S-1 1 ds1.htm FORM S-1 Form S-1
Table of Contents

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on March 31, 2011

Registration No. 333-            

 

 

 

UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM S-1

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

ALLY FINANCIAL INC.

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)

Delaware   6172   38-0572512
(State or Other Jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)
  (Primary Standard Industrial
Classification Code Number)
  (I.R.S. Employer Identification Number)

200 Renaissance Center

P.O. Box 200

Detroit, MI 48265-2000

(866) 710-4623

(Address, Including Zip Code, and Telephone Number, Including Area Code, of Registrant’s Principal Executive Offices)

 

 

David J. DeBrunner

Vice President, Chief Accounting Officer, and Corporate Controller

Ally Financial Inc.

200 Renaissance Center

P.O. Box 200

Detroit, MI 48265-2000

(866) 710-4623

(Name, Address, Including Zip Code, and Telephone Number, Including Area Code, of Agent For Service)

 

 

Copies to:

 

Richard J. Sandler, Esq.
Richard A. Drucker, Esq.
Davis Polk & Wardwell LLP
450 Lexington Avenue
New York, NY 10017
(212) 450-4000
 

James J. Clark, Esq.

Noah B. Newitz, Esq.
Brian Kelleher, Esq.
Cahill Gordon & Reindel LLP
80 Pine Street
New York, NY 10005-1702
(212) 701-3000

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: As soon as practicable after the effective date of this Registration Statement.

If any of the securities being registered on this form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), check the following box.  ¨

If this form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ¨

If this form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ¨

If this form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

  Large accelerated filer  ¨      Accelerated filer  ¨
  Non-accelerated filer   x (Do not check if a smaller  reporting company)    Smaller reporting company  ¨

 

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

 
Title Of Each Class
Of Securities To Be Registered
    Proposed Maximum Aggregate Offering  
Price (1)(2)
  Amount Of
Registration Fee

Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share

  $100,000,000   $11,610
 
 
(1) Estimated solely for the purpose of computing the amount of the registration fee pursuant to Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act.
(2) Includes offering price of shares that the underwriters have the option to purchase pursuant to their over-allotment option.

The Registrant hereby amends this Registration Statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this Registration Statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act or until the Registration Statement shall become effective on such date as the Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

 


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The information in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and may be changed. The selling stockholder may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and the selling stockholder is not soliciting offers to buy these securities in any state where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

Subject to Completion, Dated March 31, 2011

PRELIMINARY PROSPECTUS

            Shares

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ALLY FINANCIAL INC.

COMMON STOCK

 

 

The United States Department of Treasury (the “selling stockholder” or “Treasury”) is offering             shares of common stock of Ally Financial Inc. (“Ally”). See “Principal and Selling Stockholders.” Ally Financial Inc. will not receive any of the proceeds from the sale of shares of common stock by the selling stockholder.

 

 

This is our initial public offering and no public market exists for our shares. We anticipate that the initial public offering price will be between $             and $             per share. We intend to apply to list the common stock on the             under the symbol “            ”.

The selling stockholder has granted the underwriters the right to purchase up to              additional shares of common stock to cover over-allotments, if any, at the public offering price, less the underwriters’ discount, within 30 days from the date of this prospectus.

Investing in our common stock involves risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 16 of this prospectus.

 

     Per Share      Total  

Public offering price and proceeds to the selling stockholder

   $                    $                

Underwriting discounts and commissions(1)

   $         $     

 

(1) Ally has agreed to pay all underwriting discounts and commissions, transfer taxes and transaction fees, if any, applicable to the sale of the common stock and the fees and disbursement of counsel for the selling stockholder incurred in connection with the sale.

 

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities regulators has approved or disapproved these securities, or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

The underwriters expect to deliver the shares of common stock to investors on or about                     , 2011.

 

 

 

Citi    Goldman, Sachs & Co.    J.P. Morgan    Morgan Stanley

 

 

The date of this prospectus is                     , 2011


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

     Page  

Prospectus Summary

     1   

Risk Factors

     16   

Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

     39   

Use of Proceeds

     41   

Dividend Policy

     42   

Capitalization

     43   

Selected Consolidated Financial Data

     44   

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

     48   

Business

     159   

Management

     180   

Executive Compensation

     185   

Certain Stockholder Agreements

     200   

Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions

     205   

Principal and Selling Stockholders

     209   

Description of Capital Stock

     211   

U.S. Federal Tax Considerations For Non-U.S. Holders

     220   

Shares Eligible for Future Sale

     222   

Underwriting

     225   

Validity of Common Stock

     231   

Experts

     231   

Where You Can Find More Information

     231   

Index to Consolidated Financial Statements

     F-1   

 

 

In this prospectus, unless the context indicates otherwise, “Ally,” the “company,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer to Ally Financial Inc. and its direct and indirect subsidiaries on a consolidated basis. None of we, the underwriters, or the selling stockholder have authorized anyone to provide any information other than that contained in this prospectus or in any free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. Neither we nor the underwriters nor the selling stockholder take responsibility for, and can provide any assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. The selling stockholder is offering to sell, and seeking offers to buy, shares of common stock only in jurisdictions where offers and sales are permitted. The information contained in this prospectus is accurate only as of the date of this prospectus, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or of any sale of the common stock.

INDUSTRY AND MARKET DATA

We obtained the industry, market and competitive position data throughout this prospectus from our own internal estimates and research as well as from industry and general publications and research, surveys and studies conducted by third parties. Industry publications, studies and surveys generally state that they have been obtained from sources believed to be reliable, although they do not guarantee the accuracy or completeness of such information. While we believe that each of these studies and publications is reliable, we have not independently verified market and industry data from third-party sources. While we believe our internal company research is reliable and the definitions of our market and industry are appropriate, neither such research nor these definitions have been verified by any independent source.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

This summary highlights information contained elsewhere in this prospectus. This summary may not contain all of the information that you should consider before deciding to invest in our common stock. You should read this entire prospectus carefully, including the “Risk Factors” section and the consolidated financial statements and the notes to those statements, before making an investment decision.

Overview

Ally operates one of the world’s largest automotive finance companies. We have over 90 years of experience supporting automotive dealers and their retail customers with a broad array of financial products and services. Our automotive finance franchise operates on a global scale with strategic activities in the United States, Canada and 15 other countries worldwide. We are a bank holding company and also operate one of the largest residential mortgage loan companies in the United States. Our bank subsidiary, Ally Bank, is a leading competitor and well-recognized brand in the growing direct banking market. The bank provides us with a significant source of cost-efficient funding and had $33.9 billion of deposits at December 31, 2010. We had $172 billion of total assets at December 31, 2010 and $7.9 billion of total net revenue during 2010.

 

   

We intend to extend our leading position as one of the world’s largest automotive finance companies by continuing to provide automotive dealers, retail consumers and our automotive manufacturing partners with consistent funding, competitive pricing, a comprehensive product suite and exceptional service reflecting our commitment to the automotive industry.

 

   

We also will continue to operate a complementary residential mortgage loan franchise focused on the origination and servicing of conforming and government-insured residential mortgage loans.

 

   

We intend to continue to develop Ally Bank and its core brand to enhance the value proposition for its deposit customers and to efficiently support asset growth in our lending activities.

Our primary operations are conducted within Global Automotive Services and Mortgage. Ally Bank offers a full spectrum of deposit and checking products to its customers and provides us with stable and diversified funding.

Our Global Automotive Services

Our global automotive business is centered around our strong and longstanding relationships with automotive dealers and supports our automotive manufacturing partners and their marketing programs. We serve the financial needs of over 20,000 dealers worldwide and 5.5 million of their retail customers as of December 31, 2010. In the United States and Canada alone, we have approximately 2,000 automotive finance and insurance employees in five regions focused on serving the needs of our dealer customers with finance and insurance products, expanding the number of overall dealer and automotive manufacturer relationships, and supporting our dealer lending and underwriting functions. In addition, we have over 2,600 employees that support our North American servicing operations.

Our Dealer-Focused Business Model

Ally’s primary customers are automotive dealers, which are independently owned businesses. As part of the process of selling a vehicle, automotive dealers typically originate loans and leases to their retail customers. Dealers then select Ally or another automotive finance provider to which they sell loans and leases.

 

 

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Our longstanding success as an automotive finance provider is driven by the broad range and quality of products and services we offer to dealers. Our financial products offered to dealers and their customers include, among others, new vehicle retail loans and leases, used vehicle loans, floorplan loans, dealer capital and working capital loans, vehicle service contracts, wholesale inventory insurance and our SmartAuction service for remarketing vehicles. As of December 31, 2010, over 5,000 of our automotive dealer customers utilized four or more of our products.

Manufacturer Relationships

We are a preferred financing provider for a number of manufacturers including GM, Chrysler, Fiat, Saab, American Suzuki and Thor under contractual relationships. With our origination and servicing platform and competitive funding programs, we function as a strong and flexible partner that helps manufacturers fulfill their new vehicle marketing programs.

Our preferred financing relationships primarily relate to new retail loan incentive programs that support the manufacturers’ new vehicle marketing initiatives while allowing us to realize market based returns. Incentivized loans, originated through our preferred financing relationships, represented 41% of our 2010 North American new retail loan and lease origination volume compared to 52% in 2009 and 60% in 2008. For non-incentivized retail loan originations, we successfully compete at the dealer-level based on our strong dealer relationships, competitive pricing, full suite of products and comprehensive service.

Our History in the Automotive Market and Who We Are Today

During our 90-year history in the automotive finance business, we have developed extensive knowledge and experience in serving the financing needs of automotive dealers and their retail customers. Ally was formed in 1919 as the captive finance subsidiary of GM. In 2006, a majority ownership interest in Ally was sold to third parties. Since that sale, we have transformed into a market-driven independent automotive finance company. We continue to be a preferred financing provider to GM on incentivized retail loans and in 2009, we became the preferred financing provider to Chrysler of incentivized retail loans. We have developed full product relationships for the vast majority of Chrysler’s existing franchised dealers, including more than 1,700 Chrysler dealers that we successfully developed inventory financing relationships with over a three-month period in 2009. In addition, we have developed preferred financing relationships with Fiat, Saab, American Suzuki and Thor under contractual agreements.

We became a bank holding company on December 24, 2008, under the Bank Holding Company Act and are subject to supervision and examination by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (the “FRB”). Our bank subsidiary, Ally Bank, is supervised by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (the “FDIC”) and the Utah Department of Financial Institutions (the “Utah DFI”).

 

 

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Our Global Automotive Services business is organized into three areas (the information below is as of December 31, 2010).

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North American Automotive Finance Operations

Our North American Automotive Finance Operations (“NAO”) consist of our automotive financing operations in the United States and Canada. According to Experian Automotive, we were the largest independent provider of new retail automotive loans in the United States during 2010. We funded one out of every ten new car purchases that were financed in the United States during 2010. We had total consumer originations in the United States and Canada of $35.4 billion in 2010. Our penetration rate of GM and Chrysler new car purchases in the United States and Canada in 2010 was 40% and 38%, respectively. We financed an average of $25.7 billion of vehicle floorplan assets for our dealers, including 86% of GM’s and 75% of Chrysler’s total North American dealer new vehicle inventory, respectively, during 2010.

We manage commercial account servicing for over 5,000 dealers in the United States that utilize our floorplan inventory lending or other commercial loans. In the United States and Canada, we provide consumer asset servicing for a $69 billion portfolio at December 31, 2010. The extensive infrastructure and experience of our servicing operation are important to our ability to minimize our loan losses and enable us to deliver favorable customer experience to both our dealers and their retail customers. We provide comprehensive automotive remarketing services, including the use of SmartAuction, our online auction platform, which efficiently supports dealer-to-dealer and other commercial wholesale car transactions.

The following table sets forth our share of retail automotive loans for new purchases in the United States:

 

4th Quarter
2010
     3rd Quarter
2010
     2nd Quarter
2010
     1st Quarter
2010
     Year ended December 31,  
            2010      2009      2008  
%     Rank      %     Rank      %     Rank      %     Rank      %     Rank      %     Rank      %     Rank  
  11.0     1         10.0     1         9.9     1         8.5     2         9.9     1         6.1     3         5.8     4   

 

Source: Experian Automotive

The used vehicle financing market is significant in size and highly fragmented. We have recently begun to increase our focus on used car financing, primarily through franchised dealers and certain national used vehicle dealers. According to Experian Automotive, over 14 million used vehicles were sold by franchised dealers in 2010. We believe that increased market share in this fragmented segment will further expand and support our dealer relationships and increase our volume of retail originations.

 

 

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International Automotive Finance Operations

Our International Automotive Finance Operations (“IO”) conduct business in Asia, Latin America and Europe. We focus on five core foreign markets: China (through our joint venture, GMAC-SAIC Automotive Finance Company Limited (“GMAC-SAIC”)), Brazil, Mexico, Germany and the United Kingdom. We also originate loans in 10 other countries. We provide financial services to approximately 4,800 automotive dealer customers in these 15 foreign markets.

 

   

China – Our GMAC-SAIC joint venture is a leading automotive finance company in China and offers a full suite of products. We believe there is significant opportunity for growth in loan origination in China due to the strong increase in overall car sales as well as the relatively low proportion of these sales that have been financed historically. In 2010, 10% of new car purchases in China were financed according to China Auto Market, compared with 79% in the United States, according to Experian Automotive. We own 40% of GMAC-SAIC alongside Shanghai Automotive Group Finance Company LTD and Shanghai General Motors Corporation Limited, which own 40% and 20% of GMAC-SAIC, respectively. At December 31, 2010, the joint venture had total finance receivables and loans of $3.9 billion.

 

   

Brazil and Mexico – Brazil is the largest automotive market in Latin America where we had total finance receivables and loans of $3.2 billion at December 31, 2010. In both Brazil and Mexico, we offer a full product line and have strong positions in the automotive dealer channel.

 

   

Germany and the United Kingdom – Germany and the United Kingdom remain our core markets in Europe with total finance receivables and loans of $5.6 billion at December 31, 2010. To improve operational efficiency, certain of our servicing and lending activities in Europe have been consolidated in Germany.

Insurance Operations

Our Insurance operations offer both consumer insurance products sold primarily through dealers and commercial insurance products sold to dealers. As part of our focus on offering dealers a broad range of products, we provide vehicle service contracts, mechanical breakdown and maintenance coverages. We also underwrite selected commercial insurance coverages which primarily insure dealers’ wholesale vehicle inventory in the United States and internationally.

We believe our national insurance platform provides us with a competitive advantage, allowing us to design products tailored to our dealer customers, control underwriting and retain the profits generated by this business. We sell insurance products to over 4,000 dealers in the United States. Among U.S. GM dealers to whom we provide wholesale financing, our wholesale insurance product penetration rate is over 80%. Dealers who receive wholesale financing from Ally are eligible for wholesale insurance incentives, such as automatic eligibility in our preferred insurance programs and increased financial benefits.

Mortgage

Our Origination and Servicing operations consist of originating, purchasing, selling and securitizing conforming and government-insured residential mortgage loans in the United States and Canada; servicing residential mortgage loans for ourselves and others; and providing collateralized lines of credit to other mortgage loan originators, also called warehouse lending. We also originate a small amount of high quality prime jumbo mortgage loans in the United States. Our Origination and Servicing operations had $24.5 billion in assets at December 31, 2010.

In 2010, we originated $69.5 billion of U.S. residential mortgage loans, including $61.5 billion through our network of over 900 correspondents. Conforming and government-insured residential mortgage loans comprised approximately 98% of our 2010 originations. At December 31, 2010, we were the primary servicer of 2.4 million

 

 

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mortgage loans with $360.8 billion of unpaid principal balances. We have substantially derisked our mortgage operations since the onset of the housing crisis and reduced our overall mortgage assets from $135.1 billion in 2006 to $36.8 billion at the end of 2010, primarily through the run-off and divestiture of noncore businesses and assets.

Our Legacy Portfolio and Other operations primarily consist of mortgage loans originated prior to January 1, 2009, and consist of noncore business activities including portfolios in run-off. Total assets of our Legacy Portfolio and Other operations decreased from $32.9 billion at December 31, 2008, to $12.3 billion at December 31, 2010.

Ally Bank

Ally Bank raises deposits directly from customers through the direct banking channel via the internet and over the telephone. We believe that Ally Bank is well-positioned to continue to take advantage of the consumer-driven shift from branch banking to direct banking. We believe internet banking is now the preferred banking channel by consumers. According to a 2010 American Bankers Association survey, the number of bank customers who prefer to do their banking online increased from 21% to 36% between 2007 and 2010, while those who prefer branch banking has declined from 39% to 25% over the same period.

We have quickly become a leader in direct banking with our recognizable brand, accessible 24/7 customer service, and competitively priced deposit products. We have distinguished our direct bank with our “Talk Straight, Do Right, Be Obviously Better” branding and products that are “Easy to Use” with “No Fine Print, Hidden Fees, Rules or Penalties”. Recent introductions of retail banking products include interest-bearing checking accounts, electronic bill pay, remote deposit, and no-fee debit cards.

Ally Bank provides our automotive finance and mortgage loan operations with a stable and low-cost funding source. At December 31, 2010, Ally Bank had $33.9 billion of deposits including $21.8 billion of retail deposits. The growth of our retail deposit base from $7.2 billion at the end of 2008 to $21.8 billion at the end of 2010 has enabled us to reduce our cost of funds during that period. We expect to continue to lower our cost of funds over time and diversify our overall funding as our deposit base grows. Over the past two years, we have grown our retail deposits even as we have reduced the cost of our deposits.

The following chart shows the amount and type of Ally Bank’s customer deposits and the average retail deposit rate as of the dates indicated:

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Our Strengths

Automotive financial services category leader with full product suite.

We are one of the largest providers of retail and wholesale automotive financing in the world and are an integral part of the automotive industry. We believe that our 90-year history has provided us extensive knowledge of the automotive industry and the financial services needs of its dealers, automotive manufacturers, and retail consumers.

Our full suite of financing and insurance products and extensive on-site service relationships differentiate us from most of our competitors. As of December 31, 2010, over 5,000 of our automotive dealer customers utilized four or more of our products. We use incentive programs, such as our Ally Dealer Rewards program, to increase the volume of business and number of products used by our dealer customers. During 2010, over 60% of our U.S. dealer customers received benefits under the Ally Dealer Rewards program which was initiated in 2009.

Implementation of our market-driven strategies since 2008 has enabled us to grow our Global Automotive Services business within our existing dealer relationships and expand into new relationships with dealers of various manufacturers. Since 2008, we have successfully added preferred provider agreements, including Chrysler (U.S., Canada, and Mexico), Fiat (U.S. and Mexico), Saab (U.S. and Europe), American Suzuki (U.S.) and Thor (U.S.). Our strong relationships with manufacturers have allowed us to offer more products, expand our dealer base and strengthen our existing network of dealer relationships. We have increased our new non-GM retail originations from $1.0 billion in 2006 to $9.5 billion in 2010.

We believe that the combination of our full suite of products, service standards, global platform, incentive programs, and funding strategy put us in a strong position relative to competing financial institutions and future entrants to the market.

Scalable platform with significant growth opportunities.

We are well-positioned for growth as the U.S. economy recovers and U.S. Seasonally Adjusted Annualized Rate (SAAR) of vehicle sales rebounds from its 2008-2009 recessionary levels. Consumer and business spending on automobiles has recovered from recent lows but remains well below historical average levels. The chart below shows historical consumer, business and government spending on automobiles as a percentage of U.S. GDP.

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Source: Bureau of Economic Analysis, U.S. Department of Commerce

 

 

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The chart below shows historical and projected U.S. SAAR (in millions):

LOGO

 

 

Source: Bureau of Economic Analysis as to 2006-2010 data and Blue Chip Economic Indicators, Vol. 35, No. 10/Vol. 36, No. 2, as to projected 2011-2013 data.

In the United States and Canada, we have approximately 2,000 automotive finance and insurance employees dedicated to dealer sales, product support, lending and underwriting. This infrastructure allows us to accommodate our growing volume of business and support our existing customers. We maintain a dedicated sales force, which meets the needs of our existing dealer customers, expands our market penetration in the dealer network and supports our existing and new automotive manufacturing partners. Our sales force consists of direct dealer account relationship professionals, supplemental product support coverage professionals, and primary manufacturer relationship account professionals.

We also have invested significantly in our technology infrastructure and other initiatives to support our automotive financing and banking services platforms to further enhance our dealer and retail customer relationships and increase business volumes. This focus has resulted in increased credit application flow and originations from dealers representing various manufacturers, including GM and Chrysler. We are now able to access applications from almost all U.S. automotive dealerships under any brand. The combination of our extensive infrastructure, our relationships with finance and insurance departments of dealers, and our participation in the major credit application on-line networks, provides us with a strong platform to efficiently grow our consumer business volumes across a broad mix of automotive dealers.

In addition, we expect our incentive programs, such as Ally Dealer Rewards and other market-driven strategies, to increase business volumes and the number of products used by dealers. Other major initiatives underway such as dealer diversification strategies and additional preferred relationships with other manufacturers should increase our consumer retail, lease, and dealer funding volumes. The used vehicle financing market is highly fragmented and we believe this provides us with a growth opportunity within our franchised dealer relationships. We believe our significant presence in attractive markets such as China and Brazil also supports our growth opportunity internationally.

Leading direct banking franchise.

We believe Ally Bank is well-positioned for continued growth within the direct banking market. The Ally Bank brand has attained strong recognition since it was launched in 2009. Our products and customer experience have earned top honors from CNN Money, Kiplinger’s Personal Finance Magazine and Change Sciences Group.

 

 

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Ally Bank provides us with a diversified source of stable, low-cost funding. The bank’s assets primarily consist of high quality commercial and consumer automotive finance receivables and conforming and government-insured residential mortgage loans originated through our automotive and mortgage businesses, respectively. We believe there are opportunities to deliver other products to our growing banking customer base, in addition to our full suite of deposit, savings and checking products.

Complementary mortgage origination and servicing operations.

Our Origination and Servicing business is one of the largest participants in the U.S. residential mortgage loan market and provides us with an additional source of profitability. It is now focused on the segments of the mortgage loan market that have remained profitable for us during the housing crisis. We believe our Origination and Servicing operations are well-positioned as a result of our strong market position, scalable platform, well-known brands and extensive experience.

Strong balance sheet, liquidity position and risk management.

We believe that the consumer automotive loans on our balance sheet reflect the significantly tighter underwriting standards across the credit spectrum that we adopted since 2008. Our underwriting process utilizes a robust combination of credit metrics, including, among others, FICO scores, loan-to-value ratios, debt-to-income ratios and proprietary scoring models. The average FICO score at origination of the U.S. new retail loans in our outstanding portfolio as of December 31, 2010 was 743. We are prudently expanding automotive originations across the credit spectrum in accordance with our underwriting standards. During 2010, the loss rate on our U.S. consumer automotive portfolio was 1.73%.

Our commercial automotive financing business consists primarily of wholesale financing in which credit is extended to individual dealers and is secured by vehicles in inventory and, in some circumstances, other assets owned by the dealer or by a personal guarantee. We manage risk in our commercial automotive financing business through our rigorous credit underwriting process, which utilizes our proprietary dealer credit evaluation system, our ongoing risk monitoring program, and vehicle inventory audits to verify collateral and dealer compliance with lending agreements. During 2010, the loss rate on our U.S. commercial automotive portfolio was 0.27%.

The loans originated in our mortgage operations are currently comprised primarily of high credit quality conforming, government-insured and prime jumbo residential mortgage loans. We have substantially reduced and derisked our legacy mortgage exposure of nonconforming assets through writedowns, run-offs and divestitures over the last three years. We have also settled with Federal National Mortgage Association (“Fannie Mae”) and Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“Freddie Mac”), as well as several other counterparties, which resolved material repurchase obligations with each counterparty. At December 31, 2010, we held reserves of $830 million for potential repurchase obligations for loans we sold to counterparties.

We have demonstrated strong access to funding and liquidity that are critical to our business. In 2010, we raised nearly $36 billion of secured and unsecured funding in the capital markets. We also have significant liquidity available beyond capital markets funding with access to $31.3 billion of liquidity in the form of cash, highly liquid unencumbered securities, and available committed credit facility capacity at December 31, 2010.

Our access to deposits is an important source of diversified funding. Approximately 29% of our funding at the end of 2010 came from deposits compared to 14% at the end of 2008. We believe Ally Bank gives us the stable, low-cost benefits of deposit funding with a direct-to-consumer delivery model. Ally Bank’s leadership in direct banking, recognizable brand and compelling customer value proposition position us well for consistent growth.

 

 

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Our balance sheet is well capitalized. At December 31, 2010, we had a Tier 1 capital ratio of 15.0%, and a Tier 1 common ratio of     % pro forma for this offering. We believe this capitalization compares favorably to our peers and positions us well for the future.

Experienced management team.

Our senior management team is comprised of financial professionals with deep operating experience in automotive and consumer finance and extensive experience managing some of the largest and most successful financial institutions in the world. Our senior management team has successfully led our return to profitability and the development of our strong liquidity and capital position following the financial crisis. Our management team has taken significant actions to make our automotive finance business more efficient and better positioned for growth opportunities. Substantial actions have also been taken to materially reduce the legacy risk in our mortgage operations. Our capital structure and prudent liquidity actions by management have positioned us for growth as the automotive industry and overall economy continue to rebound.

Our Business Strategy

Expand our position as a leading global provider of automotive financial services products.

We believe that our dealer-focused business model, global platform, full range of product offerings and sales organization position us to further broaden our relationships with existing and new dealers and automotive manufacturers, and to originate attractive retail automotive loans and leases for our portfolio in addition to other products. Our market-driven strategies, including incentive programs, have been designed and implemented to drive higher business volumes with our dealer relationships. Furthermore, we have dedicated resources to the underwriting and financing of used vehicle sales that should allow us to expand loan origination volume with our existing dealer base. We are also leveraging our existing dealer relationships, product suite, and extensive operating experience to expand our diversified dealer network and facilitate financing relationships with additional automotive manufacturers. We intend to continue to strongly support our financing relationships with GM and Chrysler by providing dependable new car inventory and consumer financing through all economic cycles. We will continue to utilize our international infrastructure to build upon our strong presence in attractive, developing markets such as China, Brazil and Mexico. Our objective is to generate incremental profitability and asset growth without straying from our core competencies in automotive finance.

Continue to generate consistent results through our Mortgage operations.

Our Mortgage Origination and Servicing operations, which primarily originate and service high credit quality mortgage loans, provide a complementary source of consumer assets and a diversified source of profitability. The vast majority of our mortgage loans are originated, financed, and sold without significant balance sheet growth.

We plan to prudently expand our direct lending origination channel to complement our existing origination platform. Our servicing operations are fee-based and do not expose us to significant credit risk. We expect to sell the vast majority of our mortgage loans soon after origination, thereby reducing funding requirements.

Reduce our funding costs and continue funding diversification.

We continue to expand and diversify our funding in order to improve our profitability and enhance our competitiveness. Our success at developing our franchise at Ally Bank has supported the growth of our retail deposit base to $21.8 billion at December 31, 2010 from $7.2 billion at the end of 2008. Our retail deposit growth has enabled us to diversify and reduce our cost of funds since 2008. Our strategy is to continue to increase our retail deposit base through the delivery of our full suite of deposit products and continued investment in the Ally Bank brand name.

 

 

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Our objective is to attain investment grade credit ratings from the rating agencies. We believe that improved ratings will help us to reduce our cost of funds further and improve our ability to compete even more effectively with other large banks and financial institutions across all products. We believe that the stable performance of our asset base, strong capitalization, demonstrated access to diversified funding markets, and the ability to operate profitably will help us reach this goal over time.

By continuing to diversify our funding sources and lower our overall cost of funding, including the prudent growth of Ally Bank, we believe that we can provide even more efficient and consistent funding for our dealers and their retail customers through various economic cycles.

Maintain a strong balance sheet through disciplined origination, servicing and risk management.

We will continue to focus primarily on originating and managing secured automotive and mortgage loans and related products. The types of secured commercial and consumer automotive loans that we originate performed well through the recent financial crisis. Our Mortgage Origination and Servicing operations originate conforming, government-insured residential and prime jumbo residential mortgage loans, which we believe have an attractive risk return profile. We believe we have significantly reduced our risk profile and improved our profitability by divesting and discontinuing a number of noncore activities.

We believe that we maintain strong levels of capital and liquidity relative to other bank holding companies. Our strategy is to materially increase our volume of automotive finance assets within our existing infrastructure and with prudent underwriting criteria which we believe will allow us to efficiently utilize our capital and enhance our profitability.

Improve our shareholder return profile.

We seek to enhance our returns for shareholders by prudently originating loans and leases across the credit spectrum. We have also recently increased our focus on offering financing for used vehicles through our franchised dealer relationships. We have invested significant capital in risk management and technology to manage this expansion. By prudently expanding automotive originations across broad credit segments and with continued diversification, we believe we can increase asset yields and generate attractive risk-adjusted returns in a variety of interest rate and credit environments. We plan to continue to decrease our overall costs by increasing productivity, adding retail deposits, and efficiently accessing secured and unsecured wholesale markets as certain higher-cost legacy funding matures. The combination of higher asset yields and lower operating and funding costs with an efficient capital structure will provide opportunities for us to improve returns to our shareholders.

Corporate Information

Our principal executive offices are located at 200 Renaissance Center, P.O. Box 200, Detroit, Michigan 48265-2000 and our telephone number is (866) 710-4623. Our website is www.ally.com. Our website and the information included in, or linked to on, our website are not part of this prospectus. We have included our website address in this prospectus solely as a textual reference.

 

 

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THE OFFERING

 

Common stock offered by the selling stockholder

         shares.

 

Common stock to be outstanding after this offering

         shares (assuming no exercise of the underwriters’ over-allotment option).

 

Over-allotment option

         shares from the selling stockholder to cover over-allotments.

 

Common stock listing

We intend to apply to list our common stock on the                      under the symbol “            .”

 

Voting rights

One vote per share.

 

Use of proceeds

Ally will not receive any proceeds from sale of common stock in the offering.

 

Dividend policy

We have no current plans to commence payment of a dividend on our common stock. Our payment of dividends on our common stock in the future will be determined by our Board of Directors in its sole discretion and will depend on business conditions, our financial condition, earnings and liquidity, and other factors. Our Fixed Rate Cumulative Perpetual Preferred Stock, Series G (the “Series G preferred stock”) prohibits us from making dividend payments on our common stock before January 1, 2014 and restricts our ability to pay dividends thereafter. In addition, so long as any share of our Fixed Rate / Floating Rate Perpetual Preferred Stock, Series A (the “Series A preferred stock”) or our Fixed Rate Cumulative Mandatorily Convertible Preferred Stock on Series F-2 (the “Series F-2 preferred stock”) remains outstanding, no dividend or distribution may be declared or paid on our common stock unless all accrued and unpaid dividends have been paid on such series of preferred stock.

 

In addition, any plans to commence payment of dividends on our common stock in the future would be subject to the FRB’s review and absence of objection.

 

Risk factors

See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 16 of this prospectus for a discussion of risks you should carefully consider before deciding whether to invest in our common stock.

Unless we specifically state otherwise, the information in this prospectus does not take into account shares issuable under our equity compensation incentive plan. All applicable share, per share and related information in this prospectus for periods on or subsequent to              has been adjusted retroactively for the         -for-one stock split on shares of our common stock effected on                     , 2011.

 

 

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SUMMARY CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL AND OTHER DATA

The following summary consolidated financial data of Ally should be read in conjunction with, and are qualified by reference to, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included elsewhere in this prospectus. The consolidated statement of income data for the years ended December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008 and the consolidated balance sheet data at December 31, 2010 and 2009 are derived from, and qualified by reference to, our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus and should be read in conjunction with those consolidated financial statements and notes thereto. The consolidated statement of income data for the years ended December 31, 2007 and 2006 and the consolidated balance sheet data at December 31, 2008, 2007 and 2006 are derived from our audited consolidated financial statements not included in this prospectus.

 

     At and for the year ended December 31,  
     2010      2009     2008     2007     2006  
     ($ in millions)  

Financial statement data

           

Statement of income data:

           

Total financing revenue and other interest income

   $ 11,447       $ 13,100      $ 18,054      $ 21,761      $ 24,100   

Interest expense

     6,836         7,274        10,441        13,553        14,638   

Depreciation expense on operating lease assets

     2,030         3,748        5,478        4,551        5,055   

Impairment of investment in operating leases

                    1,218                 
                                         

Net financing revenue

     2,581         2,078        917        3,657        4,407   

Total other revenue (a)

     5,321         4,417        15,271        6,161        7,860   
                                         

Total net revenue

     7,902         6,495        16,188        9,818        12,267   

Provision for loan losses

     442         5,604        3,102        3,037        1,948   

Total other noninterest expense

     6,281         7,850        8,349        8,203        8,457   
                                         

Income (loss) from continuing operations before income tax expense (benefit)

     1,179         (6,959     4,737        (1,422     1,862   

Income tax expense (benefit) from continuing operations (b)

     153         74        (136     496        22   
                                         

Net income (loss) from continuing operations

     1,026         (7,033     4,873        (1,918     1,840   
                                         

Income (loss) from discontinued operations, net of tax

     49         (3,265     (3,005     (414     285   
                                         

Net income (loss)

   $ 1,075       $ (10,298   $ 1,868      $ (2,332   $ 2,125   
                                         

Non-GAAP financial measures (c):

           

Net income (loss)

   $ 1,075       $ (10,298   $ 1,868      $ (2,332   $ 2,125   

Add: Original issue discount amortization expense (d)

     1,300         1,143        70                 

Add: Income tax expense (benefit) from continuing operations

     153         74        (136     496        22   

Less: Gain on extinguishment of debt related to the 2008 bond exchange

                    11,460                 

Less: Income (loss) from discontinued operations, net of tax

     49         (3,265     (3,005     (414     285   
                                         

Core pretax income (loss) (c)

   $ 2,479       $ (5,816   $ (6,653   $ (1,422   $ 1,862   
                                         

 

 

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     At and for the year ended December 31,  
     2010     2009     2008     2007     2006  
     (per share in whole dollars)  

Pro forma share data (e)(f):

          

Basic and diluted earnings per common share

          

Net (loss) income from continuing operations

          

Income (loss) from discontinued operations, net of tax

          
                                        

Net (loss) income

          

Weighted-average common shares outstanding

          
                                        
     ($ in millions)  

Selected balance sheet data (period end):

  

Total assets

   $ 172,008      $ 172,306      $ 189,476      $ 248,939      $ 291,971   

Long-term debt

   $ 86,612      $ 88,021      $ 115,935      $ 159,342      $ 193,387   

Preferred stock/interests (f)

   $ 6,972      $ 12,180      $ 6,287      $ 1,052      $   

Total equity

   $ 20,489      $ 20,839      $ 21,854      $ 15,565      $ 14,369   

Financial ratios

          

Efficiency ratio (g)

     79.49     120.86     51.58     83.55     68.94

Core efficiency ratio (g)

     68.26     102.78     174.01     83.55     68.94

Return on assets (h)

          

Net income (loss) from continuing operations

     0.58     (3.95 )%      2.57     (0.77 )%      0.63

Net income (loss)

     0.61     (5.79 )%      0.99     (0.94 )%      0.73

Core pretax income

     1.40     (3.27 )%      (3.51 )%      (0.57 )%      0.64

Return on equity (h)

          

Net income (loss) from continuing operations

     4.95     (29.00 )%      22.30     (12.32 )%      12.81

Net income (loss)

     5.19     (42.46 )%      8.55     (14.98 )%      14.79

Core pretax income

     11.97     (23.98 )%      (30.44 )%      (9.14 )%      12.96

Equity to assets (h)

     11.72     13.63     11.53     6.25     4.92

Net interest spread (h)(i)

     1.23     0.65     (j     (j     (j

Net interest spread excluding original issue
discount (h)(i)

     2.29     1.68     (j     (j     (j

Regulatory capital ratios

          

Tier 1 capital (to risk-weighted assets) (k)

     15.00     14.15     (j     (j     (j

Total risk-based capital (to risk-weighted
assets) (l)

     16.36     15.55     (j     (j     (j

Tier 1 leverage (to adjusted average assets) (m)

     13.05     12.70     (j     (j     (j

Tier 1 common (to risk-weighted assets) (n)

     8.57     4.85     (j     (j     (j

 

 

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(a) Total other revenue for 2008 includes $12.6 billion of gains on the extinguishment of debt, primarily related to private exchange and cash tender offers settled during the fourth quarter. Total other revenue for 2006 includes realized capital gains of $1.1 billion primarily related to the rebalancing of our investment portfolio at our Insurance operations.

 

(b) Effective June 30, 2009, we converted from a limited liability company into a corporation and, as a result, became subject to corporate U.S. federal, state, and local taxes beginning in the third quarter of 2009. Our conversion to a corporation resulted in a change in tax status and a net deferred tax liability of $1.2 billion was established through income tax expense. Effective November 28, 2006, we, along with certain of our U.S. subsidiaries, converted to limited liability companies (“LLCs”) and became pass-through entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Our conversion to an LLC resulted in a change in tax status and the elimination of a $791 million net deferred tax liability through income tax expense. Refer to Note 24 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information regarding our changes in tax status.

 

(c) Core pretax income (loss) is a non-GAAP financial measure that we define as earnings from continuing operations before income taxes, original issue discount amortization expense primarily associated with our 2008 bond exchange, and the gain on extinguishment of debt related to the 2008 bond exchange. We believe that the presentation of core pretax income (loss) is useful information for the users of our financial statements in understanding the earnings from our core businesses. In addition, core pretax income (loss) is the primary measure that management uses to assess the performance of our operations. We believe that core pretax income (loss) is a useful alternative measure of our ongoing profitability and performance, when viewed in conjunction with GAAP measures. The presentation of this additional information is not a substitute for net income (loss) determined in accordance with GAAP.

 

(d) Primarily represents original issue discount amortization expense associated with the 2008 bond exchange, including $101 million of accelerated amortization that was reported as a loss on extinguishment of debt in the 2010 Consolidated Statement of Income.

 

(e) Pro forma to reflect the         -for-one stock split on our common stock effected on                     , 2011.

 

(f) Effective June 30, 2009, we converted from a Delaware limited liability company into a Delaware corporation. Each unit of each class of common membership interest issued and outstanding immediately prior to the conversion was converted into an equivalent number of shares of common stock with substantially the same rights and preferences as the common membership interests. Upon conversion, holders of our preferred membership interests also received an equivalent number of shares of preferred stock with substantially the same rights and preferences as the former preferred membership interests.

 

(g) The efficiency ratio equals total other noninterest expense divided by total net revenue. The core efficiency ratio equals total other noninterest expense divided by total net revenue excluding original issue discount amortization expense and gain on extinguishment of debt related to the 2008 bond exchange.

 

(h) The 2010 and 2009 ratios were computed based on average assets and average equity using a combination of monthly and daily average methodologies. The 2008, 2007, and 2006 ratios have been computed based on period-end total assets and period-end total equity at December 31, 2008, 2007, and 2006.

 

(i) Net interest spread represents the difference between the rate on total interest earning assets and the rate on total interest-bearing liabilities, excluding discontinued operations for the periods shown.

 

(j) Not applicable at December 31, 2008, 2007, and 2006, as we did not become a bank holding company until December 24, 2008.

 

 

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(k) Tier 1 capital generally consists of common equity, minority interests, and qualifying preferred stock (including fixed rate cumulative preferred stock issued and sold to Treasury) less goodwill and other adjustments.

 

(l) Total risk-based capital is the sum of Tier 1 and Tier 2 capital. Tier 2 capital generally consists of preferred stock not qualifying as Tier 1 capital, limited amounts of subordinated debt and the allowance for loan losses, and other adjustments. The amount of Tier 2 capital may not exceed the amount of Tier 1 capital.

 

(m) Tier 1 leverage equals Tier 1 capital divided by adjusted average total assets (which reflects adjustments for disallowed goodwill and certain intangible assets). The minimum Tier 1 leverage ratio is 3% or 4% depending on factors specified in the regulations.

 

(n) Tier 1 common is defined as Tier 1 capital less noncommon elements including qualified perpetual preferred stock, qualifying minority interest in subsidiaries, and qualifying trust preferred securities.

 

 

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RISK FACTORS

You should carefully consider the following risk factors that may affect our business, future operating results and financial condition, as well as the other information set forth in this prospectus before making a decision to invest in our common stock. Any of the following risks could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. In such case, the trading price of our common stock would likely decline due to any of these risks, and you may lose all or part of your investment.

Risks Related to Regulation

Our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be adversely affected by regulations to which we are subject as a result of our bank holding company status.

On December 24, 2008, the FRB approved our application to become a bank holding company under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended (the “BHC Act”). Many of the regulatory requirements to which we are subject as a bank holding company were not previously applicable to us and have and will continue to require significant expense and devotion of resources to fully implement processes that will be necessary to ensure compliance. Compliance with such laws and regulations involves substantial costs and may adversely affect our ability to operate profitably. Recent events, particularly in the financial and real estate markets, have resulted in bank regulatory agencies placing increased focus and scrutiny on participants in the financial services industry, including us. For a description of our regulatory requirements, see “Business—Certain Regulatory Matters”.

Ally is subject to ongoing supervision by the FRB, and Ally Bank by the FDIC and the Utah DFI, in each case, through regular examinations and other means that allow the regulators to gauge management’s ability to identify, assess, and control risk in all areas of operations in a safe-and-sound manner and to ensure compliance with laws and regulations. As a result of Ally’s conversion to a bank holding company, Ally and Ally Bank have been required to implement policies and procedures and take other actions to improve their current processes and to seek to ensure adherence to applicable regulatory guidelines and standards.

Ally is currently required by its banking supervisors to make improvements in areas such as board and senior management oversight, risk management, regulatory reporting, internal audit planning, capital adequacy process, stress testing, and Bank Secrecy Act / anti-money laundering compliance, and to continue to reduce problem assets. Separately, Ally Bank is currently required by its banking supervisors to make improvements in areas such as compliance management and training, consumer protection monitoring, consumer complaint resolution, internal audit program and residential mortgage loan pricing, and fee monitoring. These requirements are judicially enforceable, and if we are unable to implement and maintain these required actions, plans, policies and procedures in a timely and effective manner and otherwise comply with the requirements outlined above, we could become subject to formal supervisory actions which could subject us to significant restrictions on our existing business or on our ability to develop any new business. Such forms of supervisory action could include, without limitation, written agreements, cease and desist orders, and consent orders and may, among other things, result in restrictions on our ability to pay dividends, requirements to increase capital, restrictions on our activities, the imposition of civil monetary penalties, and enforcement of such action through injunctions or restraining orders. We could also be required to dispose of certain assets and liabilities within a prescribed period. The terms of any such supervisory action could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating flexibility, financial condition, and results of operations.

Our ability to engage in certain activities may be adversely affected by our status as a bank holding company.

As a bank holding company, Ally’s activities are generally limited to banking or to managing or controlling banks or other companies engaged in activities deemed closely related to banking or otherwise permissible under the BHC Act and related regulations. Likewise, Ally generally may not hold more than 5% of any class of voting

 

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shares of any company unless that company’s activities conform with the above requirements. Upon our bank holding company approval, we were permitted an initial two-year grace period to bring our activities and investments into conformity with these restrictions. This initial grace period expired in December 2010; however, the FRB has granted a one-year extension that expires in December 2011. We will be permitted to apply to the FRB for up to two additional one-year extensions. Certain of Ally’s existing activities and investments, including certain of our insurance activities and our SmartAuction vehicle remarketing services, are deemed impermissible under the BHC Act and must be terminated or disposed of by the expiration of this extension and any additional extensions. While some of these activities may be continued if Ally is able to convert to a financial holding company under the BHC Act, Ally may be unable to satisfy the requirements to enable it to convert to a financial holding company prior to that time, and activities, businesses, or investments that would be permissible for a financial holding company will need to be terminated or disposed of. The FRB may also decline to grant any additional requested extensions, and Ally may be obligated to terminate or dispose of any impermissible activities, businesses, or investments more quickly than anticipated or under terms less advantageous to Ally than expected. Either situation could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial position.

As a bank holding company, our ability to expand into new business activities requires us to obtain the prior approval of the relevant banking supervisors. There can be no assurance that any required approval will be obtained or that we will be able to execute on these plans in a timely manner or at all. If we are unable to obtain approval to expand into new business activities, our business, results of operations, and financial position may be materially adversely affected.

Our business and financial condition could be adversely affected as a result of issues relating to mortgage foreclosures, home sales, and evictions in certain states.

Representatives of federal and state governments, including the United States Department of Justice, the FRB, the FDIC, the SEC, and law enforcement authorities in all 50 states, have announced investigations into the procedures followed by mortgage servicing companies and banks, including subsidiaries of Ally, in connection with mortgage foreclosure home sales and evictions. We are cooperating with these investigations. The result of these investigations is uncertain, but we expect that Ally or its subsidiaries will become subject to fines, penalties, sanctions or other adverse actions by one or more of these regulators. Any of these potential actions could have a material adverse impact on us.

On September 17, 2010, GMAC Mortgage, LLC (“GMACM”), our indirect wholly owned subsidiary, temporarily suspended mortgage foreclosure home sales and evictions and postponed hearings on motions for judgment in certain states. This decision was made after an operational matter was detected in the execution of certain affidavits used in connection with judicial foreclosures in some but not all states. The issue relates to whether persons signing the affidavits had appropriately verified the information in them and whether they were signed in the immediate physical presence of a notary. In response to this and to enhance existing procedures, GMACM has recently implemented supplemental procedures that are used in all new foreclosure cases to seek to ensure that affidavits are prepared in compliance with applicable law. GMACM is also conducting an additional review of all foreclosure files in all states prior to proceeding with foreclosure sales.

Our review related to this matter is ongoing, and we cannot predict the ultimate impact of any deficiencies that have been or may be identified in our historical foreclosure procedures. However, thus far we have not found any evidence of unwarranted foreclosures. There are potential risks related to these matters that extend beyond potential liability on individual foreclosure actions. Specific risks could include, for example, claims and litigation related to foreclosure file remediation and resubmission; claims from investors that hold securities that become adversely impacted by continued delays in the foreclosure process; actions by courts, state attorneys general, or regulators to delay further the foreclosure process after submission of corrected affidavits; regulatory fines, sanctions, and other additional costs; and reputational risks. If the magnitude of any negative impact related to the foregoing proves to be material, it could have an adverse affect on our business, results of operations, and financial position.

 

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Our ability to execute our business strategy may be affected by regulatory considerations.

Our business strategy for Ally Bank, which includes further expansion of both automotive and mortgage lending, is subject to regulatory oversight from a safety and soundness perspective. If our banking supervisors determine that any aspect of our business strategy for Ally Bank raises any safety and soundness concerns, we may be obliged to alter our strategy, including by moving certain activities, such as certain types of lending, outside of Ally Bank to one of our nonbanking affiliates. Alternative funding sources outside of Ally Bank, such as asset securitization or financings in the capital markets, could be more expensive than funding through Ally Bank and could adversely affect our business prospects, results of operations and financial condition.

Our ability to rely on deposits as a part of our funding strategy may be limited.

Ally Bank continues to be a key part of our funding strategy, and we have increased our reliance on deposits as an alternative source of funding through Ally Bank. Ally Bank does not have a retail branch network, and it obtains its deposits through direct banking and brokered deposits (which, at December 31, 2010, included $10 billion of brokered certificates of deposit that may be more price sensitive than other types of deposits and may become less available if alternative investments offer higher interest rates). Our ability to maintain our current level of deposits or grow our deposit base could be affected by regulatory restrictions including the possible imposition of prior approval requirements, restrictions on deposit growth or restrictions on our rates offered. In addition, perceptions of our financial strength, rates offered by third parties, and other competitive factors beyond our control, including returns on alternative investments, will also impact our ability to grow our deposit base. Even if we are able to grow the deposit base of Ally Bank, our regulators may impose restrictions on our ability to use Ally Bank deposits as a source of funding for certain business activities potentially raising the cost of funding those activities without the use of Ally Bank deposits.

The FDIC has indicated that it expects Ally to diversify Ally Bank’s overall funding and to focus on reducing Ally Bank’s overall funding costs including the interest rates paid on Ally Bank deposits. Any such actions could limit Ally Bank’s ability to grow and maintain deposits, which could have a material adverse impact on the funding and capital position of Ally.

The regulatory environment in which we operate could have a material adverse effect on our business and earnings.

Our domestic operations are subject to various laws and judicial and administrative decisions imposing various requirements and restrictions relating to supervision and regulation by state and federal authorities. Such regulation and supervision are primarily for the benefit and protection of our customers, not for the benefit of investors in our securities, and could limit our discretion in operating our business. Noncompliance with applicable statutes, regulations, rules, or policies could result in the suspension or revocation of any license or registration at issue as well as the imposition of civil fines and criminal penalties.

Ally, Ally Bank, and many of our nonbank subsidiaries are heavily regulated by bank and other regulatory agencies at the federal and state levels. This regulatory oversight is established to protect depositors, the FDIC’s Deposit Insurance Fund, and the banking system as a whole, not security holders. Changes to statutes, regulations, rules, or policies including the interpretation or implementation of statutes, regulations, rules, or policies could affect us in substantial and unpredictable ways including limiting the types of financial services and products we may offer, limiting our ability to pursue acquisitions and increasing the ability of third parties to offer competing financial services and products.

Our operations are also heavily regulated in many jurisdictions outside the United States. For example, certain of our foreign subsidiaries operate either as a bank or a regulated finance company, and our insurance operations are subject to various requirements in the foreign markets in which we operate. The varying requirements of these jurisdictions may be inconsistent with U.S. rules and may materially adversely affect our

 

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business or limit necessary regulatory approvals, or if approvals are obtained, we may not be able to continue to comply with the terms of the approvals or applicable regulations. In addition, in many countries, the regulations applicable to the financial services industry are uncertain and evolving, and it may be difficult for us to determine the exact regulatory requirements.

Our inability to remain in compliance with regulatory requirements in a particular jurisdiction could have a material adverse effect on our operations in that market with regard to the affected product and on our reputation generally. No assurance can be given that applicable laws or regulations will not be amended or construed differently, that new laws and regulations will not be adopted, or that we will not be prohibited by local laws or regulators from raising interest rates above certain desired levels, any of which could materially adversely affect our business, operating flexibility, financial condition, or results of operations.

Financial services legislative and regulatory reforms may have a significant impact on our business and results of operations.

On July 21, 2010, the President of the United States signed into law the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd-Frank Act”). The Dodd-Frank Act will have material implications for Ally and the entire financial services industry. Among other things, it will or potentially could:

 

   

result in Ally being subject to enhanced oversight and scrutiny as a result of being a bank holding company with $50 billion or more in consolidated assets;

 

   

result in the appointment of the FDIC as receiver of Ally in an orderly liquidation proceeding if the Secretary of Treasury, upon recommendation of two-thirds of the FRB and the FDIC and in consultation with the President of the United States, finds Ally to be in default or danger of default;

 

   

affect the levels of capital and liquidity with which Ally must operate and how it plans capital and liquidity levels;

 

   

subject Ally to new and/or higher fees paid to various regulatory entities, including but not limited to deposit insurance fees to the FDIC;

 

   

impact Ally’s ability to invest in certain types of entities or engage in certain activities;

 

   

impact a number of Ally’s business and risk management strategies;

 

   

restrict the revenue that Ally generates from certain businesses; and

 

   

subject Ally to a new Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, which will have very broad rule-making and enforcement authorities.

As the Dodd-Frank Act requires that many studies be conducted and that hundreds of regulations be written in order to fully implement it, the full impact of this legislation on Ally, its business strategies, and financial performance cannot be known at this time and may not be known for a number of years. In addition, regulations may impact us differently in comparison to other more established financial institutions. However, these impacts are expected to be substantial and some of them are likely to adversely affect Ally and its financial performance. The extent to which Ally can adjust its strategies to offset such adverse impacts also is not knowable at this time.

Our business may be adversely affected upon our implementation of the revised capital requirements under the Basel III capital rules.

The Bank for International Settlements’ Basel Committee on Banking Supervision recently adopted new capital, leverage and liquidity guidelines under the Basel Accord (“Basel III”), which, when implemented in the

 

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United States, may have the effect of raising capital requirements beyond those required by current law and the Dodd Frank Act. Basel III increases (i) the minimum Tier 1 common equity ratio to 4.5%, net of regulatory deductions, and introduces a capital conservation buffer of an additional 2.5% of common equity to risk-weighted assets, raising the target minimum common equity ratio to 7.0% and (ii) the minimum Tier 1 capital ratio to 8.5% inclusive of the capital conservation buffer, increases the minimum total capital ratio to 10.5% inclusive of the capital buffer and introduces a countercyclical capital buffer of up to 2.5% of common equity or other fully loss absorbing capital for periods of excess credit growth. Basel III also introduces a nonrisk adjusted Tier 1 leverage ratio of 3%, based on a measure of the total exposure rather than total assets, and new liquidity standards. The Basel III capital, leverage and liquidity standards will be phased in over a multiyear period. The Basel III rules, when implemented, will also impose a 15% cap on the amount of Tier 1 capital that can be met, in the aggregate, through significant investments in the common shares of unconsolidated financial subsidiaries, mortgage servicing rights (“MSRs”) and deferred tax assets through timing differences. In addition, under Basel III rules, after a 10-year phase-out period beginning on January 1, 2013, trust preferred and other “hybrid” securities will no longer qualify as Tier 1 capital. Ally has significant MSRs and a significant amount of trust preferred securities outstanding and the Basel III rules, when implemented, will impose limits on Ally’s ability to meet its regulatory capital requirements through either means.

If we or Ally Bank fail to satisfy regulatory capital requirements, we or Ally Bank may be subject to serious regulatory sanctions ranging in severity from being precluded from making acquisitions or engaging in new activities to becoming subject to informal or formal supervisory actions by the FRB and/or FDIC and, potentially, FDIC receivership of Ally Bank. If any of these were to occur, such actions could prevent us from successfully executing our business plan and have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial position.

The actions of the FRB and international central banking authorities directly impact our cost of funds for lending, capital raising, and investment activities and may impact the value of financial instruments we hold. In addition, such changes in monetary policy may affect the credit quality of our customers. Changes in domestic and international monetary policy are beyond our control and difficult to predict.

Future consumer or mortgage legislation could harm our competitive position.

In addition to the recent enactment of the Dodd-Frank Act, various legislative bodies have also recently been considering altering the existing framework governing creditors’ rights and mortgage products including legislation that would result in or allow loan modifications of various sorts. Such legislation may change banking statutes and the operating environment in substantial and unpredictable ways. If enacted, such legislation could increase or decrease the cost of doing business; limit or expand permissible activities; or affect the competitive balance among banks, savings associations, credit unions, and other financial institutions. We cannot predict whether new legislation will be enacted, and if enacted, the effect that it or any regulations would have on our activities, financial condition, or results of operations.

Ally and its subsidiaries are or may become involved from time to time in information-gathering requests, investigations and proceedings by government and self-regulatory agencies which may lead to adverse consequences.

Ally and its subsidiaries, including Ally Bank, are or may become involved from time to time in information-gathering requests, reviews, investigations, and proceedings (both formal and informal) by government and self-regulatory agencies, including the FRB, FDIC, Utah DFI, SEC and the Federal Trade Commission regarding their respective operations. Such matters may result in determinations of material weaknesses in our controls and procedures or material adverse consequences including without limitation, adverse judgments, settlements, fines, penalties, injunctions, or other actions.

 

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Our business, financial position, and results of operations could be adversely affected by the impact of affiliate transaction restrictions imposed in connection with certain financing transactions.

Certain transactions between Ally Bank and any of its nonbank “affiliates,” including but not limited to Ally Financial Inc. and Residential Capital, LLC (“ResCap”) are subject to federal statutory and regulatory restrictions. Pursuant to these restrictions, unless otherwise exempted, “covered transactions,” including Ally Bank’s extensions of credit to and asset purchases from its nonbank affiliates, generally (1) are limited to 10% of Ally Bank’s capital stock and surplus with an aggregate limit of 20% of Ally Bank’s capital stock and surplus for all such transactions; (2) in the case of certain credit transactions, are subject to stringent collateralization requirements; (3) in the case of asset purchases by Ally Bank, may not involve the purchase of any asset deemed to be a “low quality asset” under federal banking guidelines; and (4) must be conducted in accordance with safe-and-sound banking practices (collectively, the Affiliate Transaction Restrictions). Under the Dodd-Frank Act, among other changes to Sections 23A and 23B of the Federal Reserve Act, credit exposures resulting from derivatives transactions and securities lending and borrowing transactions will be treated as “covered transactions.” Furthermore, there is an “attribution rule” that provides that a transaction between Ally Bank and a third party will be treated as a transaction between Ally Bank and a nonbank affiliate to the extent that the proceeds of the transaction are used for the benefit of, or transferred to, a nonbank affiliate of Ally Bank. Retail financing transactions by Ally Bank involving vehicles which are floorplan financed by Ally Financial Inc. are subject to the Affiliate Transaction Restrictions because the proceeds of the retail financings are deemed to benefit, and are ultimately transferred to, Ally.

The FRB is authorized to exempt, in its discretion, transactions or relationships from the requirements of these rules if it finds such exemptions to be in the public interest and consistent with the purposes of the rules. The FRB has granted several such exemptions to Ally Bank. However, the existing exemptions are subject to various conditions and any requests for future exemptions may not be granted. Moreover, these limited exemptions generally do not encompass consumer leasing or used vehicle financing. Since there is no assurance that Ally Bank will be able to obtain any further exemptions or waivers with respect to these restrictions, the ability to grow Ally Bank’s business will be affected by the Affiliate Transaction Restrictions and the conditions set forth in these exemption letters.

Ally Financial Inc. may in the future require distributions from its subsidiaries.

We currently fund Ally Financial Inc.’s obligations, including dividend payments to our preferred shareholders, and payments of interest and principal on our indebtedness, from cash generated by Ally Financial Inc. In the future, Ally Financial Inc. may not generate sufficient funds at the parent company level to fund its obligations. As such, it may require dividends, distributions, or other payments from its subsidiaries to fund its obligations. However, regulatory and other legal restrictions may limit the ability of Ally Financial Inc.’s subsidiaries to transfer funds freely to Ally Financial Inc. In particular, many of Ally Financial Inc.’s subsidiaries are subject to laws, regulations, and rules that authorize regulatory bodies to block or reduce the flow of funds to it or that prohibit such transfers entirely in certain circumstances. These laws, regulations, and rules may hinder Ally Financial Inc.’s ability to access funds that it may need to make payments on its obligations in the future. Furthermore, as a bank holding company, Ally Financial Inc. may become subject to a prohibition or to limitations on its ability to pay dividends. The bank regulators have the authority and, under certain circumstances, the duty to prohibit or to limit payment of dividends by the banking organizations they supervise, including Ally Financial Inc. and its subsidiaries.

Current and future increases in FDIC insurance premiums, including the FDIC special assessment imposed on all FDIC-insured institutions, could decrease our earnings.

During 2008 and continuing in 2009 and 2010, higher levels of bank failures have dramatically increased resolution costs of the FDIC and depleted the Deposit Insurance Fund (the “DIF”). In May 2009, the FDIC announced that it had voted to levy a special assessment on insured institutions in order to facilitate the rebuilding of the DIF. In September 2009, the FDIC voted to adopt an increase in the risk-based assessment rate effective beginning January 1, 2011, by three basis points. Further, the Dodd-Frank Act alters the calculation of

 

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an insured institution’s deposit base for purposes of deposit insurance assessments and removes the upper limit for the reserve ratio designated by the FDIC each year. On February 7, 2011, the FDIC approved a final rule implementing these changes, which will take effect April 1, 2011. The FDIC will continue to assess the changes to the assessment rates at least annually. Future deposit premiums paid by Ally Bank depend on the level of the DIF and the magnitude and cost of future bank failures. Any increases in deposit insurance assessments could decrease our earnings.

Risks Related to Our Business

The profitability and financial condition of our operations are heavily dependent upon the performance, operations, and prospects of GM and Chrysler.

GM, GM dealers, and GM-related employees compose a significant portion of our customer base, and our domestic and, in particular, our International Automotive Finance operations are highly dependent on GM production and sales volume. In 2010, 66% of our North American new vehicle dealer inventory financing and 66% of our North American new vehicle consumer automotive financing volume were for GM dealers and customers. In addition, 90% of our international new vehicle dealer inventory financing and 82% of our international new vehicle consumer automotive financing volume were for GM dealers and customers. Furthermore, we have expanded our financing footprint to Chrysler dealers and customers. We have entered into an agreement with Chrysler to provide automotive financing products and services to Chrysler dealers and customers pursuant to which we will be the preferred provider of new wholesale financing for Chrysler dealer inventory. In 2010, 26% of our North American new vehicle dealer inventory financing and 31% of our North American new vehicle consumer automotive financing volume were for Chrysler dealers and customers.

Ally’s agreements with GM and Chrysler to provide automotive financing products to their dealers and customers extend through December and April 2013, respectively. These agreements provide Ally with certain preferred provider benefits including limiting the use of other financing providers by GM and Chrysler in their incentive programs. The terms of the Ally agreement with GM changed after January 1, 2011, such that GM is now able to offer any incentive programs on a graduated basis through third parties on a nonexclusive, side-by-side basis with Ally, provided that the pricing of the third parties meets certain requirements. Due to the highly competitive nature of the market for financial services, Ally may be unable to extend one or both of these agreements or may face less favorable terms upon extension. If Ally is unable to extend one or both of these agreements or if GM enters a similar agreement with a third party, Ally’s retail financing volumes could be materially and adversely impacted.

On October 1, 2010, GM acquired AmeriCredit Corp. (which GM subsequently renamed General Motors Financial Company, Inc.), an independent automotive finance company that focuses on providing leasing and subprime financing options. If GM were to direct substantially more business, including wholesale financing business, to its captive on noncommercial terms thus reducing its reliance on our services over time, it could have a material adverse effect on our profitability and financial condition. In addition, it is possible that GM or other automotive manufacturers could utilize other existing companies to support their financing needs including offering products or terms that we would not or could not offer, which could have a material adverse impact on our business and operations. Furthermore, other automotive manufacturers could expand or establish or acquire captive finance companies to support their financing needs thus reducing their need for our services.

A significant adverse change in GM’s or Chrysler’s business, including significant adverse changes in their respective liquidity position and access to the capital markets; the production or sale of GM or Chrysler vehicles; the quality or resale value of GM or Chrysler vehicles; the use of GM or Chrysler marketing incentives; GM’s or Chrysler’s relationships with its key suppliers; or GM’s or Chrysler’s relationship with the United Auto Workers and other labor unions and other factors impacting GM or Chrysler or their respective employees, could have a material adverse effect on our profitability and financial condition. In addition, growth in our International

 

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Automotive Finance operations are highly dependent on GM, and therefore any significant change to GM’s international business or our relationship with GM may hinder our ability to achieve our stated goal of expanding internationally.

There is no assurance that the global automotive market or GM’s and Chrysler’s respective share of that market will not suffer downturns in the future. Vehicle sales volume could be further adversely affected by any additional restructuring activities that GM or Chrysler may decide to pursue, if any. Any negative impact could in turn have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial position.

Our business requires substantial capital and liquidity, and disruption in our funding sources and access to the capital markets would have a material adverse effect on our liquidity, capital positions, and financial condition.

Our liquidity and the long-term viability of Ally depend on many factors including our ability to successfully raise capital and secure appropriate bank financing. We are currently required to maintain a Total risk-based capital ratio of 15% and a Tier 1 leverage ratio of 15% at Ally Bank. The latter will require that Ally maintain substantial equity funds in Ally Bank and inject substantial additional equity funds into Ally Bank as Ally Bank’s assets increase over time.

We have significant maturities of unsecured debt each year. While we have reduced our reliance on unsecured funding, it continues to remain a critical component of our capital structure and financing plans. At December 31, 2010, approximately $9.5 billion in principal amount of total outstanding consolidated unsecured debt is scheduled to mature in 2011, and approximately $12.6 billion and $1.9 billion in principal amount of consolidated unsecured debt is scheduled to mature in 2012 and 2013, respectively, which includes $7.4 billion in principal amount of debt issued under the FDIC’s Temporary Liquidity Guaranty Program that matures in 2012. We also obtain short-term funding from the sale by Ally of floating rate demand notes, all of which the holders may elect to have redeemed by Ally at any time without restriction. At December 31, 2010, a total of $2 billion in principal amount of demand notes were outstanding. We also rely on secured funding. At December 31, 2010, approximately $13.5 billion of outstanding consolidated secured debt is scheduled to mature in 2011, approximately $9.1 billion is scheduled to mature in 2012, and approximately $8.6 billion is scheduled to mature in 2013. Furthermore, at December 31, 2010, approximately $11.8 billion in certificates of deposit at Ally Bank is scheduled to mature in 2011, which is not included in the 2011 unsecured maturities provided above. Additional financing will be required to fund a material portion of the debt maturities over this period. The capital markets continue to be volatile, and Ally’s access to the debt markets may be significantly reduced during periods of market stress. In addition, we will continue to have significant original issue discount amortization expenses (“OID expense”) in the near future, which will adversely affect our net income and resulting capital position. OID expense was $303 million in the fourth quarter of 2010, and the scheduled amortization is $975 million, $350 million, and $263 million in 2011, 2012, and 2013, respectively.

As a result of the volatility in the markets and our current unsecured debt ratings, we have increased our reliance on various secured debt markets. Although market conditions have improved, there can be no assurances that this will continue. In addition, we continue to rely on our ability to borrow from other financial institutions, and many of our primary bank facilities are up for renewal on a yearly basis. Any weakness in market conditions and a tightening of credit availability could have a negative effect on our ability to refinance these facilities and increase the costs of bank funding. In particular, our $7.9 billion syndicated facility that can fund our U.S. and Canadian automotive retail and commercial loans as well as leases is set to mature in June 2011 and Ally Bank’s $7.0 billion revolving syndicated credit facility is set to mature in April 2011. While we plan to renew these facilities, we cannot be certain that we will be able to renew them on terms favorable or acceptable to us. Ally and Ally Bank also continue to access the securitization markets. While markets have begun to stabilize following the recent liquidity crisis, there can be no assurances these sources of liquidity will remain available to us.

 

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Our indebtedness and other obligations are significant and could materially and adversely affect our business.

We have a significant amount of indebtedness. At December 31, 2010, we had approximately $96.8 billion in principal amount of indebtedness outstanding (including $42.4 billion in secured indebtedness). Interest expense on our indebtedness constituted approximately 54% of our total financing revenue and other interest income for the year ended December 31, 2010. In addition, during the twelve months ending December 31, 2010, we declared and paid preferred stock dividends of $1.2 billion in the aggregate.

We have the ability to create additional unsecured indebtedness. If our debt service obligations increase, whether due to the increased cost of existing indebtedness or the incurrence of additional indebtedness, we may be required to dedicate a significant portion of our cash flow from operations to the payment of principal of, and interest on, our indebtedness, which would reduce the funds available for other purposes. Our indebtedness also could limit our ability to withstand competitive pressures and reduce our flexibility in responding to changing business and economic conditions.

The worldwide financial services industry is highly competitive. If we are unable to compete successfully or if there is increased competition in the automotive financing, mortgage, and/or insurance markets or generally in the markets for securitizations or asset sales, our business could be negatively affected.

The markets for automotive and mortgage financing, banking, and insurance are highly competitive. The market for automotive financing, in particular the used vehicle market, has grown more competitive as more consumers are financing their new and used vehicle purchases, primarily in North America and Europe. Our mortgage business and Ally Bank face significant competition from commercial banks, savings institutions, mortgage companies, and other financial institutions. Our insurance business faces significant competition from insurance carriers, reinsurers, third-party administrators, brokers, and other insurance-related companies. Many of our competitors have substantial positions nationally or in the markets in which they operate. Some of our competitors have lower cost structures, have lower costs of capital, and are less reliant on securitization and sale activities. We face significant competition in various areas including product offerings, rates, pricing and fees, and customer service. If we are unable to compete effectively in the markets in which we operate, our profitability and financial condition could be negatively affected.

The markets for asset and mortgage securitizations and whole-loan sales are competitive, and other issuers and originators could increase the amount of their issuances and sales. In addition, lenders and other investors within those markets often establish limits on their credit exposure to particular issuers, originators, and asset classes, or they may require higher returns to increase the amount of their exposure. Increased issuance by other participants in the market or decisions by investors to limit their credit exposure to (or to require a higher yield for) us or to automotive or mortgage securitizations or whole-loans could negatively affect our ability and that of our subsidiaries to price our securitizations and whole loan sales at attractive rates. The result would be lower proceeds from these activities and lower profits for our subsidiaries and us.

Our allowance for loan losses may not be adequate to cover actual losses, and we may be required to materially increase our allowance, which may adversely affect our capital, financial condition, and results of operations.

We maintain an allowance for loan losses, which is a reserve established through a provision for loan losses charged to expenses, which represents management’s best estimate of probable credit losses that have been incurred within the existing portfolio of loans, all as described under Note 1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements. The allowance, in the judgment of management, is established to reserve for estimated loan losses and risks inherent in the loan portfolio. The determination of the appropriate level of the allowance for loan losses inherently involves a high degree of subjectivity and requires us to make significant estimates of current credit risks using existing qualitative and quantitative information, all of which may undergo material changes.

 

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Changes in economic conditions affecting borrowers, new information regarding existing loans, identification of additional problem loans, and other factors, both within and outside of our control, may require an increase in the allowance for loan losses.

Bank regulatory agencies periodically review our allowance for loan losses, as well as our methodology for calculating our allowance for loan losses and may require an increase in the provision for loan losses or the recognition of additional loan charge-offs, based on judgments different than those of management. An increase in the allowance for loan losses results in a decrease in net income and capital and may have a material adverse effect on our capital, financial condition and results of operations.

Our mortgage subsidiary, ResCap, requires substantial liquidity and capital which could have an adverse effect on our own capital and liquidity position.

ResCap remains heavily reliant on support from us to meet its liquidity and capital requirements, which includes approximately $2.3 billion in principal amount of indebtedness scheduled to mature in 2011, 2012 and 2013. In addition, ResCap has commitments to lend up to $2.3 billion under existing home equity lines of credit it has extended to customers. Recent developments in the market for many types of mortgage products (including mortgage-backed securities) have resulted in reduced liquidity for these assets. As a result, a significant portion of ResCap’s assets are relatively illiquid. Any negative events with respect to ResCap could serve as a further drain on our financial resources.

Pursuant to an existing contractual arrangement, ResCap is precluded from paying any dividends to us, including any additional capital that we may provide in the future, if any.

ResCap employs various economic hedging strategies to mitigate the interest rate and prepayment risk inherent in many of its assets including its mortgage loans held-for-sale portfolio, MSRs, its portfolio of held-for-investment mortgage loans, and interests from securitizations. A significant portion of ResCap’s operating cash at any given time may consist of funds delivered to it as credit support by counterparties to these arrangements. However, interest rate movements during 2010 required ResCap to return a significant amount of such funds. As interest rates change and dependent upon the hedge position, ResCap may need to continue to repay or deliver cash as credit support for these arrangements. If the amount ResCap must repay or deliver is substantial, depending on its liquidity position at that time, ResCap may not be able to pay such amounts as required.

The protracted period of adverse developments in the mortgage finance and credit markets has adversely affected ResCap’s business, liquidity, and its capital position and has raised substantial doubt about ResCap’s ability to continue as a going concern.

ResCap has been adversely affected by the events and conditions in the broader mortgage banking industry, most severely but not limited to the domestic nonprime and nonconforming and international mortgage loan markets. Fair market valuations of held-for-sale mortgage loans, MSRs, and securitized interests that continue to be held by ResCap and other assets and liabilities ResCap records at fair value may continue to deteriorate if there continues to be weakness in housing prices, increasing mortgage rates, or increased severity of delinquencies and defaults of mortgage loans. These deteriorating factors previously resulted in higher provision for loan losses on ResCap’s held-for-investment mortgage loans and real estate-lending portfolios. As a direct result of these events and conditions, ResCap discontinued new originations in all of its international operations and sold its U.K. and European operations and currently generally only purchases or originates mortgage loans that can be sold in the form of securitizations guaranteed by the GSEs. If the GSEs became unable or unwilling to purchase mortgage loans from ResCap, it would have a materially adverse impact on ResCap’s funding and liquidity and on its ability to originate or purchase new mortgage loans.

ResCap is highly leveraged relative to its cash flow and has previously recognized substantial losses resulting in a significant deterioration in capital. There continues to be a risk that ResCap will not be able to meet

 

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its debt service obligations, will default on its financial debt covenants due to insufficient capital or liquidity, and/or be in a negative liquidity position in 2011 or beyond. ResCap remains heavily dependent on Ally for funding and capital support, and there can be no assurance that Ally will continue to provide such support.

In light of ResCap’s liquidity and capital needs combined with volatile conditions in the marketplace, there is substantial doubt about ResCap’s ability to continue as a going concern. If Ally determines to no longer support ResCap’s capital or liquidity needs or if ResCap or Ally are unable to successfully execute effective initiatives, it could have a material adverse effect on ResCap’s business, results of operations, and financial position.

There is a significant risk that ResCap will not be able to meet its debt service obligations and other funding obligations in the near term.

ResCap expects its liquidity pressures to continue in 2011. ResCap is highly leveraged relative to its cash flow. At December 31, 2010, ResCap’s unrestricted liquidity (cash readily available to cover operating demands from across its business operations) totaled $444 million with cash and cash equivalents totaling $672 million.

ResCap expects that additional and continuing liquidity pressure, which is difficult to forecast with precision, will result from the obligation of its subsidiaries to advance delinquent principal, interest, property taxes, casualty insurance premiums, home equity line advances, and certain other amounts with respect to mortgage loans its subsidiaries service that become delinquent. In addition, ResCap continues to be subject to financial covenants requiring it to maintain minimum consolidated tangible net worth and consolidated liquidity balances. ResCap will attempt to meet these and other liquidity and capital demands through a combination of cash flow from operations and financings, potential asset sales, and other various alternatives. To the extent these sources prove insufficient, ResCap will be dependent on continued support from Ally to the extent Ally agrees to provide such support. Ally currently provides funding and capital support to ResCap through various facilities, including a $500 million unsecured line of credit. The sufficiency of these sources of additional liquidity cannot be assured, and any asset sales, even if they raise sufficient cash to meet ResCap’s liquidity needs, may adversely affect its overall profitability and financial condition.

Moreover, even if ResCap is successful in implementing all of the actions described above, its ability to satisfy its liquidity needs and comply with any covenants included in its debt agreements requiring maintenance of minimum cash balances may be affected by additional factors and events (such as interest rate fluctuations and margin calls) that increase ResCap’s cash needs making ResCap unable to independently satisfy its near term liquidity requirements.

We have extensive financing and hedging arrangements with ResCap, which could be at risk of nonpayment if ResCap were to file for bankruptcy.

We have secured financing arrangements and secured hedging agreements in place with ResCap. Amounts outstanding under the secured financing and hedging arrangements fluctuate. If ResCap were to file for bankruptcy, ResCap’s repayments of its financing facilities, including those with us, will be subject to bankruptcy proceedings and regulations, or ResCap may be unable to repay its financing facilities. In addition, we could be an unsecured creditor of ResCap to the extent that the proceeds from the sale of our collateral are insufficient to repay ResCap’s obligations to us. In addition, it is possible that other ResCap creditors would seek to recharacterize our loans to ResCap as equity contributions or to seek equitable subordination of our claims so that the claims of other creditors would have priority over our claims. We may also find it advantageous to provide debtor-in-possession financing to ResCap in a bankruptcy proceeding in order to preserve the value of the collateral ResCap has pledged to us. In addition, should ResCap file for bankruptcy, our investment related to ResCap’s equity position would likely be reduced to zero, and creditors of ResCap may attempt to assert claims directly against us for payment of their obligations.

 

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We may be required to repurchase mortgage or other loans or indemnify investors if we breach representations and warranties, which could harm our profitability.

When we sell mortgage or other loans (such as retail automotive contracts) through whole-loan sales or securitizations, we are required to make customary representations and warranties about the loans to the purchaser or securitization trust. These representations and warranties relate to, among other things, the ownership of the loan, the validity of the lien securing the loan, the loan’s compliance with the criteria for inclusion in the transaction, including compliance with underwriting standards or loan criteria established by the buyer, ability to deliver required documentation, and compliance with applicable laws. Generally, the representations and warranties described above may be enforced at any time over the life of the loan.

We use estimates and assumptions in determining our reserves for representation and warranty exposure. It is difficult to determine the accuracy of our estimates and assumptions, and our actual experience may differ materially from these estimates and assumptions. A material difference between our estimates and assumptions and our actual experience may materially adversely affect our cash flow, profitability and financial condition.

As the mortgage industry continues to experience higher repurchase requirements and additional investors begin to attempt to put back loans, a significant increase in activity beyond that experienced today could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial position.

Certain of our mortgage subsidiaries face potential legal liability resulting from legal claims related to the sale of private-label mortgage-backed securities.

Claims related to private-label mortgage-backed securities (“PLS”) have been brought under federal and state securities laws and contract laws (among other theories), and it is possible that additional similar claims, including claims from other third-party claimants, will be brought in the future. The claims made to date are similar in some respects to the repurchase demands we have previously disclosed related to alleged breaches of representations and warranties that our mortgage subsidiaries made in connection with mortgage loans they sold or securitized. Further, and as previously disclosed, the Federal Housing Finance Agency (“FHFA”), as conservator of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, announced on July 12, 2010, that it issued 64 subpoenas to various entities seeking documents related to PLS in which Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac had invested. Certain of our mortgage subsidiaries received such subpoenas. In connection with our settlement with Fannie Mae announced on December 23, 2010, the FHFA has agreed to withdraw the subpoenas that relate to Fannie Mae. However, we continue to respond to the subpoenas related to Freddie Mac. The FHFA has indicated that documents provided in response to the subpoenas will enable the FHFA to determine whether they believe issuers of PLS are potentially liable to Freddie Mac for losses they might have suffered. A final outcome in any existing or future legal proceeding related to the foregoing, if unfavorable, could result in additional liability, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, reputation, results of operations, or financial condition.

Changes in existing U.S. government-sponsored mortgage programs, restrictions on our access to such programs, or disruptions in the secondary markets in the United States or in other countries in which we operate could adversely affect our profitability and financial condition.

Our ability to generate revenue through mortgage loan sales to institutional investors in the United States depends to a significant degree on programs administered by the GSEs and others that facilitate the issuance of mortgage-backed securities in the secondary market. These GSEs play a powerful role in the residential mortgage industry and we have significant business relationships with them. Proposals have been enacted in the U.S. Congress and are under consideration by various regulatory authorities that would affect the manner in which these GSEs conduct their business to require them to register their stock with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission to reduce or limit certain business benefits that they receive from the U.S. government and to limit the size of the mortgage loan portfolios that they may hold. Furthermore, the Obama administration recently released a report that recommended winding down Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. We do not know what impact,

 

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if any, the report would have on the future of the GSEs. In addition, the GSEs themselves have been negatively affected by recent mortgage market conditions, including conditions that have threatened their access to debt financing. Any discontinuation of, or significant reduction in, the operation of these GSEs could adversely affect our revenues and profitability. Also, any significant adverse change in the level of activity in the secondary market including declines in institutional investors’ desire to invest in our mortgage products could materially adversely affect our business.

We are exposed to consumer credit risk, which could adversely affect our profitability and financial condition.

We are subject to credit risk resulting from defaults in payment or performance by customers for our contracts and loans, as well as contracts and loans that are securitized and in which we retain a residual interest. For example, the continued decline in the domestic housing market and the increase in unemployment rates resulted in an increase in delinquency rates related to mortgage loans that ResCap and Ally Bank either hold or retain an interest in. Furthermore, a weak economic environment, high unemployment rates, and the continued deterioration of the housing market could exert pressure on our consumer automotive finance customers resulting in higher delinquencies, repossessions, and losses. There can be no assurances that our monitoring of our credit risk as it affects the value of these assets and our efforts to mitigate credit risk through our risk-based pricing, appropriate underwriting policies, and loss-mitigation strategies are, or will be, sufficient to prevent a further adverse effect on our profitability and financial condition. In addition, we have begun to increase our used car and nonprime car financing (nonprime car financing). As we grow our automotive asset portfolio in nonprime car financing loans over time, our credit risk may increase. As part of the underwriting process, we rely heavily upon information supplied by third parties. If any of this information is intentionally or negligently misrepresented and the misrepresentation is not detected before completing the transaction, the credit risk associated with the transaction may be increased.

General business and economic conditions may significantly and adversely affect our revenues, profitability, and financial condition.

Our business and earnings are sensitive to general business and economic conditions in the United States and in the markets in which we operate outside the United States. A downturn in economic conditions resulting in increased short and long term interest rates, inflation, fluctuations in the debt capital markets, unemployment rates, consumer and commercial bankruptcy filings, or a decline in the strength of national and local economies and other factors that negatively affect household incomes could decrease demand for our financing and mortgage products and increase mortgage and financing delinquency and losses on our customer and dealer financing operations. We have been negatively affected due to the recent significant stress in the residential real estate and related capital markets and, in particular, the lack of home price appreciation in many markets in which we lend. Further, a significant and sustained increase in fuel prices could lead to diminished new and used vehicle purchases and negatively affect our automotive finance business.

If the rate of inflation were to increase, or if the debt capital markets or the economies of the United States or our markets outside the United States were to weaken, or if home prices or new and used vehicle purchases experience declines, we could be significantly and adversely affected, and it could become more expensive for us to conduct our business. For example, business and economic conditions that negatively affect household incomes, housing prices, and consumer behavior related to our businesses could decrease (1) the demand for our mortgage loans and new and used vehicle financing and (2) the value of the collateral underlying our portfolio of held-for-investment mortgages and new and used vehicle loans and interests that continue to be held by us, thus further increasing the number of consumers who become delinquent or default on their loans. In addition, the rate of delinquencies, foreclosures, and losses on our loans (especially our nonprime mortgage loans) as experienced recently could be higher during more severe economic slowdowns.

Any sustained period of increased delinquencies, foreclosures, or losses could further harm our ability to sell our mortgage and new and used vehicle loans, the prices we receive for our mortgage and new and used

 

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vehicle loans, or the value of our portfolio of mortgage and new and used vehicle loans held-for-investment or interests from our securitizations, which could harm our revenues, profitability, and financial condition. Continued adverse business and economic conditions could affect demand for housing, new and used vehicles, the cost of construction, and other related factors that could harm the revenues and profitability of our business.

In addition, our business and earnings are significantly affected by the fiscal and monetary policies of the U.S. government and its agencies and similar governmental authorities in the markets in which we operate outside the United States. We are particularly affected by the policies of the FRB, which regulates the supply of money and credit in the United States. The FRB’s policies influence the new and used vehicle financing market and the size of the mortgage origination market, which significantly affects the earnings of our businesses and the earnings of our business capital activities. The FRB’s policies also influence the yield on our interest earning assets and the cost of our interest-bearing liabilities. Changes in those policies are beyond our control and difficult to predict and could adversely affect our revenues, profitability, and financial condition.

Acts or threats of terrorism and political or military actions taken by the United States or other governments could adversely affect general economic or industry conditions.

Geopolitical conditions may affect our earnings. Acts or threats of terrorism and political or military actions taken by the United States or other governments in response to terrorism, or similar activity, could adversely affect general economic or industry conditions.

Treasury (or its designee) will continue to own a substantial interest in us following this offering, and its interests may differ from those of our other stockholders.

Immediately following this offering, Treasury will own approximately     % of our outstanding shares of common stock (     % if the underwriters in the offering of common stock exercise their over-allotment option in full). In addition, upon the completion of this offering, Treasury will hold         shares of Series F-2 preferred stock (which are convertible into         shares of common stock in accordance with Ally’s certificate of incorporation), with an aggregate liquidation preference of approximately $            . Pursuant to the Amended and Restated Governance Agreement dated May 21, 2009, as of the date hereof, Treasury also has the right to appoint six of the eleven members to the our board of directors. As a result of this stock ownership interest and Treasury’s right to appoint six directors to our board of directors, Treasury has the ability to exert control, through its power to vote for the election of our directors, over various matters. To the extent Treasury elects to exert such control over us, its interests (as a government entity) may differ from those of our other stockholders and it may influence, through its ability to vote for the election of our directors, matters including:

 

   

The selection, tenure and compensation of our management;

 

   

Our business strategy and product offerings;

 

   

Our relationship with our employees and other constituencies; and

 

   

Our financing activities, including the issuance of debt and equity securities.

In particular, Treasury may have a greater interest in promoting U.S. economic growth and jobs than our other stockholders. In the future we may also become subject to new and additional laws and government regulations regarding various aspects of our business as a result of participation in the TARP program and the U.S. government’s ownership in our business. These regulations could make it more difficult for us to compete with other companies that are not subject to similar regulations.

 

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The limitations on compensation imposed on us due to our participation in TARP, including the restrictions placed on our compensation by the Special Master for TARP Executive Compensation, may adversely affect our ability to retain and motivate our executives and employees.

Our performance is dependent on the talent and efforts of our management team and employees. As a result of our participation in TARP, the compensation of certain members of our management team and employees is subject to extensive restrictions under the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008, as amended by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (the “ARRA”), which was signed into law on February 17, 2009, as implemented by the Interim Final Rule issued by Treasury on June 15, 2009 (the “IFR”). In addition, due to our level of participation in TARP, pursuant to ARRA and the IFR, the Office of the Special Master for TARP Executive Compensation has the authority to further regulate our compensation arrangements with certain of our executives and employees. In addition, we may become subject to further restrictions under any other future legislation or regulation limiting executive compensation. Many of the restrictions are not limited to our senior executives and affect other employees whose contributions to revenue and performance may be significant. These limitations may leave us unable to create a compensation structure that permits us to retain and motivate certain of our executives and employees or to attract new executives or employees, especially if we are competing against institutions that are not subject to the same restrictions. Any such inability could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Our borrowing costs and access to the unsecured debt capital markets depend significantly on our credit ratings.

The cost and availability of unsecured financing are materially affected by our short- and long-term credit ratings. Each of Standard & Poor’s Rating Services; Moody’s Investors Service, Inc.; Fitch, Inc.; and Dominion Bond Rating Service rates our debt. Our current ratings as assigned by each of the respective rating agencies are below investment grade, which negatively impacts our access to liquidity and increases our borrowing costs in the unsecured market. Ratings reflect the rating agencies’ opinions of our financial strength, operating performance, strategic position, and ability to meet our obligations. Future downgrades of our credit ratings would increase borrowing costs and further constrain our access to the unsecured debt markets and, as a result, would negatively affect our business. In addition, downgrades of our credit ratings could increase the possibility of additional terms and conditions being added to any new or replacement financing arrangements as well as impact elements of certain existing secured borrowing arrangements.

Agency ratings are not a recommendation to buy, sell, or hold any security and may be revised or withdrawn at any time by the issuing organization. Each agency’s rating should be evaluated independently of any other agency’s rating.

Our profitability and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected if the residual value of off-lease vehicles decrease in the future.

Our expectation of the residual value of a vehicle subject to an automotive lease contract is a critical element used to determine the amount of the lease payments under the contract at the time the customer enters into it. As a result, to the extent the actual residual value of the vehicle, as reflected in the sales proceeds received upon remarketing at lease termination, is less than the expected residual value for the vehicle at lease inception, we incur additional depreciation expense and/or a loss on the lease transaction. General economic conditions, the supply of off lease and other vehicles to be sold, new vehicle market prices, perceived vehicle quality, overall price and volatility of gasoline or diesel fuel, among other factors, heavily influence used vehicle prices and thus the actual residual value of off lease vehicles. Consumer confidence levels and the strength of auto manufacturers and dealers can also influence the used vehicle market. For example, during 2008, sharp declines in demand and used vehicle sale prices adversely affected Ally’s remarketing proceeds and financial results.

Vehicle brand images, consumer preference, and vehicle manufacturer marketing programs that influence new and used vehicle markets also influence lease residual values. In addition, our ability to efficiently process

 

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and effectively market off lease vehicles affects the disposal costs and proceeds realized from the vehicle sales. While manufacturers, at times, may provide support for lease residual values including through residual support programs, this support does not in all cases entitle us to full reimbursement for the difference between the remarketing sales proceeds for off lease vehicles and the residual value specified in the lease contract. Differences between the actual residual values realized on leased vehicles and our expectations of such values at contract inception could have a negative impact on our profitability and financial condition.

Current conditions in the residential mortgage market and housing markets may continue to adversely affect Ally’s mortgage business.

The residential mortgage market in the United States and other international markets in which our Mortgage operations conduct, or previously conducted, business have experienced a variety of difficulties and changed economic conditions that adversely affected our mortgage business’ results of operations and financial condition. Delinquencies and losses with respect to our Legacy Portfolio and Other segment’s nonprime mortgage loans increased significantly. Housing prices in many parts of the United States, the United Kingdom, and other international markets also declined or stopped appreciating after extended periods of significant appreciation. In addition, the liquidity provided to the mortgage sector had been significantly reduced. This liquidity reduction combined with our decision to reduce our mortgage business’ exposure to the nonprime mortgage market caused its nonprime mortgage production to decline. Similar trends have emerged beyond the nonprime sector, especially at the lower end of the prime credit quality scale, and have had a similar effect on our mortgage business’ related liquidity needs and businesses. These trends have resulted in significant write-downs to our Legacy Portfolio and Other’s held-for-sale mortgage loans and trading securities portfolios and additions to its allowance for loan losses for its held-for-investment mortgage loans and warehouse-lending receivables portfolios. A continuation of these conditions may continue to adversely affect our mortgage business’ financial condition and results of operations.

Moreover, the continued deterioration of the U.S. housing market and decline in home prices since 2008 in many U.S. markets, which may continue for the near term, could result in increased delinquencies or defaults on the mortgage assets ResCap owns and services as well as those mortgage assets owned by Ally Bank. Further, loans that our Mortgage operations historically made based on limited credit or income documentation also increase the likelihood of future increases in delinquencies or defaults on mortgage loans. An increase in delinquencies or defaults will result in a higher level of credit losses and credit-related expenses and increased liquidity requirements to fund servicing advances, all of which in turn will reduce revenues and profits of our mortgage business. Higher credit losses and credit-related expenses also could adversely affect our financial condition.

Our lending volume is generally related to the rate of growth in U.S. residential mortgage debt outstanding and the size of the U.S. residential mortgage market. Recently, the rate of growth in total U.S. residential mortgage debt outstanding has slowed sharply in response to the reduced activity in the housing market and national declines in home prices. In addition, most of our mortgage business is currently conducted through the correspondent channel, which relies heavily on the mortgage refinancing business. The volume of mortgage refinancing experienced a significant increase in 2009 and 2010 due to interest rate decreases, but we expect it will experience a significant decrease in 2011 as interest rates increase. A decline in the rate of growth in mortgage debt outstanding reduces the number of mortgage loans available for us to purchase or securitize, which in turn could lead to a reduction in our revenue, profits, and business prospects.

Our earnings may decrease because of increases or decreases in interest rates.

Changes in interest rates could have an adverse impact on our business. For example:

 

   

rising interest rates will increase our cost of funds;

 

   

rising interest rates may reduce our consumer automotive financing volume by influencing customers to pay cash for, as opposed to financing, vehicle purchases or not to buy new vehicles;

 

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rising interest rates may negatively impact our ability to remarket off lease vehicles;

 

   

rising interest rates generally reduce our residential mortgage loan production as borrowers become less likely to refinance and the costs associated with acquiring a new home become more expensive; and

 

   

rising interest rates will generally reduce the value of mortgage and automotive financing loans and contracts and retained interests and fixed income securities held in our investment portfolio.

We are also subject to risks from decreasing interest rates. For example, a significant decrease in interest rates could increase the rate at which mortgages are prepaid, which could require us to write down the value of our retained interests and MSRs. Moreover, if prepayments are greater than expected, the cash we receive over the life of our held-for-investment mortgage loans and our retained interests would be reduced. Higher-than-expected prepayments could also reduce the value of our MSRs and, to the extent the borrower does not refinance with us, the size of our servicing portfolio. Therefore, any such changes in interest rates could harm our revenues, profitability, and financial condition.

Our hedging strategies may not be successful in mitigating our risks associated with changes in interest rates and could affect our profitability and financial condition as could our failure to comply with hedge accounting principles and interpretations.

We employ various economic hedging strategies to mitigate the interest rate and prepayment risk inherent in many of our assets and liabilities. Our hedging strategies rely on assumptions and projections regarding our assets, liabilities, and general market factors. If these assumptions and projections prove to be incorrect or our hedges do not adequately mitigate the impact of changes in interest rates or prepayment speeds, we may experience volatility in our earnings that could adversely affect our profitability and financial condition. In addition, we may not be able to find market participants that are willing to act as our hedging counterparties, which could have an adverse effect on the success of our hedging strategies.

In addition, hedge accounting in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”) requires the application of significant subjective judgments to a body of accounting concepts that is complex and for which the interpretations have continued to evolve within the accounting profession and among the standard-setting bodies.

A failure of or interruption in, as well as, security risks of the communications and information systems on which we rely to conduct our business could adversely affect our revenues and profitability.

We rely heavily upon communications and information systems to conduct our business. Any failure or interruption of our information systems or the third-party information systems on which we rely as a result of inadequate or failed processes or systems, human errors, or external events could cause underwriting or other delays and could result in fewer applications being received, slower processing of applications, and reduced efficiency in servicing. In addition, our communication and information systems may present security risks, and could be susceptible to hacking or identity theft. The occurrence of any of these events could have a material adverse effect on our business.

We use estimates and assumptions in determining the fair value of certain of our assets in determining lease residual values and in determining our reserves for insurance losses and loss adjustment expenses. If our estimates or assumptions prove to be incorrect, our cash flow, profitability, financial condition, and business prospects could be materially and adversely affected.

We use estimates and various assumptions in determining the fair value of many of our assets, including certain held-for-investment and held-for-sale loans for which we elected fair value accounting, retained interests

 

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from securitizations of loans and contracts, MSRs, and other investments, which do not have an established market value or are not publicly traded. We also use estimates and assumptions in determining the residual values of leased vehicles. In addition, we use estimates and assumptions in determining our reserves for insurance losses and loss adjustment expenses which represent the accumulation of estimates for both reported losses and those incurred, but not reported, including claims adjustment expenses relating to direct insurance and assumed reinsurance agreements. For further discussion related to estimates and assumptions, see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Critical Accounting Estimates.” It is difficult to determine the accuracy of our estimates and assumptions, and our actual experience may differ materially from these estimates and assumptions. A material difference between our estimates and assumptions and our actual experience may adversely affect our cash flow, profitability, financial condition, and business prospects.

Our business outside the United States exposes us to additional risks that may cause our revenues and profitability to decline.

We conduct a significant portion of our business outside the United States exposing us to risks such as the following:

 

   

multiple foreign regulatory requirements that are subject to change;

 

   

differing local product preferences and product requirements;

 

   

fluctuations in foreign interest rates;

 

   

difficulty in establishing, staffing, and managing foreign operations;

 

   

differing labor regulations;

 

   

consequences from changes in tax laws;

 

   

restrictions on our ability to repatriate profits or transfer cash into or out of foreign countries; and

 

   

political and economic instability, natural calamities, war and terrorism.

The effects of these risks may, individually or in the aggregate, adversely affect our revenues and profitability.

Our business could be adversely affected by changes in foreign-currency exchange rates.

We are exposed to risks related to the effects of changes in foreign-currency exchange rates. Changes in currency exchange rates can have a significant impact on our earnings from international operations as a result of foreign-currency-translation adjustments. While we carefully monitor and attempt to manage our exposure to fluctuation in currency exchange rates through foreign-currency hedging activities, these types of changes could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

Fluctuations in valuation of investment securities or significant fluctuations in investment market prices could negatively affect revenues.

Investment market prices in general are subject to fluctuation. Consequently, the amount realized in the subsequent sale of an investment may significantly differ from the reported market value that could negatively affect our revenues. Additionally, negative fluctuations in the value of available for sale investment securities could result in unrealized losses recorded in equity. Fluctuation in the market price of a security may result from perceived changes in the underlying economic characteristics of the investee, the relative price of alternative investments, national and international events, and general market conditions.

 

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Significant indemnification payments or contract, lease, or loan repurchase activity of retail contracts or leases or mortgage loans could harm our profitability and financial condition.

We have repurchase obligations in our capacity as servicer in securitizations and whole-loan sales. If a servicer breaches a representation, warranty, or servicing covenant with respect to an automotive receivable or mortgage loan, the servicer may be required by the servicing provisions to repurchase that asset from the purchaser or otherwise compensate one or more classes of investors for losses caused by the breach. If the frequency at which repurchases of assets or other payments occurs increases substantially from its present rate, the result could be a material adverse effect on our financial condition, liquidity, and results of operations.

In connection with its servicing of securitized mortgage loans, ResCap is subject to contractual caps on the percentage of mortgage loans it is permitted to modify in any securitized pool. The financial crisis has resulted in dramatic increases in the volume of delinquent mortgage loans over the past three years. In an effort to achieve the best net present value recovery for the securitization trust, ResCap increased the volume of modifications of distressed mortgage loans to assist homeowners and avoid liquidating properties in a collapsing and opaque housing market. In certain securitization transactions, ResCap has exceeded the applicable contractual modification cap. The securitization documents provide that the contractual caps can be raised or eliminated with the concurrence of each rating agency rating the transaction. For certain transactions with respect to which loan modifications have exceeded the contractual caps, the rating agencies have concurred in raising or eliminating the caps, but they have not consented in connection with other such transactions. ResCap will continue to seek their concurrence in connection with other transactions as it deems appropriate and will suspend modifications in excess of applicable caps pending receipt of such consent or investor approval to amend the servicing contracts. An investor in a specific mortgage security class might claim that modifications in excess of the applicable cap amounted to a material failure of ResCap to perform its servicing obligations and that the investor was damaged as a result. Such claims, if successful, could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, liquidity, and results of operations.

A loss of contractual servicing rights could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, liquidity, and results of operations.

We are the servicer for all of the receivables we have acquired or originated and transferred to other parties in securitizations and whole-loan sales of automotive receivables. Our mortgage subsidiaries service the mortgage loans we have securitized, and we service the majority of the mortgage loans we have sold in whole-loan sales. In each case, we are paid a fee for our services, which fees in the aggregate constitute a substantial revenue stream for us. In each case, we are subject to the risk of termination under the circumstances specified in the applicable servicing provisions.

In most securitizations and whole-loan sales, the owner of the receivables or mortgage loans will be entitled to declare a servicer default and terminate the servicer upon the occurrence of specified events. These events typically include a bankruptcy of the servicer, a material failure by the servicer to perform its obligations, and a failure by the servicer to turn over funds on the required basis. The termination of these servicing rights, were it to occur, could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, liquidity, and results of operations and those of our mortgage subsidiaries.

Changes in accounting standards issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) could adversely affect our reported revenues, profitability, and financial condition.

Our financial statements are subject to the application of GAAP, which are periodically revised and/or expanded. The application of accounting principles is also subject to varying interpretations over time. Accordingly, we are required to adopt new or revised accounting standards or comply with revised interpretations that are issued from time to time by various parties, including accounting standard setters and those who interpret the standards, such as the FASB and the SEC, banking regulators, and our independent registered public accounting firm. Those changes could adversely affect our reported revenues, profitability, or financial condition.

 

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Recently, the FASB has proposed new financial accounting standards, and has many active projects underway, that could materially affect our reported revenues, profitability, or financial condition. These proposed standards or projects include the potential for significant changes in the accounting for financial instruments (including loans, deposits, and debt) and the accounting for leases, among others. It is possible that any changes, if enacted, could adversely affect our reported revenues, profitability, or financial condition.

The soundness of other financial institutions could adversely affect us.

Financial services institutions are interrelated as a result of trading, clearing, counterparty, or other relationships. We have exposure to different counterparties, and we routinely execute transactions with counterparties in the financial services industry, including brokers and dealers, commercial banks, investment banks, and other institutions. Many of these transactions expose us to credit risk in the event of default of our counterparty.

Our inability to maintain relationships with dealers could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

Our business depends on the continuation of our relationships with our customers, particularly the automotive dealers with whom we do business. If we are not able to maintain existing relationships with key automotive dealers or if we are not able to develop new relationships for any reason, including if we are not able to provide services on a timely basis or offer products that meet the needs of the dealers, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.

Adverse economic conditions or changes in laws in states in which we have customer concentrations may negatively affect our operating results and financial condition.

We are exposed to consumer loan portfolio concentration in California and Texas and consumer mortgage loan concentration in California, Florida, and Michigan. Factors adversely affecting the economies and applicable laws in these states could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial position.

Risks Related to this Offering and Ownership of Our Common Stock

The sale or availability for sale of substantial amounts of our common stock could cause our common stock price to decline or impair our ability to raise capital.

Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market following this offering, or the perception that large sales could occur, or the conversion of shares of our Series F-2 preferred stock or the perception that conversion could occur, could depress the market price of our common stock and could impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of equity and equity-related securities. Upon completion of this offering, there will be         shares of common stock issued and outstanding. In addition, upon the completion of this offering, Treasury will hold         shares of Series F-2 preferred stock (which are convertible into an additional         shares of common stock), with an aggregate liquidation preference of approximately $            .

Of the         outstanding shares of common stock, the         shares of common stock to be sold in this offering (         shares if the underwriters in this offering exercise their over-allotment option in full) will be freely tradable without restriction or further registration under the Securities Act, unless those shares are held by any of our “affiliates,” as that term is defined under Rule 144 of the Securities Act. Following the expiration of any applicable lock-up periods referred to in the section of this prospectus entitled “Shares Eligible for Future Sale,” the          remaining outstanding shares of common stock may be eligible for resale under Rule 144 under the Securities Act subject to applicable restrictions under Rule 144. In addition, pursuant to Exhibit F of the Bylaws of Ally Financial Inc. (the “Registration Rights Agreement”), we have granted our existing common stockholders

 

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the right to require us in certain circumstances to file registration statements under the Securities Act covering additional resales of our common stock held by them and the right to participate in other registered offerings in certain circumstances. As restrictions on resale end or if these stockholders exercise their registration rights or otherwise sell their shares, the market price of our common stock could decline.

In particular, following this offering, Treasury or GMAC Common Equity Trust I might sell a large number of the shares of our common stock that they hold. Such sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock could adversely affect the market price of our common stock.

We have no current plans to pay dividends on our common stock, and our ability to pay dividends on our common stock may be limited.

We have no current plans to commence payment of a dividend on our common stock. Our payment of dividends on our common stock in the future will be determined by our Board of Directors in its sole discretion and will depend on business conditions, our financial condition, earnings and liquidity, and other factors. Our Series G preferred stock prohibits us from making dividend payments on our common stock before January 1, 2014 and allows dividend payments thereafter only if 1) our senior guaranteed notes issued on December 31, 2008 are rated investment grade and 2) the payment, together with other dividend payments we made since December 31, 2008, is less than 25% of the excess of our cumulative consolidated net income from January 1, 2014 to the most recently ended fiscal quarter for which financial statements are available at the time of such dividend payment. In addition, so long as any share of our Series A preferred stock or our Series F-2 preferred stock remains outstanding, no dividend or distribution may be declared or paid on our common stock unless all accrued and unpaid dividends have been paid on such series of preferred stock.

Any indentures and other financing agreements that we enter into in the future may limit our ability to pay cash dividends on our capital stock, including our common stock. In the event that any of our indentures or other financing agreements in the future restrict our ability to pay dividends in cash on our common stock, we may be unable to pay dividends in cash on our common stock unless we can refinance the amounts outstanding under those agreements.

In addition, under Delaware law, our Board of Directors may declare dividends on our capital stock only to the extent of our statutory “surplus” (which is defined as the amount equal to total assets minus total liabilities, in each case at fair market value, minus statutory capital), or if there is no such surplus, out of our net profits for the then current and/or immediately preceding fiscal year. Further, even if we are permitted under our contractual obligations and Delaware law to pay cash dividends on our common stock, we may not have sufficient cash to pay dividends in cash on our common stock.

Any plans to commence payment of dividends on our common stock in the future would be subject to the FRB’s review and absence of objection. See “Business—Certain Regulatory Matters—Bank Holding Company Status”. There is no assurance that, upon the FRB’s review of our future capital plans, we would be permitted to make any planned payments of dividends on our common stock.

Anti-takeover provisions contained in our organizational documents and Delaware law could delay or prevent a takeover attempt or change in control of our company, which could adversely affect the price of our common stock.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, our amended and restated bylaws, and Delaware law contain provisions that could have the effect of rendering more difficult or discouraging an acquisition deemed undesirable by our Board of Directors. Our organizational documents include provisions:

 

   

Limiting the liability of, and providing indemnification to, our directors and officers; and

 

   

Limiting the ability of our stockholders to call and bring business before special meetings.

 

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These provisions, alone or together, could delay hostile takeovers and changes in control of the company or changes in management.

In addition, after the completion of this offering, we will be subject to Section 203 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware (the “DGCL”), which generally prohibits a corporation from engaging in various business combination transactions with any “interested stockholder” (generally defined as a stockholder who owns 15% or more of a corporation’s voting stock) for a period of three years following the time that such stockholder became an interested stockholder, except under certain circumstances including receipt of prior board approval.

Any provision of our Certificate of Incorporation or our Bylaws or Delaware law that has the effect of delaying or deterring a hostile takeover or change in control could limit the opportunity for our stockholders to receive a premium for their shares of our common stock and could also affect the price that some investors are willing to pay for our common stock.

See “Description of Capital Stock” for a further discussion of these provisions.

Because there has not been any public market for our common stock, the market price and trading volume of our common stock may be volatile.

You should consider an investment in our common stock to be risky and you should invest in our common stock only if you can withstand a significant loss and wide fluctuations in the market value of your investment. The price of our common stock after the closing of this offering may fluctuate widely, depending upon many factors, including, but not limited to:

 

   

the perceived prospects for the auto finance and mortgage industries in general or for our company;

 

   

differences between our actual financial and operating results and those expected by investors;

 

   

changes in the share price of public companies with which we compete;

 

   

news about our new products or services, enhancements, significant contracts, acquisitions or strategic investments;

 

   

changes in our capital structure, such as future issuances of securities, repurchases of our common stock or our incurrence of debt;

 

   

changes in general economic or market conditions;

 

   

broad market fluctuations;

 

   

regulatory actions or changes in applicable laws, rules or regulations;

 

   

unfavorable or lack of published research by securities or industry analysts; and

 

   

departure of key personnel.

In addition, the market price of our common stock is likely to be influenced by the Series F-2 preferred stock. For example, the market price of our common stock could become more volatile and could be depressed by investors’ anticipation of the potential resale in the market of a substantial number of additional shares of our common stock received upon conversion of the Series F-2 preferred stock.

 

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Our common stock may trade at prices significantly below the initial public offering price. In addition, when the market price of a company’s common equity drops significantly, stockholders often institute securities class action lawsuits against the company. A lawsuit against us could cause us to incur substantial costs and could divert the time and attention of our management and other resources.

Treasury, which is the selling stockholder, is a federal agency and your ability to bring a claim against Treasury under the federal securities laws may be limited.

The doctrine of sovereign immunity, as limited by the Federal Tort Claims Act (the “FTCA”), provides that claims may not be brought against the United States of America or any agency or instrumentality thereof unless specifically permitted by act of Congress. The FTCA bars claims for fraud or misrepresentation. At least one federal court, in a case involving a federal agency, has held that the United States may assert its sovereign immunity to claims brought under the federal securities laws. In addition, Treasury and its officers, agents, and employees are exempt from liability for any violation or alleged violation of the anti-fraud provisions of Section 10(b) of the Exchange Act by virtue of Section 3(c) thereof. Accordingly, any attempt to assert such a claim against the officers, agents or employees of Treasury for a violation of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”) or the Exchange Act resulting from an alleged material misstatement in or material omission from this prospectus or the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or resulting from any other act or omission in connection with the offering of the common stock by Treasury would likely be barred.

 

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

We have made statements under the captions “Prospectus Summary,” “Risk Factors,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” “Business” and in other sections of this prospectus that may contain certain statements that constitute forward-looking statements within the meaning of the federal securities laws. The words “expect,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “forecast,” “initiative,” “objective,” “plan,” “goal,” “project,” “outlook,” “priorities,” “target,” “intend,” “evaluate,” “pursue,” “seek,” “may,” “would,” “could,” “should,” “believe,” “potential,” “continue,” or the negatives of any of these words or similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements. All statements herein, other than statements of historical fact, including without limitation statements about future events and financial performance, are forward-looking statements that involve certain risks and uncertainties. You should not place undue reliance on any forward-looking statement and should consider all uncertainties and risks discussed in this prospectus, including those under the caption “Risk Factors.” Forward-looking statements apply only as of the date they are made, and Ally undertakes no obligation to update any forward-looking statement to reflect events or circumstances that arise after the date the forward looking statement is made. Factors that could cause our actual results to be materially different from our expectations include, among others, the risk factors set forth herein under the caption “Risk Factors,” and the following:

 

   

Maintaining the mutually beneficial relationship between the company and GM, and the company and Chrysler;

 

   

The profitability and financial condition of GM and Chrysler;

 

   

Securing low cost funding for us and ResCap;

 

   

Our ability to realize the anticipated benefits associated with being a bank holding company, and the increased regulation and restrictions that we are now subject to;

 

   

Any impact resulting from delayed foreclosure sales or related matters;

 

   

The potential for legal liability resulting from claims related to the sale of private-label mortgage-backed securities;

 

   

Risks related to potential repurchase obligations due to alleged breaches of representations and warranties in mortgage securitization transactions;

 

   

Changes in U.S. government-sponsored mortgage programs or disruptions in the markets in which our mortgage subsidiaries operate;

 

   

Continued challenges in the residential mortgage markets;

 

   

The continuing negative impact on ResCap and our mortgage business generally due to the recent decline in the U.S. housing market;

 

   

Uncertainty of our ability to enter into transactions or execute strategic alternatives to realize the value of our ResCap operations;

 

   

The potential for deterioration in the residual value of off-lease vehicles;

 

   

Disruptions in the market in which we fund our operations, with resulting negative impact on our liquidity;

 

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Changes in our accounting assumptions that may require or that result from changes in the accounting rules or their application, which could result in an impact on earnings;

 

   

Changes in the credit ratings of Ally, ResCap, Chrysler, or GM;

 

   

Changes in economic conditions, currency exchange rates or political stability in the markets in which we operate; and

 

   

Changes in the existing or the adoption of new laws, regulations, policies or other activities of governments, agencies and similar organizations (including as a result of the Dodd-Frank Act).

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

The selling stockholder is selling all of the shares of common stock in this offering and Ally will not receive any proceeds from the sale of the shares.

 

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DIVIDEND POLICY

We have no current plans to commence payment of a dividend on our common stock. Our payment of dividends on our common stock in the future will be determined by our Board of Directors in its sole discretion and will depend on business conditions, our financial condition, earnings and liquidity, and other factors. Our Series G preferred stock prohibits us from making dividend payments on our common stock before January 1, 2014 and allows dividend payments thereafter only if (1) our senior guaranteed notes issued on December 31, 2008 are rated investment grade and (2) the payment, together with other dividend payments we made since December 31, 2008, is less than 25% of the excess of our cumulative consolidated net income from January 1, 2014 to the most recently ended fiscal quarter for which financial statements are available at the time of such dividend payment. In addition, so long as any share of our Series A preferred stock or our Series F-2 preferred stock remains outstanding, no dividend or distribution may be declared or paid on our common stock unless all accrued and unpaid dividends have been paid on such series of preferred stock.

Any plans to commence payment of dividends on our common stock in the future would, as announced by the FRB on March 18, 2011, with respect to the completion of its Comprehensive Capital Analysis and Review of the capital plans of the nineteen largest U.S. bank holding companies, including Ally, be subject to the FRB’s review and absence of objection. See “Business—Certain Regulatory Matters—Bank Holding Company Status”.

 

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CAPITALIZATION

The following table sets forth our capitalization as of December 31, 2010, actual and pro forma to reflect the          -for-one stock split of shares of our common stock effected on                     , 2011.

This table should be read in conjunction with “Selected Consolidated Financial Data” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto appearing elsewhere in this prospectus.

 

     As of December 31, 2010  
     Actual     Pro forma  
     ($ in millions)  

Cash and cash equivalents

   $ 11,670      $                
          

Short-term debt

     7,508     

Long-term debt (1)(2)

     86,612     

Series A preferred stock, 1,021,764 shares issued and outstanding, actual and
pro forma (3)

     1,052     

Series F-2 preferred stock, 118,750,000 shares issued and outstanding, actual and pro forma

     5,685     

Series G preferred stock, 2,576,601 shares issued and outstanding, actual and pro forma

     235     

Common stock, $0.01 par value per share, 1,330,970 shares issued and outstanding, actual, pro forma and additional paid-in capital

     19,668     

Accumulated deficit

     (6,410  

Accumulated other comprehensive income

     259     
                

Total equity

     20,489     
                

Total capitalization

   $ 114,609      $     
                

 

(1) Since December 31, 2010, we have issued $2.25 billion in aggregate principal amount of senior guaranteed notes due 2014. See Note 32 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

(2) On December 30, 2009, Ally entered into a Securities Purchase and Exchange Agreement with Treasury and GMAC Capital Trust I, a Delaware statutory trust established by Ally (the “Trust”), pursuant to which, Treasury, among other things, invested $2.54 billion in new trust preferred securities with a total liquidation preference of $2,667,000,000 (the “Trust Preferred Securities”).

On March 1, 2011, the Declaration of Trust and certain other documents related to the Trust Preferred Securities were amended, and all of the outstanding Trust Preferred Securities held by Treasury were designated 8.125% Fixed Rate / Floating Rate Trust Preferred Securities, Series 2 (the “Series 2 Trust Preferred Securities”). On March 7, 2011, Treasury sold 100% of the Series 2 Trust Preferred Securities in an offering registered with the SEC. Ally did not receive any proceeds from the sale.

 

(3) On March 25, 2011, Ally filed a Certificate of Amendment of Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation (the “Series A Amendment”) with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware. Pursuant to the Series A Amendment, Ally’s Certificate of Incorporation, which included the terms of Ally’s Fixed Rate Perpetual Preferred Stock, Series A (the “Original Series A Preferred”), was amended to modify certain terms of the Original Series A Preferred. As part of the Series A Amendment, the Original Series A Preferred was redesignated as Ally’s 8.500% Fixed Rate / Floating Rate Perpetual Preferred Stock, Series A (the “Series A preferred stock”), the liquidation amount was reduced from $1,000 per share to $25 per share and the number of shares of Series A preferred stock issued and outstanding was increased to 40,870,560 shares.

On March 25, 2011, GM Preferred Finance Co. Holdings LLC, a Delaware limited liability company and the holder of all of the issued and outstanding Series A preferred stock, sold 100% of the Series A preferred stock in an offering registered with the SEC. Ally did not receive any proceeds from the sale.

 

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SELECTED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL DATA

The following selected consolidated financial data of Ally should be read in conjunction with, and are qualified by reference to, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included elsewhere in this prospectus. The consolidated statement of income data for the years ended December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008 and the consolidated balance sheet data at December 31, 2010 and 2009 are derived from, and qualified by reference to, our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus and should be read in conjunction with those consolidated financial statements and notes thereto. The consolidated statement of income data for the years ended December 31, 2007 and 2006 and the consolidated balance sheet data at December 31, 2008, 2007 and 2006 are derived from our audited consolidated financial statements not included in this prospectus.

 

     At and for the year ended December 31,  
     2010      2009     2008     2007     2006  
     ($ in millions)  

Financial statement data

           

Statement of income data:

           

Total financing revenue and other interest income

   $ 11,447       $ 13,100      $ 18,054      $ 21,761      $ 24,100   

Interest expense

     6,836         7,274        10,441        13,553        14,638   

Depreciation expense on operating lease assets

     2,030         3,748        5,478        4,551        5,055   

Impairment of investment in operating leases

                    1,218                 
                                         

Net financing revenue

     2,581         2,078        917        3,657        4,407   

Total other revenue (a)

     5,321         4,417        15,271        6,161        7,860   
                                         

Total net revenue

     7,902         6,495        16,188        9,818        12,267   

Provision for loan losses

     442         5,604        3,102        3,037        1,948   

Total other noninterest expense

     6,281         7,850        8,349        8,203        8,457   
                                         

Income (loss) from continuing operations before income tax expense (benefit)

     1,179         (6,959     4,737        (1,422     1,862   

Income tax expense (benefit) from continuing operations (b)

     153         74        (136     496        22   
                                         

Net income (loss) from continuing operations

     1,026         (7,033     4,873        (1,918     1,840   
                                         

Income (loss) from discontinued operations, net of tax

     49         (3,265     (3,005     (414     285   
                                         

Net income (loss)

   $ 1,075       $ (10,298   $ 1,868      $ (2,332   $ 2,125   
                                         

Non-GAAP financial measures (c):

           

Net income (loss)

   $ 1,075       $ (10,298   $ 1,868      $ (2,332   $ 2,125   

Add: Original issue discount amortization expense (d)

     1,300         1,143        70                 

Add: Income tax expense (benefit) from continuing operations

     153         74        (136     496        22   

Less: Gain on extinguishment of debt related to the 2008 bond exchange

                    11,460                 

Less: Income (loss) from discontinued operations, net of tax

     49         (3,265     (3,005     (414     285   
                                         

Core pretax income (loss) (c)

   $ 2,479       $ (5,816   $ (6,653   $ (1,422   $ 1,862   
                                         

 

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    At and for the year ended December 31,  
    2010     2009     2008     2007     2006  
   

(per share in whole dollars)

 

Pro forma share data (e)(f):

 

Basic and diluted earnings per common share

         

Net (loss) income from continuing operations

         

Income (loss) from discontinued operations, net of tax

         
                                       

Net (loss) income

         

Weighted-average common shares outstanding

         
                                       
Selected balance sheet data (period end):   ($ in millions)  

Total assets

  $ 172,008      $ 172,306      $ 189,476      $ 248,939      $ 291,971   

Long-term debt

  $ 86,612      $ 88,021      $ 115,935      $ 159,342      $ 193,387   

Preferred stock/interests (f)

  $ 6,972      $ 12,180      $ 6,287      $ 1,052      $   

Total equity

  $ 20,489      $ 20,839      $ 21,854      $ 15,565      $ 14,369   

Financial ratios

         

Efficiency ratio (g)

    79.49     120.86     51.58     83.55     68.94

Core efficiency ratio (g)

    68.26     102.78     174.01     83.55     68.94

Return on assets (h)

         

Net income (loss) from continuing operations

    0.58     (3.95 )%      2.57     (0.77 )%      0.63

Net income (loss)

    0.61     (5.79 )%      0.99     (0.94 )%      0.73

Core pretax income

    1.40     (3.27 )%      (3.51 )%      (0.57 )%      0.64

Return on equity (h)

         

Net income (loss) from continuing operations

    4.95     (29.00 )%      22.30     (12.32 )%      12.81

Net income (loss)

    5.19     (42.46 )%      8.55     (14.98 )%      14.79

Core pretax income

    11.97     (23.98 )%      (30.44 )%      (9.14 )%      12.96

Equity to assets (h)

    11.72     13.63     11.53     6.25     4.92

Net interest spread (h)(i)

    1.23     0.65     (j     (j     (j

Net interest spread excluding original issue
discount (h)(i)

    2.29     1.68     (j     (j     (j

Regulatory capital ratios

         

Tier 1 capital (to risk-weighted assets) (k)

    15.00     14.15     (j     (j     (j

Total risk-based capital (to risk-weighted
assets) (l)

    16.36     15.55     (j     (j     (j

Tier 1 leverage (to adjusted average assets) (m)

    13.05     12.70     (j     (j     (j

Tier 1 common (to risk-weighted assets) (n)

    8.57     4.85     (j     (j     (j

 

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(a) Total other revenue for 2008 includes $12.6 billion of gains on the extinguishment of debt, primarily related to private exchange and cash tender offers settled during the fourth quarter. Total other revenue for 2006 includes realized capital gains of $1.1 billion primarily related to the rebalancing of our investment portfolio at our Insurance operations.

 

(b) Effective June 30, 2009, we converted from a limited liability company into a corporation and, as a result, became subject to corporate U.S. federal, state, and local taxes beginning in the third quarter of 2009. Our conversion to a corporation resulted in a change in tax status and a net deferred tax liability of $1.2 billion was established through income tax expense. Effective November 28, 2006, we, along with certain of our U.S. subsidiaries, converted to LLCs and became pass-through entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Our conversion to an LLC resulted in a change in tax status and the elimination of a $791 million net deferred tax liability through income tax expense. Refer to Note 24 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information regarding our changes in tax status.

 

(c) Core pretax income (loss) is a non-GAAP financial measure that we define as earnings from continuing operations before income taxes, original issue discount amortization expense primarily associated with our 2008 bond exchange, and the gain on extinguishment of debt related to the 2008 bond exchange. We believe that the presentation of core pretax income (loss) is useful information for the users of our financial statements in understanding the earnings from our core businesses. In addition, core pretax income (loss) is the primary measure that management uses to assess the performance of our operations. We believe that core pretax income (loss) is a useful alternative measure of our ongoing profitability and performance, when viewed in conjunction with GAAP measures. The presentation of this additional information is not a substitute for net income (loss) determined in accordance with GAAP.

 

(d) Primarily represents original issue discount amortization expense associated with the 2008 bond exchange, including $101 million of accelerated amortization that was reported as a loss on extinguishment of debt in the 2010 Consolidated Statement of Income.

 

(e) Pro forma to reflect the        -for-one stock split on our common stock effected on             , 2011.

 

(f) Effective June 30, 2009, we converted from a Delaware limited liability company into a Delaware corporation. Each unit of each class of common membership interest issued and outstanding immediately prior to the conversion was converted into an equivalent number of shares of common stock with substantially the same rights and preferences as the common membership interests. Upon conversion, holders of our preferred membership interests also received an equivalent number of shares of preferred stock with substantially the same rights and preferences as the former preferred membership interests.

 

(g) The efficiency ratio equals total other noninterest expense divided by total net revenue. The core efficiency ratio equals total other noninterest expense divided by total net revenue excluding original issue discount amortization expense and gain on extinguishment of debt related to the 2008 bond exchange.

 

(h) The 2010 and 2009 ratios were computed based on average assets and average equity using a combination of monthly and daily average methodologies. The 2008, 2007, and 2006 ratios have been computed based on period-end total assets and period-end total equity at December 31, 2008, 2007, and 2006.

 

(i) Net interest spread represents the difference between the rate on total interest earning assets and the rate on total interest-bearing liabilities, excluding discontinued operations for the periods shown.

 

(j) Not applicable at December 31, 2008, 2007, and 2006, as we did not become a bank holding company until December 24, 2008.

 

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(k) Tier 1 capital generally consists of common equity, minority interests, and qualifying preferred stock (including fixed rate cumulative preferred stock issued and sold to Treasury) less goodwill and other adjustments.

 

(1) Total risk-based capital is the sum of Tier 1 and Tier 2 capital. Tier 2 capital generally consists of preferred stock not qualifying as Tier 1 capital, limited amounts of subordinated debt and the allowance for loan losses, and other adjustments. The amount of Tier 2 capital may not exceed the amount of Tier 1 capital.

 

(m) Tier 1 leverage equals Tier 1 capital divided by adjusted average total assets (which reflects adjustments for disallowed goodwill and certain intangible assets). The minimum Tier 1 leverage ratio is 3% or 4% depending on factors specified in the regulations.

 

(n) Tier 1 common is defined as Tier 1 capital less noncommon elements including qualified perpetual preferred stock, qualifying minority interest in subsidiaries, and qualifying trust preferred securities.

 

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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS

OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Overview

Ally Financial Inc. (formerly GMAC Inc.) is a leading, independent, globally diversified, financial services firm with $172 billion in assets. Founded in 1919, we are a leading automotive financial services company with over 90 years experience providing a broad array of financial products and services to automotive dealers and their customers. We are also one of the largest residential mortgage companies in the United States. We became a bank holding company on December 24, 2008, under the BHC Act. Our banking subsidiary, Ally Bank, is an indirect wholly owned subsidiary of Ally Financial Inc. and a leading franchise in the growing direct (online and telephonic) banking market, with $33.9 billion of deposits at December 31, 2010. Ally Bank’s assets and operating results are divided between our Global Automotive Services and Mortgage operations based on its underlying business activities.

Our Business

Global Automotive Services

Our Global Automotive Services operations offer a wide range of financial services and insurance products to over 20,000 automotive dealers and their retail customers. We have deep dealer relationships that have been built over our 90-year history. Our dealer-focused business model makes us a preferred automotive finance company for many automotive dealers. Our broad set of product offerings and customer-focused marketing programs differentiate Ally in the marketplace and help drive higher product penetration in our dealer relationships. Our ability to generate attractive automotive assets is driven by our global platform and scale, strong relationships with automotive dealers, a full suite of dealer financial products, automotive loan-servicing capabilities, dealer-based incentive programs, and superior customer service.

Our automotive financial services include providing retail installment sales contracts, loans, and leases, offering term loans to dealers, financing dealer floorplans and other lines of credit to dealers, fleet leasing, and vehicle remarketing services. We also offer vehicle service contracts and commercial insurance primarily covering dealers’ wholesale vehicle inventories in the United States and internationally. We are a leading provider of automobile vehicle service contracts with mechanical breakdown and maintenance coverages.

We have a longstanding relationship with GM and have developed strong relationships directly with GM-franchised dealers as well as gained extensive operating experience with GM-franchised dealers relative to other automotive finance companies. Since GM sold a majority interest in us in 2006, we have transformed ourselves to a market-driven independent automotive finance company. We continue to be a preferred financing provider to GM on incentivized retail loans. In May 2009, we became the preferred financing provider to Chrysler of incentivized retail loans and we have developed full product relationships, including wholesale financing for many of Chrysler’s franchised dealers. We have further diversified our customer base by establishing agreements to become preferred financing providers with other manufacturers including Fiat (for North America), Spyker Cars N.V. (Saab), and Thor Industries (recreational vehicles) in 2010. Currently, a significant portion of our business is originated through GM- and Chrysler-franchised dealers and their customers.

As a result of the recessionary environment and disruption in the capital markets beginning in late 2008, we experienced significantly lower new asset originations in late 2008 and throughout 2009. Additionally, we recognized a $1.2 billion impairment on our automotive operating lease portfolio in 2008 as a result of significant declines in used vehicle prices and separately realized higher loan loss provisions on our nonprime automotive loan portfolio. As a result, we significantly curtailed our leasing and nonprime automotive loan originations in late 2008, which resulted in a reduction in the size of these existing portfolios during 2009 and 2010.

 

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During 2009 and much of 2010 our primary emphasis has been on originating loans of higher credit tier borrowers. For this reason, our current operating results continue to reflect higher credit quality, lower yielding loans with lower credit loss experience. Ally however seeks to be an increasingly meaningful lender to a wide spectrum of borrowers. In 2010 we enhanced our risk management practices and efforts on risk-based pricing. We intend to gradually increase volumes in lower credit tiers in 2011. We have also selectively re-entered the leasing market with a more targeted product approach since late 2009. Both of these business opportunities are expected to gradually benefit net interest margin through time by earning higher yields on our assets.

We would also expect net financing revenue to increase and gains on the sale of automotive loans to decrease as we fund a greater proportion of our business through Ally Bank and reduce the amount of whole-loan sales. Additionally, we expect operating lease remarketing gains to diminish as a result of declines in the size of the operating lease portfolio and changes in used vehicle prices. We plan to continue to increase the proportion of our non-GM and Chrysler business, as we focus on maintaining and growing our dealer-customer base through our full suite of products, our dealer relationships, the scale of our platform, and our dealer-based incentive programs. We also expect a greater amount of non-GM and Chrysler consumer applications from dealers as we have recently joined a new credit application network, DealerTrack, which provides access to a more expansive universe of dealers.

Our international automotive lending operations currently originates loans in 15 countries with a focus on operations in five core markets: Germany, the United Kingdom, Brazil, Mexico, and China through our joint venture, GMAC-SAIC.

Our Insurance operations offer both consumer insurance products sold primarily through the automotive dealer channel and commercial insurance products sold to dealers. As part of our focus on offering dealers a broad range of products, we provide vehicle service contracts and mechanical breakdown coverages and underwrite selected commercial insurance coverages in the United States and internationally, primarily covering dealers’ wholesale vehicle inventory as well as personal automobile insurance in certain countries outside of the United States. In 2010, we sold our U.S. personal automotive insurance and certain international insurance operations in order to focus on products that support automotive dealers.

Mortgage

We report our Mortgage operations as two distinct segments: (1) Origination and Servicing operations and (2) Legacy Portfolio and Other operations.

Our Origination and Servicing operations is one of the leading originators of conforming and government-insured residential mortgage loans in the United States. We also originate and purchase high-quality government-insured residential mortgage loans in Canada. We are one of the largest residential mortgage loan servicers in the United States, and we provide collateralized lines of credit to other mortgage originators, which we refer to as warehouse lending. We finance our mortgage loan originations primarily in Ally Bank in the United States and in ResMor Trust in Canada. We sell the conforming mortgages we originate or purchase in sales that take the form of securitizations guaranteed by Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac, and we sell government-insured mortgage loans we originate or purchase in securitizations guaranteed by the Government National Mortgage Association (“Ginnie Mae”) in the United States and sell the insured mortgages we originate in Canada as National Housing Act Mortgage-Backed Securities (“NHA-MBS”) issued under the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation’s NHA-MBS program or through whole-loan sales. We also selectively originate prime jumbo mortgage loans in the United States.

Our Legacy Portfolio and Other operations primarily consist of loans originated prior to January 1, 2009, and includes noncore business activities including discontinued operations, portfolios in runoff, and cash held in the ResCap legal entity. These activities, all of which we have discontinued, include, among other things: lending to real estate developers and homebuilders in the United States and the United Kingdom; purchasing, selling and

 

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securitizing nonconforming residential mortgage loans (with the exception of U.S. prime jumbo mortgage loans) in both the United States and internationally; and certain conforming origination channels closed in 2008 and our mortgage reinsurance business.

We recently re-aligned our business model to focus on our Origination and Servicing operations in response to market developments and based on our strategic review of the mortgage business during 2009 and 2010. We have substantially eliminated nonconforming U.S. and international loan production (with the exception of U.S. prime jumbo mortgage loans) and have focused primarily on correspondent, direct, and warehouse-lending channels as opposed to high cost retail branch offices. Our origination platforms deliver products that have liquid market distribution and sales outlets and are structured to respond quickly as market conditions change. We have also consolidated our servicing operations to streamline our costs and align ourselves to capture future opportunities as mortgage servicing markets reform.

Additionally, we have implemented several strategic initiatives to reduce the risk related to our Legacy Portfolio and Other operations. These actions have included, but are not limited to, restructuring of ResCap debt in 2008, moving mortgage loans held-for-investment to held-for sale in 2009 while recording appropriate market value adjustments, the sale of legacy business platforms including our international operations in the United Kingdom and continental Europe, and other targeted asset dispositions including domestic and international mortgage loans and commercial finance receivables and loans. The consolidated assets of our Legacy Portfolio and Other operations have decreased to $12.3 billion at December 31, 2010, from $32.9 billion at December 31, 2008, due to these actions.

Mortgage loan origination volume is driven by the volume of home sales and prevailing interest rates. Our mortgage origination volume in 2010 was primarily driven by refinancings that were influenced by historically low interest rates. Refinancing originations are expected to decline in 2011 as a result of projected rising interest rates. Our focus in 2011 and future periods will be on sustaining our position as a leading originator and servicer of conforming and government-insured residential mortgage loans with limited expansion of our balance sheet while using agency securitizations to provide liquidity and continuing to align our origination and servicing platforms to take advantage of mortgage market reforms as they occur.

Corporate and Other

Corporate and Other includes our Commercial Finance Group, certain equity investments, the amortization of the discount associated with new debt issuances and bond exchanges, most notably from the December 2008 bond exchange, as well as the residual impacts of our corporate funds-transfer-pricing (“FTP”) and treasury asset liability management (“ALM”) activities. Refer to the section of this prospectus titled Critical Accounting Estimates—Private Debt Exchange and Cash Tender Offers for additional information on the December 2008 bond exchange.

Loss from continuing operations before income tax expense for Corporate and Other was $2.6 billion and $2.5 billion for the years ended December 31, 2010 and 2009, respectively. These losses were primarily driven by net financing losses of $2.1 billion and $2.5 billion for the years ended December 31, 2010 and 2009, respectively. The net financing losses at Corporate and Other are largely driven by the amortization of original issue discount, primarily related to our 2008 bond exchange, and the net financing loss that results from our FTP methodology.

The net financing revenue of our Global Automotive Services and Mortgage operations includes the results of a FTP process that insulates these operations from interest rate volatility by matching assets and liabilities with similar interest rate sensitivity and maturity characteristics. The FTP process assigns charge rates to the assets and credit rates to the liabilities within our Global Automotive Services and Mortgage operations, respectively, based on anticipated maturity and a benchmark index plus an assumed credit spread. The assumed credit spread represents the cost of funds for each asset class based on a blend of funding channels available to the enterprise,

 

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including unsecured and secured capital markets, private funding facilities, and deposits. In addition, a risk-based methodology, which incorporates each operations credit, market, and operational risk components is used to allocate equity to these operations.

The negative residual impact of our FTP methodology that is realized in Corporate and Other primarily represents the cost of certain funding and liquidity management activities not allocated through our FTP methodology. Most notably, the net interest expense of maintaining our liquidity and investment portfolios, the value of which was approximately $20.5 billion at December 31, 2010, is maintained in Corporate and Other and not allocated to the businesses through our FTP methodology. In addition, other unassigned funding costs, including the results of our ALM activities, are also not allocated to the businesses.

The following table summarizes the components of net financing losses for Corporate and Other reflecting bond exchange and conversion to a bank holding company in December 2008.

 

     Year ended December 31,  
             2010                     2009          
     ($ in millions)  

Original issue discount amortization (a)

   $ (1,204   $ (1,143

Net impact of the FTP methodology

    

Cost of carry on the cash and investment portfolio

     (504     (543

ALM / FTP cost of funds mismatch

     (366     (600

Other unallocated interest costs

     (130     (294
                

Total net impact of the FTP methodology

     (1,000     (1,437

Commercial Finance Group net financing revenue and other

     105        119   
                

Total net financing losses for Corporate and Other

   $ (2,099   $ (2,461
                

 

(a) The original issue discount associated with our 2008 bond exchange and cash tender offers in 2008 was $1,158 million and $1,108 million during the year ended December 31, 2010 and 2009, respectively.

The following table presents the amortization of the original issue discount.

 

     Year ended December 31,  
             2010                      2009          
     ($ in millions)  

Original issue discount

     

Outstanding balance

   $ 3,169       $ 4,373   

Total amortization (a)

     1,204         1,143   

2008 bond exchange amortization (b)

     1,158         1,108   

 

(a) Amortization is included as interest on long-term debt on the Consolidated Statement of Income.

 

(b) 2008 bond exchange amortization is included in total amortization.

 

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The amortization of original issue discount will decline from what was recognized during 2010 and 2009. The following table presents the scheduled amortization of the original issue discount.

 

     Year ended December 31,  
     2011      2012      2013      2014      2015      2016 and
thereafter
(a)
     Total  
     ($ in millions)  

Original issue discount

                    

Outstanding balance

   $ 2,194       $ 1,844       $ 1,581       $ 1,390       $ 1,333       $      

Total amortization (b)

     975         350         263         191         57         1,333       $ 3,169   

2008 bond exchange amortization (c)

     937         320         241         168         43         1,177         2,886   

 

(a) The maximum annual scheduled amortization for any individual year is $157 million in 2030 of which $151 million is related to 2008 bond exchange amortization.

 

(b) The amortization is included as interest on long-term debt on the Consolidated Statement of Income.

 

(c) 2008 bond exchange amortization is included in total amortization.

Ally Bank

Ally Bank, our direct banking platform, provides our Automotive Finance and Mortgage operations with a stable, low-cost funding source and facilitates prudent asset growth. Our focus is on building a stable deposit base driven by our compelling brand and strong value proposition. Ally Bank raises deposits directly from customers through a direct banking channel via the internet and by telephone. We have become a leader in direct banking with our recognizable brand, accessible 24/7 customer service, and competitively priced products.

Ally Bank offers a full spectrum of deposit product offerings including certificates of deposits, savings accounts, money market accounts, and an online checking product. In addition, brokered deposits are obtained through third-party intermediaries. The deposit base at Ally Bank increased $14.7 billion to $33.9 billion at December 31, 2010, from $19.2 billion at December 31, 2008. The growth in deposits is primarily attributable to our retail deposits while our brokered deposits have remained at historical levels. Strong retention rates, reflecting the strength of the franchise, have materially contributed to our growth in retail deposits.

Funding and Liquidity

Our funding strategy largely focuses on the development of diversified funding sources across a global investor base to meet all of our liquidity needs throughout different market cycles, including periods of financial distress. Prior to becoming a bank holding company, our funding largely came from the following sources.

 

   

Public unsecured debt capital markets;

 

   

Asset-backed securitizations, both public and private;

 

   

Asset sales;

 

   

Committed and uncommitted credit facilities; and

 

   

Brokered and retail deposits

The diversity of our funding sources enhances funding flexibility, limits dependence on any one source and results in a more cost-effective strategy over the long term. Throughout 2008 and 2009, the global credit markets experienced extraordinary levels of volatility and stress. As a result, access by market participants, including

 

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Ally, to the capital markets was significantly constrained and borrowing costs increased as a result. In response, numerous government programs were established aimed at improving the liquidity position of U.S. financial services firms. After converting to a bank holding company in late 2008, we participated in several of the programs, including Temporary Liquidity Guaranty Program (“TLGP”), Term Auction Facility (“TAF”), Commercial Paper Funding Facility (“CPFF”), and Term Asset-Backed Securities Loan Facility (“TALF”). Our diversification strategy and participation in these programs helped us to maintain sufficient liquidity during this period of financial distress to meet all maturing unsecured debt obligations and to continue our lending and operating activities.

During 2009, as part of our overall transformation from an independent financial services company to a bank holding company, we began to take actions to further diversify and develop more stable funding sources and, in particular, embark on initiatives to grow our consumer deposit-taking capabilities. In addition, we began distinguishing our liquidity management strategies between bank funding and nonbank funding.

Today, maximizing bank funding continues to be the cornerstone of our long-term liquidity strategy. We have made significant progress in migrating assets to Ally Bank and growing our retail deposit base since becoming a bank holding company. Deposits provide a low-cost source of funds that are less sensitive to interest rate changes, market volatility or changes in our credit ratings than other funding sources. At December 31, 2010, deposit liabilities totaled $39.0 billion, which constituted 29% of our total funding. This compares to just 14% at December 31, 2008.

In addition to building a larger deposit base, we continue to remain active in the securitization markets to finance our Ally Bank automotive loan portfolios. During 2010, we issued $8.1 billion in secured funding backed by retail and dealer floorplan automotive loans of Ally Bank. While deposits provide for a more stable funding base, our efficiencies in securitizations and improving capital market conditions have resulted in a reduction in the cost of funds achieved through secured funding transactions, making them a very attractive source of funding. For retail loans and leases, the primary reason why securitizations are an attractive funding source is that the term structure locks in funding for a specified pool of loans and leases for the life of the underlying asset. Once a pool of retail automobile loans are selected and placed into a securitization, the underlying assets and corresponding debt amortize simultaneously resulting in committed funding for the life of the asset. Performance of the underlying assets will have no bearing on any incremental liquidity risk. We manage the execution risk arising from secured funding by maintaining a diverse investor base and maintaining committed secured facilities.

As we have shifted our focus to migrating assets to Ally Bank and growing our bank funding capabilities, our reliance on parent company liquidity has similarly been reduced. Funding sources at the parent company generally consist of longer-term unsecured debt, private credit facilities, and asset-backed securitizations notably to fund our automotive loan portfolios in Canada, Europe, and Latin America. Historically, the unsecured term debt markets were a key source of long-term financing for us. However, given our ratings profile and market environment, during the second half of 2007 and throughout 2008 and 2009 we chose not to target transactions in the unsecured term debt markets due to the expected high market rates and alternative funding sources. In 2010, we re-entered the unsecured long-term debt capital markets and issued over $8.0 billion of unsecured debt globally through several issuances. At December 31, 2010, we had $9.5 billion and $12.6 billion of unsecured long-term debt with maturities in 2011 and 2012, respectively. To fund these maturities, we will continue to follow this approach of being aggressive, yet opportunistic, in the unsecured debt markets to prefund upcoming debt maturities.

The strategies described above have resulted in us achieving and maintaining a conservative liquidity position. Total available liquidity at the parent company was $23.8 billion, and Ally Bank had $7.5 billion of available liquidity at December 31, 2010. At the same time, these strategies have also resulted in a cost of funds improvement of approximately 100 basis points since becoming a bank holding company. Looking forward, as we seek to enhance our liquidity and capital position and improve credit ratings, we expect that our cost of funds will continue to improve over time.

 

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Credit Strategy

We are a full spectrum automotive finance lender with most of our automotive loan originations underwritten within the prime-lending markets and with a plan to prudently expand further into nonprime markets. Our Mortgage Origination and Servicing operations now primarily focus on selling conforming mortgages we originate or purchase in sales that take the form of securitizations guaranteed by Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac and sells government-insured mortgage loans we originate or purchase in securitizations guaranteed by Ginnie Mae in the United States (collectively, the “Government-sponsored Enterprises” or “GSEs”).

During 2010, we noted significant improvement in our credit risk profile as a result of proactive credit risk initiatives that were taken in 2009 and 2010 and improvement in the overall economic environment. Risk initiatives undertaken included repositioning the loan portfolios from higher-risk, higher-yielding legacy assets to higher quality and lower risk assets. In addition, strategies were implemented to focus primarily on prime-lending markets, participation in mortgage loan modification programs, implementing tighter underwriting standards, and enhanced collection efforts. We discontinued and sold multiple nonstrategic operations, mainly in our international businesses, including our commercial construction portfolio. Within our Automotive Finance operations, we exited certain underperforming dealer relationships, curtailed leasing activities, and curtailed the origination of nonprime retail financings. Within our Mortgage operations, we reclassified certain legacy mortgage loans from held-for-investment to held-for-sale, which resulted in negative valuation adjustments.

During the year ended December 31, 2010, the credit performance of our portfolios improved overall as we benefited from lower frequency and severity of losses within our automotive portfolios and stabilization of asset quality trends within our mortgage portfolios. Nonperforming loans and charge-offs declined, and our provision for loan losses decreased from $5.6 billion in 2009 to $442 million in 2010.

We continue to see signs of economic stabilization in the housing and vehicle markets, although our total credit portfolio will continue to be affected by sustained levels of high unemployment and continued uncertainty in the housing market.

Representation and Warranty Obligations

We have made significant progress in mitigating repurchase reserve exposure through both settlements with key counterparties and continuing to maintain an appropriate reserve for representation and warranty obligations. We have settled with both Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, which resolve material repurchase obligations with each counterparty. We also settled with five counterparties related to whole-loan sales. Our representation and warranty expense decreased to $670 million in 2010 from $1.5 billion in 2009. The repurchase reserve of $830 million at December 31, 2010, primarily represents exposure not related to the GSEs.

Outstanding claims during 2010 have remained relatively constant with GSE claim activity declining and monoline and other claims activity increasing. Typically, the obligations under representation and warranties provided to monolines and other whole-loan investors are not as comprehensive as those to the GSEs. As such, we believe a significant portion of these claims are ineligible for a repurchase.

Our Mortgage operations have issued private-label mortgage-backed securities infrequently since 2007. This exposure is notably different from GSE exposure since representation and warranties are not as comprehensive, collateral is segregated into different programs based on risk, and many transactions include overcollateralization. We have a limited amount of repurchase experience with these investors, and therefore it is currently not possible to estimate future obligations and any related range of loss.

 

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Bank Holding Company and Treasury’s Investments

During 2008, and continuing into 2009, the credit, capital, and mortgage markets became increasingly disrupted. This disruption led to severe reductions in liquidity and adversely affected our capital position. As a result, Ally sought approval to become a bank holding company to obtain access to capital at a lower cost to remain competitive in our markets. On December 24, 2008, Ally and IB Finance Holding Company, LLC, the holding company of Ally Bank, were each approved as bank holding companies under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956. At the same time, Ally Bank converted from a Utah-chartered industrial bank into a Utah-chartered commercial nonmember bank. Ally Bank as an FDIC-insured depository institution, is subject to the supervision and examination of the FDIC and the Utah DFI. Ally Financial Inc. is subject to the supervision and examination of the FRB. We are required to comply with regulatory risk-based and leverage capital requirements, as well as various safety and soundness standards established by the FRB, and are subject to certain statutory restrictions concerning the types of assets or securities that we may own and the activities in which we may engage.

As one of the conditions to becoming a bank holding company, the FRB required several actions of Ally, including meeting a minimum amount of regulatory capital. In order to meet this requirement, Ally took several actions, the most significant of which were the execution of private debt exchanges and cash tender offers to purchase and/or exchange certain of our and our subsidiaries outstanding notes held by eligible holders for a combination of cash, newly issued notes of Ally, and in the case of certain of the offers, preferred stock. The transactions resulted in an extinguishment of all notes tendered or exchanged into the offers and the new notes and stock were recorded at fair value on the issue date. This resulted in a pretax gain on extinguishment of debt of $11.5 billion and a corresponding increase to our capital levels. The gain included a $5.4 billion original issue discount representing the difference between the face value and the fair value of the new notes and is being amortized as interest expense over the term of the new notes. In addition, Treasury made an initial investment in Ally on December 29, 2008, pursuant to the Troubled Asset Relief Program (“TARP”) with a $5.0 billion purchase of Ally perpetual preferred stock with a total liquidation preference of $5.25 billion (“Perpetual Preferred Stock”).

On May 21, 2009, Treasury made a second investment of $7.5 billion in exchange for Ally’s mandatorily convertible preferred stock with a total liquidation preference of approximately $7.9 billion (the “Old MCP”), which included a $4 billion investment to support our agreement with Chrysler to provide automotive financing to Chrysler dealers and customers and a $3.5 billion investment related to the FRB’s Supervisory Capital Assessment Program requirements. Shortly after this second investment, on May 29, 2009, Treasury acquired 35.36% of Ally common stock when it exercised its right to acquire 190,921 shares of Ally common stock from General Motors Corporation (“GM”) as repayment for an $884 million loan that Treasury had previously provided to GM.

On December 30, 2009, we entered into another series of transactions with Treasury under TARP, pursuant to which Treasury (i) converted 60 million shares of Old MCP (with a total liquidation preference of $3.0 billion) into 259,200 shares of additional Ally common stock; (ii) invested $1.25 billion in new Ally mandatorily convertible preferred stock with a total liquidation preference of approximately $1.3 billion (the “New MCP”); and (iii) invested $2.54 billion in new trust preferred securities with a total liquidation preference of approximately $2.7 billion (the “Trust Preferred Securities”). At this time, Treasury also exchanged all of its Perpetual Preferred Stock and remaining Old MCP (following the conversion of Old MCP described above) into additional New MCP.

On December 30, 2010, Treasury converted 110 million shares of New MCP (with a total liquidation preference of approximately $5.5 billion) into 531,850 shares of additional Ally common stock. This action represented a critical step in our path to fully repay Treasury’s investments. The conversion reduced dividends by approximately $500 million per year, assisted with capital preservation, and is expected to improve profitability with a lower cost of funds.

 

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On March 1, 2011, the Declaration of Trust and certain other documents related to the Trust Preferred Securities were amended, and all of the outstanding Trust Preferred Securities held by Treasury were designated 8.125% Fixed Rate / Floating Rate Trust Preferred Securities, Series 2 (the “Series 2 Trust Preferred Securities”). On March 7, 2011, Treasury sold 100% of the Series 2 Trust Preferred Securities in an offering registered with the SEC. Ally did not receive any proceeds from the sale.

Following the transactions described above, Treasury currently holds 73.8% of Ally common stock and approximately $5.9 billion in aggregate liquidation preference amount of New MCP. As a result of its current common stock investment, Treasury is entitled to appoint six of the eleven total members of the Ally Board of Directors.

The following table summarizes the investments in Ally made by Treasury in 2008 and 2009.

 

    

Investment type

   Date    Cash
investment
     Warrants      Total  
               ($ in millions)  

TARP

   Preferred equity    December 29, 2008    $ 5,000       $ 250       $ 5,250   

GM Loan Conversion (a)

   Common equity    May 21, 2009      884                 884   

SCAP 1

   Preferred equity (MCP)    May 21, 2009      7,500         375         7,875   

SCAP 2

   Preferred equity (MCP)    December 30, 2009      1,250         63         1,313   

SCAP 2

   Trust preferred securities    December 30, 2009      2,540         127         2,667   
                                

Total cash investments

   $ 17,174       $ 815       $ 17,989   
                                

 

(a) In January 2009, Treasury loaned $884 million to General Motors. In connection with that loan, Treasury acquired rights to exchange that loan for 190,921 shares. In May 2009, Treasury exercised that right.

The following table summarizes Treasury’s investment in Ally at March 31, 2011.

 

     March 31, 2011  
     Book Value      Face Value  
     ($ in millions)  

MCP (a)

   $ 5,685       $ 5,938   

Common equity (b)

        73.8

 

(a) This reflects the exchange of face value of $5.25 billion of Perpetual Preferred Stock to MCP in December 2009 and the conversion of face value of $3.0 billion and $5.5 billion of MCP to common equity in December 2009 and December 2010, respectively.

 

(b) Represents the current common equity ownership position by Treasury.

Discontinued Operations

During 2009 and 2010, we committed to sell certain operations of our International Automotive Finance operations, Insurance operations, Mortgage Legacy Portfolio and Other operations, and Commercial Finance Group, and have classified certain of these operations as discontinued. For all periods presented, all of the operating results for these operations have been removed from continuing operations. Refer to Note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for more details.

 

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Primary Lines of Business

Our primary lines of business are Global Automotive Services and Mortgage. The following table summarizes the operating results excluding discontinued operations of each line of business. Operating results for each of the lines of business are more fully described in the sections of this Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations that follow.

 

     Year ended December 31,     Favorable/(unfavorable)  
     2010     2009     2008     2010-2009     2009-2008  
     ($ in millions)     (% change)  

Total net revenue (loss)

          

Global Automotive Services

          

North American Automotive Finance operations

   $ 4,011      $ 3,831      $ 2,597        5        48   

International Automotive Finance operations

     999        968        1,242        3        (22

Insurance operations

     2,360        2,271        2,961        4        (23

Mortgage

          

Origination and Servicing operations

     1,808        1,005        1,132        80        (11

Legacy Portfolio and Other operations

     865        (59     678        n/m        (109

Corporate and Other

     (2,141     (1,521     7,578        (41     (120
                                        

Total

   $ 7,902      $ 6,495      $ 16,188        22        (60
                                        

Income (loss) from continuing operations before income tax expense (benefit)

          

Global Automotive Services

          

North American Automotive Finance operations

   $ 2,344      $ 1,624      $ (322     44        n/m   

International Automotive Finance operations

     228        (157     102        n/m        n/m   

Insurance operations

     569        329        499        73        (34

Mortgage

          

Origination and Servicing operations

     917        39        462        n/m        (92

Legacy Portfolio and Other operations

     (254     (6,304     (3,070     96        (105

Corporate and Other

     (2,625     (2,490     7,066        (5     (135
                                        

Total

   $ 1,179      $ (6,959   $ 4,737        117        n/m   
                                        

 

n/m = not meaningful

 

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Consolidated Results of Operations

The following table summarizes our consolidated operating results excluding discontinued operations for the periods shown. Refer to the sections of this prospectus entitled “—Global Automotive Services” and “—Mortgage” for a more complete discussion of operating results by line of business.

 

     Year ended December 31,     Favorable/
(unfavorable)
 
     2010     2009     2008     2010-2009     2009-2008  
     ($ in millions)     (% change)  

Net financing revenue

          

Total financing revenue and other interest income

   $ 11,447      $ 13,100      $ 18,054        (13     (27

Interest expense

     6,836        7,274        10,441        6        30   

Depreciation expense on operating lease assets

     2,030        3,748        5,478        46        32   

Impairment of investment in operating leases

                   1,218               100   
                                        

Net financing revenue

     2,581        2,078        917        24        127   

Other revenue

          

Net servicing income

     1,169        445        1,484        163        (70

Insurance premiums and service revenue earned

     1,865        1,977        2,710        (6     (27

Gain on mortgage and automotive loans, net

     1,267        811        159        56        n/m   

(Loss) gain on extinguishment of debt

     (123     665        12,628        (118     (95

Other gain (loss) on investments, net

     505        166        (378     n/m        144   

Other income, net of losses

     638        353        (1,332     81        127   
                                        

Total other revenue

     5,321        4,417        15,271        20        (71

Total net revenue

     7,902        6,495        16,188        22        (60

Provision for loan losses

     442        5,604        3,102        92        (81

Noninterest expense

          

Compensation and benefits expense

     1,622        1,576        1,916        (3     18   

Insurance losses and loss adjustment expenses

     876        1,042        1,402        16        26   

Other operating expenses

     3,783        5,232        5,031        28        (4
                                        

Total noninterest expense

     6,281        7,850        8,349        20        6   

Income (loss) from continuing operations before income tax expense (benefit)

     1,179        (6,959     4,737        117        n/m   

Income tax expense (benefit) from continuing operations

     153        74        (136     (107     (154
                                        

Net income (loss) from continuing operations

   $ 1,026      $ (7,033   $ 4,873        115        n/m   
                                        

 

n/m = not meaningful

2010 Compared to 2009

We earned net income from continuing operations of $1.0 billion for the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to a net loss from continuing operations of $7.0 billion for the year ended December 31, 2009. Continuing operations for the year ended December 31, 2010, were favorably impacted by our strategic mortgage actions taken during 2009 to stabilize our consumer and commercial portfolios that resulted in a significant decrease in our provision for loan losses and our continued focus on cost reduction resulted in lower operating expenses. The year ended December 31, 2010, was also favorably impacted by an increase in net servicing income; higher gains on the sale of loans; and lower impairments on equity investments, lot option projects, model homes, and foreclosed real estate.

Total financing revenue and other interest income decreased by 13% for the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to 2009. Our International Automotive Finance operations experienced lower consumer and

 

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commercial asset levels due to adverse business conditions in Europe and the runoff of wind-down portfolios in certain international countries as we shifted our focus to five core international markets: Germany, the United Kingdom, Brazil, Mexico, and China through our joint venture. A decline in asset levels in our Mortgage Legacy Portfolio and Other operations resulted from asset sales and portfolio runoff. Operating lease revenue (along with the related depreciation expense) at our North American Automotive Finance operations decreased as a result of a net decline in the size of our operating lease portfolio due to our decision in late 2008 to significantly curtail leasing. The decrease was partially offset by lease portfolio remarketing gains due to strong used vehicle prices and higher remarketing volume as well as an increase in consumer and commercial financing revenue related to the addition of non-GM automotive financing business.

Interest expense decreased 6% for the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to 2009. Interest expense decreased as a result of a change in our funding mix with an increased amount of funding coming from deposit liabilities as well as favorable trends in the securitization markets.

Net servicing income was $1.2 billion for the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to $445 million in 2009. The increase was primarily due to projected cash flow improvements related to slower prepayment speeds as well as higher Home Affordable Modification Program (“HAMP”) loss mitigation incentive fees compared to prior year unfavorable hedge performance with respect to mortgage servicing rights.

Insurance premiums and service revenue earned decreased 6% for the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to 2009. The decrease was primarily driven by lower earnings from our U.S. extended service contracts due to a decrease in domestic written premiums related to lower vehicle sales volume during the period 2007 to 2009. The decrease was partially offset by increased volume in our international operations.

Gain on mortgage and automotive loans increased 56% for the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to 2009. The increase was primarily related to unfavorable valuation adjustments taken during 2009 on our held-for-sale automobile loan portfolios, higher gains on mortgage whole-loan sales and securitizations in 2010 compared to 2009, higher gains on mortgage loan resolutions in 2010, and the recognition of a gain on the deconsolidation of an on-balance sheet securitization. The increase was partially offset by gains on the sale of wholesale automotive financing receivables during 2009 as there were no off-balance sheet wholesale funding transactions during 2010.

We incurred a loss on extinguishment of debt of $123 million for the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to a gain of $665 million for the year ended December 31, 2009. The activity in all periods related to the extinguishment of certain Ally debt that for the year ended December 31, 2010, included $101 million of accelerated amortization of original issue discount.

Other gain on investments was $505 million for the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to $166 million in 2009. The increase was primarily due to higher realized investment gains driven by market repositioning and the sale of our tax-exempt securities portfolio. During the year ended December 31, 2009, we recognized other-than-temporary impairments of $55 million.

Other income, net of losses, increased 81% for the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to 2009. The improvement in 2010 was primarily related to the absence of loan origination income deferral due to the fair value option election for our held-for-sale loans during the third quarter of 2009 and the impact of significant impairments recognized in 2009. In 2009, we recorded impairments on equity investments, lot option projects, model homes, and an $87 million fair value impairment upon the transfer of our resort finance portfolio from held-for-sale to held-for-investment. Also in 2010, we recognized gains on the sale of foreclosed real estate compared to losses and impairments in 2009.

The provision for loan losses was $442 million for the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to $5.6 billion in 2009. The Mortgage Legacy Portfolio and Other provision decreased $4.1 billion from the prior year due

 

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to an improved asset mix as a result of the strategic actions taken during the fourth quarter of 2009 to write-down and reclassify certain legacy mortgage loans from held-to-investment to held-for-sale. The decrease in provision was also driven by the continued runoff and improved loss performance of our Nuvell nonprime automotive financing portfolio.

Insurance losses and loss adjustment expenses decreased 16% for the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to 2009. The decrease was primarily driven by lower loss experience in our Mortgage Legacy Portfolio and Other operations’ captive reinsurance portfolio.

Other operating expenses decreased 28% for the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to 2009, reflecting our continued expense reduction efforts. The improvements were primarily due to lower mortgage representation and warranty expenses, reduced professional service expenses, lower technology and communications expense, lower full-service leasing vehicle maintenance costs, lower insurance commissions, and lower advertising and marketing expenses for the year ended December 31, 2010.

We recognized consolidated income tax expense of $153 million for the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to $74 million in 2009. The increase was driven primarily by foreign taxes on higher pretax profits not subject to valuation allowance and U.S. state income taxes in states where profitable subsidiaries are required to file separately from other loss companies in the group or where the use of prior year losses is restricted.

2009 Compared to 2008

We reported a net loss from continuing operations of $7.0 billion for the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to net income from continuing operations of $4.9 billion for the year ended December 31, 2008. The 2009 results from continuing operations were adversely affected by strategic actions taken in the fourth quarter of 2009 to sell certain legacy mortgage assets resulting in the reclassification of these loans from held-for-investment to held-for-sale. These actions resulted in provision for loan losses of $2.0 billion. Additionally, 2009 was adversely impacted by higher mortgage representation and warranty expense of $1.2 billion compared to 2008 and a $1.2 billion income tax expense impact related to our conversion from a limited liability company to a corporation effective June 30, 2009. The income tax expense related to our conversion was largely offset by income tax benefits resulting from the operating loss recognized in 2009. These adverse impacts were partially offset by a strengthening used vehicle market, which resulted in higher remarketing proceeds that favorably impacted depreciation expense and reduced the provision for loan losses as a result of higher collateral values that reduced our loss severity. Additionally, 2008 results benefited from an $11.5 billion pretax gain from the extinguishment of debt related to our bond exchange.

Total financing revenue and other interest income decreased by 27% for the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to 2008, primarily due to lower asset levels at our Global Automotive Services and Mortgage Legacy Portfolio and Other operations as a result of lower asset origination levels and portfolio runoff. Consumer and operating lease revenue (along with the related depreciation expense) at our North American Automotive Finance operations and International Automotive Finance operations decreased as a result of our strategic decisions in late 2008 to significantly curtail leasing due to credit market dislocation, negative economic conditions, low consumer confidence, and decreasing lease residual values. In addition, our International Automotive Finance operations’ consumer and commercial asset levels were lower due to operations winding down in several countries. Declines in Legacy Mortgage asset levels resulted from asset sales and portfolio runoff. Additionally, we recognized lower yields on consumer mortgage loans as a result of higher delinquencies, increases in nonaccrual levels, and the impact of lower rates on adjustable-rate mortgage loans.

Interest expense was $7.3 billion for the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to $10.4 billion in 2008. Interest expense decreased at our North American Automotive Finance operations and at our International Automotive Finance operations primarily due to reductions in the average balance of interest-bearing liabilities consistent with lower average asset levels. The decrease at Mortgage was primarily due to a lower average cost

 

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of funds due to declining interest rates and lower average borrowings related to a reduction in asset levels and extinguishments of ResCap debt. These decreases were partially offset by the amortization of the original issue discount associated with the December 2008 bond exchange.

No impairment of investment in operating leases was recognized in 2009. In 2008 we recognized a $1.2 billion impairment on our investment in operating leases that resulted from significant declines in used vehicle demand and used vehicle sales prices. The impairment consisted of $1.2 billion within our North American Automotive Finance operations and $26 million within our International Automotive Finance operations.

Net servicing income decreased 70% during the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to 2008. The decrease was mainly due to unfavorable mortgage servicing valuations reflecting a projected reduction in cash flows and increased prepayment assumptions as a result of lower market interest rates compared to favorable valuation adjustments due to decreasing prepayment trends in 2008. Additionally, we recognized unfavorable hedge performance due to changes in the spreads between our servicing assets and the derivative hedge portfolio, which is used to manage interest rate risk. Our ability to fully hedge interest rate risk and volatility was restricted in the latter half of 2008 and during the year ended December 31, 2009, by the limited availability of willing counterparties to enter into forward agreements and liquidity constraints hindering our ability to take positions in the option markets. Servicing fees also declined as a result of portfolio runoff and sales of certain servicing assets during the second half of 2008.

Insurance premiums and service revenue earned decreased 27% during the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to 2008. The decrease was primarily due to the sale of our U.S. reinsurance agency in November 2008. Additionally, lower earned premiums on extended service contracts written in current and prior periods, lower dealer inventory levels, and decreases within our international operations contributed to a decrease in revenue. These decreases were primarily due to the overall negative economic environment and lower dealership volumes.

The net gain on mortgage and automotive loans was $811 million for the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to $159 million for the year ended December 31, 2008. The net improvement in 2009 was primarily due to realized losses related to Legacy Mortgage asset sales in 2008. Additionally, we recognized improved margins on sales of loans in 2009 as a result of our focus on originating conforming and government-insured residential mortgage loans. Partially offsetting the improvement was decreased gains from lower whole-loan sales volumes and securitization transactions in our North American Finance Automotive operations due to a shift in our strategy to a deposit-based funding model through Ally Bank with less reliance on the securitization markets.

Gain on extinguishment of debt totaled $665 million for the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to $12.6 billion for the year ended December 31, 2008. The 2009 results were primarily driven by the recognition of a $634 million gain on the extinguishment of certain debt as part of privately negotiated transactions. The 2008 results were impacted largely by the fourth quarter private debt exchange and cash tender offers that generated pretax gains of $11.5 billion. The 2008 results also include additional debt extinguishment gains of $1.1 billion recognized by Mortgage offset by losses of $23 million recognized by Corporate and Other due to the repurchase and extinguishment of ResCap debt.

Other net gain on investments was $166 million for the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to a net loss of $378 million in 2008. The increase was primarily related to the write-off of certain investment securities in 2008 and lower other-than-temporary impairments on investment securities in 2009.

Other income, net of losses, increased $1.7 billion for the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to 2008. The improvement was primarily related to the absence of certain 2008 events including a $570 million full equity-method investment impairment due to the decline in credit market conditions and unfavorable asset revaluations, significant equity investment losses, and the recognition of a $255 million impairment on the assets of our resort finance business in 2008. Additionally, the improvement was driven by lower losses on the sale of

 

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foreclosed real estate due to lower volume and severity and lower impairments on lot option projects and model homes, and lower losses on residual interests due to the write-down of home equity residuals in 2008. Partially offsetting these increases was a decrease in real estate brokerage fee income due to the 2008 sale of our business that provided brokerage and relocation services.

The provision for loan losses was $5.6 billion for the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to $3.1 billion in 2008. The Mortgage provision for loan losses increased $2.6 billion for the year ended December 31, 2009. The increase was primarily due to strategic actions in the fourth quarter of 2009 as a result of the decision to sell certain legacy mortgage assets resulting in the reclassification of these assets from held-for-investment to held-for-sale and consequently the recognition of $2.0 billion in expense. Additionally, we recognized higher provision for loan losses on the Ally Bank held-for-investment portfolio due to higher projected delinquencies and loss severities, as well as regulatory input. The increase was partially offset by lower provision for loan losses as a result of lower mortgage loan and lending receivables balances in 2009 compared to 2008. Our North American Automotive Finance operations’ provision decreased $587 million for the year ended December 31, 2009, primarily due to a decrease in the provision for retail balloon contracts as a result of a strengthening used vehicle market in the United States and portfolio runoff as this product was curtailed in September 2008. Our Commercial Finance Group’s provision increased $481 million for the year ended December 31, 2009, due to an increase in provision for loan losses within the resort finance business and in our European operations.

Compensation and benefits expense decreased 18% for the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to 2008, primarily due to lower employee headcount.

Insurance losses and loss adjustment expenses decreased 26% for the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to 2008. The decrease was primarily driven by the sale of our U.S. reinsurance agency and lower loss experience in our dealership-related products as a result of lower volumes.

Other operating expenses increased 4% for the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to 2008. Other operating expenses were largely impacted by higher mortgage representation and warranty expense of $1.2 billion in 2009 compared to 2008. Excluding the effects of mortgage representation and warranty expense, other operating expenses decreased 22% in 2009 compared to 2008. Contributing to this improvement was a decrease in insurance commissions, reduced restructuring expenses, reduced professional service expenses, and lower vehicle remarketing and repossession expenses.

We recognized consolidated tax expense of $74 million for the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to a tax benefit of $136 million in 2008. The increase in tax expense was primarily due to our conversion from a limited liability company to a corporation effective June 30, 2009, which resulted in the recognition of a $1.2 billion net deferred tax liability through income tax expense. Additionally, we recognized higher valuation allowances in 2009 compared to 2008. Partially offsetting the increase in expense was higher tax benefits on operating losses as a result of our conversion to a corporation. Refer to Note 24 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information regarding our change in tax status.

Global Automotive Services

Results for Global Automotive Services are presented by reportable segment, which includes our North American Automotive Finance operations, our International Automotive Finance operations, and our Insurance operations.

Automotive Finance Operations

Our North American Automotive Finance operations and our International Automotive Finance operations (Automotive Finance operations) provide automotive financing services to consumers and to automotive dealers. For consumers, we offer retail automobile financing and leasing for new and used vehicles, and through our

 

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commercial automotive financing operations, we fund dealer purchases of new and used vehicles through wholesale or floorplan financing.

Consumer Automotive Financing

Historically, we have provided two basic types of financing for new and used vehicles: retail automobile contracts (retail contracts) and automobile lease contracts. In most cases, we purchase retail contracts and leases for new and used vehicles from dealers when the vehicles are purchased or leased by consumers. In a number of markets outside the United States, we are a direct lender to the consumer. Our consumer automotive financing operations generate revenue through finance charges or lease payments and fees paid by customers on the retail contracts and leases. In connection with lease contracts, we also recognize a gain or loss on the remarketing of the vehicle at the end of the lease.

The amount we pay a dealer for a retail contract is based on the negotiated purchase price of the vehicle and any other products, such as service contracts, less any vehicle trade-in value and any down payment from the consumer. Under the retail contract, the consumer is obligated to make payments in an amount equal to the purchase price of the vehicle (less any trade-in or down payment) plus finance charges at a rate negotiated between the consumer and the dealer. In addition, the consumer is also responsible for charges related to past-due payments. When we purchase the contract, it is normal business practice for the dealer to retain some portion of the finance charge as income for the dealership. Our agreements with dealers place a limit on the amount of the finance charges they are entitled to retain. Although we do not own the vehicles we finance through retail contracts, we hold a perfected security interest in those vehicles. Due to funding challenges related to the general economic recession at the time, in January 2009, we ceased originating financing volume through Nuvell, which had focused on nonprime automotive financing through GM-affiliated dealers.

With respect to consumer leasing, we purchase leases (and the associated vehicles) from dealerships. The purchase price of consumer leases is based on the negotiated price for the vehicle less any vehicle trade-in and any down payment from the consumer. Under the lease, the consumer is obligated to make payments in amounts equal to the amount by which the negotiated purchase price of the vehicle (less any trade-in value or down payment) exceeds the projected residual value (including residual support) of the vehicle at lease termination, plus lease charges. The consumer is also generally responsible for charges related to past due payments, excess mileage, and excessive wear and tear. When the lease contract is entered into, we estimate the residual value of the leased vehicle at lease termination. We generally base our determination of the projected residual values on a guide published by an independent publisher of vehicle residual values, which is stated as a percentage of the manufacturer’s suggested retail price. These projected values may be upwardly adjusted as a marketing incentive if the manufacturer or Ally considers above-market residual support necessary to encourage consumers to lease vehicles.

Consumer automobile leases are operating leases; therefore, credit losses on the operating lease portfolio are not as significant as losses on retail contracts because lease losses are limited to payments and assessed fees. Since some of these fees are not assessed until the vehicle is returned, these losses on the lease portfolio are correlated with lease termination volume. North American operating lease accounts past due over 30 days represented 2.36% and 3.12% of the total portfolio at December 31, 2010 and 2009, respectively. In late 2008, we significantly curtailed leasing due to distress in the capital markets and the significant decline in used vehicle prices that resulted in increased residual losses. We selectively re-entered the leasing market in 2009; however, originations are significantly lower than in past years. We did not receive residual support from GM or Chrysler on lease originations in 2010 or 2009.

Our standard U.S. leasing plan, SmartLease, requires a monthly payment by the consumer. We also offer an alternative leasing plan, SmartLease Plus, that requires one up-front payment of all lease amounts at the time the consumer takes possession of the vehicle. In addition to the SmartLease plans, prior to September 2008, we offered the SmartBuy plan through U.S. dealerships to consumers. SmartBuy combined certain features of a lease

 

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contract with those of a traditional retail contract. Under the SmartBuy plan, the customer pays regular monthly payments that are generally lower than would otherwise be owed under a traditional retail contract. At the end of the contract, the customer has several options including keeping the vehicle by making a final balloon payment, refinancing the balloon payment, or returning the vehicle to us and paying a disposal fee plus any applicable excess wear and excess mileage charges. Unlike a lease contract, during the course of a SmartBuy contract, the customer owns the vehicle, and we hold a perfected security interest in the vehicle. Effective September 2008, we ceased new originations of the SmartBuy product.

With respect to all financed vehicles, whether subject to a retail contract or a lease contract, we require that property damage insurance be obtained by the consumer. In addition, for lease contracts, we require that bodily injury and comprehensive and collision insurance be obtained by the consumer.

The consumer financing revenue of our Automotive Finance operations totaled $3.4 billion, $3.1 billion, and $4.0 billion in 2010, 2009, and 2008, respectively.

Consumer Automotive Financing Volume

The following table summarizes our new and used vehicle consumer financing volume and our share of consumer sales.

 

     Ally consumer automotive
financing volume
     % Share of consumer sales  
     Year ended December 31,      Year ended December 31,  
     2010      2009      2008      2010      2009      2008  
     (units in thousands)      (%)  

GM new vehicles

                 

North America

     694         488         929         40         27         38   

International (excluding China) (a)

     299         272         421         22         20         32   

China (b)

     119         74         59         11         11         13   
                                   

Total GM new units financed

     1,112         834         1,409            
                                   

Chrysler new vehicles

                 

North America

     322         64         8         38         8           

International (excluding China)

     1                            
                                   

Total Chrysler new units financed

     323         64         8            
                                   

Other non-GM/Chrysler new vehicles

                 

North America

     33         10         52            

International (excluding China)

     4         4         25            

China (b)

     89         33         11            
                                   

Total other non-GM/Chrysler new units financed

     126         47         88            
                                   

Used vehicles

                 

North America

     269         142         339            

International (excluding China)

     25         22         103            
                                   

Total used units financed

     294         164         442            
                                   

Total consumer automotive financing volume

     1,855         1,109         1,947            
                                   

 

(a) Excludes financing volume and GM consumer sales of discontinued operations as well as GM consumer sales for other countries in which GM operates and in which we have no financing volume.

 

(b) Includes vehicles financed through a joint venture in China in which Ally owns a minority interest.

 

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Growth in consumer automotive financing volume and related penetration levels in 2010 compared to 2009 were primarily driven by higher industry sales, growth of our leasing business, and full implementation of Ally Dealer Rewards. Volume and penetration levels were also favorably impacted by the addition of Chrysler consumer automotive financing.

Manufacturer Marketing Incentives

GM and Chrysler may elect to sponsor incentive programs (on both retail contracts and leases) by supporting finance rates below the standard market rates at which we purchase retail contracts. These marketing incentives are also referred to as rate support or subvention. When GM or Chrysler utilize these marketing incentives, we are compensated at contract inception for the present value of the difference between the customer rate and our standard rates, which we defer and recognize as a yield adjustment over the life of the contract.

GM historically provided incentives, referred to as residual support, on leases, although we currently do not have residual support arrangements on 2010 or 2009 originated leases. As previously mentioned, under these programs, we bear a portion of the risk of loss to the extent the value of a leased vehicle upon remarketing is below the projected residual value of the vehicle at the time the lease contract is signed. However, these projected values may be upwardly adjusted as a marketing incentive if GM considers an above-market residual appropriate to encourage consumers to lease vehicles. Residual support by GM results in a lower monthly lease payment for the consumer. GM reimburses us to the extent remarketing sales proceeds are less than the residual value set forth in the lease contract and no greater than our standard residual rates.

In addition to the residual support arrangement for leases originated prior to 2009, GM shares in residual risk on a significant portion of off-lease vehicles sold at auction. Specifically, we and GM share a portion of the loss when resale proceeds fall below the standard residual values on vehicles sold at auction. GM reimburses us for a portion of the difference to the extent that proceeds are lower than our standard residual values (limited to a cap).

Under what we refer to as GM-sponsored pull-ahead programs, consumers may be encouraged to terminate leases early in conjunction with the acquisition of a new GM vehicle. As part of these programs, we waive all or a portion of the customer’s remaining payment obligation. Under most programs, GM compensates us for a portion of the foregone revenue from the waived payments partially offset to the extent that our remarketing sales proceeds are higher than otherwise would be realized if the vehicle had been remarketed at lease contract maturity.

On November 30, 2006, and in connection with the sale by GM of a 51% interest in Ally, GM and Ally entered into several service agreements that codified the mutually beneficial historic relationship between the companies. One such agreement was the United States Consumer Financing Services Agreement (the “Financing Services Agreement”). The Financing Services Agreement, among other things, provided that subject to certain conditions and limitations, whenever GM offers vehicle financing and leasing incentives to customers (e.g., lower interest rates than market rates), it would do so exclusively through Ally. This requirement was effective through November 2016, and in consideration for this, Ally paid to GM an annual exclusivity fee and was required to meet certain targets with respect to consumer retail and lease financings of new GM vehicles.

Effective December 29, 2008, and in connection with the approval of our application to become a bank holding company, GM and Ally modified certain terms and conditions of the Financing Services Agreement. Certain of these amendments include the following: (1) for a two-year period, GM can offer retail financing incentive programs through a third-party financing source under certain specified circumstances and, in some cases, subject to the limitation that pricing offered by the third party meets certain restrictions, and after the two-year period GM can offer any such incentive programs on a graduated basis through third parties on a nonexclusive, side-by-side basis with Ally, provided that the pricing of such third parties meets certain requirements; (2) Ally will have no obligation to provide operating lease financing products; and (3) Ally will

 

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have no targets against which it could be assessed penalties. The modified Financing Services Agreement will expire on December 31, 2013. After December 31, 2013, GM will have the right to offer retail financing incentive programs through any third-party financing source, including Ally, without restrictions or limitations. A primary objective of the Financing Services Agreement continues to be supporting distribution and marketing of GM products.

The following table shows GM subvented retail and lease volume acquired by Ally.

 

     Year ended December 31,  
     2010     2009     2008  

GM subvented volume in North America

      

As % of new GM North American retail and lease volume acquired by Ally

     51     69     84

As % of new total North American retail and lease volume acquired by Ally

     27     48     59

GM subvented International (excl. China) volume (a)

      

As % of new GM International retail and lease volume acquired by Ally

     55     67     48

As % of new total International retail and lease volume acquired by Ally

     50     61     37

GM subvented volume in China (b)

      

As % of new GM China retail and lease volume acquired by Ally

     14     1     2

As % of new total China retail and lease volume acquired by Ally

     8     1     2

 

(a) Represents subvention for continuing operations only.

 

(b) Through our joint venture GMAC-SAIC. We own 40% of GMAC-SAIC alongside Shanghai Automotive Group Finance Company LTD and Shanghai General Motors Corporation LTD.

The following table shows Chrysler subvented retail and lease volume acquired by Ally.

 

     Year ended December 31,  
     2010     2009     2008  

Chrysler subvented volume North America

      

As % of new Chrysler North American retail and lease volume acquired by Ally

     57     39     0

As % of new total North American retail and lease volume acquired by Ally

     14     4     0

On August 6, 2010, we entered into an agreement with Chrysler LLC (Chrysler) to be the preferred provider of financial services for Chrysler vehicles. The agreement replaced and superseded the legally binding term sheet that we entered into with Chrysler on April 30, 2009, which contemplated this definitive agreement. We provide retail financing to Chrysler dealers and customers as we deem appropriate according to our credit policies and in our sole discretion. Chrysler is obligated to provide us with certain exclusivity privileges including the use of Ally for designated minimum threshold percentages of certain of Chrysler’s retail financing subvention programs. The agreement extends through April 30, 2013, with automatic one-year renewals unless either we or Chrysler provides sufficient notice of nonrenewal.

Servicing

We have historically serviced all retail contracts and leases we retained on-balance sheet. We historically sold a portion of the retail contracts we originated and retained the right to service and earn a servicing fee for our servicing functions. Ally Servicing Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary, performs most servicing activities for U.S. retail contracts and consumer automobile leases.

Servicing activities consist largely of collecting and processing customer payments, responding to customer inquiries such as requests for payoff quotes, processing customer requests for account revisions (such as payment extensions and rewrites), maintaining a perfected security interest in the financed vehicle, monitoring vehicle

 

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insurance coverage, and disposing of off-lease vehicles. Servicing activities are generally consistent for our Automotive Finance operations; however, certain practices may be influenced by local laws and regulations.

Our U.S. customers have the option to receive monthly billing statements or coupon books, to remit payment by mail or through electronic fund transfers, or to establish online web-based account administration through the Ally Account Center. Customer payments are processed by regional third-party processing centers that electronically transfer payment data to customers’ accounts.

Servicing activities also include initiating contact with customers who fail to comply with the terms of the retail contract or lease. These contacts begin with a reminder notice when the account is 5 to 15 days past due. Telephone contact typically begins when the account is 1 to 15 days past due. Accounts that become 20 to 30 days past due are transferred to special collection teams that track accounts more closely. The nature and timing of these activities depend on the repayment risk of the account.

During the collection process, we may offer a payment extension to a customer experiencing temporary financial difficulty. A payment extension enables the customer to delay monthly payments for 30, 60, or 90 days, thereby deferring the maturity date of the contract by the period of delay. Extensions granted to a customer typically do not exceed 90 days in the aggregate during any 12-month period or 180 days in aggregate over the life of the contract. If the customer’s financial difficulty is not temporary and management believes the customer could continue to make payments at a lower payment amount, we may offer to rewrite the remaining obligation, extending the term and lowering the monthly payment obligation. In those cases, the principal balance generally remains unchanged while the interest rate charged to the customer generally increases. Extension and rewrite collection techniques help mitigate financial loss in those cases where management believes the customer will recover from financial difficulty and resume regularly scheduled payments or can fulfill the obligation with lower payments over a longer period. Before offering an extension or rewrite, collection personnel evaluate and take into account the capacity of the customer to meet the revised payment terms. Although the granting of an extension could delay the eventual charge-off of an account, typically we are able to repossess and sell the related collateral, thereby mitigating the loss. As an indication of the effectiveness of our consumer credit practices, of the total amount outstanding in the U. S. traditional retail portfolio at December 31, 2007, only 8.2% of the extended or rewritten accounts were subsequently charged off through December 31, 2010. A three-year period was utilized for this analysis as this approximates the weighted average remaining term of the portfolio. At December 31, 2010, 7.4% of the total amount outstanding in the servicing portfolio had been granted an extension or was rewritten.

Subject to legal considerations, in the United States we normally begin repossession activity once an account becomes greater than 60-days past due. Repossession may occur earlier if management determines the customer is unwilling to pay, the vehicle is in danger of being damaged or hidden, or the customer voluntarily surrenders the vehicle. Approved third-party repossession firms handle repossessions. Normally the customer is given a period of time to redeem the vehicle by paying off the account or bringing the account current. If the vehicle is not redeemed, it is sold at auction. If the proceeds do not cover the unpaid balance, including unpaid financing charges and allowable expenses, the resulting deficiency is charged off. Asset recovery centers pursue collections on accounts that have been charged off, including those accounts where the vehicle was repossessed, and skip accounts where the vehicle cannot be located.

At December 31, 2010 and 2009, our total consumer automotive serviced portfolio was $78.8 billion and $82.6 billion, respectively, compared to our consumer automotive on-balance sheet portfolio of $60.4 billion at December 31, 2010, and our managed portfolio of $63.1 billion at December 31, 2009. Prior to 2010, our managed portfolio included retail receivables held on-balance sheet for investment and receivables securitized and sold that we continued to service and in which we had a continuing involvement (i.e., in which we retain an interest or risk of loss in the underlying receivables). On January 1, 2010, we adopted ASU 2009-17, Improvements to Financial Reporting by Enterprises Involved with Variable Interest Entities (ASU 2009-17), that resulted in the consolidation of all receivables that had been considered off-balance sheet and included as part of our managed portfolio becoming on-balance sheet assets.

 

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Remarketing and Sales of Leased Vehicles

When we acquire a consumer lease, we assume ownership of the vehicle from the dealer. Neither the consumer nor the dealer is responsible for the value of the vehicle at the time of lease termination. When vehicles are not purchased by customers or the receiving dealer at lease termination, the vehicle is returned to us for remarketing through an auction. We generally bear the risk of loss to the extent the value of a leased vehicle upon remarketing is below the projected residual value determined at the time the lease contract is signed. GM may share this risk with us for certain leased GM vehicles, as described previously under Manufacturer Marketing Incentives.

The following table summarizes our methods of vehicle sales in the United States at lease termination stated as a percentage of total lease vehicle disposals.

 

     Year ended December 31,  
     2010     2009     2008  

Auction

      

Internet

     60     57     47

Physical

     18     25     38

Sale to dealer

     12     11     10

Other (including option exercised by lessee)

     10     7     5

We primarily sell our off-lease vehicles through:

 

   

Internet auctions—We offer off-lease vehicles to dealers and certain other third parties in the United States through our proprietary internet site (SmartAuction). This internet sales program maximizes the net sales proceeds from off-lease vehicles by reducing the time between vehicle return and ultimate disposition, reducing holding costs, and broadening the number of prospective buyers. We maintain the internet auction site, set the pricing floors on vehicles, and administer the auction process. We earn a service fee for every vehicle sold through SmartAuction.

 

   

Physical auctions—We dispose of our off-lease vehicles not purchased at termination by the lease consumer or dealer or sold on an internet auction through traditional official manufacturer-sponsored auctions. We are responsible for handling decisions at the auction including arranging for inspections, authorizing repairs and reconditioning, and determining whether bids received at auction should be accepted.

Commercial Automotive Financing

Automotive Wholesale Dealer Financing

One of the most important aspects of our dealer relationships is supporting the sale of vehicles through wholesale or floorplan financing. We primarily support automotive finance purchases by dealers of new and used vehicles manufactured or distributed before sale or lease to the retail customer. Wholesale automotive financing represents the largest portion of our commercial financing business and is the primary source of funding for dealers’ purchases of new and used vehicles. During 2010, we financed an average of $18.9 billion of new GM vehicles, representing an 86% share of GM’s North American dealer inventory and a 75% share of GM’s international dealer inventory in countries where GM operates and we had dealer inventory financing, excluding China. We also financed an average of $5.8 billion of new Chrysler vehicles representing a 75% share of Chrysler’s North American dealer inventory. In addition, we financed an average of $2.4 billion of new non-GM/Chrysler vehicles.

On August 6, 2010, we entered into an agreement with Chrysler to provide automotive financing products and services to Chrysler dealers. The agreement replaced and superseded the legally binding term sheet that we

 

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entered into with Chrysler on April 30, 2009, which contemplated this definitive agreement. We are Chrysler’s preferred provider of new wholesale financing for dealer inventory in the United States, Canada, Mexico, and other international markets upon the mutual agreement of the parties. We provide dealer financing and services to Chrysler dealers as we deem appropriate according to our credit policies and in our sole discretion. The agreement extends through April 30, 2013, with automatic one-year renewals unless either we or Chrysler provides sufficient notice of nonrenewal.

Wholesale credit is arranged through lines of credit extended to individual dealers. In general, each wholesale credit line is secured by all vehicles and by other assets owned by the dealer or the operator’s or owner’s personal guarantee. Additionally, to minimize our risk, both GM and Chrysler are bound by repurchase obligations that, under certain circumstances, require them to repurchase new vehicle inventory, such as dealer default. The amount we advance to dealers is equal to 100% of the wholesale invoice price of new vehicles, which includes destination and other miscellaneous charges, and with respect to vehicles manufactured by GM and other motor vehicle manufacturers, a price rebate, known as a holdback, from the manufacturer to the dealer in varying amounts stated as a percentage of the invoice price. Interest on wholesale automotive financing is generally payable monthly. Most wholesale automotive financing of our North American Automotive Finance operations is structured to yield interest at a floating rate indexed to the Prime Rate. The wholesale automotive financing of our International Automotive Finance operations is structured to yield interest at a floating rate indexed to benchmark rates specific to the relevant country. The rate for a particular dealer is based on, among other things, competitive factors, the amount and status of the dealer’s creditworthiness, and various incentive programs.

Under the terms of the credit agreement with the dealer, we may demand payment of interest and principal on wholesale credit lines at any time; however, unless we terminate the credit line or the dealer defaults, we generally require payment of the principal amount financed for a vehicle upon its sale or lease by the dealer to the customer. Ordinarily, a dealer has between one and five days, based on risk and exposure of the account, to satisfy the obligation.

Under wholesale financing arrangements, we lend money to GM-franchised dealers to finance their vehicle inventory purchases from GM. We advance the loan proceeds directly to GM. Under an agreement with GM, the advances were made before the date the vehicles were expected to be delivered to the dealers. We earned $178 million of interest under the terms of this arrangement during the year ended December 31, 2010. At the end of 2010 GM terminated this advance payment arrangement. We expect any remaining interest payments in 2011 in connection with the terminated arrangement to be minimal.

The commercial wholesale revenue of our Automotive Finance operations totaled $1.4 billion, $1.2 billion, and $1.3 billion in 2010, 2009, and 2008, respectively.

 

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Commercial Wholesale Financing Volume

The following table summarizes the average balances of our commercial wholesale floorplan finance receivables of new and used vehicles and share of dealer inventory in markets where we operate.

 

     Average balance          % Share of dealer inventory      
     Year ended December 31,      Year ended December 31,  
     2010      2009      2008      2010      2009      2008  
     ($ in millions)      (%)  

GM new vehicles

                 

North America (a)

   $ 14,948       $ 17,107       $ 24,306         86         86         88   

International (excluding China) (b)(c)

     2,919         3,311         4,804         75         91         97   

China (b)(d)

     1,075         573         633         81         80         84   
                                   

Total GM new vehicles financed

     18,942         20,991         29,743            
                                   

Chrysler new vehicles

                 

North America (a)

     5,793         1,762         512         75         25           

International

     42         27                    
                                   

Total Chrysler new vehicles financed

     5,835         1,789         512            
                                   

Other non-GM/Chrysler new vehicles

                 

North America

     1,951         1,741         2,381            

International (excluding China)

     414         621         1,300            

China (d)

             5         39            
                                   

Total other non-GM/Chrysler new vehicles financed

     2,365         2,367         3,720            
                                   

Used vehicles

                 

North America

     3,044         2,401         3,203            

International (excluding China)

     358         255         407            
                                   

Total used vehicles financed

     3,402         2,656         3,610            
                                   

Total commercial wholesale finance receivables

   $ 30,544       $ 27,803       $ 37,585            
                                   

 

(a) Share of dealer inventory based on end of period dealer inventory.

 

(b) Share of dealer inventory based on wholesale financing share of GM shipments.

 

(c) Excludes commercial wholesale finance receivables and dealer inventory of discontinued operations as well as dealer inventory for other countries in which GM operates and in which we had no commercial wholesale finance receivables.

 

(d) Includes vehicles financed through a joint venture in China in which Ally owns a minority interest.

Commercial wholesale financing average volume increased during 2010 compared to 2009, primarily due to the addition of Chrysler wholesale automotive financing. The reduction in GM’s wholesale volume reflects the elimination of the Hummer, Saturn, and Pontiac brands, along with the reduction of total GM dealers. North American penetration levels remained strong in 2010.

Other Commercial Automotive Financing

We also provide other forms of commercial financing for the automotive industry including automotive dealer term loans and automotive fleet financing. Automotive dealer term loans are loans that we make to dealers

 

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to finance other aspects of the dealership business. These loans are typically secured by real estate, other dealership assets, and the personal guarantees of the individual owners of the dealership. Automotive fleet financing may be obtained by dealers, their affiliates, and other companies and be used to purchase vehicles, which they lease or rent to others. We generally have a security interest in these vehicles and in the rental payments; however, competitive factors may occasionally limit the security interest in this collateral.

Servicing and Monitoring

We service all of the wholesale credit lines in our portfolio and the wholesale automotive finance receivables that we have securitized. A statement setting forth billing and account information is distributed on a monthly basis to each dealer. Interest and other nonprincipal charges are billed in arrears and are required to be paid immediately upon receipt of the monthly billing statement. Generally, dealers remit payments to Ally through wire transfer transactions initiated by the dealer through a secure web application.

Dealers are assigned a risk rating based on various factors, including capital sufficiency, operating performance, financial outlook, and credit and payment history. The risk rating affects the amount of the line of credit, the determination of further advances, and the management of the account. We monitor the level of borrowing under each dealer’s account daily. When a dealer’s balance exceeds the credit line, we may temporarily suspend the granting of additional credit or increase the dealer’s credit line or take other actions following evaluation and analysis of the dealer’s financial condition and the cause of the excess.

We periodically inspect and verify the existence of dealer vehicle inventories. The timing of the verifications varies, and no advance notice is given to the dealer. Among other things, verifications are intended to determine dealer compliance with the financing agreement and confirm the status of our collateral.

 

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North American Automotive Finance Operations

Results of Operations

The following table summarizes the operating results of our North American Automotive Finance operations for the periods shown. North American Automotive Finance operations consist of automotive financing in the United States and Canada and include the automotive activities of Ally Bank and ResMor Trust. The amounts presented are before the elimination of balances and transactions with our other reportable segments.

 

     Year ended December 31,     Favorable/
(unfavorable)
 
     2010      2009      2008       2010-2009         2009-2008    
     ($ in millions)     (% change)  

Net financing revenue

            

Consumer

   $ 2,339       $ 1,804       $ 2,358        30        (23

Commercial

     1,425         1,136         1,044        25        9   

Loans held-for-sale

     112         320         473        (65     (32

Operating leases

     3,570         5,408         7,236        (34     (25

Interest and dividend income

     149         269         374        (45     (28
                                          

Total financing revenue and other interest income

     7,595         8,937         11,485        (15     (22

Interest expense

     2,377         2,363         3,534        (1     33   

Depreciation expense on operating lease assets

     1,897         3,500         5,228        46        33   

Impairment of investment in operating leases

                     1,192               100   
                                          

Net financing revenue

     3,321         3,074         1,531        8        101   

Other revenue

            

Servicing fees

     226         238         295        (5     (19

Gain on automotive loans, net

     249         220         442        13        (50

Other income

     215         299         329        (28     (9
                                          

Total other revenue

     690         757         1,066        (9     (29

Total net revenue

     4,011         3,831         2,597        5        48   

Provision for loan losses

     286         611         1,198        53        49   

Noninterest expense

            

Compensation and benefits expense

     387         435         482        11        10   

Other operating expenses

     994         1,161         1,239        14        6   
                                          

Total noninterest expense

     1,381         1,596         1,721        13        7   

Income (loss) before income tax expense

   $ 2,344       $ 1,624       $ (322     44        n/m   
                                          

Total assets

   $ 81,893       $ 68,282       $ 71,981        20        (5
                                          

Operating data

            

Retail originations

   $ 31,471       $ 19,519       $ 25,197        61        (23

Lease originations

     3,888         259         10,074        n/m        (97

 

n/m = not meaningful

2010 Compared to 2009

Our North American Automotive Finance operations earned income before income tax expense of $2.3 billion for the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to $1.6 billion for the year ended December 31, 2009. Results for the year ended December 31, 2010, were favorably impacted by increased loan origination volume related to improved economic conditions, the growth of our non-GM consumer and commercial automotive financing business, and favorable remarketing results, which reflected continued strength in the used vehicle market.

 

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Total financing revenue and other interest income decreased 15% for the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to 2009. The decrease was primarily related to a decline in operating lease revenue, which exceeded the growth in consumer and commercial net financing revenue. Operating lease revenue (along with the related depreciation expense) decreased primarily due to a decline in the size of our operating lease portfolio resulting from our decision in late 2008 to significantly curtail leasing. This decision was based on the significant decline in used vehicle prices that resulted in increasing residual losses during 2008 and an impairment of our lease portfolio. During the latter half of 2009, we selectively re-entered the leasing market with more targeted lease product offerings. As a result, runoff of the legacy portfolio exceeded new origination volume. The decrease in operating lease revenue was largely offset by an associated decline in depreciation expense, which was also favorably impacted by remarketing gains as a result of continued strength in the used vehicle market and higher remarketing volume. Consumer financing revenue (combined with interest income on consumer loans held-for-sale) increased 15% during the year ended December 31, 2010, primarily due to an increase in consumer loan origination volume as a result of improved economic conditions and increased volume from non-GM channels. Additionally, consumer asset levels increased due to the consolidation of consumer loans included in securitization transactions that were previously classified as off-balance sheet. Refer to Note 11 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further information regarding the consolidation of these assets. The increase was partially offset by a change in the consumer asset mix related to the runoff of the higher-yielding Nuvell nonprime automotive financing portfolio. Commercial revenue increased 25%, compared to the year ended December 31, 2009, primarily due to an increase in dealer wholesale funding driven by improved economic conditions, the growth of non-GM wholesale floorplan business, and the recognition of all wholesale funding transactions on-balance sheet in 2010 compared to certain transactions that were off-balance sheet in 2009. Interest and dividend income decreased 45% for the year ended December 31, 2010, primarily due to a change in funding mix including lower levels of off-balance sheet securitizations.

Net gain on automotive loans increased 13% for the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to 2009. The increase was primarily related to higher levels of retail whole-loan sales in 2010, higher gains on the sale of loans during 2010, and unfavorable valuation adjustments taken during 2009 on the held-for-sale portfolio. The increase was partially offset by higher gains on the sale of wholesale receivables during 2009 as there were no off-balance sheet wholesale funding transactions during 2010.

Other income decreased 28% for the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to 2009. The decrease was primarily due to unfavorable swap mark-to-market activity related to the held-for-sale loan portfolio in 2010.

The provision for loan losses was $286 million for the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to $611 million in 2009. The decrease was primarily driven by the continued runoff of our Nuvell portfolio and improved loss performance in the consumer loan portfolio reflecting improved pricing in the used vehicle market and higher credit quality of more recent originations.

Noninterest expense decreased 13% for the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to 2009. The decrease was primarily due to lower compensation and benefits expense primarily related to lower employee headcount resulting from rightsizing the cost structure with business volumes along with further productivity improvements, unfavorable foreign-currency movements during the year ended December 31, 2009, and lower IT and professional services costs due to continued focus on cost reduction.

2009 Compared to 2008

Our North American Automotive Finance operations earned income before income tax expense of $1.6 billion for the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to a loss before income tax expense of $322 million for the year ended December 31, 2008. The year ended December 31, 2009, was favorably impacted by a significant improvement in the used vehicle market, which resulted in higher remarketing proceeds that favorably impacted operating lease depreciation expense. Additionally, we incurred lower provision for loan losses related to our liquidating retail balloon portfolio as a result of higher collateral values that reduced our loss severity. Further,

 

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because of this improvement in the used vehicle market, we did not recognize operating lease impairments in 2009, compared to impairments of $1.2 billion in 2008. These favorable items were partially offset by lower financing revenue related to a declining asset base resulting from reduced originations due to the economic recession and the dislocation in the capital and credit markets.

Total financing revenue and other interest income decreased 22% for the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to 2008. Consumer financing revenue (combined with interest income on consumer loans held-for-sale) decreased 25% during the year ended December 31, 2009, primarily due to lower average consumer asset levels. These lower asset levels were driven by significantly lower originations beginning in late 2008 due to the general economic recession and significantly tighter credit markets in the United States and Canada as well as the runoff of the higher-yielding Nuvell nonprime automotive financing portfolio. The $320 million of income on loans held-for-sale for the year ended December 31, 2009, related to interest on loans that are expected to be sold in whole-loan and full securitization transactions over the next twelve months. Commercial revenue increased 9%, compared to the year ended December 31, 2008, primarily due to an increase in average commercial loan balances that was primarily due to the growth in non-GM related wholesale floorplan business and the reconsolidation of certain off- balance sheet wholesale securitization transactions in 2009. Operating lease revenue (along with the related depreciation expense) decreased as new lease originations significantly declined due to our strategic decision in late 2008 to significantly curtail leasing. This decision was based on the significant decline in used vehicle prices that resulted in an impairment charge and increasing residual losses during 2008. The decrease in operating lease revenue was partially offset by remarketing gains resulting from higher used vehicle selling prices due to a strengthening used vehicle market in 2009. Interest and dividend income decreased 28% for the year ended December 31, 2009, primarily due to a change in funding mix including lower levels of off-balance sheet securitizations.

Interest expense decreased 33% for the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to 2008. The decrease was driven by lower funding requirements due to lower average asset levels in 2009.

No impairment of investment in operating leases was recognized in 2009. In 2008, we recognized a $1.2 billion impairment that resulted from sharp declines in demand and used vehicle sale prices, which adversely affected vehicle remarketing proceeds.

Servicing fees decreased 19% for the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to 2008. The decrease in servicing fees related to declines in the serviced asset base primarily resulting from the runoff of the serviced lease portfolio.

We earned a net gain on automotive loans of $220 million for the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to $442 million for the year ended December 31, 2008. The decrease was primarily due to a shift in our strategy in 2009 to a deposit-based funding model through Ally Bank, with less reliance on the securitization markets. Lower whole-loan sales volumes and other off-balance sheet securitization transactions resulted in decreased gains on the sale of retail and wholesale loans.

The provision for loan losses decreased 49% for the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to 2008. The decrease was due primarily to decreases in the provision for retail balloon contracts primarily as a result of a strengthening used vehicle market and portfolio runoff as this product was curtailed in September 2008. A lower supply of used vehicles in 2009, among other factors, resulted in increased residual values and, in turn, lower provision for loan losses. Additionally, during 2008, the commercial provision had trended higher in response to concerns over GM and associated GM-dealer financial health. These favorable developments were partially offset by an increase in provision for loan loss expense related to unfavorable loss trends in consumer loans in the Nuvell portfolio, primarily in the second half of 2009.

Other noninterest expense decreased 7% for the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to 2008. The decrease was primarily driven by lower compensation and benefits expense and lower restructuring charges due to headcount reductions resulting from prior restructuring actions.

 

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International Automotive Finance Operations

Results of Operations

The following table summarizes the operating results of our International Automotive Finance operations excluding discontinued operations for the periods shown. The amounts presented are before the elimination of balances and transactions with our other reportable segments and include eliminations of balances and transactions among our North American Automotive Finance operations and Insurance operations.

 

     Year ended December 31,      Favorable/
(unfavorable)
 
   2010      2009     2008        2010-2009         2009-2008    
     ($ in millions)      (% change)  

Net financing revenue

            

Consumer

   $ 1,075       $ 1,271      $ 1,604         (15     (21

Commercial

     390         495        819         (21     (40

Loans held-for-sale

     15         2                n/m        n/m   

Operating leases

     205         305        344         (33     (11

Interest and dividend income

     59         55        197         7        (72
                                          

Total financing revenue and other interest income

     1,744         2,128        2,964         (18     (28

Interest expense

     924         1,176        1,814         21        35   

Depreciation expense on operating lease assets

     137         247        247         45          

Impairment of investment in operating leases

                    26                100   
                                          

Net financing revenue

     683         705        877         (3     (20

Other revenue

            

Gain (loss) on automotive loans, net

     21         (77     2         127        n/m   

Other income

     295         340        363         (13     (6
                                          

Total other revenue

     316         263        365         20        (28

Total net revenue

     999         968        1,242         3        (22

Provision for loan losses

     54         230        204         77        (13

Noninterest expense

            

Compensation and benefits expense

     164         202        202         19          

Other operating expenses

     553         693        734         20        6   
                                          

Total noninterest expense

     717         895        936         20        4   

Income (loss) from continuing operations before income tax expense

   $ 228       $ (157   $ 102         n/m        n/m   
                                          

Total assets

   $ 15,979       $ 21,802      $ 29,290         (27     (26
                                          

Operating data

            

Consumer originations

   $ 7,612       $ 5,710      $ 9,272         33        (38

 

n/m = not meaningful

2010 Compared to 2009

Our International Automotive Finance operations earned income from continuing operations before income tax expense of $228 million during the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to a loss from continuing operations before income tax expense of $157 million during the year ended December 31, 2009. Results for 2010 were favorably impacted by lower provision for loan losses and lower restructuring charges on wind-down operations.

Total financing revenue and other interest income decreased 18% for the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to 2009, primarily due to decreases in consumer and commercial asset levels as the result of adverse business conditions in Europe and the runoff of wind-down portfolios.

 

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Interest expense decreased 21% for the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to 2009, primarily due to reductions in borrowing levels consistent with a lower asset base.

Depreciation expense on operating lease assets decreased 45% for the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to 2009, primarily due to the continued runoff of the full-service leasing portfolio.

Net gain on automotive loans was $21 million for the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to a net loss of $77 million for the year ended December 31, 2009. The losses for the year ended December 31, 2009, were due primarily to lower-of-cost or market adjustments on certain loans held-for-sale in certain wind down operations. The gains for the year ended December 31, 2010, were primarily due to the partial release of lower-of-cost or market adjustments on loans held-for-sale in wind-down operations due to improved market values.

The provision for loan losses was $54 million for the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to $230 million in 2009. The decrease was primarily due to improved loss performance on the consumer portfolio reflecting higher origination quality in 2009 and 2010 and the improving financial position of our dealer customers in Europe.

Noninterest expense decreased 20% for the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to 2009. The decrease was primarily due to lower compensation and benefits expense primarily related to lower employee headcount resulting from restructuring activities, unfavorable foreign-currency movements during the year ended December 31, 2009, and lower IT and professional service costs due to continued focus on cost reduction.

2009 Compared to 2008

Our International Automotive Finance operations incurred a loss from continuing operations before income tax expense of $157 million during the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to income from continuing operations before income tax expense of $102 million during the year ended December 31, 2008. The year ended December 31, 2009, was unfavorably impacted by lower financing revenue related to a declining asset base. The asset base decline resulted from reduced originations due to the wind-down of operations in several countries and lower GM sales volume due to the general economic recession. The decrease was partially offset by lower funding costs commensurate with a lower asset base.

Total financing revenue and other interest income decreased 28% for the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to 2008. Consumer financing revenue decreased 21% during the year ended December 31, 2009, primarily due to lower consumer asset levels as a result of significantly lower originations due to the general economic recession, lower GM vehicle sales volume in 2009, and the wind-down of operations in several countries. Consumer asset levels at December 31, 2009, decreased $3.7 billion, or 24%, compared to December 31, 2008. Commercial revenue decreased 40% during 2009 compared to 2008, primarily due to lower commercial asset levels resulting from decreased GM sales volume and the wind-down of operations in several countries. Operating lease revenue decreased due to the significant curtailment of the lease product beginning in late 2008 and the runoff of assets in the full-service leasing portfolio. Interest and dividend income decreased 72% during the year ended December 31, 2009, primarily due to lower intercompany income resulting from a decline in intercompany-lending activity with our Commercial Finance Group and the reclassification of interest income on a one-time Brazil judicial deposit in 2008. Additionally, total financing revenue and other interest income were unfavorably impacted by foreign-currency movements as a result of the strengthening of the U.S. dollar in 2009 compared to 2008.

Interest expense decreased 35% for the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to 2008. The decrease was driven by reductions in the average balance of interest-bearing liabilities consistent with a lower asset base and favorable foreign-currency movements.

 

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No impairment of investment in operating leases was recognized in 2009. The $26 million recognized for the year ended December 31, 2008, related to the full-service leasing portfolio and resulted from declines in demand and used vehicle sale prices.

We incurred a net loss on automotive loans of $77 million for the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to a net gain of $2 million for the year ended December 31, 2008. The loss for the year ended December 31, 2009, was primarily due to the recognition of a $61 million lower-of-cost or fair value adjustment on the held-for-sale Spanish consumer portfolio. Additionally, during 2009, we recognized a $16 million loss on the sale of our India portfolio.

Other income decreased 6% for the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to 2008. The decrease was primarily related to lower full-service leasing fees as a result of asset runoff and the absence of a U.K. value added tax (“VAT”) refund received in 2008. The decrease was partially offset by favorable mark-to-market adjustments on derivatives and increased vehicle remarketing income on full-service leasing vehicles resulting from a stronger used vehicle market.

Other noninterest expense decreased 4% for the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to 2008. The 2009 results were favorably impacted by the reclassification of interest income on a one-time Brazil judicial deposit in 2008 and lower IT and marketing expenses. The decrease in expense was partially offset by unfavorable foreign-currency movements and higher severance and restructuring expenses.

Insurance

Our Insurance operations offer consumer insurance products sold primarily through dealers and commercial insurance products sold to dealers. As part of our focus on offering dealers a broad range of products, we provide vehicle extended service contracts and we underwrite selected commercial insurance coverages, primarily covering dealers’ wholesale vehicle inventory in the United States and internationally. We also sell vehicle extended service contracts with mechanical breakdown and maintenance coverages.

The following table shows premium and service revenue written by insurance product.

 

Insurance Written Revenue Mix         
($ millions)    Year ended December 31,  
     2010      2009      2008  

Vehicle service contracts

        

New retail

   $ 315       $ 281       $ 431   

Used retail

     426         384         546   
                          

Total vehicle service contracts

     741         665         977   

Wholesale

     103         100         137   

Other finance and insurance (a)

     113         75         80   

Wind-down

             2         242   
                          

North American operations

     957         842         1,436   

International operations

     631