, in 2014, most of which originated on our lines from major eastern coal basins, with the balance from major western coal basins received via the Memphis and Chicago gateways.  Our coal franchise supports the electric generation market, serving approximately 84 coal generation plants, as well as the export, metallurgical and industrial markets, primarily through direct rail and river, lake, and coastal facilities, including various terminals on the Ohio River, Lambert’s Point in Norfolk, Virginia, the Port of Baltimore, and Lake Erie.
 
See the discussion of coal revenues and tonnage, by type of coal, in Part II, Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”

GENERAL MERCHANDISE Our general merchandise market group is composed of five major commodity groupings: 
Chemicals includes sulfur and related chemicals, petroleum products (including crude oil), chlorine and bleaching compounds, plastics, rubber, industrial chemicals, and chemical wastes.  
Metals and construction includes steel, aluminum products, machinery, scrap metals, cement, aggregates, sand, and minerals.
Agriculture, consumer products, and government includes soybeans, wheat, corn, fertilizer, livestock and poultry feed, food oils, flour, beverages, canned goods, sweeteners, consumer products, ethanol, transportation equipment, and items for the U.S. military.  
Automotive includes finished vehicles for BMW, Chrysler, Ford, General Motors, Honda, Hyundai, Mercedes-Benz, Mitsubishi, Subaru, Toyota, and Volkswagen, and auto parts for BMW, Chrysler, Ford, General Motors, Honda, Hyundai, Mazda, Nissan, Subaru, Toyota, and Volkswagen.
Paper, clay and forest products includes lumber and wood products, pulp board and paper products, wood fibers, wood pulp, scrap paper, and clay.

In 2014, 124 million tons of general merchandise freight, or approximately 61% of total general merchandise tonnage we handled, originated on our lines.  The balance of general merchandise freight was received from connecting carriers at interterritorial gateways.  Our principal interchange points for received freight included Chicago, New Orleans, East St. Louis, Memphis, Detroit, Toledo, Kansas City, Meridian, and Buffalo.  General merchandise carloads handled in 2014 were 2.5 million, the revenues from which accounted for 57% of our total railway operating revenues.
 
See the discussion of general merchandise revenues by commodity group in Part II, Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”
 
INTERMODAL Our intermodal market group consists of shipments moving in trailers, domestic and international containers, and RoadRailer® equipment.  These shipments are handled on behalf of intermodal marketing companies, international steamship lines, truckers, and other shippers.  Intermodal units handled in 2014 were 3.8 million, the revenues from which accounted for 22% of our total railway operating revenues.
 
See the discussion of intermodal revenues in Part II, Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”
 
FREIGHT RATES Private contracts and exempt price quotes are our predominant pricing mechanisms.  Thus, a major portion of our freight business is not economically regulated by the federal government.  In general, market forces are the primary determinant of rail service prices.
 
In 2014, our railroads were found by the U.S. Surface Transportation Board (STB), the regulatory board that has broad jurisdiction over railroad practices, to be “revenue adequate” on an annual basis based on results for the year

K 6


2013.  The STB has not made its revenue adequacy determination for the year 2014 A railroad is “revenue adequate” on an annual basis under the applicable law when its return on net investment exceeds the rail industry’s composite cost of capital.  This determination is made pursuant to a statutory requirement. 
 
PASSENGER OPERATIONS Amtrak operates regularly scheduled passenger trains on our lines between the following locations:
Alexandria and Lynchburg, Virginia
Alexandria, Virginia and New Orleans, Louisiana
Alexandria and Orange, Virginia
Petersburg and Norfolk, Virginia
Raleigh and Charlotte, North Carolina
Selma and Charlotte, North Carolina
Chicago, Illinois, and Porter, Indiana
Chicago, Illinois, and Cleveland, Ohio
Chicago, Illinois, and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Pittsburgh and Harrisburg, Pennsylvania
 
A consortium of two transportation commissions of the Commonwealth of Virginia operate commuter trains on our line between Manassas and Alexandria.
 
We lease the Chicago to Manhattan, Illinois, line to the Commuter Rail Division of the Regional Transportation Authority of Northeast Illinois (METRA).
 
We operate freight service over lines with significant ongoing Amtrak and commuter passenger operations, and conduct freight operations over trackage owned or leased by:
Amtrak
New Jersey Transit
Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority
Metro-North Commuter Railroad Company
Maryland Department of Transportation
Michigan Department of Transportation

Amtrak and various commuter agencies conduct passenger operations over trackage owned by Conrail in the Shared Assets Areas (Note 5 to the Consolidated Financial Statements).
   
NONCARRIER OPERATIONS Our noncarrier subsidiaries engage principally in the acquisition, leasing, and management of coal, oil, gas and minerals; the development of commercial real estate; telecommunications; and the leasing or sale of rail property and equipment.  In 2014, no such noncarrier subsidiary or industry segment grouping of noncarrier subsidiaries met the requirements for a reportable business segment under relevant authoritative accounting guidance. 
 


K 7


RAILWAY PROPERTY
 
Our railroad system extends across 22 states and the District of Columbia.  The railroad infrastructure makes us capital intensive with net property of approximately $28 billion on a historical cost basis.

Property Additions Property additions for the past five years were as follows (including capitalized leases):
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
 
2010
 
($ in millions)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Road and all other property
$
1,406

 
$
1,421

 
$
1,465

 
$
1,222

 
$
1,153

Equipment
712

 
550

 
776

 
938

 
317

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total
$
2,118

 
$
1,971

 
$
2,241

 
$
2,160

 
$
1,470


Our capital spending and replacement programs are and have been designed to assure the ability to provide safe, efficient, and reliable rail transportation services.  For 2015, we have budgeted $2.4 billion of property additions. See further discussion of our planned capital spending and replacement programs in Part II, Item 7, "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations," under the subheading "Financial Condition, Liquidity, and Capital Resources."
 
We have invested and will continue to invest in various projects and corridor initiatives to expand our rail network to increase capacity and improve transit times, while returning value to shareholders.  Initiatives include the following:
The Crescent Corridor consists of a program of projects for infrastructure and other facility improvements geared toward creating seamless, high-capacity intermodal routes spanning 11 states from New Jersey to Louisiana and offering truck-competitive service along several major interstate highway corridors, including I-81, I-85, I-20, I-40, I-59, I-78, and I-75.
The Heartland Corridor is a seamless, high-capacity intermodal route across Virginia and West Virginia to Midwest markets.
Meridian Speedway LLC, a joint venture with Kansas City Southern, owns and operates a 320-mile rail line between Meridian, Mississippi and Shreveport, Louisiana designed to increase capacity and improve service.
Pan Am Southern LLC, a joint venture with Pan Am Railways, Inc., owns and operates a 155-mile main line track that runs between Mechanicville, New York and Ayer, Massachusetts, along with 281 miles of secondary and branch lines, including trackage rights in New York, Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Vermont designed to increase intermodal and automotive capacity.
The CREATE project is a public-private partnership to reduce rail and highway congestion and add freight and passenger capacity in the metropolitan Chicago area.  We and other railroads have agreed to participate in CREATE.


K 8


Equipment At December 31, 2014, we owned or leased the following units of equipment:
 
 
Owned(1)
 
Leased(2)
 
Total
 
Capacity of
Equipment
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(Horsepower)

Locomotives:
 

 
 

 
 

 
 
Multiple purpose
4,019

 
3

 
4,022

 
14,957,100

Auxiliary units
147

 

 
147

 

Switching
99

 

 
99

 
148,750

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total locomotives
4,265

 
3

 
4,268

 
15,105,850

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
(Tons)
Freight cars:
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Gondola
30,368

 
3,335

 
33,703

 
3,669,559

Hopper
12,769

 
79

 
12,848

 
1,437,093

Box
11,046

 
1,366

 
12,412

 
1,039,594

Covered hopper
10,333

 
158

 
10,491

 
1,159,874

Flat
2,189

 
1,401

 
3,590

 
341,381

Other
4,596

 
14

 
4,610

 
221,362

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total freight cars
71,301

 
6,353

 
77,654

 
7,868,863

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Other:
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Containers
12,468

 
8,531

 
20,999

 
 

RoadRailer®
6,129

 
27

 
6,156

 
 

Work equipment
4,482

 
303

 
4,785

 
 

Vehicles
3,809

 

 
3,809

 
 

Miscellaneous
20,131

 
4,246

 
24,377

 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total other
47,019

 
13,107

 
60,126

 
 

 
(1) 
Includes equipment leased to outside parties and equipment subject to equipment trusts, conditional sale agreements, and capitalized leases.
(2) 
Includes short-term and long-term operating leases.


K 9


The following table indicates the number and year built for locomotives and freight cars owned at December 31, 2014:
 
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
 
2010
 
2005-
2009
 
2000-
2004
 
1999&
Before
 
Total
Locomotives:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
No. of units
73
 
50
 
60
 
90
 
42
 
362
 
663
 
2,925
 
4,265
% of fleet
2%
 
1%
 
1%
 
2%
 
1%
 
8%
 
16%
 
69%
 
100%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Freight cars:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
No. of units
900
 
0
 
2,018
 
3,831
 
150
 
4,639
 
572
 
59,191
 
71,301
% of fleet
1%
 
0%
 
3%
 
5%
 
0%
 
7%
 
1%
 
83%
 
100%

The following table shows the average age of our owned locomotive and freight car fleets at December 31, 2014, and information regarding 2014 retirements:
 
 
Locomotives
 
Freight Cars 
Average age – in service
23.1 years 
 
30.1 years 
Retirements
11 units 
 
2,953 cars 
Average age – retired
35.3 years 
 
43.5 years 

Our ongoing locomotive and freight car maintenance programs are intended to ensure the highest standards of safety, reliability, customer satisfaction, and equipment availability.  The locomotive bad order ratio includes all units (owned and leased) out of service for required periodic inspections, unscheduled maintenance and program work which includes such activity as overhauls.
 
 
Annual Average Bad Order Ratio
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
 
2010
Locomotives
8.0
%
 
7.1
%
 
7.1
%
 
7.3
%
 
6.7
%
Freight cars
4.4
%
 
4.9
%
 
5.3
%
 
5.7
%
 
5.8
%

Encumbrances – Certain railroad equipment is subject to the prior lien of equipment financing obligations totaling $1 million at December 31, 2014.
 
Track Maintenance Of the 35,900 total miles of track we operate, we are responsible for maintaining 28,750 miles, with the remainder being operated under trackage rights from other parties responsible for maintenance.
 
Over 82% of the main line trackage (including first, second, third, and branch main tracks, all excluding rail operated pursuant to trackage rights) has rail ranging from 131 to 155 pounds per yard with the standard installation currently at 136 pounds per yard.  Approximately 45% of our lines, excluding rail operated pursuant to trackage rights, carried 20 million or more gross tons per track mile during 2014.
 

K 10


The following table summarizes several measurements regarding our track roadway additions and replacements during the past five years:
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
 
2010
Track miles of rail installed
507

 
549

 
509

 
484

 
422

Miles of track surfaced
5,248

 
5,475

 
5,642

 
5,441

 
5,326

New crossties installed (millions)
2.7

 
2.5

 
2.6

 
2.7

 
2.6


Microwave System Our microwave system, consisting of approximately 6,983 radio route miles, 423 core stations, 30 secondary stations, and 5 passive repeater stations, provides communications between most operating locations.  We use the microwave system primarily for voice communications, VHF radio control circuits, data and facsimile transmissions, traffic control operations, and AEI data transmissions.
 
Traffic Control Of the approximately 16,500 route miles we dispatch, about 11,025 miles are signalized, including 8,250 miles of centralized traffic control (CTC) and 2,775 miles of automatic block signals.  Of the 8,250 miles of CTC, approximately 7,447 miles are controlled by data radio originating at 345 base station radio sites.
 
Computers A computer network consisting of a centralized production and backup data center and various distributed computers throughout the company connects the yards, terminals, transportation offices, rolling stock repair points, sales offices, and other key system locations.  Operating and traffic data are processed and stored to provide customers with information on their shipments throughout the system.  Computer systems provide current information on the location of every train and each car on line, as well as related waybill and other train and car movement data.  In addition, our computer systems assist us in the performance of a variety of functions and services, including payroll, car and revenue accounting, billing, sourcing, inventory management activities and controls, and special studies.

ENVIRONMENTAL MATTERS Compliance with federal, state, and local laws and regulations relating to the protection of the environment is one our principal goals.  To date, such compliance has not had a material effect on our financial position, results of operations, liquidity, or competitive position.  See “Legal Proceedings,” Part I, Item 3; “Personal Injury, Environmental, and Legal Liabilities” in Part II, Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” and Note 16 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
 
EMPLOYEES The following table shows the average number of employees and the average cost per employee for wages and benefits:
 
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
 
2010
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Average number of employees
29,482

 
30,103

 
30,943

 
30,329

 
28,559

Average wage cost per employee
$
76,000

 
$
72,000

 
$
69,000

 
$
71,000

 
$
69,000

Average benefit cost per employee
$
35,000

 
$
40,000

 
$
38,000

 
$
39,000

 
$
37,000


More than 80% of our railroad employees are covered by collective bargaining agreements with various labor unions. See the discussion of “Labor Agreements” in Part II, Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.” 
 
GOVERNMENT REGULATION In addition to environmental, safety, securities, and other regulations generally applicable to all business, our railroads are subject to regulation by the STB.  The STB has jurisdiction over some rates, routes, fuel surcharges, conditions of service, and the extension or abandonment of rail lines.  The STB also has jurisdiction over the consolidation, merger, or acquisition of control of and by rail common carriers.  The Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) regulates certain track and mechanical equipment standards.
 

K 11


The relaxation of economic regulation of railroads, following the Staggers Rail Act of 1980, included exemption from STB regulation of the rates and most service terms for intermodal business (trailer-on-flat-car, container-on-flat-car), rail boxcar shipments, lumber, manufactured steel, automobiles, and certain bulk commodities such as sand, gravel, pulpwood, and wood chips for paper manufacturing.  Further, all shipments that we have under contract are effectively removed from regulation for the duration of the contract.  About 90% of our revenues comes from either exempt shipments or shipments moving under transportation contracts; the remainder comes from shipments moving under public tariff rates.
 
Efforts have been made over the past several years to re-subject the rail industry to increased federal economic regulation, and such efforts are expected to continue in 2015.  The Staggers Rail Act of 1980 substantially balanced the interests of shippers and rail carriers, and encouraged and enabled rail carriers to innovate, invest in their infrastructure, and compete for business, thereby contributing to the economic health of the nation and to the revitalization of the industry.  Accordingly, we will continue to oppose efforts to reimpose increased economic regulation. 
 
Government regulations concerning the safety and security of our railroads are discussed within the “Security of Operations” section contained herein. 
 
COMPETITION There is continuing strong competition among rail, water, and highway carriers.  Price is usually only one factor of importance as shippers and receivers choose a transport mode and specific hauling company. Inventory carrying costs, service reliability, ease of handling, and the desire to avoid loss and damage during transit are also important considerations, especially for higher-valued finished goods, machinery, and consumer products.  Even for raw materials, semi-finished goods, and work-in-progress, users are increasingly sensitive to transport arrangements that minimize problems at successive production stages.

Our primary rail competitor is CSX Corporation; both railroads operate throughout much of the same territory.  Other railroads also operate in parts of the territory.  We also compete with motor carriers, water carriers, and with shippers who have the additional options of handling their own goods in private carriage, sourcing products from different geographic areas, and using substitute products.
 
Certain marketing strategies among railroads and between railroads and motor carriers enable railroads to compete more effectively in specific markets. 

SECURITY OF OPERATIONS - We continue to take measures to enhance the security of our rail system. Our comprehensive security plan is modeled on and was developed in conjunction with the security plan prepared by the Association of American Railroads (AAR) post September 11, 2001.  The AAR Security Plan defines four Alert Levels and details the actions and countermeasures that are being applied across the railroad industry as a terrorist threat increases or decreases.  The Alert Level actions include countermeasures that will be applied in three general areas:  (1) operations (including transportation, engineering, and mechanical); (2) information technology and communications; and, (3) railroad police.  All of our Operations Division employees are advised by their supervisors or train dispatchers, as appropriate, of any change in Alert Level and any additional responsibilities they may incur due to such change.

Our plan also complies with U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) security regulations pertaining to training and security plans with respect to the transportation of hazardous materials.  As part of the plan, security awareness training is given to all railroad employees who directly affect hazardous material transportation safety, and is integrated into hazardous material training programs.  Additionally, location-specific security plans are in place for certain metropolitan areas and each of the six port facilities we serve.  With respect to the ports, each facility plan has been approved by the applicable Captain of the Port and remains subject to inspection by the U.S. Coast Guard.
 
Additionally, we continue to engage in close and regular coordination with numerous federal and state agencies, including the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the TSA, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the FRA, the U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Customs and Border Protection, and various state Homeland Security offices. 

K 12



Similarly, we follow guidance from DHS and DOT regarding rail corridors in High Threat Urban Areas (HTUA). Particular attention is aimed at reducing risk in HTUA by:  (1) the establishment of secure storage areas for rail cars carrying toxic-by-inhalation (TIH) materials; (2) the expedited movement of trains transporting rail cars carrying TIH materials; (3) substantially reducing the number of unattended loaded tank cars carrying TIH materials; and (4) cooperation with federal, state, local, and tribal governments to identify those locations where security risks are the highest.  

In 2014, through participation in the Transportation Community Awareness and Emergency Response (TRANSCAER) Program, we provided rail accident response training to approximately 5,442 emergency responders, such as local police and fire personnel. Our other training efforts throughout 2014 included participation in drills for local, state, and federal agencies.  We also have ongoing programs to sponsor local emergency responders at the Security and Emergency Response Training Course conducted at the AAR Transportation Technology Center in Pueblo, Colorado. 

Item 1A. Risk Factors
 
We are subject to significant governmental legislation and regulation over commercial, operating and environmental matters.  Railroads are subject to the enactment of laws by Congress that could increase economic regulation of the industry.  Railroads presently are subject to commercial regulation by the Surface Transportation Board (STB), which has jurisdiction over some rates, routes, fuel surcharges, conditions of service, and the extension or abandonment of rail lines.  The STB also has jurisdiction over the consolidation, merger, or acquisition of control of and by rail common carriers.  Additional economic regulation of the rail industry by Congress or the STB, whether under new or existing laws, could have a significant negative impact on our ability to determine prices for rail services and result in a material adverse effect in the future on our financial position, results of operations, or liquidity in a particular year or quarter.  This potential material adverse effect could also result in reduced capital spending on our rail network or abandonment of lines.
 
Railroads are subject to safety and security regulation by the U.S. Department of Transportation and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, which regulate most aspects of our operations.  Compliance with the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008 will result in additional operating costs associated with the statutorily mandated implementation of positive train control by 2015.  In addition to increased capital expenditures, implementation may result in reduced operational efficiency and service levels, as well as increased compensation and benefits expenses, and increased claims and litigation costs.
 
Our operations are subject to extensive federal and state environmental laws and regulations concerning, among other things, emissions to the air; discharges to waterways or groundwater supplies; handling, storage, transportation, and disposal of waste and other materials; and the cleanup of hazardous material or petroleum releases.  The risk of incurring environmental liability for acts and omissions, past, present, and future is inherent in the railroad business.  This risk includes property owned by us, whether currently or in the past, that is or has been subject to a variety of uses, including our railroad operations and other industrial activity by past owners or our past and present tenants.

Environmental problems that are latent or undisclosed may exist on these properties, and we could incur environmental liabilities or costs, the amount and materiality of which cannot be estimated reliably at this time, with respect to one or more of these properties.  Moreover, lawsuits and claims involving other unidentified environmental sites and matters are likely to arise from time to time, and the resulting liabilities could have a significant effect on our financial position, results of operations, or liquidity in a particular year or quarter.
 
As a common carrier by rail, we must offer to transport hazardous materials, regardless of risk. Transportation of certain hazardous materials could create catastrophic losses in terms of personal injury and property (including environmental) damage, and compromise critical parts of our rail network.  A catastrophic rail accident involving hazardous materials could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of

K 13


operations, or liquidity to the extent not covered by insurance.  We have obtained insurance for potential losses for third-party liability and first-party property damages; however, insurance is available from a limited number of insurers and may not continue to be available or, if available, may not be obtainable on terms acceptable to us.
 
We may be affected by terrorism or war.  Any terrorist attack, or other similar event, any government response thereto, and war or risk of war could cause significant business interruption and may adversely affect our financial position, results of operations, or liquidity in a particular year or quarter.  Because we play a critical role in the nation’s transportation system, we could become the target of such an attack or have a significant role in the government’s preemptive approach or response to an attack or war.
 
Although we currently maintain insurance coverage for third-party liability arising out of war and acts of terrorism, we maintain only limited insurance coverage for first-party property damage and damage to property in our care, custody, or control caused by certain acts of terrorism.  In addition, premiums for some or all of our current insurance programs covering these losses could increase dramatically, or insurance coverage for certain losses could be unavailable to us in the future.
 
We may be affected by general economic conditions. Prolonged negative changes in domestic and global economic conditions affecting the producers and consumers of the commodities we carry may have an adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations, or liquidity in a particular year or quarter. Economic conditions resulting in bankruptcies of one or more large customers could have a significant impact on our financial position, results of operations, or liquidity in a particular year or quarter,

We may be affected by energy prices. Volatility in energy prices could have an effect on a variety of items including, but not limited to: the economy; demand for transportation services; business related to the energy sector, including crude and natural gas; fuel prices; and fuel surcharges. Any of these items could have a significant impact on our financial position, results of operations, or liquidity in a particular year or quarter.

We may be affected by climate change legislation or regulation.  Concern over climate change has led to significant federal, state, and international legislative and regulatory efforts to limit greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.  Moreover, even without such legislation or regulation, government incentives and adverse publicity relating to GHGs could affect certain of our customers and the markets for certain of the commodities we carry.  Restrictions, caps, taxes, or other controls on GHG emissions, including diesel exhaust, could significantly increase our operating costs, decrease the amount of traffic handled, and decrease the value of coal reserves we own, and thus could have an adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations, or liquidity in a particular year or quarter.  Such restrictions could affect our customers that (1) use commodities that we carry to produce energy, including coal, (2) use significant amounts of energy in producing or delivering the commodities we carry, or (3) manufacture or produce goods that consume significant amounts of energy.
 
We face competition from other transportation providers.  We are subject to competition from motor carriers, railroads and, to a lesser extent, ships, barges, and pipelines, on the basis of transit time, pricing, and quality and reliability of service.  While we have used primarily internal resources to build or acquire and maintain our rail system, trucks and barges have been able to use public rights-of-way maintained by public entities.  Any future improvements or expenditures materially increasing the quality or reducing the cost of alternative modes of transportation in the regions in which we operate, or legislation granting materially greater latitude for motor carriers with respect to size or weight limitations, could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations, or liquidity in a particular year or quarter.

The operations of carriers with which we interchange may adversely affect our operations.  Our ability to provide rail service to customers in the U.S. and Canada depends in large part upon our ability to maintain cooperative relationships with connecting carriers with respect to, among other matters, freight rates, revenue division, car supply and locomotive availability, data exchange and communications, reciprocal switching, interchange, and trackage rights. Deterioration in the operations of or service provided by connecting carriers, or in

K 14


our relationship with those connecting carriers, could result in our inability to meet our customers’ demands or require us to use alternate train routes, which could result in significant additional costs and network inefficiencies.
 
We rely on technology and technology improvements in our business operations.  If we experience significant disruption or failure of one or more of our information technology systems, including computer hardware, software, and communications equipment, we could experience a service interruption, a security breach, or other operational difficulties.  Additionally, if we do not have sufficient capital to acquire new technology or we are unable to implement new technology, we may suffer a competitive disadvantage within the rail industry and with companies providing other modes of transportation service.  Any of these factors could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations, or liquidity in a particular year or quarter.
 
The vast majority of our employees belong to labor unions, and labor agreements, strikes, or work stoppages could adversely affect our operations.  More than 80% of our railroad employees are covered by collective bargaining agreements with various labor unions.  If unionized workers were to engage in a strike, work stoppage, or other slowdown, we could experience a significant disruption of our operations.  Additionally, future national labor agreements, or renegotiation of labor agreements or provisions of labor agreements, could significantly increase our costs for healthcare, wages, and other benefits.  Any of these factors could have a material adverse impact on our financial position, results of operations, or liquidity in a particular year or quarter.
 
We may be subject to various claims and lawsuits that could result in significant expenditures.  The nature of our business exposes us to the potential for various claims and litigation related to labor and employment, personal injury, commercial disputes, freight loss and other property damage, and other matters.  Job-related personal injury and occupational claims are subject to the Federal Employer’s Liability Act (FELA), which is applicable only to railroads. FELA’s fault-based tort system produces results that are unpredictable and inconsistent as compared with a no-fault worker’s compensation system.  The variability inherent in this system could result in actual costs being very different from the liability recorded.
 
Any material changes to current litigation trends or a catastrophic rail accident involving any or all of freight loss  property damage, personal injury, and environmental liability could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations, or liquidity to the extent not covered by insurance.  We have obtained insurance for potential losses for third-party liability and first-party property damages.  Specified levels of risk are retained on a self-insurance basis (currently up to $50 million and above $1.2 billion per occurrence and/or policy year for bodily injury and property damage to third parties and up to $25 million and above $200 million per occurrence and/or policy year for property owned by us or in our care, custody, or control).  Insurance is available from a limited number of insurers and may not continue to be available or, if available, may not be obtainable on terms acceptable to us.
 
Severe weather could result in significant business interruptions and expenditures.  Severe weather conditions and other natural phenomena, including hurricanes, floods, fires, and earthquakes, may cause significant business interruptions and result in increased costs, increased liabilities, and decreased revenues, which could have an adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations, or liquidity in a particular year or quarter.
 
Unpredictability of demand for rail services resulting in the unavailability of qualified personnel could adversely affect our operational efficiency and ability to meet demand.  Workforce demographics, training requirements, and the availability of qualified personnel, particularly engineers and trainmen, could each have a negative impact on our ability to meet demand for rail service.  Unpredictable increases in demand for rail services may exacerbate such risks, which could have a negative impact on our operational efficiency and otherwise have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations, or liquidity in a particular year or quarter.
 
We may be affected by supply constraints resulting from disruptions in the fuel markets or the nature of some of our supplier markets. We consumed 494 million gallons of diesel fuel in 2014. Fuel availability could be affected by any limitation in the fuel supply or by any imposition of mandatory allocation or rationing regulations. A severe fuel supply shortage arising from production curtailments, increased demand in existing or emerging

K 15


foreign markets, disruption of oil imports, disruption of domestic refinery production, damage to refinery or pipeline infrastructure, political unrest, war or other factors, could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations, or liquidity in a particular year or quarter. Also, such an event could impact us as well as our customers and other transportation companies.

Due to the capital intensive nature, as well as the industry-specific requirements of the rail industry, high barriers of entry exist for potential new suppliers of core railroad items, such as locomotives and rolling stock equipment. Additionally, we compete with other industries for available capacity and raw materials used in the production of locomotives and certain track and rolling stock materials. Changes in the competitive landscapes of these limited-supplier markets could result in increased prices or significant shortages of materials that could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations, or liquidity in a particular year or quarter.
 
The state of capital markets could adversely affect our liquidity.  From time-to-time we rely on the capital markets to provide some of our capital requirements, including the issuance of long-term debt instruments and commercial paper, as well as the sale of certain receivables.  Significant instability or disruptions of the capital markets, including the credit markets, or deterioration of our financial condition due to internal or external factors could restrict or eliminate our access to, and/or significantly increase the cost of, various financing sources, including bank credit facilities and issuance of corporate bonds.  Instability or disruptions of the capital markets and deterioration of our financial condition, alone or in combination, could also result in a reduction in our credit rating to below investment grade, which could prohibit or restrict us from accessing external sources of short- and long-term debt financing and/or significantly increase the associated costs.

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
 
None.

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Item 3. Legal Proceedings
 
On November 6, 2007, various antitrust class actions filed against us and other Class I railroads in various Federal district courts regarding fuel surcharges were consolidated in the District of Columbia by the Judicial Panel on Multidistrict Litigation. On June 21, 2012, the court certified the case as a class action. The defendant railroads appealed this certification, and the Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia vacated the District Court’s decision and remanded the case for further consideration. We believe the allegations in the complaints are without merit and intend to vigorously defend the cases. We do not believe the outcome of these proceedings will have a material effect on our financial position, results of operations, or liquidity. A lawsuit containing similar allegations against us and four other major railroads that was filed on March 25, 2008, in the U.S. District Court for the District of Minnesota, was voluntarily dismissed by the plaintiff subject to a tolling agreement entered into in August 2008, and most recently extended in August 2013.

In 2012, we received a Notice of Violation (NOV) issued by the Tennessee Department of Environmental Conservation concerning soil runoff in connection with construction of the Memphis Regional Intermodal Facility in Rossville, Tennessee. Although we will contest liability and the imposition of any penalties, this matter is described here consistent with SEC rules and requirements concerning governmental proceedings with respect to environmental laws and regulations. We do not believe that the outcome of this proceeding will have a material effect on our financial position, results of operations, or liquidity.

In or around 2012, a building located on non-operating property formerly leased to various tenants in Williamson, West Virginia, was demolished and the related debris and waste disposed of at a local landfill. Upon further investigation in March 2014, it became uncertain as to whether asbestos abatement was properly conducted on the building prior to demolition. Although the matter is under further investigation, we have self-reported it to the West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection, and it is described here consistent with SEC rules and requirements concerning governmental proceedings with respect to environmental laws and regulations. We do not believe that the outcome of this proceeding will have a material effect on our financial position, results of operations, or liquidity.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
 
Not applicable.


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Executive Officers of the Registrant
 
Our executive officers generally are elected and designated annually by the Board of Directors at its first meeting held after the annual meeting of stockholders, and they hold office until their successors are elected.  Executive officers also may be elected and designated throughout the year as the Board of Directors considers appropriate.  There are no family relationships among our officers, nor any arrangement or understanding between any officer and any other person pursuant to which the officer was selected.  The following table sets forth certain information, at February 1, 2015, relating to our officers.
 
Name, Age, Present Position
Business Experience During Past Five Years
 
 
Charles W. Moorman, 62,
Chairman and
Chief Executive Officer
Present position since February 1, 2006.
 
 
James A. Squires, 53,
President
 
 
 
Present position since June 1, 2013.
Served as Executive Vice President – Administration from
August 1, 2012 to June 1, 2013. Served as Executive Vice President – Finance and Chief Financial Officer from July 1, 2007 to August 1, 2012.  
 
 
Deborah H. Butler, 60,
Executive Vice President –
Planning and Chief
Information Officer
Present position since June 1, 2007.
 
 
 
 
Cindy C. Earhart, 53,
Executive Vice President –
Administration
Present position since June 1, 2013.
Served as Vice President Human Resources from
March 1, 2007 to June 1, 2013.
 
 
James A. Hixon, 61,
Executive Vice President –
Law and Corporate Relations
Present position since October 1, 2005.
 
 
 
 
Mark D. Manion, 62,
Executive Vice President and
Chief Operating Officer
Present position since April 1, 2009.

 
 
Donald W. Seale, 62,
Executive Vice President and
Chief Marketing Officer
Present position since April 1, 2006.
 
 
Marta R. Stewart, 57,
Executive Vice President –
Finance and Chief Financial Officer
Present position since November 1, 2013.
Served as Vice President and Treasurer from April 1, 2009
to November 1, 2013. 
 
 
Thomas E. Hurlbut, 50,
Vice President and Controller
Present position since November 1, 2013.
Served as Vice President Audit and Compliance from   
February 1, 2010 to November 1, 2013.  Served as
Assistant Vice President Internal Audit from
February 1, 2008 to February 1, 2010.


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PART II
 
NORFOLK SOUTHERN CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

STOCK PRICE AND DIVIDEND INFORMATION
 
Common Stock is owned by 29,575 stockholders of record as of December 31, 2014 and is traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “NSC.”   The following table shows the high and low sales prices as reported by Bloomberg L.P. on its internet-based service and dividends per share, by quarter, for 2014 and 2013.
 
 
Quarter
2014
1st
 
2nd
 
3rd
 
4th
Market Price
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
High
$
97.58

 
$
104.09

 
$
112.34

 
$
117.24

Low
87.20

 
92.78

 
100.11

 
101.98

Dividends per share
0.54

 
0.54

 
0.57

 
0.57

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2013
1st
 
2nd
 
3rd
 
4th
Market Price
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
High
$
75.59

 
$
79.32

 
$
77.84

 
$
92.87

Low
61.63

 
69.55

 
70.73

 
75.82

Dividends per share
0.50

 
0.50

 
0.52

 
0.52

 
ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES 
Period
 
Total Number
of Shares
(or Units)
Purchased(1)
 
Average
Price Paid
per Share
(or Unit)
 
Total
Number of
Shares (or Units)
Purchased as
Part of Publicly
Announced Plans
or Programs(2)
 
Maximum Number
(or Approximate
Dollar Value)
of Shares (or Units)
that may yet be
Purchased under
the Plans or Programs(2)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
October 1-31, 2014
 
228,550

 
$
108.53

 
228,081

 
36,371,413

November 1-30, 2014
 
375,357

 
113.79

 
372,778

 
35,998,635

December 1-31, 2014
 
795,764

 
105.76

 
794,798

 
35,203,837

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total
 
1,399,671

 
 

 
1,395,657

 
 

 
(1) 
Of this amount, 4,014 represents shares tendered by employees in connection with the exercise of stock options under the stockholder-approved Long-Term Incentive Plan.
(2) 
Our Board of Directors authorized a share repurchase program, pursuant to which up to 125 million shares of Common Stock could be purchased through December 31, 2014.  On August 1, 2012, our Board of Directors authorized the repurchase of up to an additional 50 million shares of Common Stock through December 31, 2017.

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Item 6. Selected Financial Data
 
FIVE-YEAR FINANCIAL REVIEW
 
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
 
2010
 
($ in millions, except per share amounts)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Railway operating revenues
$
11,624

 
$
11,245

 
$
11,040

 
$
11,172

 
$
9,516

Railway operating expenses
8,049

 
7,988

 
7,916

 
7,959

 
6,840

Income from railway operations
3,575

 
3,257

 
3,124

 
3,213

 
2,676

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Other income – net
104

 
233

 
129

 
160

 
153

Interest expense on debt
545

 
525

 
495

 
455

 
462

Income before income taxes
3,134

 
2,965

 
2,758

 
2,918

 
2,367

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Provision for income taxes
1,134

 
1,055

 
1,009

 
1,002

 
871

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net income
$
2,000

 
$
1,910

 
$
1,749

 
$
1,916

 
$
1,496

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
PER SHARE DATA
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Net income     – basic
$
6.44

 
$
6.10

 
$
5.42

 
$
5.52

 
$
4.06

– diluted
6.39

 
6.04

 
5.37

 
5.45

 
4.00

Dividends
2.22

 
2.04

 
1.94

 
1.66

 
1.40

Stockholders’ equity at year end
40.25

 
36.55

 
31.08

 
30.00

 
29.85

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
FINANCIAL POSITION
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Total assets
$
33,241

 
$
32,483

 
$
30,342

 
$
28,538

 
$
28,199

Total debt
9,026

 
9,448

 
8,682

 
7,540

 
7,025

Stockholders’ equity
12,408

 
11,289

 
9,760

 
9,911

 
10,669

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
OTHER
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Property additions
$
2,118

 
$
1,971

 
$
2,241

 
$
2,160

 
$
1,470

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Average number of shares outstanding (thousands)
309,367

 
311,916

 
320,864

 
345,484

 
366,522

Number of stockholders at year end
29,575

 
30,990

 
32,347

 
33,381

 
35,416

Average number of employees:
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Rail
29,063

 
29,698

 
30,543

 
29,933

 
28,160

Nonrail
419

 
405

 
400

 
396

 
399

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total
29,482

 
30,103

 
30,943

 
30,329

 
28,559

 
See accompanying consolidated financial statements and notes thereto.

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
 
Norfolk Southern Corporation and Subsidiaries
 
The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and Notes and the Selected Financial Data.
 
OVERVIEW
 
We are one of the nation’s premier transportation companies.  Our Norfolk Southern Railway Company subsidiary operates approximately 20,000 miles of road in 22 states and the District of Columbia, serves every major container port in the eastern United States, and provides efficient connections to other rail carriers.  We operate the most extensive intermodal network in the East and are a major transporter of coal, automotive, and industrial products. 
 
Strong volume growth in our intermodal and merchandise businesses driven by higher demand for rail services offset declines in our coal business, resulting in a $379 million, or 3%, improvement in our operating revenues. Our continued focus on cost control helped stem growth in operating expenses (up $61 million, or 1%) despite higher volumes and led to an all-time low operating ratio (a measure of the amount of operating revenues consumed by operating expenses) of 69.2% for 2014.

The unexpected volume growth and severe winter weather led to resource shortages and network delays during the year. We are committed to improving our service and have added resources to meet the needs of our network. As a result of these efforts, in the latter part of the year we saw improvement in operational metrics and expect this to continue in 2015.

Looking forward to 2015, we expect the impact of lower oil prices on our fuel surcharge revenue programs to be offset by increased volumes and higher rates.  We will continue to focus on safety, service levels, cost control, productivity, operational efficiency, and a market-based approach to pricing.
 
SUMMARIZED RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
2014 Compared with 2013
 
Net income in 2014 was $2.0 billion, or $6.39 per diluted share, up $90 million, or 5%, compared with $1.9 billion, or $6.04 per diluted share, in 2013, as a 10% increase in income from railway operations was only partially offset by the absence of a gain from a land sale in Michigan, which benefited net income by $60 million and earnings per share by $0.19 in 2013. Railway operating revenues rose 3%, while operating expenses increased only 1%, driven largely by higher volume-related expenses that were offset in part by lower compensation and benefits costs and fuel prices.
 
2013 Compared with 2012
 
Net income in 2013 was $1.9 billion, or $6.04 per diluted share, up $161 million, or 9%, compared with
$1.7 billion, or $5.37 per diluted share, in 2012, a reflection of a 4% increase in income from railway operations, in addition to the favorable impact of the recognition of the gain from a land sale in Michigan (see above). Railway operating revenues rose 2%, while operating expenses increased 1%, driven largely by higher volume-related expenses.


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DETAILED RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
Railway Operating Revenues
 
Railway operating revenues were $11.6 billion in 2014, $11.2 billion in 2013, and $11.0 billion in 2012.  The following table presents a three-year comparison of revenues, volumes, and average revenue per unit by market group.
 
 
Revenues
 
Units
 
Revenue per Unit
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
 
   ($ in millions)
 
    (in thousands)
 
($ per unit)     
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Coal
$
2,382

 
$
2,543

 
$
2,879

 
1,284.4

 
1,346.7

 
1,414.1

 
$
1,855

 
$
1,888

 
$
2,036

General merchandise:
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 
 
 

 
 

Chemicals
1,863

 
1,667

 
1,467

 
502.6

 
449.2

 
388.8

 
3,707

 
3,711

 
3,772

Metals/construction
1,521

 
1,405

 
1,335

 
725.6

 
666.9

 
669.7

 
2,096

 
2,106

 
1,993

Agr./consumer/gov’t.
1,498

 
1,467

 
1,446

 
603.8

 
594.3

 
595.9

 
2,481

 
2,468

 
2,427

Automotive
1,004

 
984

 
897

 
410.1

 
402.1

 
374.6

 
2,447

 
2,448

 
2,395

Paper/clay/forest
794

 
795

 
775

 
303.2

 
309.4

 
305.8

 
2,619

 
2,570

 
2,536

General merchandise
6,680

 
6,318

 
5,920

 
2,545.3

 
2,421.9

 
2,334.8

 
2,624

 
2,609

 
2,536

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Intermodal
2,562

 
2,384

 
2,241

 
3,845.2

 
3,572.3

 
3,358.3

 
666

 
667

 
667

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total
$
11,624

 
$
11,245

 
$
11,040

 
7,674.9

 
7,340.9

 
7,107.2

 
$
1,515

 
$
1,532

 
$
1,553

 
Revenues increased $379 million in 2014, and $205 million in 2013.  As reflected in the table below, the increase in 2014 resulted from higher volumes, partially offset by lower average revenue per unit as the effects of lower rates and changes in the mix of business more than offset higher fuel surcharges.  The increase in 2013 resulted from higher volumes, partially offset by lower average revenue per unit as lower market-based export coal rates, the effects of changes in the mix of business, and slightly lower fuel surcharges more than offset rate increases. 
 
Revenue Variance Analysis
Increase (Decrease)
 
 2014 vs. 2013
 
 2013 vs. 2012 
 
($ in millions)
 
 
 
 
Volume (units)
$
512

 
$
363

Revenue per unit
(133
)
 
(158
)
 
 
 
 
Total
$
379

 
$
205

 
Over 85% of our revenue base is covered by negotiated fuel surcharges, and revenues in 2014 included $1,329 million of such surcharges. This amount was divided about evenly between surcharges tied to the monthly average price of West Texas Intermediate Crude Oil (WTI) and surcharges tied to the weekly average price of On-Highway Diesel (OHD). More than two-thirds of the 2014 WTI-based surcharges were attributable to contracts with trigger prices above current WTI levels of about $50 per barrel (a predominant trigger price is $64 per barrel); therefore, if WTI prices remain below these triggers, traffic moving under these contracts will not be assessed any fuel surcharge. Almost all of the remaining WTI-based surcharges have trigger prices well below current WTI levels, and almost all of the OHD-based surcharges have trigger prices substantially below current OHD levels (of about $3 per gallon). As a result, if WTI and OHD prices remain at their current levels, traffic moving under these

K 22


contracts will continue to be assessed fuel surcharges; however, they will be substantially lower than those generated in 2014. Thus, total fuel surcharges for 2015 could be less than half of the amount in 2014. The WTI-related surcharges are reset the first day of each calendar month based on the WTI average price for the second preceding calendar month. This two-month lag in applying the WTI average price increased fuel surcharge revenue by approximately $84 million in 2014, decreased fuel surcharge revenue by approximately $29 million in 2013, and increased fuel surcharge revenue by approximately $39 million in 2012. Fuel surcharge revenue totaled $1,254 million in 2013, and $1,278 million in 2012
Two of our customers, DuPont and Sunbelt Chlor Alkai Partnership (Sunbelt), filed rate reasonableness complaints before the Surface Transportation Board (STB) alleging that our tariff rates for transportation of regulated movements are unreasonable. Since June 1, 2009, in the case of DuPont, and April 1, 2011, in the case of Sunbelt, we have been billing and collecting amounts based on the challenged tariff rates. On March 14, 2014, the STB resolved DuPont’s rate reasonableness complaint in our favor, and on June 20, 2014, the STB resolved Sunbelt’s rate case in our favor. The STB’s findings in both cases remain subject to technical corrections, requests for reconsideration, and appeal. We believe the estimate of any reasonably possible loss will not have a material effect on our financial position, results of operations, or liquidity. With regard to rate cases, we record adjustments to revenues in the periods if and when such adjustments are probable and estimable.
COAL revenues decreased $161 million, or 6%, compared with 2013, reflecting a 5% decrease in carload volume.  Average revenue per unit was down 2%, the result of lower pricing (mainly market-based export coal) and the negative effect of changes in mix.
 
In 2013, coal revenues decreased $336 million, or 12%, compared with 2012, reflecting a 5% decrease in carload volume (tonnage hauled declined 4%).  Average revenue per unit was down 7%, the result of lower pricing (mainly market-based export coal) and decreased fuel surcharge revenue, partially offset by the positive effect of changes in mix.
 
For 2015, coal revenues are expected to decrease due to lower average revenue per unit (largely a result of lower fuel surcharge revenue) and decreased volumes.

Coal represented 21% of our revenues in 2014, and 79% of shipments handled originated on our lines.  As shown in the following table, tonnage decreased in our export, utility, and domestic metallurgical markets but increased in our industrial markets.
 
 
Coal Tonnage by Market
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
 
(tons in thousands)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Utility
93,884

 
97,146

 
101,636

Export
23,218

 
28,631

 
28,304

Domestic metallurgical
16,130

 
16,905

 
18,793

Industrial
8,599

 
7,388

 
7,376

 
 
 
 
 
 
Total
141,831

 
150,070

 
156,109

 
Utility coal tonnage was down 3% in 2014, compared with 2013.  Lower utility coal shipments to our northern region due to market share loss and competition from lower priced natural gas were offset in part by gains in our southern region, resulting from strong demand for electric generation and stockpile rebuilding after a harsh winter.

Utility coal tonnage was down 4% in 2013 as compared to 2012. Utility coal shipments in our southern region decreased due to lower demand as utility stockpiles remained high and natural gas prices remained low. This

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decrease was partially offset by increased shipments in our northern region as higher coal burn necessitated stockpile replenishments to maintain targeted levels. 

For 2015, we expect utility coal tonnage to decrease as we expect lower demand resulting from a decline in natural gas prices and reduced coal burn at southern utilities we serve.
 
Export coal tonnage decreased 19% in 2014, compared with 2013.  Strong competition in the global metallurgical and thermal coal markets resulting from excess coal supply, weakening economies in the global market, and a strong Australian currency advantage significantly reduced demand for U.S. export coal.  Volume through Norfolk was down 4.3 million tons, or 20%, and volume through Baltimore was down 0.5 million tons, or 8%.  Other export volume decreased 0.6 million tons, or 85%.
 
In 2013, export coal tonnage increased 1%, compared with 2012. Despite strong global competition, we handled higher export thermal and metallurgical coal shipments as an increase in steel production in developing markets offset weakness in the European market. Volume through Norfolk was up 2.1 million tons, or 11%, whereas Baltimore volume decreased 1.4 million tons, or 17%. Other export volume decreased 0.4 million tons, or 36%.
 
For 2015, export coal tonnage is expected to decrease as a result of strong competition in the overseas metallurgical coal market, in addition to soft demand for and an oversupply of thermal coal.
 
Domestic metallurgical coal tonnage was down 5% in 2014, compared with 2013, as lower metallurgical coal shipments resulting from plant curtailments and customer sourcing shifts were offset in part by higher shipments of coke.

In 2013, domestic metallurgical coal tonnage was down 10%, compared with 2012, due to weaker domestic steel production, sourcing shifts away from coal origins we serve, and the permanent closure of a steel plant in mid-2012 that impacted the year-over-year comparison for the first half of 2013.
 
For 2015, domestic metallurgical coal tonnage is expected to decline due to closure of a mine that we currently serve.
 
Industrial coal tonnage increased 16% in 2014, compared with 2013, as new business opportunities with existing customers was partially offset by declines in anthracite and petcoke shipments.

In 2013, industrial coal tonnage increased slightly compared with 2012, as increased shipments to existing customers were partially offset by weaker industrial demand in the print paper and cement sectors.
 
For 2015, industrial coal tonnage is expected to decrease, primarily due to conversions to natural gas.
 
GENERAL MERCHANDISE revenues in 2014 increased $362 million, or 6%, compared with 2013, reflecting 5% growth in carload volume and a 1% improvement in average revenue per unit that reflected favorable changes in fuel surcharge revenue and in mix.  

In 2013, general merchandise revenues increased $398 million, or 7%, compared with 2012, reflecting 4% growth in carload volume and a 3% improvement in average revenue per unit that reflected favorable changes in mix as well as higher rates and fuel surcharges.  

Chemicals revenues in 2014 increased 12%, compared with 2013, reflecting volume growth (up 12%) largely driven by higher shipments of crude oil originated from the Bakken and Canadian oil fields and growth in shipments of liquefied petroleum gas in the Utica Shale region.
 

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In 2013, chemicals revenues increased 14%, compared with 2012, reflecting 16% growth in volume partially offset by a 2% decline in average revenue per unit that resulted from the negative effect of the changes in mix due to increased crude oil shipments.  The volume improvement was primarily the result of more carloads of crude oil from the Bakken and Canadian oil fields.  Additionally, there were more carloads of liquefied petroleum gas in the Utica Shale region.

For 2015, chemicals revenues are anticipated to increase, as we expect more shipments of crude oil and liquefied petroleum gas. However, a prolonged period of low oil prices could put pressure on demand for crude by rail. Average revenue per unit is expected to be lower, largely a result of the anticipated reduction in fuel surcharge revenue and the negative mix effect of the volume increase in lower-rated shipments.
 
Metals and construction revenues grew 8% in 2014, compared with 2013.  The revenue improvement resulted from a 9% increase in carloads, as we moved more shipments of fractionating sand for natural gas drilling, in addition to higher coil shipments to support growing demand in the automotive and energy sectors, and increased shipments of iron and steel as a result of higher import activity. 
 
In 2013, metals and construction revenues increased 5% compared with 2012.  The improvement resulted from 6% higher average revenue per unit, which reflected the positive change in mix of business as we transported higher-rated shipments of slag and fractionating sand for natural gas drilling, higher rates, and increased fuel surcharges.  Although we moved more slag and fractionating carloads, volume declined modestly as we handled reduced shipments of iron and steel (driven by fewer import slabs and a steel plant closure during the third quarter of 2012) and scrap metal (a result of weakening demand). 

For 2015, metals and construction revenues are expected to decline, reflecting lower average revenue per unit as a result of the anticipated decline in fuel surcharge revenue, partially offset by improved volumes. We currently anticipate higher shipments of fractionating sand and other materials used for natural gas drilling, as well as additional shipments of aggregates due to growth in road construction activity and steel used by the automotive and energy sectors. 

Agriculture, consumer products, and government revenues increased 2% in 2014, compared with 2013, as a result of a 2% improvement in volume and a 1% improvement in average revenue per unit, due primarily to higher rates that were slightly offset by a negative change in mix.  The volume increase was driven by higher corn shipments due to increased demand for ethanol production, partially offset by fewer shipments of fertilizer due to production curtailments.

In 2013, agriculture, consumer products, and government revenues increased 1% compared with 2012, as a 2% improvement in average revenue per unit (reflecting pricing improvements that were slightly offset by a negative change in mix related to the increase of lower-rated shorter-haul movements of corn) was partially offset by a slight decrease in volume.  The volume decrease was driven by reduced shipments of soybeans and related products caused by tightened supplies of domestic beans and a strong South American crop, in addition to fewer revenue movements of empty equipment.  Carload volume declines were partially offset by higher shipments of food oils as we handled new business with existing customers and more biodiesel carloads in advance of the anticipated elimination of the biodiesel tax credit.  We also hauled more shipments of fertilizer due to a strong farm economy and increased planting activity.

For 2015, agriculture, consumer products, and government revenues are expected to be flat as we expect higher volumes will be offset by lower average revenue per unit reflecting lower fuel surcharges offset in part by pricing gains.  Volume growth is anticipated to come from higher shipments of soybeans as we return to a more normal crop cycle, more carloads of ethanol, and growth in feed product shipments as a result of increased export opportunities.


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Automotive revenues rose 2% compared to 2013, reflecting 2% growth in volume due to increased vehicle production at plants we serve that was offset in part by the diversion of shipments to other modes of transportation as a result of equipment shortages and network delays. 

In 2013, automotive revenues rose 10% compared to 2012, reflecting 7% growth in volume due to increased vehicle production at plants we serve and new business from existing customers (including both auto parts and finished vehicles).  Average revenue per unit improved 2%, reflecting improved pricing and higher fuel surcharges.
 
For 2015, automotive revenues are expected to slightly decrease as a result of lower average revenue per unit as lower fuel surcharges are expected to offset improved pricing. These average revenue per unit declines are expected to be partially offset by volume gains driven by a continued increase in domestic production at plants we serve and the return of diverted traffic.
 
Paper, clay and forest products revenues were flat as a 2% improvement in average revenue per unit (reflecting pricing gains and positive mix) was offset by a 2% decrease in volumes.  Volume declines were driven by reduced shipments of municipal solid waste resulting from loss of business, lower shipments of newsprint and paper due to mill and plant closures, and fewer pulp shipments due to production issues and reduced export demand. These declines were offset in part by higher lumber shipments resulting from the continued housing recovery and new business.

In 2013, paper, clay and forest products revenues increased 3% compared with 2012, reflecting 1% gains in both volume and average revenue per unit.  Volume increases for lumber, pulp, and pulpboard were offset by reduced demand for newsprint and paper.

For 2015, paper, clay, and forest products revenues are anticipated to decline reflecting lower fuel surcharge revenue and a negative mix of business, offset in part by slightly higher volumes. Volume growth is expected to be driven by higher woodchip, wood pellet, lumber, and pulp shipments as we anticipate the continued recovery of the housing market to increase demand, offset in part by lower municipal solid waste (loss of a customer) and newsprint and paper shipments as demand declines.

INTERMODAL revenues increased $178 million, or 7%, compared with 2013, reflecting an 8% growth in volume. 
 
Domestic volume (including truckload and intermodal marketing companies, Triple Crown Services, and Premium business) improved 6%, a result of growth in strategic corridors, continued highway-to-rail conversions, and higher demand for rail service from existing customers.  International volume grew 10% due to increased demand from existing customers and expanded service opportunities.
 
In 2013, intermodal revenues increased $143 million, or 6%, compared with 2012, reflecting a 6% growth in volume.  Average revenue per unit was flat.  Domestic volume improved 7%, the result of continued highway-to-rail conversions and additional business associated with the opening of new intermodal terminals.  International volume grew 6% due to growth with existing customers as well as new service lanes.
 
For 2015, we anticipate higher intermodal revenues due to increased volumes as a result of continued highway conversions and growth associated with new and existing customers. Average revenue per unit is expected to be lower as pricing gains are offset by reduced fuel surcharge revenue.

Railway Operating Expenses
 
Railway operating expenses in 2014 were $8.0 billion, up $61 million, or 1%, compared to 2013.  Expenses in 2013 were $8.0 billion, up $72 million, or 1%, compared to 2012.  In 2014, increases in volume-related costs were offset in part by lower postretirement and pension benefit costs as well as lower fuel prices.  For 2013, higher wage rates and volume-related expense increases were offset in part by lower costs resulting from network efficiencies.

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The following table shows the changes in railway operating expenses summarized by major classifications.
 
 
Operating Expense Variances
Increase (Decrease)
 
2014 vs. 2013
 
2013 vs. 2012
 
($ in millions)   
 
 
 
 
Materials and other
$
112

 
$
(31
)
Purchased services and rents
58

 
25

Depreciation
35

 

Fuel
(39
)
 
36

Compensation and benefits
(105
)
 
42

 
 
 
 
Total
$
61

 
$
72


Materials and other expenses increased $112 million, or 14%, in 2014, but decreased $31 million, or 4%, in 2013, as shown in the following table.
 
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
 
($ in millions)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Materials
$
470

 
$
422

 
$
408

Casualties and other claims
135

 
90

 
130

Other
335

 
316

 
321

 
 
 
 
 
 
Total
$
940

 
$
828

 
$
859

 
Volume growth in 2014 and 2013 drove increases in locomotive and equipment maintenance and repair costs for both years. Additionally, the harsh winter weather experienced in the first quarter of 2014 resulted in increased maintenance activity, which negatively impacted the year-over-year comparison. Casualties and other claims expenses include the estimates of costs related to personal injury (PI), property damage, and environmental matters.  The increase in expense in 2014 reflected lower favorable PI reserve adjustments for prior years' claim amounts than those seen in 2013, which were driven by improved historical trend rates related to PI liabilities.
 
We maintain substantial amounts of insurance for potential third-party liability and property damage claims.  We also retain reasonable levels of risk through self-insurance. For further discussion of casualty claims and insurance see Note 16.












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Purchased services and rents includes the costs of services purchased from outside contractors, including the net costs of operating joint (or leased) facilities with other railroads and the net cost of equipment rentals.  This category of expenses increased $58 million, or 4%, in 2014, and $25 million, or 2%, in 2013.
 
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
 
($ in millions)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Purchased services
$
1,394

 
$
1,353

 
$
1,321

Equipment rents
293

 
276

 
283

 
 
 
 
 
 
Total
$
1,687

 
$
1,629

 
$
1,604

 
The increase in 2014 for purchased services expense reflected the impact of higher volumes and reduced network velocity on intermodal operations and joint facilities costs. Additionally, higher maintenance and repair costs were offset in part by reduced expenses associated with the shared asset areas (including equity in the earnings of Conrail, see Note 5).  The increase in 2013 reflected higher volume-related activities and software expenses, partially offset by lower professional and consulting fees and travel expenses. 

Equipment rents, which includes our cost of using equipment (mostly freight cars) owned by other railroads or private owners less the rent paid to us for the use of our equipment, increased in 2014 as a result of higher volumes and network congestion, but decreased in 2013 as a result of increased velocity and improved equipment utilization.

Depreciation expense increased by $35 million, or 4%, in 2014, and was flat in 2013. Both periods reflected our larger roadway and equipment capital base as we continue to invest in our infrastructure and rolling stock.  In 2013, that increase was completely offset by the favorable impact of an equipment depreciation study that was completed during the first quarter of 2013. 

Fuel expense, which includes the cost of locomotive fuel as well as other fuel used in railway operations, decreased $39 million, or 2%, in 2014 but increased $36 million, or 2%, in 2013.  The decrease in 2014 was principally the result of lower locomotive fuel prices (down 6%), offset in part by higher locomotive fuel consumption (up 4%). The increase in 2013 reflected higher locomotive fuel consumption (up 4%), offset in part by lower locomotive fuel prices (down 2%). We consumed approximately 494 million gallons of diesel fuel in 2014 compared with 476 million gallons in 2013. Should fuel prices remain at current levels, we would expect to see a significant savings in fuel expenses in 2015 as compared to 2014.

Compensation and benefits, which represents 36% of total operating expenses, decreased $105 million, or 3%, in 2014, reflecting changes in:
postretirement and pension benefit costs (down $152 million),
health and welfare benefit costs (down $25 million),
pay rates (up $57 million), and
payroll taxes (up $21 million).

In 2013, compensation and benefits increased $42 million, or 1% over 2012, reflecting changes in:
pay rates (up $59 million),
incentive and stock-based compensation (up $39 million),
lower activity levels (down $48 million) that reflected improved employee productivity, and
payroll taxes (down $16 million).

Our employment averaged 29,482 in 2014, compared with 30,103 in 2013, and 30,943 in 2012.  Looking forward to 2015, we expect employment levels to be higher than 2014 as we continue to add resources to our network.
 

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Other Income – Net
 
Other income – net was $104 million in 2014, $233 million in 2013, and $129 million in 2012 (Note 2).  Both comparisons reflect the Michigan land sale ($97 million) that occurred in 2013. 
 
Income Taxes
 
Income tax expense in 2014 was $1.1 billion, an effective rate of 36.2%, compared with 35.6% in 2013 and 36.6% in 2012.  The 2014 and 2013 years benefited from favorable reductions in deferred tax expense for state law changes and certain business tax credits.
The Tax Increase Prevention Act of 2014 (2014 Act), enacted on December 19, 2014, extended for the year 2014 fifty-percent bonus depreciation and certain business tax credits that benefit us. While bonus depreciation does not affect our total provision for income taxes or effective rate, the absence of bonus depreciation will increase current income tax expense and the related cash outflows for the payment of income taxes. The effect of this tax legislation will be seen as a reduction in our 2015 cash outflows for income taxes as our required year-end estimated tax payment was due and paid before the 2014 Act was enacted.
IRS examinations have been completed for all years prior to 2011. Our consolidated federal income tax returns for 2011 and 2012 are currently being audited by the IRS. We anticipate that the IRS will complete its examination in 2015. We do not expect that the resolution of the examination will have a material effect on our financial position, results of operations, or liquidity.

FINANCIAL CONDITION, LIQUIDITY, AND CAPITAL RESOURCES
 
Cash provided by operating activities, our principal source of liquidity, was $2.9 billion in 2014 and $3.1 billion in both 2013 and 2012.  The decrease in 2014 reflected increased tax payments (see above), offset in part by improved operating results. We had working capital of $998 million at December 31, 2014, compared with $770 million at December 31, 2013, primarily reflecting reduced current maturities of long-term debt.  Cash, cash equivalents, and short-term investment balances totaled $973 million and $1.6 billion at December 31, 2014 and 2013, respectively, and were invested in accordance with our corporate investment policy as approved by the Board of Directors.  The portfolio contains securities that are subject to market risk.  There are no limits or restrictions on our access to these assets.  We expect cash on hand combined with cash provided by operating activities will be sufficient to meet our ongoing obligations.

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Contractual obligations at December 31, 2014, were comprised of interest on fixed-rate long-term debt and capital leases, long-term debt and capital leases (Note 8), operating leases (Note 9), agreements with CRC (Note 5), unconditional purchase obligations (Note 16), long-term advances from Conrail (Note 5), and unrecognized tax benefits (Note 3):
 
 
Total
 
2015
 
2016 -
2017
 
2018 -
2019
 
2020 and
Subsequent
 
Other
 
($ in millions)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Interest on fixed-rate long-term debt
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
and capital lease principal
$
12,798

 
$
515

 
$
966

 
$
822

 
$
10,495

 
$

Long-term debt and capital lease principal
9,400

 
2

 
1,050

 
1,185

 
7,163

 

Operating leases
711

 
83

 
140

 
105

 
383

 

Agreements with CRC
340

 
36

 
72

 
72

 
160

 

Unconditional purchase obligations
879

 
508

 
366

 
5

 

 

Long-term advances from Conrail
280

 

 

 

 
280

 

Unrecognized tax benefits*
61

 
29

 

 

 

 
32

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total
$
24,469

 
$
1,173

 
$
2,594

 
$
2,189

 
$
18,481

 
$
32

 
* When the amount and timing of liabilities for unrecognized tax benefits can be reasonably estimated, the amount is shown in the table under the appropriate period.  When the year of settlement cannot be reasonably estimated, the amount is shown in the Other column.
 
Off balance sheet arrangements consist of obligations related to operating leases, which are included in the table of contractual obligations above and disclosed in Note 9.
 
Cash used in investing activities was $2.0 billion in 2014, compared with $1.9 billion in 2013, and $2.0 billion in 2012.  The increase in 2014 primarily reflected increased use of cash for property additions and COLI investments, which were partially offset by higher short-term investment maturities. The decrease in 2013 resulted from lower property additions and property sales that were partially offset by increased investment purchases, net of sales.
 
Property additions account for most of the recurring spending in this category.  The following tables show capital spending (including capital leases) and track and equipment statistics for the past five years.
 
Property Additions
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
 
2010
 
($ in millions)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Road and other property
$
1,406

 
$
1,421

 
$
1,465

 
$
1,222

 
$
1,153

Equipment
712

 
550

 
776

 
938

 
317

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total
$
2,118

 
$
1,971

 
$
2,241

 
$
2,160

 
$
1,470

 

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Track Structure Statistics (Capital and Maintenance)
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
 
2010
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Track miles of rail installed
507

 
549

 
509

 
484

 
422

Miles of track surfaced
5,248

 
5,475

 
5,642

 
5,441

 
5,326

New crossties installed (millions)
2.7

 
2.5

 
2.6

 
2.7

 
2.6

 
Average Age of Owned Railway Equipment
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
 
2010
 
(years)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Freight cars
30.1

 
30.2

 
30.2

 
30.3

 
31.0

Locomotives
23.1

 
22.5

 
21.6

 
21.0

 
20.5

Retired locomotives
35.3

 
38.7

 
41.2

 
31.7

 
28.4

 
For 2015, we have budgeted $2.4 billion for property additions.  The anticipated spending includes $930 million for the normalized replacement of rail, ties and ballast and the improvement or replacement of bridges.  Planned equipment spending of $640 million includes used and rebuilt locomotives, intermodal containers and chasis, coal cars, covered and open coil cars, mill gondolas, multilevel automobile racks, and covered hoppers.  Investments in facilities and terminals are anticipated to be $240 million and include terminals and equipment to add capacity to our intermodal network (including Crescent Corridor), new or expanded bulk transfer facilities, improvements to vehicle distribution facilities, and upgrades and expansions of our mechanical service shops.  For 2015, we have budgeted $220 million for the continued implementation of positive train control (PTC) and expect post-2015 PTC-related property additions to total over $450 million.  We also expect to spend $100 million on infrastructure improvements to increase mainline capacity, accommodate business growth and provide our share of funding for various public/private partnership investments such as Crescent Corridor and the Chicago CREATE project.  Technology investments of $70 million are planned for new or upgraded systems and computers.

Additionally, in November 2014 we announced a proposed transaction under which we would acquire 282 miles of the Delaware & Hudson Railway Co. (D&H) rail line between Sunbury, Pennsylvania and Schenectady, New York for $217 million. The acquisition of this property is subject to approval by the STB and if approved, expected to be completed in 2015.
  
The Crescent Corridor consists of a program of projects for infrastructure and other facility improvements geared toward creating a seamless, high-capacity intermodal route spanning 11 states from New Jersey to Louisiana and offering truck-competitive service along several major interstate highway corridors, including I-81, I-85, I-20, I-40, I-59, I-78, and I-75.  Based on the public benefits that stand to be derived in the form of highway congestion relief, we plan to implement certain elements of the Crescent Corridor through a series of public-private partnerships.  Currently, the Crescent Corridor has received or expects to receive a total of $312 million in public capital funding commitments from the Commonwealths of Pennsylvania and Virginia, the State of Tennessee, the federal TIGER Stimulus Program and other federal funding sources related to projects in Alabama, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, and North Carolina.  With respect to the private funding component, we currently anticipate spending up to $344 million ($291 million of which has been spent to date) for the substantial completion of work on these projects, which is expected in 2015.  This includes planned investments for the Crescent Corridor that approximate $42 million in 2015.  If and when demand warrants, additional improvements and expansions beyond these amounts may be made to the Crescent Corridor.

Cash used in financing activities was $1.3 billion in 2014, compared with $394 million in 2013, and $694 million in 2012.  The increase in 2014 was driven primarily by higher debt repayments and lower debt proceeds, partially

K 31


offset by reduced share repurchase activity (see Note 14).  The change in 2013 reflected lower share repurchases and reduced proceeds from borrowings, net of debt repayments.
 
Share repurchases totaled $318 million in 2014, $627 million in 2013, and $1.3 billion in 2012 for the purchase and retirement of 3.1 million, 8.3 million, and 18.8 million shares, respectively.  On August 1, 2012, our Board of Directors authorized the repurchase of up to an additional 50 million shares of Common Stock through December 31, 2017, and 35.2 million shares remain under this authority as of December 31, 2014.  The timing and volume of future share repurchases will be guided by our assessment of market conditions and other pertinent factors.  Any near-term purchases under the program are expected to be made with internally generated cash, cash on hand, or proceeds from borrowings.
 
During the fourth quarter of 2013, we issued $400 million of 3.85% senior notes due 2024.  During the third quarter of 2013, we issued $500 million of 4.80% senior notes due 2043.  Our debt-to-total capitalization ratio was 42.1% at December 31, 2014, compared with 45.6% at December 31, 2013.
 
We further discuss our current securities issuance authority from our our Board of Directors, our credit agreement, and our accounts receivable securitization program in Note 8 of our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, all of which provide for additional access to liquidity should the need arise.
 
Upcoming annual debt maturities are relatively modest (Note 8).  Overall, our goal is to maintain a capital structure with appropriate leverage to support our business strategy and provide flexibility through business cycles.

APPLICATION OF CRITICAL ACCOUNTING ESTIMATES
 
The preparation of financial statements in accordance with U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period.  These estimates and assumptions may require significant judgment about matters that are inherently uncertain, and future events are likely to occur that may require us to make changes to these estimates and assumptions.  Accordingly, we regularly review these estimates and assumptions based on historical experience, changes in the business environment, and other factors we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances.  We regularly discuss the development, selection, and disclosures concerning critical accounting estimates with the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors.
 
Pensions and Other Postretirement Benefits
 
Accounting for pensions and other postretirement benefit plans requires us to make several estimates and assumptions (Note 11).  These include the expected rate of return from investment of the plans’ assets, projected increases in medical costs, and the expected retirement age of employees as well as their projected earnings and mortality.  In addition, the amounts recorded are affected by changes in the interest rate environment because the associated liabilities are discounted to their present value.  We make these estimates based on our historical experience and other information that we deem pertinent under the circumstances (for example, expectations of future stock market performance).  We utilize an independent actuarial consulting firm’s studies to assist us in selecting appropriate actuarial assumptions and valuing related liabilities.
 
Net pension expense, which is included in “Compensation and benefits” in the Consolidated Statements of Income, was $31 million for 2014.  In recording this amount, we assumed a long-term investment rate of return of 8.25%, which was supported by the long-term total rate of return on plan assets since inception, as well as our expectation of future returns.  A one-percentage point change to this rate of return assumption would result in a $18 million change in pension expense.  During 2014, new mortality tables were released for consideration in determining defined benefit plan obligations. We analyzed the experience in our pension plans and updated our mortality rates accordingly, which resulted in an actuarial loss of approximately $165 million. We review assumptions related to our defined benefit plans annually, and while changes are likely to occur in assumptions concerning retirement age,

K 32


projected earnings, and mortality, they are not expected to have a material effect on our net pension expense or net pension liability in the future. The net pension liability is recorded at net present value using a discount rate that is based on the current interest rate environment in light of the timing of expected benefit payments.  We utilize analyses in which the projected annual cash flows from the pension and postretirement benefit plans are matched with yield curves based on an appropriate universe of high-quality corporate bonds.  We use the results of the yield curve analyses to select the discount rates that match the payment streams of the benefits in these plans.
 
Net benefit for other postretirement benefits, which is also included in “Compensation and benefits,” was $6 million for 2014. Historically, medical inflation has been a significant component of the estimate for postretirement benefits, however, its effect has been reduced substantially due to the plan amendment made in 2014 (Note 11).  Since there is a fixed benefit for Medicare-eligible retirees there is no medical inflation assumed for this population.  The medical inflation factor is still applicable for pre-Medicare-eligible retirees.
 
Properties and Depreciation
 
Most of our total assets are long-lived railway properties (Note 6).  As disclosed in Note 1, properties are depreciated using group depreciation.  The primary depreciation method for our asset base is group life.  Units of production is the principal method of depreciation for rail in high density corridors and for depletion of natural resources.  Remaining properties are depreciated generally using the straight-line method over the lesser of estimated service or lease lives. See Note 1 for a more detailed discussion of the assumptions and estimates in this area.
 
Depreciation expense for 2014 totaled $951 million.  Our composite depreciation rates for 2014 are disclosed in Note 6; a one-tenth percentage point increase (or decrease) in these rates would have resulted in a $36 million increase (or decrease) to depreciation expense.  For 2014, roadway depreciation rates ranged from 0.83% to 33.33% and equipment depreciation rates ranged from 1.55% to 33.33%.
 
Personal Injury, Environmental, and Legal Liabilities
 
Casualties and other claims expense, included in “Materials and other,” consists primarily of our accrual for personal injury liabilities and environmental remediation costs.  
 
To aid in valuing personal injury liability and determining the amount to accrue during each period, we utilize studies prepared by an independent consulting actuarial firm.  The actuarial firm studies our historical patterns of reserving for claims and subsequent settlements, taking into account relevant outside influences. We adjust the liability quarterly based upon our assessment and the results of the study. Our estimate of loss liabilities is subject to inherent limitation given the difficulty of predicting future events and as such the actual loss may vary from the estimated liability recorded.
 
We are subject to various jurisdictions’ environmental laws and regulations.  We record a liability where such liability or loss is probable and its amount can be estimated reasonably.  Environmental engineers regularly participate in ongoing evaluations of all known sites and in determining any necessary adjustments to liability estimates. Additionally, our Environmental Policy Council (composed of senior managers) oversees and interprets our environmental policy. Operating expenses, included in "Materials and other" and "Purchased services and rents," for environmental matters totaled $45 million in 2014, $57 million in 2013, and $40 million in 2012, and property additions for environmental matters totaled $9 million in 2014, $8 million in 2013, and $6 million in 2012.  Property additions for environmental matters in 2015 are expected to be about $15 million.

We and/or certain subsidiaries are defendants in numerous lawsuits and other claims relating principally to railroad operations. When we conclude that it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of the liability can be reasonably estimated, it is accrued through a charge to earnings.


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For a more detailed discussion of the assumptions and estimates in accounting for personal injury and environmental matters see Note 16. 

Income Taxes
 
Our net long-term deferred tax liability totaled $8.8 billion at December 31, 2014 (Note 3).  This liability is estimated based on the expected future tax consequences of items recognized in the financial statements.  After application of the federal statutory tax rate to book income, judgment is required with respect to the timing and deductibility of expenses in our income tax returns.  For state income and other taxes, judgment is also required with respect to the apportionment among the various jurisdictions. A valuation allowance is recorded if we expect that it is more likely than not that deferred tax assets will not be realized. We had a $33 million valuation allowance on $606 million of deferred tax assets as of December 31, 2014, reflecting the expectation that almost all of these assets will be realized.
 
In addition, we have a recorded liability for our estimate of uncertain tax positions taken or expected to be taken in a tax return.  Judgment is required in evaluating the application of federal and state tax laws and assessing whether it is more likely than not that a tax position will be sustained on examination and, if so, judgment is also required as to the measurement of the amount of tax benefit that will be realized upon settlement with the taxing authority.  We believe this liability for uncertain tax positions to be adequate.  Income tax expense is adjusted in the period in which new information about a tax position becomes available or the final outcome differs from the amounts recorded.  For every one half percent change in the 2014 effective tax rate, net income would have changed by $16 million.
 
OTHER MATTERS
 
Labor Agreements
 
More than 80% of our railroad employees are covered by collective bargaining agreements with various labor unions. These agreements remain in effect until changed pursuant to the Railway Labor Act.  We largely bargain nationally in concert with other major railroads, represented by the National Carriers Conference Committee (NCCC). Moratorium provisions in the labor agreements govern when the railroads and the unions may propose changes to the agreements. The moratorium provisions of the current agreements have now expired, formal proposals to change the agreements have been made, and negotiations with the various labor unions have begun. Separately, in January 2015 we reached an agreement covering wages and work rules through 2019 with the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers and Trainmen (BLET) which represents approximately 4,600 of our locomotive engineers. Changes to the BLET benefit plan will be bargained nationally through the NCCC.
 
Market Risks
 
We manage overall exposure to fluctuations in interest rates by issuing both fixed- and floating-rate debt instruments. At December 31, 2014, debt subject to interest rate fluctuations totaled $200 million. A one-percentage point increase in interest rates would increase total annual interest expense related to all variable debt by approximately $2 million. We consider it unlikely that interest rate fluctuations applicable to these instruments will result in a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations, or liquidity.

New Accounting Pronouncement

In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued Accounting Standards Update (ASU) No. 2014-09, "Revenue from Contracts with Customers." This update, effective for our annual and interim reporting periods beginning January 1, 2017, will replace most existing revenue recognition guidance in GAAP and requires an entity to recognize the amount of revenue to which it expects to be entitled for the transfer of promised goods or services to customers. Early application is not permitted, but once effective, permits the use of either the

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retrospective or cumulative effect transition method. We are evaluating the effect that ASU 2014-09 will have on our consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
 
Inflation
 
In preparing financial statements, GAAP requires the use of historical cost that disregards the effects of inflation on the replacement cost of property.  As a capital-intensive company, we have most of our capital invested in such property.  The replacement cost of these assets, as well as the related depreciation expense, would be substantially greater than the amounts reported on the basis of historical cost.

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
 
This Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations contains forward-looking statements that may be identified by the use of words like “believe,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “plan,” “consider,” “project,” and similar references to the future.  Forward-looking statements reflect our good-faith evaluation of information currently available.
 
However, such statements are dependent on and, therefore, can be influenced by, a number of external variables over which we have little or no control, including:  transportation of hazardous materials as a common carrier by rail; acts of terrorism or war; general economic conditions including, but not limited to, fluctuation and competition within the industries of our customers; competition and consolidation within the transportation industry; the operations of carriers with which we interchange; disruptions to our technology infrastructure, including computer systems; labor difficulties, including strikes and work stoppages; commercial, operating, environmental, and climate change legislative and regulatory developments; results of litigation; natural events such as severe weather, hurricanes, and floods; unpredictable demand for rail services; fluctuation in supplies and prices of key materials, in particular diesel fuel; and changes in securities and capital markets.  For additional discussion of significant risk factors applicable to our business, see Part II, Item 1A “Risk Factors.”  Forward-looking statements are not, and should not be relied upon as, a guarantee of future performance or results, nor will they necessarily prove to be accurate indications of the times at or by which any such performance or results will be achieved.  As a result, actual outcomes and results may differ materially from those expressed in forward-looking statements.  We undertake no obligation to update or revise forward-looking statements.
 
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk
 
The information required by this item is included in Part II, Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” under the heading “Market Risks.”
 

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Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
 
INDEX TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

K 36


Report of Management
 
February 11, 2015
 
To the Stockholders
Norfolk Southern Corporation
 
Management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting.  In order to ensure that the Corporation’s internal control over financial reporting is effective, management regularly assesses such controls and did so most recently for its financial reporting as of December 31, 2014.  This assessment was based on criteria for effective internal control over financial reporting described in Internal Control-Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission.  Based on this assessment, management has concluded that the Corporation maintained effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2014.
 
KPMG LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, has audited the Corporation’s financial statements and issued an attestation report on the Corporation’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2014.
 
/s/Charles W. Moorman
 
/s/Marta R. Stewart
 
/s/Thomas E. Hurlbut
Charles W. Moorman
 
Marta R. Stewart
 
Thomas E. Hurlbut
Chairman and
 
Executive Vice President Finance
 
Vice President and
Chief Executive Officer
 
and Chief Financial Officer
 
Controller

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Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

 
The Board of Directors and Stockholders
Norfolk Southern Corporation:
 
We have audited Norfolk Southern Corporation’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2014, based on criteria established in Internal Control – Integrated Framework  (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO).  Norfolk Southern Corporation’s management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the accompanying Report of Management.  Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audit.
 
We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States).  Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects.  Our audit included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk.  Our audit also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances.  We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.
 
A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles.  A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
 
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
 
In our opinion, Norfolk Southern Corporation maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2014, based on criteria established in Internal Control – Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission.
 
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), the consolidated balance sheets of Norfolk Southern Corporation and subsidiaries as of December 31, 2014 and 2013, and the related consolidated statements of income, comprehensive income, changes in stockholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2014, and our report dated February 11, 2015 expressed an unqualified opinion on those consolidated financial statements.


/s/KPMG LLP
KPMG LLP
Norfolk, Virginia
February 11, 2015

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Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

 
The Board of Directors and Stockholders
Norfolk Southern Corporation:
 
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Norfolk Southern Corporation and subsidiaries as of December 31, 2014 and 2013, and the related consolidated statements of income, comprehensive income, changes in stockholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2014.  In connection with our audits of the consolidated financial statements, we also have audited the financial statement schedule as listed in Item 15(A)2. These consolidated financial statements and financial statement schedule are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these consolidated financial statements and financial statement schedule based on our audits.
 
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States).  Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement.  An audit includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements.  An audit also includes assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall financial statement presentation.  We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
 
In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of Norfolk Southern Corporation and subsidiaries as of December 31, 2014 and 2013, and the results of their operations and their cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2014, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.  Also in our opinion, the related financial statement schedule, when considered in relation to the basic consolidated financial statements taken as a whole, presents fairly, in all material respects, the information set forth therein.
 
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), Norfolk Southern Corporation’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2014, based on criteria established in Internal Control – Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO), and our report dated February 11, 2015 expressed an unqualified opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.


/s/KPMG LLP
KPMG LLP
Norfolk, Virginia
February 11, 2015

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Norfolk Southern Corporation and Subsidiaries
Consolidated Statements of Income
 
 
Years ended December 31,
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
 
($ in millions, except per share amounts)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Railway operating revenues
$
11,624

 
$
11,245

 
$
11,040

 
 
 
 
 
 
Railway operating expenses:
 

 
 

 
 

Compensation and benefits
2,897

 
3,002

 
2,960

Purchased services and rents
1,687

 
1,629

 
1,604

Fuel
1,574

 
1,613

 
1,577

Depreciation
951

 
916

 
916

Materials and other
940

 
828

 
859

 
 
 
 
 
 
Total railway operating expenses
8,049

 
7,988

 
7,916

 
 
 
 
 
 
Income from railway operations
3,575

 
3,257

 
3,124

 
 
 
 
 
 
Other income – net
104

 
233

 
129

Interest expense on debt
545

 
525

 
495

 
 
 
 
 
 
Income before income taxes
3,134

 
2,965

 
2,758

 
 
 
 
 
 
Provision for income taxes
1,134

 
1,055

 
1,009

 
 
 
 
 
 
Net income
$
2,000

 
$
1,910

 
$
1,749

 
 
 
 
 
 
Per share amounts:
 
 
 
 
 
Net income
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
$
6.44

 
$
6.10

 
$
5.42

Diluted
6.39

 
6.04

 
5.37




See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.
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Norfolk Southern Corporation and Subsidiaries
Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income
 
 
Years ended December 31,
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
 
($ in millions)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net income
$
2,000

 
$
1,910

 
$
1,749

Other comprehensive income (loss), before tax:
 

 
 

 
 

Pension and other postretirement benefits
(15
)
 
1,122

 
(114
)
Other comprehensive income (loss) of equity investees
(8
)
 
42

 
(13
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Other comprehensive income (loss), before tax
(23
)
 
1,164

 
(127
)
Income tax benefit (expense) related to items of
 

 
 

 
 

other comprehensive income (loss)
6

 
(436
)
 
44

 
 
 
 
 
 
Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax
(17
)
 
728

 
(83
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total comprehensive income
$
1,983

 
$
2,638

 
$
1,666




See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.
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Norfolk Southern Corporation and Subsidiaries
Consolidated Balance Sheets
 
At December 31,
 
2014
 
2013
 
($ in millions)
Assets
 
 
 
Current assets:
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
973

 
$
1,443

Short-term investments

 
118