10-K 1 l41188e10vk.htm FORM 10-K e10vk
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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF
THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2010
Commission File Number: 1-1927
THE GOODYEAR TIRE & RUBBER COMPANY
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
     
Ohio
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)

1144 East Market Street, Akron, Ohio
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
34-0253240
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)

44316-0001
(Zip Code)
 
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (330) 796-2121
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
     
    Name of
    Each Exchange
    on Which
Title of Each Class   Registered
 
Common Stock, Without Par Value
  New York Stock Exchange
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
 
None
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Yes þ                         No o
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
Yes o                         No þ
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Yes þ                         No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).
Yes þ                         No o
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.  þ
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
             
Large accelerated filer þ
  Accelerated filer o   Non-accelerated filer o
(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
  Smaller reporting company o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).
Yes o                         No þ
The aggregate market value of the common stock held by nonaffiliates of the registrant, computed by reference to the last sales price of such common stock as of the closing of trading on June 30, 2010, was approximately $2.4 billion.
Shares of Common Stock, Without Par Value, outstanding at January 31, 2011:
242,976,369
 
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE:
 
Portions of the Company’s Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held on April 12, 2011 are incorporated by reference in Part III.


 

 
THE GOODYEAR TIRE & RUBBER COMPANY
 
Annual Report on Form 10-K
 
For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2010
 
Table of Contents
 
 
             
Item
       
Number       Page Number
 
1
      1  
1A
      13  
1B
      22  
2
      22  
3
      22  
 
PART II
5
      24  
6
      26  
7
      28  
7A
      57  
8
      59  
9
      127  
9A
      127  
9B
      127  
 
PART III
10
      127  
11
      128  
12
      128  
13
      128  
14
      128  
 
PART IV
15
      128  
    129  
    FS-1  
    X-1  
 EX-10.1
 EX-10.2
 EX-10.3
 EX-10.4
 EX-10.5
 EX-10.6
 EX-12.1
 EX-21.1
 EX-23.1
 EX-24.1
 EX-31.1
 EX-31.2
 EX-32.1
 EX-101 INSTANCE DOCUMENT
 EX-101 SCHEMA DOCUMENT
 EX-101 CALCULATION LINKBASE DOCUMENT
 EX-101 LABELS LINKBASE DOCUMENT
 EX-101 PRESENTATION LINKBASE DOCUMENT
 EX-101 DEFINITION LINKBASE DOCUMENT


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PART I.
 
ITEM 1.   BUSINESS.
 
BUSINESS OF GOODYEAR
 
The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company (the “Company”) is an Ohio corporation organized in 1898. Its principal offices are located at 1144 East Market Street, Akron, Ohio 44316-0001. Its telephone number is (330) 796-2121. The terms “Goodyear”, “Company” and “we”, “us” or “our” wherever used herein refer to the Company together with all of its consolidated U.S. and foreign subsidiary companies, unless the context indicates to the contrary.
 
We are one of the world’s leading manufacturers of tires, engaging in operations in most regions of the world. Our 2010 net sales were $18.8 billion, and Goodyear’s net loss in 2010 was $216 million. Together with our U.S. and international subsidiaries and joint ventures, we develop, manufacture, market and distribute tires for most applications. We also manufacture and market rubber-related chemicals for various applications. We are one of the world’s largest operators of commercial truck service and tire retreading centers. In addition, we operate approximately 1,500 tire and auto service center outlets where we offer our products for retail sale and provide automotive repair and other services. We manufacture our products in 56 manufacturing facilities in 22 countries, including the United States, and we have marketing operations in almost every country around the world. We employ approximately 72,000 full-time and temporary associates worldwide.
 
AVAILABLE INFORMATION
 
We make available free of charge on our website, http://www.goodyear.com, our annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports as soon as reasonably practicable after we file or furnish such reports to the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). The information on our website is not incorporated by reference in or considered to be a part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
 
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS
 
Sale of Farm Tire Businesses.  On December 13, 2010, we entered into agreements with Titan Tire Corporation, a subsidiary of Titan International Inc., to sell our European and Latin American farm tire businesses, including a licensing agreement that will allow Titan to manufacture and sell Goodyear-brand farm tires in Europe, Latin America and North America, for approximately $130 million, subject to post-closing conditions and adjustments. The Latin American portion of the transaction is expected to close in the first half of 2011. The European portion of the transaction is subject to the exercise of a put option by us following completion of a social plan related to the previously announced discontinuation of consumer tire production at one of our facilities in Amiens, France and required consultation with various works councils. Assuming both the Latin American and European portions of the transaction are consummated, our operating results, excluding the estimated loss on the sale of the European portion of the transaction of approximately $50 million to $75 million, are not expected to be materially affected, although the impact on segment operating income will vary by region. Following the respective sales, EMEA’s operating income is expected to be favorably affected by approximately $20 million to $25 million on an annualized basis due to recent operating losses in the European farm tire business, while Latin American Tire’s operating income is expected to be unfavorably affected by approximately $30 million to $35 million on an annualized basis.
 
Union City, Tennessee Rationalization Plan.  On February 4, 2011, we approved a plan to close our tire manufacturing facility in Union City, Tennessee. The facility, which has about 1,900 associates, produces radial passenger car and light truck tires. We expect the closure of the Union City facility to be substantially completed in the fourth quarter of 2011. The estimated charges associated with the planned closure are expected to be approximately $270 million ($270 million after-tax), of which approximately $140 million are expected to be cash charges, including approximately $65 million related to severance benefits, including continuing medical coverage, and approximately $75 million related to other associate-related and exit costs, and approximately $130 million are expected to be non-cash charges, including approximately $60 million related to accelerated depreciation and asset write-offs and approximately $70 million related to pension and retiree medical costs. Under


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the terms of our pre-existing benefit plans, we recorded a charge of $160 million ($160 million after-tax) associated with the plan in the fourth quarter of 2010. The remainder of the charges will be substantially recognized within the next 12 months. The plan will eliminate physical capacity of approximately 12 million tires per year, although we have only manufactured seven million tires per year at this facility since we adopted a five-day schedule in 2009, and is expected to provide annual cost savings of approximately $80 million.
 
Amiens, France Rationalization Plan.  On May 26, 2009, we announced a plan that would discontinue consumer tire production at one of our manufacturing facilities in Amiens, France. In the fourth quarter of 2010, we recorded $43 million of additional charges and now estimate that the total charges associated with this plan will be $107 million (approximately $70 million after taxes and minority interest). These total charges primarily relate to cash severance payments that will be made as actions are taken in the future. This action would eliminate approximately six million units of high-cost capacity and is now expected to be completed by the fourth quarter of 2011.
 
DESCRIPTION OF GOODYEAR’S BUSINESS
 
General Information Regarding Our Segments
 
For the year ended December 31, 2010, we operated our business through four operating segments representing our regional tire businesses: North American Tire; Europe, Middle East and Africa Tire (“EMEA”); Latin American Tire; and Asia Pacific Tire.
 
Financial information related to our operating segments for the three year period ended December 31, 2010 appears in the Note to the Consolidated Financial Statements No. 17, Business Segments.
 
Our principal business is the development, manufacture, distribution and sale of tires and related products and services worldwide. We manufacture and market numerous lines of rubber tires for:
  •  automobiles
  •  trucks
  •  buses
  •  aircraft
  •  motorcycles
  •  farm implements
  •  earthmoving and mining equipment
  •  industrial equipment, and
  •  various other applications.
 
In each case, our tires are offered for sale to vehicle manufacturers for mounting as original equipment (“OE”) and for replacement worldwide. We manufacture and sell tires under the Goodyear, Dunlop, Kelly, Fulda, Debica and Sava brands and various other Goodyear owned “house” brands, and the private-label brands of certain customers. In certain geographic areas we also:
  •  retread truck, aviation and off-the-road, or OTR, tires,
  •  manufacture and sell tread rubber and other tire retreading materials,
  •  provide automotive repair services and miscellaneous other products and services, and
  •  manufacture and sell flaps for truck tires and other types of tires.
 
Our principal products are new tires for most applications. Approximately 84% of our sales in 2010 were for new tires, compared to 83% and 82% in 2009 and 2008, respectively. Sales of chemical products and natural rubber to unaffiliated customers were 6% in 2010, 4% in 2009 and 6% in 2008 of our consolidated sales (14%, 9% and 14% of


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North American Tire’s total sales in 2010, 2009 and 2008, respectively). The percentages of each segment’s sales attributable to new tires during the periods indicated were:
 
                         
    Year Ended December 31,
Sales of New Tires By   2010   2009   2008
 
North American Tire
    74 %     77 %     73 %
Europe, Middle East and Africa Tire
    93       88       88  
Latin American Tire
    93       93       92  
Asia Pacific Tire
    84       83       82  
 
Each segment exports tires to other segments. The financial results of each segment exclude sales of tires exported to other segments, but include operating income derived from such transactions.
 
Goodyear does not include motorcycle, all terrain vehicle or consigned tires in reported tire unit sales.
 
Tire unit sales for each segment during the periods indicated were:
 
GOODYEAR’S ANNUAL TIRE UNIT SALES — SEGMENT
 
                         
    Year Ended December 31,  
(In millions of tires)   2010     2009     2008  
 
North American Tire
    66.7       62.7       71.1  
Europe, Middle East and Africa Tire
    72.0       66.0       73.6  
Latin American Tire
    20.7       19.1       20.0  
Asia Pacific Tire
    21.4       19.2       19.8  
                         
Goodyear worldwide tire units
    180.8       167.0       184.5  
 
Our replacement and OE tire unit sales during the periods indicated were:
 
GOODYEAR’S ANNUAL TIRE UNIT SALES — REPLACEMENT AND OE
 
                         
    Year Ended December 31,  
(In millions of tires)   2010     2009     2008  
 
Replacement tire units
    133.0       128.0       134.1  
OE tire units
    47.8       39.0       50.4  
                         
Goodyear worldwide tire units
    180.8       167.0       184.5  
 
New tires are sold under highly competitive conditions throughout the world. On a worldwide basis, we have two major competitors: Bridgestone (based in Japan) and Michelin (based in France). Other significant competitors include Continental, Cooper, Hankook, Kumho, Pirelli, Toyo, Yokohama and various regional tire manufacturers.
 
We compete with other tire manufacturers on the basis of product design, performance, price and terms, reputation, warranty terms, customer service and consumer convenience. Goodyear and Dunlop brand tires enjoy a high recognition factor and have a reputation for performance and quality. The Kelly, Debica, Sava and Fulda brands and various house brand tire lines offered by us, and tires manufactured and sold by us to private brand customers, compete primarily on the basis of value and price.
 
Although we do not consider our tire businesses to be seasonal to any significant degree, we historically sell more replacement tires in North American Tire and Europe, Middle East and Africa Tire during the third quarter.
 
Global Alliance
 
We have a global alliance with Sumitomo Rubber Industries, Ltd. (“SRI”). Under the global alliance, we own 75% and SRI owns 25% of two companies, Goodyear Dunlop Tires Europe B.V. (“GDTE”) and Goodyear Dunlop Tires North America, Ltd. (“GDTNA”). GDTE owns and operates substantially all of our tire businesses in Western Europe. GDTNA owns the Dunlop brand and operates certain related businesses in North America. In Japan, we


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own 25%, and SRI owns 75%, of two companies, one for the sale of Goodyear brand passenger and truck tires for replacement in Japan and the other for the sale of Goodyear brand and Dunlop brand tires to vehicle manufacturers in Japan. We also own 51%, and SRI owns 49%, of a company that coordinates and disseminates both commercialized tire technology and non-commercialized technology among Goodyear and SRI, the joint ventures and their respective affiliates, and we own 80%, and SRI owns 20%, of a global purchasing company. The global alliance also provided for the investment by Goodyear and SRI in the common stock of the other.
 
SRI has the right to require us to purchase its ownership interests in GDTE and GDTNA, which we refer to as “exit rights,” if there is a change in control of Goodyear, a bankruptcy of Goodyear or a breach, subject to notice and the opportunity to cure, of the global alliance agreements by Goodyear that has a material adverse effect on the rights of SRI or its affiliates under the global alliance agreements, taken as a whole. In addition, SRI has exit rights upon the occurrence of the following events:
 
  •  the adoption or material revision of a business plan for GDTE or GDTNA if SRI disagrees with the adoption or revision;
  •  certain acquisitions, investments or dispositions exceeding 10% but less than 20% of the fair market value of GDTE or GDTNA or the acquisition by GDTE or GDTNA of all or a material portion of another tire manufacturer or tire distributor;
  •  if SRI decides not to subscribe to its pro rata share of any permitted new issue of non-voting equity capital authorized pursuant to the provisions of the shareholders agreements relating to GDTE or GDTNA;
  •  if GDTE, GDTNA or Goodyear takes an action which, in the reasonable opinion of SRI, has, or is likely to have, a continuing material adverse effect on the tire business relating to the Dunlop brand; or
  •  if at any time SRI’s ownership of the shares of GDTE or GDTNA is less than 10% of the equity capital of that joint venture company.
 
SRI must give written notice to Goodyear of its intention to exercise its exit rights no later than three months from the date such exit rights became exercisable, except that notice of SRI’s intention to exercise its exit rights upon the occurrence of the event described in the last bullet point above may be given as long as SRI’s share ownership is less than 10%. If SRI were to exercise any of its exit rights, the global alliance agreements provide that the purchase price would be based on the fair value of SRI’s 25% minority shareholder’s interest in GDTE and GDTNA. The purchase price would be determined through a negotiation process where, if no mutually agreed purchase price was determined, a binding arbitration process would determine the purchase price. Goodyear would retain the rights to the Dunlop brand in Europe and North America following any such purchase. As of the date of this filing, SRI has not provided us notice of any exit rights that have become exercisable.
 
North American Tire
 
North American Tire, our largest segment in terms of revenue, develops, manufactures, distributes and sells tires and related products and services in the United States and Canada. North American Tire manufactures tires in eight plants in the United States and two plants in Canada.
 
North American Tire manufactures and sells tires for automobiles, trucks, motorcycles, buses, earthmoving and mining equipment, commercial and military aviation and industrial equipment, and for various other applications.
 
Goodyear brand radial passenger tire lines sold in the United States and Canada include Assurance Fuel Max, Assurance TripleTred and our new Assurance ComforTred Touring for the premium passenger tire market; while our Eagle family of product lines is available for the high performance market and includes RunOnFlat extended mobility technology (“ROF” or “EMT”) tires. The major lines of Goodyear brand radial tires offered in the United States and Canada for sport utility vehicles and light trucks include Wrangler, featuring technologies including MT/R with Kevlar, SilentArmor and DuraTrac; and Fortera, featuring TripleTred Technology. Goodyear also offers Dunlop brand radial passenger tire lines, including Signature and SP Sport, and Fierce performance tires, as well as Dunlop brand radials for light trucks including the Rover and Grandtrek lines. Additionally, North American Tire manufactures and sells several lines of Kelly brand tires as well as private brand radial passenger and light truck tires in the United States and Canada.


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North American Tire manufactures and sells all-steel, radial medium truck tires under the Goodyear, Dunlop and Kelly brands, for use on commercial trucks and trailers.
 
North American Tire also:
 
  •  retreads truck, aviation and OTR tires, primarily as a service to its commercial customers,
  •  manufactures tread rubber and other tire retreading materials for trucks, heavy equipment and aviation,
  •  provides automotive maintenance and repair services at approximately 680 retail outlets primarily under the Goodyear or Just Tires names,
  •  provides trucking fleets with new tires, retreads, mechanical service, preventative maintenance and roadside assistance from approximately 170 Wingfoot Commercial Centers,
  •  sells automotive repair and maintenance items, automotive equipment and accessories and other items to dealers and consumers,
  •  sells chemical and natural rubber products to Goodyear’s other business segments and to unaffiliated customers, and
  •  provides miscellaneous other products and services.
 
Markets and Other Information
 
Tire unit sales to replacement customers and to OE customers served by North American Tire during the periods indicated were:
 
NORTH AMERICAN TIRE UNIT SALES — REPLACEMENT AND OE
 
                         
    Year Ended December 31,  
(In millions of tires)   2010     2009     2008  
 
Replacement tire units
    50.8       50.0       51.4  
OE tire units
    15.9       12.7       19.7  
                         
Total tire units
    66.7       62.7       71.1  
 
North American Tire is a major supplier of tires to most manufacturers of automobiles, motorcycles, trucks and aircraft that have production facilities located in North America.
 
North American Tire’s primary competitors are Bridgestone and Michelin. Other significant competitors include Continental, Cooper and several Asian manufacturers.
 
Goodyear, Dunlop and Kelly brand tires are sold in the United States and Canada through several channels of distribution. The principal channel for Goodyear brand tires is a large network of independent dealers. Goodyear, Dunlop and Kelly brand tires are also sold to numerous national and regional retail marketing firms in the United States. Several lines of private label brand tires are sold to independent dealers, national and regional wholesale marketing organizations and various other retail marketers.
 
We are subject to regulation by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (“NHTSA”), which has established various standards and regulations applicable to tires sold in the United States for highway use. NHTSA has the authority to order the recall of automotive products, including tires, having safety defects related to motor vehicle safety. In addition, the Transportation Recall Enhancement, Accountability, and Documentation Act (the “TREAD Act”) imposes numerous requirements with respect to tire recalls. The TREAD Act also requires tire manufacturers to, among other things, remedy tire safety defects without charge for five years and comply with revised and more rigorous tire standards.
 
Europe, Middle East And Africa Tire
 
Europe, Middle East and Africa Tire (“EMEA”), our second largest segment in terms of revenue, develops, manufactures, distributes and sells tires for automobiles, trucks, motorcycles, farm implements and construction equipment throughout Europe, the Middle East and Africa, exports tires to other regions of the world and provides


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miscellaneous other products and services. EMEA manufactures tires in 16 plants in England, France, Germany, Luxembourg, Poland, Slovenia, South Africa and Turkey. EMEA:
 
  •  manufactures and sells Goodyear, Dunlop, Debica, Sava and Fulda brands and other house brand passenger, truck, motorcycle, farm and OTR tires,
  •  sells new aviation tires, and manufactures and sells retreaded aviation tires,
  •  exports tires for sale in North America and other regions of the world,
  •  provides various retreading and related services for truck and OTR tires, primarily for its commercial truck tire customers,
  •  offers automotive repair services at retail outlets, and
  •  provides miscellaneous other products and services.
 
Markets and Other Information
 
Tire unit sales to replacement customers and to OE customers served by EMEA during the periods indicated were:
 
EUROPE, MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA TIRE UNIT SALES — REPLACEMENT AND OE
 
                         
    Year Ended December 31,  
(In millions of tires)   2010     2009     2008  
 
Replacement tire units
    55.6       52.8       55.9  
OE tire units
    16.4       13.2       17.7  
                         
Total tire units
    72.0       66.0       73.6  
 
EMEA is a significant supplier of tires to most manufacturers of automobiles, trucks and farm and construction equipment located in Europe, the Middle East and Africa.
 
EMEA’s main competitors are Michelin, Bridgestone, Continental, Pirelli, several regional and local tire producers and imports from other regions, primarily Asia.
 
Goodyear and Dunlop brand tires are sold for replacement in EMEA through various channels of distribution, principally independent multi-brand tire dealers. In some areas, Goodyear brand tires, as well as Dunlop, Debica, Sava, and Fulda brand tires, are distributed through independent dealers, regional distributors and retail outlets, of which approximately 200 are owned by Goodyear.
 
Our European operations are subject to regulation by the European Union. In 2009, two important regulations, the Tire Safety Regulation and the Tire Labeling Regulation, applicable to tires sold in the European Union were adopted. The Tire Safety Regulation sets performance standards that tires for cars and light and commercial trucks need to meet for rolling resistance, wet grip braking and noise in order to be sold in the European Union, and will become effective between 2012 and 2020. The Tire Labeling Regulation applies to all car and light and commercial truck tires produced after July 1, 2012 and requires that tires be labeled to inform consumers about the tire’s fuel efficiency, wet grip and noise characteristics. For both of these regulations, additional implementing rules are being developed and are expected to be finalized by the end of 2011.
 
Latin American Tire
 
Our Latin American Tire segment manufactures and sells automobile, truck and farm tires throughout Central and South America and in Mexico, sells tires to various export markets, retreads and sells commercial truck, aviation and OTR tires, and provides other products and services. Latin American Tire manufactures tires in six plants in Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela.
 
Latin American Tire manufactures and sells several lines of passenger, light and medium truck and farm tires. Latin American Tire also:
 
  •  manufactures and sells pre-cured treads for truck tires,
  •  retreads, and provides various materials and related services for retreading, truck and aviation tires,
  •  manufactures other products, including OTR tires,


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  •  manufactures and sells new aviation tires, and
  •  provides miscellaneous other products and services.
 
Markets and Other Information
 
Tire unit sales to replacement customers and to OE customers served by Latin American Tire during the periods indicated were:
 
LATIN AMERICAN TIRE UNIT SALES — REPLACEMENT AND OE
 
                         
    Year Ended December 31,  
(In millions of tires)   2010     2009     2008  
 
Replacement tire units
    13.9       13.1       13.9  
OE tire units
    6.8       6.0       6.1  
                         
Total tire units
    20.7       19.1       20.0  
 
Latin American Tire is a significant supplier of tires to most manufacturers of automobiles, trucks and farm and construction equipment located in the region. Goodyear brand tires are sold for replacement primarily through independent dealers. Significant competitors include Pirelli, Bridgestone, Michelin and Continental.
 
Asia Pacific Tire
 
Our Asia Pacific Tire segment manufactures and sells tires for automobiles, light and medium trucks, farm, construction and mining equipment and the aviation industry throughout the Asia Pacific region. Asia Pacific Tire manufactures tires in seven plants in China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia and Thailand. Asia Pacific Tire also:
 
  •  retreads truck tires and aviation tires,
  •  manufactures tread rubber and other tire retreading materials for truck and aviation tires,
  •  provides automotive maintenance and repair services at retail outlets, and
  •  provides miscellaneous other products and services.
 
Markets and Other Information
 
Tire unit sales to replacement customers and OE customers served by Asia Pacific Tire during the periods indicated were:
 
ASIA PACIFIC TIRE UNIT SALES — REPLACEMENT AND OE
 
                         
    Year Ended December 31,  
(In millions of tires)   2010     2009     2008  
 
Replacement tire units
    12.7       12.1       12.9  
OE tire units
    8.7       7.1       6.9  
                         
Total tire units
    21.4       19.2       19.8  
 
Asia Pacific Tire’s major competitors are Bridgestone and Michelin along with many other global brands present in different areas, including Continental, Dunlop, Yokohama, Pirelli, and a large number of regional and local tire producers.
 
Asia Pacific Tire sells primarily Goodyear brand tires throughout the region and also sells the Dunlop brand in Australia and New Zealand. Other brands of tires, such as Kelly, Fulda and Sava, are sold in smaller quantities. Tires are sold through a network of licensed or franchised stores and multi-brand retailers through a network of wholesale dealers. In Australia and New Zealand, we also operate a network of approximately 400 retail stores under the Beaurepaires and Frank Allen brands.


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GENERAL BUSINESS INFORMATION
 
Sources and Availability of Raw Materials
 
The principal raw materials used by Goodyear are natural and synthetic rubber. Natural rubber typically accounts for approximately half of all rubber consumed by us on an annual basis. We purchase all of our requirements for natural rubber in the world market. Our plants located in Beaumont and Houston, Texas, supply the major portion of our global synthetic rubber requirements.
 
Significant quantities of steel cord are used for radial tires, a portion of which we produce. Other important raw materials we use are carbon black, fabrics and petrochemical-based commodities. Substantially all of these raw materials are purchased from independent suppliers, except for certain chemicals we manufacture. We purchase most raw materials in significant quantities from several suppliers, except in those instances where only one or a few qualified sources are available. We anticipate the continued availability of all raw materials we will require during 2011, subject to spot shortages and unexpected disruptions caused by natural disasters such as hurricanes and other similar events.
 
Substantial quantities of fuel and other petrochemical-based commodities are used in the production of tires, synthetic rubber and other products. Supplies of such fuels and commodities have been and are expected to continue to be available to us in quantities sufficient to satisfy our anticipated requirements, subject to spot shortages.
 
In 2010, raw material costs increased by approximately 12% in our tire businesses compared to 2009, primarily driven by an increase in the cost of natural and synthetic rubber. We expect our raw material costs in the first quarter of 2011 to increase 25% to 30% when compared with the first quarter of 2010. Similar increases are expected for the second quarter of 2011 compared with the second quarter of 2010. We expect raw material costs to peak in the third quarter of 2011. However, natural rubber prices and petrochemical-based commodity prices have experienced significant volatility, and this estimate could change significantly based on fluctuations in the cost of these and other key raw materials.
 
Patents and Trademarks
 
We own approximately 2,400 product, process and equipment patents issued by the United States Patent Office and approximately 3,700 patents issued or granted in other countries around the world. We also have licenses under numerous patents of others. We have approximately 500 applications for United States patents pending and approximately 2,000 patent applications on file in other countries around the world. While such patents, patent applications and licenses as a group are important, we do not consider any patent, patent application or license, or any related group of them, to be of such importance that the loss or expiration thereof would materially affect Goodyear or any business segment.
 
We own, control or use approximately 1,700 different trademarks, including several using the word “Goodyear” or the word “Dunlop.” Approximately 11,600 registrations and 800 pending applications worldwide protect these trademarks. While such trademarks as a group are important, the only trademarks we consider material to our business, or to the business of any of our segments, are those using the word “Goodyear,” and with respect to certain of our international business segments, those using the word “Dunlop.” We believe our trademarks are valid and most are of unlimited duration as long as they are adequately protected and appropriately used.
 
Backlog
 
Our backlog of orders is not considered material to, or a significant factor in, evaluating and understanding any of our business segments or our businesses considered as a whole.
 
Research and Development
 
Our direct and indirect expenditures on research, development and certain engineering activities relating to the design, development and significant modification of new and existing products and services and the formulation


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and design of new, and significant improvements to existing, manufacturing processes and equipment during the periods indicated were:
 
                         
    Year Ended December 31,
(In millions)   2010   2009   2008
 
Research and development expenditures
  $ 342     $ 337     $ 366  
 
Employees
 
At December 31, 2010, we employed approximately 72,000 full-time and temporary people throughout the world, including approximately 39,000 people covered under collective bargaining agreements. At December 31, 2009, we employed approximately 69,000 full-time and temporary people throughout the world, including approximately 39,000 people covered under collective bargaining agreements. Approximately 10,000 of our employees in the United States are covered by a master collective bargaining agreement with the United Steelworkers (“USW”), which expires in July 2013. Approximately 19,000 of our employees outside of the United States are covered by union contracts which currently have expired or that will expire in 2011, primarily in Brazil, France, Germany, Luxembourg, Poland, Turkey, and Venezuela. In addition, approximately 1,000 of our employees in the United States are covered by other contracts with the USW and various other unions. Unions represent the major portion of our employees in Europe, Latin America and Asia.
 
Compliance with Environmental Regulations
 
We are subject to extensive regulation under environmental and occupational health and safety laws and regulations. These laws and regulations relate to, among other things, air emissions, discharges to surface and underground waters and the generation, handling, storage, transportation and disposal of waste materials and hazardous substances. We have several continuing programs designed to ensure compliance with Federal, state and local environmental and occupational safety and health laws and regulations. We expect capital expenditures for pollution control facilities and occupational safety and health projects to be approximately $46 million during 2011 and approximately $66 million during 2012.
 
We expended approximately $55 million during 2010, and expect to expend approximately $56 million and $57 million during 2011 and 2012, respectively, to maintain and operate our pollution control facilities and conduct our other environmental activities, including the control and disposal of hazardous substances. These expenditures are expected to be sufficient to comply with existing environmental laws and regulations and are not expected to have a material adverse effect on our competitive position.
 
In the future, we may incur increased costs and additional charges associated with environmental compliance and cleanup projects necessitated by the identification of new waste sites, the impact of new environmental laws and regulatory standards, or the availability of new technologies. Compliance with Federal, state and local environmental laws and regulations in the future may require a material increase in our capital expenditures and could adversely affect our earnings and competitive position.
 
INFORMATION ABOUT INTERNATIONAL OPERATIONS
 
We engage in manufacturing and/or sales operations in most countries in the world, often through subsidiary companies. We have manufacturing operations in 22 countries, including the United States. Most of our international manufacturing operations are engaged in the production of tires. Certain other products are also manufactured in plants located outside the United States. Financial information related to our geographic areas for the three year period ended December 31, 2010 appears in the Note to the Consolidated Financial Statements No. 17, Business Segments, and is incorporated herein by reference.
 
In addition to the ordinary risks of the marketplace, in some countries our operations are affected by price controls, import controls, labor regulations, tariffs, extreme inflation and/or fluctuations in currency values. Furthermore, in certain countries where we operate, transfers of funds into or out of such countries are generally or periodically subject to various restrictive governmental regulations. See “Item 1A. Risk Factors” for a discussion of the risks related to our international operations.


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EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF THE REGISTRANT
 
Set forth below are: (1) the names and ages of all executive officers of the Company at February 10, 2011, (2) all positions with the Company presently held by each such person and (3) the positions held by, and principal areas of responsibility of, each such person during the last five years.
 
         
Name   Position(s) Held   Age
 
Richard J. Kramer
  Chairman of the Board, Chief Executive Officer
and President
  47
Mr. Kramer joined Goodyear in March 2000 as Vice President — Corporate Finance, serving in that capacity as Goodyear’s principal accounting officer until August 2002, when he was elected Vice President, Finance — North American Tire. In August 2003, he was named Senior Vice President, Strategic Planning and Restructuring, and in June 2004 was elected Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer. Mr. Kramer was elected President, North American Tire in March 2007 and continued to serve as Chief Financial Officer until August 2007. In June 2009, Mr. Kramer was elected Chief Operating Officer and continued to serve as President, North American Tire until February 16, 2010. He was elected Chief Executive Officer and President effective April 13, 2010 and Chairman effective October 1, 2010. Mr. Kramer is the principal executive officer of the Company.
         
Curt J. Andersson   President, North American Tire   49
Mr. Andersson was named President, North American Tire on February 16, 2010. Mr. Andersson is the executive officer responsible for Goodyear’s operations in North America. Prior to joining Goodyear, Mr. Andersson was President of the Crouse-Hinds division of Cooper Industries plc, a global manufacturer of electrical products, from 2003 until February 2010.
         
Arthur de Bok   President, Europe, Middle East and Africa Tire   48
After joining Goodyear on December 31, 2001, Mr. de Bok served in various managerial positions in Goodyear’s European operations. Mr. de Bok was named President, European Union Tire in September 2005. Effective February 1, 2008, Mr. de Bok became President, Europe, Middle East and Africa Tire, the new operating segment created by the combination of Goodyear’s European Union and Eastern Europe business units. Mr. de Bok is the executive officer responsible for Goodyear’s operations in Europe, the Middle East and Africa.
         
Jaime Cohen Szulc   President, Latin American Tire   48
Mr. Szulc joined Goodyear in September 2010 and became President, Latin American Tire in December 2010, succeeding Eduardo Fortunato upon his retirement. Mr. Szulc is the executive officer responsible for Goodyear’s operations in Mexico, Central America and South America. Prior to joining Goodyear, he was Senior Vice President and Chief Marketing Officer of Levi Strauss & Co., a global apparel company, from August 2009 until August 2010. He was also previously employed by Eastman Kodak Company, a global manufacturer of imaging technology products, in a variety of roles of increasing responsibility from 1998 until March 2009, including most recently as Managing Director, Global Customer Operations and Chief Operating Officer for the Consumer Digital Group and Corporate Vice President.
         
Pierre E. Cohade   President, Asia Pacific Tire   49
Mr. Cohade joined Goodyear as President, Asia Pacific Tire in October 2004. Mr. Cohade is the executive officer responsible for Goodyear’s operations in Asia, Australia and the Western Pacific.
         
Darren R. Wells   Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer   45
Mr. Wells joined Goodyear as Vice President and Treasurer in August 2002. He was named Senior Vice President, Business Development and Treasurer in May 2005, was named Senior Vice President, Finance and Strategy in March 2007, and was named Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer in October 2008. Mr. Wells is Goodyear’s principal financial officer.
         
Damon J. Audia   Senior Vice President, Finance, Asia Pacific Region   40
Mr. Audia joined Goodyear as Assistant Treasurer, Capital Markets in December 2004 and was elected Vice President and Treasurer in March 2007. Mr. Audia was elected Senior Vice President, Finance and Treasurer in December 2008 and Senior Vice President, Finance, Asia Pacific Region in June 2010. Mr. Audia is the executive officer responsible for the finance activities of Goodyear’s operations in Asia, Australia and the Western Pacific.


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Name   Position(s) Held   Age
 
David L. Bialosky   Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary   53
Mr. Bialosky joined Goodyear as Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary in September 2009. He is Goodyear’s chief legal officer. Prior to joining Goodyear, Mr. Bialosky served in legal positions of increasing responsibility at TRW Inc., TRW Automotive Inc. and TRW Automotive Holdings Corp. for 20 years, including most recently as Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary of TRW Automotive Holdings Corp., a global supplier of automotive parts, from April 2004 until September 2009.
         
John D. Fish   Senior Vice President, Global Operations   53
Mr. Fish joined Goodyear as Senior Vice President, Global Operations in October 2009. He is the executive officer responsible for Goodyear’s global manufacturing and related supply chain activities. Prior to joining Goodyear, Mr. Fish served in operations, manufacturing and supply chain positions of increasing responsibility at General Electric Company for almost 29 years, including most recently as Vice President of consumer global supply chain for GE’s Consumer and Industrial business from 2004 until October 2009.
         
Jean-Claude Kihn   Senior Vice President and Chief Technical Officer   51
Mr. Kihn served in various managerial and technical posts, most recently as General Director of Goodyear’s Technical Center in Akron, Ohio, prior to his election as Senior Vice President and Chief Technical Officer in January 2008. Mr. Kihn is the executive officer responsible for Goodyear’s research and tire technology development, engineering and product quality worldwide. He has been a Goodyear employee since 1988.
         
Joseph B. Ruocco   Senior Vice President, Human Resources   51
Mr. Ruocco joined Goodyear as Senior Vice President, Human Resources in August 2008. Mr. Ruocco is the executive officer responsible for Goodyear’s human resources activities worldwide. Prior to joining Goodyear, Mr. Ruocco served in human resources positions of increasing responsibility at General Electric Company for 23 years, including as Vice President, Human Resources, GE Consumer and Industrial from December 2003 to December 2006, and Vice President, Human Resources, GE Industrial from December 2006 to July 2008.
         
Charles L. Sinclair   Senior Vice President, Global Communications   59
Mr. Sinclair served in various public relations and communications positions until 2002, when he was named Vice President, Public Relations and Communications for North American Tire. In June 2003, he was named Senior Vice President, Global Communications. Mr. Sinclair is the executive officer responsible for Goodyear’s worldwide communications activities. He has been a Goodyear employee since 1984.
         
Thomas A. Connell   Vice President and Controller   62
Mr. Connell joined Goodyear in September 2003 and served as Vice President and Controller until February 2008. Mr. Connell was elected Vice President and Chief Information Officer effective March 1, 2008 and was elected Vice President and Controller in December 2008. He continued to serve as Chief Information Officer until April 2010. Mr. Connell is Goodyear’s principal accounting officer. Mr. Connell will retire effective March 1, 2011.
         
Isabel H. Jasinowski   Vice President, Government Relations   61
Ms. Jasinowski served in various government relations posts until she was appointed Vice President of Government Relations in 1995. In April 2001, Ms. Jasinowski was elected Vice President, Government Relations, serving as the executive officer primarily responsible for Goodyear’s governmental relations and public policy activities. She has been a Goodyear employee since 1981.
         
Stephen R. McClellan   President, Consumer Tires, North American Tire   45
Mr. McClellan served in various finance and retail management positions with Goodyear until he was named President of Wingfoot Commercial Tire Systems in December 2001. He was appointed Vice President, Goodyear Commercial Tire Systems in September 2003 and was named President, Consumer Tires, North American Tire in August 2008. Mr. McClellan is the executive officer responsible for the business activities of Goodyear’s consumer tire business in North America. He has been a Goodyear employee since 1987.


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Name   Position(s) Held   Age
 
Richard J. Noechel   Vice President, Finance, North American Tire   42
Mr. Noechel joined Goodyear in October 2004 as Assistant Controller. He was Chief Financial Officer of Goodyear’s South Pacific Tyre subsidiary in Australia from April 2006 to February 2008 and was Vice President and Controller from March 1, 2008 until his election as Vice President, Finance, North American Tire in December 2008. Mr. Noechel is the executive officer responsible for the finance activities of Goodyear’s operations in North America. Mr. Noechel will become Vice President and Controller effective March 1, 2011.
         
Mark W. Purtilar   Vice President and Chief Procurement Officer   50
Mr. Purtilar joined Goodyear as Vice President and Chief Procurement Officer in September 2007. He is the executive officer responsible for Goodyear’s global procurement activities. Prior to joining Goodyear, Mr. Purtilar was vice president of global procurement for commercial vehicle systems at ArvinMeritor Automotive Inc., a global supplier of automotive parts, from 2004 until September 2007.
         
Michel Rzonzef   President, Eastern Europe, Middle East and   47
    Africa Countries, Europe, Middle East and Africa Tire    
Mr. Rzonzef served in various managerial, sales and marketing, and engineering posts until December 2002 when he was appointed Vice President, Sales and Marketing for our former Eastern Europe, Middle East and Africa Tire strategic business unit. Effective February 1, 2008, Mr. Rzonzef was appointed President, Eastern Europe, Middle East and Africa Countries within our Europe, Middle East and Africa Tire strategic business unit. He has been a Goodyear employee since 1988.
 
No family relationship exists between any of the above executive officers or between the executive officers and any director of the Company.
 
Each executive officer is elected by the Board of Directors of the Company at its annual meeting to a term of one year or until his or her successor is duly elected. In those instances where the person is elected at other than an annual meeting, such person’s term will expire at the next annual meeting.


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ITEM 1A.   RISK FACTORS.
 
You should carefully consider the risks described below and other information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K when considering an investment decision with respect to our securities. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us, or that we currently deem immaterial, may also impair our business operations. Any of the events discussed in the risk factors below may occur. If they do, our business, results of operations, financial condition or liquidity could be materially adversely affected. In such an instance, the trading price of our securities could decline, and you might lose all or part of your investment.
 
If we do not achieve projected savings from our cost reduction initiatives, including our USW collective bargaining agreement, or successfully implement other strategic initiatives our operating results, financial condition and liquidity may be materially adversely affected.
 
Our business continues to be impacted by trends that have negatively affected the tire industry in general, as the global economy continued its recovery from the recessionary economic conditions that existed in many parts of the world during 2008 and 2009, particularly in North America and Europe. These negative trends include rapidly rising raw material and energy costs, wage inflation in emerging markets, continued pressure from our unfunded pension obligations, and the devaluation of the currency and economic weakness in Venezuela. In addition, global tire industry demand, while improving, continues to be below pre-recessionary levels in North America and remains hard to predict, especially for OE production. If these overall trends continue or worsen, then our operational and financial condition could be adversely affected. Unlike most other tire manufacturers, we also face the continuing burden of legacy pension costs.
 
In order to offset the impact of these trends, we continue to implement various cost reduction initiatives and expect to achieve $1.0 billion in aggregate gross cost savings from 2010 through 2012 through our cost savings plan, which includes expected savings from continuous improvement initiatives, including savings under our USW agreement described below, increased low-cost country sourcing, high-cost capacity reductions, initiatives to reduce raw material costs and reduced selling, administrative and general expenses.
 
We entered into a four-year contract with the USW in September 2009 for our seven USW-represented tire plants in the United States. The contract enhances the competitiveness of those plants through improvements in productivity, wage and benefit savings and added flexibility. These changes are expected to provide us with cost savings of approximately $215 million over the term of the contract. Combined with savings realized through pre-bargain agreements to reduce staffing levels at five plants, we expect to realize $555 million in total savings over the term of the agreements. If we fail to successfully implement the improvements in productivity and flexibility permitted by our USW agreements, we may be unable to realize all of the expected cost savings and our competitive position may be harmed. In turn, our results of operations and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.
 
In December 2010, we entered into agreements to sell our European and Latin American farm tire businesses. The European portion of the transaction is subject to the exercise of a put option by us following completion of a social plan related to the previously announced discontinuation of consumer tire production at one of our facilities in Amiens, France and required consultation with various works councils. Significant delays in the completion of the social plan could prevent us from exercising the put option.
 
We have announced other important strategic initiatives, such as increasing our low-cost manufacturing capacity, reducing our high-cost manufacturing capacity, such as our plan to close our Union City, Tennessee manu-facturing facility, increasing sales in emerging markets and implementing new enterprise resource planning systems. The failure to implement successfully our important strategic initiatives may materially adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity.
 
Our performance is also dependent on our ability to continue to improve the proportion, or mix, of higher margin tires we sell. In order to continue this improvement, we must be successful in marketing and selling products that offer higher margins such as the Assurance, Fuel Max, Eagle and Fortera lines of tires and in developing additional higher margin tires that achieve broad market acceptance in North America and elsewhere. Shifts in consumer demand away from higher margin tires could materially adversely affect our business.


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We cannot assure you that our cost reduction and other initiatives will be successful. If not, we may not be able to achieve or sustain future profitability, which would impair our ability to meet our debt and other obligations and would otherwise negatively affect our financial condition, results of operations and liquidity.
 
Higher raw material and energy costs may materially adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.
 
Raw material costs increased significantly over the past few years, and may continue to do so, driven by increases in prices of natural rubber and petrochemical-based commodities. Market conditions or contractual obligations may prevent us from passing these increased costs on to our customers through timely price increases. Additionally, higher raw material costs around the world may offset our efforts to reduce our cost structure. As a result, higher raw material and energy costs could result in declining margins and operating results and adversely affect our financial condition. The volatility of raw material costs may cause our margins, operating results and liquidity to fluctuate.
 
Our pension plans are significantly underfunded and, in the future, the underfunding levels of our pension plans and our pension expense could materially increase.
 
Many of our U.S. and our non-U.S. employees participate in defined benefit pension plans, although effective December 31, 2008 we froze our U.S. salaried pension plans and effective August 29, 2009 we closed participation in our U.S. hourly pension plans for employees covered by the USW master labor contract. Over time, we have experienced periods of declines in interest rates and pension asset values. As a result, our pension plans are significantly underfunded. Further declines in interest rates or the market values of the securities held by the plans, or certain other changes, could materially increase the underfunded status of our plans in 2011 and beyond and affect the level and timing of required contributions in 2012 and beyond. The unfunded amount of the projected benefit obligation for our U.S. and non-U.S. pension plans was $1,927 million and $622 million, respectively, at December 31, 2010, and we currently estimate that we will be required to make contributions to our funded U.S. pension plans of approximately $200 million to $225 million in 2011, and $400 million to $450 million in 2012. The current underfunded status of our pension plans will, and a further material increase in the underfunded status of the plans would, significantly increase our required contributions and pension expense, which could impair our ability to achieve or sustain future profitability.
 
We face significant global competition and our market share could decline.
 
New tires are sold under highly competitive conditions throughout the world. We compete with other tire manufacturers on the basis of product design, performance, price and terms, reputation, warranty terms, customer service and consumer convenience. On a worldwide basis, we have two major competitors, Bridgestone (based in Japan) and Michelin (based in France), that have large shares of the markets of the countries in which they are based and are aggressively seeking to maintain or improve their worldwide market share. Other significant competitors include Continental, Cooper, Hankook, Kumho, Pirelli, Toyo, Yokohama and various regional tire manufacturers. Our competitors produce significant numbers of tires in low-cost countries. Our ability to compete successfully will depend, in significant part, on our ability to continue to innovate and manufacture the types of tires demanded by consumers, and to reduce costs by such means as reducing excess and high-cost capacity, leveraging global purchasing, improving productivity, eliminating redundancies and increasing production at low-cost supply sources. If we are unable to compete successfully, our market share may decline, materially adversely affecting our results of operations and financial condition.
 
Our long term ability to meet our obligations and to repay maturing indebtedness may be dependent on our ability to access capital markets in the future and to improve our operating results.
 
The adequacy of our liquidity depends on our ability to achieve an appropriate combination of operating improvements, financing from third parties and access to capital markets. We may need to undertake additional financing actions in the capital markets in order to ensure that our future liquidity requirements are addressed. These actions may include the issuance of additional debt or equity.


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Our access to the capital markets cannot be assured and is dependent on, among other things, the ability and willingness of financial institutions to extend credit on terms that are acceptable to us, or to honor future draws on our existing lines of credit, and the degree of success we have in implementing our cost reduction plans and improving the results of our North American Tire segment. Future liquidity requirements, or our inability to access cash deposits or make draws on our lines of credit, also may make it necessary for us to incur additional debt. A substantial portion of our assets is subject to liens securing our indebtedness. As a result, we are limited in our ability to pledge our remaining assets as security for additional secured indebtedness.
 
Our inability to access the capital markets or incur additional debt in the future could have a material adverse effect on our liquidity and operations, and could require us to consider further measures, including deferring planned capital expenditures, reducing discretionary spending, selling additional assets and restructuring existing debt.
 
Financial difficulties, work stoppages, supply disruptions or economic conditions affecting our major OE customers, dealers or suppliers could harm our business.
 
The recovery from the recessionary economic conditions that existed in many parts of the world during 2008 and 2009, particularly in North America and Europe, has positively impacted our results of operations. However, global tire industry demand, while improving, continues to be below pre-recessionary levels in North America and remains hard to predict, especially for OE production.
 
Although sales to our OE customers account for less than 20% of our net sales, demand for our products by OE customers and production levels at our facilities are directly related to automotive vehicle production. We may experience future declines in sales volume due to declines in new vehicle sales, the discontinuation or sale of certain OE brands, platforms or programs, or weakness in the demand for replacement tires, which could result in us incurring under-absorbed fixed costs at our production facilities or slowing the rate at which we are able to recover those costs.
 
Automotive production can also be affected by labor relation issues, financial difficulties or supply disruptions. Our OE customers could experience production disruptions resulting from their own or supplier labor, financial or supply difficulties. Such events may cause an OE customer to reduce or suspend vehicle production. As a result, an OE customer could halt or significantly reduce purchases of our products, which would harm our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity.
 
In addition, the bankruptcy, restructuring or consolidation of one or more of our major OE customers, dealers or suppliers could result in the write-off of accounts receivable, a reduction in purchases of our products or a supply disruption to our facilities, which could negatively affect our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity.
 
Our capital expenditures may not be adequate to maintain our competitive position and may not be implemented in a timely or cost-effective manner.
 
Our capital expenditures are limited by our liquidity and capital resources and the amount we have available for capital spending is limited by the need to pay our other expenses and to maintain adequate cash reserves and borrowing capacity to meet unexpected demands that may arise. We believe that our ratio of capital expenditures to sales is lower than the comparable ratio for our principal competitors.
 
Productivity improvements through process re-engineering, design efficiency and manufacturing cost improvements may be required to offset potential increases in labor and raw material costs and competitive price pressures. In addition, as part of our strategy to increase the percentage of tires that are produced at our lower-cost production facilities and to increase our capacity to produce higher margin tires, we may need to modernize or expand our facilities. For example, we are currently undertaking significant expansion and modernization projects at our manufacturing facilities in Lawton, Oklahoma and Chile. We are also making a significant investment in a new manufacturing facility in China, which is scheduled to begin tire production in 2011.
 
We may not have sufficient resources to implement planned capital expenditures with minimal disruption to our existing manufacturing operations, or within desired time frames and budgets. Any disruption to our operations,


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delay in implementing capital improvements or unexpected costs may materially adversely affect our business and results of operations.
 
If we are unable to make sufficient capital expenditures, or to maximize the efficiency of the capital expenditures we do make, we may be unable to achieve productivity improvements, which may harm our competitive position. In addition, plant modernizations may temporarily disrupt our manufacturing operations and lead to temporary increases in our costs.
 
If we fail to extend or renegotiate our primary collective bargaining contracts with our labor unions as they expire from time to time, or if our unionized employees were to engage in a strike or other work stoppage or interruption, our business, financial position, results of operations and liquidity could be materially adversely affected.
 
We are a party to collective bargaining contracts with our labor unions, which represent a significant number of our employees. Approximately 19,000 of our employees outside of the United States are covered by union contracts that have expired or are expiring in 2011 primarily in Brazil, France, Germany, Luxembourg, Poland, Turkey, and Venezuela. Although we believe that our relations with our employees are satisfactory, no assurance can be given that we will be able to successfully extend or renegotiate our collective bargaining agreements as they expire from time to time. If we fail to extend or renegotiate our collective bargaining agreements, if disputes with our unions arise, or if our unionized workers engage in a strike or other work stoppage or interruption, we could experience a significant disruption of, or inefficiencies in, our operations or incur higher labor costs, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, results of operations and liquidity.
 
We have a substantial amount of debt, which could restrict our growth, place us at a competitive disadvantage or otherwise materially adversely affect our financial health.
 
We have a substantial amount of debt. As of December 31, 2010, our debt (including capital leases) on a consolidated basis was approximately $4.7 billion. Our substantial amount of debt and other obligations could have important consequences. For example, it could:
 
  •  make it more difficult for us to satisfy our obligations;
  •  impair our ability to obtain financing in the future for working capital, capital expenditures, research and development, acquisitions or general corporate requirements;
  •  increase our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions;
  •  limit our ability to use operating cash flow in other areas of our business because we would need to dedicate a substantial portion of these funds for payments on our indebtedness;
  •  limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and the industry in which we operate; and
  •  place us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors.
 
The agreements governing our debt, including our credit agreements, limit, but do not prohibit, us from incurring additional debt and we may incur a significant amount of additional debt in the future, including additional secured debt. If new debt is added to our current debt levels, our ability to satisfy our debt obligations may become more limited.
 
Our ability to make scheduled payments on, or to refinance, our debt and other obligations will depend on our financial and operating performance, which, in turn, is subject to our ability to implement our cost reduction initiatives and other strategies, prevailing economic conditions and certain financial, business and other factors beyond our control. If our cash flow and capital resources are insufficient to fund our debt service and other obligations, including required pension contributions, we may be forced to reduce or delay expansion plans and capital expenditures, sell material assets or operations, obtain additional capital or restructure our debt. We cannot assure you that our operating performance, cash flow and capital resources will be sufficient to pay our debt obligations when they become due. We cannot assure you that we would be able to dispose of material assets or operations or restructure our debt or other obligations if necessary or, even if we were able to take such actions, that we could do so on terms that are acceptable to us.


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Any failure to be in compliance with any material provision or covenant of our debt instruments, or a material reduction in the borrowing base under our revolving credit facility, could have a material adverse effect on our liquidity and operations.
 
The indentures and other agreements governing our secured credit facilities, senior unsecured notes and our other outstanding indebtedness impose significant operating and financial restrictions on us. These restrictions may affect our ability to operate our business and may limit our ability to take advantage of potential business opportunities as they arise. These restrictions limit our ability to, among other things:
 
  •  incur additional debt or issue redeemable preferred stock;
  •  pay dividends or make certain other restricted payments or investments;
  •  incur liens;
  •  sell assets;
  •  incur restrictions on the ability of our subsidiaries to pay dividends to us;
  •  enter into affiliate transactions;
  •  engage in sale/leaseback transactions; and
  •  engage in certain mergers or consolidations or transfers of substantially all of our assets.
 
Availability under our first lien revolving credit facility is subject to a borrowing base, which is based on eligible accounts receivable and inventory. To the extent that our eligible accounts receivable and inventory decline, our borrowing base will decrease and the availability under that facility may decrease below its stated amount. In addition, if at any time the amount of outstanding borrowings and letters of credit under that facility exceeds the borrowing base, we are required to prepay borrowings and/or cash collateralize letters of credit sufficient to eliminate the excess.
 
Our ability to comply with these covenants or to maintain our borrowing base may be affected by events beyond our control, including deteriorating economic conditions, and these events could require us to seek waivers or amendments of covenants or alternative sources of financing or to reduce expenditures. We cannot assure you that such waivers, amendments or alternative financing could be obtained, or if obtained, would be on terms acceptable to us.
 
A breach of any of the covenants or restrictions contained in any of our existing or future financing agreements, including the financial covenants in our secured credit facilities, could result in an event of default under those agreements. Such a default could allow the lenders under our financing agreements, if the agreements so provide, to discontinue lending, to accelerate the related debt as well as any other debt to which a cross-acceleration or cross-default provision applies, and/or to declare all borrowings outstanding thereunder to be due and payable. In addition, the lenders could terminate any commitments they have to provide us with further funds. If any of these events occur, we cannot assure you that we will have sufficient funds available to pay in full the total amount of obligations that become due as a result of any such acceleration, or that we will be able to find additional or alternative financing to refinance any such accelerated obligations. Even if we obtain additional or alternative financing, we cannot assure you that it would be on terms that would be acceptable to us.
 
We cannot assure you that we will be able to remain in compliance with the covenants to which we are subject in the future and, if we fail to do so, that we will be able to obtain waivers from our lenders or amend the covenants.
 
Our international operations have certain risks that may materially adversely affect our operating results, financial condition and liquidity.
 
We have manufacturing and distribution facilities throughout the world. Our international operations are subject to certain inherent risks, including:
 
  •  exposure to local economic conditions;
  •  adverse changes in the diplomatic relations of foreign countries with the United States;
  •  hostility from local populations and insurrections;
  •  adverse currency exchange controls;
  •  withholding taxes and restrictions on the withdrawal of foreign investment and earnings;
  •  labor regulations;


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  •  expropriations of property;
  •  the potential instability of foreign governments;
  •  risks of renegotiation or modification of existing agreements with governmental authorities;
  •  export and import restrictions; and
  •  other changes in laws or government policies.
 
The likelihood of such occurrences and their potential effect on us vary from country to country and are unpredictable. Certain regions, including Latin America, Asia, the Middle East and Africa, are inherently more economically and politically volatile and as a result, our business units that operate in these regions could be subject to significant fluctuations in sales and operating income from quarter to quarter. Because a significant percentage of our operating income in recent years has come from these regions, adverse fluctuations in the operating results in these regions could have a disproportionate impact on our results of operations in future periods.
 
For example, since 2003, Venezuela has imposed currency exchange controls that fix the exchange rate between the Venezuelan bolivar fuerte and the U.S. dollar and restrict the ability to exchange bolivares fuertes for dollars. These restrictions have delayed and limited our ability to pay third-party and affiliated suppliers and to otherwise repatriate funds from Venezuela, and may continue to do so, which could materially adversely affect our financial condition and liquidity. In addition, if we are unable to pay these suppliers in a timely manner, they may cease supplying us. Venezuela has also imposed restrictions on the importation of certain raw materials. If these suppliers cease supplying us or we are unable to import necessary raw materials, we may need to reduce or halt production in Venezuela, which could materially adversely affect our results of operations.
 
On January 8, 2010, Venezuela established a two-tier exchange rate structure for essential and non-essential goods. For essential goods the official exchange rate was 2.6 bolivares fuertes to the U.S. dollar and for non-essential goods the official exchange rate was 4.3 bolivares fuertes to the U.S. dollar. As announced by the Venezuelan government in December 2010, on January 1, 2011, the two-tier exchange rate structure was eliminated and the official exchange rate for essential goods cannot be used for our unsettled amounts at December 31, 2010. Effective January 1, 2011, the official exchange rate of 4.3 bolivares fuertes to the U.S. dollar was established for substantially all goods.
 
The future results of our Venezuelan operations will be affected by many factors, including our ability to take actions to mitigate the effect of the devaluations, further actions of the Venezuelan government, economic conditions in Venezuela such as inflation and consumer spending, and the availability of raw materials, utilities and energy. Goodyear Venezuela contributes a significant portion of the sales and operating income of our Latin American Tire segment. As a result, any disruption of Goodyear Venezuela’s operations or of our ability to pay suppliers or repatriate funds from Venezuela could have a material adverse impact on the future performance of our Latin American Tire segment and could materially adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity.
 
For further information regarding our operations in Venezuela, see “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Liquidity and Capital Resources — Overview.”
 
We have foreign currency translation and transaction risks that may materially adversely affect our operating results.
 
The financial position and results of operations of our international subsidiaries are initially recorded in various foreign currencies and then translated into U.S. dollars at the applicable exchange rate for inclusion in our financial statements. The strengthening of the U.S. dollar against these foreign currencies ordinarily has a negative impact on our reported sales and operating margin (and conversely, the weakening of the U.S. dollar against these foreign currencies has a positive impact). For the year ended December 31, 2010, foreign currency translation unfavorably affected sales by $12 million and unfavorably affected segment operating income by $45 million compared to the year ended December 31, 2009. The volatility of currency exchange rates may materially adversely affect our operating results.


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Our variable rate indebtedness subjects us to interest rate risk, which could cause our debt service obligations to increase significantly.
 
Certain of our borrowings are at variable rates of interest and expose us to interest rate risk. If interest rates increase, our debt service obligations on the variable rate indebtedness would increase even though the amount borrowed remained the same, which would require us to use more of our available cash to service our indebtedness. There can be no assurance that we will be able to enter into swap agreements or other hedging arrangements in the future, or that existing or future hedging arrangements will offset increases in interest rates. As of December 31, 2010, we had approximately $2.0 billion of variable rate debt outstanding.
 
We have substantial fixed costs and, as a result, our operating income fluctuates disproportionately with changes in our net sales.
 
We operate with significant operating and financial leverage. Significant portions of our manufacturing, selling, administrative and general expenses are fixed costs that neither increase nor decrease proportionately with sales. In addition, a significant portion of our interest expense is fixed. There can be no assurance that we would be able to reduce our fixed costs proportionately in response to a decline in our net sales and therefore our competitiveness could be significantly impacted. As a result, a decline in our net sales would result in a higher percentage decline in our income from operations and net income.
 
We may incur significant costs in connection with asbestos claims.
 
We are among many defendants named in legal proceedings involving claims of individuals relating to alleged exposure to asbestos. At December 31, 2010, approximately 83,700 claims were pending against us alleging various asbestos-related personal injuries purported to have resulted from alleged exposure to asbestos in certain rubber encapsulated products or aircraft braking systems manufactured by us in the past or to asbestos in certain of our facilities. We expect that additional claims will be brought against us in the future. Our ultimate liability with respect to such pending and unasserted claims is subject to various uncertainties, including the following:
 
  •  the number of claims that are brought in the future;
  •  the costs of defending and settling these claims;
  •  the risk of insolvencies among our insurance carriers;
  •  the possibility that adverse jury verdicts could require us to pay damages in amounts greater than the amounts for which we have historically settled claims;
  •  the risk of changes in the litigation environment or Federal and state law governing the compensation of asbestos claimants; and
  •  the risk that the bankruptcies of other asbestos defendants may increase our costs.
 
Because of the uncertainties related to such claims, it is possible that we may incur a material amount of cost in excess of our current reserve for such claims. In addition, if any of the foregoing risks were to materialize, the resulting costs could have a material adverse impact on our liquidity, financial position and results of operations in future periods. For further information regarding our asbestos liabilities, refer to the Note to the Consolidated Financial Statements, No. 19, Commitments and Contingent Liabilities.
 
We may be required to provide letters of credit or post cash collateral if we are subject to a significant adverse judgment or if we are unable to obtain surety bonds, which may have a material adverse effect on our liquidity.
 
We are subject to various legal proceedings. If we wish to appeal any future adverse judgment in any of these proceedings, we may be required to post an appeal bond with the relevant court. In that case, we may be required to issue a letter of credit to the surety posting the bond. We may issue up to an aggregate of $800 million in letters of credit under our $1.5 billion U.S. senior secured first lien credit facility. As of December 31, 2010, we had $474 million in letters of credit issued and $1,001 million of remaining availability under this facility. If we are subject to a significant adverse judgment and do not have sufficient availability under our credit facilities to issue a letter of credit to support an appeal bond, we may be required to pay down borrowings under the facilities or deposit


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cash collateral in order to stay the enforcement of the judgment pending an appeal. If we are unable to post cash collateral, we may be unable to stay enforcement of the judgment.
 
Under standard terms in the surety market, sureties issue or continue bonds on a case-by-case basis and can decline to issue bonds at any time or require the posting of collateral as a condition to issuing or renewing any bonds. If surety providers were to limit or eliminate our access to bonding, we would need to post other forms of collateral, such as letters of credit or cash. As described above, we may be unable to secure sufficient letters of credit under our credit facilities.
 
If we were subject to a significant adverse judgment or experienced an interruption or reduction in the availability of bonding capacity, we may be required to provide letters of credit or post cash collateral, which may have a material adverse effect on our liquidity.
 
We are subject to extensive government regulations that may materially adversely affect our operating results.
 
We are subject to regulation by the Department of Transportation through the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, or NHTSA, which has established various standards and regulations applicable to tires sold in the United States and tires sold in a foreign country that are identical or substantially similar to tires sold in the United States. NHTSA has the authority to order the recall of automotive products, including tires, having safety-related defects.
 
The Transportation Recall Enhancement, Accountability, and Documentation Act, or TREAD Act, imposes numerous requirements with respect to the early warning reporting of warranty claims, property damage claims, and bodily injury and fatality claims and also requires tire manufacturers, among other things, to conform with revised and more rigorous tire testing standards. Compliance with the TREAD Act regulations has increased, and will continue to increase, the cost of producing and distributing tires in the United States. In addition, while we believe that our tires are free from design and manufacturing defects, it is possible that a recall of our tires, under the TREAD Act or otherwise, could occur in the future. A substantial recall could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, operating results and financial position.
 
In addition, as required by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, NHTSA will establish a national tire fuel efficiency consumer information program. When the related rule-making process is completed, certain tires sold in the United States will be required to be rated for rolling resistance, traction and tread wear. While the Federal law will pre-empt state tire fuel efficiency laws adopted after January 1, 2006, we may become subject to additional tire fuel efficiency legislation, either in the United States or other countries.
 
Our European operations are subject to regulation by the European Union. In 2009, two important regulations, the Tire Safety Regulation and the Tire Labeling Regulation, applicable to tires sold in the European Union were adopted. The Tire Safety Regulation sets performance standards that tires for cars and light and commercial trucks need to meet for rolling resistance, wet grip braking and noise in order to be sold in the European Union, and will become effective between 2012 and 2020. The Tire Labeling Regulation applies to all car and light and commercial truck tires produced after July 1, 2012 and requires that tires be labeled to inform consumers about the tire’s fuel efficiency, wet grip and noise characteristics. For both of these regulations, additional implementing rules are being developed and are expected to be finalized by the end of 2011.
 
Tires produced or sold in Europe also have to comply with various other standards, including environmental laws such as REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemical substances), which regulates the use of chemicals in the European Union. For example, since January 1, 2010, REACH has prohibited the use of highly aromatic oils in tires, which were used as compounding components to improve certain safety-related performance characteristics, such as grip.
 
These U.S. and European regulations, rules adopted to implement these regulations, or other similar regulations that may be adopted in the United States, Europe or elsewhere in the future may require us to alter or increase our capital spending and research and development plans or cease the production of certain tires, which could have a material adverse affect on our operating results.


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Laws and regulations governing environmental and occupational safety and health are complicated, change frequently and have tended to become stricter over time. As a manufacturing company, we are subject to these laws and regulations both inside and outside the United States. We may not be in complete compliance with such laws and regulations at all times. Our costs or liabilities relating to them may be more than the amount we have reserved, and that difference may be material.
 
In addition, our manufacturing facilities may become subject to further limitations on the emission of “greenhouse gases” due to public policy concerns regarding climate change issues or other environmental or health and safety concerns. While the form of any additional regulations cannot be predicted, a “cap-and-trade” system similar to the one adopted in the European Union could be adopted in the United States. Any such “cap-and-trade” system (including the system currently in place in the European Union) or other limitations imposed on the emission of “greenhouse gases” could require us to increase our capital expenditures, use our cash to acquire emission credits or restructure our manufacturing operations, which could have a material adverse affect on our operating results, financial condition and liquidity.
 
Compliance with the laws and regulations described above or any of the myriad of applicable foreign, Federal, state and local laws and regulations currently in effect or that may be adopted in the future could materially adversely affect our competitive position, operating results, financial condition and liquidity.
 
The terms and conditions of our global alliance with Sumitomo Rubber Industries, Ltd. provide for exit rights available to SRI upon the occurrence of certain events, which could require us to make a substantial payment to acquire SRI’s interest in our European and North American joint ventures.
 
Under the global alliance agreements between us and SRI, SRI has the right to require us to purchase its ownership interests in GDTE and GDTNA if certain triggering events have occurred, including certain bankruptcy events, changes in control of Goodyear or breaches of the global alliance agreements. While we have not done any current valuation of these businesses, any payment required to be made to SRI pursuant to an exit under the terms of the global alliance agreements could be substantial. We cannot assure you that our operating performance, cash flow and capital resources would be sufficient to make such a payment or, if we were able to make the payment, that there would be sufficient funds remaining to satisfy our other obligations. The withdrawal of SRI from the global alliance could also have other adverse effects on our business, including the loss of technology and purchasing synergies. For further information regarding our global alliance with SRI, including the events that could trigger SRI’s exit rights, see “Item 1. Business. Description of Goodyear’s Business — Global Alliance.”
 
If we are unable to attract and retain key personnel our business could be materially adversely affected.
 
Our business substantially depends on the continued service of key members of our management. The loss of the services of a significant number of members of our management could have a material adverse effect on our business. Our future success will also depend on our ability to attract and retain highly skilled personnel, such as engineering, marketing and senior management professionals. Competition for these employees is intense, and we could experience difficulty from time to time in hiring and retaining the personnel necessary to support our business. If we do not succeed in retaining our current employees and attracting new high quality employees, our business could be materially adversely affected.
 
We may be impacted by economic and supply disruptions associated with events beyond our control, such as war, acts of terror, political unrest, public health concerns, labor disputes or natural disasters.
 
We manage businesses and facilities worldwide. Our facilities and operations, and the facilities and operations of our suppliers and customers, could be disrupted by events beyond our control, such as war, acts of terror, political unrest, public health concerns, labor disputes or natural disasters. Any such disruption could cause delays in the production and distribution of our products and the loss of sales and customers. We may not be insured against all such potential losses and, if insured, the insurance proceeds that we receive may not adequately compensate us for all of our losses.


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ITEM 1B.   UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS.
 
None.
 
ITEM 2.   PROPERTIES.
 
We manufacture our products in 56 manufacturing facilities located around the world including 17 plants in the United States.
 
North American Tire Manufacturing Facilities.  North American Tire owns (or leases with the right to purchase at a nominal price) and operates 20 manufacturing facilities in the United States and Canada.
 
  •  10 tire plants (8 in the United States and 2 in Canada),
  •  1 steel tire wire cord plant,
  •  4 chemical plants,
  •  1 tire mold plant,
  •  1 tire retread plant,
  •  2 aviation retread plants, and
  •  1 mix plant in Canada.
 
These facilities have floor space aggregating approximately 24 million square feet.
 
Europe, Middle East And Africa Tire Manufacturing Facilities.  Europe, Middle East and Africa Tire owns and operates 20 manufacturing facilities in 9 countries, including:
 
  •  16 tire plants,
  •  1 steel tire wire cord plant,
  •  1 tire mold and tire manufacturing machines facility,
  •  1 aviation retread plant, and
  •  1 mix plant.
 
These facilities have floor space aggregating approximately 20 million square feet.
 
Latin American Tire Manufacturing Facilities.  Latin American Tire owns and operates 8 manufacturing facilities in 5 countries, including 6 tire plants, 1 tire retread plant, and 1 aviation retread plant. These facilities have floor space aggregating approximately 6 million square feet.
 
Asia Pacific Tire Manufacturing Facilities.  Asia Pacific Tire owns and operates 8 manufacturing facilities in 6 countries, including 7 tire plants and 1 aviation retread plant. These facilities have floor space aggregating approximately 5 million square feet.
 
Plant Utilization.  Our worldwide tire capacity utilization rate was approximately 88% during 2010 compared to approximately 73% in 2009 and 78% in 2008. Our 2010 utilization improved due to increased production in response to increased demand as the global economy began to recover from the recessionary conditions that existed in 2009 and 2008.
 
Other Facilities.  We also own and operate three research and development facilities and technical centers, and three tire proving grounds. We also operate approximately 1,500 retail outlets for the sale of our tires to consumer and commercial customers, approximately 50 tire retreading facilities and approximately 150 warehouse distribution facilities. Substantially all of these facilities are leased. We do not consider any one of these leased properties to be material to our operations. For additional information regarding leased properties, refer to the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements No. 9, Property, Plant and Equipment and No. 10, Leased Assets.
 
ITEM 3.   LEGAL PROCEEDINGS.
 
Asbestos Litigation
 
We are currently one of numerous defendants in legal proceedings in certain state and Federal courts involving approximately 83,700 claimants at December 31, 2010 relating to their alleged exposure to materials containing asbestos in products allegedly manufactured by us or asbestos materials present at our facilities. We manufactured,


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among other things, rubber coated asbestos sheet gasket materials from 1914 through 1973 and aircraft brake assemblies containing asbestos materials prior to 1987. Some of the claimants are independent contractors or their employees who allege exposure to asbestos while working at certain of our facilities. It is expected that in a substantial portion of these cases there will be no evidence of exposure to a Goodyear manufactured product containing asbestos or asbestos in our facilities. The amount expended by us and our insurers on defense and claim resolution was approximately $26 million during 2010. The plaintiffs in the pending cases allege that they were exposed to asbestos and, as a result of such exposure suffer from various respiratory diseases, including in some cases mesothelioma and lung cancer. The plaintiffs are seeking unspecified actual and punitive damages and other relief. For additional information on asbestos litigation, refer to the Note to the Consolidated Financial Statements No. 19, Commitments and Contingent Liabilities.
 
Marine Hose Investigation
 
In May 2007, the United States Department of Justice, Antitrust Division, announced that it had executed search and arrest warrants against a number of companies and their executives in connection with an investigation into allegations of price fixing in the marine hose industry. We received a grand jury document subpoena in May 2007 relating to that investigation. We have also received a similar request for information from European antitrust authorities in connection with a similar investigation of the marine hose industry in Europe. In addition, in November 2007, the Brazilian antitrust authority notified Goodyear’s Brazilian subsidiary that it was a party to a civil investigation into alleged anticompetitive practices in the marine hose industry in Brazil. Based on our review, we continue to believe Goodyear and its subsidiaries did not engage in unlawful conduct which is the subject of the investigations described above. None of Goodyear’s executives has been named in any criminal complaint; and no arrest or search warrants have been executed against any of our executives or at any of our facilities in connection with these investigations. We are cooperating with U.S., European and Brazilian authorities.
 
South African Competition Tribunal Proceedings
 
On August 31, 2010, the South African Competition Commission referred a complaint to the South African Competition Tribunal alleging that Goodyear South Africa (Pty) Ltd., Apollo Tyres South Africa (Pty) Ltd., Continental Tyre South Africa (Pty) Ltd., Bridgestone South Africa (Pty) Ltd., and the South African Tyre Manufacturers Conference (Pty) Ltd. engaged in anti-competitive conduct in the tire market in South Africa in violation of the South African Competition Act. The Competition Commission is seeking a penalty of approximately $30 million, which is based on a percentage of Goodyear South Africa’s annual revenues in 2008. Goodyear South Africa has conducted an internal investigation regarding these allegations and intends to defend itself before the Competition Tribunal.
 
Brazilian Tax Assessment
 
In December 2010, the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil issued assessments to us for improperly taking tax credits for value-added taxes paid to certain natural rubber processing companies from January 2006 to October 2009. The assessments, including interest and penalties, total approximately $51 million. We have filed a response contesting the assessments and are defending this matter.
 
Other Matters
 
In addition to the legal proceedings described above, various other legal actions, claims and governmental investigations and proceedings covering a wide range of matters are pending against us, including claims and proceedings relating to several waste disposal sites that have been identified by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and similar agencies of various states for remedial investigation and cleanup, which sites were allegedly used by us in the past for the disposal of industrial waste materials. Based on available information, we do not consider any such action, claim, investigation or proceeding to be material, within the meaning of that term as used in Item 103 of Regulation S-K and the instructions thereto. For additional information regarding our legal proceedings, refer to the Note to the Consolidated Financial Statements No. 19, Commitments and Contingent Liabilities.


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PART II.
 
ITEM 5.   MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES.
 
The principal market for our common stock is the New York Stock Exchange (Stock Exchange Symbol: GT).
 
Information relating to the high and low sale prices of shares of our common stock appears under the caption “Quarterly Data and Market Price Information” in Item 8 of this Annual Report at page 124, and is incorporated herein by reference. Under our primary credit facilities we are permitted to pay dividends on our common stock as long as no default will have occurred and be continuing, additional indebtedness can be incurred under the credit facilities following the payment, and certain financial tests are satisfied. We have not declared any cash dividends in the three most recent fiscal years. At December 31, 2010, there were 20,466 record holders of the 242,938,949 shares of our common stock then outstanding.
 
The following table presents information with respect to repurchases of common stock made by us during the three months ended December 31, 2010. These shares, if any, are delivered to us by employees as payment for the exercise price of stock options as well as the withholding taxes due upon the exercise of the stock options or the vesting or payment of stock awards.
 
                                         
                  Total Number of
    Maximum Number
                  Shares Purchased as
    of Shares that May
                  Part of Publicly
    Yet Be Purchased
      Total Number of
    Average Price Paid
    Announced Plans or
    Under the Plans or
Period     Shares Purchased     Per Share     Programs     Programs
10/1/10-10/31/10
      1,609       $ 10.93                  
11/1/10-11/30/10
                               
12/1/10-12/31/10
      2,550         11.98                  
Total
      4,159       $ 11.58                  
                                         
 
Set forth in the table below is certain information regarding the number of shares of our common stock that were subject to outstanding stock options or other compensation plan grants and awards at December 31, 2010.
 
EQUITY COMPENSATION PLAN INFORMATION
 
                         
                Number of Shares
 
                Remaining Available for
 
    Number of Shares to be
    Weighted Average
    Future Issuance under
 
    Issued upon Exercise of
    Exercise Price of
    Equity Compensation
 
    Outstanding Options,
    Outstanding Options,
    Plans (Excluding Shares
 
Plan Category   Warrants and Rights     Warrants and Rights     Reflected in Column (a))  
    (a)     (b)     (c)  
 
Equity compensation plans approved by shareholders
    14,113,240     $ 15.13       9,461,817 (1)
Equity compensation plans not approved by shareholders(2)(3)
    63,585     $ 11.19        
                         
Total
    14,176,825     $ 15.11       9,461,817  
                         
 
 
(1) Under our equity-based compensation plans, up to a maximum of 1,341,618 performance shares in respect of performance periods ending on or subsequent to December 31, 2010, and 415,237 shares of time-vested restricted stock have been awarded. In addition, up to 56,423 shares of common stock may be issued in respect of the deferred payout of awards made under our equity compensation plans. The number of performance shares indicated assumes the maximum possible payout that may be earned during the relevant performance periods.


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(2) Our Stock Option Plan for Hourly Bargaining Unit Employees at Designated Locations provided for the issuance of stock options to employees represented by the USW at various manufacturing plants. Options in respect of 36,380 shares of common stock were granted on September 3, 2001, each having an exercise price of $25.03 per share. Each option has a term of ten years and was subject to certain vesting requirements over a two-year period. No additional options may be granted under this Plan, which expired September 30, 2001 except with respect to options then outstanding.
 
(3) Our Hourly and Salaried Employees Stock Option Plan provided for the issuance of stock options to selected hourly and non-executive salaried employees of Goodyear and its subsidiaries. Options in respect of 294,690 shares of common stock were granted on September 30, 2002, each having an exercise price of $8.82 per share. Each option granted has a ten-year term and was subject to certain vesting requirements. No additional options may be granted under this Plan, which expired December 31, 2002 except with respect to options then outstanding.


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ITEM 6.   SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA.
 
                                         
    Year Ended December 31,(1)  
(In millions, except per share amounts)   2010(2)     2009(3)     2008(4)     2007(5)     2006(6)  
 
Net Sales
  $ 18,832     $ 16,301     $ 19,488     $ 19,644     $ 18,751  
Income (Loss) from Continuing Operations
  $ (164 )   $ (364 )   $ (23 )   $ 190     $ (280 )
Discontinued Operations
                      463       43  
                                         
Net Income (Loss)
    (164 )     (364 )     (23 )     653       (237 )
Less: Minority Shareholders’ Net Income
    52       11       54       70       111  
                                         
Goodyear Net Income (Loss)
  $ (216 )   $ (375 )   $ (77 )   $ 583     $ (348 )
                                         
Goodyear Income (Loss) Per Share — Basic:
                                       
Income (Loss) from Continuing Operations
  $ (0.89 )   $ (1.55 )   $ (0.32 )   $ 0.60     $ (2.21 )
Discontinued Operations
                      2.30       0.25  
                                         
Goodyear Net Income (Loss) Per Share — Basic
  $ (0.89 )   $ (1.55 )   $ (0.32 )   $ 2.90     $ (1.96 )
                                         
Goodyear Income (Loss) Per Share — Diluted:
                                       
Income (Loss) from Continuing Operations
  $ (0.89 )   $ (1.55 )   $ (0.32 )   $ 0.59     $ (2.21 )
Discontinued Operations
                      2.25       0.25  
                                         
Goodyear Net Income (Loss) Per Share — Diluted
  $ (0.89 )   $ (1.55 )   $ (0.32 )   $ 2.84     $ (1.96 )
                                         
Total Assets
  $ 15,630     $ 14,410     $ 15,226     $ 17,191     $ 17,022  
Long Term Debt and Capital Leases Due Within One Year
    188       114       582       171       405  
Long Term Debt and Capital Leases
    4,319       4,182       4,132       4,329       6,538  
Goodyear Shareholders’ Equity (Deficit)
    644       735       1,022       2,850       (741 )
Total Shareholders’ Equity (Deficit)
    921       986       1,253       3,150       (487 )
Dividends Per Share
                             
 
 
(1) Refer to “Basis of Presentation” and “Principles of Consolidation” in the Note to the Consolidated Financial Statements No. 1, Accounting Policies.
 
(2) Goodyear net loss in 2010 included net after-tax charges of $445 million, or $1.84 per share — diluted, due to rationalization charges, including accelerated depreciation and asset write-offs; the devaluation of the Venezuelan bolivar fuerte against the U.S. dollar; charges related to the early redemption of debt and the debt exchange offer; charges related to the disposal of a building in the Philippines; a one-time importation cost adjustment; supplier disruption costs; a charge related to a claim regarding the use of value-added tax credits in prior periods; and charges related to a strike in South Africa. Goodyear net loss in 2010 also included after-tax benefits of $104 million, or $0.43 per share — diluted, from gains on asset sales; favorable settlements with suppliers; an insurance recovery; and the benefit of certain tax adjustments.
 
(3) Goodyear net loss in 2009 included net after-tax charges of $277 million, or $1.16 per share — diluted, due to rationalization charges, including accelerated depreciation and asset write-offs; asset sales; the liquidation of our subsidiary in Guatemala; a legal reserve for a closed facility; and our USW labor contract. Goodyear net loss in 2009 also included after-tax benefits of $156 million, or $0.65 per share — diluted, due to non-cash tax benefits related to losses from our U.S. operations; benefits primarily resulting from certain income tax items including the release of the valuation allowance on our Australian operations and the settlement of our 1997 through 2003 Competent Authority claim between the United States and Canada; and the recognition of insurance proceeds related to the settlement of a claim as a result of a fire at our manufacturing facility in Thailand.
 
(4) Goodyear net loss in 2008 included net after-tax charges of $311 million, or $1.29 per share — diluted, due to rationalization charges, including accelerated depreciation and asset write-offs; costs related to the redemption


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of long-term debt; write-offs of deferred debt issuance costs associated with refinancing and redemption activities; general and product liability — discontinued products; VEBA-related charges; charges related to Hurricanes Ike and Gustav; losses from the liquidation of our subsidiary in Jamaica; charges related to the exit of our Moroccan business; and the valuation allowance on our investment in The Reserve Primary Fund. Goodyear net loss in 2008 also included after-tax benefits of $68 million, or $0.28 per share — diluted, from asset sales; settlements with suppliers; and the benefit of certain tax adjustments.
 
(5) Goodyear net income in 2007 included a net after-tax gain of $508 million, or $2.48 per share — diluted, related to the sale of our Engineered Products business. Goodyear net income in 2007 also included net after-tax charges of $332 million, or $1.62 per share — diluted, due to curtailment and settlement charges related to our pension plans; asset sales, including the assets of North American Tire’s tire and wheel assembly operation; costs related to the redemption and conversion of long term debt; write-offs of deferred debt issuance costs associated with refinancing, redemption and conversion activities; rationalization charges, including accelerated depreciation and asset write-offs; and the impact of the USW strike. Of these amounts, discontinued operations in 2007 included net after-tax charges of $90 million, or $0.44 per share — diluted, due to curtailment and settlement charges related to pension plans; rationalization charges; and costs associated with the USW strike.
 
(6) Goodyear net loss in 2006 included net after-tax charges of $804 million, or $4.54 per share — diluted, due to the impact of the USW strike; rationalization charges, accelerated depreciation and asset write-offs; and general and product liability — discontinued products. Goodyear net loss in 2006 included net after-tax benefits of $283 million, or $1.60 per share — diluted, from certain tax adjustments; settlements with raw material suppliers; asset sales; and increased estimated useful lives of our tire mold equipment. Of these amounts, discontinued operations in 2006 included net after-tax charges of $56 million, or $0.32 per share — diluted due to the impact of the USW strike and rationalization charges, accelerated depreciation and asset write-offs, and net after-tax benefits of $16 million, or $0.09 per share — diluted, from settlements with raw material suppliers.


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ITEM 7.   MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS.
 
OVERVIEW
 
The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company is one of the world’s leading manufacturers of tires, with one of the most recognizable brand names in the world and operations in most regions of the world. We have a broad global footprint with 56 manufacturing facilities in 22 countries, including the United States. We operate our business through four operating segments representing our regional tire businesses: North American Tire; Europe, Middle East and Africa Tire (“EMEA”); Latin American Tire; and Asia Pacific Tire.
 
We faced an uncertain business environment in 2010 as the global economy continued its recovery from the recessionary economic conditions that existed in many parts of the world during 2008 and 2009, particularly in North America and Europe. We also faced a number of substantial challenges, such as rapidly rising raw material and energy costs, wage inflation in emerging markets, continued pressure from our unfunded pension obligations, and the devaluation of the currency and economic weakness in Venezuela. Global tire industry demand, while improving, continues to be below pre-recessionary levels in North America and remains hard to predict, especially for OE production.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2010, Goodyear net loss was $216 million, compared to a Goodyear net loss of $375 million in 2009. Our total segment operating income for 2010 was $917 million, compared to $372 million in 2009. The increase in segment operating income was due primarily to a significant decrease in under-absorbed fixed overhead costs, an increase in tire volume and strong price and product mix which more than offset raw material costs. See “Results of Operations — Segment Information” for additional information.
 
Net sales were $18.8 billion in 2010, compared to $16.3 billion in 2009. Net sales increased due to higher tire volume, primarily in North American Tire and EMEA, an increase in other tire-related businesses, primarily in North American Tire’s third party sales of chemical products, and improved product mix.
 
We acted to address the uncertain economic environment and the challenges described above by implementing strategic initiatives aimed at permitting us to take advantage of improving economic conditions and to emerge stronger in the future. Under those strategic initiatives we planned to:
 
  •  Continue to focus on consumer-driven product development by launching a significant number of new and innovative products;
 
  •  Take a selective approach to the market, targeting profitable segments where we have competitive advantage;
 
  •  Focus on price and product mix improvements to address rising raw material costs;
 
  •  Achieve cost reductions of $1.0 billion over three years from 2010 to 2012;
 
  •  Reduce our high-cost capacity by 15 to 25 million units;
 
  •  Focus on cash flow to provide funding for investments in future growth;
 
  •  Create an advantaged supply chain focused on optimizing inventory levels and further improving customer service; and
 
  •  Improve our manufacturing efficiency, including recovering unabsorbed fixed costs incurred during the recession.
 
We met, and frequently exceeded, our financial and operating goals for 2010, including the following key achievements:
 
  •  Nearly 60 successful new product launches thereby increasing the percentage of our sales coming from recently launched products;


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  •  Price and product mix improvements of $689 million, which helped to offset $685 million of raw material cost increases, exclusive of approximately $136 million of raw material cost savings included in our cost savings described below;
 
  •  Cost savings of $467 million, which included savings from continuous improvement initiatives, including savings under our USW agreement, increased low-cost country sourcing, and initiatives to reduce raw material costs and selling, administrative and general expense;
 
  •  Recovery of unabsorbed fixed costs of approximately $278 million compared to 2009;
 
  •  Continued progress on actions to reduce our high-cost manufacturing capacity, including the announced closure of our factory in Union City, Tennessee, which brings our announced manufacturing capacity reductions to approximately 21 million units and will achieve our goal of reducing high-cost capacity by 15 to 25 million units;
 
  •  Significant progress on manufacturing investments in Oklahoma, Chile and China;
 
  •  Further improvements in working capital through strong inventory management, improved vendor terms and good collections at year-end; and
 
  •  The successful completion of a $1.0 billion debt offering in August 2010 that addressed our 2011 debt maturities and further enhanced our liquidity position.
 
Pension and Benefit Plans
 
During 2010, our U.S. pension fund experienced market gains, which increased plan assets by $473 million and decreased net actuarial losses included in Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss (“AOCL”) by $193 million. As a result, annual U.S. net periodic pension cost will decrease to approximately $175 million to $200 million in 2011 from $219 million in 2010, due primarily to expected returns on higher plan assets.
 
Liquidity
 
At December 31, 2010, we had $2,005 million in Cash and cash equivalents as well as $2,475 million of unused availability under our various credit agreements, compared to $1,922 million and $2,567 million, respectively, at December 31, 2009. Cash and cash equivalents were favorably affected by the reduced net loss compared to 2009, improvements in trade working capital of $52 million and proceeds from the issuance of our $1.0 billion 8.25% senior notes due 2020. Partially offsetting these increases in Cash and cash equivalents were capital expenditures of $944 million and the redemption of $973 million of outstanding notes, including $713 million of notes due in 2011 and $260 million of notes due in 2015.
 
We believe that our liquidity position is adequate to fund our operating and investing needs in 2011 and to provide us with flexibility to respond to further changes in the business environment.
 
New Products
 
In 2010, we successfully launched our new Goodyear Assurance ComforTred Touring tire in North American Tire. We also announced the launch of 12 new and retread product lines in our commercial truck tire business with seven of those lines featuring Fuel Max and Duraseal Technology. At our North American Tire dealer conference in early 2011, we introduced several key products, most notably the Goodyear Assurance TripleTred All Season tire and our new Eagle F1 Asymmetric 2 tire. Additionally, we are adding key sizes of new consumer products launched in recent years.
 
In Europe, Middle East and Africa Tire, we introduced the Dunlop StreetResponse and the QuatroMaxx. We also introduced the UG Ice + targeting the Nordic and Russian markets. In addition, we launched our Goodyear Fuel Max Trailer tires.
 
In Latin American Tire, we successfully developed the Fuel Max Technology for consumer through the GPS Duraplus product line. We also introduced the Eagle Excellence with Aquamax Technology and the Viva product line. The new G665 Plus for city service applications was introduced in the commercial line.


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In Asia Pacific Tire, we launched the Eagle EfficientGrip and Assurance Fuel Max tires and re-launched the Wrangler AT/SA with improved wear performance to meet the demand of the growing SUV segment.
 
Outlook
 
We expect 2011 to be a year of continued recovery. We will face challenges related primarily to raw material costs and the significant actions we are taking globally to improve our manufacturing footprint.
 
We expect the global tire industry to continue to grow in 2011, with volume expansion across all regions and major segments. In North America, consumer replacement is expected to grow between 1% and 3%, consumer OE between 5% and 10%, commercial replacement between 3% and 8% and commercial OE between 20% and 30%. We anticipate our North American consumer OE volumes will increase at less than the industry rate, given actions we have taken to be more selective in our OE fitments. In Europe, consumer replacement is expected to grow between 1% and 3%, consumer OE between 0% and 5%, commercial replacement between 5% and 10% and commercial OE between 30% and 40%. Overall, we expect our unit sales will increase by 3% to 5% in 2011 as we continue to grow in targeted segments.
 
We expect our raw material costs in the first quarter of 2011 to increase 25% to 30% when compared with the first quarter of 2010. Similar increases are expected for the second quarter of 2011 compared with the second quarter of 2010. We expect raw material costs to peak in the third quarter of 2011. In order to mitigate some of the impact of rapidly rising natural rubber prices, we are continuing to focus on price and product mix, to substitute synthetic rubber for natural rubber where possible and to work to identify additional substitution opportunities, to reduce the amount of natural rubber required in each tire, and to pursue alternative raw materials including innovative bio-based materials. However, during periods of rapidly rising raw material costs, we may not be able to fully offset those raw material cost increases through the use of these strategies, although we remain confident in our ability to do so over the longer term.
 
We expect unabsorbed fixed cost recovery and our cost savings program to contribute approximately $1.0 billion to our operating results in 2011 and 2012 compared to 2010. As a result of increased production and our planned manufacturing footprint reductions in Tennessee and France, we expect to recover approximately $175 million of unabsorbed fixed costs in 2011 and approximately $295 million in 2012. We also expect to reduce costs by more than $500 million in 2011 and 2012, with approximately half of the savings realized in each year. As a partial offset to these benefits, we expect to incur approximately $30 million to $40 million of additional costs related to start-up expenses for our new manufacturing facility in China in 2011.
 
See “Item 1A. Risk Factors” at page 13 for a discussion of the factors that may impact our business, results of operations, financial condition or liquidity and “Forward-Looking Information — Safe Harbor Statement” at page 56 for a discussion of our use of forward-looking statements.
 
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS — CONSOLIDATED
 
All per share amounts are diluted and refer to Goodyear net loss.
 
2010 Compared to 2009
 
For the year ended December 31, 2010, Goodyear net loss was $216 million, or $0.89 per share, compared to $375 million, or $1.55 per share, in 2009.
 
Net Sales
 
Net sales in 2010 of $18.8 billion increased $2.5 billion, or 15.5%, compared to 2009 due primarily to increased tire volume of $1,044 million, primarily in North American Tire and EMEA, $867 million due to favorable changes in price and product mix, and increased sales in other tire-related businesses of $582 million, primarily in North American Tire’s third party sales of chemical products. Consumer and commercial net sales in 2010 were $10.3 billion and $3.5 billion, respectively. Consumer and commercial net sales in 2009 were $9.4 billion and $2.8 billion, respectively.


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The following table presents our tire unit sales for the periods indicated:
 
                         
    Year Ended December 31,  
(In millions of tires)   2010     2009     % Change  
 
Replacement Units
                       
North American Tire (U.S. and Canada)
    50.8       50.0       1.4 %
International
    82.2       78.0       5.3 %
                         
Total
    133.0       128.0       3.9 %
                         
OE Units
                       
North American Tire (U.S. and Canada)
    15.9       12.7       25.4 %
International
    31.9       26.3       21.3 %
                         
Total
    47.8       39.0       22.5 %
                         
Goodyear worldwide tire units
    180.8       167.0       8.2 %
                         
 
The increase in worldwide tire unit sales of 13.8 million units, or 8.2%, compared to 2009, included an increase of 8.8 million OE units, or 22.5%, due primarily to increases in the consumer markets in North American Tire and EMEA due to improved economic conditions resulting in higher demand for new vehicles, and an increase of 5.0 million units, or 3.9%, in replacement units, primarily in EMEA. EMEA replacement volume increased 2.8 million units, or 5.2%, primarily in consumer, and Latin American Tire replacement volume increased 0.9 million units, or 6.7%, due to improved economic conditions in Europe and Latin America. Consumer and commercial units in 2010 were 164.4 million and 14.0 million, respectively. Consumer and commercial units in 2009 were 152.9 million and 12.2 million, respectively.
 
Cost of Goods Sold
 
Cost of goods sold (“CGS”) was $15.5 billion in 2010, increasing $1.8 billion, or 13.0%, compared to 2009. CGS in 2010 increased due primarily to higher tire volume of $850 million, mainly in North American Tire and EMEA, higher raw material costs of $549 million, higher costs in other tire-related businesses of $529 million, primarily in North American Tire’s cost of chemical products, and product mix-related manufacturing cost increases of $178 million. CGS was favorably impacted by decreased conversion costs of $295 million, due primarily to lower under-absorbed fixed overhead costs of $278 million due to higher production volume. CGS benefited from savings from rationalization plans of $91 million. CGS in 2010 included charges for accelerated depreciation and asset write-offs of $15 million ($11 million after-tax or $0.05 per share), compared to $43 million in 2009 ($38 million after-tax or $0.16 per share). CGS in 2010 also included gains from supplier settlements of $12 million ($8 million after-tax or $0.03 per share), expense due to a supplier disruption of $4 million ($4 million after-tax or $0.02 per share), a one-time importation cost adjustment of $3 million ($3 million after-tax or $0.01 per share), and the impact of a strike in South Africa of $3 million ($3 million after-tax or $0.01 per share). CGS was 82.1% of sales in 2010 compared to 83.9% in 2009.
 
Selling, Administrative and General Expense
 
Selling, administrative and general expense (“SAG”) was $2.6 billion in 2010, increasing $226 million, or 9.4%, compared to 2009. SAG increased due primarily to increased wages and benefits of $103 million, including $63 million of incentive compensation, higher advertising expenses of $47 million, and increased warehousing costs of $17 million. SAG benefited from savings from rationalization plans of $18 million and an insurance recovery of $8 million ($8 million after-tax or $0.03 per share). SAG in 2010 was 14.0% of sales, compared to 14.7% in 2009.
 
Rationalizations
 
To maintain global competitiveness, we have implemented rationalization actions over the past several years to reduce excess and high-cost manufacturing capacity and to reduce selling, administrative and general expenses


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through associate headcount reductions. We recorded net rationalization charges of $240 million in 2010 ($225 million after-tax or $0.93 per share). Rationalization actions in 2010 consisted of the plan to close our tire manufacturing facility in Union City, Tennessee, the consolidation of several warehouses in North American Tire, an increase in costs related to the discontinuation of consumer tire production at one of our facilities in Amiens, France, and the closure of a tire manufacturing facility in Taiwan. Additional rationalization charges of approximately $50 million related to 2010 rationalization plans have not yet been recorded and are expected to be incurred and recorded during the next twelve months.
 
We recorded net rationalization charges of $227 million in 2009 ($182 million after-tax or $0.75 per share). Rationalization actions in 2009 consisted of initiatives in North American Tire to reduce manufacturing headcount at several facilities, including Union City, Tennessee; Danville, Virginia and Topeka, Kansas, to respond to lower production demand. Additional salaried headcount reductions were initiated at our corporate offices in Akron, Ohio, in North American Tire and throughout EMEA. We also initiated the discontinuation of consumer tire production at one of our facilities in Amiens, France and manufacturing headcount reductions at each of our two facilities in Brazil.
 
Upon completion of the 2010 plans, we estimate that annual operating costs will be reduced by approximately $97 million ($86 million CGS and $11 million SAG). The savings realized in 2010 for the 2010 plans totaled $9 million ($4 million CGS and $5 million SAG). In addition, savings realized in 2010 for the 2009 plans totaled $147 million ($121 million CGS and $26 million SAG).
 
For further information, refer to the Note to the Consolidated Financial Statements No. 2, Costs Associated with Rationalization Programs.
 
Interest Expense
 
Interest expense was $316 million in 2010, increasing $5 million compared to 2009. The increase was due primarily to higher weighted average interest rates in 2010 partially offset by lower average debt levels.
 
Other Expense
 
Other Expense in 2010 was $186 million, increasing $146 million from $40 million in 2009. Net foreign currency exchange losses in 2010 were $159 million compared to $7 million in 2009. The 2010 period included a first quarter foreign exchange loss of $110 million ($99 million after-tax or $0.41 per share) resulting from the January 8, 2010 devaluation of the Venezuelan bolivar fuerte against the U.S. dollar and a fourth quarter foreign exchange loss of $24 million ($20 million after-tax or $0.08 per share) in connection with the January 1, 2011 elimination of the two-tier exchange rate structure, which was announced by the Venezuelan government in December 2010. Foreign currency exchange also reflected net gains and losses resulting from the effect of exchange rate changes on various foreign currency transactions worldwide.
 
Effective January 1, 2010, Venezuela’s economy was considered to be highly inflationary under U.S. generally accepted accounting principles since it experienced a rate of general inflation in excess of 100% over the latest three year period, based upon the blended Consumer Price Index and National Consumer Price Index. Accordingly, the U.S. dollar was determined to be the functional currency of our Venezuelan subsidiary. All gains and losses resulting from the remeasurement of its financial statements since January 1, 2010 were determined using official exchange rates.
 
On January 8, 2010, Venezuela established a two-tier exchange rate structure for essential and non-essential goods. For essential goods the official exchange rate was 2.6 bolivares fuertes to the U.S. dollar and for non-essential goods the official exchange rate was 4.3 bolivares fuertes to the U.S. dollar. As announced by the Venezuelan government in December 2010, on January 1, 2011, the two-tier exchange rate structure was eliminated and the exchange rate for essential goods cannot be used for our unsettled amounts at December 31, 2010. Effective January 1, 2011, the official exchange rate of 4.3 bolivares fuertes to the U.S. dollar was established for substantially all goods.
 
The $110 million foreign currency exchange loss in the first quarter of 2010 primarily consisted of a $157 million remeasurement loss on bolivar-denominated net monetary assets and liabilities, including deferred taxes, at the time of the January 2010 devaluation. The loss was primarily related to cash deposits in Venezuela that were remeasured at the official exchange rate of 4.3 bolivares fuertes applicable to non-essential goods, and was


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partially offset by a $47 million subsidy receivable related to U.S. dollar-denominated payables that were expected to be settled at the official subsidy exchange rate of 2.6 bolivares fuertes applicable to essential goods. Since we expected these payables to be settled at the subsidy essential goods rate, we established a subsidy receivable to reflect the expected benefit to be received in the form of the difference between the essential and non-essential goods exchange rates. Throughout 2010, we periodically assessed our ability to realize the benefit of the subsidy receivable, and a substantial portion of purchases by our Venezuelan subsidiary had qualified and settled at the official exchange rate for essential goods.
 
As a result of the elimination of the official subsidy exchange rate for essential goods, we no longer expect our Venezuelan subsidiary to settle payables at that exchange rate. Accordingly, we recorded a foreign exchange loss of $24 million in the fourth quarter of 2010 related to the reversal of the subsidy receivable at December 31, 2010.
 
Financing fees in 2010 of $95 million included $56 million ($56 million after-tax or $0.23 per share) related to the redemption of $973 million of long term debt, of which $50 million were cash premiums paid on the redemption and $6 million were financing fees which were written off. Also included in financing fees were costs related to our debt exchange offer of $5 million ($5 million after-tax or $0.02 per share).
 
Net gains on asset sales were $73 million ($48 million after-tax or $0.20 per share) in 2010 compared to net losses on asset sales of $30 million ($30 million after-tax or $0.13 per share) in 2009. Net gains in 2010 related primarily to the sale of a closed manufacturing facility in Taiwan and land in Thailand and the recognition of a deferred gain from the sale of a warehouse in Guatemala in 2008. Net losses in 2009 were due primarily to the sale of certain of our properties in Akron, Ohio that comprise our current headquarters in connection with the development of a proposed new headquarters in Akron, Ohio.
 
The 2010 period also included a charge of $25 million ($18 million after-tax or $0.07 per share) related to a claim regarding the use of value-added tax credits in prior years.
 
For further information, refer to the Note to the Consolidated Financial Statements No. 3, Other Expense.
 
Income Taxes
 
Tax expense in 2010 was $172 million on income before income taxes of $8 million primarily driven by a U.S. loss of $529 million with no tax benefit. For 2009 tax expense was $7 million on a loss before income taxes of $357 million. Our income tax expense or benefit is allocated among operations and items charged or credited directly to shareholders’ equity. Pursuant to this allocation requirement, for the years ending December 31, 2010 and 2009, a $9 million ($9 million after-minority or $0.04 per share) and $100 million ($100 million after-minority or $0.42 per share), respectively, non-cash tax benefit has been allocated to the loss from our U.S. operations, with offsetting tax expense allocated to items, primarily attributable to employee benefits, charged directly to shareholders’ equity. Income tax expense in 2010 also included net tax benefits of $33 million ($31 million after-minority or $0.13 per share) primarily related to a $16 million benefit on enacted tax law changes and $20 million of tax benefits related to the settlement of tax audits and the expiration of statutes of limitations in multiple tax jurisdictions. Income tax expense in 2009 also included net tax benefits of $42 million ($42 million after-minority or $0.18 per share) primarily related to a $29 million benefit resulting from the release of a valuation allowance on our Australian operations and a $19 million benefit resulting from the settlement of our 1997 through 2003 Competent Authority claim between the United States and Canada.
 
The difference between our effective tax rate and the U.S. statutory rate was due primarily to our continuing to maintain a full valuation allowance against our net Federal and state deferred tax assets and the adjustments discussed above.
 
Our losses in various taxing jurisdictions in recent periods represented sufficient negative evidence to require us to maintain a full valuation allowance against certain of our net deferred tax assets. However, in certain foreign locations, it is reasonably possible that sufficient positive evidence required to release all, or a portion, of these valuation allowances within the next 12 months will exist, resulting in possible one-time tax benefits of up to $150 million ($135 million net of minority interest).
 
For further information, refer to the Note to the Consolidated Financial Statements No. 15, Income Taxes.


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Minority Shareholders’ Net Income
 
Minority shareholders’ net income was $52 million in 2010, compared to $11 million in 2009. The increase was due primarily to increased earnings in our joint venture in Europe.
 
2009 Compared to 2008
 
For the year ended December 31, 2009, Goodyear net loss was $375 million, or $1.55 per share, compared to $77 million, or $0.32 per share, in 2008.
 
Net Sales
 
Net sales in 2009 of $16.3 billion decreased $3.2 billion, or 16%, compared to 2008 due primarily to lower tire volume of $1.4 billion, primarily in North American Tire and EMEA, reduced sales in other tire-related businesses of $924 million, primarily in North American Tire’s third party sales of chemical products, and foreign currency translation of $699 million, primarily in EMEA. Net sales also decreased $124 million due to unfavorable changes in product mix net of pricing improvements, reflecting a lower mix of high-value-added commercial truck and off-the-road tires due to weakness in those markets.
 
The following table presents our tire unit sales for the periods indicated:
 
                         
    Year Ended December 31,  
(In millions of tires)   2009     2008     % Change  
 
Replacement Units
                       
North American Tire (U.S. and Canada)
    50.0       51.4       (2.9 )%
International
    78.0       82.7       (5.7 )%
                         
Total
    128.0       134.1       (4.6 )%
                         
OE Units
                       
North American Tire (U.S. and Canada)
    12.7       19.7       (35.5 )%
International
    26.3       30.7       (14.1 )%
                         
Total
    39.0       50.4       (22.5 )%
                         
Goodyear worldwide tire units
    167.0       184.5       (9.5 )%
                         
 
The decrease in worldwide tire unit sales of 17.5 million units, or 9.5%, compared to 2008, included a decrease of 11.4 million OE units, or 22.5%, due primarily to decreases in the consumer markets in North American Tire and EMEA due to recessionary economic conditions resulting in lower demand for new vehicles, and a decrease of 6.1 million units, or 4.6%, in replacement units, primarily in North American Tire and EMEA. North American Tire consumer replacement volume decreased 1.1 million units, or 2.3%, and EMEA consumer replacement volume decreased 2.7 million units, or 5.1%. The decline in consumer replacement volume is due in part to recessionary economic conditions in the U.S. and Europe.
 
Cost of Goods Sold
 
CGS was $13.7 billion in 2009, decreasing $2.5 billion, or 15%, compared to 2008. CGS in 2009 decreased due primarily to lower tire volume of $1.2 billion, mainly in North American Tire and EMEA, lower costs in other tire-related businesses of $788 million, primarily in North American Tire’s cost of chemical products, foreign currency translation of $616 million, primarily in EMEA, product mix-related manufacturing cost decreases of $331 million and lower raw material costs of $115 million. CGS also benefited from savings from rationalization plans of $105 million. CGS was unfavorably impacted by increased conversion costs of $655 million, due primarily to higher under-absorbed fixed overhead costs of $490 million due to lower production volume. CGS in 2009 included charges for accelerated depreciation and asset write-offs of $43 million ($38 million after-tax or $0.16 per share), compared to $28 million in 2008 ($28 million after-tax or $0.12 per share). CGS in 2009 also included a charge of


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$5 million ($5 million after-tax or $0.02 per share) related to our new labor contract with the USW. CGS was 83.9% of sales in 2009 compared to 82.8% in 2008.
 
Selling, Administrative and General Expense
 
SAG was $2.4 billion in 2009, decreasing $196 million, or 8%, compared to 2008. SAG decreased due primarily to reduced foreign currency translation of $105 million, lower advertising expenses of $52 million, savings from rationalization plans of $42 million, reduced transportation and warehousing costs of $27 million, lower costs for consultants and contract labor of $22 million and other cost reduction actions. SAG reflected increased incentive compensation costs of $97 million of which approximately 50% was due to an increase in our stock price. SAG in 2009 was 14.7% of sales, compared to 13.3% in 2008.
 
Rationalizations
 
We recorded net rationalization charges of $227 million in 2009 ($182 million after-tax or $0.75 per share). Rationalization actions in 2009 consisted of initiatives in North American Tire to reduce manufacturing headcount at several facilities, including Union City, Tennessee; Danville, Virginia and Topeka, Kansas, to respond to lower production demand. Additional salaried headcount reductions were initiated at our corporate offices in Akron, Ohio, in North American Tire and throughout EMEA. We also initiated the discontinuation of consumer tire production at one of our facilities in Amiens, France and manufacturing headcount reductions at each of our two facilities in Brazil.
 
We recorded net rationalization charges of $184 million in 2008 ($167 million after-tax or $0.69 per share), which consisted primarily of the closure of the Somerton, Australia tire manufacturing facility, the closure of the Tyler, Texas mix center, and our plan to exit 92 of our underperforming retail stores in the U.S. Other rationalization actions in 2008 related to plans to reduce manufacturing, selling, administrative and general expenses through headcount reductions in all of our strategic business units.
 
For further information, refer to the Note to the Consolidated Financial Statements No. 2, Costs Associated with Rationalization Programs.
 
Interest Expense
 
Interest expense was $311 million in 2009, decreasing $9 million compared to 2008. The decrease was due primarily to lower weighted average interest rates in 2009, partially offset by higher average debt levels.
 
Other Expense
 
Other Expense was $40 million in 2009 compared to $59 million in 2008. Other Expense in 2009 decreased due primarily to lower expenses for financing fees and financial instruments, general and product liability — discontinued products, and foreign currency exchange. Other Expense in 2009 was adversely affected by net losses on asset sales and lower interest income. Other Expense in 2009 included a gain of $26 million ($13 million after-tax or $0.05 per share) from the recognition of insurance proceeds related to the settlement of a claim as a result of a fire at our manufacturing facility in Thailand, net losses on asset sales of $30 million ($30 million after-tax or $0.13 per share) due primarily to the sale of properties in Akron, Ohio, a loss on the liquidation of our subsidiary in Guatemala of $18 million ($18 million after-tax or $0.08 per share), and a charge for a legal reserve for a closed facility of $5 million ($4 million after-tax or $0.02 per share).
 
For further information, refer to the Note to the Consolidated Financial Statements No. 3, Other Expense.
 
Income Taxes
 
Tax expense in 2009 was $7 million on a loss before income taxes of $357 million. For 2008, we recorded tax expense of $209 million on income before income taxes of $186 million. Our income tax expense or benefit is allocated among operations and items charged or credited directly to shareholders’ equity. Pursuant to this allocation requirement, for 2009, a $100 million non-cash tax benefit ($100 million after-minority or $0.42 per share) has been allocated to the loss from our U.S. operations, with offsetting tax expense allocated to items,


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primarily attributable to employee benefits, charged directly to shareholders’ equity. Income tax expense in 2009 also included net tax benefits of $42 million ($42 million after-minority or $0.18 per share) primarily related to a $29 million benefit resulting from the release of a valuation allowance on our Australian operations and a $19 million benefit resulting from the settlement of our 1997 through 2003 Competent Authority claim between the United States and Canada.
 
The difference between our effective tax rate and the U.S. statutory rate was due primarily to our continuing to maintain a full valuation allowance against our net Federal and state deferred tax assets and the adjustments discussed above.
 
For further information, refer to the Note to the Consolidated Financial Statements No. 15, Income Taxes.
 
Minority Shareholders’ Net Income
 
Minority shareholders’ net income was $11 million in 2009, compared to $54 million in 2008. The decrease was due primarily to decreased earnings in our joint venture in Europe.
 
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS — SEGMENT INFORMATION
 
Segment information reflects our strategic business units (“SBUs”), which are organized to meet customer requirements and global competition and are segmented on a regional basis.
 
Results of operations are measured based on net sales to unaffiliated customers and segment operating income. Each segment exports tires to other segments. The financial results of each segment exclude sales of tires exported to other segments, but include operating income derived from such transactions. Segment operating income is computed as follows: Net Sales less CGS (excluding asset write-off and accelerated depreciation charges) and SAG (including certain allocated corporate administrative expenses). Segment operating income also includes certain royalties and equity in earnings of most affiliates. Segment operating income does not include net rationalization charges (credits), asset sales and certain other items.
 
Total segment operating income was $917 million in 2010, $372 million in 2009 and $804 million in 2008. Total segment operating margin (segment operating income divided by segment sales) in 2010 was 4.9%, compared to 2.3% in 2009 and 4.1% in 2008.
 
Management believes that total segment operating income is useful because it represents the aggregate value of income created by our SBUs and excludes items not directly related to the SBUs for performance evaluation purposes. Total segment operating income is the sum of the individual SBUs’ segment operating income. Refer to the Note to the Consolidated Financial Statements No. 17, Business Segments, for further information and for a reconciliation of total segment operating income to Income (Loss) before Income Taxes.
 
North American Tire
                         
    Year Ended December 31,
(In millions)   2010   2009   2008
 
Tire Units
    66.7       62.7       71.1  
Net Sales
  $ 8,205     $ 6,977     $ 8,255  
Operating Income (Loss)
    18       (305 )     (156 )
Operating Margin
    0.2 %     (4.4 )%     (1.9 )%
 
2010 Compared to 2009
 
North American Tire unit sales in 2010 increased 4.0 million units, or 6.3%, from the 2009 period. The increase was primarily related to an increase in OE volume of 3.2 million units, or 25.4%, primarily in our consumer business, due to increased vehicle production. Replacement volume increased 0.8 million units, or 1.4%, due primarily to improved industry volumes driven by economic growth.
 
Net sales in 2010 increased $1.2 billion, or 17.6%, compared to 2009 due primarily to increased sales in other tire-related businesses of $610 million, primarily related to an increase in the price and volume of third party sales of


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chemical products. Higher tire volume of $304 million, improved price and product mix of $269 million and favorable foreign currency translation of $39 million also contributed to the growth in net sales.
 
Operating income in 2010 was $18 million, improving $323 million from a loss of $305 million in 2009. Price and product mix improved $260 million, which more than offset raw material price increases of $177 million. Operating income also benefited from lower conversion costs of $171 million, increased operating income in our other tire-related business of $47 million, primarily related to sales of chemical products, higher tire volume of $26 million and lower transportation costs of $20 million. The decrease in conversion costs was primarily driven by lower under-absorbed fixed overhead costs of $119 million due to higher production volume and savings from rationalization plans of $55 million. Lower employee benefit costs and productivity improvements were offset by inflation and higher profit sharing costs. SAG expense increased $15 million driven by increased advertising costs of $15 million and higher general and product liability expenses of $14 million partially offset by savings from rationalization plans of $8 million and lower bad debt expense of $6 million.
 
Operating income in 2010 excluded net rationalization charges of $184 million primarily related to the closure of our Union City, Tennessee manufacturing facility, net gains on asset sales of $2 million and charges for accelerated depreciation of $2 million. Operating loss in 2009 excluded net rationalization charges of $112 million, charges for accelerated depreciation and asset write-offs of $16 million, and net gains on asset sales of $4 million.
 
2009 Compared to 2008
 
North American Tire unit sales in 2009 decreased 8.4 million units, or 11.9%, from the 2008 period. The decrease was primarily related to a decline in OE volume of 7 million units, or 35.5%, primarily in our consumer business, due to reduced vehicle production. Replacement volume decreased 1.4 million units, or 2.9%, primarily in the consumer business, due to continuing recessionary economic conditions.
 
Net sales in 2009 decreased $1.3 billion, or 15.5%, compared to 2008 due primarily to decreased sales in other tire-related businesses of $729 million, primarily related to third party sales of chemical products, lower tire volume of $635 million and unfavorable foreign currency translation of $38 million. Net sales were favorably affected by improved price and product mix of $124 million.
 
Operating loss in 2009 increased $149 million, or 95.5%, compared to 2008 due primarily to higher conversion costs of $220 million, decreased sales volume of $77 million and lower operating income in chemical and other tire-related businesses of $82 million. Conversion costs increased due primarily to higher under-absorbed fixed overhead costs of $245 million as a result of reduced production volume, and increased pension expense as a result of lower 2008 returns on plan assets and higher amortization of net losses. Increased pension and defined contribution expense of $159 million more than offset savings resulting from the implementation of the Voluntary Employees’ Beneficiary Association (“VEBA”) of $89 million. Conversion costs were favorably impacted by savings from rationalization plans of $60 million and lower utility costs of $21 million. Operating income was favorably affected by lower raw material costs of $85 million, improved price and product mix of $78 million, reduced SAG of $38 million and lower transportation costs of $19 million. SAG decreased due primarily to reduced warehousing costs and savings from rationalization programs.
 
Operating loss in 2009 excluded net rationalization charges of $112 million, $16 million of charges for accelerated depreciation and asset write-offs, and net gains on asset sales of $4 million. Operating income in 2008 excluded net rationalization charges of $54 million, net gains on asset sales of $18 million and $3 million of charges for accelerated depreciation.
 
Europe, Middle East and Africa Tire
 
                         
    Year Ended December 31,
(In millions)   2010   2009   2008
 
Tire Units
    72.0       66.0       73.6  
Net Sales
  $ 6,407     $ 5,801     $ 7,316  
Operating Income
    319       166       425  
Operating Margin
    5.0 %     2.9 %     5.8 %


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2010 Compared to 2009
 
Europe, Middle East and Africa Tire unit sales in 2010 increased 6.0 million units, or 9.0%, from the 2009 period. OE volume increased 3.2 million units, or 24.4%, primarily in our consumer business, due to increased vehicle production. Replacement volume increased 2.8 million units, or 5.2%, primarily in the consumer business, due to improved economic conditions and a strong winter season.
 
Net sales in 2010 increased $606 million, or 10.4%, compared to 2009, due primarily to higher volume of $454 million and improved price and product mix of $356 million. These increases were partially offset by unfavorable foreign currency translation of $193 million.
 
Operating income in 2010 increased $153 million, or 92.2%, compared to 2009, due primarily to lower conversion costs of $174 million and increased volume of $118 million. Conversion costs decreased due primarily to lower under-absorbed fixed overhead costs of $108 million due to higher production volume. Operating income was unfavorably affected by higher raw material costs of $182 million, which were partially offset by improved price and product mix of $131 million, higher SAG expenses of $73 million, and unfavorable foreign currency translation of $17 million. SAG expenses increased due to higher wages and benefits of $35 million and increased advertising expenses of $26 million. Conversion costs and SAG expenses included savings from rationalization plans of $12 million and $7 million, respectively.
 
Operating income in 2010 excluded net rationalization charges of $41 million and net gains on asset sales of $6 million and charges for accelerated depreciation and asset write-offs of $1 million. Operating income in 2009 excluded net rationalization charges of $82 million and net gains on asset sales of $1 million.
 
EMEA’s results are highly dependent upon Germany, which accounted for approximately 35% and 33% of EMEA’s net sales in 2010 and 2009, respectively. Accordingly, results of operations in Germany will have a significant impact on EMEA’s future performance. In addition, excluding the estimated loss on the sale of approximately $50 million to $75 million, EMEA’s operating income is expected to be favorably affected by approximately $20 million to $25 million on an annualized basis due to the anticipated sale of our EMEA farm tire business as a result of recent operating losses in that business. The transaction is subject to the exercise of a put option by us following completion of a social plan related to the previously announced discontinuation of consumer tire production at one of our facilities in Amiens, France and required consultation with various works councils.
 
2009 Compared to 2008
 
Europe, Middle East and Africa Tire unit sales in 2009 decreased 7.6 million units, or 10.3%, from the 2008 period. OE volume decreased 4.5 million units, or 25.4%, primarily in our consumer business, due to reduced vehicle production. Replacement volume decreased 3.1 million units, or 5.5%, primarily in the consumer business, due to recessionary economic conditions.
 
Net sales in 2009 decreased $1.5 billion, or 20.7%, compared to 2008, due primarily to lower volume of $665 million, foreign currency translation of $450 million and lower sales in other tire-related businesses of $150 million. Net sales also decreased by $250 million as a result of unfavorable changes in product mix, net of pricing improvements.
 
Operating income in 2009 decreased $259 million, or 60.9%, compared to 2008, due primarily to higher conversion costs of $258 million, decreased volume of $148 million, and decreased operating income in other tire-related businesses of $44 million. Conversion costs increased due primarily to higher under-absorbed fixed overhead costs of $195 million due to reduced production volume. Conversion costs included savings from rationalization plans of $19 million. Operating income was favorably affected by lower SAG expenses of $113 million, improved price and mix of $22 million, lower raw material costs of $16 million and favorable foreign currency translation of $16 million. SAG savings included lower advertising expenses of $45 million, savings from rationalization plans of $20 million, lower consulting and contract labor costs of $16 million and reduced travel-related expenses of $16 million.


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Operating income in 2009 excluded net rationalization charges of $82 million and net gains on asset sales of $1 million. Operating income in 2008 excluded net rationalization charges of $41 million and net gains on asset sales of $20 million.
 
Latin American Tire
 
                         
    Year Ended December 31,
(In millions)   2010   2009   2008
 
Tire Units
    20.7       19.1       20.0  
Net Sales
  $ 2,158     $ 1,814     $ 2,088  
Operating Income
    330       301       367  
Operating Margin
    15.3 %     16.6 %     17.6 %
 
2010 Compared to 2009
 
Latin American Tire unit sales in 2010 increased 1.6 million units, or 8.5%, from the 2009 period. Replacement tire volume increased 0.9 million units, or 6.7%, reflecting increased volume in both consumer and commercial businesses. OE volume increased 0.7 million units, or 12.3%, due primarily to an increase in our consumer business.
 
Net sales in 2010 increased $344 million, or 19.0%, from the 2009 period, due primarily to improved price and product mix of $219 million and increased volume of $128 million. These increases were partially offset by unfavorable foreign currency translation of $30 million which included $192 million related to the devaluation of the Venezuelan bolivar fuerte.
 
Operating income in 2010 increased $29 million, or 9.6%, from the same period in 2009, due primarily to improved price and product mix of $188 million, which more than offset higher raw material costs of $84 million, and lower conversion costs of $24 million. These increases were partially offset by unfavorable foreign currency translation of $49 million, higher SAG costs of $26 million, and lower profitability on intersegment transfers of $24 million. Higher SAG expenses included higher wages and benefits of $13 million and higher warehousing expenses of $11 million. Conversion costs included lower under-absorbed fixed overhead costs of $41 million and savings from rationalization plans of $8 million.
 
Operating income in 2010 excluded a charge of $25 million related to a claim regarding the use of value-added tax credits in prior periods, net gains on asset sales of $7 million, and net rationalization charges of $5 million. In addition, a $134 million foreign currency exchange loss in Venezuela also is excluded from operating income in 2010. Operating income in 2009 excluded net rationalization charges of $20 million and net gains on asset sales of $2 million. In addition, operating income excluded charges of $18 million in 2009 resulting from the recognition of accumulated foreign currency translation losses in connection with the liquidation of our subsidiary in Guatemala.
 
Latin American Tire’s results are highly dependent upon Brazil, which accounted for approximately 61% and 51% of Latin American Tire’s net sales in 2010 and 2009, respectively. Accordingly, results of operations in Brazil will have a significant impact on Latin American Tire’s future performance. In addition, Latin America Tire’s operating income is expected to be adversely impacted by approximately $30 million to $35 million on an annualized basis due to the anticipated sale of our Latin American Tire farm tire business. The sale is expected to close in the first half of 2011.
 
Goodyear Venezuela contributed a significant portion of Latin American Tire’s sales and operating income in 2010 and 2009. The devaluation of the Venezuelan bolivar fuerte against the U.S. dollar in January 2010 and weak economic conditions adversely impacted Latin American Tire’s operating results by approximately $85 million as compared to 2009. The elimination of the official exchange rate for essential goods is not expected to have a significant impact on Latin American Tire’s sales and operating income in 2011 compared to 2010. For further information see “Item 1A. Risk Factors” and “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Liquidity and Capital Resources — Overview” in this Form 10-K.


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2009 Compared to 2008
 
Latin American Tire unit sales in 2009 decreased 0.9 million units, or 4.5%, from the 2008 period. Replacement tire volume decreased 0.8 million units, or 5.9%, reflecting reduced volume in both consumer and commercial businesses. OE volume decreased 0.1 million units, or 1.3%, due primarily to a decrease in our commercial business.
 
Net sales in 2009 decreased $274 million, or 13.1%, from the 2008 period, due primarily to foreign currency translation of $123 million, decreased volume of $92 million, lower sales of other tire-related businesses of $33 million, and $26 million as a result of unfavorable changes in product mix, net of pricing improvements.
 
Operating income in 2009 decreased $66 million, or 18.0%, from the same period in 2008, due primarily to higher conversion costs of $43 million, lower volume of $28 million, lower profitability on intersegment transfers of $21 million, higher inventory reserves of $4 million and costs related to manufacturing start-up activities of $3 million. Conversion costs increased due primarily to higher under-absorbed fixed overhead costs of $43 million and other inflation of $10 million. Conversion costs also included savings from rationalization plans of $15 million. Operating income was favorably affected by improvements in price and product mix of $69 million, which more than offset higher raw material costs of $16 million. Operating income in 2008 included a gain of $12 million related to the favorable settlement of an excise tax case.
 
Operating income in 2009 excluded net rationalization charges of $20 million and net gains on asset sales of $2 million. Operating income in 2008 excluded net gains on asset sales of $5 million and net rationalization charges of $4 million. In addition, operating income excluded charges of $18 million and $16 million in 2009 and 2008, respectively, resulting from the recognition of accumulated foreign currency translation losses in connection with the liquidation of our subsidiaries in Guatemala and Jamaica.
 
Asia Pacific Tire
 
                         
    Year Ended December 31,
(In millions)   2010   2009   2008
 
Tire Units
    21.4       19.2       19.8  
Net Sales
  $ 2,062     $ 1,709     $ 1,829  
Operating Income
    250       210       168  
Operating Margin
    12.1 %     12.3 %     9.2 %
 
2010 Compared to 2009
 
Asia Pacific Tire unit sales in 2010 increased 2.2 million units, or 11.6%, from the 2009 period. OE volumes increased 1.6 million units, or 22.5%, primarily in the consumer business and replacement unit sales increased 0.6 million units, or 5.2%. The increase in units is due to continued growth in vehicle production in China and India.
 
Net sales in 2010 increased $353 million, or 20.7%, compared to the 2009 period, due primarily to foreign currency translation of $172 million, increased volume of $158 million and improved price and product mix of $23 million.
 
Operating income in 2010 increased $40 million, or 19.0%, compared to the 2009 period, due primarily to improved price and product mix of $110 million, which was offset by higher raw material costs of $106 million, increased volume of $32 million, favorable foreign currency translation of $21 million and decreased conversion costs of $19 million. Conversion costs included savings from rationalization plans of $16 million and lower under-absorbed fixed overhead costs of $10 million. Operating income was adversely affected by start-up expenses for our new manufacturing facility in Pulandian, China of approximately $10 million and higher SAG costs of $22 million, including increased wages and benefits of $9 million. Operating income in 2009 included a gain of $7 million from insurance proceeds related to the settlement of a claim as a result of a fire at our manufacturing facility in Thailand in 2007.
 
Operating income in 2010 and 2009 excluded charges for accelerated depreciation and asset write-offs of $12 million and $26 million, respectively, and net rationalization charges of $11 million and $10 million,


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respectively. In addition, operating income excluded net gains on asset sales of $58 million and $5 million in 2010 and 2009, respectively, due primarily to the sale of a closed manufacturing facility in Taiwan and land in Thailand in 2010.
 
Asia Pacific Tire’s results are highly dependent upon Australia, which accounted for approximately 43% and 45% of Asia Pacific Tire’s net sales in 2010 and 2009, respectively. Accordingly, results of operations in Australia will have a significant impact on Asia Pacific Tire’s future performance. In 2011, start-up expenses of our new manufacturing facility in Pulandian, China are expected to adversely impact Asia Pacific Tire’s operating income by $30 million to $40 million compared to 2010.
 
2009 Compared to 2008
 
Asia Pacific Tire unit sales in 2009 decreased 0.6 million units, or 2.9%, from the 2008 period. Replacement unit sales decreased 0.8 million units, or 6.3%, while OE volumes increased 0.2 million units, or 3.4%, primarily in the consumer business. The net decrease in units is due to recessionary economic conditions, primarily in Australia, that were partially offset by increased growth in vehicle production in China.
 
Net sales in 2009 decreased $120 million, or 6.6%, compared to the 2008 period, due primarily to foreign currency translation of $88 million, lower volume of $48 million and decreased sales in other tire-related businesses of $12 million, primarily in the retail business. Net sales were favorably affected by improved price and product mix of $28 million.
 
Operating income in 2009 increased $42 million, or 25.0%, compared to the 2008 period, due primarily to improved price and mix of $38 million, lower raw material costs of $30 million and decreased conversion costs of $6 million. Conversion costs included savings from rationalization plans of $12 million, partially offset by $7 million of under-absorbed fixed overhead costs due to reduced production volume. Operating income in 2009 included a gain of $7 million from insurance proceeds related to the settlement of a claim as a result of a fire at our manufacturing facility in Thailand in 2007. Operating income was adversely affected by lower volume of $13 million, decreased operating income in other tire-related businesses of $8 million, and increases in incentive compensation expense of $9 million and in the cost of imported finished tires of $6 million.
 
Operating income in 2009 and 2008 excluded charges for accelerated depreciation and asset write-offs of $26 million and $24 million, respectively, and net rationalization charges of $10 million and $83 million, respectively, primarily related to the closure of our manufacturing facilities in the Philippines and Australia. In addition, operating income excluded net gains on asset sales of $5 million and $10 million in 2009 and 2008, respectively.
 
CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES
 
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements and related notes to the financial statements. On an ongoing basis, management reviews its estimates, based on currently available information. Changes in facts and circumstances may alter such estimates and affect results of operations and financial position in future periods. Our critical accounting policies relate to:
 
  •  general and product liability and other litigation,
 
  •  workers’ compensation,
 
  •  recoverability of goodwill,
 
  •  deferred tax asset valuation allowance and uncertain income tax positions, and
 
  •  pensions and other postretirement benefits.
 
General and Product Liability and Other Litigation.  General and product liability and other recorded litigation liabilities are recorded based on management’s assessment that a loss arising from these matters is probable. If the loss can be reasonably estimated, we record the amount of the estimated loss. If the loss is estimated within a range and no point within the range is more probable than another, we record the minimum amount in the range. As


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additional information becomes available, any potential liability related to these matters is assessed and the estimates are revised, if necessary. Loss ranges are based upon the specific facts of each claim or class of claims and are determined after review by counsel. Court rulings on our cases or similar cases may impact our assessment of the probability and our estimate of the loss, which may have an impact on our reported results of operations, financial position and liquidity. We record receivables for insurance recoveries related to our litigation claims when it is probable that we will receive reimbursement from the insurer. Specifically, we are a defendant in numerous lawsuits alleging various asbestos-related personal injuries purported to result from alleged exposure to asbestos 1) in certain rubber encapsulated products or aircraft braking systems manufactured by us in the past, or 2) in certain of our facilities. Typically, these lawsuits have been brought against multiple defendants in Federal and state courts.
 
A significant assumption in our estimated asbestos liability is the period over which the liability can be reasonably estimated. Due to the difficulties in making these estimates, analysis based on new data and/or changed circumstances arising in the future may result in an increase in the recorded obligation in an amount that cannot be reasonably estimated, and that increase may be significant. We had recorded liabilities for both asserted and unasserted asbestos claims, inclusive of defense costs, totaling $126 million at December 31, 2010. The portion of the liability associated with unasserted asbestos claims and related defense costs was $63 million. At December 31, 2010, we estimate that it is reasonably possible that our gross liabilities, net of our estimate for probable insurance recoveries, could exceed our recorded amounts by approximately $10 million.
 
We maintain primary insurance coverage under coverage-in-place agreements as well as excess liability insurance with respect to asbestos liabilities. We record a receivable with respect to such policies when we determine that recovery is probable and we can reasonably estimate the amount of a particular recovery. This determination is based on consultation with our outside legal counsel and taking into consideration agreements in principle with certain of our insurance carriers, the financial viability and legal obligations of our insurance carriers and other relevant factors.
 
As of December 31, 2010, (i) we had recorded a receivable related to asbestos claims of $67 million, and (ii) we expect that approximately 50% of asbestos claim related losses would be recoverable through insurance through the period covered by the estimated liability. The receivables recorded consist of an amount we expect to collect under coverage-in-place agreements with certain primary carriers as well as an amount we believe is probable of recovery from certain of our excess coverage insurance carriers. Of this amount, $8 million was included in Current Assets as part of Accounts receivable at December 31, 2010.
 
Workers’ Compensation.  We had recorded liabilities, on a discounted basis, of $291 million for anticipated costs related to U.S. workers’ compensation claims at December 31, 2010. The costs include an estimate of expected settlements on pending claims, defense costs and a provision for claims incurred but not reported. These estimates are based on our assessment of potential liability using an analysis of available information with respect to pending claims, historical experience, and current cost trends. The amount of our ultimate liability in respect of these matters may differ from these estimates. We periodically, and at least annually, update our loss development factors based on actuarial analyses. The liability is discounted using the risk-free rate of return.
 
For further information on general and product liability and other litigation, and workers’ compensation, refer to the Note to the Consolidated Financial Statements No. 19, Commitments and Contingent Liabilities.
 
Recoverability of Goodwill.  Goodwill is not amortized. Rather, goodwill is tested for impairment annually or more frequently if an indicator of impairment is present. Goodwill totaled $683 million at December 31, 2010.
 
We have determined our reporting units to be consistent with our operating segments comprised of four strategic business units: North American Tire, Europe, Middle East and Africa Tire, Latin American Tire, and Asia Pacific Tire. Goodwill is allocated to these reporting units based on the original purchase price allocation for acquisitions within the various reporting units. There have been no changes to our reporting units or in the manner in which goodwill was allocated in 2010.
 
Our annual impairment testing is conducted as of July 31st each year and for 2010 our analysis indicated no impairment of goodwill. For purposes of our annual testing in 2010, we determined the estimated fair values using a discounted cash flow approach. We believe this methodology is appropriate in the determination of fair value. We


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may also use different fair value techniques when we believe a discounted cash flow approach may not provide an appropriate determination of fair value.
 
The discounted cash flow model of the reporting units is based on the forecasted operating cash flow for the current year, projected operating cash flows for the next nine years (determined using forecasted amounts as well as an estimated growth rate) and a terminal value beyond ten years. Discounted cash flows consist of the operating cash flows for each business unit less an estimate for capital expenditures. The key assumptions incorporated in the discounted cash flow approach include growth rates, projected segment operating income, changes in working capital, our plan for capital expenditures, anticipated funding for pensions, and a discount rate equal to our assumed long term cost of capital. Corporate administrative expenses are allocations of corporate overhead that we make to each strategic business unit and are excluded from the discounted cash flow model. Cash flows may be adjusted to exclude certain non-recurring or unusual items. As segment operating income was the starting point for determining operating cash flow, which excludes non-recurring or unusual items, there were no other non-recurring or unusual items excluded from the calculations of operating cash flow in any of the periods included in our determination of fair value.
 
We consider significant decreases in forecasted cash flows in future periods to be an indication of a potential impairment. At the time of our annual impairment testing, fair value would have to decline in excess of 40% for North American Tire, over 45% for EMEA and over 20% for Asia Pacific Tire to reduce fair value below carrying value. The discount rate used would have to increase over two percentage points for North American Tire, over seven percentage points for EMEA and over two percentage points for Asia Pacific Tire or the assumed growth rate would have to be negative for each of the business units to indicate a potential impairment.
 
Deferred Tax Asset Valuation Allowance and Uncertain Income Tax Positions.  At December 31, 2010, we had a valuation allowance aggregating $3.1 billion against all of our net Federal and state and certain of our foreign net deferred tax assets.
 
We assess both negative and positive evidence when measuring the need for a valuation allowance. Evidence, such as operating results during the most recent three-year period, is given more weight than our expectations of future profitability, which are inherently uncertain. Our losses in the U.S. and certain foreign locations in recent periods represented sufficient negative evidence to require a full valuation allowance against our net Federal, state and certain of our foreign deferred tax assets. We intend to maintain a valuation allowance against our net deferred tax assets until sufficient positive evidence exists to support the realization of such assets.
 
The calculation of our tax liabilities involves dealing with uncertainties in the application of complex tax regulations. We recognize liabilities for anticipated tax audit issues based on our estimate of whether, and the extent to which, additional taxes will be due. If we ultimately determine that payment of these amounts is unnecessary, we reverse the liability and recognize a tax benefit during the period in which we determine that the liability is no longer necessary. We also recognize tax benefits to the extent that it is more likely than not that our positions will be sustained when challenged by the taxing authorities. We derecognize tax benefits when based on new information we determine that it is no longer more likely than not that our position will be sustained. To the extent we prevail in matters for which liabilities have been established, or determine we need to derecognize tax benefits recorded in prior periods, or that we are required to pay amounts in excess of our liabilities, our effective tax rate in a given period could be materially affected. An unfavorable tax settlement would require use of our cash, and result in an increase in our effective tax rate in the period of resolution. A favorable tax settlement would be recognized as a reduction in our effective tax rate in the period of resolution. We report interest and penalties related to uncertain income tax positions as income taxes. For additional information regarding uncertain income tax positions, refer to the Note to the Consolidated Financial Statements No. 15, Income Taxes.
 
Pensions and Other Postretirement Benefits.  Our recorded liabilities for pensions and other postretirement benefits are based on a number of assumptions, including:
 
  •  life expectancies,
 
  •  retirement rates,
 
  •  discount rates,


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  •  long term rates of return on plan assets,
 
  •  future compensation levels,
 
  •  future health care costs, and
 
  •  maximum company-covered benefit costs.
 
Certain of these assumptions are determined with the assistance of independent actuaries. Assumptions about life expectancies, retirement rates, future compensation levels and future health care costs are based on past experience and anticipated future trends, including an assumption about inflation. The discount rate for our U.S. plans is based on a yield curve derived from a portfolio of corporate bonds from issuers rated Aa or higher as of December 31 and is reviewed annually. Our expected benefit payment cash flows are discounted based on spot rates developed from the yield curve. The long term rate of return on plan assets is based on the compound annualized return of our U.S. pension fund over a period of 15 years or more, estimates of future long term rates of return on assets similar to the target allocation of our pension fund and long term inflation. Actual U.S. pension fund asset allocations are reviewed on a monthly basis and the pension fund is rebalanced to target ranges on an as-needed basis. These assumptions are reviewed regularly and revised when appropriate. Changes in one or more of them may affect the amount of our recorded liabilities and net periodic costs for these benefits. Other assumptions involving demographic factors such as retirement age, mortality and turnover are evaluated periodically and are updated to reflect our experience and expectations for the future. If the actual experience differs from expectations, our financial position, results of operations and liquidity in future periods may be affected.
 
The weighted average discount rate used in estimating the total liability for our U.S. pension and other postretirement benefit plans was 5.20% and 4.62%, respectively, at December 31, 2010, compared to 5.75% and 5.45% for our U.S. pension and other postretirement benefit plans, respectively, at December 31, 2009. The decrease in the discount rate at December 31, 2010 was due primarily to lower interest rate yields on highly rated corporate bonds. Interest cost included in our U.S. net periodic pension cost was $296 million in 2010, compared to $314 million in 2009 and $312 million in 2008. Interest cost included in our worldwide net periodic other postretirement benefits cost was $33 million in 2010, compared to $32 million in 2009 and $84 million in 2008. Interest cost decreased in 2009 as a result of the reduction in other postretirement benefits liability due to the VEBA settlement.
 
The following table presents the sensitivity of our U.S. projected pension benefit obligation, accumulated other postretirement benefits obligation, shareholders’ equity, and 2011 expense to the indicated increase/decrease in key assumptions:
 
                                 
        + / − Change at December 31, 2010
(Dollars in millions)   Change   PBO/ABO   Equity   2011 Expense
 
Pensions:
                               
Assumption:
                               
Discount rate
    +/− 0.5 %   $ 298     $ 298     $ 11  
Actual 2010 return on assets
    +/− 1.0 %     N/A       33       5  
Expected return on assets
    +/− 1.0 %     N/A       N/A       36  
Other Postretirement Benefits:
                               
Assumption:
                               
Discount rate
    +/− 0.5 %   $ 12     $ 12     $  
Health care cost trends — total cost
    +/− 1.0 %     3       3        
 
A significant portion of the net actuarial loss included in AOCL of $2,314 million in our U.S. pension plans as of December 31, 2010 is a result of 2008 plan asset losses and the overall decline in U.S. discount rates over time. For purposes of determining our 2010 U.S. net periodic pension expense, our funded status was such that we recognized $133 million of the net actuarial loss in 2010. We will recognize approximately $135 million of net actuarial losses in 2011. If our future experience is consistent with our assumptions as of December 31, 2010, actuarial loss recognition over the next few years will remain at an amount near that to be recognized in 2011 before it begins to gradually decline.


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The actual rate of return on our U.S. pension fund was 14.4%, 25.6% and (31.7)% in 2010, 2009 and 2008, respectively, as compared to the expected rate of 8.5% for all three years. We use the fair value of our pension assets in the calculation of pension expense for all of our U.S. pension plans.
 
We experienced a decrease in our U.S. discount rate at the end of 2010 and a large portion of the net actuarial loss included in AOCL of $180 million in our worldwide other postretirement benefit plans as of December 31, 2010 is a result of the overall decline in U.S. discount rates over time. The net actuarial loss increased from 2009 due to the decrease in the discount rate at December 31, 2010. For purposes of determining 2010 worldwide net periodic other postretirement benefits cost, we recognized $9 million of the net actuarial losses in 2010. We will recognize approximately $12 million of net actuarial losses in 2011. If our future experience is consistent with our assumptions as of December 31, 2010, actuarial loss recognition over the next few years will remain at an amount near that to be recognized in 2011 before it begins to gradually decline.
 
The weighted average amortization period for our U.S. plans is approximately 14 years.
 
For further information on pensions and other postretirement benefits, refer to the Note to the Consolidated Financial Statements No. 14, Pension, Other Postretirement Benefits and Savings Plans.
 
LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES
 
OVERVIEW
 
Our primary sources of liquidity are cash generated from our operating and financing activities. Our cash flows from operating activities are driven primarily by our operating results and changes in our working capital requirements and our cash flows from financing activities are dependent upon our ability to access credit or other capital.
 
We faced an uncertain business environment in 2010 as the global economy continued its recovery from the recessionary economic conditions that existed in many parts of the world during 2008 and 2009, particularly in North America and Europe. We also faced a number of substantial challenges, such as rapidly rising raw material and energy costs, wage inflation in emerging markets, continued pressure from our unfunded pension obligations, and the devaluation of the currency and economic weakness in Venezuela. Global tire industry demand, while improving, continues to be below pre-recessionary levels in North America and remains hard to predict, especially for OE production.
 
Given the uncertain economic environment, in 2010 we remained focused on cash flow in order to provide funding for investments in future growth, and took several actions to strengthen our liquidity, including:
 
  •  Further improvements in working capital through strong inventory management, improved vendor terms and good collections at year-end; and
 
  •  The successful completion of a $1.0 billion debt offering in August 2010 that addressed our 2011 debt maturities.
 
For further information on the other strategic initiatives we pursued in 2010, see “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Overview.”
 
At December 31, 2010, we had $2,005 million in Cash and cash equivalents, compared to $1,922 million at December 31, 2009. Cash and cash equivalents were favorably affected by the reduced net loss compared to 2009, improvements in trade working capital of $52 million and proceeds from the issuance of our $1.0 billion 8.25% senior notes due 2020. Partially offsetting these increases in Cash and cash equivalents were capital expenditures of $944 million and the redemption of $973 million of outstanding notes, including $713 million of notes due in 2011 and $260 million of notes due in 2015.


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At December 31, 2010 and 2009, we had $2,475 million and $2,567 million, respectively, of unused availability under our various credit agreements. The table below provides unused availability by our significant credit facilities as of December 31:
 
                 
(In millions)   2010     2009  
 
$1.5 billion first lien revolving credit facility due 2013
  $ 1,001     $ 892  
€505 million revolving credit facility due 2012
    664       712  
China financing agreements
    394       530  
Other U.S. and international debt
    158       124  
Notes payable and overdrafts
    258       309  
                 
    $ 2,475     $ 2,567  
                 
 
At December 31, 2010, our unused availability included $394 million which can only be used to finance the relocation and expansion of our manufacturing facilities in China. These credit facilities, along with government grants, should provide funding for most of the cost related to the relocation and expansion of these manufacturing facilities. There were $153 million of borrowings outstanding under these credit facilities at December 31, 2010.
 
We have deposited our cash and cash equivalents and entered into various credit agreements and derivative contracts with financial institutions that we considered to be substantial and creditworthy at the time of such transactions. We seek to control our exposure to these financial institutions by diversifying our deposits, credit agreements and derivative contracts across multiple financial institutions, by setting deposit and counterparty credit limits based on long term credit ratings and other indicators of credit risk such as credit default swap spreads, and by monitoring the financial strength of these financial institutions on a regular basis. We also enter into master netting agreements with counterparties when possible. By controlling and monitoring exposure to financial institutions in this manner, we believe that we effectively manage the risk of loss due to nonperformance by a financial institution. However, we cannot provide assurance that we will not experience losses or delays in accessing our deposits or lines of credit due to the nonperformance of a financial institution. Our inability to access our cash deposits or make draws on our lines of credit, or the inability of a counterparty to fulfill its contractual obligations to us, could have a material adverse effect on our liquidity, financial position or results of operations in the period in which it occurs.
 
In 2011, we expect our operating needs to include global contributions to our funded pension plans of approximately $250 million to $300 million and our investing needs to include capital expenditures of approximately $1.1 billion to $1.2 billion. We also expect interest expense to range between $350 million and $375 million. The strategic initiatives described above are intended to permit us to operate the business in a way that allows us to address these needs with our existing cash and available credit if they cannot be funded by cash generated from operations. If market opportunities exist, we may choose to undertake additional financing actions in order to further enhance our liquidity position which could include obtaining new bank debt or capital markets transactions.
 
In March 2010, we completed an offer to exchange our outstanding 7.857% notes due 2011 for a new series of 8.75% notes due 2020. A total of $262 million in aggregate principal amount of the 7.857% notes due 2011 were validly tendered, and $282 million in aggregate principal amount of the 8.75% notes due 2020 were issued in the exchange.
 
In August 2010, we issued $1.0 billion aggregate principal amount of 8.25% senior notes due 2020. We used the net proceeds from the offerings of those notes, together with available cash, to redeem $973 million aggregate principal amount of outstanding notes on September 29, 2010, including $713 million of notes due in 2011 and $260 million of notes due in 2015. As a result of these transactions, we have paid off all of our material debt maturities due in 2011.
 
On June 25, 2010, the Preservation of Access to Care for Medicare Beneficiaries and Pension Relief Act of 2010 (the “Pension Relief Act”) was signed into law. The Pension Relief Act provides funding relief for defined benefit pension plan sponsors by deferring near-term contributions. As allowed by the Pension Relief Act, we elected funding relief for the 2009 plan year and expect to elect funding relief for the 2011 plan year, which is expected to reduce our total U.S. pension contributions in 2011 to 2014 by approximately $275 million to $325 million. We currently estimate that we will be required to make contributions to our funded U.S. pension plans


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of approximately $200 million to $225 million in 2011. The reduction from funding relief will result in increased contributions in years after 2014.
 
SRI has certain minority exit rights that, if triggered and exercised, could require us to make a substantial payment to acquire SRI’s interests in GDTE and GDTNA following the determination of the fair value of SRI’s interests. For further information regarding our global alliance with SRI, including the events that could trigger SRI’s exit rights, see “Item 1. Business. Description of Goodyear’s Business — Global Alliance.” As of the date of this filing, SRI has not provided us notice of any exit rights that have become exercisable.
 
Our ability to service debt and operational requirements is also dependent, in part, on the ability of our subsidiaries to make distributions of cash to various other entities in our consolidated group, whether in the form of dividends, loans or otherwise. In certain countries where we operate, such as Venezuela, transfers of funds into or out of such countries by way of dividends, loans, advances or payments to third-party or affiliated suppliers are generally or periodically subject to certain requirements, such as obtaining approval from the foreign government and/or currency exchange board before net assets can be transferred out of the country. In addition, certain of our credit agreements and other debt instruments limit the ability of foreign subsidiaries to make distributions of cash. Thus, we would have to repay and/or amend these credit agreements and other debt instruments in order to use this cash to service our consolidated debt. Because of the inherent uncertainty of satisfactorily meeting these requirements or limitations, we do not consider the net assets of our subsidiaries, including our Venezuelan subsidiary, that are subject to such requirements or limitations to be integral to our liquidity or our ability to service our debt and operational requirements. At December 31, 2010, approximately $627 million of net assets were subject to such restrictions.
 
Effective January 1, 2010, Venezuela’s economy was considered to be highly inflationary under U.S. generally accepted accounting principles since it experienced a rate of general inflation in excess of 100% over the latest three year period, based upon the blended Consumer Price Index and National Consumer Price Index. Accordingly, the U.S. dollar was determined to be the functional currency of our Venezuelan subsidiary. All gains and losses resulting from the remeasurement of its financial statements since January 1, 2010 were determined using official exchange rates and are reported in Other Expense.
 
On January 8, 2010, Venezuela established a two-tier exchange rate structure for essential and non-essential goods. For essential goods the official exchange rate was 2.6 bolivares fuertes to the U.S. dollar and for non-essential goods the official exchange rate was 4.3 bolivares fuertes to the U.S. dollar. As announced by the Venezuelan government in December 2010, on January 1, 2011, the two-tier exchange rate structure was eliminated and the official exchange rate for essential goods cannot be used for our unsettled amounts at December 31, 2010. Effective January 1, 2011, the official exchange rate of 4.3 bolivares fuertes to the U.S. dollar was established for substantially all goods.
 
The $110 million foreign currency exchange loss in the first quarter of 2010 primarily consisted of a $157 million remeasurement loss on bolivar-denominated net monetary assets and liabilities, including deferred taxes, at the time of the January 2010 devaluation. The loss was primarily related to cash deposits in Venezuela that were remeasured at the official exchange rate of 4.3 bolivares fuertes applicable to non-essential goods, and was partially offset by a $47 million subsidy receivable related to U.S. dollar-denominated payables that were expected to be settled at the official subsidy exchange rate of 2.6 bolivares fuertes applicable to essential goods. Since we expected these payables to be settled at the subsidy essential goods rate, we established a subsidy receivable to reflect the expected benefit to be received in the form of the difference between the essential and non-essential goods exchange rates. Throughout 2010, we periodically assessed our ability to realize the benefit of the subsidy receivable, and a substantial portion of purchases by our Venezuelan subsidiary had qualified and settled at the official exchange rate for essential goods.
 
As a result of the elimination of the official subsidy exchange rate for essential goods, we no longer expect our Venezuelan subsidiary to settle payables at that exchange rate. Accordingly, we recorded a foreign exchange loss of $24 million in the fourth quarter of 2010 related to the reversal of the subsidy receivable at December 31, 2010.
 
If in the future we convert bolivares fuertes at a rate other than the official exchange rate or the official exchange rate is revised, we may realize additional losses that would be recorded in the statement of operations. At


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December 31, 2010, we had bolivar fuerte denominated monetary assets of $210 million which consisted primarily of $188 million of cash, $18 million of deferred tax assets and $4 million of accounts receivable, and bolivar fuerte denominated monetary liabilities of $44 million which consisted primarily of $17 million of intercompany payables, $12 million of accounts payable — trade and $7 million of compensation and benefits. At December 31, 2009, we had bolivar fuerte denominated monetary assets of $389 million which consisted primarily of $370 million of cash, $11 million of deferred tax assets and $5 million of accounts receivable, and bolivar fuerte denominated monetary liabilities of $78 million which consisted primarily of $29 million of income taxes payable, $19 million of accounts payable — trade, and $11 million of compensation and benefits. All monetary assets and liabilities were remeasured at 4.3 bolivares fuertes to the U.S. dollar at December 31, 2010, and were translated at 2.15 bolivares fuertes to the U.S. dollar at December 31, 2009.
 
Goodyear Venezuela’s sales were 1.2% and 2.4% of our net sales for the twelve months ended December 31, 2010 and 2009, respectively. Goodyear Venezuela’s operating income was 6.4% and 38.4% of our segment operating income for the twelve months ended December 31, 2010 and 2009, respectively. The percentage for the twelve months ended December 31, 2009 was high due to the operating loss in 2009 in North American Tire. Goodyear Venezuela’s sales are bolivar fuerte denominated and cost of goods sold are approximately 50% bolivar fuerte denominated and approximately 50% U.S. dollar denominated. A further 10% decrease in the bolivar fuerte against the U.S. dollar would decrease Goodyear Venezuela’s sales and increase cost of goods sold by approximately $40 million and approximately $30 million, respectively, on an annual basis.
 
During 2010, Goodyear Venezuela settled $116 million and $20 million, respectively, of U.S. dollar-denominated intercompany payables and accounts payable — trade. For the twelve month period ended December 31, 2010, approximately 98% of those payables were settled at the essential goods rate of 2.6 bolivares fuertes to the U.S. dollar. At December 31, 2010, settlements of U.S. dollar-denominated liabilities pending before the currency exchange board were $107 million. At December 31, 2010, $19 million of the requested settlements were pending up to 180 days, $20 million were pending from 180 to 360 days and $68 million were pending over one year. Amounts pending from 180 to 360 days include dividends payable of $17 million and amounts pending over one year include imported tires of $27 million, intercompany charges for royalties of $15 million and dividends payable of $14 million. Currency exchange controls in Venezuela continue to limit our ability to remit funds from Venezuela.
 
Goodyear Venezuela contributed a significant portion of Latin American Tire’s sales and operating income in 2010 and 2009. The devaluation of the Venezuelan bolivar fuerte against the U.S. dollar in January 2010 and weak economic conditions and operational disruptions in Venezuela adversely impacted Latin American Tire’s operating income by approximately $85 million as compared to 2009. Additionally, we recorded $134 million in charges related to the devaluation of the bolivar fuerte in 2010 in Other Expense. The operational challenges we face include high absenteeism, a lack of supplies and difficulties importing raw materials and finished goods. In response to the devaluation and conditions in Venezuela, we continue to evaluate the need to adjust prices for our products while remaining competitive and have taken steps to address our operational challenges, including securing necessary approvals for import licenses and increasing the local production of certain tires. Our pricing policies take into account factors such as fluctuations in raw material cost, production cost, market demand and adherence to government price controls. As a result, the elimination of the two-tier exchange rate structure is not expected to have a significant impact on Latin American Tire’s sales and operating income in 2011 compared to 2010. For a discussion of the risks related to our international operations, including Venezuela, see “Item 1A. Risk Factors”.
 
We believe that our liquidity position is adequate to fund our operating and investing needs and debt maturities in 2011 and to provide us with flexibility to respond to further changes in the business environment. If market opportunities exist, we may choose to undertake additional financing actions in order to further enhance our liquidity position which could include obtaining new bank debt or capital markets transactions. However, the challenges of the present business environment may cause a material reduction in our liquidity as a result of an adverse change in our cash flow from operations or our access to credit or other capital. See “Item 1A. Risk Factors” for a more detailed discussion of these challenges.


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Cash Position
 
At December 31, 2010, significant concentrations of cash and cash equivalents held by our international subsidiaries included the following amounts:
 
  •  $415 million or 21% in Europe, Middle East and Africa, primarily Luxembourg, South Africa and Poland ($352 million or 18% at December 31, 2009),
 
  •  $393 million or 20% in Asia, primarily China, Australia and India ($217 million or 11% at December 31, 2009), and
 
  •  $368 million or 18% in Latin America, primarily Venezuela and Brazil ($533 million or 28% at December 31, 2009).
 
Operating Activities
 
Net cash provided by operations was $924 million in 2010, compared to $1,297 million in 2009 and net cash used of $739 million in 2008. Operating cash flows in 2010 were favorably impacted by the reduced net loss compared to 2009. Net cash provided by trade working capital was $52 million and $1,081 million in 2010 and 2009, respectively, and net cash used was $127 million in 2008. Operating cash flows in 2008 included $1,007 million of VEBA contributions.
 
Investing Activities
 
Net cash used in investing activities was $859 million in 2010, compared to $663 million in 2009 and $1,058 million in 2008. Capital expenditures were $944 million in 2010, compared to $746 million in 2009 and $1,049 million in 2008. Capital expenditures in 2010 increased from 2009 due primarily to the expansion of manufacturing capacity in China and Chile. Capital expenditures in 2009 and 2008 primarily related to projects targeted at increasing our capacity for high value-added tires, which were scaled back in 2009 due to the recessionary economic conditions. Investing cash flows included cash inflows of $26 million and $47 million in 2010 and 2009, respectively, and a net cash outflow of $76 million in 2008 related to The Reserve Primary Fund. Investing cash flows also reflect cash provided from the disposition of assets each year as a result of the realignment of operations under rationalization programs and the divestiture of non-core assets.
 
Financing Activities
 
Net cash provided by financing activities was $179 million in 2010, compared to cash used of $654 million in 2009 and cash provided of $264 million in 2008. Financing activities in 2010 included net proceeds from the issuance of our $1.0 billion 8.25% senior notes due 2020 offset by the redemption of $973 million of our 7.857% notes due 2011, 8.625% senior notes due 2011 and 9% senior notes due 2015. Also included in 2010 were borrowings of $150 million to support the relocation and expansion of our manufacturing facilities in China. Financing cash flows in 2009 included the net proceeds from the issuance of our $1.0 billion 10.5% senior notes due 2016, the $700 million net repayment of amounts incurred under our first lien revolving credit facility, and the repayment at maturity of our $500 million senior floating rate notes due 2009. Consolidated debt at December 31, 2010 was $4,745 million, compared to $4,520 million at December 31, 2009.
 
Financing cash flows in 2008 included outflows of $84 million for the acquisition of approximately 6% of the outstanding shares of our tire manufacturing subsidiary in Poland and the acquisition of the remaining 25% ownership in our tire manufacturing and distribution subsidiary in China.
 
Credit Sources
 
In aggregate, we had total credit arrangements of $7,689 million available at December 31, 2010, of which $2,475 million were unused, compared to $7,579 million available at December 31, 2009, of which $2,567 million were unused. At December 31, 2010, we had long term credit arrangements totaling $7,193 million, of which $2,217 million were unused, compared to $7,046 million and $2,258 million, respectively, at December 31, 2009. At December 31, 2010, we had short term committed and uncommitted credit arrangements totaling $496 million,


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of which $258 million were unused, compared to $533 million and $309 million, respectively, at December 31, 2009. The continued availability of the short term uncommitted arrangements is at the discretion of the relevant lender and may be terminated at any time.
 
Outstanding Notes
 
At December 31, 2010, we had $2,371 million of outstanding notes, compared to $2,345 million at December 31, 2009.
 
On March 5, 2010, we completed an offer to exchange our outstanding 7.857% notes due 2011 (“2011 Notes”) for a new series of 8.75% notes due 2020 (“2020 Notes”). A total of $262 million in aggregate principal amount of the 2011 Notes were validly tendered, and $282 million in aggregate principal amount of the 2020 Notes were issued in the exchange.
 
On August 13, 2010, we issued $900 million aggregate principal amount of 8.25% senior notes due 2020. These notes were sold at 99.163% of the principal amount at an effective yield of 8.375% and will mature on August 15, 2020. On August 25, 2010, we issued $100 million aggregate principal amount of additional notes, which were sold at 100.750% of the principal amount at an effective yield of 8.119%. These notes are unsecured senior obligations and are guaranteed by our U.S. and Canadian subsidiaries that also guarantee our obligations under our senior secured credit facilities described below.
 
On September 29, 2010, we redeemed all of our outstanding 2011 Notes, 8.625% senior notes due 2011, and 9% senior notes due 2015. The aggregate redemption price for these redemptions was $1,023 million, including a prepayment premium of $50 million.
 
Certain of our notes were issued pursuant to indentures that contain varying covenants and other terms. In general, the terms of our indentures, among other things, limit our ability and the ability of certain of our subsidiaries to (i) incur additional debt or issue redeemable preferred stock, (ii) pay dividends, or make certain other restricted payments or investments, (iii) incur liens, (iv) sell assets, (v) incur restrictions on the ability of our subsidiaries to pay dividends to us, (vi) enter into affiliate transactions, (vii) engage in sale and leaseback transactions, and (viii) consolidate, merge, sell or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of our assets. These covenants are subject to significant exceptions and qualifications. For example, under certain of our indentures, if the notes are assigned an investment grade rating by Moody’s and Standard & Poor’s (“S&P”) and no default has occurred or is continuing, certain covenants will be suspended.
 
For additional information on our outstanding notes, refer to the Note to Consolidated Financial Statements, No. 12, Financing Arrangements and Derivative Financial Instruments.
 
€505 Million Amended and Restated Senior Secured European and German Revolving Credit Facilities due 2012
 
Our amended and restated €505 million revolving credit facilities consist of a €155 million German revolving credit facility, which is only available to one of the German subsidiaries (the “German borrower”) of GDTE, and a €350 million European revolving credit facility, which is available to the same German borrower and to GDTE and certain of its other subsidiaries and contains a €50 million letter of credit sublimit. Goodyear and its subsidiaries that guarantee our U.S. facilities provide unsecured guarantees to support the German and European revolving credit facilities and GDTE and certain of its subsidiaries in the United Kingdom, Luxembourg, France and Germany also provide guarantees. GDTE’s obligations under the facilities and the obligations of its subsidiaries under the related guarantees are secured by first priority security interests in a variety of collateral.
 
As of December 31, 2010 and December 31, 2009, there were no borrowings under the German or the European revolving credit facilities. Letters of credit issued under the European revolving credit facility totaled $12 million (€9 million) as of December 31, 2010 and $14 million (€10 million) as of December 31, 2009.
 
$1.5 Billion Amended and Restated First Lien Revolving Credit Facility due 2013
 
Our $1.5 billion first lien revolving credit facility is available in the form of loans or letters of credit, with letter of credit availability limited to $800 million. Subject to the consent of the lenders whose commitments are to be


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increased, we may request that the facility be increased by up to $250 million. Our obligations under the facility are guaranteed by most of our wholly-owned U.S. and Canadian subsidiaries. Our obligations under this facility and our subsidiaries’ obligations under the related guarantees are secured by first priority security interests in various collateral. Availability under the facility is subject to a borrowing base, which is based on eligible accounts receivable and inventory of The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company (the “Parent Company”) and certain of its U.S. and Canadian subsidiaries, after adjusting for customary factors that are subject to modification from time to time by the administrative agent and the majority lenders at their discretion (not to be exercised unreasonably). Modifications are based on the results of periodic collateral and borrowing base evaluations and appraisals. To the extent that our eligible accounts receivable and inventory decline, our borrowing base will decrease and the availability under the facility may decrease below $1.5 billion. In addition, if the amount of outstanding borrowings and letters of credit under the facility exceeds the borrowing base, we are required to prepay borrowings and/or cash collateralize letters of credit sufficient to eliminate the excess. As of December 31, 2010, our borrowing base, and therefore our availability, under this facility was $25 million below the facility’s stated amount of $1.5 billion.
 
At December 31, 2010 and 2009, we had no borrowings outstanding and $474 million and $494 million, respectively, of letters of credit issued under the revolving credit facility.
 
$1.2 Billion Amended and Restated Second Lien Term Loan Facility due 2014
 
Our amended and restated second lien term loan facility may be increased by up to $300 million at our request, subject to the consent of the lenders making additional term loans. Our obligations under this facility are guaranteed by most of our wholly-owned U.S. and Canadian subsidiaries and are secured by second priority security interests in the same collateral securing the $1.5 billion first lien credit facility. At December 31, 2010 and December 31, 2009, this facility was fully drawn.
 
Each of our first lien revolving credit facility and our European and German revolving credit facilities have customary representations and warranties including, as a condition to borrowing, that all such representations and warranties are true and correct, in all material respects, on the date of the borrowing, including representations as to no material adverse change in our financial condition since December 31, 2006. Each of the facilities described above have customary defaults, including cross-defaults to material indebtedness of Goodyear and our subsidiaries. For a description of the collateral securing the above facilities as well as the covenants applicable to them, please refer to “Covenant Compliance” below and the Note to the Consolidated Financial Statements No. 12, Financing Arrangements and Derivative Financial Instruments.
 
International Accounts Receivable Securitization Facilities (On-Balance Sheet)
 
GDTE and certain of its subsidiaries are parties to a pan-European accounts receivable securitization facility that provides up to €450 million of funding and expires in 2015. Utilization under this facility is based on current available receivable balances. The facility is subject to customary annual renewal of back-up liquidity commitments.
 
The facility involves an ongoing daily sale of substantially all of the trade accounts receivable of certain GDTE subsidiaries to a bankruptcy-remote French company controlled by one of the liquidity banks in the facility. These subsidiaries retain servicing responsibilities. It is an event of default under the facility if the ratio of GDTE’s consolidated net indebtedness to its consolidated EBITDA is greater than 3.0 to 1.0. This financial covenant is substantially similar to the covenant included in the European credit facilities.
 
As of December 31, 2010 and 2009, the amount available and fully utilized under this program totaled $319 million (€238 million) and $437 million (€304 million), respectively. The program did not qualify for sale accounting, and accordingly, these amounts are included in long term debt and capital leases.
 
In addition to the pan-European accounts receivable securitization facility discussed above, subsidiaries in Australia have an accounts receivable securitization program totaling $72 million and $68 million at December 31, 2010 and 2009, respectively. The receivables sold under this program also serve as collateral for the related facility. We retain the risk of loss related to these receivables in the event of non-payment. These amounts are included in Notes payable and overdrafts.


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Accounts Receivable Factoring Facilities (Off-Balance Sheet)
 
Various subsidiaries sold certain of their trade receivables under off-balance sheet programs during 2010 and 2009. For these programs, we have concluded that there is no risk of loss to us from non-payment of the sold receivables. At December 31, 2010 and 2009, the gross amount of receivables sold was $126 million and $113 million, respectively.
 
Other Foreign Credit Facilities
 
Our Chinese subsidiary has two financing agreements in China. At December 31, 2010, these non-revolving credit facilities had total unused availability of up to 2.6 billion renminbi ($394 million) and can only be used to finance the relocation and expansion of our manufacturing facilities in China. The facilities contain covenants relating to our Chinese subsidiary and have customary representations and warranties and defaults relating to our Chinese subsidiary’s ability to perform its obligations under the facilities. One of the facilities (with 1.7 billion renminbi of unused availability at December 31, 2010) matures in 2016 and principal amortization begins in 2013. At December 31, 2010, there were $99 million of borrowings outstanding under this facility. The other facility (with 900 million renminbi of unused availability at December 31, 2010) matures in 2018 and principal amortization begins in 2015. At December 31, 2010, there were $54 million of borrowings outstanding under this facility. There were no amounts outstanding under either of the facilities at December 31, 2009.
 
Covenant Compliance
 
Our amended and restated first lien revolving and second lien credit facilities and some of the indentures governing our notes contain certain covenants that, among other things, limit our ability to incur additional debt or issue redeemable preferred stock, make certain restricted payments or investments, incur liens, sell assets, incur restrictions on the ability of our subsidiaries to pay dividends to us, enter into affiliate transactions, engage in sale and leaseback transactions, and consolidate, merge, sell or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of our assets. These covenants are subject to significant exceptions and qualifications.
 
We have additional financial covenants in our first lien revolving and second lien credit facilities that are currently not applicable. We only become subject to these financial covenants when certain events occur. These financial covenants and related events are as follows:
 
  •  We become subject to the financial covenant contained in our first lien revolving credit facility when the aggregate amount of our Parent Company and Guarantor subsidiaries cash and cash equivalents (“Available Cash”) plus our availability under our first lien revolving credit facility is less than $150 million. If this were to occur, our ratio of EBITDA to Consolidated Interest Expense may not be less than 2.0 to 1.0 for any period of four consecutive fiscal quarters. As of December 31, 2010, our availability under this facility of $1,001 million, plus our Available Cash of $830 million, totaled $1.8 billion, which is in excess of $150 million.
 
  •  We become subject to a covenant contained in our second lien credit facility upon certain asset sales. The covenant provides that, before we use cash proceeds from certain asset sales to repay any junior lien, senior unsecured or subordinated indebtedness, we must first offer to prepay borrowings under the second lien credit facility unless our ratio of Consolidated Net Secured Indebtedness to EBITDA (Pro Forma Senior Secured Leverage Ratio) for any period of four consecutive fiscal quarters is equal to or less than 3.0 to 1.0.
 
In addition, our €505 million senior secured European and German revolving credit facilities contain non-financial covenants similar to the non-financial covenants in our first lien revolving and second lien credit facilities that are described above and a financial covenant applicable only to GDTE and its subsidiaries. This financial covenant provides that we are not permitted to allow GDTE’s ratio of Consolidated Net J.V. Indebtedness to Consolidated European J.V. EBITDA to be greater than 3.0 to 1.0 at the end of any fiscal quarter. Consolidated Net J.V. Indebtedness is determined net of the sum of cash and cash equivalents in excess of $100 million held by GDTE and its subsidiaries, and through March 31, 2011, cash and cash equivalents in excess of $150 million held by the Parent Company and its U.S. subsidiaries and availability under our first lien revolving credit facility if the ratio of EBITDA to Consolidated Interest Expense described above is not applicable and the conditions to borrowing under the first lien revolving credit facility are met. Consolidated Net J.V. Indebtedness also excludes loans from other


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consolidated Goodyear entities. This financial covenant is also included in our pan-European accounts receivable securitization facility. As of December 31, 2010, we were in compliance with this financial covenant.
 
Our amended and restated credit facilities also state that we may only incur additional debt or make restricted payments that are not otherwise expressly permitted if, after giving effect to the debt incurrence or the restricted payment, our ratio of EBITDA to Consolidated Interest Expense for the prior four fiscal quarters would exceed 2.0 to 1.0. Certain of our senior note indentures have substantially similar limitations on incurring debt and making restricted payments. Our credit facilities and indentures also permit the incurrence of additional debt through other provisions in those agreements without regard to our ability to satisfy the ratio-based incurrence test described above. We believe that these other provisions provide us with sufficient flexibility to incur additional debt necessary to meet our operating, investing, and financing needs without regard to our ability to satisfy the ratio-based incurrence test.
 
There are no known future changes to, or new covenants in, any of our existing debt obligations other than as described above. Covenants could change based upon a refinancing or amendment of an existing facility, or additional covenants may be added in connection with the incurrence of new debt.
 
As of December 31, 2010, we were in compliance with the currently applicable material covenants imposed by our principal credit facilities and indentures.
 
The terms “Available Cash,” “EBITDA,” “Consolidated Interest Expense,” “Consolidated Net Secured Indebtedness,” “Pro Forma Senior Secured Leverage Ratio,” “Consolidated Net J.V. Indebtedness” and “Consolidated European J.V. EBITDA” have the meanings given them in the respective credit facilities.
 
Potential Future Financings
 
In addition to our previous financing activities, we may seek to undertake additional financing actions which could include restructuring bank debt or capital markets transactions, possibly including the issuance of additional debt or equity. Given the challenges that we face and the uncertainties of the market conditions, access to the capital markets cannot be assured.
 
Our future liquidity requirements may make it necessary for us to incur additional debt. However, a substantial portion of our assets are already subject to liens securing our indebtedness. As a result, we are limited in our ability to pledge our remaining assets as security for additional secured indebtedness. In addition, no assurance can be given as to our ability to raise additional unsecured debt.
 
Dividends
 
Under our primary credit facilities we are permitted to pay dividends on our common stock as long as no default will have occurred and be continuing, additional indebtedness can be incurred under the credit facilities following the payment, and certain financial tests are satisfied.
 
Asset Dispositions
 
The restrictions on asset sales imposed by our material indebtedness have not affected our strategy of divesting non-core businesses, and those divestitures have not affected our ability to comply with those restrictions.


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COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENT LIABILITIES
 
Contractual Obligations
 
The following table presents our contractual obligations and commitments to make future payments as of December 31, 2010:
 
                                                         
    Payment Due by Period as of December 31, 2010  
(In millions)   Total     2011     2012     2013     2014     2015     Beyond 2015  
 
Debt Obligations(1)
  $ 4,727     $ 423     $ 97     $ 103     $ 1,207     $ 324     $ 2,573  
Capital Lease Obligations(2)
    18       3       4       10       1              
Interest Payments(3)
    2,068       313       286       274       254       241       700  
Operating Leases(4)
    1,322       309       249       193       144       108       319  
Pension Benefits(5)
    2,277       325       588       563       463       338       NA  
Other Postretirement Benefits(6)
    471       59       55       51       49       47       210  
Workers’ Compensation(7)
    390       71       52       38       29       23       177  
Binding Commitments(8)
    3,326       2,719       379       150       21       16       41  
Uncertain Income Tax Positions(9)
    36       19       2       11             1       3  
                                                         
    $ 14,635     $ 4,241     $ 1,712     $ 1,393     $ 2,168     $ 1,098     $ 4,023  
                                                         
 
 
(1) Debt obligations include Notes payable and overdrafts.
 
(2) The minimum lease payments for capital lease obligations are $22 million.
 
(3) These amounts represent future interest payments related to our existing debt obligations and capital leases based on fixed and variable interest rates specified in the associated debt and lease agreements. Payments related to variable rate debt are based on the six-month LIBOR rate at December 31, 2010 plus the specified margin in the associated debt agreements for each period presented. The amounts provided relate only to existing debt obligations and do not assume the refinancing or replacement of such debt.
 
(4) Operating lease obligations have not been reduced by minimum sublease rentals of $45 million, $37 million, $27 million, $19 million, $11 million and $15 million in each of the periods above, respectively, for a total of $154 million. Payments, net of minimum sublease rentals, total $1,168 million. The present value of the net operating lease payments is $903 million. The operating leases relate to, among other things, real estate, vehicles, data processing equipment and miscellaneous other assets. No asset is leased from any related party.
 
(5) The obligation related to pension benefits is actuarially determined and is reflective of obligations as of December 31, 2010. Although subject to change, the amounts set forth in the table for 2011, 2012 and 2013 represent the midpoint of the range of our estimated minimum funding requirements for U.S. defined benefit pension plans under current ERISA law, including the expected election of funding relief for the 2011 plan year as allowed by the Pension Relief Act; and the midpoint of the range of our expected contributions to our funded non-U.S. pension plans, plus expected cash funding of direct participant payments to our U.S. and non-U.S. pension plans. For years after 2013, the amounts shown in the table represent the midpoint of the range of our estimated minimum funding requirements for our U.S. defined benefit pension plans, plus expected cash funding of direct participant payments to our U.S. and non-U.S. pension plans, and do not include estimates for contributions to our funded non-U.S. pension plans.
 
The expected contributions for our U.S. plans are based upon a number of assumptions, including:
 
Projected Target Liability interest rate of 6.20% for 2011, 5.38% for 2012, 5.32% for 2013, 5.50% for 2014 and 5.65% for 2015, and
 
plan asset returns of 8.5% for 2011 and beyond.


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Future contributions are also affected by other factors such as:
 
future interest rate levels,
 
the amount and timing of asset returns, and
 
how contributions in excess of the minimum requirements could impact the amounts and timing of future contributions.
 
(6) The payments presented above are expected payments for the next 10 years. The payments for other postretirement benefits reflect the estimated benefit payments of the plans using the provisions currently in effect. Under the relevant summary plan descriptions or plan documents we have the right to modify or terminate the plans. The obligation related to other postretirement benefits is actuarially determined on an annual basis. The estimated payments have been reduced to reflect the provisions of the Medicare Prescription Drug Improvement and Modernization Act of 2003.
 
(7) The payments for workers’ compensation obligations are based upon recent historical payment patterns on claims. The present value of anticipated claims payments for workers’ compensation is $291 million.
 
(8) Binding commitments are for raw materials, capital expenditures, utilities, and various other types of contracts. The obligations to purchase raw materials include supply contracts at both fixed and variable prices. Those with variable prices are based on index rates for those commodities at December 31, 2010.
 
(9) These amounts primarily represent expected payments with interest for uncertain tax positions as of December 31, 2010. We have reflected them in the period in which we believe they will be ultimately settled based upon our experience with these matters.
 
Additional other long term liabilities include items such as general and product liabilities, environmental liabilities and miscellaneous other long term liabilities. These other liabilities are not contractual obligations by nature. We cannot, with any degree of reliability, determine the years in which these liabilities might ultimately be settled. Accordingly, these other long term liabilities are not included in the above table.
 
In addition, the following contingent contractual obligations, the amounts of which cannot be estimated, are not included in the table above:
 
  •  The terms and conditions of our global alliance with SRI, as set forth in the global alliance agreements between SRI and us, provide for certain minority exit rights available to SRI upon the occurrence of certain events enumerated in the global alliance agreements, including certain bankruptcy events, changes in our control or breaches of the global alliance agreements. SRI’s exit rights, in the event of the occurrence of a triggering event and the subsequent exercise of SRI’s exit rights, could require us to make a substantial payment to acquire SRI’s minority interests in GDTE and GDTNA following the determination of the fair value of SRI’s interests. For further information regarding our global alliance with SRI, including the events that could trigger SRI’s exit rights, see “Item 1. Business. Description of Goodyear’s Business — Global Alliance.”
 
  •  Pursuant to certain long term agreements, we will purchase varying amounts of certain raw materials and finished goods at agreed upon base prices that may be subject to periodic adjustments for changes in raw material costs and market price adjustments, or in quantities that may be subject to periodic adjustments for changes in our or our suppliers production levels.
 
We do not engage in the trading of commodity contracts or any related derivative contracts. We generally purchase raw materials and energy through short term, intermediate and long term supply contracts at fixed prices or at formula prices related to market prices or negotiated prices. We may, however, from time to time, enter into contracts to hedge our energy costs.
 
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
 
An off-balance sheet arrangement is any transaction, agreement or other contractual arrangement involving an unconsolidated entity under which a company has:
 
  •  made guarantees,
 
  •  retained or held a contingent interest in transferred assets,


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  •  undertaken an obligation under certain derivative instruments, or
 
  •  undertaken any obligation arising out of a material variable interest in an unconsolidated entity that provides financing, liquidity, market risk or credit risk support to the company, or that engages in leasing, hedging or research and development arrangements with the company.
 
We have entered into certain arrangements under which we have provided guarantees that are off-balance sheet arrangements. Those guarantees totaled approximately $26 million at December 31, 2010 and expire at various times through 2023. For further information about our guarantees, refer to the Note to the Consolidated Financial Statements No. 19, Commitments and Contingent Liabilities.
 
FORWARD-LOOKING INFORMATION — SAFE HARBOR STATEMENT
 
Certain information in this Form 10-K (other than historical data and information) may constitute forward-looking statements regarding events and trends that may affect our future operating results and financial position. The words “estimate,” “expect,” “intend” and “project,” as well as other words or expressions of similar meaning, are intended to identify forward-looking statements. You are cautioned not to place undue reliance on forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date of this Form 10-K. Such statements are based on current expectations and assumptions, are inherently uncertain, are subject to risks and should be viewed with caution. Actual results and experience may differ materially from the forward-looking statements as a result of many factors, including:
 
  •  if we do not achieve projected savings from various cost reduction initiatives or successfully implement other strategic initiatives our operating results, financial condition and liquidity may be materially adversely affected;
 
  •  higher raw material and energy costs may materially adversely affect our operating results and financial condition;
 
  •  our pension plans are significantly underfunded and further increases in the underfunded status of the plans could significantly increase the amount of our required contributions and pension expense;
 
  •  we face significant global competition, increasingly from lower cost manufacturers, and our market share could decline;
 
  •  deteriorating economic conditions in any of our major markets, or an inability to access capital markets or third-party financing when necessary, may materially adversely affect our operating results, financial condition and liquidity;
 
  •  the challenges of the present business environment may cause a material reduction in our liquidity as a result of an adverse change in our cash flow from operations;
 
  •  work stoppages, financial difficulties or supply disruptions at our major OE customers, dealers or suppliers could harm our business;
 
  •  our capital expenditures may not be adequate to maintain our competitive position and may not be implemented in a timely or cost-effective manner;
 
  •  if we experience a labor strike, work stoppage or other similar event our financial position, results of operations and liquidity could be materially adversely affected;
 
  •  our long term ability to meet current obligations and to repay maturing indebtedness is dependent on our ability to access capital markets in the future and to improve our operating results;
 
  •  we have a substantial amount of debt, which could restrict our growth, place us at a competitive disadvantage or otherwise materially adversely affect our financial health;
 
  •  any failure to be in compliance with any material provision or covenant of our secured credit facilities could have a material adverse effect on our liquidity and our results of operations;
 
  •  our international operations have certain risks that may materially adversely affect our operating results;
 
  •  we have foreign currency translation and transaction risks that may materially adversely affect our operating results;
 
  •  our variable rate indebtedness subjects us to interest rate risk, which could cause our debt service obligations to increase significantly;


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  •  we have substantial fixed costs and, as a result, our operating income fluctuates disproportionately with changes in our net sales;
 
  •  we may incur significant costs in connection with product liability and other tort claims;
 
  •  our reserves for product liability and other tort claims and our recorded insurance assets are subject to various uncertainties, the outcome of which may result in our actual costs being significantly higher than the amounts recorded;
 
  •  we may be required to provide letters of credit or post cash collateral if we are subject to a significant adverse judgment or if we are unable to obtain surety bonds, which may have a material adverse effect on our liquidity;
 
  •  we are subject to extensive government regulations that may materially adversely affect our operating results;
 
  •  the terms and conditions of our global alliance with SRI provide for certain exit rights available to SRI upon the occurrence of certain events, which could require us to make a substantial payment to acquire SRI’s minority interests in GDTE and GDTNA following the determination of the fair value of those interests;
 
  •  if we are unable to attract and retain key personnel, our business could be materially adversely affected; and
 
  •  we may be impacted by economic and supply disruptions associated with events beyond our control, such as war, acts of terror, political unrest, public health concerns, labor disputes or natural disasters.
 
It is not possible to foresee or identify all such factors. We will not revise or update any forward-looking statement or disclose any facts, events or circumstances that occur after the date hereof that may affect the accuracy of any forward-looking statement.
 
ITEM 7A.   QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK.
 
We utilize derivative financial instrument contracts and nonderivative instruments to manage interest rate, foreign exchange and commodity price risks. We have established a control environment that includes policies and procedures for risk assessment and the approval, reporting and monitoring of derivative financial instrument activities. We do not hold or issue derivative financial instruments for trading purposes.
 
Commodity Price Risk
 
The raw materials costs to which our operations are principally exposed include the cost of natural rubber, synthetic rubber, carbon black, fabrics, steel cord and other petrochemical-based commodities. Approximately two-thirds of our raw materials are oil-based derivatives, whose cost may be affected by fluctuations in the price of oil. We currently do not hedge commodity prices. We do, however, use various strategies to partially offset cost increases for raw materials, including centralizing purchases of raw materials through our global procurement organization in an effort to leverage our purchasing power, expanding our capabilities to substitute lower-cost raw materials and reducing the amount of natural rubber required in each tire.
 
Interest Rate Risk
 
We continuously monitor our fixed and floating rate debt mix. Within defined limitations, we manage the mix using refinancing. At December 31, 2010, 41% of our debt was at variable interest rates averaging 3.72% compared to 44% at an average rate of 3.13% at December 31, 2009.


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The following table presents information about long term fixed rate debt, excluding capital leases, at December 31:
 
                 
(In millions)   2010   2009
 
Carrying amount — liability
  $ 2,691     $ 2,442  
Fair value — liability
    2,791       2,532  
Pro forma fair value — liability
    2,893       2,601  
 
The pro forma information assumes a 100 basis point decrease in market interest rates at December 31 of each year, and reflects the estimated fair value of fixed rate debt outstanding at that date under that assumption. The sensitivity of our fixed rate debt to changes in interest rates was determined using current market pricing models.
 
Foreign Currency Exchange Risk
 
We enter into foreign currency contracts in order to reduce the impact of changes in foreign exchange rates on our consolidated results of operations and future foreign currency-denominated cash flows. These contracts reduce exposure to currency movements affecting existing foreign currency-denominated assets, liabilities, firm commitments and forecasted transactions resulting primarily from trade receivables and payables, equipment acquisitions, intercompany loans and royalty agreements, and forecasted purchases and sales. Contracts hedging short-term trade receivables and payables normally have no hedging designation.
 
The following table presents foreign currency derivative information at December 31:
 
         
(In millions)   2010   2009
 
Fair value — asset (liability)
  $9   $22
Pro forma decrease in fair value
  (113)   (106)
Contract maturities
  1/11 - 10/19   1/10 - 10/19
 
The pro forma decrease in fair value assumes a 10% adverse change in underlying foreign exchange rates at December 31 of each year, and reflects the estimated change in the fair value of positions outstanding at that date under that assumption. The sensitivity of our foreign currency positions to changes in exchange rates was determined using current market pricing models.
 
Fair values are recognized on the Consolidated Balance Sheets at December 31 as follows:
 
         
(In millions)   2010   2009
 
Asset (liability):
       
Accounts receivable
  $25   $27
Other Assets
  1   1
Other current liabilities
  (17)   (6)
 
For further information on foreign currency contracts, refer to the Note to the Consolidated Financial Statements No. 12, Financing Arrangements and Derivative Financial Instruments.
 
See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Liquidity and Capital Resources” for a discussion of our management of counterparty risk.


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ITEM 8.   FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA.
 
INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
 
         
    Page
 
    60  
    61  
Consolidated Financial Statements of The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company:
       
    62  
    63  
    64  
    68  
    69  
    124  
Financial Statement Schedules:
       
The following consolidated financial statement schedules of The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company are filed as part of this Report on Form 10-K and should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements of The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company:
       
    FS-2  
    FS-8  
 
Schedules not listed above have been omitted since they are not applicable or are not required, or the information required to be set forth therein is included in the Consolidated Financial Statements or Notes thereto.


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MANAGEMENT’S REPORT ON INTERNAL CONTROL OVER FINANCIAL REPORTING
 
Management of the Company is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting as such term is defined under Rule 13a-15(f) promulgated under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.
 
Internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of the Company’s consolidated financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles.
 
Internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the Company; (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit the preparation of the consolidated financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the Company are being made only in accordance with appropriate authorizations of management and directors of the Company; and (iii) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use or disposition of the Company’s assets that could have a material effect on the consolidated financial statements.
 
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
 
Management conducted an assessment of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2010 using the framework specified in Internal Control — Integrated Framework, published by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission. Based on such assessment, management has concluded that the Company’s internal control over financial reporting was effective as of December 31, 2010.
 
The effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2010 has been audited by PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report which is presented in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.


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REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
 
To The Board of Directors and Shareholders of The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company
 
In our opinion, the accompanying consolidated financial statements listed in the accompanying index present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company and its subsidiaries at December 31, 2010 and 2009, and the results of their operations and their cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2010 in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. In addition, in our opinion, the financial statement schedules listed in the accompanying index present fairly, in all material respects, the information set forth therein when read in conjunction with the related consolidated financial statements. Also in our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2010, based on criteria established in Internal Control — Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO). The Company’s management is responsible for these financial statements and financial statement schedules, for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the accompanying Management’s Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting, appearing under Item 8. Our responsibility is to express opinions on these financial statements, on the financial statement schedules, and on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our integrated audits. We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement and whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audits of the financial statements included examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements, assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, and evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audits also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinions.
 
A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (iii) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
 
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
 
/s/ PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP
PRICEWATERHOUSECOOPERS LLP
 
Cleveland, Ohio
February 10, 2011


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THE GOODYEAR TIRE & RUBBER COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
 
                         
    Year Ended December 31,  
(In millions, except per share amounts)   2010     2009     2008  
 
Net Sales
  $ 18,832     $ 16,301     $ 19,488  
Cost of Goods Sold
    15,452       13,676       16,139  
Selling, Administrative and General Expense
    2,630       2,404       2,600  
Rationalizations (Note 2)
    240       227       184  
Interest Expense (Note 16)
    316       311       320  
Other Expense (Note 3)
    186       40       59  
                         
Income (Loss) before Income Taxes
    8       (357 )     186  
United States and Foreign Taxes (Note 15)
    172       7       209  
                         
Net Loss
    (164 )     (364 )     (23 )
Less: Minority Shareholders’ Net Income
    52       11       54  
                         
Goodyear Net Loss
  $ (216 )   $ (375 )   $ (77 )
                         
Goodyear Net Loss — Per Share
                       
Basic
  $ (0.89 )   $ (1.55 )   $ (0.32 )
                         
Weighted Average Shares Outstanding (Note 4)
    242       241       241  
Diluted
  $ (0.89 )   $ (1.55 )   $ (0.32 )
                         
Weighted Average Shares Outstanding (Note 4)
    242       241       241  
 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.


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THE GOODYEAR TIRE & RUBBER COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
 
                 
    December 31,  
(In millions)   2010     2009  
 
Assets
               
Current Assets:
               
Cash and Cash Equivalents (Note 1)
  $ 2,005     $ 1,922  
Accounts Receivable (Note 5)
    2,736       2,540  
Inventories (Note 6)
    2,977       2,443  
Prepaid Expenses and Other Current Assets (Note 8)
    327       320  
                 
Total Current Assets
    8,045       7,225  
Goodwill (Note 7)
    683       706  
Intangible Assets (Note 7)
    161       164  
Deferred Income Taxes (Note 15)
    58       43  
Other Assets (Note 8)
    518       429  
Property, Plant and Equipment (Note 9)
    6,165       5,843  
                 
Total Assets
  $ 15,630     $ 14,410  
                 
Liabilities
               
Current Liabilities:
               
Accounts Payable-Trade
  $ 3,107     $ 2,278  
Compensation and Benefits (Notes 13 and 14)
    756       635  
Other Current Liabilities
    1,018       844  
Notes Payable and Overdrafts (Note 12)
    238       224  
Long Term Debt and Capital Leases due Within One Year (Note 12)
    188       114  
                 
Total Current Liabilities
    5,307       4,095  
Long Term Debt and Capital Leases (Note 12)
    4,319       4,182  
Compensation and Benefits (Notes 13 and 14)
    3,415       3,526  
Deferred and Other Noncurrent Income Taxes (Note 15)
    242       235  
Other Long Term Liabilities
    842       793  
                 
Total Liabilities
    14,125       12,831  
Commitments and Contingent Liabilities (Note 19)
           
Minority Shareholders’ Equity (Note 1)
    584       593  
Shareholders’ Equity
               
Goodyear Shareholders’ Equity
               
Preferred Stock, no par value:
               
Authorized, 50 shares, unissued
           
Common Stock, no par value:
               
Authorized, 450 shares, Outstanding shares — 243 (242 in 2009)
    243       242  
Capital Surplus
    2,805       2,783  
Retained Earnings
    866       1,082  
Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss (Note 18)
    (3,270 )     (3,372 )
                 
Goodyear Shareholders’ Equity
    644       735  
Minority Shareholders’ Equity — Nonredeemable
    277       251  
                 
Total Shareholders’ Equity
    921       986  
                 
Total Liabilities and Shareholders’ Equity
  $ 15,630     $ 14,410  
                 
 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.


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CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF SHAREHOLDERS’ EQUITY
 
                                                                 
                            Accumulated
          Minority
       
                            Other
    Goodyear
    Shareholders’
    Total
 
    Common Stock     Capital
    Retained
    Comprehensive
    Shareholders’
    Equity — Non-
    Shareholders’
 
(Dollars in millions)   Shares     Amount     Surplus     Earnings     Loss     Equity     Redeemable     Equity  
 
                                                                 
Balance at December 31, 2007
                                                               
                                                                 
(after deducting 10,438,287 treasury shares)
    240,122,374     $ 240     $ 2,722     $ 1,540     $ (1,652 )   $ 2,850     $ 300     $ 3,150  
                                                                 
Comprehensive income (loss):
                                                               
                                                                 
Net (loss) income
                            (77 )             (77 )     25       (52 )
                                                                 
Foreign currency translation (net of tax of $0)
                                    (488 )     (488 )     (25 )     (513 )
                                                                 
Reclassification adjustment for amounts recognized in income (net of tax of $0)
                                    (15 )     (15 )           (15 )
                                                                 
Amortization of prior service cost and unrecognized gains and losses included in net periodic benefit cost (net of tax of $8)
                                    99       99             99  
                                                                 
Increase in net actuarial losses (net of tax benefit of $11)
                                    (1,452 )     (1,452 )           (1,452 )
                                                                 
Immediate recognition of prior service cost and unrecognized gains and losses due to curtailments and settlements (net of tax of $0)
                                    67       67             67  
                                                                 
Other (net of tax of $0)
                                    (5 )     (5 )             (5 )
                                                                 
                                                                 
Other comprehensive income (loss)
                                            (1,794 )     (25 )     (1,819 )
                                                                 
                                                                 
Total comprehensive income (loss)
                                            (1,871 )           (1,871 )
                                                                 
Issuance of shares for conversion of debt
    328,954             4                       4             4  
                                                                 
Transactions between Goodyear and minority shareholders
                                                    (69 )     (69 )
                                                                 
Stock-based compensation
                    34                       34             34  
                                                                 
Common stock issued from treasury (Note 13)
    838,593       1       4                       5             5  
                                                                 
                                                                 
Balance at December 31, 2008
                                                               
                                                                 
(after deducting 9,599,694 treasury shares)
    241,289,921     $ 241     $ 2,764     $ 1,463     $ (3,446 )   $ 1,022     $ 231     $ 1,253  
                                                                 
 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.


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CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF SHAREHOLDERS’ EQUITY — (Continued)
 
                                                                 
                            Accumulated
          Minority
       
                            Other
    Goodyear
    Shareholders’
    Total
 
    Common Stock     Capital
    Retained
    Comprehensive
    Shareholders’
    Equity — Non-
    Shareholders’
 
(Dollars in millions)   Shares     Amount     Surplus     Earnings     Loss     Equity     Redeemable     Equity  
 
Balance at December 31, 2008
                                                               
(after deducting 9,599,694 treasury shares)
    241,289,921     $ 241     $ 2,764     $ 1,463     $ (3,446 )   $ 1,022     $ 231     $ 1,253  
Comprehensive income (loss):
                                                               
Net (loss) income
                            (375 )             (375 )     28       (347 )
Foreign currency translation (net of tax of $22)
                                    217       217       7       224  
Reclassification adjustment for amounts recognized in income (net of tax of $0)
                                    (17 )     (17 )           (17 )
Amortization of prior service cost and unrecognized gains and losses included in net periodic benefit cost (net of tax of $57)
                                    121       121             121  
Increase in net actuarial losses (net of tax benefit of $19)
                                    (277 )     (277 )           (277 )
Immediate recognition of prior service cost and unrecognized gains and losses due to curtailments and settlements (net of tax of $1)
                                    43       43             43  
Prior service cost from plan amendments (net of tax of $7)
                                    (16 )     (16 )             (16 )
Other (net of tax benefit of $2)
                                    3       3               3  
                                                                 
Other comprehensive income (loss)
                                            74       7       81  
                                                                 
Total comprehensive income (loss)
                                            (301 )     35       (266 )
Transactions between Goodyear and minority shareholders
                                                    (15 )     (15 )
Stock-based compensation
                    18                       18             18  
Common stock issued from treasury (Note 13)
    912,498       1       1                       2             2  
Other
                          (6 )             (6 )           (6 )
                                                                 
Balance at December 31, 2009
                                                               
(after deducting 8,687,196 treasury shares)
    242,202,419     $ 242     $ 2,783     $ 1,082     $ (3,372 )   $ 735     $ 251     $ 986  
                                                                 
 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.


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CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF SHAREHOLDERS’ EQUITY — (Continued)
 
                                                                 
                            Accumulated
          Minority
       
                            Other
    Goodyear
    Shareholders’
    Total
 
    Common Stock     Capital
    Retained
    Comprehensive
    Shareholders’
    Equity — Non-
    Shareholders’
 
(Dollars in millions)   Shares     Amount     Surplus     Earnings     Loss     Equity     Redeemable     Equity  
 
Balance at December 31, 2009
                                                               
(after deducting 8,687,196 treasury shares)
    242,202,419     $ 242     $ 2,783     $ 1,082     $ (3,372 )   $ 735     $ 251     $ 986  
Comprehensive income (loss):
                                                               
Net (loss) income
                            (216 )             (216 )     34       (182 )
Foreign currency translation (net of tax of $1)
                                    55       55       5       60  
Amortization of prior service cost and unrecognized gains and losses included in net periodic benefit cost (net of tax of $6)
                                    162       162               162  
Increase in net actuarial losses (net of tax benefit of $21)
                                    (178 )     (178 )             (178 )
Immediate recognition of prior service cost and unrecognized gains and losses due to curtailments and settlements (net of tax of $4)
                                    60       60               60  
Prior service cost from plan amendments (net of tax of $0)
                                    (1 )     (1 )             (1 )
Other (net of tax of $0)
                                    4       4             4  
                                                                 
Other comprehensive income (loss)
                                            102       5       107  
                                                                 
Total comprehensive income (loss)
                                            (114 )     39       (75 )
Transactions between Goodyear and minority shareholders
                                                    (13 )     (13 )
Stock-based compensation
                    16                       16             16  
Common stock issued from treasury (Note 13)
    736,530       1       6                       7               7  
                                                                 
Balance at December 31, 2010
                                                               
(after deducting 7,950,743 treasury shares)
    242,938,949     $ 243     $ 2,805     $ 866     $ (3,270 )   $ 644     $ 277     $ 921  
                                                                 
 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.


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CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF SHAREHOLDERS’ EQUITY — (Continued)
 
The following table presents changes in Minority Equity presented outside of Shareholders’ Equity:
 
                         
(In millions)   2010     2009     2008  
 
Balance at beginning of year
  $ 593     $ 619     $ 703  
Comprehensive income (loss):
                       
Net income (loss)
    18       (17 )     29  
Foreign currency translation (net of tax of $0 in all periods)
    (44 )     27       (73 )
Prior service cost from defined benefit plan amendment (net of tax of $0 in all periods)
          (1 )      
Amortization of prior service cost and unrecognized gains and losses included in net benefit cost (net of tax of $0 in 2010, $0 in 2009 and $3 in 2008)
    5       7       7  
Decrease (increase) in net actuarial losses (net of tax benefit of $2 in 2010, $0 in 2009 and $0 in 2008)
    11       (59 )     10  
Immediate recognition of prior service cost and unrecognized gains and losses due to curtailments and settlements (net of tax of $0 in all periods)
          11       (11 )
                         
Total comprehensive income (loss)
    (10 )     (32 )     (38 )
Transactions between Goodyear and minority shareholders
                (46 )
Other
    1       6        
                         
Balance at end of year
  $ 584     $ 593     $ 619  
                         
 
Consolidated comprehensive income (loss) was ($85) million, ($298) million, and ($1,909) million in 2010, 2009, and 2008, respectively.
 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.


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    Year Ended December 31,  
(In millions)   2010     2009     2008  
 
Cash Flows from Operating Activities:
                       
Net Loss
  $ (164 )   $ (364 )   $ (23 )
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to cash flows from operating activities:
                       
Depreciation and amortization
    652       636       660  
Amortization and write-off of debt issuance costs
    27       20       26  
Net rationalization charges (Note 2)
    240       227       184  
Net (gains) losses on asset sales (Note 3)
    (73 )     30       (53 )
VEBA funding
                (1,007 )
Pension contributions and direct payments
    (405 )     (430 )     (364 )
Rationalization payments
    (57 )     (200 )     (84 )
Venezuela currency devaluation (Note 3)
    134              
Customer prepayments and government grants
    6       14       105  
Changes in operating assets and liabilities, net of asset acquisitions and dispositions:
                       
Accounts receivable
    (181 )     139       294  
Inventories
    (536 )     1,265       (700 )
Accounts payable — trade
    769       (323 )     279  
Compensation and benefits
    428       287       (31 )
Other current liabilities
    103       24       (58 )
Other assets and liabilities
    (19 )     (28 )     33  
                         
Total Cash Flows from Operating Activities
    924       1,297       (739 )
Cash Flows from Investing Activities:
                       
Capital expenditures
    (944 )     (746 )     (1,049 )
Asset dispositions (Note 3)
    70       43       58  
Investment in The Reserve Primary Fund
                (360 )
Return of investment in The Reserve Primary Fund (Note 8)
    26       47       284  
Other transactions
    (11 )     (7 )     9  
                         
Total Cash Flows from Investing Activities
    (859 )     (663 )     (1,058 )
Cash Flows from Financing Activities:
                       
Short term debt and overdrafts incurred
    85       85       97  
Short term debt and overdrafts paid
    (68 )     (186 )     (31 )
Long term debt incurred
    1,750       2,026       1,780  
Long term debt paid
    (1,555 )     (2,544 )     (1,459 )
Common stock issued (Note 13)
    1       2       5  
Transactions with minority interests in subsidiaries
    (13 )     (15 )     (139 )
Debt related costs and other transactions
    (21 )     (22 )     11  
                         
Total Cash Flows from Financing Activities
    179       (654 )     264  
Effect of Exchange Rate Changes on Cash and Cash Equivalents
    (161 )     48       (36 )
                         
Net Change in Cash and Cash Equivalents
    83       28       (1,569 )
Cash and Cash Equivalents at Beginning of the Year
    1,922       1,894       3,463  
                         
Cash and Cash Equivalents at End of the Year
  $ 2,005     $ 1,922     $ 1,894  
                         
 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.


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Note 1.   Accounting Policies
 
A summary of the significant accounting policies used in the preparation of the accompanying consolidated financial statements follows:
 
Basis of Presentation
 
Effective January 1, 2010, we adopted a new standard pertaining to the consolidation of variable interest entities that required us to determine whether a variable interest gives the Company a controlling financial interest in a variable interest entity. This standard also requires an ongoing reassessment of the primary beneficiary of the variable interest entity and eliminates the quantitative approach previously required for determining whether an entity is the primary beneficiary. The adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
 
Effective January 1, 2010 we also adopted a new standard pertaining to accounting for transfers of financial assets that removed the concept of a qualifying special-purpose entity from accounting for transfers and servicing of financial assets and extinguishment of liabilities. This standard also clarified the requirements for transfers of financial assets that are eligible for sale accounting. The adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
 
We are a party to shareholder agreements concerning certain of our less-than-wholly-owned consolidated subsidiaries. Under the terms of certain of these agreements, the minority shareholders have the right to require us to purchase their ownership interests in the respective subsidiaries if there is a change in control of the Company or a bankruptcy of the Company. Accordingly, we have reported the minority equity in those subsidiaries outside of shareholders’ equity.
 
Principles of Consolidation
 
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of all majority-owned subsidiaries and variable interest entities in which we are the primary beneficiary. Investments in companies in which we do not own a majority interest and we have the ability to exercise significant influence over operating and financial policies are accounted for using the equity method. Investments in other companies are carried at cost. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
 
Use of Estimates
 
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements and related notes to financial statements. Actual results could differ from those estimates. On an ongoing basis, management reviews its estimates, including those related to:
 
  •  recoverability of intangibles and other long-lived assets,
 
  •  deferred tax asset valuation allowances and uncertain income tax positions,
 
  •  workers’ compensation,
 
  •  general and product liabilities and other litigation,
 
  •  pension and other postretirement benefits, and
 
  •  various other operating allowances and accruals, based on currently available information.
 
Changes in facts and circumstances may alter such estimates and affect results of operations and financial position in future periods.


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NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
 
Note 1.   Accounting Policies (continued)
 
Revenue Recognition and Accounts Receivable Valuation
 
Revenues are recognized when finished products are shipped to unaffiliated customers, both title and the risks and rewards of ownership are transferred or services have been rendered and accepted, and collectability is reasonably assured. A provision for sales returns, discounts and allowances is recorded at the time of sale. Appropriate provisions are made for uncollectible accounts based on historical loss experience, portfolio duration, economic conditions and credit risk. The adequacy of the allowances are assessed quarterly.
 
Shipping and Handling Costs
 
Costs incurred for transportation of products to customers are recorded as a component of Cost of Goods Sold (“CGS”).
 
Research and Development Costs
 
Research and development costs include, among other things, materials, equipment, compensation and contract services. These costs are expensed as incurred and included as a component of CGS. Research and development expenditures were $342 million, $337 million, and $366 million in 2010, 2009, and 2008, respectively.
 
Warranty
 
Warranties are provided on the sale of certain of our products and services and an accrual for estimated future claims is recorded at the time revenue is recognized. Tire replacement under most of the warranties we offer is on a prorated basis. Warranty reserves are based on past claims experience, sales history and other considerations. Refer to Note 19.
 
Environmental Cleanup Matters
 
We expense environmental costs related to existing conditions resulting from past or current operations and from which no current or future benefit is discernible. Expenditures that extend the life of the related property or mitigate or prevent future environmental contamination are capitalized. We determine our liability on a site by site basis and record a liability at the time when it is probable and can be reasonably estimated. Our estimated liability is reduced to reflect the anticipated participation of other potentially responsible parties in those instances where it is probable that such parties are legally responsible and financially capable of paying their respective shares of the relevant costs. Our estimated liability is not discounted or reduced for possible recoveries from insurance carriers. Refer to Note 19.
 
Legal Costs
 
We record a liability for estimated legal and defense costs related to pending general and product liability claims, environmental matters and workers’ compensation claims. Refer to Note 19.
 
Advertising Costs
 
Costs incurred for producing and communicating advertising are generally expensed when incurred as a component of Selling, Administrative and General Expense (“SAG”). Costs incurred under our cooperative advertising program with dealers and franchisees are generally recorded as reductions of sales as related revenues are recognized. Advertising costs, including costs for our cooperative advertising programs with dealers and franchisees, were $396 million, $294 million, and $373 million in 2010, 2009, and 2008, respectively.


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THE GOODYEAR TIRE & RUBBER COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARIES
 
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
 
Note 1.   Accounting Policies (continued)
 
Rationalizations
 
We record costs for rationalization actions implemented to reduce excess and high-cost manufacturing capacity, and to reduce associate headcount. Associate-related costs include severance, supplemental unemployment compensation and benefits, medical benefits, pension curtailments, postretirement benefits, and other termination benefits. Other costs generally include non-cancelable lease costs, contract terminations, and moving and relocation costs. Rationalization charges related to accelerated depreciation and asset impairments are recorded in CGS or SAG. Refer to Note 2.
 
Income Taxes
 
Income taxes are recognized during the year in which transactions enter into the determination of financial statement income, with deferred taxes being provided for temporary differences between amounts of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and such amounts as measured under applicable tax laws. The effect on deferred tax assets or liabilities of a change in the tax law or tax rate is recognized in the period the change is enacted. Valuation allowances are recorded to reduce net deferred tax assets to the amount that is more likely than not to be realized. The calculation of our tax liabilities also involves dealing with uncertainties in the application of complex tax regulations. We recognize liabilities for uncertain income tax positions based on our estimate of whether it is more likely than not that additional taxes will be required. We also report interest and penalties related to uncertain income tax positions as income taxes. Refer to Note 15.
 
Cash and Cash Equivalents / Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
 
Cash and cash equivalents consist of cash on hand and marketable securities with original maturities of three months or less. Substantially all of our cash and short-term investment securities are held with investment-grade rated counterparties. At December 31, 2010, our cash investments with any single counterparty did not exceed $260 million.
 
Cash flows associated with derivative financial instruments designated as hedges of identifiable transactions or events are classified in the same category as the cash flows from the related hedged items. Cash flows associated with derivative financial instruments not designated as hedges are classified as operating activities. Book overdrafts are recorded within Accounts payable-trade and totaled $84 million and $78 million at December 31, 2010 and 2009, respectively. Bank overdrafts are recorded within Notes payable and overdrafts. Cash flows associated with book and bank overdrafts are classified as financing activities. Investing activities excluded $144 million of accrued capital expenditures in 2010.
 
Restricted Net Assets
 
In certain countries where we operate, transfers of funds into or out of such countries by way of dividends, loans or advances are generally or periodically subject to various restrictive governmental regulations. In addition, certain of our credit agreements and other debt instruments restrict the ability of foreign subsidiaries to make cash distributions. At December 31, 2010, approximately $627 million of net assets were subject to such restrictions.
 
Inventories
 
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or market. Cost is determined using the first-in, first-out or the average cost method. Costs include direct material, direct labor and applicable manufacturing and engineering overhead. We allocate fixed manufacturing overheads based on normal production capacity and recognize abnormal manufacturing costs as period costs. We determine a provision for excess and obsolete inventory based on management’s review of inventories on hand compared to estimated future usage and sales. Refer to Note 6.


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THE GOODYEAR TIRE & RUBBER COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARIES
 
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
 
Note 1.   Accounting Policies (continued)
 
Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets
 
Goodwill is recorded when the cost of acquired businesses exceeds the fair value of the identifiable net assets acquired. Goodwill and intangible assets with indefinite useful lives are not amortized, but are tested for impairment each year as of July 31. In addition, impairment testing is conducted when events occur or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of a reporting unit below its carrying amount. The impairment test for goodwill uses a discounted cash flow approach. Goodwill and intangible assets with indefinite useful lives would be written down to fair value if considered impaired. Intangible assets with finite useful lives are amortized to their estimated residual values over such finite lives, and reviewed for impairment whenever events or circumstances warrant such a review. Costs of acquisition, renewal and extension of intangible assets are capitalized. There are no significant renewal or extension provisions associated with our intangible assets. Refer to Note 7.
 
Investments
 
Investments in marketable securities are stated at fair value. Fair value is determined using quoted market prices at the end of the reporting period and, when appropriate, exchange rates at that date. Unrealized gains and losses on marketable securities classified as available-for-sale are recorded in Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss (“AOCL”), net of tax. We regularly review our investments to determine whether a decline in fair value below the cost basis is other than temporary. If the decline in fair value is judged to be other than temporary, the cost basis of the security is written down to fair value and the amount of the write-down is included in the Consolidated Statements of Operations. Refer to Notes 8 and 18.
 
Property, Plant and Equipment
 
Property, plant and equipment are stated at cost. Depreciation is computed using the straight-line method. Additions and improvements that substantially extend the useful life of property, plant and equipment, and interest costs incurred during the construction period of major projects are capitalized. Repair and maintenance costs are expensed as incurred. Property, plant and equipment are depreciated to their estimated residual values over their estimated useful lives, and reviewed for impairment whenever events or circumstances warrant such a review. Refer to Notes 9 and 16.
 
Foreign Currency Translation
 
Financial statements of international subsidiaries are translated into U.S. dollars using the exchange rate at each balance sheet date for assets and liabilities and a weighted average exchange rate for each period for revenues, expenses, gains and losses. Transaction gains and losses are recorded in the Consolidated Statement of Operations. Translation adjustments are recorded as AOCL. Income taxes are generally not provided for foreign currency translation adjustments.
 
Derivative Financial Instruments and Hedging Activities
 
To qualify for hedge accounting, hedging instruments must be designated as hedges and meet defined correlation and effectiveness criteria. These criteria require that the anticipated cash flows and/or changes in fair value of the hedging instrument substantially offset those of the position being hedged.
 
Derivative contracts are reported at fair value on the Consolidated Balance Sheets as both current and long term Accounts Receivable or Other Liabilities. Deferred gains and losses on contracts designated as cash flow hedges are recorded net of tax in AOCL. Ineffectiveness in hedging relationships is recorded in Other Expense in the current period.


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THE GOODYEAR TIRE & RUBBER COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARIES
 
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
 
Note 1.   Accounting Policies (continued)
 
Interest Rate Contracts — Gains and losses on contracts designated as cash flow hedges are initially deferred and recorded in AOCL. Amounts are transferred from AOCL and recognized in income as Interest Expense in the same period that the hedged item is recognized in income. Gains and losses on contracts designated as fair value hedges are recognized in income in the current period as Interest Expense. Gains and losses on contracts with no hedging designation are recorded in the current period in Other Expense.
 
Foreign Currency Contracts — Gains and losses on contracts designated as cash flow hedges are initially deferred and recorded in AOCL. Amounts are transferred from AOCL and recognized in income in the same period and on the same line that the hedged item is recognized in income. Gains and losses on contracts designated as fair value hedges, excluding premiums, are recorded in Other Expense in the current period. Gains and losses on contracts with no hedging designation are recorded in Other Expense in the current period. We do not include premiums paid on forward currency contracts in our assessment of hedge effectiveness. Premiums on contracts designated as hedges are recognized in Other Expense over the life of the contract.
 
Net Investment Hedging — Nonderivative instruments denominated in foreign currencies are used from time to time to hedge net investments in foreign subsidiaries. Gains and losses on these instruments are deferred and recorded in AOCL as Foreign Currency Translation Adjustments. These gains and losses are only recognized in income upon the complete or partial sale of the related investment or the complete liquidation of the investment.
 
Termination of Contracts — Gains and losses (including deferred gains and losses in AOCL) are recognized in Other Expense when contracts are terminated concurrently with the termination of the hedged position. To the extent that such position remains outstanding, gains and losses are amortized to Interest Expense or to Other Expense over the remaining life of that position. Gains and losses on contracts that we temporarily continue to hold after the early termination of a hedged position, or that otherwise no longer qualify for hedge accounting, are recognized in income in Other Expense.
 
Refer to Note 12.
 
Stock-Based Compensation
 
We measure compensation cost arising from the grant of share-based awards to employees at fair value and recognize such cost in income over the period during which the service is provided, usually the vesting period. We recognize compensation expense using the straight-line approach. We estimate the fair value of stock options using the Black-Scholes valuation model. Assumptions used to estimate compensation expense are determined as follows:
 
  •  Expected term is determined using a weighted average of the contractual term and vesting period of the award under the simplified method, as historical data was not sufficient to provide a reasonable estimate;
 
  •  Expected volatility is measured using the weighted average of historical daily changes in the market price of our common stock over the expected term of the award and implied volatility calculated for our exchange traded options with an expiration date greater than one year;
 
  •  Risk-free interest rate is equivalent to the implied yield on zero-coupon U.S. Treasury bonds with a remaining maturity equal to the expected term of the awards; and
 
  •  Forfeitures are based substantially on the history of cancellations of similar awards granted in prior years.
 
Refer to Note 13.


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THE GOODYEAR TIRE & RUBBER COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARIES
 
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
 
Note 1.   Accounting Policies (continued)
 
Earnings Per Share of Common Stock
 
Basic earnings per share are computed based on the weighted average number of common shares outstanding. Diluted earnings per share primarily reflects the dilutive impact of outstanding stock options. All earnings per share amounts in these notes to the consolidated financial statements are diluted, unless otherwise noted. Refer to Note 4.
 
Fair Value Measurements
 
Valuation Hierarchy
 
Assets and liabilities measured at fair value are classified using the following hierarchy, which is based upon the transparency of inputs to the valuation as of the measurement date.
 
  •  Level 1 — Valuation is based upon quoted prices (unadjusted) for identical assets or liabilities in active markets.
 
  •  Level 2 — Valuation is based upon quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets, or other inputs that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly, for substantially the full term of the financial instrument.
 
  •  Level 3 — Valuation is based upon other unobservable inputs that are significant to the fair value measurement.
 
The classification of fair value measurements within the hierarchy is based upon the lowest level of input that is significant to the measurement. Valuation methodologies used for assets and liabilities measured at fair value are as follows.
 
Investments
 
Where quoted prices are available in an active market, investments are classified within Level 1 of the valuation hierarchy. Level 1 securities include highly liquid government bonds, certain mortgage products and exchange-traded equities. If quoted market prices are not available, fair values are estimated using quoted prices of securities with similar characteristics or inputs other than quoted prices that are observable for the security, and would be classified within Level 2 of the valuation hierarchy. In certain cases where there is limited activity or less transparency around inputs to the valuation, securities would be classified within Level 3 of the valuation hierarchy.
 
Derivative Financial Instruments
 
Exchange-traded derivative financial instruments that are valued using quoted prices would be classified within Level 1 of the valuation hierarchy. Derivative financial instruments valued using internally-developed models that use as their basis readily observable market parameters are classified within Level 2 of the valuation hierarchy. Derivative financial instruments that are valued based upon models with significant unobservable market parameters, and that are normally traded less actively, would be classified within Level 3 of the valuation hierarchy.
 
Refer to Notes 11 and 14.
 
Reclassifications
 
Certain items previously reported in specific financial statement captions have been reclassified to conform to the 2010 presentation.


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THE GOODYEAR TIRE & RUBBER COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARIES
 
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
 
Note 2.   Costs Associated with Rationalization Programs
 
In order to maintain our global competitiveness, we have implemented rationalization actions over the past several years to reduce excess and high-cost manufacturing capacity and to reduce associate headcount. The net rationalization charges included in Income (Loss) before Income Taxes are as follows:
 
                         
(In millions)   2010     2009     2008  
 
New charges
  $ 261     $ 246     $ 192  
Reversals
    (21 )     (19 )     (8 )
                         
    $ 240     $ 227     $ 184  
                         
 
The following table presents the roll-forward of the liability balance between periods:
 
                         
          Other Than
       
    Associate-related
    Associate-related
       
(In millions)   Costs     Costs     Total  
 
Balance at December 31, 2007
  $ 56     $ 6     $ 62  
2008 charges
    152       40       192  
Incurred
    (87 )     (23 )     (110 )
Reversed to the Statement of Operations
    (3 )     (5 )     (8 )
                         
Balance at December 31, 2008
    118       18       136  
2009 charges
    217       29       246  
Incurred
    (199 )     (19 )     (218 )
Reversed to the Statement of Operations
    (16 )     (3 )     (19 )
                         
Balance at December 31, 2009
  $ 120     $ 25     $ 145  
2010 charges
    237       24       261  
Incurred
    (129 )     (26 )     (155 )
Reversed to the Statement of Operations
    (16 )     (5 )     (21 )
                         
Balance at December 31, 2010
  $ 212     $ 18     $ 230  
                         
 
North American Tire plans to close its tire manufacturing facility in Union City, Tennessee to reduce high-cost manufacturing capacity and initiated plans to consolidate several warehouses to further improve its supply chain. EMEA increased the cost related to the discontinuation of consumer tire production at one of our facilities in Amiens, France. Asia Pacific Tire initiated and substantially completed the closure of a tire manufacturing facility in Taipei, Taiwan.
 
During 2010, net rationalization charges of $240 million were recorded. New charges of $261 million were comprised of $195 million for plans initiated in 2010, consisting of $191 million for associate severance and pension costs and $4 million for other exit and non-cancelable lease costs, and $66 million for plans initiated primarily in 2009, consisting of $46 million for associate severance costs and $20 million for other exit and non-cancelable lease costs. These amounts include $177 million related to future cash outflows and $84 million for other non-cash exit costs, including $83 million for pension settlements, curtailments and termination benefits. The net charges in 2010 also included the reversal of $21 million of reserves for actions no longer needed for their originally-intended purposes. Approximately 2,200 associates will be released under 2010 plans of which 400 were released in 2010. We expect to record additional charges in 2011 totaling approximately $50 million related to the 2010 plans, primarily in connection with the closure of our Union City, Tennessee facility.


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THE GOODYEAR TIRE & RUBBER COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARIES
 
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
 
Note 2.   Costs Associated with Rationalization Programs (continued)
 
The accrual balance of $230 million at December 31, 2010 consists of $212 million for associate severance costs that are expected to be substantially utilized within the next twelve months and $18 million primarily for long term non-cancelable lease costs.
 
Asset write-offs and accelerated depreciation charges of $15 million were recorded in cost of goods sold (“CGS”) in 2010 and were related primarily to the closure of our Taiwan facility. We expect to record in 2011 approximately $60 million of accelerated depreciation and asset write-offs related to the closure of our Union City, Tennessee facility.
 
In 2009, North American Tire initiated manufacturing headcount reductions at several facilities, including Union City, Tennessee; Danville, Virginia and Topeka, Kansas, to respond to lower production demand. Additional salaried headcount reductions were initiated at our corporate offices in Akron, Ohio, in North American Tire and throughout EMEA. We also initiated the discontinuation of consumer tire production at one of our facilities in Amiens, France. Latin American Tire initiated manufacturing headcount reductions at each of its two facilities in Brazil.
 
During 2009, net rationalization charges of $227 million were recorded. New charges of $246 million were comprised of $208 million for plans initiated in 2009 and $38 million for plans initiated in 2008 and prior years. New charges for the 2009 plans consist of $194 million of associate-related costs and $14 million primarily for other exit costs and non-cancelable lease costs. These amounts include $202 million related to future cash outflows and $6 million for pension settlements and curtailments. Approximately 4,100 associates will be released under 2009 plans, of which 3,400 were released by December 31, 2010.
 
The $38 million of new charges for 2008 and prior year plans consist of $23 million of associate-related costs and $15 million primarily for other exit costs and non-cancelable lease costs. These amounts include $27 million related to future cash outflows and $11 million for other non-cash exit costs, including $8 million for pension settlements and curtailments. The net charges in 2009 also included the reversal of $19 million of charges for actions no longer needed for their originally-intended purposes.
 
Asset write-offs and accelerated depreciation charges of $43 million were recorded in CGS in 2009 and related primarily to the closure of our Las Pinas, Philippines and Somerton, Australia tire manufacturing facilities and the discontinuation of a line of tires at one of our plants in North America.
 
Rationalization actions in 2008 consisted primarily of the closure of the Somerton, Australia tire manufacturing facility, closure of the Tyler, Texas mix center, and our plan to exit 92 of our underperforming retail stores in the U.S. Other rationalization actions in 2008 related to plans to reduce manufacturing, selling, administrative and general expenses through headcount reductions in all of our strategic business units.
 
During 2008, net rationalization charges of $184 million were recorded. New charges of $192 million were comprised of $142 million for plans initiated in 2008, consisting of $118 million for associate severance costs and $24 million for other exit and non-cancelable lease costs, and $50 million for plans initiated in 2007 and prior years, consisting of $34 million for associate severance costs and $16 million for other exit and non-cancelable lease costs. The net charges in 2008 also included the reversal of $8 million of charges for actions no longer needed for their originally intended purposes. Approximately 3,100 associates were to be released under 2008 plans, all of which have been released by December 31, 2010.
 
Asset write-offs and accelerated depreciation charges of $28 million were recorded in CGS in 2008, related primarily to the closure of the Somerton, Australia tire manufacturing facility and the Tyler, Texas mix center.


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THE GOODYEAR TIRE & RUBBER COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARIES
 
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
 
Note 3.   Other Expense
 
                         
(In millions) Expense(Income)   2010     2009     2008  
 
Net foreign currency exchange losses
  $ 159     $ 7     $ 57  
Financing fees and financial instruments
    95       39       97  
Net (gains) losses on asset sales
    (73 )     30       (53 )
Royalty income
    (30 )     (28 )     (32 )
Interest income
    (11 )     (17 )     (68 )
General and product liability — discontinued products
    11       9       30  
Subsidiary liquidation loss
          18       16  
Miscellaneous
    35       (18 )     12  
                         
    $ 186     $ 40     $ 59  
                         
 
Net foreign currency exchange losses in 2010 were $159 million, compared to $7 million and $57 million of losses in 2009 and 2008, respectively. Losses in 2010 included a first quarter loss of $110 million resulting from the January 8, 2010 devaluation of the Venezuelan bolivar fuerte against the U.S. dollar and the establishment of a two-tier exchange rate structure, and a fourth quarter foreign currency exchange loss of $24 million in connection with the January 1, 2011 elimination of the two-tier exchange rate structure. Foreign currency exchange also reflected net gains and losses resulting from the effect of exchange rate changes on various foreign currency transactions worldwide.
 
Effective January 1, 2010, Venezuela’s economy was considered to be highly inflationary under U.S. generally accepted accounting principles since it experienced a rate of general inflation in excess of 100% over the latest three year period, based upon the blended Consumer Price Index and National Consumer Price Index. Accordingly, the U.S. dollar was determined to be the functional currency of our Venezuelan subsidiary. All gains and losses resulting from the remeasurement of its financial statements since January 1, 2010 were determined using official exchange rates.
 
On January 8, 2010, Venezuela established a two-tier exchange rate structure for essential and non-essential goods. For essential goods the official exchange rate was 2.6 bolivares fuertes to the U.S. dollar and for non-essential goods the official exchange rate was 4.3 bolivares fuertes to the U.S. dollar. As announced by the Venezuelan government in December 2010, on January 1, 2011, the two-tier exchange rate structure was eliminated and the exchange rate for essential goods cannot be used for our unsettled amounts at December 31, 2010. Effective January 1, 2011, the official exchange rate of 4.3 bolivares fuertes to the U.S. dollar was established for substantially all goods.
 
The $110 million foreign currency exchange loss in the first quarter of 2010 primarily consisted of a $157 million remeasurement loss on bolivar-denominated net monetary assets and liabilities, including deferred taxes, at the time of the January 2010 devaluation. The loss was primarily related to cash deposits in Venezuela that were remeasured at the official exchange rate of 4.3 bolivares fuertes applicable to non-essential goods, and was partially offset by $47 million subsidy receivable related to U.S. dollar-denominated payables that were expected to be settled at the official subsidy exchange rate of 2.6 bolivares fuertes applicable to essential goods. Since we expected these payables to be settled at the subsidy essential goods rate, we established a subsidy receivable to reflect the expected benefit to be received in the form of the difference between the essential and non-essential goods exchange rates. Throughout 2010, we periodically assessed our ability to realize the benefit of the subsidy receivable, and a substantial portion of purchases by our Venezuelan subsidiary had qualified and settled at the official exchange rate for essential goods.
 
As a result of the elimination of the official subsidy exchange rate for essential goods, we no longer expect our Venezuelan subsidiary to settle payables at that exchange rate. Accordingly, we recorded a foreign exchange loss of $24 million in the fourth quarter of 2010 related to the reversal of the subsidy receivable at December 31, 2010.


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THE GOODYEAR TIRE & RUBBER COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARIES
 
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
 
Note 3.   Other Expense (continued)
 
Net foreign currency exchange losses decreased in 2009 compared to 2008, due primarily to the weakening of various currencies against the U.S. dollar in 2008.
 
Financing fees and financial instruments expense was $95 million in 2010, compared to $39 million in 2009 and $97 million in 2008. Increased financing fees in 2010 primarily related to the redemption of $973 million of long term debt. The increase included a $50 million cash premium paid on the redemption and $6 million of financing fees which were written off. Charges in 2008 included $43 million related to the redemption of $650 million of long term debt, $10 million related to an interest rate basis swap and a $5 million valuation allowance on our investment in The Reserve Primary Fund. These expenses also include the amortization of deferred financing fees, commitment fees and charges incurred as a result of financing transactions.
 
Net gains on asset sales were $73 million in 2010 and included gains of $58 million in Asia Pacific Tire, primarily on the sale of a closed manufacturing facility in Taiwan and land in Thailand; gains of $7 million in Latin American Tire, including the recognition of a gain from the sale of a warehouse in 2008 that was deferred due to our continuing involvement in that operation; gains of $6 million in EMEA, due primarily to the sale of land; and gains of $2 million in North American Tire on the sales of other assets.
 
Net losses on asset sales in 2009 were $30 million and were due primarily to the sale of certain of our properties in Akron, Ohio that comprise our current headquarters to Industrial Realty Group (“IRG”) in connection with the development of a proposed new headquarters in Akron, Ohio. Prior to the sale, the facilities remained classified as held and used. Due to significant uncertainties related to the completion of the transaction resulting from prevailing conditions in the credit markets and the ability of IRG to obtain financing, we conclu