10-K 1 form10k.htm FORM 10-K form10k.htm
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C.  20549
 
FORM 10-K
 
[X]
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2012
OR
[   ]
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 for the transition period from _________ to ___________

Commission File
Number
Registrant; State of Incorporation;
Address and Telephone Number
IRS Employer
Identification No.
     
1-11459
PPL Corporation
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
(Pennsylvania)
Two North Ninth Street
Allentown, PA  18101-1179
(610) 774-5151
23-2758192
     
1-32944
PPL Energy Supply, LLC
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
(Delaware)
Two North Ninth Street
Allentown, PA  18101-1179
(610) 774-5151
23-3074920
     
1-905
PPL Electric Utilities Corporation
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
(Pennsylvania)
Two North Ninth Street
Allentown, PA  18101-1179
(610) 774-5151
23-0959590
     
333-173665
LG&E and KU Energy LLC
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
(Kentucky)
220 West Main Street
Louisville, Kentucky 40202-1377
(502) 627-2000
20-0523163
     
1-2893
Louisville Gas and Electric Company
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
(Kentucky)
220 West Main Street
Louisville, Kentucky 40202-1377
(502) 627-2000
61-0264150
     
1-3464
Kentucky Utilities Company
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
(Kentucky and Virginia)
One Quality Street
Lexington, Kentucky 40507-1462
(502) 627-2000
61-0247570

 
 

 


Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
Title of each class
Name of each exchange on which registered
 
Common Stock of PPL Corporation
New York Stock Exchange
 
Corporate Units issued 2011 of PPL Corporation
New York Stock Exchange
Corporate Units issued 2010 of PPL Corporation
New York Stock Exchange
 
Junior Subordinated Notes of PPL Capital Funding, Inc.
 
2007 Series A due 2067
New York Stock Exchange
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
 
Common Stock of PPL Electric Utilities Corporation
 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrants are well-known seasoned issuers, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.

 
PPL Corporation
Yes  X   
No        
 
 
PPL Energy Supply, LLC
Yes        
No  X   
 
 
PPL Electric Utilities Corporation
Yes        
No  X   
 
 
LG&E and KU Energy LLC
Yes        
No  X   
 
 
Louisville Gas and Electric Company
Yes        
No  X   
 
 
Kentucky Utilities Company
Yes        
No  X   
 

Indicate by check mark if the registrants are not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.

 
PPL Corporation
Yes        
No  X   
 
 
PPL Energy Supply, LLC
Yes        
No  X   
 
 
PPL Electric Utilities Corporation
Yes        
No  X   
 
 
LG&E and KU Energy LLC
Yes        
No  X   
 
 
Louisville Gas and Electric Company
Yes        
No  X   
 
 
Kentucky Utilities Company
Yes        
No  X   
 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrants (1) have filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrants were required to file such reports), and (2) have been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.

 
PPL Corporation
Yes  X   
No        
 
 
PPL Energy Supply, LLC
Yes  X   
No        
 
 
PPL Electric Utilities Corporation
Yes  X   
No        
 
 
LG&E and KU Energy LLC
Yes  X   
No        
 
 
Louisville Gas and Electric Company
Yes  X   
No        
 
 
Kentucky Utilities Company
Yes  X   
No        
 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrants have submitted electronically and posted on their corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrants were required to submit and post such files).

 
PPL Corporation
Yes   X  
No        
 
 
PPL Energy Supply, LLC
Yes   X  
No        
 
 
PPL Electric Utilities Corporation
Yes   X  
No        
 
 
LG&E and KU Energy LLC
Yes   X  
No        
 
 
Louisville Gas and Electric Company
Yes   X  
No        
 
 
Kentucky Utilities Company
Yes   X  
No        
 

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrants' knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.

 
PPL Corporation
[ X ]
   
 
PPL Energy Supply, LLC
[ X ]
   
 
PPL Electric Utilities Corporation
[ X ]
   
 
LG&E and KU Energy LLC
[ X ]
   
 
Louisville Gas and Electric Company
[ X ]
   
 
Kentucky Utilities Company
[ X ]
   

 
 

 

 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrants are large accelerated filers, accelerated filers, non-accelerated filers, or a smaller reporting company.  See definition of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer" and "smaller reporting company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.  (Check one):

   
Large accelerated
filer
Accelerated
filer
Non-accelerated
filer
Smaller reporting
company
 
PPL Corporation
[ X ]
[     ]
[     ]
[     ]
 
PPL Energy Supply, LLC
[     ]
[     ]
[ X ]
[     ]
 
PPL Electric Utilities Corporation
[     ]
[     ]
[ X ]
[     ]
 
LG&E and KU Energy LLC
[     ]
[     ]
[ X ]
[     ]
 
Louisville Gas and Electric Company
[     ]
[     ]
[ X ]
[     ]
 
Kentucky Utilities Company
[     ]
[     ]
[ X ]
[     ]

Indicate by check mark whether the registrants are shell companies (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).

 
PPL Corporation
Yes        
No  X   
 
 
PPL Energy Supply, LLC
Yes        
No  X   
 
 
PPL Electric Utilities Corporation
Yes        
No  X   
 
 
LG&E and KU Energy LLC
Yes        
No  X   
 
 
Louisville Gas and Electric Company
Yes        
No  X   
 
 
Kentucky Utilities Company
Yes        
No  X   
 

As of June 29, 2012, PPL Corporation had 580,212,689 shares of its $.01 par value Common Stock outstanding.  The aggregate market value of these common shares (based upon the closing price of these shares on the New York Stock Exchange on that date) held by non-affiliates was $16,135,714,881.  As of January 31, 2013, PPL Corporation had 582,846,910 shares of its $.01 par value Common Stock outstanding.

As of January 31, 2013, PPL Corporation held all 66,368,056 outstanding common shares, no par value, of PPL Electric Utilities Corporation.

PPL Corporation indirectly holds all of the membership interests in PPL Energy Supply, LLC.

PPL Corporation directly holds all of the membership interests in LG&E and KU Energy LLC.

As of January 31, 2013, LG&E and KU Energy LLC held all 21,294,223 outstanding common shares, no par value, of Louisville Gas and Electric Company.

As of January 31, 2013, LG&E and KU Energy LLC held all 37,817,878 outstanding common shares, no par value, of Kentucky Utilities Company.

PPL Energy Supply, LLC, PPL Electric Utilities Corporation, LG&E and KU Energy LLC, Louisville Gas and Electric Company and Kentucky Utilities Company meet the conditions set forth in General Instructions (I)(1)(a) and (b) of Form 10-K and are therefore filing this form with the reduced disclosure format.

Documents incorporated by reference:

PPL Corporation has incorporated herein by reference certain sections of PPL Corporation's 2013 Notice of Annual Meeting and Proxy Statement, which will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission not later than 120 days after December 31, 2012.  Such Statements will provide the information required by Part III of this Report.

 
 

 
PPL CORPORATION
PPL ENERGY SUPPLY, LLC
PPL ELECTRIC UTILITIES CORPORATION
LG&E AND KU ENERGY LLC
LOUISVILLE GAS AND ELECTRIC COMPANY
KENTUCKY UTILITIES COMPANY

FORM 10-K ANNUAL REPORT TO
THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2012

TABLE OF CONTENTS

This combined Form 10-K is separately filed by the following individual registrants:  PPL Corporation, PPL Energy Supply, LLC, PPL Electric Utilities Corporation, LG&E and KU Energy LLC, Louisville Gas and Electric Company and Kentucky Utilities Company.  Information contained herein relating to PPL Energy Supply, LLC, PPL Electric Utilities Corporation, LG&E and KU Energy LLC, Louisville Gas and Electric Company and Kentucky Utilities Company is filed by PPL Corporation and separately by PPL Energy Supply, LLC, PPL Electric Utilities Corporation, LG&E and KU Energy LLC, Louisville Gas and Electric Company and Kentucky Utilities Company on their own behalf.  No registrant makes any representation as to information relating to any other registrant, except that information relating to the five PPL Corporation subsidiaries is also attributed to PPL Corporation and the information relating to Louisville Gas and Electric Company and Kentucky Utilities Company is also attributed to LG&E and KU Energy LLC.

Unless otherwise specified, references in this Form 10-K, individually, to PPL Corporation, PPL Energy Supply, LLC, PPL Electric Utilities Corporation, LG&E and KU Energy LLC, Louisville Gas and Electric Company or Kentucky Utilities Company are references to such entities directly or to one or more of their subsidiaries, as the case may be, the financial results of which are consolidated into such Registrants in accordance with GAAP.  This presentation has been applied where identification of particular subsidiaries is not material to the matter being disclosed, and to conform narrative disclosures to the presentation of financial information on a consolidated basis.


Item
   
Page
   
PART I
 
   
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
       
   
PART II
 
 
 
7.
 
Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   

 
 

 


8.
 
Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
 
   
FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
 
   
PPL Corporation and Subsidiaries
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
PPL Energy Supply, LLC and Subsidiaries
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
PPL Electric Utilities Corporation and Subsidiaries
 
   
   
   
   
   
LG&E and KU Energy LLC and Subsidiaries
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
Louisville Gas and Electric Company
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
Kentucky Utilities Company
 
   
   
   
   
   
       
   
COMBINED NOTES TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

 
 

 


   
   
   
   
   
   
       
   
SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
 
   
Schedule I - Condensed Unconsolidated Financial Statements
 
   
   
   
 
 
 
       
   
PART III
 
 
 
 
 
 
       
   
PART IV
 
 
   
   
   
   
   
   

 
 

 

GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

PPL Corporation and its current and former subsidiaries

Central Networks - collectively Central Networks East plc, Central Networks Limited and certain other related assets and liabilities.  On April 1, 2011, PPL WEM Holdings plc (formerly WPD Investment Holdings Limited) purchased all of the outstanding ordinary share capital of these companies from E.ON AG subsidiaries.  Central Networks West plc (subsequently renamed Western Power Distribution (West Midlands) plc), wholly owned by Central Networks Limited (subsequently renamed WPD Midlands Holdings Limited), and Central Networks East plc (subsequently renamed Western Power Distribution (East Midlands) plc) are British regional electricity distribution utility companies.

KU - Kentucky Utilities Company, a public utility subsidiary of LKE engaged in the regulated generation, transmission, distribution and sale of electricity, primarily in Kentucky.  The subsidiary was acquired by PPL through the acquisition of LKE in November 2010.

LG&E - Louisville Gas and Electric Company, a public utility subsidiary of LKE engaged in the regulated generation, transmission, distribution and sale of electricity and the distribution and sale of natural gas in Kentucky.  The subsidiary was acquired by PPL through the acquisition of LKE in November 2010.

LKE - LG&E and KU Energy LLC (formerly E.ON U.S. LLC), a subsidiary of PPL and the parent of LG&E, KU and other subsidiaries.  PPL acquired E.ON U.S. LLC in November 2010 and changed the name to LG&E and KU Energy LLC.

LKS - LG&E and KU Services Company (formerly E.ON U.S. Services Inc.), a subsidiary of LKE that provides services for LKE and its subsidiaries.  The subsidiary was acquired by PPL through the acquisition of LKE in November 2010.

PPL - PPL Corporation, the parent holding company of PPL Electric, PPL Energy Funding, LKE and other subsidiaries.

PPL Brunner Island - PPL Brunner Island, LLC, a subsidiary of PPL Generation that owns generating operations in Pennsylvania.

PPL Capital Funding - PPL Capital Funding, Inc., a wholly owned financing subsidiary of PPL that provides financing for the operations of PPL and certain subsidiaries.  Debt issued by PPL Capital Funding is guaranteed as to payment by PPL.

PPL Electric - PPL Electric Utilities Corporation, a public utility subsidiary of PPL that transmits and distributes electricity in its Pennsylvania service area and provides electric supply to retail customers in this area as a PLR.

PPL Energy Funding - PPL Energy Funding Corporation, a subsidiary of PPL and the parent holding company of PPL Energy Supply, PPL Global (effective January 2011) and other subsidiaries.

PPL EnergyPlus - PPL EnergyPlus, LLC, a subsidiary of PPL Energy Supply that markets and trades wholesale and retail electricity and gas, and supplies energy and energy services in competitive markets.

PPL Energy Supply - PPL Energy Supply, LLC, a subsidiary of PPL Energy Funding and the parent company of PPL Generation, PPL EnergyPlus and other subsidiaries.  In January 2011, PPL Energy Supply distributed its membership interest in PPL Global, representing 100% of the outstanding membership interests of PPL Global, to PPL Energy Supply's parent, PPL Energy Funding.

PPL Generation - PPL Generation, LLC, a subsidiary of PPL Energy Supply that owns and operates U.S. generating facilities through various subsidiaries.

PPL Global - PPL Global, LLC, a subsidiary of PPL Energy Funding that primarily owns and operates WPD a business in the U.K., that is focused on the regulated distribution of electricity.  In January 2011, PPL Energy Supply, PPL Global's former parent, distributed its membership interest in PPL Global, representing 100% of the outstanding membership interest of PPL Global, to its parent, PPL Energy Funding.

PPL Holtwood - PPL Holtwood, LLC, a subsidiary of PPL Generation that owns hydroelectric generating operations in Pennsylvania.

PPL Ironwood - PPL Ironwood LLC, an indirect subsidiary of PPL Generation that owns generating operations in Pennsylvania.

 
i

 

PPL Martins Creek - PPL Martins Creek, LLC, a subsidiary of PPL Generation that owns generating operations in Pennsylvania.

PPL Montana - PPL Montana, LLC, an indirect subsidiary of PPL Generation that generates electricity for wholesale sales in Montana and the Pacific Northwest.

PPL Montour - PPL Montour, LLC, a subsidiary of PPL Generation that owns generating operations in Pennsylvania.

PPL Services - PPL Services Corporation, a subsidiary of PPL that provides services for PPL and its subsidiaries.

PPL Susquehanna - PPL Susquehanna, LLC, the nuclear generating subsidiary of PPL Generation.

PPL WEM - PPL WEM Holdings plc (formerly WPD Investment Holdings Limited), an indirect U.K. subsidiary of PPL Global.  PPL WEM indirectly owns both WPD (East Midlands) and WPD (West Midlands).

PPL WW - PPL WW Holdings Limited (formerly Western Power Distribution Holdings Limited), an indirect U.K. subsidiary of PPL Global.  PPL WW Holdings indirectly owns WPD (South Wales) and WPD (South West).

WPD - refers to PPL WW and PPL WEM and their subsidiaries.

WPD (East Midlands) - Western Power Distribution (East Midlands) plc, a British regional electricity distribution utility company.  The company (formerly Central Networks East plc) was acquired and renamed in April 2011.

WPD Midlands - refers to Central Networks, which was renamed after the acquisition.

WPD (South Wales) - Western Power Distribution (South Wales) plc, a British regional electricity distribution utility company.

WPD (South West) - Western Power Distribution (South West) plc, a British regional electricity distribution utility company.

WPD (West Midlands) - Western Power Distribution (West Midlands) plc, a British regional electricity distribution utility company.  The company (formerly Central Networks West plc) was acquired and renamed in April 2011.

WKE - Western Kentucky Energy Corp., a subsidiary of LKE that leased certain non-utility generating plants in western Kentucky until July 2009.  The subsidiary was acquired by PPL through the acquisition of LKE in November 2010.

Other terms and abbreviations

£ - British pound sterling.

1945 First Mortgage Bond - PPL Electric's Mortgage and Deed of Trust, dated as of October 1, 1945, to Deutsche Bank Trust Company Americas, as trustee, as supplemented.

2001 Mortgage Indenture - PPL Electric's Indenture, dated as of August 1, 2001, to The Bank of New York Mellon (as successor to JPMorgan Chase Bank), as trustee, as supplemented.

2010 Bridge Facility - an up to $6.5 billion Senior Bridge Term Loan Credit Agreement between PPL Capital Funding, as borrower, and PPL, as guarantor, and a group of banks syndicated in June 2010, to serve as a funding backstop in the event alternative financing was not available prior to the closing of PPL's acquisition of E.ON U.S. LLC.

2010 Equity Unit(s) - a PPL equity unit, issued in June 2010, consisting of a 2010 Purchase Contract and, initially, a 5.0% undivided beneficial ownership interest in $1,000 principal amount of PPL Capital Funding 4.625% Junior Subordinated Notes due 2018.

2010 Purchase Contract(s) - a contract that is a component of a 2010 Equity Unit that requires holders to purchase shares of PPL common stock on or prior to July 1, 2013.
 
 
ii

 

2011 Bridge Facility - the £3.6 billion Senior Bridge Term Loan Credit Agreement between PPL Capital Funding and PPL WEM, as borrowers, and PPL, as guarantor, and lenders party thereto, used to fund the April 1, 2011 acquisition of Central Networks, as amended by Amendment No. 1 thereto dated April 15, 2011.

2011 Equity Unit(s) - a PPL equity unit, issued in April 2011, consisting of a 2011 Purchase Contract and, initially, a 5.0% undivided beneficial ownership interest in $1,000 principal amount of PPL Capital Funding 4.32% Junior Subordinated Notes due 2019.

2011 Purchase Contract(s) - a contract that is a component of a 2011 Equity Unit that requires holders to purchase shares of PPL common stock on or prior to May 1, 2014.

401(h) account - A sub-account established within a qualified pension trust to provide for the payment of retiree medical costs.

Act 11 - Act 11 of 2012 that became effective on April 16, 2012.  The Pennsylvania legislation authorizes the PUC to approve two specific ratemaking mechanisms:  the use of a fully projected future test year in base rate proceedings and, subject to certain conditions, a DSIC.

Act 129 - Act 129 of 2008 that became effective in October 2008.  The law amends the Pennsylvania Public Utility Code and creates an energy efficiency and conservation program and smart metering technology requirements, adopts new PLR electricity supply procurement rules, provides remedies for market misconduct and makes changes to the AEPS.

AEPS - Alternative Energy Portfolio Standard.

AFUDC - Allowance for Funds Used During Construction, the cost of equity and debt funds used to finance construction projects of regulated businesses, which is capitalized as part of construction costs.

AOCI - accumulated other comprehensive income or loss.

ARO - asset retirement obligation.

Baseload generation - includes the output provided by PPL's nuclear, coal, hydroelectric and qualifying facilities.

Basis - when used in the context of derivatives and commodity trading, the commodity price differential between two locations, products or time periods.

Bcf - billion cubic feet.

Black Lung Trust - a trust account maintained under federal and state Black Lung legislation for the payment of claims related to disability or death due to pneumoconiosis.

Bluegrass CTs - three natural gas combustion turbines owned by Bluegrass Generation.  In 2011, LG&E and KU entered into an asset purchase agreement with Bluegrass Generation for the purchase of these combustion turbines, subject to certain conditions including receipt of applicable regulatory approvals and clearances.  In June 2012, LG&E and KU terminated the asset purchase agreement.

Bluegrass Generation - Bluegrass Generation Company, L.L.C., an exempt wholesale electricity generator in LaGrange, Kentucky.

BREC - Big Rivers Electric Corporation, a power-generating rural electric cooperative in western Kentucky.

Cane Run Unit 7 - a combined cycle natural gas unit under construction in Kentucky, jointly owned by LG&E and KU, which is expected to provide additional electric generating capacity of 141 MW and 499 MW to LG&E and KU by 2015.

CAIR - the EPA's Clean Air Interstate Rule.

Clean Air Act - federal legislation enacted to address certain environmental issues related to air emissions, including acid rain, ozone and toxic air emissions.

 
iii

 

COLA - license application for a combined construction permit and operating license from the NRC for a nuclear plant.

CPCN - Certificate of Public Convenience and Necessity.  Authority granted by the KPSC pursuant to Kentucky Revised Statute 278.020 to provide utility service to or for the public or the construction of certain plant, equipment, property or facility for furnishing of utility service to the public.

CSAPR - Cross-State Air Pollution Rule.

Customer Choice Act - the Pennsylvania Electricity Generation Customer Choice and Competition Act, legislation enacted to restructure the state's electric utility industry to create retail access to a competitive market for generation of electricity.

DDCP - Directors Deferred Compensation Plan.

Depreciation not normalized - the flow-through income tax impact related to the state regulatory treatment of depreciation-related timing differences.

DNO - Distribution Network Operator.

Dodd-Frank Act - the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act that was signed into law in July 2010.

DOE - Department of Energy, a U.S. government agency.

DPCR4 - Distribution Price Control Review 4, the U.K. 5-year rate review period applicable to WPD that commenced April 1, 2005.

DPCR5 - Distribution Price Control Review 5, the U.K. 5-year rate review period applicable to WPD that commenced April 1, 2010.

DRIP - Dividend Reinvestment and Direct Stock Purchase Plan.

DSIC - a distribution system improvement charge authorized under Act 11, which is an alternative ratemaking mechanism providing more-timely cost recovery of qualifying distribution system capital expenditures.

DSM - Demand Side Management.  Pursuant to Kentucky Revised Statute 278.285, the KPSC may determine the reasonableness of DSM plans proposed by any utility under its jurisdiction.  Proposed DSM mechanisms may seek full recovery of DSM programs and revenues lost by implementing those programs and/or incentives designed to provide financial rewards to the utility for implementing cost-effective DSM programs.  The cost of such programs shall be assigned only to the class or classes of customers which benefit from the programs.

DUoS - Distribution Use of System.  This forms the majority of WPD's revenues and is the charge to electricity suppliers who are WPD's customers and use WPD's network to distribute electricity.

EBPB - Employee Benefit Plan Board. The administrator of PPL's U.S. qualified retirement plans, which is charged with the fiduciary responsibility to oversee and manage those plans and the investments associated with those plans.

Economic Stimulus Package - The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, generally referred to as the federal economic stimulus package, which was signed into law in February 2009.

ECR - Environmental Cost Recovery.  Pursuant to Kentucky Revised Statute 278.183, effective January 1993, Kentucky electric utilities are entitled to the current recovery of costs of complying with the Clean Air Act, as amended, and those federal, state or local environmental requirements which apply to coal combustion and by-products from the production of energy from coal.

EEI - Electric Energy, Inc., owns and operates a coal-fired plant and a natural gas facility in southern Illinois.  KU's 20% ownership interest in EEI is accounted for as an equity method investment.

E.ON AG - a German corporation and the parent of E.ON UK plc, the former parent of Central Networks, and the indirect parent of E.ON US Investments Corp., the former parent of LKE.

EPA - Environmental Protection Agency, a U.S. government agency.

 
iv

 
 
EPS - earnings per share.

Equity Units - refers collectively to the 2011 and 2010 Equity Units.

ESOP - Employee Stock Ownership Plan.

Euro - the basic monetary unit among participating members of the European Union.

EWG - exempt wholesale generator.

E.W. Brown - a generating station in Kentucky with capacity of 1,594 MW.

FERC - Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, the federal agency that regulates, among other things, interstate transmission and wholesale sales of electricity, hydroelectric power projects and related matters.

Fitch - Fitch, Inc., a credit rating agency.

FTR(s) - financial transmission right, which is a financial instrument established to manage price risk related to electricity transmission congestion that entitles the holder to receive compensation or requires the holder to remit payment for certain congestion-related transmission charges based on the level of congestion in the transmission grid.

Fundamental Change - as it relates to the terms of the 2011 and 2010 Equity Units, will be deemed to have occurred if any of the following occurs with respect to PPL, subject to certain exceptions:  (i) a change of control; (ii) a consolidation with or merger into any other entity; (iii) common stock ceases to be listed or quoted; or (iv) a liquidation, dissolution or termination.

GAAP - Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in the U.S.

GBP - British pound sterling.

GHG - greenhouse gas(es).

GWh - gigawatt-hour, one million kilowatt-hours.

Health Care Reform - The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (HR 3590) and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (HR 4872), signed into law in March 2010.

HMRC - Her Majesty's Revenue & Customs.  The tax authority in the U.K., formerly known as Inland Revenue.

IBEW - International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers.

ICP - Incentive Compensation Plan.

ICPKE - Incentive Compensation Plan for Key Employees.

Intermediate and peaking generation - includes the output provided by PPL's oil- and natural gas-fired units.

Ironwood Acquisition - In April 2012, PPL Ironwood Holdings, LLC, an indirect, wholly owned subsidiary of PPL Energy Supply, completed the acquisition from a subsidiary of The AES Corporation of all of the equity interests of AES Ironwood, L.L.C. (subsequently renamed PPL Ironwood, LLC) and AES Prescott, L.L.C. (subsequently renamed PPL Prescott, LLC), which own and operate, respectively, the Ironwood Facility.

Ironwood Facility - a natural gas-fired power plant in Lebanon, Pennsylvania with a summer rating of 665 MW.

IRS - Internal Revenue Service, a U.S. government agency.

ISO - Independent System Operator.

KPSC - Kentucky Public Service Commission, the state agency that has jurisdiction over the regulation of rates and service of utilities in Kentucky.

 
v

 

KU 2010 Mortgage Indenture - KU's Indenture dated as of October 1, 2010, to The Bank of New York Mellon, as trustee, as supplemented.

kVA - kilovolt ampere.

kWh - kilowatt-hour, basic unit of electrical energy.

LCIDA - Lehigh County Industrial Development Authority.

LG&E 2010 Mortgage Indenture - LG&E's Indenture, dated as of October 1, 2010, to The Bank of New York Mellon, as trustee, as supplemented.

LIBOR - London Interbank Offered Rate.

Long Island generation business - includes a 79.9 MW gas-fired plant in the Edgewood section of Brentwood, New York and a 79.9 MW oil-fired plant in Shoreham, New York and related tolling agreements.  This business was sold in February 2010.

LTIIP - Long Term Infrastructure Improvement Plan.

MATS - Mercury and Air Toxics Standards.

MDEQ - Montana Department of Environmental Quality.

MEIC - Montana Environmental Information Center.

MMBtu - One million British Thermal Units.

Montana Power - The Montana Power Company, a Montana-based company that sold its generating assets to PPL Montana in December 1999.  Through a series of transactions consummated during the first quarter of 2002, Montana Power sold its electricity delivery business to NorthWestern.

Moody's - Moody's Investors Service, Inc., a credit rating agency.

MW - megawatt, one thousand kilowatts.

MWh - megawatt-hour, one thousand kilowatt-hours.

NDT - PPL Susquehanna's nuclear plant decommissioning trust.

NERC - North American Electric Reliability Corporation.

NorthWestern - NorthWestern Corporation, a Delaware corporation, and successor in interest to Montana Power's electricity delivery business, including Montana Power's rights and obligations under contracts with PPL Montana.

NPDES - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System.

NPNS - the normal purchases and normal sales exception as permitted by derivative accounting rules.  Derivatives that qualify for this exception receive accrual accounting treatment.

NRC - Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the federal agency that regulates nuclear power facilities.

NUGs - non-utility generators, generating plants not owned by public utilities, whose electrical output must be purchased by utilities under the PURPA if the plant meets certain criteria.

OCI - other comprehensive income or loss.

Ofgem - Office of Gas and Electricity Markets, the British agency that regulates transmission, distribution and wholesale sales of electricity and related matters.
 
vi

 

Opacity - the degree to which emissions reduce the transmission of light and obscure the view of an object in the background.  There are emission regulations that limit the opacity in power plant stack gas emissions.

OVEC - Ohio Valley Electric Corporation, located in Piketon, Ohio, an entity in which LKE indirectly owns an 8.13% interest (consists of LG&E's 5.63% and KU's 2.50% interests), which is accounted for as a cost-method investment.  OVEC owns and operates two coal-fired power plants, the Kyger Creek plant in Ohio and the Clifty Creek plant in Indiana, with combined nameplate capacities of 2,390 MW.

PADEP - the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, a state government agency.

PEDFA - Pennsylvania Economic Development Financing Authority.

PJM - PJM Interconnection, L.L.C., operator of the electric transmission network and electric energy market in all or parts of Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, New Jersey, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia and the District of Columbia.

PLR - Provider of Last Resort, the role of PPL Electric in providing default electricity supply to retail customers within its delivery area who have not chosen to select an alternative electricity supplier under the Customer Choice Act.

PP&E - property, plant and equipment.

Predecessor - refers to the LKE, LG&E and KU pre-acquisition activity covering the time period prior to November 1, 2010.

PUC - Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission, the state agency that regulates certain ratemaking, services, accounting and operations of Pennsylvania utilities.

PUC Final Order - final order issued by the PUC on August 27, 1998, approving the settlement of PPL Electric's restructuring proceeding.

PUHCA - Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935, repealed effective February 2006 by the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and replaced with the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 2005.

Purchase Contract(s) - refers collectively to the 2010 and 2011 Purchase Contracts.

PURPA - Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978, legislation passed by the U.S. Congress to encourage energy conservation, efficient use of resources and equitable rates.

PURTA - The Pennsylvania Public Utility Realty Tax Act.

RAV - regulatory asset value.  This term is also commonly known as RAB or regulatory asset base.

RECs - renewable energy credits.

Regional Transmission Expansion Plan - PJM conducts a long-range Regional Transmission Expansion Planning process that identifies what changes and additions to the grid are needed to ensure future needs are met for both the reliability and the economic performance of the grid.  Under PJM agreements, transmission owners are obligated to build transmission projects that are needed to maintain reliability standards and that are reviewed and approved by the PJM Board.

Registrants - PPL, PPL Energy Supply, PPL Electric, LKE, LG&E and KU, collectively.

Regulation S-X - SEC regulation governing the form and content of and requirements for financial statements required to be filed pursuant to the federal securities laws.

RFC - Reliability First Corporation, one of eight regional entities with delegated authority from NERC that work to safeguard the reliability of the bulk power systems throughout North America.

RFP - Request for Proposal.

RMC - Risk Management Committee.

 
vii

 

RTO - Regional Transmission Organization.

S&P - Standard & Poor's Ratings Services, a credit rating agency.

Sarbanes-Oxley - Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, which sets requirements for management's assessment of internal controls for financial reporting.  It also requires an independent auditor to make its own assessment.

SCR - selective catalytic reduction, a pollution control process for the removal of nitrogen oxide from exhaust gases.

Scrubber - an air pollution control device that can remove particulates and/or gases (primarily sulfur dioxide) from exhaust gases.

SEC - the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, a U.S. government agency whose primary mission is to protect investors and maintain the integrity of the securities markets.

Securities Act of 1933 - the Securities Act of 1933, 15 U.S. Code, Sections 77a-77aa, as amended.

SERC - SERC Reliability Corporation, one of eight regional entities with delegated authority from NERC that work to safeguard the reliability of the bulk power systems throughout North America.

SIFMA Index - the Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association Municipal Swap Index.

SIP - PPL Corporation's 2012 Stock Incentive Plan.

Smart meter - an electric meter that utilizes smart metering technology.

Smart metering technology - technology that can measure, among other things, time of electricity consumption to permit offering rate incentives for usage during lower cost or demand intervals.  The use of this technology also has the potential to strengthen network reliability.

SMGT - Southern Montana Electric Generation & Transmission Cooperative, Inc., a Montana cooperative and purchaser of electricity under a long-term supply contract with PPL EnergyPlus that was terminated effective April 1, 2012.
 
SNCR - selective non-catalytic reduction, a pollution control process for the removal of nitrogen oxide from exhaust gases using ammonia.

Spark Spread - a measure of gross margin representing the price of power on a per MWh basis less the equivalent measure of the natural gas cost to produce that power.  This measure is used to describe the gross margin of PPL and its subsidiaries' merchant natural gas-fired generating fleet.  This term is also used to describe a derivative contract in which PPL and its subsidiaries sell power and buy natural gas on a forward basis in the same contract.

Successor - refers to the LKE, LG&E and KU post-acquisition activity covering the time period after October 31, 2010.

Superfund - federal environmental legislation that addresses remediation of contaminated sites; states also have similar statutes.

TC2 - Trimble County Unit 2, a coal-fired plant located in Kentucky with a net summer capacity of 732 MW.  LKE indirectly owns a 75% interest (consists of LG&E's 14.25% and KU's 60.75% interests) in TC2, or 549 MW of the capacity.

Tolling agreement - agreement whereby the owner of an electric generating facility agrees to use that facility to convert fuel provided by a third party into electricity for delivery back to the third party.

Total shareowner return - change in market value of a share of the Company's common stock plus the value of all dividends paid on a share of the common stock during the applicable performance period, divided by the price of the common stock as of the beginning of the performance period.

TRA - Tennessee Regulatory Authority, the state agency that has jurisdiction over the regulation of rates and service of utilities in Tennessee.

Utilization Factor - a measure reflecting the percentage of electricity actually generated by a plant compared with the electricity such plant could produce at full capacity when available.

 
viii

 
 
VaR - value-at-risk, a statistical model that attempts to estimate the value of potential loss over a given holding period under normal market conditions at a given confidence level.

VEBA - Voluntary Employee Benefit Association Trust, accounts for health and welfare plans for future benefit payments for employees, retirees or their beneficiaries.

VIE - variable interest entity.

Volumetric risk - the risk that the actual load volumes provided under full-requirement sales contracts could vary significantly from forecasted volumes.

VSCC - Virginia State Corporation Commission, the state agency that has jurisdiction over the regulation of Virginia corporations, including utilities.

VWAP - as it relates to the 2011 and 2010 Equity Units issued by PPL, the per share volume-weighted-average price as displayed under the heading Bloomberg VWAP on Bloomberg page "PPL <EQUITY> AQR" (or its equivalent successor if such page is not available) in respect of the period from the scheduled open of trading on the relevant trading day until the scheduled close of trading on the relevant trading day (or if such volume-weighted-average price is unavailable, the market price of one share of PPL common stock on such trading day determined, using a volume-weighted-average method, by a nationally recognized independent investment banking firm retained for this purpose by PPL).

 
ix

 


 

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x

 

FORWARD-LOOKING INFORMATION

Statements contained in this Annual Report concerning expectations, beliefs, plans, objectives, goals, strategies, future events or performance and underlying assumptions and other statements which are other than statements of historical fact are "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of the federal securities laws.  Although the Registrants believe that the expectations and assumptions reflected in these statements are reasonable, there can be no assurance that these expectations will prove to be correct.  Forward-looking statements are subject to many risks and uncertainties, and actual results may differ materially from the results discussed in forward-looking statements.  In addition to the specific factors discussed in "Item 1A. Risk Factors" and in "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" in this Annual Report, the following are among the important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from the forward-looking statements.

·
fuel supply cost and availability;
·
continuing ability to recover fuel costs and environmental expenditures in a timely manner at LG&E and KU, and natural gas supply costs at LG&E;
·
weather conditions affecting generation, customer energy use and operating costs;
·
operation, availability and operating costs of existing generation facilities;
·
the duration of and cost, including lost revenue, associated with scheduled and unscheduled outages at our generating facilities;
·
transmission and distribution system conditions and operating costs;
·
expansion of alternative sources of electricity generation;
·
laws or regulations to reduce emissions of "greenhouse" gases or the physical effects of climate change;
·
collective labor bargaining negotiations;
·
the outcome of litigation against the Registrants and their subsidiaries;
·
potential effects of threatened or actual terrorism, war or other hostilities, cyber-based intrusions or natural disasters;
·
the commitments and liabilities of the Registrants and their subsidiaries;
·
volatility in market demand and prices for energy, capacity, transmission services, emission allowances and RECs;
·
competition in retail and wholesale power and natural gas markets;
·
liquidity of wholesale power markets;
·
defaults by counterparties under energy, fuel or other power product contracts;
·
market prices of commodity inputs for ongoing capital expenditures;
·
capital market conditions, including the availability of capital or credit, changes in interest rates and certain economic indices, and decisions regarding capital structure;
·
stock price performance of PPL;
·
volatility in the fair value of debt and equity securities and its impact on the value of assets in the NDT funds and in defined benefit plans, and the potential cash funding requirements if fair value declines;
·
interest rates and their effect on pension, retiree medical and nuclear decommissioning liabilities, and interest payable on certain debt securities;
·
volatility in or the impact of other changes in financial or commodity markets and economic conditions;
·
new accounting requirements or new interpretations or applications of existing requirements;
·
changes in securities and credit ratings;
·
changes in foreign currency exchange rates for British pound sterling;
·
current and future environmental conditions, regulations and other requirements and the related costs of compliance, including environmental capital expenditures, emission allowance costs and other expenses;
·
legal, regulatory, political, market or other reactions to the 2011 incident at the nuclear generating facility at Fukushima, Japan, including additional NRC requirements;
·
changes in political, regulatory or economic conditions in states, regions or countries where the Registrants or their subsidiaries conduct business;
·
receipt of necessary governmental permits, approvals and rate relief;
·
new state, federal or foreign legislation or regulatory developments;
·
the outcome of any rate cases or other cost recovery filings by PPL Electric at the PUC or the FERC, by LG&E at the KPSC or the FERC; by KU at the KPSC, VSCC, TRA or the FERC, or by WPD at Ofgem in the U.K.;
·
the impact of any state, federal or foreign investigations applicable to the Registrants and their subsidiaries and the energy industry;
·
the effect of any business or industry restructuring;
·
development of new projects, markets and technologies;
·
performance of new ventures; and
·
business dispositions or acquisitions and our ability to successfully operate acquired businesses and realize expected benefits from business acquisitions, including PPL's 2011 acquisition of WPD Midlands and 2010 acquisition of LKE.

 
1

 

Any such forward-looking statements should be considered in light of such important factors and in conjunction with other documents of the Registrants on file with the SEC.

New factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those described in forward-looking statements emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for the Registrants to predict all such factors, or the extent to which any such factor or combination of factors may cause actual results to differ from those contained in any forward-looking statement.  Any forward-looking statement speaks only as of the date on which such statement is made, and the Registrants undertake no obligation to update the information contained in such statement to reflect subsequent developments or information.

 
2

 

PART I

ITEM 1. BUSINESS

BACKGROUND

PPL Corporation, headquartered in Allentown, Pennsylvania, is an energy and utility holding company that was incorporated in 1994.  Through subsidiaries, PPL generates electricity from power plants in the northeastern, northwestern and southeastern U.S.; markets wholesale or retail energy primarily in the northeastern and northwestern portions of the U.S.; delivers electricity to customers in Pennsylvania, Kentucky, Virginia, Tennessee and the U.K.; and delivers natural gas to customers in Kentucky.

PPL's overall strategy is to achieve stable, long-term growth in its regulated electricity delivery businesses through efficient operations and strong customer and regulatory relations, and disciplined optimization of energy supply margins in its energy supply business while mitigating volatility in both cash flows and earnings.

In pursuing this strategy, in 2011 and 2010, PPL completed two significant acquisitions that have reduced PPL's overall business risk profile and reapportioned the mix of PPL's regulated and competitive businesses by increasing the regulated portion of its business:

 
·
On April 1, 2011, PPL, through an indirect, wholly owned subsidiary, PPL WEM, completed its acquisition of all the outstanding ordinary share capital of Central Networks East plc and Central Networks Limited, the sole owner of Central Networks West plc, together with certain other related assets and liabilities (collectively referred to as Central Networks and subsequently renamed WPD Midlands), from subsidiaries of E.ON AG.  WPD Midlands operates two regulated distribution networks that serve five million end-users in the Midlands area of England.

 
·
On November 1, 2010, PPL acquired all of the limited liability company interests of E.ON U.S. LLC from a wholly owned subsidiary of E.ON AG.  Upon completion of the acquisition, E.ON U.S. LLC was renamed LG&E and KU Energy LLC (LKE).  LKE is engaged in regulated utility operations through its subsidiaries, LG&E and KU.

See Note 10 to the Financial Statements for additional information on both acquisitions.

Each rate-regulated business plans to make material capital investments over the next several years to improve infrastructure and customer reliability.  See "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Financial Condition - Liquidity and Capital Resources" for information on each Registrant's capital expenditure projections.

A key objective of PPL's business strategy is to maintain a strong credit profile.  PPL's recent growth in rate-regulated businesses has provided the organization with an enhanced corporate level financing alternative, through PPL Capital Funding, that further enables PPL to support targeted credit profiles cost effectively across all of PPL's rated companies.  As a result, PPL plans to further utilize PPL Capital Funding in addition to continued direct financing by the operating companies, as appropriate.

At December 31, 2012, PPL had:

 
·
$12.3 billion in operating revenues for the year (56% from regulated businesses),
 
·
10.5 million end-users of its utility services,
 
·
approximately 19,000 MW of generation (44% within regulated businesses), and
 
·
approximately 18,000 full-time employees.

PPL's principal subsidiaries at December 31, 2012 are shown below (* denotes an SEC registrant).
 
3

 
 
                 
PPL Corporation*
               
                                                       
                                   
PPL Capital Funding
           
       
                                                 
                                               
     
LKE*
 
   
PPL Global
Engages in the regulated distribution of electricity in the U.K.
 
PPL Electric*
Engages in the regulated transmission and distribution of electricity in Pennsylvania
   
PPL Energy Supply*
 
   
                                                       
                                                       
LG&E*
Engages in the regulated generation, transmission, distribution and sale of electricity in Kentucky, and distribution and sale of natural gas in Kentucky
   
KU*
Engages in the regulated generation, transmission, distribution and sale of electricity, primarily in Kentucky
         
PPL EnergyPlus
Performs energy marketing and trading activities
Purchases fuel
   
PPL Generation
Engages in the competitive generation of electricity, primarily in Pennsylvania and Montana
                                               
     
Kentucky Regulated
Segment
 
U.K. Regulated
Segment
 
Pennsylvania Regulated Segment
 
Supply
Segment
   
 

In addition to PPL Corporation, the other SEC registrants included in this filing are:

LG&E and KU Energy LLC, headquartered in Louisville, Kentucky, is a holding company with regulated utility operations through subsidiaries, LG&E and KU, and is a subsidiary of PPL.  LKE, formed in 2003, is the successor to a Kentucky entity incorporated in 1989.

Louisville Gas and Electric Company, headquartered in Louisville, Kentucky, is a regulated utility engaged in the generation, transmission, distribution and sale of electricity and the distribution and sale of natural gas in Kentucky.  LG&E was incorporated in Kentucky in 1913.  At December 31, 2012, LG&E owned 3,354 MW of electric power generation capacity and is implementing capital projects at an existing generation facility to provide 141 MW of additional generating capacity by the end of 2015.  LG&E also anticipates retiring 563 MW of coal-fired generating capacity by the end of 2015 to meet certain environmental regulations.  LG&E and KU jointly dispatch their generation units with the lowest cost generation used to serve their retail native load.

Kentucky Utilities Company, headquartered in Lexington, Kentucky, is a regulated utility engaged in the generation, transmission, distribution and sale of electricity in Kentucky, Virginia and Tennessee.  KU was incorporated in Kentucky in 1912 and Virginia in 1991.  KU serves its Virginia customers under the Old Dominion Power name while its Kentucky and Tennessee customers are served under the KU name.  At December 31, 2012, KU owned 4,833 MW of electric power generation capacity and is implementing capital projects at an existing generation facility owned by LG&E to provide 499 MW of additional generating capacity by the end of 2015.  KU retired the remaining 71 MW unit at the Tyrone plant in February 2013.  KU also anticipates retiring 163 MW of coal-fired generating capacity by the end of 2015 to meet certain environmental regulations.  KU and LG&E jointly dispatch their generation units with the lowest cost generation used to serve their retail native load.

PPL Electric Utilities Corporation, headquartered in Allentown, Pennsylvania, is a direct subsidiary of PPL incorporated in Pennsylvania in 1920 and a regulated public utility.  PPL Electric delivers electricity in its Pennsylvania service territory and provides electricity supply to retail customers in that territory as a PLR under the Customer Choice Act.
 
 
4

 

PPL Energy Supply, LLC, headquartered in Allentown, Pennsylvania, is an indirect subsidiary of PPL formed in 2000 and is an energy company engaged through its subsidiaries in the generation and marketing of electricity, primarily in the northeastern and northwestern power markets of the U.S.  PPL Energy Supply's major operating subsidiaries are PPL EnergyPlus and PPL Generation.  In January 2011, PPL Energy Supply distributed its entire membership interest in PPL Global to its parent, PPL Energy Funding (the parent holding company of PPL Energy Supply and PPL Global with no other material operations), to better align PPL's organizational structure with the manner in which it manages these businesses and reports segment information in its consolidated financial statements.  The distribution separated the U.S.-based competitive energy marketing and supply business from the U.K.-based regulated electricity distribution business.  See Note 9 to the Financial Statements for additional information.  The 2010 operating results of PPL Global, which represented the U.K. Regulated segment (formerly International Regulated), are classified as discontinued operations.  At December 31, 2012, PPL Energy Supply owned or controlled 10,591 MW of electric power generation capacity and is implementing capital projects at certain of its existing generation facilities in Pennsylvania and Montana to provide 153 MW of additional generating capacity by the end of 2013.

PPL's utility subsidiaries, and to a lesser extent, certain competitive supply subsidiaries, are subject to extensive regulation by the FERC related to wholesale power sales and related transactions, electricity transmission service, accounting practices, issuances and sales of securities, acquisitions and sales of utility properties and payments of dividends.  PPL and LKE are subject to certain FERC regulations as holding companies under PUHCA and the Federal Power Act, including with respect to accounting and record-keeping, inter-system sales of non-power goods and services and acquisitions of securities in, or mergers with, certain types of electric utility companies.

Successor and Predecessor Financial Presentation (LKE, LG&E and KU)

LKE's, LG&E's and KU's Financial Statements and related financial and operating data include the periods before and after PPL's acquisition of LKE on November 1, 2010 and have been segregated to present pre-acquisition activity as the Predecessor and post-acquisition activity as the Successor.  Certain accounting and presentation methods were changed to acceptable alternatives to conform to PPL's accounting policies, and the cost bases of certain assets and liabilities were changed as of November 1, 2010 as a result of the application of push-down accounting.  Consequently, the financial position, results of operations and cash flows for the Successor periods are not comparable to the Predecessor periods; however, the core operations of LKE, LG&E and KU have not changed as a result of the acquisition.

Segment Information

(PPL)

PPL is organized into four reportable segments:  Kentucky Regulated, U.K. Regulated (name changed in 2012 from International Regulated), Pennsylvania Regulated and Supply.  There were no changes to reportable segments in 2012 other than the name change noted above.

A comparison of PPL's three regulated segments is shown below:
                     
     
KY Regulated (a)
 
U.K. Regulated (b)
 
PA Regulated (c)
                     
For the year ended December 31, 2012:
                 
 
Operating Revenues (in billions)
 
$2.8
 
$2.3
 
$1.8
 
Net Income Attributable to PPL Shareowners (in millions)
 
$177
 
$803
 
$132
 
Electric energy delivered (GWh)
 
30,908 
 
77,467 
 
36,023 
At December 31, 2012:
               
 
Regulatory Asset Base (in billions) (d)
 
$6.7
 
$8.6
 
$3.5
 
Service area (in square miles)
 
9,400 
 
21,400 
 
10,000 
 
End-users (in millions)
 
1.3 
 
7.8 
 
1.4 

(a)
Business activities include the generation, transmission, distribution and sale of electricity and the distribution and sale of natural gas.
(b)
Business activities include the distribution of electricity.
(c)
Business activities include the transmission and distribution of electricity.
(d)
Represents RAV for U.K. Regulated, capitalization for KY Regulated and rate base for PA Regulated.
 
 
5

 

(PPL Energy Supply)

PPL Energy Supply has operated in a single reportable segment since 2011.  Prior to 2011, PPL Energy Supply's segments consisted of Supply and U.K. Regulated (formerly International Regulated).  In January 2011, PPL Energy Supply distributed its 100% membership interest in PPL Global to its parent, PPL Energy Funding, to better align PPL's organizational structure with the manner in which it manages its businesses and reports segment information in its consolidated financial statements.  The distribution separated the U.S.-based competitive energy marketing and supply business from the U.K.-based regulated electricity distribution business.  The 2010 operating results of PPL Global, which represented the U.K. Regulated segment, are classified as discontinued operations for PPL Energy Supply.

(PPL Electric, LKE, LG&E and KU)

PPL Electric, LKE, LG&E and KU each operate within a single reportable segment.

(PPL)

See Note 2 to the Financial Statements for financial information about the segments.

·
Kentucky Regulated Segment (PPL)
   
 
Consists of the operations of LKE, which owns and operates regulated public utilities engaged in the generation, transmission, distribution and sale of electricity and the distribution and sale of natural gas, representing primarily the activities of LG&E and KU.  The Kentucky Regulated segment also includes interest expense related to the 2010 Equity Units that were issued to partially finance the acquisition of LKE.

(PPL, LKE, LG&E and KU)

LKE became a wholly owned subsidiary of PPL on November 1, 2010.  LG&E and KU are engaged in the regulated generation, transmission, distribution and sale of electricity in Kentucky and, in KU's case, Virginia and Tennessee.  LG&E also engages in the distribution and sale of natural gas in Kentucky.  LG&E provides electric service to approximately 393,000 customers in Louisville and adjacent areas in Kentucky, covering approximately 700 square miles in 9 counties.  LG&E provides natural gas service to approximately 318,000 customers in its electric service area and 7 additional counties in Kentucky.  KU provides electric service to approximately 510,000 customers in 77 counties in central, southeastern and western Kentucky; approximately 29,000 customers in 5 counties in southwestern Virginia; and fewer than 10 customers in Tennessee, covering approximately 4,800 non-contiguous square miles.  KU also sells wholesale electricity to 12 municipalities in Kentucky under load following contracts.  In Virginia, KU operates under the name Old Dominion Power Company.

 
Acquisition by PPL

In September 2010, the KPSC approved a settlement agreement among PPL and all of the intervening parties to PPL's joint application to the KPSC for approval of its acquisition of ownership and control of LKE.  In the settlement agreement, the parties agreed that LG&E and KU would commit that no base rate increases would take effect before January 1, 2013.  Under the terms of the settlement, LG&E and KU retained the right to seek approval for the deferral of "extraordinary and uncontrollable costs."  Interim rate adjustments continued to be permissible during that period through existing fuel, environmental and demand side management recovery mechanisms.  In October 2010, both the VSCC and the TRA approved the transfer of control of LKE to PPL.  The orders and the settlement agreement approved by the KPSC contained certain other commitments by LG&E and KU with regard to operations, workforce, community involvement and other matters.

Also in October 2010, the FERC approved the application for the transfer of control of the utilities.  The approval included various conditional commitments, such as a continuation of certain existing undertakings with intervenors in prior cases, an agreement not to terminate certain KU municipal customer contracts prior to January 2017, an exclusion of any transaction-related costs from wholesale energy and tariff customer rates to the extent that LG&E and KU have agreed not to seek recovery of the same transaction-related costs from retail customers and agreements to coordinate with intervenors in certain pending matters.

See Note 10 to the Financial Statements for additional information on regulatory matters related to the acquisition.

 
6

 
 
 
Franchises and Licenses

LG&E and KU provide electricity delivery service, and LG&E provides natural gas distribution service, in their respective service territories pursuant to certain franchises, licenses, statutory service areas, easements and other rights or permissions granted by state legislatures, cities or municipalities or other entities. 

 
Competition

There are currently no other electric public utilities operating within the electric service areas of LKE.  From time to time, bills are introduced into the Kentucky General Assembly which seek to authorize, promote or mandate increased distributed generation, customer choice or other developments.  Neither the Kentucky General Assembly nor the KPSC has adopted or approved a plan or timetable for retail electric industry competition in Kentucky.  The nature or timing of any legislative or regulatory actions regarding industry restructuring and their impact on LKE, which may be significant, cannot currently be predicted.  Virginia, formerly a deregulated jurisdiction, has enacted legislation that implemented a hybrid model of cost-based regulation.  KU's operations in Virginia have been and remain regulated.

Alternative energy sources such as electricity, oil, propane and other fuels provide indirect competition for natural gas revenues of LKE.  Marketers may also compete to sell natural gas to certain large end-users.  LG&E's natural gas tariffs include gas price pass-through mechanisms relating to its sale of natural gas as a commodity; therefore, customer natural gas purchases from alternative suppliers do not generally impact profitability.  However, some large industrial and commercial customers may physically bypass LG&E's facilities and seek delivery service directly from interstate pipelines or other natural gas distribution systems.

 
Operating Revenues

Details of operating revenues by customer class are shown below.
                                                   
   
Successor
   
Predecessor
   
Year Ended
 
Year Ended
 
Two Months Ended
   
Ten Months Ended
   
December 31, 2012
 
December 31, 2011
 
December 31, 2010
   
October 31, 2010
         
% of
       
% of
       
% of
         
% of
   
Revenue
 
Revenue
 
Revenue
 
Revenue
 
Revenue
 
Revenue
   
Revenue
 
Revenue
LKE (a)
                                                 
Commercial
 
$
 723 
   
 26 
 
$
 719 
   
 26 
 
$
 123 
   
 25 
   
$
 573 
   
 26 
Industrial
   
 551 
   
 20 
   
 533 
   
 19 
   
 86 
   
 17 
     
 424 
   
 19 
Residential
   
 1,071 
   
 39 
   
 1,087 
   
 39 
   
 219 
   
 44 
     
 886 
   
 40 
Retail - other
   
 270 
   
 10 
   
 269 
   
 9 
   
 43 
   
 9 
     
 212 
   
 10 
Wholesale - municipal
   
 102 
   
 4 
   
 104 
   
 4 
   
 15 
   
 3 
     
 88 
   
 4 
Wholesale - other (b)
   
 42 
   
 1 
   
 81 
   
 3 
   
 8 
   
 2 
     
 31 
   
 1 
Total
 
$
 2,759 
   
 100 
 
$
 2,793 
   
 100 
 
$
 494 
   
 100 
   
$
 2,214 
   
 100 
                                                   
LG&E
                                                 
Commercial
 
$
 374 
   
 28 
 
$
 372 
   
 27 
 
$
 66 
   
 26 
   
$
 287 
   
 27 
Industrial
   
 170 
   
 13 
   
 152 
   
 11 
   
 26 
   
 10 
     
 122 
   
 12 
Residential
   
 548 
   
 41 
   
 561 
   
 41 
   
 113 
   
 44 
     
 446 
   
 42 
Retail - other
   
 131 
   
 10 
   
 130 
   
 10 
   
 22 
   
 9 
     
 98 
   
 9 
Wholesale - other (b) (c)
   
 101 
   
 8 
   
 149 
   
 11 
   
 27 
   
 11 
     
 104 
   
 10 
Total
 
$
 1,324 
   
 100 
 
$
 1,364 
   
 100 
 
$
 254 
   
 100 
   
$
 1,057 
   
 100 
                                                   
KU
                                                 
Commercial
 
$
 349 
   
 23 
 
$
 347 
   
 22 
 
$
 57 
   
 22 
   
$
 286 
   
 23 
Industrial
   
 381 
   
 25 
   
 381 
   
 25 
   
 60 
   
 23 
     
 302 
   
 24 
Residential
   
 523 
   
 34 
   
 526 
   
 34 
   
 106 
   
 40 
     
 440 
   
 35 
Retail - other
   
 139 
   
 9 
   
 139 
   
 9 
   
 21 
   
 8 
     
 114 
   
 9 
Wholesale - municipal
   
 102 
   
 7 
   
 104 
   
 7 
   
 15 
   
 6 
     
 88 
   
 7 
Wholesale - other (b) (c)
   
 30 
   
 2 
   
 51 
   
 3 
   
 4 
   
 1 
     
 18 
   
 2 
Total
 
$
 1,524 
   
 100 
 
$
 1,548 
   
 100 
 
$
 263 
   
 100 
   
$
 1,248 
   
 100 

(a)
The LKE Successor information also represents PPL's Kentucky Regulated segment.
(b)
Includes wholesale and transmission revenues.
(c)
Includes intercompany power sales and transmission revenues, which are eliminated upon consolidation at LKE.

 
7

 
 
 
Power Supply

At December 31, 2012, LKE owned, controlled or had an ownership interest in generating capacity (summer rating) of 8,187 MW, of which 3,354 MW related to LG&E and 4,833 MW related to KU, in Kentucky, Indiana, and Ohio.  See "Item 2. Properties - Kentucky Regulated Segment" for a complete list of LKE's generating facilities.

The system capacity of LKE's owned or controlled generation is based upon a number of factors, including the operating experience and physical condition of the units, and may be revised periodically to reflect changes in circumstances.

During 2012, LKE's Kentucky power plants generated the following amounts of electricity.

 
Thousands of MWh
Fuel Source
LKE
 
LG&E
 
KU
Coal (a)
 32,820 
 
 15,051 
 
 17,769 
Oil / Gas
 1,340 
 
 463 
 
 877 
Hydro
 250 
 
 212 
 
 38 
Total (b)
 34,410 
 
 15,726 
 
 18,684 

(a)
Includes 990 MWh of power generated by and purchased from OVEC for LKE, 685 MWh for LG&E and 305 MWh for KU.
(b)
This generation represents a 4% decrease for LKE, a 4% decrease for LG&E and a 3% decrease for KU from 2011 output.

A significant portion of LG&E's and KU's generated electricity was used to supply its retail and municipal customer base.

LG&E and KU jointly dispatch their generation units with the lowest cost generation used to serve their retail native load.  When LG&E has excess generation capacity after serving its own retail native load and its generation cost is lower than that of KU, KU purchases electricity from LG&E.  When KU has excess generation capacity after serving its own retail native load and its generation cost is lower than that of LG&E, LG&E purchases electricity from KU.

See "Item 2. Properties - Kentucky Regulated Segment" for additional information regarding LG&E's and KU's plans for development of Cane Run Unit 7.  KU retired the remaining 71 MW unit at the Tyrone plant in February 2013.  LG&E and KU also anticipate retiring 563 MW and 163 MW of coal-fired generating capacity by the end of 2015 to meet certain environmental regulations.

 
Fuel Supply

Coal is expected to be the predominant fuel used by LG&E and KU for baseload generation for the foreseeable future.  However, natural gas will play a more significant role starting in 2015 when Cane Run Unit 7 is expected to be placed into operation.  This unit is expected to be used for baseload generation.  Natural gas and oil will continue to be used for intermediate and peaking capacity and flame stabilization in coal-fired boilers.

Fuel inventory is maintained at levels estimated to be necessary to avoid operational disruptions at coal-fired generating units.  Reliability of coal deliveries can be affected from time to time by a number of factors including fluctuations in demand, coal mine production issues and other supplier or transporter operating difficulties.  To enhance the reliability of natural gas supply, LG&E and KU have secured long-term pipeline capacity on the interstate pipeline serving the new combined cycle unit and six simple cycle combustion turbine units.

LG&E and KU have entered into coal supply agreements with various suppliers for coal deliveries through 2017 and normally augment their coal supply agreements with spot market purchases, as needed.

For their existing units, LG&E and KU expect for the foreseeable future to purchase most of their coal from western Kentucky, southern Indiana, southern Illinois and Ohio.  The use of high sulfur coal increased during 2012 due to the installation of scrubbers and the sulfuric acid mist mitigation system at KU's E.W. Brown plant.  In 2013 and beyond, LG&E and KU may purchase certain quantities of ultra-low sulfur content coal from Wyoming for blending at TC2.  Coal is delivered to the generating plants by barge, truck and rail.

 
8

 
 
(PPL, LKE and LG&E)

 
Natural Gas Supply

Five underground natural gas storage fields, with a current working natural gas capacity of approximately 15 Bcf, are used in providing natural gas service to LG&E's firm sales customers.  By using natural gas storage facilities, LG&E avoids the costs typically associated with more expensive pipeline transportation capacity to serve peak winter heating loads.  Natural gas is stored during the summer season for withdrawal during the following winter heating season.  Without this storage capacity, LG&E would be required to purchase additional natural gas and pipeline transportation services during winter months when customer demand increases and the prices for natural gas supply and transportation services are typically at their highest.  Several suppliers under contracts of varying duration provide competitively priced natural gas.  At December 31, 2012, LG&E had a 12 Bcf inventory balance of natural gas stored underground with a carrying value of $42 million.

LG&E has a portfolio of supply arrangements of varying terms with a number of suppliers designed to meet its firm sales obligations.  These natural gas supply arrangements include pricing provisions that are market-responsive.  In tandem with pipeline transportation services, these natural gas supplies provide the reliability and flexibility necessary to serve LG&E's natural gas customers.

LG&E purchases natural gas supply transportation services from two pipelines.  LG&E has contracts with one pipeline that are subject to termination by LG&E between 2015 and 2018.  Total winter capacity under these contracts is 194,900 MMBtu/day and summer capacity is 88,000 MMBtu/day.  LG&E has a contract with another pipeline that expires in October 2014.  Total winter and summer capacity under this contract is 20,000 MMBtu/day during both seasons.

(PPL, LKE, LG&E and KU)

 
Rates and Regulation

LG&E is subject to the jurisdiction of the KPSC and the FERC, and KU is subject to the jurisdiction of the KPSC, the FERC, the VSCC and the TRA.  LG&E and KU operate under a FERC-approved open access transmission tariff.  LG&E and KU contract with the Tennessee Valley Authority to act as their transmission reliability coordinator.  LG&E and KU contracted with Southwest Power Pool, Inc. (SPP), to function as their independent transmission operator, pursuant to FERC requirements under a contract that expired on August 31, 2012.  After receiving FERC approval, LG&E and KU transferred from SPP to TranServ International, Inc. as their independent transmission operator beginning September 1, 2012.

In February 2013, LG&E and KU submitted a compliance filing to the FERC reflecting their participation with other utilities in the Southeastern Regional Transmission Planning relating to certain FERC Order 1000 requirements.  FERC Order 1000, issued in July 2011, establishes certain procedural and substantive requirements relating to participation, cost allocation and non-incumbent developer aspects of regional and inter-regional electric transmission planning activities. 

LG&E's and KU's Kentucky base rates are calculated based on a return on capitalization (common equity, long-term debt and short-term debt) including certain adjustments to exclude non-regulated investments and costs recovered separately through other rate mechanisms.  As such, LG&E and KU earn a return on the net cash invested in regulatory assets and regulatory liabilities.

KU's Virginia base rates are calculated based on a return on rate base (net utility plant plus working capital less deferred taxes and miscellaneous deductions).  All regulatory assets and liabilities, except the levelized fuel factor, are excluded from the return on rate base utilized in the calculation of Virginia base rates; therefore, no return is earned on the related assets.

KU's rates to municipal customers for wholesale requirements are calculated based on annual updates to a rate formula that utilizes a return on rate base (net utility plant plus working capital less deferred taxes and miscellaneous deductions).  All regulatory assets and liabilities are excluded from the return on rate base utilized in the development of municipal rates; therefore, no return is earned on the related assets.

See Note 6 to the Financial Statements for additional information on cost recovery mechanisms.
 
 
9

 
 
2012 Kentucky Rate Case

In June 2012, LG&E and KU filed requests with the KPSC for increases in annual base electric rates of approximately $62 million at LG&E and approximately $82 million at KU and an increase in annual base gas rates of approximately $17 million at LG&E.  In November 2012, LG&E and KU along with all of the parties filed a unanimous settlement agreement.  Among other things, the settlement provided for increases in annual base electric rates of $34 million at LG&E and $51 million at KU and an increase in annual base gas rates of $15 million at LG&E.  The settlement agreement also included revised depreciation rates that result in reduced annual electric depreciation expense of approximately $9 million for LG&E and approximately $10 million for KU.  The settlement agreement included an authorized return on equity at LG&E and KU of 10.25%.  On December 20, 2012, the KPSC issued orders approving the provisions in the settlement agreement.  The new rates became effective on January 1, 2013.  In addition to the increased base rates, the KPSC approved a gas line tracker mechanism for LG&E to provide for recovery of costs associated with LG&E's gas main replacement program, gas service lines and risers.

FERC Wholesale Rates

In May 2012, KU submitted to the FERC the annual adjustments to the formula rate which incorporated certain proposed increases.  These rates became effective as of July 1, 2012.

·
U.K. Regulated Segment (PPL)
   
 
Includes WPD, a regulated electricity distribution business in the U.K.

WPD, through indirect wholly owned subsidiaries, operates four of the 15 regulated distribution networks providing electricity service in the U.K.  With the April 2011 acquisition of WPD Midlands, the number of end-users served has more than doubled totaling 7.8 million across 21,400 square miles in Wales, southwest and central England.  See Note 10 to the Financial Statements for additional information on the acquisition.

Details of revenue by category for the years ended December 31 are shown below.

   
2012 
 
2011 
 
2010 
   
Revenue
 
% of Revenue
 
Revenue
 
% of Revenue
 
Revenue
 
% of Revenue
Utility revenues (a)
 
$
2,289 
   
98 
 
$
1,618 
   
98 
 
$
727 
   
96 
Energy-related businesses
   
47 
   
   
35 
   
   
34 
   
Total
 
$
 2,336 
   
 100 
 
$
 1,653 
   
100 
 
$
 761 
   
 100 

(a)
The above years are not comparable as WPD Midlands was acquired in April 2011.  2011 includes eight months of activity as WPD Midlands' results are recorded on a one-month lag.

WPD's energy-related businesses revenues include ancillary activities that support the distribution business, including telecommunications and real estate.  WPD's telecommunication revenues are from the rental of fiber optic cables primarily attached to WPD's overhead electricity distribution network.  WPD also provides meter services to businesses across the U.K.

 
Franchise and Licenses

WPD is authorized by Ofgem to provide electric distribution services within its concession areas and service territories, subject to certain conditions and obligations.  For instance, WPD is subject to Ofgem regulation of the regulated revenue it can earn and the quality of service it must provide, and WPD can be fined or have its licenses revoked if it does not meet the mandated standard of service.

 
Competition

Although WPD operates in non-exclusive concession areas in the U.K., it currently faces little competition with respect to end-users connected to its network.  WPD's four distribution businesses, WPD (South West), WPD (South Wales), WPD (West Midlands) and WPD (East Midlands), are thus regulated monopolies which operate under regulatory price controls.

 
10

 
 
 
Revenue and Regulation

The operations of WPD (South West), WPD (South Wales), WPD (East Midlands) and WPD (West Midlands) are regulated by Ofgem under the direction of the Gas and Electricity Markets Authority.  The Electricity Act 1989 provides the fundamental legal framework of electricity companies and established licenses that required each of the DNOs to develop, maintain and operate efficient distribution networks.  Ofgem has established a price control mechanism that restricts the amount of revenue that can be earned by regulated business and provides for an increase or reduction in revenues based on incentives or penalties for exceeding or underperforming against pre-established targets.

This regulatory structure is an incentive-based regulatory structure in comparison to the U.S. utility businesses which operate under a cost-based regulatory framework.  Under the UK regulatory structure, electricity distribution revenues are currently set every five years, but extending to eight years in the next price control period beginning in April 2015.  The revenue that DNOs can earn in each of the five years is the sum of:  i) the regulator's view of efficient operating costs, ii) a return on the capital from the RAV plus an annual adjustment for the inflation determined by Retail Price Index (RPI) for the prior calendar year, iii) a return of capital from the RAV (i.e. depreciation), and iv) certain pass-through costs over which the DNO has no control.  Additionally, incentives are provided for a range of activities including exceeding certain reliability and customer service targets.

WPD is currently operating under DPCR5 which was completed in December 2009 and is effective for the period from April 1, 2010 through March 31, 2015.  Ofgem allowed WPD (South West) and WPD (South Wales) an average increase in total revenues, before inflationary adjustments, of 6.9% in each of the five years and WPD Midlands an average increase in total revenues, before inflationary adjustments, of 4.5% in each of the five years.  The revenue increase includes reimbursement for higher operating and capital costs to be incurred driven by additional requirements.  In DPCR5, Ofgem decoupled WPD's allowed revenue from volume delivered over the five-year price control period.  However, in any fiscal period WPD's revenue could be negatively affected if its tariffs and the volume delivered do not fully recover the allowed revenue for a given period.  Under recoveries are recovered in the next regulatory year, however, PPL does not record a receivable for under recoveries in the current period.  Over recoveries are reflected in the current period as a liability and are not included in revenue.

In addition to providing a base regulated revenue allowance, Ofgem has established incentive mechanisms to provide significant opportunities to enhance overall returns by improving network efficiency, reliability and customer service.  Some of the more significant incentive mechanisms under DPCR5 include:

·
Interruptions Incentive Scheme (IIS) - This incentive has two major components: 1)  Customer interruptions and 2) Customer minutes lost and is designed to incentivize the DNOs to invest and operate their networks to manage and reduce both the frequency and duration of power outages experienced by customers.  The target for each DNO is based on a benchmark of data from the last four years of the prior price control period.

Effective April 1, 2012, an additional customer satisfaction incentive mechanism was implemented that includes a customer satisfaction survey, a complaints metric and a measure of stakeholder engagement.  This incentive replaced the customer response telephone performance incentive that was effective April 1, 2010.

·
Line Loss Incentive - This incentive existed in the prior price control review, DPCR4, and was designed to incentivize DNOs to invest in lower loss equipment, to change the way they operate their systems to reduce losses, and to detect theft and unregistered meters.  In November 2012, Ofgem issued a decision not to activate the DPCR5 line loss incentive.  See Note 6 to the Financial Statements for information on Ofgem's review of line loss calculations.

·
Information Quality Incentive (IQI) - The IQI is designed to incentivize the DNOs to provide good quality information when they submit their business plans to Ofgem during the price control process and to execute the plan they submitted.  The IQI eliminates the distinction between capital expenditure and operating expense and instead looks at total expenditure.  Total expenditure is allocated 85% to "slow pot" which is added to RAV and recovered over 20 years through the regulatory depreciation of the RAV and 15% to "fast pot" which is recovered during the current price control review period.  The IQI then provides for incentives or penalties at the end of DPCR5 based on the ratio of actual expenditures to the expenditures submitted to Ofgem that were the basis for the revenues allowed during the five-year price control review period.
 
 
11

 
At the beginning of DPCR5, WPD was awarded $301 million in incentive revenue of which $222 million will be included in revenue throughout the current price control period with the balance recovered over subsequent price control periods.  Since the beginning of DPCR5, WPD earned additional incentive revenue, primarily from IIS of $83 million and $30 million for the regulatory years ended March 31, 2012 and 2011, which will be included in revenue for the 2013-14 and 2012-13 regulatory years.

In October 2010, Ofgem announced a new pricing model that will be effective for the U.K. electricity distribution sector, including WPD, beginning April 2015.  The model, known as RIIO (Revenues = Incentives + Innovation + Outputs), is intended to encourage investment in regulated infrastructure.  The next electricity distribution price control review is referred to as RIIO-ED1.  In September 2012, Ofgem published a strategy consultation document providing an overview of its approach for RIIO-ED1 and is expected to publish a policy decision document in February 2013.  Key components of the RIIO-ED1 are: an extension of the price review period to eight years, increased emphasis on outputs and incentives, enhanced stakeholder engagement including network customers, a stronger incentive framework to encourage more efficient investment and innovation, expansion of the current Low Carbon Network Fund to stimulate innovation and continued use of a single weighted average cost of capital.  Ofgem has also indicated that the depreciation of the RAV for RAV additions after April 1, 2015 will change from 20 years to 45 years.  Management is in the process of creating the "well-justified business plans" required by Ofgem for WPD's four DNOs.  These plans are expected to be submitted to Ofgem in July 2013 as part of the RIIO-ED1 review process.  Once the business plans are complete, management will be in a better position to determine the effect of RIIO-ED1 on future financial results.  See "Item 1A. Risk Factors - Risks Related to U.K. Regulated Segment."

 
Customers

The majority of WPD's revenue is known as DUoS and is derived from charging energy suppliers for the delivery of electricity to end-users and thus its customers are the suppliers to those end-users.  Ofgem requires that all licensed electricity distributors and suppliers become parties to the Distribution Connection and Use of System Agreement.  This agreement sets out how creditworthiness will be determined and, as a result, whether the supplier needs to provide collateral.

·
Pennsylvania Regulated Segment (PPL)
   
 
Includes the regulated electric delivery operations of PPL Electric.

(PPL and PPL Electric)

PPL Electric is subject to regulation as a public utility by the PUC, and certain of its transmission activities are subject to the jurisdiction of the FERC under the Federal Power Act.  PPL Electric delivers electricity to approximately 1.4 million customers in a 10,000-square mile territory in 29 counties of eastern and central Pennsylvania.  PPL Electric also provides electricity supply in this territory as a PLR.

Details of electric revenues by customer class for the years ended December 31, are shown below.

   
2012 
 
2011 
 
2010 
   
Revenue
 
% of Revenue
 
Revenue
 
% of Revenue
 
Revenue
 
% of Revenue
                                     
Residential
 
$
 1,108 
   
 63 
 
$
 1,266 
   
 67 
 
$
 1,469 
   
 60 
Industrial
   
 53 
   
 3 
   
 62 
   
 3 
   
 123 
   
 5 
Commercial
   
 366 
   
 21 
   
 431 
   
 23 
   
 588 
   
 24 
Other (a) (b)
   
 236 
   
 13 
   
 133 
   
   
 275 
   
11 
Total
 
$
 1,763 
   
 100 
 
$
 1,892 
   
 100 
 
$
 2,455 
   
 100 

(a)
Includes regulatory over- or under-recovery reconciliation mechanisms, pole attachment revenues, street lighting and net transmission revenues.
(b)
Included in these amounts for 2012, 2011 and 2010 are $3 million, $11 million and $7 million of retail and wholesale electric to affiliate revenue which is eliminated in consolidation for PPL.

 
Franchise, Licenses and Other Regulations

PPL Electric is authorized to provide electric public utility service throughout its service area as a result of grants by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in corporate charters to PPL Electric and companies to which it has succeeded and as a result of certification by the PUC.  PPL Electric is granted the right to enter the streets and highways by the Commonwealth subject to certain conditions.  In general, such conditions have been met by ordinance, resolution, permit, acquiescence or other action by an appropriate local political subdivision or agency of the Commonwealth.

 
12

 
 
 
Competition

Pursuant to authorizations from the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the PUC, PPL Electric operates a regulated distribution monopoly in its service area.  Accordingly, PPL Electric does not face competition in its electric distribution business.

The PPL Electric transmission business, operating under the purview of the FERC-approved PJM Open Access Transmission Tariff, is subject to competition from entities that are not incumbent PJM transmission owners with respect to building and ownership of transmission facilities within PJM.  No authority has yet been promulgated that sets forth the parameters of non-incumbent competition.

 
Rates and Regulation

Transmission and Distribution

PPL Electric's transmission facilities are within PJM, which operates the electric transmission network and electric energy market in the Mid-Atlantic and Midwest regions of the U.S.

PJM serves as a FERC-approved RTO to promote greater participation and competition in the region it serves.  In addition to operating the electric transmission network, PJM also administers regional markets for energy, capacity and ancillary services.  A primary objective of any RTO is to separate the operation of, and access to, the transmission grid from market participants that buy or sell electricity in the same markets.  Electric utilities continue to own the transmission assets and to receive their share of transmission revenues, but the RTO directs the control and operation of the transmission facilities.

As a transmission owner, PPL Electric's transmission revenues are billed to PJM in accordance with a FERC tariff that allows recovery of transmission costs incurred, a return on transmission-related plant and an automatic annual update.  As a PLR, PPL Electric also purchases transmission services from PJM.  See "PLR" below.

In April 2010, the FERC issued an order concluding that under the PJM Open Access Transmission Tariff, PJM may, but is not required to, designate an entity other than the incumbent PJM transmission owner to own and construct economic expansion projects and receive cost-of-service based compensation for the use of its facilities.  Additionally, the FERC directed PJM to file tariff changes necessary for non-incumbent transmission owners to be provided opportunity to propose and construct transmission projects in accordance with exclusions specified in the April 2010 order and consistent with state and local laws and regulations.  PJM tariff changes are currently under review by the FERC.

PPL Electric's distribution base rates are calculated based on a return on rate base (net utility plant plus a cash working capital allowance less plant-related deferred taxes and other miscellaneous additions and deductions such as materials and supplies inventories and customer deposits and advances) plus certain operating expenses.  Operating expenses included in PPL Electric's distribution base rates include wages and benefits, other operation and maintenance expenses, depreciation, and taxes.

In November 2004, Pennsylvania enacted the AEPS, which requires electricity distribution companies and electricity generation suppliers to obtain a portion of the electricity sold to retail customers in Pennsylvania from alternative energy sources.  Under the default service procurement plans approved by the PUC, PPL Electric purchases all of the alternative energy generation supply it needs to comply with the AEPS.

Act 129 creates an energy efficiency and conservation program, a demand side management program, smart metering technology requirements, new PLR generation supply procurement rules, remedies for market misconduct, and changes to the existing AEPS.

Act 11 authorizes the PUC to approve two specific ratemaking mechanisms - the use of a fully projected future test year in base rate proceedings and, subject to certain conditions, a DSIC.  In August 2012, the PUC issued a final implementation order adopting procedures, guidelines and a model tariff for implementation of Act 11.  Act 11 requires utilities to file an LTIIP as a prerequisite to filing for recovery through the DSIC.  The LTIIP is mandated to be a five- to ten-year plan describing projects eligible for inclusion in the DSIC.  PPL Electric filed its LTIIP in September 2012 and the PUC subsequently approved the LTIIP on January 10, 2013.  PPL Electric filed a petition requesting permission to establish a DSIC on January 15, 2013 with rates proposed to be effective beginning May 1, 2013.

See "Regulatory Matters - Pennsylvania Activities" in Note 6 to the Financial Statements for additional information regarding Act 129, Act 11 and other legislative and regulatory impacts.

 
13

 

PLR

The Customer Choice Act requires Electric Distribution Companies (EDCs), including PPL Electric, to act as a PLR of electricity supply for customers who do not choose to shop for supply with a competitive supplier and provides that electricity supply costs will be recovered by the PLR pursuant to regulations established by the PUC.  As of December 31, 2012, the following percentages of PPL Electric's customer load were provided by competitive suppliers:  46% of residential, 84% of small commercial and industrial and 99% of large commercial and industrial customers.  The PUC continues to be interested in expanding the competitive market for electricity.  See "Regulatory Matters - Pennsylvania Activities" in Note 6 to the Financial Statements for additional information.

PPL Electric's cost of electricity generation is based on a competitive solicitation process.  The PUC approved PPL Electric's default service plan for the period January 2011 through May 2013, which includes 14 solicitations for electricity supply beginning January 1, 2011 with a portion extending beyond May 2013.  Pursuant to this plan, PPL Electric contracts for all of the electricity supply for residential, small commercial and small industrial customers, large commercial and large industrial customers who elect to take that service from PPL Electric.  These solicitations include a mix of spot market purchases and long-term and short-term purchases ranging from five months to ten years to fulfill PPL Electric's obligation to provide customer electricity supply as a PLR.  To date, PPL Electric has concluded all of its planned competitive solicitations under the plan.

The PUC has directed all EDCs to file default service procurement plans for the period June 1, 2013 through May 31, 2015.  PPL Electric filed its plan in May 2012.  In that plan, PPL Electric proposed a process to obtain supply for its default service customers and a number of initiatives designed to encourage more customers to purchase electricity supply from the competitive retail market.  In its January 24, 2013 final order, the PUC approved PPL Electric's plan with modifications and directed PPL Electric to establish collaborative processes to address several retail competition issues.

Numerous alternative suppliers have offered to provide generation supply in PPL Electric's service territory.  Whether its customers purchase electricity supply from these alternative suppliers or from PPL Electric as a PLR, the purchase of such supply has no impact on the financial results of PPL Electric.  The costs to purchase PLR supply, including charges paid to PJM for related transmission services, are passed directly by PPL Electric to its PLR customers without markup.  See "Energy Purchase Commitments" in Note 15 to the Financial Statements for additional information regarding PPL Electric's solicitations.

Rate Cases

2012 Rate Case

In March 2012, PPL Electric filed a request with the PUC to increase distribution rates by approximately $105 million, effective January 1, 2013.  On December 28, 2012, in its final order, the PUC approved a 10.4% return on equity and a total distribution revenue increase of about $71 million.  The approved rates became effective January 1, 2013.

Also in its December 28, 2012 final order, the PUC directed PPL Electric to file a proposed Storm Damage Expense Rider within 90 days following the order.  PPL Electric plans to file a proposed Storm Damage Expense Rider with the PUC and, as part of that filing, request recovery of the $28 million of qualifying storm costs incurred as a result of the October 2012 landfall of Hurricane Sandy.

See "Regulatory Matters - Pennsylvania Activities - Storm Costs" in Note 6 to the Financial Statements for additional information on Hurricane Sandy.

FERC Formula Rates

Transmission rates are regulated by the FERC.  PPL Electric's transmission revenues are billed in accordance with a FERC-approved PJM open access transmission tariff that utilizes a formula-based rate recovery mechanism.
 
PPL Electric has initiated its formula rate 2012, 2011 and 2010 Annual Updates.  Each update has been subsequently challenged by a group of municipal customers.  In August 2011, the FERC issued an order substantially rejecting the 2010 formal challenge and the municipal customers filed a request for rehearing of that order.  In September 2012, the FERC issued an order setting for evidentiary hearings and settlement judge procedures a number of issues raised in the 2010 and 2011 formal challenges.  Settlement conferences were held in late 2012 and early 2013.  In February 2013, the FERC set for evidentiary hearings and settlement judge procedures a number of issues in the 2012 formal challenge and consolidated that
 
14

 
challenge with the 2010 and 2011 challenges.  PPL Electric anticipates that there will be additional settlement conferences held in 2013.  PPL and PPL Electric cannot predict the outcome of the foregoing proceedings, which remain pending before the FERC.

In March 2012, PPL Electric filed a request with the FERC seeking recovery of its regulatory asset related to the deferred state tax liability that existed at the time of the transition from the flow-through treatment of state income taxes to full normalization.  This change in tax treatment occurred in 2008 as a result of prior FERC initiatives that transferred regulatory jurisdiction of certain transmission assets from the PUC to FERC.  At December 31, 2012 and December 31, 2011, $52 million and $53 million are classified as taxes recoverable through future rates and included on the Balance Sheets in "Other Noncurrent Assets - Regulatory assets." In May 2012, the FERC issued an order approving PPL Electric's request to recover the deferred tax regulatory asset over a 34-year period beginning June 1, 2012.

See Note 6 to the Financial Statements for additional information on rate mechanisms.

(PPL and PPL Energy Supply)

·
Supply Segment
   
 
Owns and operates competitive domestic power plants to generate electricity; markets and trades this electricity, purchased power, and other energy-related products to competitive wholesale and retail markets; and acquires and develops competitive domestic generation projects.  Consists primarily of the activities of PPL Generation and PPL EnergyPlus.

PPL Energy Supply has generation assets that are located in the northeastern and northwestern U.S. markets.  The northeastern generating capacity is located primarily in Pennsylvania within PJM and northwestern generating capacity is located in Montana.  PPL Energy Supply enters into energy and energy-related contracts to hedge the variability of expected cash flows associated with its generating units and marketing activities, as well as for trading purposes.  PPL EnergyPlus sells the electricity produced by PPL Energy Supply's generation plants based on prevailing market rates.  PPL Energy Supply's total expected generation in 2013 is anticipated to be used to meet its committed contractual sales.  PPL Energy Supply has entered into commitments of varying quantities and terms for 2014 and beyond.

Details of revenue by category for the years ended December 31, are shown below.

     
2012 
 
2011 
 
2010 
     
Revenue
 
% of Revenue
 
Revenue
 
% of Revenue
 
Revenue
 
% of Revenue
Energy
                                   
 
Wholesale (a)
 
$
 4,200 
   
 76 
 
$
 5,240 
   
 82 
 
$
 4,347 
   
 85 
 
Retail
   
 848 
   
 16 
   
 727 
   
 11 
   
 415 
   
 8 
 
Trading
   
 4 
   
 
   
 (2)
   
 
   
 2 
   
 
 
Total energy
   
 5,052 
   
 92 
   
 5,965 
   
 93 
   
 4,764 
   
 93 
Energy-related businesses (b)
   
 448 
   
 8 
   
 464 
   
 7 
   
 364 
   
 7 
Total
 
$
 5,500 
   
 100 
 
$
 6,429 
   
 100 
 
$
 5,128 
   
 100 

(a)
Included in these amounts for 2012, 2011, and 2010 are $78 million, $26 million and $320 million of wholesale electricity sales to an affiliate, PPL Electric, which are eliminated in consolidation for PPL.
(b)
Energy-related businesses primarily support the generation, marketing and trading businesses of PPL Energy Supply.  Their activities include developing renewable energy projects and providing energy-related products and services to commercial and industrial customers through their mechanical contracting and services subsidiaries.  Energy-related businesses for PPL's Supply segment had additional revenues not related to PPL Energy Supply of $13 million, $8 million and $11 million for 2012, 2011 and 2010, which are not included in this table.

 
Power Supply

PPL Energy Supply owned or controlled generating capacity (summer rating) of 10,591 MW at December 31, 2012.  The system capacity of PPL Energy Supply's owned or controlled generation is based upon a number of factors, including the operating experience and physical condition of the units, and may be revised periodically to reflect changes in circumstances.  Generating capacity controlled by PPL Generation and other PPL Energy Supply subsidiaries includes power obtained through PPL EnergyPlus' power purchase agreements.  See "Item 2. Properties - Supply Segment" for a complete listing of PPL Energy Supply's generating capacity.

During 2012, PPL Energy Supply owned or controlled power plants that generated the following amounts of electricity.

 
15

 

     
Thousands of MWhs
Fuel Source
 
Northeastern
 
Northwestern
 
Total
               
Nuclear
 
 15,224 
     
 15,224 
Oil / Gas
 
 9,383 
     
 9,383 
Coal
 
 16,857 
 
 3,232 
 
 20,089 
Hydro
 
 552 
 
 3,443 
 
 3,995 
Renewables (a)
 
 342 
     
 342 
Total
 
 42,358 
 
 6,675 
 
 49,033 

(a)
PPL Energy Supply subsidiaries own or control renewable energy projects located in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Vermont, Connecticut and New Hampshire with a generating capacity (summer rating) of 70 MW.  PPL EnergyPlus sells the energy, capacity and RECs produced by these plants into the wholesale market as well as to commercial, industrial and institutional customers.

PPL Energy Supply's generation subsidiaries are EWGs that sell electricity into wholesale markets.  EWGs are subject to regulation by the FERC, which has authorized these EWGs to sell the electricity generated at market-based prices.  This electricity is sold to PPL EnergyPlus under FERC-jurisdictional power purchase agreements.  PPL Susquehanna is subject to the jurisdiction of the NRC in connection with the operation of the Susquehanna nuclear units.  Certain of PPL Energy Supply's other subsidiaries are subject to the jurisdiction of the NRC in connection with the operation of their fossil plants with respect to certain level and density monitoring devices.  Certain operations of PPL Generation's subsidiaries are also subject to OSHA and comparable state statutes.

See Note 9 to the Financial Statements for information on the 2011 sale of certain non-core generation facilities, the 2010 sale of the Long Island generation business and the 2010 completion of the sale of the Maine hydroelectric generation business.

See "Item 2. Properties - Supply Segment" for additional information regarding PPL Generation's plans for capital projects in Pennsylvania and Montana that are expected to provide 153 MW of additional electric generating capacity by the end of 2013.

 
Fuel Supply

PPL EnergyPlus acts as agent for PPL Generation to procure and optimize its various fuels.

Coal

Pennsylvania

PPL EnergyPlus actively manages PPL Energy Supply's coal requirements by purchasing coal principally from mines located in northern Appalachia.

During 2012, PPL Generation purchased 5.6 million tons of coal required for its wholly owned Pennsylvania plants under short-term and long-term contracts.  The amount of coal in inventory varies from time to time depending on market conditions and plant operations.

PPL Generation, by and through its agent PPL EnergyPlus, has agreements in place that will provide more than 23 million tons of PPL Generation's projected coal needs for the Pennsylvania power plants from 2013 through 2018.

A PPL Generation subsidiary owns a 12.34% interest in the Keystone plant and a 16.25% interest in the Conemaugh plant.  PPL Generation owns a 12.34% interest in Keystone Fuels, LLC and a 16.25% interest in Conemaugh Fuels, LLC.  The Keystone plant contracts with Keystone Fuels, LLC for its coal requirements, which provided 4.3 million tons of coal to the Keystone plant in 2012.  The Conemaugh plant requirements are purchased under contract from Conemaugh Fuels, LLC, which provided 4.1 million tons of coal to the Conemaugh plant in 2012.

All PPL Generation coal plants within Pennsylvania are equipped with scrubbers, which use limestone in their operations.  Acting as agent for PPL Generation, PPL EnergyPlus has entered into contracts with limestone suppliers that will provide for those plants' limestone requirements through 2014.  During 2012, 382,000 tons of limestone were delivered to Brunner Island and Montour under these contracts.  Annual limestone requirements approximate 400,000-500,000 tons.
 
 
16

 

Montana

PPL Montana has a 50% leasehold interest in Colstrip Units 1 and 2, and a 30% leasehold interest in Colstrip Unit 3.  NorthWestern owns a 30% interest in Colstrip Unit 4.  PPL Montana and NorthWestern have a sharing agreement that governs each party's responsibilities and rights relating to the operation of Colstrip Units 3 and 4.  Under the terms of that agreement, each party is responsible for 15% of the total non-coal operating and construction costs of Colstrip Units 3 and 4, regardless of whether a particular cost is specific to Colstrip Unit 3 or 4 and is entitled to take up to 15% of the available generation from Units 3 and 4.  Each party is responsible for its own coal costs.  PPL Montana, along with the other Colstrip owners, is party to contracts to purchase 100% of its coal requirements with defined coal quality characteristics and specifications.  PPL Montana, along with the other Colstrip Units 1 and 2 owner, has a long-term purchase and supply agreement with the current supplier for Units 1 and 2, which provides these units 100% of their coal requirements through December 2014, and at least 85% of such requirements from January 2015 through December 2019.  PPL Montana, along with the other Colstrip Units 3 and 4 owners, has a long-term coal supply contract for Units 3 and 4, which provides these units 100% of their coal requirements through December 2019.

These units were originally built with scrubbers and PPL Montana has entered into a long-term contract to purchase the limestone requirements for these units.  The contract extends through December 2030.

Coal supply contracts are in place to purchase low-sulfur coal with defined quality characteristics and specifications for PPL Montana's Corette plant.  The contracts covered 100% of the plant's coal requirements in 2012 and similar contracts are in place to supply 100% of the expected coal requirements through 2014.

Oil and Natural Gas

Pennsylvania

PPL Generation's Martins Creek Units 3 and 4 burn both oil and natural gas.  During 2012, 100% of the physical gas requirements for the Martins Creek units were purchased on the spot market while oil requirements were supplied from inventory.  At December 31, 2012, there were no long-term agreements for oil or natural gas for these units.

Short-term and long-term gas transportation contracts are in place for approximately 38% of the maximum daily requirements of the Lower Mt. Bethel facility.  During 2012, 100% of the physical gas requirements were purchased on the spot market.

In 2008, PPL EnergyPlus acquired the rights to an existing long-term tolling agreement associated with the capacity and energy of the Ironwood Facility.  In April 2012, an indirect, wholly owned subsidiary of PPL Energy Supply completed the acquisition of the equity interests in the owner and operator of the Ironwood Facility.  See Note 10 to the Financial Statements for additional information.  Beginning in 2010, PPL EnergyPlus has long-term transportation contracts that can deliver up to approximately 25% of Ironwood's maximum daily gas requirements.  Daily gas requirements can also be met through a combination of short-term transportation capacity release transactions coupled with upstream supply.  PPL EnergyPlus currently has no long-term physical gas contracts.  During 2012, 100% of the physical gas requirements were purchased on the spot market.

Nuclear

The nuclear fuel cycle consists of several material and service components:  the mining and milling of uranium ore to produce uranium concentrates; the conversion of these concentrates into uranium hexafluoride, a gas component; the enrichment of the hexafluoride gas; the fabrication of fuel assemblies for insertion and use in the reactor core; and the temporary storage and final disposal of spent nuclear fuel.

PPL Susquehanna has a portfolio of supply contracts, with varying expiration dates, for nuclear fuel materials and services.  These contracts are expected to provide sufficient fuel to permit Unit 1 to operate into the first quarter of 2016 and Unit 2 to operate into the first quarter of 2017.  PPL Susquehanna anticipates entering into additional contracts to ensure continued operation of the nuclear units.
 
 
17

 

Federal law requires the U.S. government to provide for the permanent disposal of commercial spent nuclear fuel, but there is no definitive date by which a repository will be operational.  As a result, it was necessary to expand Susquehanna's on-site spent fuel storage capacity.  To support this expansion, PPL Susquehanna contracted for the design and construction of a spent fuel storage facility employing dry cask fuel storage technology.  The facility is modular, so that additional storage capacity can be added as needed.  The facility began receiving spent nuclear fuel in 1999.  PPL Susquehanna estimates, under current operating conditions, that there is sufficient storage capacity in the spent nuclear fuel pools and the on-site spent fuel storage facility at Susquehanna to accommodate spent fuel discharged through approximately 2017.  If necessary, the on-site spent fuel storage facility can be expanded, assuming appropriate regulatory approvals are obtained, such that, together, the spent fuel pools and the expanded dry fuel storage facility will accommodate all of the spent fuel expected to be discharged through the current licensed life of the plant.

In 1996, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit ruled that the Nuclear Waste Policy Act imposed on the DOE an unconditional obligation to begin accepting spent nuclear fuel on or before January 31, 1998.  In January 2004, PPL Susquehanna filed suit in the U.S. Court of Federal Claims for unspecified damages suffered as a result of the DOE's breach of its contract to accept and dispose of spent nuclear fuel.  In May 2011, the parties entered into a settlement agreement which resolved all claims of PPL Susquehanna through December 2013.  PPL Susquehanna has received payments for claims through 2011.  PPL Susquehanna is eligible to receive payment of annual claims for allowed costs, as set forth in the settlement agreement, that are incurred through December 31, 2013.  In exchange, PPL Susquehanna has waived any claims against the United States government for costs paid or injuries sustained related to storing spent nuclear fuel at the Susquehanna plant through December 31, 2013.

 
Energy Marketing

PPL EnergyPlus sells the capacity and electricity produced by PPL Generation subsidiaries, along with purchased power, FTRs, natural gas, oil, uranium, emission allowances and RECs in competitive wholesale and competitive retail markets.

Purchases and sales at the wholesale level are made at competitive prices under FERC market-based prices.  PPL EnergyPlus is licensed to provide retail electric supply to customers in Delaware, the District of Columbia, Maryland, New Jersey, Montana and Pennsylvania and licensed to provide retail natural gas supply to customers in Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, New York and Pennsylvania.  Within the constraints of its hedging policy, PPL EnergyPlus actively manages its portfolios of energy and energy-related products to optimize their value and to limit exposure to price fluctuations.  See "Commodity Volumetric Activity" in Note 19 to the Financial Statements for the strategies PPL Energy Supply employs to optimize the value of its wholesale and retail energy portfolio.

 
Competition

Since the early 1990s, there has been increased competition in U.S. energy markets because of federal and state competitive market initiatives.  While some states, such as Pennsylvania and Montana, have created a competitive market for electricity generation, other states continue to consider different types of regulatory initiatives concerning competition in the power and gas industry.  Some states that were considering creating competitive markets have slowed their plans or postponed further consideration.  In addition, states that have created competitive markets have, from time to time, considered new market rules and re-regulation measures that could result in more limited opportunities for competitive energy suppliers.  Interest in re-regulation, however, has slowed due to the current environment of declining power prices.  As such, the markets in which PPL Energy Supply participates are highly competitive.

PPL Energy Supply faces competition in wholesale markets for available energy, capacity and ancillary services.  Competition is impacted by electricity and fuel prices, congestion along the power grid, new market entrants, construction by others of generating assets, technological advances in power generation, the actions of environmental and other regulatory authorities and other factors.  PPL Energy Supply primarily competes with other electricity suppliers based on its ability to aggregate generation supply at competitive prices from different sources and to efficiently utilize transportation from third-party pipelines and transmission from electric utilities and ISOs.  Competitors in wholesale power markets include regulated utilities, industrial companies, NUGs, competitive subsidiaries of regulated utilities and other energy marketers.  See "Item 1A. Risk Factors - Risks Related to Supply Segment" and PPL's and PPL Energy Supply's "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Overview" and Note 15 to the Financial Statements for more information concerning the risks faced with respect to competitive energy markets.

 
18

 

 
Franchise and Licenses

See "Energy Marketing" above for a discussion of PPL EnergyPlus' licenses in various states.  PPL EnergyPlus also has an export license from the DOE to sell capacity and/or energy to electric utilities in Canada.

PPL Susquehanna operates Units 1 and 2 pursuant to NRC operating licenses that expire in 2042 for Unit 1 and in 2044 for Unit 2.

In 2008, a PPL Energy Supply subsidiary, PPL Bell Bend, LLC, submitted a COLA to the NRC for a new nuclear generating unit (Bell Bend) to be built adjacent to the Susquehanna plant.  Also in 2008, the COLA was formally docketed and accepted for review by the NRC.  PPL Bell Bend, LLC does not expect to complete the COLA review process with the NRC prior to 2015.  See Note 8 to Financial Statements for additional information.

PPL Holtwood operates the Holtwood hydroelectric generating plant pursuant to a FERC-granted license that expires in 2030.  In October 2009, the FERC approved the request to expand the Holtwood plant.  See Note 8 to the Financial Statements for additional information.  PPL Holtwood operates the Wallenpaupack hydroelectric generating plant pursuant to a FERC-granted license that expires in 2044.

PPL's 11 hydroelectric facilities and one storage reservoir in Montana are licensed by the FERC.  The Thompson Falls and Kerr licenses expire in 2025 and 2035, the licenses for the nine Missouri-Madison facilities expire in 2040, and the license for the Mystic facility expires in 2050.

In connection with the relicensing of these generating facilities, applicable law permits the FERC to relicense the original licensee or license a new licensee or allow the U.S. government to take over the facility.  If the original licensee is not relicensed, it is compensated for its net investment in the facility, not to exceed the fair value of the property taken, plus reasonable damages to other property affected by the lack of relicensing.  See Note 15 to the Financial Statements for additional information on the Kerr Dam license.

·
Other Corporate Functions (PPL)

PPL Services provides corporate functions such as financial, legal, human resources and information technology services.  Most of PPL Services' costs are charged directly to the respective PPL subsidiaries for the services provided or are indirectly charged to applicable subsidiaries based on an average of the subsidiaries' relative invested capital, operation and maintenance expenses and number of employees.

PPL Capital Funding, PPL's financing subsidiary, provides financing for the operations of PPL and certain subsidiaries, but PPL Capital Funding's costs are not charged to any Registrant other than PPL.  PPL Capital Funding participated significantly in the financing for the acquisitions of LKE and WPD Midlands.  The associated financing costs, as well as the financing costs associated with prior issuances of certain other PPL Capital Funding securities, have been and will continue to be assigned to the appropriate segments for purposes of PPL management's assessment of segment performance.  PPL's recent growth in rate-regulated businesses provides the organization with an enhanced corporate level financing alternative, through PPL Capital Funding, that further enables PPL to support targeted credit profiles cost effectively across all of PPL's rated companies.  As a result, PPL plans to further utilize PPL Capital Funding in addition to continued direct financing by the operating companies, as appropriate.  Beginning in 2013, the proceeds and the financing costs associated primarily with PPL Capital Funding's future securities issuances are not expected to be directly assignable or allocable to any segment.

Also, the costs of certain other miscellaneous corporate level activities are not charged to any subsidiaries or allocated or assigned to any segment for purposes of assessing performance by PPL management.

(PPL, PPL Energy Supply, PPL Electric, LKE, LG&E and KU)

SEASONALITY

The demand for and market prices of electricity and natural gas are affected by weather.  As a result, the Registrants' operating results in the future may fluctuate substantially on a seasonal basis, especially when more severe weather conditions such as heat waves or extreme winter weather make such fluctuations more pronounced.  The pattern of this fluctuation may change depending on the type and location of the facilities owned and the terms of contracts to purchase or sell electricity.  See "Financial Condition - Liquidity and Capital Resources - Environmental Matters" in "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" for additional information regarding climate change.

 
19

 

FINANCIAL CONDITION

See the Registrants' "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" for this information.

CAPITAL EXPENDITURE REQUIREMENTS

See "Financial Condition - Liquidity and Capital Resources - Forecasted Uses of Cash - Capital Expenditures" in the Registrants' "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" for information concerning projected capital expenditure requirements for 2013 through 2017.  See Note 15 to the Financial Statements for additional information concerning the potential impact on capital expenditures from environmental matters.

ENVIRONMENTAL MATTERS

The Registrants are subject to certain existing and developing federal, regional, state and local laws and regulations with respect to air and water quality, land use and other environmental matters.  The EPA is in the process of proposing and finalizing an unprecedented number of environmental regulations that will directly affect the electricity industry.  These initiatives cover air, water and waste.  See "Financial Condition - Liquidity and Capital Resources - Forecasted Uses of Cash - Capital Expenditures" in the Registrants' "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" for information concerning environmental capital expenditures during 2012 and projected environmental capital expenditures for the years 2013-2017.  Also, see "Environmental Matters" in Note 15 to the Financial Statements for additional information.  To comply with primarily air-related environmental requirements, PPL's forecast for capital expenditures reflects a best estimate projection of expenditures that may be required within the next five years.  Such projections are $1.1 billion for LG&E, $1.2 billion for KU and $246 million for PPL Energy Supply.  Actual costs (including capital, allowance purchases and operational modifications) may be significantly lower or higher depending on the final requirements and market conditions.  Environmental compliance costs incurred by LG&E and KU are subject to recovery through a rate recovery mechanism.  See Note 6 to the Financial Statements for additional information.

The Registrants are unable to predict the ultimate effect of evolving environmental laws and regulations upon their existing and proposed facilities and operations and competitive positions.  In complying with statutes, regulations and actions by regulatory bodies involving environmental matters, including, among other things, air and water quality, GHG emissions, hazardous and solid waste management and disposal, and regulation of toxic substances, PPL's and LKE's subsidiaries may be required to modify, replace or cease operating certain of their facilities.  PPL's and LKE's subsidiaries may also incur significant capital expenditures and operating expenses in amounts which are not now determinable but could be significant.

EMPLOYEE RELATIONS

At December 31, 2012, PPL and its subsidiaries had the following full-time employees.

PPL Energy Supply (a)
 
 4,733 
PPL Electric
 
 2,311 
LKE
   
 
KU
 
 931 
 
LG&E
 
 991 
 
LKS
 
 1,380 
 
Total LKE
 
 3,302 
PPL Global (primarily WPD)
 
6,116 
PPL Services and other
 
1,267 
Total PPL
 
 17,729 

(a)
Includes labor union employees of mechanical contracting subsidiaries, whose numbers tend to fluctuate due to the nature of this business.

Approximately 5,600 employees, or 48%, of PPL's domestic workforce are members of labor unions, with four IBEW labor unions representing approximately 4,300 employees.  The bargaining agreement with the largest IBEW labor union, which expires in May 2014, covers approximately 1,500 PPL Electric, 1,600 PPL Energy Supply and 400 other employees.  Approximately 700 employees of LG&E and 70 employees of KU are represented by an IBEW labor union.  Both LG&E and KU have three-year labor agreements with the IBEW, which expire in November 2014 and August 2015.  The KU IBEW agreement includes a wage reopener in 2014.  Approximately 70 employees of KU are represented by a United Steelworkers of America (USWA) labor union, under an agreement that expires in August 2014.  PPL Montana's largest bargaining unit, an IBEW labor union, represents approximately 260 employees at the Colstrip plant.  The four-year labor agreement expires in April 2016.  PPL Montana's second largest bargaining unit, also an IBEW labor union, represents approximately 80 employees at hydroelectric facilities and the Corette plant, under an agreement that expires in April 2013.

 
20

 

Approximately 3,900, or 64%, of PPL's U.K. workforce are members of labor unions.  WPD recognizes four unions, the largest of which represents 41% of its union workforce.  WPD's Electricity Business Agreement, which covers approximately 3,850 union employees, may be amended by agreement between WPD and the unions and is terminable with 12 months' notice by either side.

AVAILABLE INFORMATION

PPL's Internet website is www.pplweb.com.  On the Investor Center page of that website, PPL provides access to all SEC filings of the Registrants (including annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to these reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(d) or 15(d)) free of charge, as soon as reasonably practicable after filing with the SEC.  Additionally, the Registrants' filings are available at the SEC's website (www.sec.gov) and at the SEC's Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, NE, Washington, DC 20549, or by calling 1-800-SEC-0330.

 
21

 

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS

The Registrants face various risks associated with their businesses.  Our businesses, financial condition, cash flows or results of operations could be materially adversely affected by any of these risks.  In addition, this report also contains forward-looking and other statements about our businesses that are subject to numerous risks and uncertainties.  See "Forward-Looking Information," "Item 1. Business," "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and Note 15 to the Financial Statements for more information concerning the risks described below and for other risks, uncertainties and factors that could impact our businesses and financial results.

As used in this Item 1A., the terms "we," "our" and "us" generally refer to PPL and its consolidated subsidiaries taken as a whole, or to PPL Energy Supply and its consolidated subsidiaries taken as a whole within the Supply segment discussions, or PPL Electric and its consolidated subsidiaries taken as a whole within the Pennsylvania Regulated segment discussion, or LKE and its consolidated subsidiaries taken as a whole within the Kentucky Regulated segment discussion.

Risks Related to All Segments

(PPL, PPL Energy Supply, PPL Electric, LKE, LG&E and KU)

We plan to selectively pursue growth of generation, transmission and distribution capacity, which involves a number of uncertainties and may not achieve the desired financial results.

We plan to pursue expansion of our generation, transmission and distribution capacity over the next several years through power uprates at certain of our existing power plants, the potential construction of new power plants, the potential acquisition of existing plants, the potential construction or acquisition of transmission and distribution projects and capital investments to upgrade transmission and distribution infrastructure.  We will rigorously scrutinize opportunities to expand our generating capability and may determine not to proceed with any expansion.  These types of projects involve numerous risks.  Any planned power uprates could result in cost overruns, reduced plant efficiency and higher operating and other costs.  With respect to the construction of new plants, the acquisition of existing plants, or the construction or acquisition of transmission and distribution projects, we may be required to expend significant sums for preliminary engineering, permitting, resource exploration, legal and other expenses before it can be established whether a project is feasible, economically attractive or capable of being financed.  Expansion in our regulated businesses is dependent on future load or service requirements and subject to applicable regulatory processes.  The success of both a new or acquired project would likely be contingent, among other things, upon the negotiation of satisfactory operating contracts, obtaining acceptable financing and maintaining acceptable credit ratings, as well as receipt of required and appropriate governmental approvals.  If we were unable to complete construction or expansion of a project, we may not be able to recover our investment in the project.  Furthermore, we might be unable to operate any new or acquired plants as efficiently as projected, which could result in higher than projected operating and other costs and reduced earnings.

Adverse conditions in the economic and financial markets in which we operate could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

Adverse conditions in the financial markets during 2008 and the associated contraction of liquidity in the wholesale energy markets contributed significantly to declines in wholesale energy prices, and has significantly impacted our earnings since the second half of 2008.  The breadth and depth of these negative economic conditions had a wide-ranging impact on the U.S. and U.K. business environment, including our businesses.  As a result of the economic downturn, demand for energy commodities declined significantly.  This reduced demand continues to impact the key domestic wholesale energy markets we serve (such as PJM) and our Pennsylvania and Kentucky utility businesses.  The combination of lower demand for power and increased supply of natural gas has put downward price pressure on wholesale energy markets in general, further impacting our energy marketing results.  In general, current economic and commodity market conditions will continue to challenge predictability regarding our unhedged future energy margins, liquidity and overall financial condition.

Our businesses are heavily dependent on credit and capital, among other things, for capital expenditures and providing collateral to support hedging in our energy marketing business.  Global bank credit capacity declined and the cost of renewing or establishing new credit facilities increased significantly in 2008, primarily as a result of general credit concerns nationwide, introducing uncertainties as to our businesses' ability to enter into long-term energy commitments or reliably estimate the longer-term cost and availability of credit.  Although bank credit conditions have improved since mid-2009, and we currently expect to have adequate access to needed credit and capital based on current conditions, deterioration in the financial markets could adversely affect our financial condition and liquidity.  Additionally, regulations to be adopted to implement the Dodd-Frank Act and Basel III in Europe may impose requirements on our businesses and the businesses of others with whom we contract such as banks or other counterparties, or simply result in increased costs to conduct our business or access sources of capital and liquidity upon which the conduct of our businesses is dependent.

 
22

 

Our operating revenues could fluctuate on a seasonal basis, especially as a result of extreme weather conditions.

Our businesses are subject to seasonal demand cycles.  For example, in some markets demand for, and market prices of, electricity peak during hot summer months, while in other markets such peaks occur in cold winter months.  As a result, our overall operating results in the future may fluctuate substantially on a seasonal basis if weather conditions such as heat waves, extreme cold, unseasonably mild weather or severe storms occur.  The patterns of these fluctuations may change depending on the type and location of our facilities and the terms of our contracts to sell electricity.

Operating expenses could be affected by weather conditions, including storms, as well as by significant man-made or accidental disturbances, including terrorism or natural disasters.

Weather and these other factors can significantly affect our profitability or operations by causing outages, damaging infrastructure and requiring significant repair costs.  Storm outages and damage often either or both directly decrease revenues and increase expenses, due to reduced usage and higher restoration charges.  In addition, weather and other disturbances may affect capital markets and general economic conditions and impact future growth.

Our businesses are subject to physical, market and economic risks relating to potential effects of climate change.

Climate change may produce changes in weather or other environmental conditions, including temperature or precipitation levels, and thus may impact consumer demand for electric power.  Temperature increases could result in increased summer or decreased winter overall electricity consumption and precipitation changes could result in altered availability of water for hydro generation or plant cooling operations.  These or other meteorological changes could lead to increased operating costs, capital expenses or power purchase costs.  Greenhouse gas regulation could increase the cost of electric power, particularly power generated by fossil fuels, and such increases could have a depressive effect on regional economies.  Reduced economic and consumer activity in our service areas -- both generally and specific to certain industries and consumers accustomed to previously lower cost power -- could reduce demand for the power we generate, market and deliver.  Also, demand for our energy-related services could be similarly lowered should consumers' preferences or market factors move toward favoring energy efficiency, low-carbon power sources or reduced electric usage.

We cannot predict the outcome of the legal proceedings and investigations currently being conducted with respect to our current and past business activities.  An adverse determination could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.

We are involved in legal proceedings, claims and litigation and subject to ongoing state and federal investigations arising out of our business operations, the most significant of which are summarized in "Legal Matters," "Regulatory Issues" and "Environmental Matters - Domestic" in Note 15 to the Financial Statements.  We cannot predict the ultimate outcome of these matters, nor can we reasonably estimate the costs or liabilities that could potentially result from a negative outcome in each case.

We could be negatively affected by rising interest rates, downgrades to our bond credit ratings or other negative developments in our ability to access capital markets.

In the ordinary course of business, we are reliant upon adequate long-term and short-term financing to fund our significant capital expenditures, debt service and operating needs.  As a capital-intensive business, we are sensitive to developments in interest rate levels; credit rating considerations; insurance, security or collateral requirements; market liquidity and credit availability and refinancing opportunities necessary or advisable to respond to credit market changes.  Changes in these conditions could result in increased costs and decreased liquidity to our regulated utility businesses.

A downgrade in our credit ratings could negatively affect our ability to access capital and increase the cost of maintaining our credit facilities and any new debt.

Credit ratings assigned by Moody's, Fitch and S&P to our businesses and their financial obligations have a significant impact on the cost of capital incurred by our businesses.  Although we do not expect these ratings to limit our ability to fund short-term liquidity needs or access new long-term debt, any ratings downgrade could increase our short-term borrowing costs and negatively affect our ability to fund short-term liquidity needs and access new long-term debt.  See "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Financial Condition - Liquidity and Capital Resources - Ratings Triggers" for additional information on the impact of a downgrade in our credit rating.

Significant increases in our operation and maintenance expenses, including health care and pension costs, could adversely affect our future earnings and liquidity.

 
23

 

We continually focus on limiting and reducing where possible our operation and maintenance expenses.  However, we expect to continue to face increased cost pressures in our operations.  Increased costs of materials and labor may result from general inflation, increased regulatory requirements (especially in respect of environmental regulations), the need for higher-cost expertise in the workforce or other factors.  In addition, pursuant to collective bargaining agreements, we are contractually committed to provide specified levels of health care and pension benefits to certain current employees and retirees.  We provide a similar level of benefits to our management employees.  These benefits give rise to significant expenses.  Due to general inflation with respect to such costs, the aging demographics of our workforce and other factors, we have experienced significant health care cost inflation in recent years, and we expect our health care costs, including prescription drug coverage, to continue to increase despite measures that we have taken and expect to take to require employees and retirees to bear a higher portion of the costs of their health care benefits.  In addition, we expect to continue to incur significant costs with respect to the defined benefit pension plans for our employees and retirees.  The measurement of our expected future health care and pension obligations, costs and liabilities is highly dependent on a variety of assumptions, most of which relate to factors beyond our control.  These assumptions include investment returns, interest rates, health care cost trends, inflation rates, benefit improvements, salary increases and the demographics of plan participants.  If our assumptions prove to be inaccurate, our future costs and cash contribution requirements to fund these benefits could increase significantly.

We may be required to record impairment charges in the future for certain of our investments, which could adversely affect our earnings.

Under GAAP, we are required to test our recorded goodwill for impairment on an annual basis, or more frequently if events or circumstances indicate that these assets may be impaired.  Although no goodwill impairments were recorded based on our annual review in the fourth quarter of 2012, we are unable to predict whether future impairment charges may be necessary.

We also review our long-lived assets, including equity investments, for impairment when events or circumstances indicate that the carrying value of these assets may not be recoverable.  See Notes 1, 9 and 18 to the Financial Statements for additional information on impairment charges taken during the reporting periods.  We are unable to predict whether impairment charges, or other losses on sales of other assets or businesses, may occur in future years.

We may incur liabilities in connection with discontinued operations.

In connection with various divestitures, we have indemnified or guaranteed parties against certain liabilities and with respect to certain transactions.  These indemnities and guarantees relate, among other things, to liabilities which may arise with respect to the period during which we or our subsidiaries operated the divested business, and to certain ongoing contractual relationships and entitlements with respect to which we or our subsidiaries made commitments in connection with the divestiture.

We are subject to liability risks relating to our generation, transmission and distribution businesses.

The conduct of our physical and commercial operations subjects us to many risks, including risks of potential physical injury, property damage or other financial liability, caused to or by employees, customers, contractors, vendors, contractual or financial counterparties and other third parties.

Our facilities may not operate as planned, which may increase our expenses and decrease our revenues and have an adverse effect on our financial performance.

Operation of power plants, transmission and distribution facilities, information technology systems and other assets and activities subjects us to a variety of risks, including the breakdown or failure of equipment, accidents, security breaches, viruses or outages affecting information technology systems, labor disputes, obsolescence, delivery/transportation problems and disruptions of fuel supply and performance below expected levels.  These events may impact our ability to conduct our businesses efficiently and lead to increased costs, expenses or losses.  Operation of our delivery systems below our expectations may result in lost revenue and increased expense, including higher maintenance costs which may not be recoverable from customers.  Planned and unplanned outages at our power plants may require us to purchase power at then-current market prices to satisfy our commitments or, in the alternative, pay penalties and damages for failure to satisfy them.

Although we maintain customary insurance coverage for certain of these risks, no assurance can be given that such insurance coverage will be sufficient to compensate us fully in the event losses occur.
 
 
24

 

The operation of our businesses is subject to cyber-based security and integrity risk.

Numerous functions affecting the efficient operation of our businesses are dependent on the secure and reliable storage, processing and communication of electronic data and the use of sophisticated computer hardware and software systems.  The operation of our generation plants, including the Susquehanna nuclear plant, and of our energy and fuel trading businesses, as well as our transmission and distribution operations are all reliant on cyber-based technologies and, therefore, subject to the risk that such systems could be the target of disruptive actions, principally by terrorists or vandals, or otherwise be compromised by unintentional events.  As a result, operations could be interrupted, property could be damaged and customer information lost or stolen, causing us to incur significant losses of revenues, other substantial liabilities and damages and costs to replace or repair damaged equipment.

We are subject to risks associated with federal and state tax laws and regulations.

Changes in tax law as well as the inherent difficulty in quantifying potential tax effects of business decisions could negatively impact our results of operations.  We are required to make judgments in order to estimate our obligations to taxing authorities.  These tax obligations include income, property, sales and use, employment-related and other taxes.  We also estimate our ability to utilize tax benefits and tax credits.  Due to the revenue needs of the jurisdictions in which our businesses operate, various tax and fee increases may be proposed or considered.  We cannot predict whether such tax legislation or regulation will be introduced or enacted or the effect of any such changes on our businesses.  If enacted, any changes could increase tax expense and could have a significant negative impact on our results of operations and cash flows.

We are subject to the risk that our workforce and its knowledge base may become depleted in coming years.

PPL is experiencing an increase in attrition due primarily to the number of retiring employees.  Over the period from 2014 through 2018, 23.5% of PPL's total workforce is projected to leave the company, with the risk that critical knowledge will be lost and that it may be difficult to replace departed personnel due to a declining trend in the number of available skilled workers and an increase in competition for such workers.

(PPL, PPL Energy Supply and LKE)

Risk Related to Registrant Holding Companies

PPL's, PPL Energy Supply's and LKE's cash flows and ability to meet their obligations with respect to indebtedness and under guarantees, and PPL's ability to pay dividends, largely depends on the financial performance of their subsidiaries and, as a result, is effectively subordinated to all existing and future liabilities of those subsidiaries.
 
PPL, PPL Energy Supply and LKE are holding companies and conduct their operations primarily through subsidiaries.  Substantially all of the consolidated assets of these Registrants are held by such subsidiaries.  Accordingly, their cash flows and ability to meet their debt and guaranty obligations, as well as PPL's ability to pay dividends, are largely dependent upon the earnings of those subsidiaries and the distribution or other payment of such earnings in the form of dividends, distributions, loans or advances or repayment of loans and advances.  The subsidiaries are separate and distinct legal entities and have no obligation to pay any amounts due from their parents or to make any funds available for such a payment.  The ability of the subsidiaries of the Registrants to pay dividends or distributions to such Registrants in the future will depend on the subsidiaries' future earnings and cash flows and the needs of their businesses, and may be restricted by their obligations to holders of their outstanding debt and other creditors, as well as any contractual or legal restrictions in effect at such time, including the requirements of state corporate law applicable to payment of dividends and distributions, and regulatory requirements, including restrictions on the ability of PPL Electric, LG&E and KU to pay dividends under Section 305(a) of the Federal Power Act.
 
Because PPL, PPL Energy Supply and LKE are holding companies, their debt and guaranty obligations are effectively subordinated to all existing and future liabilities of their subsidiaries.  Therefore, PPL's, PPL Energy Supply's and LKE's rights and the rights of their creditors, including rights of any debt holders, to participate in the assets of any of their subsidiaries, in the event that such a subsidiary is liquidated or reorganized, will be subject to the prior claims of such subsidiary's creditors.  Although certain agreements to which certain subsidiaries are parties limit their ability to incur additional indebtedness, PPL, PPL Energy Supply and LKE and their subsidiaries retain the ability to incur substantial additional indebtedness and other liabilities. In addition, if PPL elects to receive distributions of earnings from its foreign operations, PPL may incur U.S. income taxes, net of any available foreign tax credits, on such amounts.
 
 
25

 

(PPL, PPL Electric, LKE, LG&E and KU)

Risks Related to Domestic Regulated Utility Operations

Our domestic regulated utility businesses face many of the same risks, in addition to those risks that are unique to the Kentucky Regulated segment and the Pennsylvania Regulated segment.  Set forth below are risk factors common to both domestic regulated segments, followed by sections identifying separately the risks specific to each of these segments.

Our profitability is highly dependent on our ability to recover the costs of providing energy and utility services to our customers and earn an adequate return on our capital investments.  Regulators may not approve the rates we request.

We currently provide services to our utility customers at rates approved by one or more federal or state regulatory commissions, including those commissions referred to below.  While such regulation is generally premised on the recovery of prudently incurred costs and a reasonable rate of return on invested capital, the rates that we may charge our regulated generation, transmission and distribution customers are subject to authorization of the applicable regulatory authorities.  There can be no assurance that such regulatory authorities will consider all of our costs to have been prudently incurred or that the regulatory process by which rates are determined will always result in rates that achieve full recovery of our costs or an adequate return on our capital investments.  While our rates are generally regulated based on an analysis of our costs incurred in a base year or based on future projected costs, the rates we are allowed to charge may or may not match our costs at any given time.  Our regulated utility businesses are subject to substantial capital expenditure requirements over the next several years, which will likely require rate increase requests to the regulators.  If our costs are not adequately recovered through rates, it could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

Our domestic utility businesses are subject to significant and complex governmental regulation.

Various federal and state entities, including but not limited to the FERC, KPSC, VSCC, TRA and PUC regulate many aspects of the domestic utility operations of PPL, including:

·
the rates that we may charge and the terms and conditions of our service and operations;
·
financial and capital structure matters;
·
siting, construction and operation of facilities;
·
mandatory reliability and safety standards and other standards of conduct;
·
accounting, depreciation and cost allocation methodologies;
·
tax matters;
·
affiliate restrictions;
·
acquisition and disposal of utility assets and securities; and
·
various other matters.

Such regulations or changes thereto may subject us to higher operating costs or increased capital expenditures and failure to comply could result in sanctions or possible penalties.  In any rate-setting proceedings, federal or state agencies, intervenors and other permitted parties may challenge our rate requests, and ultimately reduce, alter or limit the rates we seek.

We could be subject to higher costs and/or penalties related to mandatory reliability standards.

Under the Energy Policy Act of 2005, owners and operators of the bulk power electricity system are now subject to mandatory reliability standards promulgated by the NERC and enforced by the FERC.  Compliance with reliability standards may subject us to higher operating costs and/or increased capital expenditures, and violations of these standards could result in substantial penalties which may not be recoverable from customers.

Changes in transmission and wholesale power market structures could increase costs or reduce revenues.

Wholesale revenues fluctuate with regional demand, fuel prices and contracted capacity.  Changes to transmission and wholesale power market structures and prices may occur in the future, are not predictable and may result in unforeseen effects on energy purchases and sales, transmission and related costs or revenues.  These can include commercial or regulatory changes affecting power pools, exchanges or markets in which PPL participates.

Our domestic regulated businesses undertake significant capital projects and these activities are subject to unforeseen costs, delays or failures, as well as risk of inadequate recovery of resulting costs.

 
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The domestic regulated utility businesses are capital intensive and require significant investments in energy generation (in the case of LG&E and KU) and transmission, distribution and other infrastructure projects, such as projects for environmental compliance and system reliability.  The completion of these projects without delays or cost overruns is subject to risks in many areas, including:

·
approval, licensing and permitting;
·
land acquisition and the availability of suitable land;
·
skilled labor or equipment shortages;
·
construction problems or delays, including disputes with third party intervenors;
·
increases in commodity prices or labor rates;
·
contractor performance;
·
environmental considerations and regulations;
·
weather and geological issues; and
·
political, labor and regulatory developments.

Failure to complete our capital projects on schedule or on budget, or at all, could adversely affect our financial performance, operations and future growth if such expenditures are not granted rate recovery by our regulators.

Risks Specific to Kentucky Regulated Segment

(PPL, LKE, LG&E and KU)

The costs of compliance with, and liabilities under, environmental laws are significant and are subject to continuing changes.

Extensive federal, state and local environmental laws and regulations are applicable to LG&E's and KU's generation business, including its air emissions, water discharges and the management of hazardous and solid waste, among other business-related activities; and the costs of compliance or alleged non-compliance cannot be predicted but could be material.  In addition, our costs may increase significantly if the requirements or scope of environmental laws, regulations or similar rules are expanded or changed.  Costs may take the form of increased capital expenditures or operating and maintenance expenses, monetary fines, penalties or forfeitures or other restrictions.  Many of these environmental law considerations are also applicable to the operations of our key suppliers, or customers, such as coal producers and industrial power users, and may impact the costs of their products and demand for our services.

Ongoing changes in environmental regulations or their implementation requirements and our compliance strategies relating thereto entail a number of uncertainties.
 

The environmental standards governing LG&E's and KU's businesses, particularly as applicable to coal-fired generation and related activities, continue to be subject to uncertainties due to ongoing rulemakings and other regulatory developments, legislative activities and litigation.  The uncertainties associated with these developments introduce risks to our management of operations and regulatory compliance.  Environmental developments, including revisions to applicable standards, changes in compliance deadlines and invalidation of rules on appeal may require major changes in compliance strategies, operations or assets and adjustments to prior plans.  Depending on the extent, frequency and timing of such changes, the companies may be subject to inconsistent requirements under multiple regulatory programs, compressed windows for decision-making and short compliance deadlines that may require aggressive schedules for construction, permitting, and other regulatory approvals.  Under such circumstances, the companies may face higher risks of unsuccessful implementation of environmental-related business plans, noncompliance with applicable environmental rules, or increased costs of implementation.

Risks Specific to Pennsylvania Regulated Segment

(PPL and PPL Electric)

We may be subject to higher transmission costs and other risks as a result of PJM's regional transmission expansion plan (RTEP) process.
 
 
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PJM and the FERC have the authority to require upgrades or expansion of the regional transmission grid, which can result in substantial expenditures for transmission owners.  As discussed in Note 8 to the Financial Statements, we expect to make substantial expenditures to construct the Susquehanna-Roseland transmission line that PJM has determined is necessary for the reliability of the regional transmission grid.  Although the FERC has granted our request for incentive rate treatment of such facilities, we cannot be certain that all costs that we may incur will be recoverable.  In addition, the date when these facilities will be in service, which can be significantly impacted by delays related to public opposition or other factors, is subject to the outcome of future events that are not all within our control.  As a result, we cannot predict the ultimate financial or operational impact of this project or other RTEP projects on PPL Electric.

We could be subject to higher costs and/or penalties related to Pennsylvania Conservation and Energy Efficiency Programs.

PPL Electric is subject to Act 129 which contains requirements for energy efficiency and conservation programs and for the use of smart metering technology, imposes new PLR electricity supply procurement rules, provides remedies for market misconduct, and made changes to the existing AEPS.  The law also requires electric utilities to meet specified goals for reduction in customer electricity usage and peak demand by specified dates (2011 and 2013 for Phase 1 and by 2016 for Phase 2).  Utilities not meeting these requirements of Act 129 are subject to significant penalties that cannot be recovered in rates.  Numerous factors outside of our control could prevent compliance with these requirements and result in penalties to us.

(PPL)

Risks Related to U.K. Regulated Segment

Our U.K. delivery business is subject to risks with respect to rate regulation and operational performance.

Our U.K. delivery business is rate-regulated and operates under an incentive-based regulatory framework.  In addition, its ability to manage operational risk is critical to its financial performance.  Disruption to the distribution network could reduce profitability both directly through the higher costs for network restoration and also through the system of penalties and rewards that Ofgem has in place relating to customer service levels.

In December 2009, Ofgem completed its rate review for the five-year period from April 1, 2010 through March 31, 2015, reducing regulatory rate uncertainty in the U.K. Regulated segment until the next rate review which will be effective April 1, 2015.  The regulated income of the U.K. Regulated segment and also the RAV are to some extent linked to movements in the Retail Price Index (RPI), a measure of inflation.  Reductions in the RPI would adversely impact revenues and the debt-to-RAV ratio.

Our U.K. distribution business exposes us to risks related to U.K. laws and regulations, taxes, economic conditions, foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations, and political conditions and policies of the U.K. government.  These risks may reduce the results of operations from our U.K. distribution business:

·
changes in laws or regulations relating to U.K. operations, including tax laws and regulations;
·
changes in government policies, personnel or approval requirements;
·
changes in general economic conditions affecting the U.K.;
·
regulatory reviews of tariffs for distribution companies;
·
severe weather and natural disaster impacts on the electric sector and our assets;
·
changes in labor relations;
·
limitations on foreign investment or ownership of projects and returns or distributions to foreign investors;
·
limitations on the ability of foreign companies to borrow money from foreign lenders and lack of local capital or loans;
·
fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates and in converting U.K. revenues to U.S. dollars, which can increase our expenses and/or impair our ability to meet such expenses, and difficulty moving funds out of the country in which the funds were earned; and
·
compliance with U.S. foreign corrupt practices laws.
 
The WPD Midlands acquisition may not achieve its intended results, including anticipated cost savings, efficiencies and other benefits.
 
28

 
Although we completed the WPD Midlands acquisition with the expectation that it will result in various benefits, including a significant amount of cost savings and other financial and operational benefits, there can be no assurance regarding the extent to which we will be able to realize these cost-savings or other benefits.  Achieving the anticipated benefits, including cost savings, is subject to a number of uncertainties, including whether the businesses acquired can be operated in the manner we intend.  Events outside of our control, including but not limited to regulatory changes or developments in the U.K., could also adversely affect our ability to realize the anticipated benefits from the WPD Midlands acquisition.
 
The WPD Midlands acquisition exposes us to additional risks and uncertainties with respect to the acquired businesses and their operations.
 
Although the WPD Midlands acquisition increased our relative investment in regulated operations, which we believe should help mitigate our exposure to downturns in the wholesale power markets, it will increase our dependence on rate-of-return regulation.  

The WPD businesses generally are subject to risks similar to those to which we were subject in our pre-acquisition U.K. businesses.  These include:
     
 
·
There are various changes being contemplated by Ofgem to the current electricity distribution, gas transmission and gas distribution regulatory frameworks in the U.K. and there can be no assurance as to the effects such changes will have on our U.K. regulated businesses in the future, including the acquired businesses.  In particular, in October 2010, Ofgem announced a new regulatory framework that is expected to become effective in April 2015 for the electricity distribution sector in the U.K.  The framework, known as RIIO (Revenues = Incentives + Innovation + Outputs), focuses on sustainability, environmental-focused output measures, promotion of low carbon energy networks and financing of new investments.  The new regulatory framework is expected to have a wide-ranging effect on electricity distribution companies operating in the U.K., including changes to price controls and price review periods.  Our U.K. regulated businesses' compliance with this new regulatory framework may result in significant additional capital expenditures, increases in operating and compliance costs and adjustments to our pricing models.
     
 
·
Ofgem has formal powers to propose modifications to each distribution license.  We are not currently aware of any planned modification to any of our U.K. regulated businesses distribution licenses that would result in a material adverse change to the U.K. regulated businesses and PPL.  There can, however, be no assurance that a restrictive modification will not be introduced in the future, which could have an adverse effect on the operations and financial condition of the U.K. regulated businesses and PPL.
     
 
·
A failure to operate our U.K. networks properly could lead to compensation payments or penalties, or a failure to make capital expenditures in line with agreed investment programs could lead to deterioration of the network.  While our U.K. regulated businesses' investment programs are targeted to maintain asset conditions over a five-year period and reduce customer interruptions and customer minutes lost over that period, no assurance can be provided that these regulatory requirements will be met.
     
 
·
A failure by any of our U.K. regulated businesses to comply with the terms of a distribution license may lead to the issuance of an enforcement order by Ofgem that could have an adverse impact on PPL.  Ofgem has powers to levy fines of up to 10 percent of revenue for any breach of a distribution license or, in certain circumstances, such as insolvency, the distribution license itself may be revoked.  Unless terminated in the circumstances mentioned above, a distribution license continues indefinitely until revoked by Ofgem following no less than 25 years' written notice.
     
 
·
We will be subject to increased foreign currency exchange rate risks because a greater portion of our cash flows and reported earnings will be generated by our U.K. business operations.  These risks relate primarily to changes in the relative value of the British pound sterling and the U.S. dollar between the time we initially invest U.S. dollars in our U.K. businesses and the time that cash is repatriated to the U.S. from the U.K., including cash flows from our U.K. businesses that may be distributed as future dividends to our shareholders or repayments of intercompany loans.  In addition, our consolidated reported earnings on a U.S. GAAP basis may be subject to increased earnings translation risk, which is the result of the conversion of earnings as reported in our U.K. businesses on a British pound sterling basis to a U.S. dollar basis in accordance with U.S. GAAP requirements.
     
 
·
Environmental costs and liabilities associated with aspects of the acquired businesses may differ from those of our existing business.
 
 
29

 
Risks Related to Supply Segment

(PPL and PPL Energy Supply)

We face intense competition in our energy supply business, which may adversely affect our ability to operate profitably.

Unlike our regulated utility businesses, our energy supply business is dependent on our ability to operate in a competitive environment and is not assured of any rate of return on capital investments through a predetermined rate structure.  Competition is impacted by electricity and fuel prices, new market entrants, construction by others of generating assets and transmission capacity, technological advances in power generation, the actions of environmental and other regulatory authorities and other factors.  These competitive factors may negatively impact our ability to sell electricity and related products and services, as well as the prices that we may charge for such products and services, which could adversely affect our results of operations and our ability to grow our business.

We sell our available energy and capacity into the competitive wholesale markets through contracts of varying duration.  Competition in the wholesale power markets occurs principally on the basis of the price of products and, to a lesser extent, on the basis of reliability and availability.  We believe that the commencement of commercial operation of new electricity generating facilities in the regional markets where we own or control generation capacity and the evolution of demand side management resources will continue to increase competition in the wholesale electricity market in those regions, which could have an adverse effect on capacity prices and the prices we receive for electricity.

We also face competition in the wholesale markets for electricity capacity and ancillary services.  We primarily compete with other electricity suppliers based on our ability to aggregate supplies at competitive prices from different sources and to efficiently utilize transportation from third-party pipelines and transmission from electric utilities and ISOs.  We also compete against other energy marketers on the basis of relative financial condition and access to credit sources, and our competitors may have greater financial resources than we have.

Competitors in the wholesale power markets in which PPL Generation subsidiaries and PPL EnergyPlus operate include regulated utilities, industrial companies, non-utility generators, competitive subsidiaries of regulated utilities and financial institutions.

Adverse changes in commodity prices and related costs may decrease our future energy margins, which could adversely affect our earnings and cash flows.

Our energy margins, or the amount by which our revenues from the sale of power exceed our costs to supply power, are impacted by changes in market prices for electricity, fuel, fuel transportation, emission allowances, RECs, electricity transmission and related congestion charges and other costs.  Unlike most commodities, the limited ability to store electric power requires that it must be consumed at the time of production.  As a result, wholesale market prices for electricity may fluctuate substantially over relatively short periods of time and can be unpredictable.  Among the factors that influence such prices are:
 
·
demand for electricity;
·
supply and demand for electricity available from current or new generation resources;
·
variable production costs, primarily fuel (and the associated fuel transportation costs) and emission allowance expense for the generation resources used to meet the demand for electricity;
·
transmission capacity and service into, or out of, markets served;
·
changes in the regulatory framework for wholesale power markets;
·
liquidity in the wholesale electricity market, as well as general creditworthiness of key participants in the market; and
·
weather and economic conditions impacting demand for or the price of electricity or the facilities necessary to deliver electricity.
 
We do not always hedge against risks associated with electricity and fuel price volatility.

We attempt to mitigate risks associated with satisfying our contractual electricity sales obligations by either reserving generation capacity to deliver electricity or purchasing the necessary financial or physical products and services through competitive markets to satisfy our net firm sales contracts.  We also routinely enter into contracts, such as fuel and electricity purchase and sale commitments, to hedge our exposure to fuel requirements and other electricity-related commodities.  However, based on economic and other considerations, we may decide not to hedge the entire exposure of our operations from commodity price risk.  To the extent we do not hedge against commodity price risk, our results of operations and financial position may be adversely affected.

 
30

 
We are exposed to operational, price and credit risks associated with selling and marketing products in the wholesale and retail electricity markets.

We purchase and sell electricity in wholesale markets under market-based tariffs authorized by FERC throughout the U.S. and also enter into short-term agreements to market available electricity and capacity from our generation assets with the expectation of profiting from market price fluctuations.  If we are unable to deliver firm capacity and electricity under these agreements, we could be required to pay damages.  These damages would generally be based on the difference between the market price to acquire replacement capacity or electricity and the contract price of any undelivered capacity or electricity.  Depending on price volatility in the wholesale electricity markets, such damages could be significant.  Extreme weather conditions, unplanned generation facility outages, environmental compliance costs, transmission disruptions, and other factors could affect our ability to meet our obligations, or cause significant increases in the market price of replacement capacity and electricity.

Our wholesale power agreements typically include provisions requiring us to post collateral for the benefit of our counterparties if the market price of energy varies from the contract prices in excess of certain pre-determined amounts.  We currently believe that we have sufficient credit to fulfill our potential collateral obligations under these power contracts.  However, our obligation to post collateral could exceed the amount of our facilities or our ability to increase our facilities could be limited by financial markets or other factors.  See Note 7 to the Financial Statements for a discussion of PPL's credit facilities.

We also face credit risk that parties with whom we contract in both the wholesale and retail markets will default in their performance, in which case we may have to sell our electricity into a lower-priced market or make purchases in a higher-priced market than existed at the time of contract.  Whenever feasible, we attempt to mitigate these risks using various means, including agreements that require our counterparties to post collateral for our benefit if the market price of energy varies from the contract price in excess of certain pre-determined amounts.  However, there can be no assurance that we will avoid counterparty nonperformance risk, including bankruptcy, which could adversely impact our ability to meet our obligations to other parties, which could in turn subject us to claims for damages.

The load following contracts that PPL EnergyPlus is awarded do not provide for specific levels of load and actual load significantly below or above our forecasts could adversely affect our energy margins.

We generally hedge our load following obligations with energy purchases from third parties, and to a lesser extent with our own generation.  If the actual load is significantly lower than the expected load, we may be required to resell power at a lower price than was contracted for to supply the load obligation, resulting in a financial loss.  Alternatively, a significant increase in load could adversely affect our energy margins because we are required under the terms of the load following contracts to provide the energy necessary to fulfill increased demand at the contract price, which could be lower than the cost to procure additional energy on the open market.  Therefore, any significant decrease or increase in load compared with our forecasts could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial position.

We may experience disruptions in our fuel supply, which could adversely affect our ability to operate our generation facilities.

We purchase fuel from a number of suppliers.  Disruption in the delivery of fuel and other products consumed during the production of electricity (such as coal, natural gas, oil, water, uranium, lime, limestone and other chemicals), including disruptions as a result of weather, transportation difficulties, global demand and supply dynamics, labor relations, environmental regulations or the financial viability of our fuel suppliers, could adversely affect our ability to operate our facilities, which could result in lower sales and/or higher costs and thereby adversely affect our results of operations.

Unforeseen changes in the price of coal and natural gas could cause us to incur excess coal inventories and contract termination costs.

Extraordinarily low natural gas prices during 2012 caused natural gas to be the more cost competitive fuel compared to coal for generating electricity.  Because we enter into guaranteed supply contracts to provide for the amount of coal needed to operate our base load coal-fired generating facilities, we may experience periods where we hold excess amounts of coal if fuel pricing results in our reducing or idling coal-fired generating facilities in favor of operating available alternative natural gas-fired generating facilities.  In addition, we may incur costs to terminate supply contracts for coal in excess of our generating requirements.

Our risk management policy and programs relating to electricity and fuel prices, interest rates and counterparty credit and non-performance risks may not work as planned, and we may suffer economic losses despite such programs.

 
31

 
We actively manage the market risk inherent in our generation and energy marketing activities, as well as our debt and counterparty credit positions.  We have implemented procedures to monitor compliance with our risk management policy and programs, including independent validation of transaction and market prices, verification of risk and transaction limits, portfolio stress tests, sensitivity analyses and daily portfolio reporting of various risk management metrics.  Nonetheless, our risk management programs may not work as planned.  For example, actual electricity and fuel prices may be significantly different or more volatile than the historical trends and assumptions upon which we based our risk management calculations.  Additionally, unforeseen market disruptions could decrease market depth and liquidity, negatively impacting our ability to enter into new transactions.  We enter into financial contracts to hedge commodity basis risk, and as a result are exposed to the risk that the correlation between delivery points could change with actual physical delivery.  Similarly, interest rates or foreign currency exchange rates could change in significant ways that our risk management procedures were not designed to address.  As a result, we cannot always predict the impact that our risk management decisions may have on us if actual events result in greater losses or costs than our risk models predict or greater volatility in our earnings and financial position.

In addition, our trading, marketing and hedging activities are exposed to counterparty credit risk and market liquidity risk.  We have adopted a credit risk management policy and program to evaluate counterparty credit risk.  However, if counterparties fail to perform, we may be forced to enter into alternative arrangements at then-current market prices.  In that event, our financial results are likely to be adversely affected.

Our costs to comply with existing and new environmental laws are expected to continue to be significant, and we plan to incur significant capital expenditures for pollution control improvements that, if delayed, would adversely affect our profitability and liquidity.

Our business is subject to extensive federal, state and local statutes, rules and regulations relating to environmental protection.  To comply with existing and future environmental requirements and as a result of voluntary pollution control measures we may take, we have spent and expect to spend substantial amounts in the future on environmental control and compliance.

In order to comply with existing and previously proposed federal and state environmental laws and regulations primarily governing air emissions from coal-fired plants, since 2005 PPL has spent more than $1.6 billion to install scrubbers and other pollution control equipment (primarily aimed at sulfur dioxide, particulate matter and nitrogen oxides with co-benefits for mercury emissions reduction) in its competitive generation fleet.  Many states and environmental groups have challenged certain federal laws and regulations relating to air emissions as not being sufficiently strict.  As a result, state and federal regulations have been adopted that would impose more stringent restrictions than are currently in effect, which could require us significantly to increase capital expenditures for additional pollution control equipment.

We may not be able to obtain or maintain all environmental regulatory approvals necessary for our planned capital projects which are necessary to our business.  If there is a delay in obtaining any required environmental regulatory approval or if we fail to obtain, maintain or comply with any such approval, operations at our affected facilities could be halted, reduced or subjected to additional costs.  Furthermore, at some of our older generating facilities it may be uneconomic for us to install necessary pollution control equipment, which could cause us to retire those units.

For more information regarding environmental matters, including existing and proposed federal, state and local statutes, rules and regulations to which we are subject, see "Environmental Matters - Domestic" in Note 15 to the Financial Statements.

We rely on transmission and distribution assets that we do not own or control to deliver our wholesale electricity.  If transmission is disrupted, or not operated efficiently, or if capacity is inadequate, our ability to sell and deliver power may be hindered.

We depend on transmission and distribution facilities owned and operated by utilities and other energy companies to deliver the electricity and natural gas we sell in the wholesale market, as well as the natural gas we purchase for use in our electricity generation facilities.  If transmission is disrupted (as a result of weather, natural disasters or other reasons) or not operated efficiently by ISOs and RTOs, in applicable markets, or if capacity is inadequate, our ability to sell and deliver products and satisfy our contractual obligations may be hindered, or we may be unable to sell products at the most favorable terms.

The FERC has issued regulations that require wholesale electric transmission services to be offered on an open-access, non-discriminatory basis.  Although these regulations are designed to encourage competition in wholesale market transactions for electricity, there is the potential that fair and equal access to transmission systems will not be available or that transmission capacity will not be available in the amounts we require.  We cannot predict the timing of industry changes as a result of these initiatives or the adequacy of transmission facilities in specific markets or whether ISOs and RTOs in applicable markets will efficiently operate transmission networks and provide related services.

 
32

 



Despite federal and state deregulation initiatives, our supply business is still subject to extensive regulation, which may increase our costs, reduce our revenues, or prevent or delay operation of our facilities.

Our generation subsidiaries sell electricity into the wholesale market.  Generally, our generation subsidiaries and our marketing subsidiaries are subject to regulation by the FERC.  The FERC has authorized us to sell generation from our facilities and power from our marketing subsidiaries at market-based prices.  The FERC retains the authority to modify or withdraw our market-based rate authority and to impose "cost of service" rates if it determines that the market is not competitive, that we possess market power or that we are not charging just and reasonable rates.  Any reduction by the FERC in the rates we may receive or any unfavorable regulation of our business by state regulators could materially adversely affect our results of operations.  See "FERC Market-Based Rate Authority" in Note 15 to the Financial Statements for information regarding recent court decisions that could impact the FERC's market-based rate authority program.

In addition, the acquisition, construction, ownership and operation of electricity generation facilities require numerous permits, approvals, licenses and certificates from federal, state and local governmental agencies.  We may not be able to obtain or maintain all required regulatory approvals.  If there is a delay in obtaining any required regulatory approvals or if we fail to obtain or maintain any required approval or fail to comply with any applicable law or regulation, the operation of our assets and our sales of electricity could be prevented or delayed or become subject to additional costs.

If market deregulation is reversed or discontinued, our business prospects and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.

In some markets, state legislators, government agencies and other interested parties have made proposals to change the use of market-based pricing, re-regulate areas of these markets that have previously been competitive or permit electricity delivery companies to construct, contract for, or acquire generating facilities.  The ISOs that oversee the transmission systems in certain wholesale electricity markets have from time to time been authorized to impose price limitations and other mechanisms to address extremely high prices in the power markets.  These types of price limitations and other mechanisms may reduce profits that our wholesale power marketing and trading business would have realized under competitive market conditions absent such limitations and mechanisms.  Although we generally expect electricity markets to continue to be competitive, other proposals to re-regulate our industry may be made, and legislative or other actions affecting the electric power restructuring process may cause the process to be delayed, discontinued or reversed in states in which we currently, or may in the future, operate.  See "New Jersey Capacity Legislation" and "Maryland Capacity Order" in Note 15 to the Financial Statements.

Changes in technology may negatively impact the value of our power plants.

A basic premise of our generation business is that generating electricity at central power plants achieves economies of scale and produces electricity at relatively low prices.  There are alternate technologies to produce electricity, most notably fuel cells, micro turbines, windmills and photovoltaic (solar) cells, the development of which has been expanded due to global climate change concerns.  Research and development activities are ongoing to seek improvements in alternate technologies.  It is possible that advances will reduce the cost of alternate methods of electricity production to a level that is equal to or below that of certain central station production.  Also, as new technologies are developed and become available, the quantity and pattern of electricity usage (the "demand") by customers could decline, with a corresponding decline in revenues derived by generators.  These alternative energy sources could result in a decline to the dispatch and capacity factors of our plants.  As a result of all of these factors, the value of our generation facilities could be significantly reduced.

We are subject to certain risks associated with nuclear generation, including the risk that our Susquehanna nuclear plant could become subject to increased security or safety requirements that would increase capital and operating expenditures, uncertainties regarding spent nuclear fuel, and uncertainties associated with decommissioning our plant at the end of its licensed life.

Nuclear generation accounted for about 31% of our 2012 generation output.  The risks of nuclear generation generally include:

·
the potential harmful effects on the environment and human health from the operation of nuclear facilities and the storage, handling and disposal of radioactive materials;
·
limitations on the amounts and types of insurance commercially available to cover losses and liabilities that might arise in connection with nuclear operations; and
·
uncertainties with respect to the technological and financial aspects of decommissioning nuclear plants at the end of their licensed lives.  The licenses for our two nuclear units expire in 2042 and 2044.  See Note 21 to the Financial Statements for additional information on the ARO related to the decommissioning.

 
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The NRC has broad authority under federal law to impose licensing requirements, including security, safety and employee-related requirements for the operation of nuclear generation facilities.  In the event of noncompliance, the NRC has authority to impose fines or shut down a unit, or both, depending upon its assessment of the severity of the situation, until compliance is achieved.  In addition, revised security or safety requirements promulgated by the NRC could necessitate substantial capital or operating expenditures at our Susquehanna nuclear plant.  There also remains substantial uncertainty regarding the temporary storage and permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel, which could result in substantial additional costs to PPL that cannot be predicted.  In addition, although we have no reason to anticipate a serious nuclear incident at our Susquehanna plant, if an incident did occur, any resulting operational loss, damages and injuries could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.  See Note 15 to the Financial Statements for a discussion of nuclear insurance.

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

PPL Corporation, PPL Energy Supply, LLC, PPL Electric Utilities Corporation, LG&E and KU Energy LLC, Louisville Gas and Electric Company and Kentucky Utilities Company

None.

 
34

 

ITEM 2. PROPERTIES

(PPL, LKE, LG&E and KU)

Kentucky Regulated Segment

LG&E's and KU's properties consist primarily of regulated generation facilities, electric transmission and distribution assets and natural gas transmission and distribution assets in Kentucky.  The electric generating capacity at December 31, 2012 was:

         
LKE
 
LG&E
 
KU
                           
     
Total MW
 
Ownership or
     
Ownership or
     
Ownership or
     
Capacity (b)
 
Lease Interest
     
Lease Interest
     
Lease Interest
Primary Fuel/Plant (a)
 
Summer
 
in MW
 
% Ownership
 
in MW
 
% Ownership
 
in MW
                           
Coal
                       
 
Ghent
 
 1,932 
 
 1,932 
     
 
 
 100.00 
 
 1,932 
 
Mill Creek
 
 1,472 
 
 1,472 
 
 100.00 
 
 1,472 
     
 
 
E.W. Brown - Units 1-3
 
 684 
 
 684 
     
 
 
 100.00 
 
 684 
 
Cane Run - Units 4-6
 
 563 
 
 563 
 
 100.00 
 
 563 
     
 
 
Trimble County - Unit 1 (c)
 
 511 
 
 383 
 
 75.00 
 
 383 
     
 
 
Trimble County - Unit 2 (c)
 
 732 
 
 549 
 
 14.25 
 
 104 
 
60.75 
 
 445 
 
Green River
 
 163 
 
 163 
     
 
 
 100.00 
 
 163 
 
OVEC - Clifty Creek (d)
 
 1,304 
 
 106 
 
 5.63 
 
 73 
 
 2.50 
 
 33 
 
OVEC - Kyger Creek (d)
 
 1,086 
 
 88 
 
 5.63 
 
 61 
 
 2.50 
 
 27 
 
Tyrone (e)
 
 71 
 
 71 
     
 
 
 100.00 
 
 71 
     
 8,518 
 
 6,011 
     
 2,656 
     
 3,355 
Natural Gas/Oil
                       
 
E.W. Brown Unit 5 (f)(g)
 
 132 
 
 132 
 
 53.00 
 
 69 
 
 47.00 
 
 63 
 
E.W. Brown Units 6-7 (f)
 
 292 
 
 292 
 
 38.00 
 
 111 
 
 62.00 
 
 181 
 
E.W. Brown Units 8-11 (g)
 
 486 
 
 486 
     
 
 
 100.00 
 
 486 
 
Trimble County Units 5-6
 
 314 
 
 314 
 
 29.00 
 
 91 
 
 71.00 
 
 223 
 
Trimble County Units 7-10
 
 628 
 
 628 
 
 37.00 
 
 232 
 
 63.00 
 
 396 
 
Paddy's Run Units 11-12
 
 35 
 
 35 
 
 100.00 
 
 35 
     
 
 
Paddy's Run Unit 13
 
 147 
 
 147 
 
 53.00 
 
 78 
 
 47.00 
 
 69 
 
Haefling
 
 36 
 
 36 
     
 
 
 100.00 
 
 36 
 
Zorn
 
 14 
 
 14 
 
 100.00 
 
 14 
     
 
 
Cane Run Unit 11
 
 14 
 
 14 
 
 100.00 
 
 14 
     
 
     
 2,098 
 
 2,098 
 
 
 
 644 
     
 1,454 
Hydro
                       
 
Ohio Falls
 
 54 
 
 54 
 
 100.00 
 
 54 
     
 
 
Dix Dam
 
 24 
 
 24 
     
 
 
 100.00 
 
 24 
     
 78 
 
 78 
     
 54 
     
 24 
                           
Total
 
 10,694 
 
 8,187 
     
 3,354 
 
 
 
 4,833 

(a)
LG&E and KU's properties are primarily located in Kentucky, with the exception of the units owned by OVEC.  Clifty Creek is located in Indiana and Kyger Creek is located in Ohio.
(b)
The capacity of generation units is based on a number of factors, including the operating experience and physical conditions of the units, and may be revised periodically to reflect changed circumstances.
(c)
TC1 and TC2 are jointly owned with Illinois Municipal Electric Agency and Indiana Municipal Power Agency.  Each owner is entitled to its proportionate share of the units' total output and funds its proportionate share of capital, fuel and other operating costs.  See Note 14 to the Financial Statements for additional information.
(d)
This unit is owned by OVEC.  LKE has a power purchase agreement that entitles LKE to its proportionate share of the unit's total output and LKE funds its proportionate share of fuel and other operating costs.  See Note 15 to the Financial Statements for additional information.
(e)
This unit was retired in February 2013.  See Note 8 to the Financial Statements for additional information.
(f)
Includes a leasehold interest.  See Note 11 to the Financial Statements for additional information.
(g)
There is an inlet air cooling system attributable to these units.  This inlet air cooling system is not jointly owned; however, it is used to increase production on the units to which it relates, resulting in an additional 10 MW of capacity for LG&E and an additional 88 MW of capacity for KU.

For a description of LG&E's and KU's service areas, see "Item 1. Business - Background."  At December 31, 2012, LG&E's transmission system included in the aggregate, 45 substations (32 of which are shared with the distribution system) with a total capacity of 7 million kVA and 917 circuit miles of lines.  LG&E's distribution system included 97 substations (32 of which are shared with the transmission system) with a total capacity of 5 million kVA, 3,908 miles of overhead lines and 2,390 miles of underground wires.  KU's transmission system included 134 substations (55 of which are shared with the distribution system) with a total capacity of 13 million kVA and 4,079 circuit miles of lines.  KU's distribution system included 480 substations (55 of which are shared with the transmission system) with transformer capacity of 7 million kVA, 14,134 miles of overhead lines and 2,299 miles of underground conduit.

 
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LG&E's natural gas transmission system includes 4,272 miles of gas distribution mains and 388 miles of gas transmission mains, consisting of 255 miles of gas transmission pipeline, 124 miles of gas transmission storage lines, 6 miles of gas combustion turbine lines and 3 miles of gas transmission pipeline in regulator facilities.  Five underground natural gas storage fields, with a total working natural gas capacity of approximately 15 Bcf, are used in providing natural gas service to ultimate consumers.  KU's service area includes an additional 11 miles of gas transmission pipeline providing gas supply to natural gas combustion turbine electrical generating units.

Substantially all of LG&E's and KU's respective real and tangible personal property located in Kentucky and used or to be used in connection with the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity and, in the case of LG&E, the storage and distribution of natural gas, is subject to the lien of either the LG&E 2010 Mortgage Indenture or the KU 2010 Mortgage Indenture.  See Note 7 to the Financial Statements for additional information.

LG&E and KU continuously reexamine development projects based on market conditions and other factors to determine whether to proceed with the projects, sell, cancel or expand them or pursue other options.  At December 31, 2012, LG&E and KU planned to implement the following incremental capacity increases and decreases at the following plants located in Kentucky.

                       
         
LG&E
 
KU
   
     
Total Net
                 
Date of
     
Summer MW
                 
Incremental
     
Capacity (a)
     
Ownership or
     
Ownership or
 
Capacity
 
 
 
Increase /
     
Lease Interest
     
Lease Interest
 
Increase /
Primary Fuel/Plant
 
(Decrease)
 
% Ownership
 
in MW
 
% Ownership
 
in MW
 
Decrease
                           
Coal
                       
 
Cane Run - Units 4-6 - (b)
 
(563)
 
100.00 
 
(563)