10-K 1 d455860d10k.htm FORM 10-K Form 10-K
Table of Contents

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-K

 

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d)

OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2012    Commission file number 1-9700

 

THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Delaware   94-3025021

(State or other jurisdiction

of incorporation or organization)

  (I.R.S. Employer Identification Number)

 

211 Main Street, San Francisco, CA 94105

(Address of principal executive offices and zip code)

 

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (415) 667-7000

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class   Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock - $.01 par value per share

  New York Stock Exchange

Depository Shares, each representing a 1/40th ownership interest in a share of 6.0% Non-Cumulative Preferred Stock, Series B

  New York Stock Exchange

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes  x    No  ¨

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act. Yes  ¨    No  x

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  x    No  ¨

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Website, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes  x    No  ¨

 

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.  x

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer   x    Accelerated filer   ¨
Non-accelerated filer   ¨  (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)    Smaller reporting company   ¨

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes  ¨    No  x

 

As of June 30, 2012, the aggregate market value of the voting stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was $14.1 billion. For purposes of this information, the outstanding shares of Common Stock owned by directors and executive officers of the registrant, and certain investment companies managed by Charles Schwab Investment Management, Inc. were deemed to be shares of the voting stock held by affiliates.

 

The number of shares of Common Stock outstanding as of January 31, 2013, was 1,277,985,901.

 

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

 

Part III of this Form 10-K incorporates certain information contained in the registrant’s definitive proxy statement for its annual meeting of stockholders, to be held May 16, 2013, by reference to that document.

 

 

 


Table of Contents

THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

 

Annual Report On Form 10-K

For Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2012

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Part I     
Item 1.   Business      1   
 

General Corporate Overview

     1   
 

Business Acquisitions

     1   
 

Business Strategy and Competitive Environment

     1   
 

Products and Services

     2   
 

Regulation

     5   
 

Sources of Net Revenues

     6   
 

Available Information

     6   
Item 1A.   Risk Factors      7   
Item 1B.   Unresolved Securities and Exchange Commission Staff Comments      13   
Item 2.   Properties      13   
Item 3.   Legal Proceedings      14   
Part II     
Item 4.   Mine Safety Disclosures      14   
Item 5.   Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities      14   
Item 6.   Selected Financial Data      16   
Item 7.   Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations      17   
 

Overview

     17   
 

Current Market and Regulatory Environment and Other Developments

     19   
 

Results of Operations

     20   
 

Liquidity and Capital Resources

     28   
 

Risk Management

     35   
 

Fair Value of Financial Instruments

     42   
 

Critical Accounting Estimates

     42   
 

Forward-Looking Statements

     44   
Item 7A.   Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk      47   
Item 8.   Financial Statements and Supplementary Data      49   
Item 9.   Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure      97   
Item 9A.   Controls and Procedures      97   
Item 9B.   Other Information      97   
Part III     
Item 10.   Directors, Executive Officers, and Corporate Governance      97   
Item 11.   Executive Compensation      99   
Item 12.   Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters      99   
Item 13.   Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence      100   
Item 14.   Principal Accountant Fees and Services      100   
Part IV     
Item 15.   Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedule      100   
 

Exhibit Index

     100   
 

Signatures

     106   
 

Index to Financial Statement Schedule

     F-1   


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THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

 

PART I

 

Item 1. Business

 

General Corporate Overview

 

The Charles Schwab Corporation (CSC), headquartered in San Francisco, California, was incorporated in 1986 and engages, through its subsidiaries (together referred to as the Company, and primarily located in San Francisco except as indicated), in securities brokerage, banking, money management, and financial advisory services. At December 31, 2012, the Company had $1.95 trillion in client assets, 8.8 million active brokerage accounts(a), 1.6 million corporate retirement plan participants, and 865,000 banking accounts.

 

Significant business subsidiaries of CSC include:

 

   

Charles Schwab & Co., Inc. (Schwab), which was incorporated in 1971, is a securities broker-dealer with over 300 domestic branch offices in 45 states, as well as a branch in each of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and London, U.K., and serves clients in Hong Kong through one of CSC’s subsidiaries;

 

   

Charles Schwab Bank (Schwab Bank), which commenced operations in 2003, is a federal savings bank located in Reno, Nevada; and

 

   

Charles Schwab Investment Management, Inc. (CSIM), which is the investment advisor for Schwab’s proprietary mutual funds, referred to as the Schwab Funds®, and Schwab’s exchange-traded funds, referred to as the Schwab ETFs™.

 

The Company provides financial services to individuals and institutional clients through two segments – Investor Services and Institutional Services. The Investor Services segment provides retail brokerage and banking services to individual investors. The Institutional Services segment provides custodial, trading, and support services to independent investment advisors (IAs). The Institutional Services segment also provides retirement plan services, specialty brokerage services, and mutual fund clearing services. For financial information by segment for the three years ended December 31, 2012, see “Item 8 – Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – 25. Segment Information.”

 

As of December 31, 2012, the Company had full-time, part-time and temporary employees, and persons employed on a contract basis that represented the equivalent of about 13,800 full-time employees.

 

Business Acquisitions

 

On December 14, 2012, the Company acquired ThomasPartners, Inc., a growth and dividend income-focused asset management firm.

 

In September 2011, the Company acquired optionsXpress Holdings, Inc. (optionsXpress), an online brokerage firm primarily focused on equity option securities and futures. The optionsXpress® brokerage platform provides active investors and traders trading tools, analytics and education to execute a variety of investment strategies. optionsXpress, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of optionsXpress, is a securities broker-dealer.

 

In November 2010, the Company acquired substantially all of the assets of Windward Investment Management, Inc. (Windward), an investment advisory firm that managed diversified investment portfolios comprised primarily of exchange-traded fund securities. As a result of the acquisition, Windhaven Investment Management, Inc. (Windhaven) was formed as a wholly-owned subsidiary of Schwab Holdings, Inc.

 

Business Strategy and Competitive Environment

 

The Company’s purpose is to champion every client’s goals with passion and integrity, believing that the best long-term strategy is one that puts clients first. Seeing the Company’s business “through clients’ eyes” helps it earn its clients’ trust as

 

 

(a) Accounts with balances or activity within the preceding eight months.

 

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the Company strives daily to fulfill its purpose and act according to its values. The Company’s values are to serve its clients in an ethical, empathetic and proactive way; to innovate constantly to improve the client experience; to respect fellow employees and reinforce the power of teamwork; and to be good stewards of the resources entrusted to the Company – client assets, the Company’s brand, and stockholder value.

 

The Company’s competition in serving individual investors includes a wide range of brokerage, wealth management, and asset management firms, as well as banks and trust companies. In serving these investors and competing for a growing percentage of the investable wealth in the U.S., the Company offers a multi-channel service delivery model, which includes online, mobile, telephonic, and branch capabilities. Under this model, the Company can offer personalized service at competitive prices while giving clients the choice of where, when, and how they do business with the Company. Schwab’s branches and regional telephone service centers are staffed with trained and experienced financial consultants (FCs) focused on building and sustaining client relationships. The Company offers the ability to meet client investing needs through a single ongoing point of contact, even as those needs change over time. In particular, management believes that the Company’s ability to provide those clients seeking help, guidance, or advice with an integrated, individually tailored solution – ranging from occasional consultations to an ongoing relationship with a Schwab FC or an IA – is a competitive strength compared to the more fragmented offerings of other firms.

 

The Company’s online, mobile, and telephonic channels provide quick and efficient access to an extensive array of information, research, tools, trade execution, and administrative services, which clients can access according to their needs. For example, clients that trade more actively can use these channels to access highly competitive pricing, expert tools, and extensive service capabilities – including experienced, knowledgeable teams of trading specialists and integrated product offerings. Individuals investing for retirement through 401(k) plans can take advantage of the Company’s bundled offering of multiple investment choices, education, and third-party advice. Management also believes the Company is able to compete with the wide variety of financial services firms striving to attract individual client relationships by complementing these capabilities with the extensive array of investment, banking, and lending products and services described in the following section.

 

In the IA arena, the Company competes with institutional custodians, traditional and discount brokers, banks, investment advisory firms, and trust companies. Management believes that its Institutional Services segment can maintain its market leadership position primarily through the efforts of its expanded sales and support teams, which are dedicated to helping IAs grow, compete, and succeed in serving their clients. In addition to focusing on superior service, Institutional Services competes by utilizing technology to provide IAs with a highly-developed, scalable platform for administering their clients’ assets easily and efficiently. Institutional Services sponsors a variety of national, regional, and local events designed to help IAs identify and implement better ways to grow and manage their practices efficiently.

 

Another important aspect of the Company’s ability to compete is its ongoing focus on efficiency and productivity, as lower costs give the Company greater flexibility in its approach to pricing and investing for growth. Management believes that this flexibility remains important in light of the competitive environment, in which a number of competitors offer reduced online trading commission rates and low expense ratios on certain classes of mutual funds and exchange-traded funds. Additionally, the Company’s nationwide marketing effort is an important competitive tool because it reinforces the attributes of the Schwab® brand.

 

Products and Services

 

The Company offers a broad range of products to address individuals’ varying investment and financial needs. Examples of these product offerings include:

 

   

Brokerage – an array of brokerage accounts including some with check-writing features, debit card, and billpay; individual retirement accounts; retirement plans for small to large businesses; 529 college savings accounts; designated brokerage accounts; equity incentive plan accounts; and margin loans, as well as access to fixed income securities, equity and debt offerings, options, and futures;

 

   

Mutual funds – third-party mutual funds through Mutual Fund Marketplace®, including no-load mutual funds through the Mutual Fund OneSource® service, proprietary mutual funds from two fund families – Schwab Funds® and Laudus Funds®, other third-party mutual funds, and mutual fund trading and clearing services to broker-dealers;

 

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Exchange-traded funds (ETFs) – third-party and proprietary ETFs, including Schwab ETFs™, and separately managed portfolios of ETFs;

 

   

Advice solutions – separately managed accounts, customized personal advice for tailored portfolios, and specialized planning and full-time portfolio management;

 

   

Banking – checking accounts linked to brokerage accounts, savings accounts, certificates of deposit, demand deposit accounts, first lien residential real estate mortgage loans (First Mortgages), home equity lines of credit (HELOCs), personal loans collateralized by securities, and entity lending; and

 

   

Trust – trust custody services, personal trust reporting services, and administrative trustee services.

 

These products, and the Company’s full array of investing services, are made available through its two segments – Investor Services and Institutional Services. The Company’s major sources of revenues are generated by both of the Company’s reportable segments. Revenue is attributable to a reportable segment based on which segment has the primary responsibility for serving the client. The accounting policies of the Company’s reportable segments are the same as those described in “Item 8 – Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – 2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies.”

 

Investor Services

 

Through the Investor Services segment, the Company provides retail brokerage and banking services to individual investors.

 

The Company offers research, analytic tools, performance reports, market analysis, and educational material to all clients. Clients looking for more guidance have access to online portfolio planning tools, professional advice from Schwab’s portfolio consultants who can help develop an investment strategy and carry out investment and portfolio management decisions, as well as a range of fully delegated managed solutions that provide ongoing portfolio management.

 

Schwab strives to demystify investing by educating and assisting clients in the development of investment plans. Educational tools include workshops, interactive courses, and online information about investing, which Schwab does not earn revenue from. Additionally, Schwab provides various internet-based research and analysis tools that are designed to help clients achieve better investment outcomes. As an example of such tools, Schwab Equity Ratings® is a quantitative model-based stock rating system that provides all clients with ratings on approximately 3,000 stocks, assigning each equity a single grade: A, B, C, D, or F. Schwab Equity Ratings InternationalTM, an international ranking methodology, covers approximately 4,000 stocks in 28 foreign equity markets. Stocks are rated based on specific factors relating to fundamentals, valuation, momentum, and risk and ranked so that the number of ‘buy consideration’ ratings – As and Bs – equals the number of ‘sell consideration’ ratings – Ds and Fs.

 

Clients may need specific investment recommendations, either from time to time or on an ongoing basis. The Company provides clients seeking advice with customized solutions. The Company’s approach to advice is based on long-term investment strategies and guidance on portfolio diversification and asset allocation. This approach is designed to be offered consistently across all of Schwab’s delivery channels.

 

Schwab Private ClientTM features a personal advice relationship with a designated portfolio consultant, supported by a team of investment professionals who provide individualized service, a customized investment strategy developed in collaboration with the client, and ongoing guidance and execution.

 

For clients seeking a relationship in which investment decisions are fully delegated to a financial professional, the Company offers several alternatives. The Company provides investors access to professional investment management in a diversified account that is invested exclusively in either mutual funds or ETFs through the Schwab Managed PortfoliosTM and Windhaven® programs. The Company also refers investors who want to utilize a specific third-party money manager to direct a portion of their investment assets to the Schwab Managed Account program. In addition, clients who want the assistance of an independent professional in managing their financial affairs may be referred to IAs in the Schwab Advisor Network®. These IAs provide personalized portfolio management, financial planning, and wealth management solutions.

 

The Company strives to deliver information, education, technology, service, and pricing that meet the specific needs of clients who trade actively. Schwab and optionsXpress, Inc. both offer integrated Web- and software-based trading platforms, which

 

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incorporate intelligent order routing technology, real-time market data, options trading, premium stock or futures research, and multi-channel access, as well as sophisticated account and trade management features, risk management tools, decision support tools, and dedicated personal support.

For clients wishing to invest in foreign equities, the Company offers a suite of global investing capabilities, including on-line access to certain foreign equity markets with the ability to trade in their local currencies. In addition, the Company serves both foreign investors and non-English-speaking U.S. clients who wish to trade or invest in U.S. dollar-based securities. In the U.S., the Company serves Chinese-, Spanish-, and Vietnamese-speaking clients through a combination of its branch offices and Web-based and telephonic services.

Institutional Services

The Institutional Services segment consists of the following four business units: Advisor Services, Retirement Plan Services, Retirement Business Services, and Corporate Brokerage Services.

Through the Advisor Services business, Schwab provides custodial, trading, technology, practice management, trust asset, and other support services to IAs. To attract and serve IAs, Advisor Services has a dedicated sales force and service teams assigned to meet their needs.

IAs who custody client accounts at Schwab may use proprietary software that provides them with up-to-date client account information, as well as trading capabilities. The Advisor Services website is the core platform for IAs to conduct daily business activities online with Schwab, including submitting client account information and retrieving news and market information. This platform provides IAs with a comprehensive suite of electronic and paper-based reporting capabilities. Advisor Services offers online cashiering services, as well as internet-based eDocuments sites for both IAs and their clients that provide multi-year archiving of online statements, trade confirms and tax reports, along with document search capabilities.

To help IAs grow and manage their practices, Advisor Services offers a variety of services, including marketing and business development, business strategy and planning, and transition support. Regulatory compliance consulting and support services are available, as well as website design and development capabilities. Advisor Services maintains a website that provides interactive tools, educational content, and research reports to assist advisors thinking about establishing their own independent practices.

Advisor Services offers an array of services to help advisors establish their own independent practices through the Business Start-up Solutions package. This includes access to dedicated service teams and outsourcing of back-office operations, as well as third-party firms who provide assistance with real estate, errors and omissions insurance, and company benefits.

The Company offers a variety of educational materials and events to IAs seeking to expand their knowledge of industry issues and trends, as well as sharpen their individual expertise and practice management skills. Advisor Services updates and shares market research on an ongoing basis, and it holds a series of events and conferences every year to discuss topics of interest to IAs, including business strategies and best practices. The Company sponsors the annual IMPACT® conference, which provides a national forum for the Company, IAs, and other industry participants to gather and share information and insights.

IAs and their clients have access to a broad range of the Company’s products and services, including individual securities, mutual funds, ETFs, managed accounts, and cash products.

Retirement Plan Services offers a bundled 401(k) retirement plan product that provides plan sponsors a wide array of investment options, trustee or custodial services, and participant-level recordkeeping. Plan design features, which increase plan efficiency and achieve employer goals, are also offered, such as automatic enrollment, automatic fund mapping at conversion, and automatic contribution increases. In 2012, the Company launched Schwab Index Advantage®, a unique 401(k) plan offer designed to lower costs, simplify investing and help workers better prepare for retirement. Services also include support for Roth 401(k) accounts and profit sharing and defined benefit plans. The Company provides a robust suite of tools to plan sponsors to manage their plans, including plan-specific reports, studies and research, access to legislative updates and benchmarking reports that provide perspective on their plan’s features compared with overall industry and segment-specific

 

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plans. Participants in bundled plans serviced by the Company receive targeted education materials, have access to electronic tools and resources, may attend onsite and virtual seminars, and can receive third-party advice delivered by Schwab. This third-party advice service is delivered online, by phone, or in person, including recommendations based on the core investment fund choices in their retirement plan and specific recommended savings rates.

 

Through Retirement Business Services, the Company and independent retirement plan providers work together to serve plan sponsors, combining the consulting and administrative expertise of the administrator with the Company’s investment, technology, trust, and custodial services. Retirement Business Services also offers the Schwab Personal Choice Retirement Account®, a self-directed brokerage offering for retirement plans.

 

Corporate Brokerage Services provides specialty brokerage-related services to corporate clients through its Stock Plan Services and Designated Brokerage Services businesses. Stock Plan Services offers equity compensation plan sponsors full-service recordkeeping for stock plans: stock options, restricted stock, performance shares and stock appreciation rights. Specialized services for executive transactions and reporting, grant acceptance tracking and other services are offered to employers to meet the needs of administering the reporting and compliance aspects of an equity compensation plan. Designated Brokerage Services provides solutions for compliance departments of regulated companies and firms with special requirements to monitor employee personal trading, including trade surveillance technology. The Corporate Brokerage Services unit also provides mutual fund clearing services to banks, brokerage firms and trust companies and offers proprietary mutual funds, ETFs, collective trust funds, and investment management outside the Company to institutional channels.

 

Subsequent Changes to Segment Information

 

In the first quarter of 2013, the Company realigned its reportable segments as a result of recent organizational changes. The Institutional segment will be renamed to Advisor Services. The Retirement Plan Services, Corporate Brokerage Retirement Products (formerly part of Retirement Business Services), and Corporate Brokerage Services business units will be reallocated to the Investor Services segment. The Company will recast the segment information based on this realignment in the first quarter of 2013.

 

Regulation

 

CSC is a savings and loan holding company and Schwab Bank, CSC’s depository institution subsidiary, is a federal savings bank. CSC is subject to supervision and regulation by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (the Federal Reserve) and Schwab Bank is subject to supervision and regulation by the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC). CSC is currently not subject to specific statutory capital requirements, however CSC is required to serve as a source of strength for Schwab Bank. Under the “Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act” (the Dodd-Frank Act), CSC will be subject to new minimum leverage and minimum risk-based capital ratio requirements that will be set by the Federal Reserve that are at least as stringent as the current requirements generally applicable to insured depository institutions.

 

Schwab Bank is subject to regulation and supervision and to various requirements and restrictions under federal and state laws, including regulatory capital guidelines. Among other things, these requirements also restrict and govern the terms of affiliate transactions, such as extensions of credit and repayment of loans between Schwab Bank and CSC or CSC’s other subsidiaries. In addition, Schwab Bank is required to provide notice to and may be required to obtain approval of the OCC and the Federal Reserve to declare dividends to CSC. The federal banking agencies have broad powers to enforce these regulations, including the power to terminate deposit insurance, impose substantial fines and other civil and criminal penalties, and appoint a conservator or receiver. Under the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, Schwab Bank could be subject to restrictive actions if it were to fall within one of the lowest three of five capital categories. Schwab Bank is required to maintain minimum capital levels as specified in federal banking laws and regulations. Failure to meet the minimum levels could result in certain mandatory, and possibly additional discretionary actions by the regulators that, if undertaken, could have a direct material effect on Schwab Bank.

 

The securities industry in the United States is subject to extensive regulation under both federal and state laws. CSC’s principal U.S. broker-dealers are Schwab and optionsXpress, Inc. Schwab is registered as a broker-dealer with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), the fifty states, and the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico.

 

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optionsXpress, Inc. is registered as a broker-dealer with the SEC, the fifty states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. Schwab and CSIM are registered as investment advisors with the SEC. Additionally, Schwab and optionsXpress, Inc. are regulated by the Commodities Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) with respect to the commodity futures and commodities trading activities they conduct as an introducing broker and futures commission merchant, respectively.

 

Much of the regulation of broker-dealers has been delegated to self-regulatory organizations (SROs). Schwab and optionsXpress, Inc. are members of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (FINRA), the Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board (MSRB), NYSE Arca, and the Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE). optionsXpress, Inc. is also a member of other exchanges. The primary regulators of Schwab are FINRA and, for municipal securities, the MSRB. The primary regulators of optionsXpress, Inc. are FINRA, CBOE, and for municipal securities, the MSRB. The National Futures Association (NFA) is Schwab and optionsXpress, Inc.’s primary regulator for futures and commodities trading activities. The Company’s business is also subject to oversight by regulatory bodies in other countries in which the Company operates.

 

The principal purpose of regulating broker-dealers and investment advisors is the protection of clients and the securities markets. The regulations to which broker-dealers and investment advisors are subject cover all aspects of the securities business, including, among other things, sales and trading practices, publication of research, margin lending, uses and safekeeping of clients’ funds and securities, capital adequacy, recordkeeping and reporting, fee arrangements, disclosure to clients, fiduciary duties owed to advisory clients, and the conduct of directors, officers and employees.

 

Schwab and optionsXpress, Inc. are both subject to Rule 15c3-1 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the Uniform Net Capital Rule) and related SRO requirements. The CFTC and NFA also impose net capital requirements. The Uniform Net Capital Rule specifies minimum capital requirements that are intended to ensure the general financial soundness and liquidity of broker-dealers. Because CSC itself is not a registered broker-dealer, it is not subject to the Uniform Net Capital Rule. However, if Schwab fails to maintain specified levels of net capital, such failure would constitute a default by CSC under debt covenants under CSC’s credit agreement.

 

The Uniform Net Capital Rule limits broker-dealers’ ability to transfer capital to parent companies and other affiliates. Compliance with the Uniform Net Capital Rule could limit Schwab’s operations and its ability to repay subordinated debt to CSC, which in turn could limit CSC’s ability to repay debt, pay cash dividends, and purchase shares of its outstanding stock.

 

Sources of Net Revenues

 

The Company’s major sources of net revenues are asset management and administration fees, net interest revenue, and trading revenue. The Company generates asset management and administration fees through its proprietary and third-party mutual fund offerings, as well as fee-based advisory solutions. Net interest revenue is the difference between interest earned on interest-earning assets (such as cash, short- and long-term investments, and mortgage and margin loans) and interest paid on funding sources (including banking deposits and client cash in brokerage accounts and long-term debt). The Company generates trading revenue through commissions earned for executing trades for clients and principal transaction revenue primarily from trading activity in client fixed income securities.

 

For revenue information by source for the three years ended December 31, 2012, see “Item 7 – Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Results of Operations – Net Revenues.”

 

Available Information

 

The Company files annual, quarterly, and current reports, proxy statements, and other information with the SEC. The Company’s SEC filings are available to the public over the Internet on the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov. You may read and copy any document that the Company files with the SEC at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, NE, Washington, DC 20549. You may obtain information on the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330.

 

On the Company’s Internet website, http://www.aboutschwab.com, the Company posts the following recent filings as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed with or furnished to the SEC: the Company’s annual reports on

 

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Form 10-K, the Company’s quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, the Company’s current reports on Form 8-K, and any amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. All such filings are available free of charge either on the Company’s website or by request via email (investor.relations@schwab.com), telephone (415-667-1959), or mail (Charles Schwab Investor Relations at 211 Main Street, San Francisco, CA 94105).

 

Item 1A. Risk Factors

The Company faces a variety of risks that may affect its operations or financial results, and many of those risks are driven by factors that the Company cannot control or predict. The following discussion addresses those risks that management believes are the most significant, although there may be other risks that could arise, or may prove to be more significant than expected, that may affect the Company’s operations or financial results.

For a discussion of the Company’s risk management, including operational risk, credit risk, and market risk, see “Item 7 – Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Risk Management.”

Developments in the business, economic, and geopolitical environment could negatively impact the Company’s business.

The Company’s business can be adversely affected by the general environment – economic, corporate, securities market, regulatory, and geopolitical developments all play a role in client asset valuations, trading activity, interest rates and overall investor engagement, and are outside of the Company’s control. Deterioration in the housing and credit markets, reductions in short-term interest rates, and decreases in securities valuations negatively impact the Company’s net interest revenue, asset management and administration fees, and capital resources.

A significant decrease in the Company’s liquidity could negatively affect the Company’s business and financial management as well as reduce client confidence in the Company.

Maintaining adequate liquidity is crucial to the business operations of the Company, including margin lending, mortgage lending, and transaction settlement, among other liquidity needs. The Company meets its liquidity needs primarily through cash generated by client activity and operating earnings, as well as cash provided by external financing. Fluctuations in client cash or deposit balances, as well as changes in market conditions, may affect the Company’s ability to meet its liquidity needs. A reduction in the Company’s liquidity position could reduce client confidence in the Company, which could result in the loss of client accounts. In addition, if the Company’s broker-dealer or depository institution subsidiaries fail to meet regulatory capital guidelines, regulators could limit the subsidiaries’ operations or their ability to upstream funds to CSC, which could reduce CSC’s liquidity and adversely affect its ability to repay debt and pay cash dividends. In addition, CSC may need to provide additional funding to such subsidiaries.

Factors which may adversely affect the Company’s liquidity position include a reduction in cash held in banking or brokerage client accounts, a dramatic increase in the Company’s client lending activities (including margin and personal lending), unanticipated outflows of company cash, increased capital requirements, other regulatory changes or a loss of market or customer confidence in the Company. Schwab may also experience temporary liquidity demands due to timing differences between clients’ transaction settlements and the availability of segregated cash balances.

When cash generated by client activity and operating earnings is not sufficient for the Company’s liquidity needs, the Company must seek external financing. During periods of disruptions in the credit and capital markets, potential sources of external financing could be reduced, and borrowing costs could increase. Although CSC and Schwab maintain committed and uncommitted, unsecured bank credit lines and CSC has a commercial paper issuance program, as well as a universal shelf registration statement filed with the SEC, financing may not be available on acceptable terms or at all due to market conditions or disruptions in the credit markets. In addition, a significant downgrade in the Company’s credit ratings could increase its borrowing costs and limit its access to the capital markets.

 

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The Company may suffer significant losses from its credit exposures.

 

The Company’s businesses are subject to the risk that a client, counterparty or issuer will fail to perform its contractual obligations, or that the value of collateral held to secure obligations will prove to be inadequate. While the Company has policies and procedures designed to manage this risk, the policies and procedures may not be fully effective. The Company’s exposure mainly results from margin lending activities, securities lending activities, mortgage lending activities, its role as a counterparty in financial contracts and investing activities, and indirectly from the investing activities of certain of the proprietary funds that the Company sponsors.

 

When clients purchase securities on margin, the Company is subject to the risk that clients may default on their obligations when the value of the securities held as collateral falls below the amount of clients’ indebtedness. Abrupt changes in securities valuations and the failure of clients to meet margin calls could result in substantial losses.

 

The Company has exposure to credit risk associated with its securities available for sale and securities held to maturity portfolios, which include U.S. agency and non-agency mortgage-backed securities, consumer loan asset-backed securities, corporate debt securities, certificates of deposit, U.S. agency notes, and commercial paper among other investments. These instruments are also subject to price fluctuations as a result of changes in the financial market’s assessment of issuer credit quality, increases in the unemployment rate, delinquency and default rates, housing price declines, changes in prevailing interest rates and other economic factors.

 

Loss of value of securities available for sale and securities held to maturity can negatively affect earnings if management determines that such securities are other than temporarily impaired. The evaluation of whether other-than-temporary impairment exists is a matter of judgment, which includes the assessment of several factors. See “Item 7 – Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Critical Accounting Estimates.” If management determines that a security is other-than-temporarily impaired, the cost basis of the security may be adjusted and a corresponding loss may be recognized in current earnings. Certain securities available for sale experienced continued credit deterioration in 2012, which resulted in impairment charges. Deterioration in the performance of securities available for sale and securities held to maturity could result in the recognition of future impairment charges.

 

The Company’s loans to banking clients primarily consist of First Mortgages and HELOCs. Increases in delinquency and default rates, housing price declines, increases in the unemployment rate, and other economic factors can result in charges for loan loss reserves and write downs on such loans.

 

Heightened credit exposures to specific counterparties or instruments (concentration risk) can increase the Company’s risk of loss. Examples of the Company’s credit concentration risk include:

 

   

large positions in financial instruments collateralized by assets with similar economic characteristics or in securities of a single issuer or industry;

 

   

mortgage loans and HELOCs to banking clients which are secured by properties in the same geographic region; and

 

   

margin and securities lending activities collateralized by securities of a single issuer or industry.

 

The Company may also be subject to concentration risk when lending to a particular counterparty, borrower or issuer.

 

The Company sponsors a number of proprietary money market mutual funds and other proprietary funds. Although the Company has no obligation to do so, the Company may decide for competitive or other reasons to provide credit, liquidity or other support to its funds in the event of significant declines in valuation of fund holdings or significant redemption activity that exceeds available liquidity. Such support could cause the Company to take significant charges, could reduce the Company’s liquidity and, in certain situations, could, with respect to proprietary funds other than money market mutual funds, result in the Company having to consolidate a supported fund in its financial statements. If the Company chose not to provide credit, liquidity or other support in such a situation, the Company could suffer reputational damage and its business could be adversely affected.

 

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Significant interest rate changes could affect the Company’s profitability and financial condition.

 

The Company is exposed to interest rate risk primarily from changes in the interest rates on its interest-earning assets (such as cash equivalents, short- and long-term investments, and mortgage and margin loans) relative to changes in the costs of its funding sources (including deposits in banking and brokerage accounts, short-term borrowings, and long-term debt). Changes in interest rates generally affect the interest earned on interest-earning assets differently than the interest the Company pays on its interest-bearing liabilities. In addition, certain funding sources do not bear interest and their cost therefore does not vary. Overall, the Company is positioned to benefit from a rising interest rate environment; the Company could be adversely affected by a decline in interest rates if the rates that the Company earns on interest-earning assets decline more than the rates that the Company pays on its funding sources, or if prepayment rates increase on the mortgages and mortgage-backed securities that the Company holds. With the low interest rate environment, the Company’s yield on interest-earning assets has been declining more than the average rate that the Company pays on its funding sources. The Company may also be limited in the amount it can reduce interest rates on deposit accounts and still offer a competitive return.

 

To the extent the overall yield on certain Schwab-sponsored money market mutual funds falls to a level at or below the management fees on those funds, the Company may waive a portion of its fee in order to continue providing some return to clients. As a result of the low interest rate environment, the Company has been waiving and may continue to waive a portion of its management fees for certain Schwab-sponsored money market mutual funds. Such fee waivers negatively impact the Company’s asset management and administration fees.

 

The Company is subject to litigation and regulatory investigations and proceedings and may not be successful in defending itself against claims or proceedings.

 

The financial services industry faces substantial litigation and regulatory risks. The Company is subject to claims and lawsuits in the ordinary course of business, including arbitrations, class actions and other litigation, some of which include claims for substantial or unspecified damages. The Company is also the subject of inquiries, investigations, and proceedings by regulatory and other governmental agencies.

 

Litigation and arbitration claims include those brought by the Company’s clients and the clients of third party advisors whose assets are custodied at the Company. Claims from clients of third party advisors may allege losses due to investment decisions made by the third party advisors or the advisors’ misconduct. Litigation claims also include claims from third parties alleging infringement of their intellectual property rights (e.g., patents). Such litigation can require the expenditure of significant Company resources. If the Company were found to have infringed a third-party patent, or other intellectual property rights, it could incur substantial damages, and in some circumstances could be enjoined from using certain technology, or providing certain products or services.

 

Actions brought against the Company may result in settlements, awards, injunctions, fines, penalties or other results adverse to the Company including reputational harm. Even if the Company is successful in defending against these actions, the defense of such matters may result in the Company incurring significant expenses. Predicting the outcome of matters is inherently difficult, particularly where claims are brought on behalf of various classes of claimants, claimants seek substantial or unspecified damages, or when investigations or legal proceedings are at an early stage. A substantial judgment, settlement, fine, or penalty could be material to the Company’s operating results or cash flows for a particular future period, depending on the Company’s results for that period. In market downturns, the volume of legal claims and amount of damages sought in litigation and regulatory proceedings against financial services companies have historically increased. See “Item 8 – Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – 15. Commitments and Contingencies.”

 

Extensive regulation of the Company’s businesses limits the Company’s activities and may subject it to significant penalties.

 

As a participant in the securities, banking and financial services industries, the Company is subject to extensive regulation under both federal and state laws by governmental agencies, supervisory authorities, and SROs. Such regulation becomes more extensive and complex in response to market disruptions. The requirements imposed by the Company’s regulators are designed to ensure the integrity of the financial markets, the safety and soundness of financial institutions, and the protection of clients. These regulations often serve to limit the Company’s activities by way of capital, customer protection and market

 

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conduct requirements, and restrictions on the businesses activities that the Company may conduct. Despite the Company’s efforts to comply with applicable regulations, there are a number of risks, particularly in areas where applicable regulations may be unclear or where regulators revise their previous guidance. Any enforcement actions or other proceedings brought by the Company’s regulators against the Company or its affiliates, officers or employees could result in fines, penalties, cease and desist orders, enforcement actions, suspension or expulsion, or other disciplinary sanctions, including limitations on the Company’s business activities, any of which could harm the Company’s reputation and adversely affect the Company’s results of operations and financial condition.

 

Legislation or changes in rules and regulations could negatively impact the Company’s business and financial results.

 

New legislation, rule changes, or changes in the interpretation or enforcement of existing federal, state and SRO rules and regulations, including changes relating to money market mutual funds, broker-dealer fiduciary duties and mortgage products and services, may directly affect the operation and profitability of the Company or its specific business lines. The profitability of the Company could also be affected by rules and regulations which impact the business and financial communities generally, including changes to the laws governing taxation, electronic commerce, client privacy and security of client data. In addition, the rules and regulations could result in limitations on the lines of business the Company conducts, modifications to the Company’s business practices, increased capital requirements, or additional costs.

 

Financial reforms and related regulations may affect the Company’s business activities, financial position and profitability.

 

The Dodd-Frank Act was signed into law in July 2010 and implementation is ongoing. This legislation makes extensive changes to the laws regulating financial services firms and significant rule-making and interpretation remains. In addition, the legislation mandates multiple studies, which could result in additional legislative or regulatory action. Among other things, the legislation authorizes various assessments and fees and requires the establishment of minimum leverage and risk-based capital requirements for insured depository institutions, and requires the SEC to complete studies and develop rules regarding various investor protection issues. The legislation also charges the Federal Reserve with drafting enhanced regulatory requirements for non-bank financial institutions designated as “systemically important.” CSC has not been designated as “systemically important,” but could be designated in the future. The legislation also eliminated the Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS) effective July 21, 2011 and, as a result, the Federal Reserve became CSC’s primary regulator and the OCC became the primary regulator of Schwab Bank. CSC is continuing to review the impact the legislation, studies and related rule-making will have on the Company’s business, financial condition, and results of operations.

 

In 2012, the Federal Reserve issued notices of proposed rulemaking (NPRs) to meet certain requirements of the Dodd-Frank Act and to align current capital rules with the BASEL III capital standards. The NPRs would subject all savings and loan holding companies, including CSC, to consolidated capital requirements. In addition, the NPRs would establish more restrictive capital definitions, higher risk-weightings for certain asset classes, higher minimum capital ratios and capital buffers. The Company expects the capital standard rules to be phased in under an extended timeframe after adoption. The comment period for the NPRs ended on October 22, 2012 and the NPRs are subject to further modification. CSC continues to monitor developments in order to assess the impact of the NPRs but does not expect them to have a material impact on the Company’s business, financial condition, and results of operations.

 

The legislation also established a new independent Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, which has broad rulemaking, supervisory and enforcement authority over consumer products, including mortgages, home-equity loans and credit cards. States will be permitted to adopt stricter consumer protection laws and state attorney generals can enforce consumer protection rules issued by the Bureau. These rules may negatively impact the range of products offered and profitability of our loan products.

 

The legislation gives the SEC discretion to adopt rules regarding standards of conduct for broker-dealers providing investment advice to retail customers. The various studies required by the legislation could result in additional rulemaking or legislative action, which could impact the Company’s business and financial results.

 

The changes resulting from the legislation may impact the profitability of the Company’s business activities, require changes to certain of its business practices, impose upon the Company more stringent capital, liquidity and leverage ratio requirements

 

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or otherwise adversely affect the Company’s business. These changes may also require the Company to invest significant management attention and resources to evaluate and make necessary changes.

 

Technology and operational failures or errors could subject the Company to losses, litigation, and regulatory actions.

 

The Company faces operational risk, which is the potential for loss due to inadequate or failed internal processes, systems, and firms or exchanges handling client orders, or from external events and relationships impacting the Company and/or any of its key business partners and vendors. This risk also includes the risk of human error, execution errors, employee misconduct, unauthorized trading, external fraud, computer viruses, distributed denial of service attacks, terrorist attacks, natural disaster, capacity constraints and software flaws. It could take several hours or more to restore full functionality to the Company’s technology or other operating systems in the event of an unforeseen event which could affect the Company’s ability to process and settle client transactions. Moreover, instances of fraud or other misconduct, including improper use or disclosure of confidential client, employee, or company information, might also negatively impact the Company’s reputation and client confidence in the Company, in addition to any direct losses that might result from such instances. Despite the Company’s efforts to identify areas of risk, oversee operational areas involving risk, and implement policies and procedures designed to manage these risks, there can be no assurance that the Company will not suffer unexpected losses, reputational damage or regulatory action due to technology or other operational failures or errors, including those of its vendors or other third parties.

 

While the Company devotes substantial attention and resources to the reliability, capacity and scalability of its systems, extraordinary trading volumes could cause the Company’s computer systems to operate at unacceptably slow speeds or even fail, affecting the Company’s ability to process client transactions and potentially resulting in some clients’ orders being executed at prices they did not anticipate. Disruptions in service and slower system response times could result in substantial losses and decreased client satisfaction. The Company is also dependent on the integrity and performance of securities exchanges, clearing houses and other intermediaries to which client orders are routed for execution and settlement. Systems failures and constraints and transaction error at such intermediaries could result in delays and erroneous or unanticipated execution prices, cause substantial losses for the Company and for its clients, and subject the Company to claims from its clients for damages.

 

The Company relies on outsourced service providers to perform key functions.

 

The Company relies on external service providers to perform certain key technology, processing, servicing, and support functions. These service providers face technology, operating, business, and economic risks, and any significant failures by them, including the improper use or disclosure of the Company’s confidential client, employee, or company information, could cause the Company to incur losses and could harm the Company’s reputation. An interruption in or the cessation of service by any external service provider as a result of systems failures, capacity constraints, financial difficulties or for any other reason, and the Company’s inability to make alternative arrangements in a timely manner could disrupt the Company’s operations, impact the Company’s ability to offer certain products and services, and result in financial losses to the Company. Switching to an alternative service provider may require a transition period and result in less efficient operations.

 

Security breaches of the Company’s systems, or those of its clients or third parties, may subject the Company to significant liability and damage the Company’s reputation.

 

The Company’s business involves the secure processing, storage and transmission of confidential information about the Company and its clients. Information security risks for financial institutions are increasing, in part because of the use of the internet and mobile technologies to conduct financial transactions, and the increased sophistication and activities of organized crime, activists, hackers and other external parties. The Company’s systems and those of other financial institutions have been and are likely to continue to be the target of cyber attacks, malicious code, computer viruses and denial of service attacks that could result in unauthorized access, misuse, loss or destruction of data (including confidential customer information), account takeovers, unavailability of service or other events. Despite the Company’s efforts to ensure the integrity of its systems, the Company may not be able to anticipate or to implement effective preventive measures against all security breaches of these types, especially because the techniques used change frequently or are not recognized until launched, and because security attacks can originate from a wide variety of sources. Data security breaches may also result from non-technical means, for example, actions by a suborned employee.

 

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Security breaches, including breaches of the Company’s security measures or those of the Company’s third-party service providers or clients, could result in a violation of applicable privacy and other laws and could subject the Company to significant liability or loss that may not be covered by insurance, actions by the Company’s regulators, damage to the Company’s reputation, or a loss of confidence in the Company’s security measures which could harm the Company’s business. The Company may be required to expend significant additional resources to modify its protective measures or to investigate and remediate vulnerabilities or other exposures.

 

The Company also faces risk related to external fraud involving the compromise of clients’ personal electronic devices that can facilitate the unauthorized access to login and password information for their various online financial accounts, including those at the Company. Such risk has grown in recent years due to the increased sophistication and activities of organized crime and other external parties. For example, these parties send fraudulent “phishing” emails to the Company’s clients in order to misappropriate user names, passwords or other personal information. Losses reimbursed to clients under the Company’s guarantee against unauthorized account activity could have a negative impact on the Company’s business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Potential strategic transactions could have a negative impact on the Company’s financial position.

 

The Company evaluates potential strategic transactions, including business combinations, acquisitions, and dispositions. Any such transaction could have a material impact on the Company’s financial position, results of operations, or cash flows. The process of evaluating, negotiating, and effecting any such strategic transaction may divert management’s attention from other business concerns, and might cause the loss of key clients, employees, and business partners. Moreover, integrating businesses and systems may result in unforeseen expenditures as well as numerous risks and uncertainties, including the need to integrate operational, financial, and management information systems and management controls, integrate relationships with clients and business partners, and manage facilities and employees in different geographic areas. In addition, an acquisition may cause the Company to assume liabilities or become subject to litigation. Further, the Company may not realize the anticipated benefits from an acquisition, and any future acquisition could be dilutive to the Company’s current stockholders’ percentage ownership or to earnings per common share.

 

The Company’s acquisitions and dispositions are typically subject to closing conditions, including regulatory approvals and the absence of material adverse changes in the business, operations or financial condition of the entity being acquired or sold. To the extent the Company enters into an agreement to buy or sell an entity, there can be no guarantee that the transaction will close when expected, or at all. If a material transaction does not close, the Company’s stock price could decline.

 

The Company’s industry is characterized by aggressive price competition.

 

The Company continually monitors its pricing in relation to competitors and periodically adjusts trade commission rates, interest rates on deposits and loans, fees for advisory services, and other fee structures to enhance its competitive position. Increased price competition from other financial services firms, such as reduced commissions to attract trading volume or higher deposit rates to attract client cash balances, could impact the Company’s results of operations and financial condition.

 

The industry in which the Company competes has undergone a period of consolidation.

 

The Company faces intense competition for the clients that it serves and the products and services it offers. There has been significant consolidation as financial institutions with which the Company competes have been acquired by or merged into or acquired other firms. This consolidation may continue. Competition is based on many factors, including the range of products and services offered, pricing, customer service, brand recognition, reputation, and perceived financial strength. Consolidations may enable other firms to offer a broader range of products and services than the Company does, or offer such products at more competitive prices.

 

The Company faces competition in hiring and retaining qualified employees, especially for employees who are key to the Company’s ability to build and enhance client relationships.

 

The market for quality professionals and other personnel in the Company’s business is highly competitive. Competition is particularly strong for financial consultants who build and sustain the Company’s client relationships. The Company’s ability

 

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to continue to compete effectively will depend upon its ability to attract new employees and retain existing employees while managing compensation costs.

 

The Company’s stock price has fluctuated historically, and may continue to fluctuate.

 

The Company’s stock price can be volatile. Among the factors that may affect the volatility of the Company’s stock price are the following:

 

   

speculation in the investment community or the press about, or actual changes in, the Company’s competitive position, organizational structure, executive team, operations, financial condition, financial reporting and results, effectiveness of cost reduction initiatives, or strategic transactions;

 

   

the announcement of new products, services, acquisitions, or dispositions by the Company or its competitors;

 

   

increases or decreases in revenue or earnings, changes in earnings estimates by the investment community, and variations between estimated financial results and actual financial results.

 

Changes in the stock market generally or as it concerns the Company’s industry, as well as geopolitical, economic, and business factors unrelated to the Company, may also affect the Company’s stock price.

 

Future sales of CSC’s equity securities may adversely affect the market price of CSC’s common stock and result in dilution.

 

CSC’s certificate of incorporation authorizes CSC’s Board of Directors to, among other things, issue additional shares of common or preferred stock or securities convertible or exchangeable into equity securities, without stockholder approval. CSC may issue additional equity or convertible securities to raise additional capital or for other purposes. The issuance of any additional equity or convertible securities could be substantially dilutive to holders of CSC’s common stock and may adversely affect the market price of CSC’s common stock.

 

Item 1B. Unresolved Securities and Exchange Commission Staff Comments

 

None.

 

Item 2. Properties

 

A summary of the Company’s significant locations at December 31, 2012, is presented in the following table. Locations are leased or owned as noted below. The square footage amounts are presented net of space that has been subleased to third parties.

 

    

Square Footage

(amounts in thousands)   

Leased

  

Owned

Location    

     

Corporate office space:

     

San Francisco, CA (1)

   779   

Service centers:

     

Phoenix, AZ (2)

   47    709

Denver, CO

   383   

Indianapolis, IN

      274

Austin, TX

   252   

Orlando, FL

   148   

Richfield, OH

      117

 

(1) 

Includes the Company’s headquarters.

 

(2) 

Includes two data centers.

 

Substantially all of the Company’s branch offices are located in leased premises. The corporate headquarters, data centers, offices, and service centers support both of the Company’s segments.

 

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Item 3. Legal Proceedings

 

For a discussion of legal proceedings, see “Item 8 – Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – 15. Commitments and Contingencies.”

 

PART II

 

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

 

Not applicable.

 

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

CSC’s common stock is listed on The New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol SCHW. The number of common stockholders of record as of January 31, 2013, was 7,585. The closing market price per share on that date was $16.53.

 

The quarterly high and low sales prices for CSC’s common stock and the other information required to be furnished pursuant to this item are included in “Item 8 – Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – 28. Quarterly Financial Information (Unaudited) and 20. Employee Incentive, Retirement, and Deferred Compensation Plans.”

 

The following graph shows a five-year comparison of cumulative total returns for CSC’s common stock, the Dow Jones U.S. Investment Services Index, and the Standard & Poor’s 500 Index, each of which assumes an initial investment of $100 and reinvestment of dividends.

 

LOGO

 

December 31,

   2007      2008      2009      2010      2011      2012  

The Charles Schwab Corporation

   $     100       $       64       $       76       $       70       $       47       $ 61   

Dow Jones U.S. Investment Services Index

   $     100       $       33       $       52       $       54       $       35       $ 45   

Standard & Poor’s 500 Index

   $     100       $       63       $       80       $       92       $       94       $     109   

 

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Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

The following table summarizes purchases made by or on behalf of CSC of its common stock for each calendar month in the fourth quarter of 2012:

 

Month

   Total Number
of Shares
Purchased
   (in thousands)     
                Average            
       Price Paid       
      per Share     
     Total Number of
Shares  Purchased
as Part of Publicly
Announced
Program (1)

     (in thousands)    
     Approximate
Dollar Value of
Shares that May
Yet be  Purchased
under the Program 
(in millions)
 

October:

           

Share Repurchase Program (1)

           $               $ 596   

Employee transactions (2)

     59       $ 12.89         N/A         N/A   

November:

           

Share Repurchase Program (1)

           $               $ 596   

Employee transactions (2)

     752       $ 13.62         N/A         N/A   

December:

           

Share Repurchase Program (1)

           $               $ 596   

Employee transactions (2)

     10       $ 13.36         N/A         N/A   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total:

           

Share Repurchase Program (1)

           $               $ 596   

Employee transactions (2)

     821       $ 13.57         N/A         N/A   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

N/A Not applicable.

 

(1) 

There were no share repurchases under the Share Repurchase Program during the fourth quarter. Repurchases under this program would occur under two authorizations by CSC’s Board of Directors, each covering up to $500 million of common stock that were publicly announced by the Company on April 25, 2007, and March 13, 2008. The remaining authorizations do not have an expiration date.

 

(2) 

Includes restricted shares withheld (under the terms of grants under employee stock incentive plans) to offset tax withholding obligations that occur upon vesting and release of restricted shares. The Company may receive shares delivered or attested to pay the exercise price and/or to satisfy tax withholding obligations by employees who exercise stock options (granted under employee stock incentive plans), which are commonly referred to as stock swap exercises.

 

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Item 6. Selected Financial Data

Selected Financial and Operating Data

(In Millions, Except Per Share Amounts, Ratios, or as Noted)

 

    Growth Rates                                
    Compounded     Annual                                
    4-Year (1)
2008-2012
    1-Year
2011-2012
    2012     2011     2010     2009     2008  

Results of Operations

             

Net revenues

    (1 %)      4   $     4,883      $     4,691      $     4,248      $     4,193      $     5,150   

Expenses excluding interest

    2     4   $ 3,433      $ 3,299      $ 3,469      $ 2,917      $ 3,122   

Income from continuing operations

    (7 %)      7   $ 928      $ 864      $ 454      $ 787      $ 1,230   

Net income

    (6 %)      7   $ 928      $ 864      $ 454      $ 787      $ 1,212   

Net income available to common stockholders

    (8 %)      2   $ 883      $ 864      $ 454      $ 787      $ 1,212   

Income from continuing operations per common share — basic

    (10 %)      (1 %)    $ .69      $ .70      $ .38      $ .68      $ 1.07   

Income from continuing operations per common share — diluted

    (10 %)      (1 %)    $ .69      $ .70      $ .38      $ .68      $ 1.06   

Basic earnings per common share (2)

    (10 %)      (1 %)    $ .69      $ .70      $ .38      $ .68      $ 1.06   

Diluted earnings per common share (2)

    (10 %)      (1 %)    $ .69      $ .70      $ .38      $ .68      $ 1.05   

Dividends declared per common share

    2          $ .24      $ .24      $ .24      $ .24      $ .22   

Weighted-average common shares outstanding — diluted

    2     4     1,275        1,229        1,194        1,160        1,157   

Asset management and administration fees as a percentage of net revenues

        42     41     43     45     46

Net interest revenue as a percentage of net revenues

        36     37     36     30     33

Trading revenue as a percentage of net revenues (3)

        18     20     20     24     21

Effective income tax rate

        36.0     37.9     41.7     38.3     39.3

Capital expenditures — purchases of equipment, office facilities, and property, net

    (8 %)      (27 %)    $ 138      $ 190      $ 127      $ 139      $ 194   

Capital expenditures, net, as a percentage of net revenues

        3     4     3     3     4

Performance Measures

             

Net revenue growth (decline)

        4     10     1     (19 %)      3

Pre-tax profit margin

        29.7     29.7     18.3     30.4     39.4

Return on average common stockholders’ equity (4)

        11     12     8     17     31

Financial Condition (at year end)

             

Total assets

    27     23   $   133,617      $   108,553      $ 92,568      $ 75,431      $ 51,675   

Long-term debt

    17     (18 %)    $ 1,632      $ 2,001      $ 2,006      $ 1,512      $ 883   

Stockholders’ equity (5)

    24     24   $ 9,589      $ 7,714      $ 6,226      $ 5,073      $ 4,061   

Assets to stockholders’ equity ratio

        14        14        15        15        13   

Long-term debt to total financial capital (long-term debt plus stockholders’ equity)

        15     21     24     23     18

Employee Information

             

Full-time equivalent employees (at year end, in thousands)

    1     (2 %)      13.8        14.1        12.8        12.4        13.4   

Net revenues per average full-time equivalent employee (in thousands)

    (2 %)      1   $ 354      $ 350      $ 337      $ 338      $ 383   

 

Note: Information is presented on a continuing operations basis unless otherwise noted.

 

(1) 

The compounded 4-year growth rate is computed using the following formula: Compound annual growth rate = (Ending Value / Beginning Value) .25 - 1

 

(2)

Both basic and diluted earnings per common share in 2008 include discontinued operations.

 

(3)

Trading revenue includes commission and principal transaction revenues.

 

(4)

Return on average common stockholders’ equity is calculated using net income available to common stockholders divided by average common stockholders’ equity.

 

(5)

In 2012, the Company issued non-cumulative perpetual preferred stock, Series B, for a total liquidation preference of $485 million and non-cumulative perpetual preferred stock, Series A, with a total liquidation preference of $400 million.

 

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Table of Contents

THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

(Tabular Amounts in Millions, Except Ratios, or as Noted)

 

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

OVERVIEW

 

Management of the Company focuses on several key client activity and financial metrics in evaluating the Company’s financial position and operating performance. Results for the years ended December 31, 2012, 2011, and 2010 are:

 

Year Ended December 31,

   Growth Rate
1-Year
2011-2012
    2012     2011     2010  

Client Activity Metrics:

        

Net new client assets (1) (in billions)

     (4 %)    $ 139.7      $ 145.9      $ 26.6   

Client assets (in billions, at year end)

     16   $     1,951.6      $     1,677.7      $     1,574.5   

New brokerage accounts (2) (in thousands)

     (21 %)      900        1,138        829   

Active brokerage accounts (3) (in thousands, at year end)

     3     8,787        8,552        7,998   

Company Financial Metrics:

        

Net revenues

     4   $ 4,883      $ 4,691      $ 4,248   

Expenses excluding interest

     4     3,433        3,299        3,469   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Income before taxes on income

     4     1,450        1,392        779   

Taxes on income

     (1 %)      522        528        325   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net income

     7   $ 928      $ 864      $ 454   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net income available to common stockholders

     2   $ 883      $ 864      $ 454   

Earnings per common share – diluted

     (1 %)    $ .69      $ .70      $ .38   

Net revenue growth from prior year

       4     10     1

Pre-tax profit margin

       29.7     29.7     18.3

Return on common stockholders’ equity (4)

       11     12     8

Net revenue per average full-time equivalent employee (in thousands)

     1   $ 354      $ 350      $ 337   

 

 

(1) 

2012 includes inflows of $27.7 billion from mutual fund clearing services clients and $900 million from the acquisition of ThomasPartners, Inc., and outflows of $1.3 billion from the closure and/or sale of certain subsidiaries of optionsXpress Holdings, Inc. 2011 includes inflows of $56.1 billion from a mutual fund clearing services client and $7.5 billion from the acquisition of optionsXpress. 2010 includes net outflows of $51.5 billion related to the planned deconversion of a mutual fund clearing services client.

 

(2) 

2011 includes 315,000 new brokerage accounts from the acquisition of optionsXpress Holdings, Inc.

 

(3) 

2012 includes the removal of approximately 19,000 accounts as a result of the sale of certain subsidiaries of optionsXpress and 30,000 accounts due to escheatment and other factors.

 

(4) 

Calculated as net income available to common stockholders divided by common stockholders’ equity.

 

   

Net new client assets is defined as the total inflows of client cash and securities to the firm less client outflows. Management believes that this metric depicts how well the Company’s products and services appeal to new and existing clients in a given operating environment. Core net new client assets is defined as net new client assets before significant one-time flows.

 

   

Client assets is the market value of all client assets custodied at the Company. Management considers client assets to be indicative of the Company’s appeal in the marketplace. Additionally, fluctuations in certain components of client assets (e.g., Mutual Fund OneSource funds) directly impact asset management and administration fees.

 

   

New brokerage accounts include all brokerage accounts opened during the period, as well as any accounts added via acquisition. This metric measures the Company’s effectiveness in attracting new clients and building stronger relationships with existing clients.

 

   

Active brokerage accounts include accounts with balances or activity within the preceding eight months. This metric is an indicator of the Company’s success in both attracting and retaining clients.

 

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Table of Contents

THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

(Tabular Amounts in Millions, Except Ratios, or as Noted)

 

   

Management believes that earnings per common share, net revenue growth, pre-tax profit margin, and return on common stockholders’ equity provide broad indicators of the Company’s overall financial health, operating efficiency, and ability to generate acceptable returns within the context of a given operating environment.

 

   

Net revenue per average full-time equivalent employee is considered by management to be the Company’s broadest measure of productivity.

 

The Company’s major sources of net revenues are asset management and administration fees, net interest revenue, and trading revenue. The Company generates asset management and administration fees through its proprietary and third-party mutual fund offerings, as well as fee-based advisory solutions. Net interest revenue is the difference between interest earned on interest-earning assets and interest paid on funding sources. Asset management and administration fees and net interest revenue are impacted by securities valuations, interest rates, the amount and mix of interest-earning assets and interest-bearing funding sources, the Company’s ability to attract new clients, and client activity levels. The Company generates trading revenue through commissions earned for executing trades for clients and principal transaction revenue primarily from trading activity in client fixed income securities. Trading revenue is impacted by trading volumes, the volatility of prices in the equity and fixed income markets, and commission rates.

 

2012 Compared to 2011

 

The broad equity markets improved during 2012 compared to 2011, as the Nasdaq Composite Index, Standard & Poor’s 500 Index, and Dow Jones Industrial Average increased 16%, 13%, and 7%, respectively. While the federal funds target rate remained unchanged at a range of zero to 0.25%, the average three-month Treasury Bill yield increased by 4 basis points to 0.08% during 2012 compared to 2011. At the same time, the average 10-year Treasury yield decreased by 98 basis points to 1.78%.

 

Despite continuing economic and interest rate challenges during the year, the Company’s sustained client focus helped deliver strong key client activity metrics in 2012. While net new client assets decreased slightly by 4% to $139.7 billion in 2012, core net new client assets totaled $112.4 billion, up 37% from $82.3 billion in 2011. Total client assets ended the year at a record $1.95 trillion, up 16% from 2011. In addition, the Company added 900,000 new brokerage accounts to its client base during 2012, and active brokerage accounts reached a record 8.8 million, up 3% from 2011.

 

Net revenues increased by 4% in 2012 from 2011 primarily due to increases in asset management and administration fees, net interest revenue, and other revenue – net, partially offset by a decrease in trading revenue. Asset management and administration fees increased primarily due to increases in advice solutions fees and other asset management and administration fees. Net interest revenue increased primarily due to higher average balances of interest-earning assets, partially offset by the effect of low overall interest rates and higher amortization of premiums relating to mortgage-backed securities. Other revenue – net increased primarily due to a pre-tax gain of $70 million relating to a confidential resolution of a vendor dispute in the second quarter of 2012. Trading revenue decreased primarily due to lower daily average revenue trades, partially offset by the inclusion of optionsXpress’ trading activity from its acquisition in September 2011.

 

Expenses excluding interest were higher by 4% in 2012 compared to 2011 primarily due to the inclusion of a full year of optionsXpress’ expenses. Taxes on income in 2012 include a non-recurring state tax benefit of $20 million recorded in the third quarter of 2012. Overall, growth in the Company’s client base and ongoing expense discipline helped the Company increase net income by 7% in 2012 from 2011, and achieve a pre-tax profit margin of 29.7% and return on common stockholders’ equity of 11% in 2012.

 

2011 Compared to 2010

 

Economic and market conditions were challenging throughout 2011, marked by volatility in the equity markets, lower market valuations, and further declines in interest rates. The Standard & Poor’s 500 Index, Nasdaq Composite Index, and Dow Jones Industrial Average decreased on average 6%, 5%, and 4%, respectively, between the first and second halves of the year. The federal funds target rate remained unchanged during the year at a range of zero to 0.25% and the average three-month Treasury Bill and average 10-year Treasury yields declined by 8 and 43 basis points to 0.04% and 2.76%, respectively.

 

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Table of Contents

THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

(Tabular Amounts in Millions, Except Ratios, or as Noted)

 

The Company’s key client activity metrics in 2011 were stable in the midst of a weakened economic and market environment. Net new client assets totaled $145.9 billion in 2011. Core net new client assets totaled $82.3 billion in 2011, up 5% from $78.1 billion in 2010. Total client assets ended the year at $1.68 trillion, up 7% from 2010. In addition, the Company added 1.1 million new brokerage accounts to its client base during 2011 and ended the year serving 8.6 million active brokerage accounts.

Net revenues increased by 10% in 2011 from 2010 due to increases in all of the Company’s major sources of net revenues. Asset management and administration fees increased primarily due to an increase in advice solutions fees and continued asset inflows, partially offset by a decrease in net money market mutual fund fees. Net interest revenue increased primarily due to higher average balances of interest-earning assets during the year, partially offset by the effect of lower interest rate spreads resulting from higher amortization of premiums relating to residential mortgage-backed securities caused by higher mortgage prepayments in 2011. Trading revenue increased primarily due to higher daily average revenue trades and the addition of optionsXpress’ trading activity.

While total expenses excluding interest were lower by 5% in 2011 compared to 2010, the Company experienced increases in compensation and benefits, professional services, occupancy and equipment, and advertising and market development expenses in aggregate of $266 million in 2011 compared to 2010. Significant charges in 2010 included class action litigation and regulatory reserves relating to the Schwab YieldPlus Fund®, losses recognized for Schwab money market mutual funds, and a charge relating to the termination of the Company’s Invest First® and WorldPoints(a) Visa(b) credit card program for a total of $482 million.

As a result of the Company’s ongoing investment in clients and sustained expense discipline, the Company achieved a pre-tax profit margin of 29.7% and return on common stockholders’ equity of 12% in 2011.

CURRENT MARKET AND REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT AND OTHER DEVELOPMENTS

As discussed above, interest rates remained at low levels during 2012. To the extent rates remain at these low levels, the Company’s net interest revenue will continue to be constrained, even as growth in average balances helps to increase such revenue. The low interest rate environment also affects asset management and administration fees. While net money market mutual fund fees improved in 2012 from 2011 primarily due to sustained improvement in short-term interest rates, the overall yields on certain Schwab-sponsored money market mutual funds have remained at levels at or below the management fees on those funds. The Company continues to waive a portion of its management fees so that the funds can maintain a positive return to clients. These and other money market mutual funds may not be able to replace maturing securities with securities of equal or higher yields. As a result, the yields on such funds may remain around or decline from their current levels, and therefore below the management fees on those funds. To the extent this occurs, asset management and administration fees may be negatively affected.

The Company recorded net impairment losses of $32 million related to certain non-agency residential mortgage-backed securities in 2012 primarily due to further credit deterioration of the securities’ underlying loans. Further deterioration in the performance of the underlying loans in the Company’s non-agency residential mortgage-backed securities portfolio could result in the recognition of additional impairment losses.

The Dodd-Frank Act was signed into law in July 2010. Among other things, the legislation transferred the supervision and regulation of CSC from the OTS to the Federal Reserve and supervision and regulation of Schwab Bank from the OTS to the OCC; both transfers were effective July 21, 2011. In 2012, the Federal Reserve issued notices of proposed rulemaking (NPRs) to meet certain requirements of the Dodd-Frank Act and to align current capital rules with the BASEL III capital standards. The NPRs would subject all savings and loan holding companies, including CSC, to consolidated capital requirements. In

 

 

(a)  WorldPoints is a registered trademark of FIA Card Services, N.A.
(b)  Visa is a registered trademark of Visa International Service Association.

 

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Table of Contents

THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

(Tabular Amounts in Millions, Except Ratios, or as Noted)

 

addition, the NPRs would establish more restrictive capital definitions, higher risk-weightings for certain asset classes, higher minimum capital ratios, and capital buffers. The Company expects the capital standard rules to be phased in under an extended time frame after adoption. The comment period for the NPRs ended on October 22, 2012, and the NPRs are subject to further modification. CSC continues to monitor developments in order to assess the impact of the NPRs but does not expect them to have a material impact on the Company’s business, financial condition, and results of operations.

 

The Company is pursuing lawsuits in state court in San Francisco for rescission and damages against issuers, underwriters, and dealers of individual non-agency residential mortgage-backed securities on which the Company has experienced realized and unrealized losses. The lawsuits allege that offering documents for the securities contained material untrue and misleading statements about the securities and the underwriting standards and credit quality of the underlying loans. On January 27, 2012, and July 24, 2012, the court denied defendants’ motions to dismiss the claims with respect to all but 3 of the 51 securities, and discovery is proceeding.

 

RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

The following discussion presents an analysis of the Company’s results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2012, 2011, and 2010.

 

Net Revenues

 

The Company’s major sources of net revenues are asset management and administration fees, net interest revenue, and trading revenue. Asset management and administration fees and net interest revenue increased, while trading revenue decreased in 2012 as compared to 2011. Asset management and administration fees, net interest revenue, and trading revenue all increased in 2011 as compared to 2010.

 

Year Ended December 31,          2012     2011     2010  
     Growth Rate
2011-2012
    Amount     % of
Total Net
Revenues
    Amount     % of
Total Net
Revenues
    Amount     % of
Total Net
Revenues
 

Asset management and administration fees

              

Schwab money market funds before fee waivers

     3   $        891        $        865        $ 865     

Fee waivers

     3     (587       (568       (433  
  

 

 

   

 

 

     

 

 

     

 

 

   

Schwab money market funds after fee waivers

     2     304                      6     297        6     432                      10

Equity and bond funds

     6     125        3     118        3     114        3

Mutual Fund OneSource®

            680        14     680        14     608        14
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total mutual funds

     1     1,109        23     1,095        23     1,154        27

Advice solutions

     11     580        12     522        11     384        9

Other

     14     354        7     311        7     284        7
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Asset management and administration fees

     6     2,043        42     1,928                      41            1,822        43
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net interest revenue

              

Interest revenue

     1     1,914        39     1,900        41     1,723        41

Interest expense

     (14 %)      (150     (3 %)      (175     (4 %)      (199     (5 %) 
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net interest revenue

     2     1,764        36     1,725        37     1,524        36
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Trading revenue

              

Commissions

     (6 %)      816        17     866        19     770        18

Principal transactions

     (15 %)      52        1     61        1     60        2
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Trading revenue

     (6 %)      868        18     927        20     830        20
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Other – net

     60     256        5     160        3     135        3

Provision for loan losses

     (11 %)      (16            (18            (27     (1 %) 

Net impairment losses on securities

     3     (32     (1 %)      (31     (1 %)      (36     (1 %) 
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total net revenues

     4   $ 4,883        100   $ 4,691        100   $ 4,248        100
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

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Table of Contents

THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

(Tabular Amounts in Millions, Except Ratios, or as Noted)

 

Asset Management and Administration Fees

Asset management and administration fees include mutual fund service fees and fees for other asset-based financial services provided to individual and institutional clients. The Company earns mutual fund service fees for shareholder services, administration, and investment management provided to its proprietary funds, and recordkeeping and shareholder services provided to third-party funds. These fees are based upon the daily balances of client assets invested in these funds. The Company also earns asset management fees for advice solutions, which include advisory and managed account services that are based on the daily balances of client assets subject to the specific fee for service. The fair values of client assets included in proprietary and third-party mutual funds are based on quoted market prices and other observable market data. Other asset management and administration fees include various asset based fees, such as third-party mutual fund service fees, trust fees, 401k record keeping fees, and mutual fund clearing and other service fees. Asset management and administration fees may vary with changes in the balances of client assets due to market fluctuations and client activity. For discussion of the impact of current market conditions on asset management and administration fees, see “Current Market and Regulatory Environment and Other Developments.”

Asset management and administration fees increased by $115 million, or 6%, in 2012 from 2011 primarily due to increases in advice solutions fees and other asset management and administration fees. Asset management and administration fees increased by $106 million, or 6%, in 2011 from 2010 primarily due to an increase in advice solutions fees, partially offset by a decrease in mutual fund service fees.

Mutual fund service fees were relatively flat in 2012 from 2011, which reflected growth in client asset balances invested in money market mutual funds, equity and bond funds, and Mutual Fund OneSource funds, offset by the effect of lower yields on certain mutual fund assets. Mutual fund service fees decreased by $59 million, or 5%, in 2011 from 2010 primarily due to a decrease in net money market mutual fund fees as a result of lower yields on fund assets, partially offset by higher Mutual Fund OneSource fees.

Advice solutions fees increased by $58 million, or 11%, in 2012 from 2011 and by $138 million, or 36%, in 2011 from 2010 primarily due to growth in client assets enrolled in retail advisory and managed account programs, including Windhaven® and Schwab Managed PortfoliosTM. The increase in advice solutions fees in 2011 from 2010 was also due to temporary fees rebates of $63 million, which reduced advice solutions fees in 2010 under a rebate program that ended in 2010.

Other asset management and administration fees increased by $43 million, or 14%, in 2012 from 2011 primarily due to an increase in third-party mutual fund service fees as a result of an increase in client asset balances invested in other third-party mutual funds.

Net Interest Revenue

Net interest revenue is the difference between interest earned on interest-earning assets and interest paid on funding sources. Net interest revenue is affected by changes in the volume and mix of these assets and liabilities, as well as by fluctuations in interest rates and portfolio management strategies. The Company’s investment strategy is structured to produce an increase in net interest revenue when interest rates rise and, conversely, a decrease in net interest revenue when interest rates fall (i.e., interest-earning assets generally reprice more quickly than interest-bearing liabilities). When interest rates fall, the Company may attempt to mitigate some of this negative impact by extending the maturities of assets in investment portfolios to lock in asset yields, and by lowering rates paid to clients on interest-bearing liabilities. Since the Company establishes the rates paid on certain brokerage client cash balances and deposits from banking clients, as well as the rates charged on receivables from brokerage clients, and also controls the composition of its investment securities, it has some ability to manage its net interest spread. The current low interest rate environment limits the extent to which the Company can reduce interest expense paid on funding sources. However, the spread is influenced by external factors such as the interest rate environment and competition. For discussion of the impact of current market conditions on net interest revenue, see “Current Market and Regulatory Environment and Other Developments.”

 

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Table of Contents

THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

(Tabular Amounts in Millions, Except Ratios, or as Noted)

 

The Company’s interest-earning assets are financed primarily by brokerage client cash balances and deposits from banking clients. Non-interest-bearing funding sources include non-interest-bearing brokerage client cash balances and proceeds from stock-lending activities, as well as stockholders’equity.

In clearing their clients’ trades, Schwab and optionsXpress, Inc. hold cash balances payable to clients. In most cases, Schwab and optionsXpress, Inc. pay their clients interest on cash balances awaiting investment, and in turn invest these funds and earn interest revenue. Receivables from brokerage clients consist primarily of margin loans to brokerage clients. Margin loans are loans made to clients on a secured basis to purchase securities. Pursuant to applicable regulations, client cash balances that are not used for margin lending are generally segregated into investment accounts that are maintained for the exclusive benefit of clients, which are recorded in cash and investments segregated on the Company’s consolidated balance sheet. When investing segregated client cash balances, Schwab and optionsXpress, Inc. must adhere to applicable regulations that restrict investments to securities guaranteed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government, participation certificates, mortgage-backed securities guaranteed by the Government National Mortgage Association, deposits held at U.S. banks and thrifts, and resale agreements collateralized by qualified securities. Additionally, Schwab and optionsXpress, Inc. have established policies for the minimum credit quality and maximum maturity of these investments.

Schwab Bank maintains investment portfolios for liquidity as well as to invest funds from deposits in excess of loans to banking clients and liquidity limits. Schwab Bank’s securities available for sale include mortgage-backed securities, asset-backed securities, corporate debt securities, certificates of deposit, U.S. agency notes, commercial paper, and other securities. Schwab Bank’s securities held to maturity include mortgage-backed and other securities. Schwab Bank lends funds to banking clients primarily in the form of mortgage loans and HELOCs. These loans are largely funded by interest-bearing deposits from banking clients.

The following table presents net interest revenue information corresponding to interest-earning assets and funding sources on the consolidated balance sheet:

 

Year Ended December 31,    2012     2011     2010  
     Average
Balance
     Interest
Revenue/
Expense
     Average
Yield/
Rate
    Average
Balance
     Interest
Revenue/
Expense
     Average
Yield/
Rate
    Average
Balance
     Interest
Revenue/
Expense
     Average
Yield/
Rate
 

Interest-earning assets:

                        

Cash and cash equivalents

   $ 7,130       $ 18         0.25   $ 5,554       $ 13         0.23   $ 7,269       $ 19         0.26

Cash and investments segregated

     25,263         46         0.18     25,831         39         0.15     19,543         57         0.29

Broker-related receivables (1)

     351                 0.04     310                 0.05     317                 0.28

Receivables from brokerage clients

     10,928         446         4.08     10,637         467         4.39     8,981         437         4.87

Other securities owned (1)

                                                   74                 0.45

Securities available for sale (2)

     39,745         583         1.47     27,486         456         1.66     24,209         486         2.01

Securities held to maturity

     15,371         397         2.58     16,050         492         3.07     10,440         361         3.46

Loans to banking clients

     10,053         309         3.07     9,472         310         3.27     7,987         275         3.44

Loans held for sale

     18         1         4.12     65         3         4.62     80         4         5.00
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total interest-earning assets

     108,859         1,800         1.65     95,405         1,780         1.87     78,900         1,639         2.08
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Other interest revenue

        114              120              84      
     

 

 

         

 

 

         

 

 

    

Total interest-earning assets

   $   108,859       $       1,914                   1.76   $     95,405       $       1,900                   1.99   $     78,900       $       1,723                   2.18
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Funding sources:

                        

Deposits from banking clients

   $ 65,546       $ 42         0.06   $ 52,701       $ 62         0.12   $ 44,858       $ 105         0.23

Payables to brokerage clients

     29,831         3         0.01     29,992         3         0.01     22,715         2         0.01

Long-term debt

     1,934         103         5.33     2,004         108         5.39     1,648         92         5.58
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total interest-bearing liabilities

     97,311         148         0.15     84,697         173         0.20     69,221         199         0.29
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Non-interest-bearing funding sources

     11,548              10,708              9,679         

Other interest expense

        2              2                   
     

 

 

         

 

 

         

 

 

    

Total funding sources

   $ 108,859       $ 150         0.14   $ 95,405       $ 175         0.18   $ 78,900       $ 199         0.25
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Net interest revenue

      $ 1,764         1.62      $ 1,725         1.81      $ 1,524         1.93
     

 

 

    

 

 

      

 

 

    

 

 

      

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

(1) 

Interest revenue was less than $500,000 in the period or periods presented.

 

(2) 

Amounts have been calculated based on amortized cost.

Net interest revenue increased in 2012 from 2011 primarily due to higher average balances of interest-earning assets, primarily securities available for sale, partially offset by the effect of low overall interest rates and higher amortization of premiums

 

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Table of Contents

THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

(Tabular Amounts in Millions, Except Ratios, or as Noted)

 

relating to mortgage-backed securities. Growth in the average deposit balances from banking clients funded the increase in the balance of securities available for sale.

Net interest revenue increased in 2011 from 2010 primarily due to higher average balances of interest-earning assets, partially offset by the effect of lower interest rate spreads resulting from higher amortization of premiums relating to residential mortgage-backed securities. The growth in average balances of deposits from banking clients and payables to brokerage clients funded the increases in the balances of receivables from brokerage clients, securities available for sale, and securities held to maturity. Further declines in interest rates in 2011 accelerated the prepayment activity in the Company’s portfolio of residential mortgage-backed securities, which resulted in higher premium amortization.

Trading Revenue

Trading revenue includes commission and principal transaction revenues. Commission revenue is affected by the number of revenue trades executed and the average revenue earned per revenue trade. Principal transaction revenue is primarily comprised of revenue from trading activity in client fixed income securities. To accommodate clients’ fixed income trading activity, the Company maintains positions in fixed income securities, including state and municipal debt obligations, U.S. Government, corporate debt, and other securities. The difference between the price at which the Company buys and sells securities to and from its clients and other broker-dealers is recognized as principal transaction revenue. Principal transaction revenue also includes unrealized gains and losses on these securities positions. Factors that influence principal transaction revenue include the volume of client trades and market price volatility.

Trading revenue decreased by $59 million, or 6%, in 2012 from 2011 primarily due to lower daily average revenue trades, partially offset by the inclusion of optionsXpress’ trading activity for the full year. Trading revenue increased by $97 million, or 12%, in 2011 from 2010 primarily due to higher daily average revenue trades and the addition of optionsXpress’ trading activity starting in September 2011.

Daily average revenue trades decreased by 7% in 2012 from 2011 primarily due to a lower volume of equity and mutual fund trades, partially offset by a higher volume of option and future trades as a result of the inclusion of optionsXpress. Daily average revenue trades increased by 12% in 2011 from 2010 primarily due to a higher volume of option, equity, and mutual fund trades. Average revenue per revenue trade remained relatively flat in 2012 and 2011.

 

Year Ended December 31,

   Growth Rate
2011-2012
    2012      2011      2010  

Daily average revenue trades (1) (in thousands)

     (7 %)      282.7         303.8         270.7   

Clients’ daily average trades (2) (in thousands)

     (2 %)      440.9         451.1         399.7   

Number of trading days (3)

     (1 %)      248.5         251.5         251.5   

Average revenue per revenue trade

     2   $        12.35       $        12.15       $        12.28   

 

(1) 

Includes all client trades that generate trading revenue (i.e., commission revenue or revenue from fixed income securities trading).

 

(2) 

Includes daily average revenue trades, trades by clients in asset-based pricing relationships, and all commission-free trades, including the Company’s Mutual Fund OneSource funds and ETFs, and other proprietary products. Clients’ daily average trades is an indicator of client engagement with securities markets.

 

(3) 

October 29 and 30, 2012, were not included as trading days due to weather-related market closures.

Other Revenue – Net

Other revenue – net includes nonrecurring gains and losses, realized gains and losses on sales of securities available for sale, order flow revenue, software fees from the Company’s portfolio management services, exchange processing fees, and other service fees.

Other revenue – net increased by $96 million, or 60%, in 2012 compared to 2011 primarily due to a pre-tax gain of $70 million relating to a confidential resolution of a vendor dispute in the second quarter of 2012. In November 2012, the

 

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Table of Contents

THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

(Tabular Amounts in Millions, Except Ratios, or as Noted)

 

Company began receiving additional order flow rebates from market venues to which client orders are routed for execution. Order flow revenue increased by $23 million due to this revenue and the inclusion of a full year of optionsXpress’ order flow revenue. In December 2012, CSC redeemed the remaining outstanding portion of its 4.950% Senior Notes of $494 million that were due in 2014, which resulted in the payment of a make-whole premium of $31 million that was recorded in other revenue – net. Other revenue – net also included realized gains of $35 million from the sales of securities available for sale.

 

Other revenue – net increased by $25 million, or 19%, in 2011 compared to 2010 primarily due to increases in software and exchange processing fees, as well as the addition of education services revenue from the acquisition of optionsXpress.

 

Provision for Loan Losses

 

The provision for loan losses was relatively flat in 2012 from 2011, reflecting stable levels of delinquencies and nonaccrual loans experienced in 2012. The provision for loan losses decreased by $9 million, or 33%, in 2011 from 2010 due to a decrease in overall expected loss rates resulting primarily from a decrease in first mortgage loan delinquencies. Charge-offs were $16 million, $19 million, and $20 million in 2012, 2011, and 2010, respectively. For further discussion on the Company’s credit risk and the allowance for loan losses, see “Risk Management – Credit Risk” and “Item 8 – Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – 7. Loans to Banking Clients and Related Allowance for Loan Losses.”

 

Net Impairment Losses on Securities

 

Net impairment losses on securities were $32 million, $31 million, and $36 million in 2012, 2011, and 2010, respectively. These charges relate to certain non-agency residential mortgage-backed securities, which experienced further credit deterioration of the securities’ underlying loans. For further discussion, see “Item 8 – Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – 6. Securities Available for Sale and Securities Held to Maturity.”

 

Expenses Excluding Interest

 

As shown in the table below, expenses excluding interest were higher in 2012 compared to 2011, which was primarily due to the inclusion of a full year of optionsXpress’ expenses and amortization of intangible assets relating to the optionsXpress acquisition. Expenses excluding interest were lower in 2011 compared to 2010 primarily due to certain significant charges in 2010, including class action litigation and regulatory reserves relating to the Schwab YieldPlus Fund and losses recognized for Schwab money market mutual funds. The decrease in expenses excluding interest caused by these charges in 2010 was offset by increases in compensation and benefits, professional services, occupancy and equipment, and advertising and market development expenses in 2011.

 

Year Ended December 31,

   Growth Rate
2011-2012
    2012     2011     2010  

Compensation and benefits

     4   $ 1,803      $ 1,732      $ 1,573   

Professional services

            388        387        341   

Occupancy and equipment

     3     311        301        272   

Advertising and market development

     6     241        228        196   

Communications

            220        220        207   

Depreciation and amortization

     26     196        155        146   

Class action litigation and regulatory reserve

     N/M               7        320   

Money market mutual fund charges

                          132   

Other

     2     274        269        282   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total expenses excluding interest

     4   $        3,433      $        3,299      $        3,469   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Expenses as a percentage of total net revenues:

        

Total expenses excluding interest

       70     70     82

Advertising and market development

       5     5     5

 

N/M Not meaningful.

 

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Table of Contents

THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

(Tabular Amounts in Millions, Except Ratios, or as Noted)

 

Compensation and Benefits

Compensation and benefits expense includes salaries and wages, incentive compensation, and related employee benefits and taxes. Incentive compensation includes variable compensation, discretionary bonuses, and stock-based compensation. Variable compensation includes payments to certain individuals based on their sales performance. Discretionary bonuses are based on the Company’s overall performance as measured by earnings per common share, and therefore will fluctuate with this measure. Stock-based compensation primarily includes employee and board of director stock options, restricted stock units, and restricted stock awards.

Compensation and benefits expense increased by $71 million, or 4%, in 2012 from 2011 due to increases in salaries and wages, incentive compensation and employee benefits and other expense. Compensation and benefits expense increased by $159 million, or 10%, in 2011 from 2010 primarily due to increases in salaries and wages and incentive compensation. The following table shows a comparison of certain compensation and benefits components and employee data:

 

Year Ended December 31,

   Growth Rate
2011-2012
    2012     2011     2010  

Salaries and wages

     3   $ 1,043      $ 1,012      $ 931   

Incentive compensation

     5     466        444        386   

Employee benefits and other

     7     294        276        256   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total compensation and benefits expense

     4   $        1,803      $        1,732      $        1,573   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Compensation and benefits expense as a percentage of total net revenues:

        

Salaries and wages

       21     22     22

Incentive compensation

       10     9     9

Employee benefits and other

       6     6     6
    

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total compensation and benefits expense

       37     37     37
    

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Full-time equivalent employees (in thousands) (1)

        

At year end

     (2 %)      13.8        14.1        12.8   

Average

     3     13.8        13.4        12.6   

 

(1) 

Includes full-time, part-time and temporary employees, and persons employed on a contract basis, and excludes employees of outsourced service providers.

Salaries and wages increased in 2012 from 2011 primarily due to an increase in average full-time employees from the inclusion of a full year of optionsXpress’ employees. The increase in salaries and wages was partially offset by a decrease in persons employed on a contract basis. Incentive compensation increased in 2012 from 2011 primarily due to higher variable compensation resulting from product sales performance in the Company’s branch offices. Employee benefits and other expense increased in 2012 from 2011 primarily due to increases in payroll taxes and the Company’s 401(k) plan contribution expense due to increases in average full-time employees and incentive compensation, and an increase in the Company’s deferred compensation plan expense as a result of improvement in the broad equity markets.

Salaries and wages increased in 2011 from 2010 primarily due to increases in full-time employees and persons employed on a contract basis. The increase in full-time employees was partially due to the addition of full-time employees from the optionsXpress acquisition. Incentive compensation increased in 2011 from 2010 primarily due to an increase in discretionary bonuses and higher variable compensation. Discretionary bonuses increased based on the Company’s overall performance in 2011, as well as an increase in full time employees. Variable compensation was higher primarily due to the integration of Windhaven, which was acquired in November 2010. Employee benefits and other expense increased in 2011 from 2010 primarily due to increases in payroll taxes and the Company’s 401(k) plan contribution expense as a result of increases in incentive compensation and full-time employees.

 

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Table of Contents

THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

(Tabular Amounts in Millions, Except Ratios, or as Noted)

 

Expenses Excluding Compensation and Benefits

Professional services expense increased in 2011 from 2010 primarily due to an increase in fees relating to the Company’s technology investments and client facing infrastructure, and approximately $10 million in costs relating to the integration of optionsXpress.

Occupancy and equipment expense increased in 2012 from 2011 primarily due to an increase in software maintenance expense relating to the Company’s information technology systems. Occupancy and equipment expense increased in 2011 from 2010 primarily due to an increase in the Company’s investments in data processing equipment.

Advertising and market development expense increased in 2012 from 2011 primarily due to the inclusion of a full year of optionsXpress’ expenses, which includes media, and the Company’s increased spending on customer promotions. Advertising and market development expense increased in 2011 from 2010 primarily due to higher spending on customer and branch promotions and electronic media.

Communications expense increased in 2011 from 2010 primarily due to higher telephone service expense and third-party news and information expense.

Depreciation and amortization expense increased in 2012 and 2011 primarily due to the amortization of intangible assets relating to the optionsXpress acquisition. The increase in 2011 from 2010 was also due to the amortization of intangible assets resulting from the Windhaven acquisition.

In 2011 and 2010, the Company recorded class action litigation and regulatory reserves relating to the Schwab YieldPlus Fund. For further discussion of the Schwab YieldPlus Fund litigation and regulatory matters, see “Item 8 – Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – 21. Class Action Litigation and Regulatory Reserve and Money Market Mutual Fund Charges.”

In 2010, the Company decided to cover the net remaining losses of $132 million recognized by Schwab money market mutual funds as a result of their investments in a single structured investment vehicle that defaulted in 2008.

Other expense was lower in 2011 compared to 2010 primarily due to a charge of $30 million in 2010, relating to the Company’s former Invest First and WorldPoints Visa credit cards, as the Company ended its sponsorship due to challenging credit card industry economics.

Taxes on Income

The Company’s effective income tax rate on income before taxes was 36.0% in 2012, 37.9% in 2011, and 41.7% in 2010. The decrease in 2012 from 2011 was primarily due to the recognition of a non-recurring state tax benefit of $20 million in the third quarter of 2012. The decrease in 2011 from 2010 was due to a lower effective state income tax rate in 2011 and the impact of non-deductible penalties relating to the Schwab YieldPlus Fund regulatory settlements in 2010.

Segment Information

The Company provides financial services to individuals and institutional clients through two segments – Investor Services and Institutional Services. The Investor Services segment provides retail brokerage and banking services to individual investors. The Institutional Services segment provides custodial, trading, and support services to independent investment advisors. The Institutional Services segment also provides retirement plan services, specialty brokerage services, and mutual fund clearing services, and supports the availability of Schwab proprietary mutual funds and collective trust funds on third-party platforms. Banking revenues and expenses are allocated to the Company’s two segments based on which segment services the client. The Company evaluates the performance of its segments on a pre-tax basis, excluding items such as significant nonrecurring gains, impairment charges on non-financial assets, discontinued operations, extraordinary items, and significant restructuring and

 

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Table of Contents

THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

(Tabular Amounts in Millions, Except Ratios, or as Noted)

 

other charges. Segment assets and liabilities are not disclosed because the balances are not used for evaluating segment performance and deciding how to allocate resources to segments.

Financial information for the Company’s reportable segments is presented in the following tables:

 

     Investor Services     Institutional Services  

Year Ended December 31,

   Growth Rate
2011-2012
    2012     2011     2010     Growth Rate
2011-2012
    2012     2011     2010  

Net Revenues

                

Asset management and administration fees

     5   $ 1,109      $ 1,053      $ 976        7   $ 934      $ 875      $ 846   

Net interest revenue

     1     1,479        1,468        1,297        11     285        257        227   

Trading revenue

     (8 %)      574        625        557        (3 %)      293        302        273   

Other – net

     27     108        85        70        3     77        75        65   

Provision for loan losses

     (7 %)      (14     (15     (23     (33 %)      (2     (3     (4

Net impairment losses on securities

     4     (28     (27     (32            (4     (4     (4
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total net revenues

     1     3,228        3,189        2,845        5     1,583        1,502        1,403   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Expenses Excluding Interest

     5     2,363        2,261        2,065        3     1,069        1,039        960   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Income before taxes on income

     (7 %)    $ 865      $ 928      $ 780        11   $ 514      $ 463      $ 443   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 
     Unallocated     Total  

Year Ended December 31,

   Growth Rate
2011-2012
    2012     2011     2010     Growth Rate
2011-2012
    2012     2011     2010  

Net Revenues

                

Asset management and administration fees

     N/M      $      $      $        6   $ 2,043      $ 1,928      $     1,822   

Net interest revenue

     N/M                             2     1,764        1,725        1,524   

Trading revenue

     N/M        1                      (6 %)      868        927        830   

Other – net

     N/M        71                      60     256        160        135   

Provision for loan losses

     N/M                             (11 %)      (16     (18     (27

Net impairment losses on securities

     N/M                             3     (32     (31     (36
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total net revenues

     N/M        72                      4     4,883        4,691        4,248   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Expenses Excluding Interest

     N/M        1        (1     444        4     3,433        3,299        3,469   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Income before taxes on income

     N/M      $ 71      $ 1      $ (444     4   $     1,450      $ 1,392      $ 779   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Taxes on income

               522        528        325   
            

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net Income

             $ 928      $ 864      $ 454   
            

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

N/M Not meaningful.

Investor Services

Net revenues were relatively flat in 2012 compared to 2011 as the increases in asset management and administration fees, net interest revenue, and other revenue – net were largely offset by a decrease in trading revenue. Asset management and administration fees increased primarily due to an increase in advice solutions fees relating to Windhaven, partially offset by a decrease in net money market mutual fund fees. Net interest revenue increased primarily due to higher average balances of interest-earning assets, partially offset by the effect of low overall interest rates and higher amortization of premiums relating to mortgage-backed securities. Other revenue – net increased primarily due to the inclusion of a full year of optionsXpress’ order flow revenue and other fees. Trading revenue decreased primarily due to lower daily average revenue trades, partially offset by the inclusion of optionsXpress’ trading activity for the full year. Expenses excluding interest increased by

 

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Table of Contents

THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

(Tabular Amounts in Millions, Except Ratios, or as Noted)

 

$102 million, or 5%, in 2012 from 2011 primarily due to the inclusion of a full year of optionsXpress’ compensation and benefits, advertising and market development, and depreciation and amortization expenses.

 

Net revenues increased by $344 million, or 12%, in 2011 from 2010 primarily due to increases in net interest revenue, asset management and administration fees, and trading revenue. Net interest revenue increased primarily due to higher average balances of interest-earning assets during the year, partially offset by the effect of higher premium amortization relating to residential mortgage-backed securities caused by higher mortgage prepayments in 2011. Asset management and administration fees increased primarily due to an increase in advice solutions fees and continued asset inflows, partially offset by decrease in net money market mutual fund fees. Trading revenue increased primarily due to higher daily average revenue trades and the addition of optionsXpress. Expenses excluding interest increased by $196 million, or 9%, in 2011 from 2010 primarily due to increases in compensation and benefits, professional services, and advertising and market development expenses, which included the integration of optionsXpress.

 

Institutional Services

 

Net revenues increased by $81 million, or 5%, in 2012 from 2011 primarily due to increases in asset management and administration fees and net interest revenue, partially offset by a decrease in trading revenue. Asset management and administration fees increased primarily due to an increase in third-party mutual fund service fees. Net interest revenue increased primarily due to higher average balances of interest-earning assets, partially offset by the effect of low overall interest rates and higher amortization of premiums relating to mortgage-backed securities. Trading revenue decreased primarily due to lower daily average revenue trades. Expenses excluding interest increased by $30 million, or 3%, in 2012 from 2011 primarily due to increases in compensation and benefits and occupancy and equipment expenses.

 

Net revenues increased by $99 million, or 7%, in 2011 from 2010 primarily due to increases in net interest revenue, asset management and administration fees, and trading revenue. Net interest revenue increased primarily due to higher average balances of interest-earning assets during the year, partially offset by the effect of higher premium amortization relating to residential mortgage-backed securities caused by higher mortgage prepayments in 2011. Asset management and administration fees increased primarily due to an increase in mutual fund service fees relating to the Company’s Mutual Fund OneSource funds as a result of continued asset inflows, offset by net money market mutual fund fees waivers. Trading revenue increased primarily due to higher daily average revenue trades. Expenses excluding interest increased by $79 million, or 8%, in 2011 from 2010 primarily due to increases in compensation and benefits and professional services expenses.

 

Unallocated

 

Other revenue – net in 2012 includes a pre-tax gain of $70 million relating to a confidential resolution of a vendor dispute in the second quarter of 2012. Expenses excluding interest in 2010 include class action litigation and regulatory reserves relating to the Schwab YieldPlus Fund and a charge relating to the Company’s decision to cover the net remaining losses recognized by Schwab money market mutual funds as a result of their investments in a single structured investment vehicle that defaulted in 2008.

 

Subsequent Changes to Segment Information

 

In the first quarter of 2013, the Company realigned its reportable segments as a result of recent organizational changes. The Institutional segment will be renamed to Advisor Services. The Retirement Plan Services, Corporate Brokerage Retirement Products (formerly part of Retirement Business Services), and Corporate Brokerage Services business units will be reallocated to the Investor Services segment. The Company will recast the segment information based on this realignment in the first quarter of 2013.

 

LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES

 

CSC conducts substantially all of its business through its wholly-owned subsidiaries. The Company’s capital structure is designed to provide each subsidiary with capital and liquidity to meet its operational needs and regulatory requirements.

 

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Table of Contents

THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

(Tabular Amounts in Millions, Except Ratios, or as Noted)

 

CSC is a savings and loan holding company and Schwab Bank, CSC’s depository institution, is a federal savings bank. CSC is subject to supervision and regulation by the Federal Reserve and Schwab Bank is subject to supervision and regulation by the OCC.

Liquidity

CSC

CSC’s liquidity needs arise from funding its subsidiaries’ operations, including margin and mortgage lending, and transaction settlement, in addition to funding cash dividends, acquisitions, investments, short- and long-term debt, and managing statutory capital requirements.

CSC’s liquidity needs are generally met through cash generated by its subsidiaries, as well as cash provided by external financing. CSC has a universal automatic shelf registration statement (Shelf Registration Statement) on file with the SEC which enables CSC to issue debt, equity and other securities. CSC maintains excess liquidity in the form of overnight cash deposits and short-term investments to cover daily funding needs and to support growth in the Company’s business. Generally, CSC does not hold liquidity at its subsidiaries in excess of amounts deemed sufficient to support the subsidiaries’ operations, including any regulatory capital requirements. Schwab, Schwab Bank, and optionsXpress, Inc. are subject to regulatory requirements that may restrict them from certain transactions with CSC, as further discussed below. Management believes that funds generated by the operations of CSC’s subsidiaries will continue to be the primary funding source in meeting CSC’s liquidity needs, providing adequate liquidity to meet Schwab Bank’s capital guidelines, and maintaining Schwab and optionsXpress, Inc.’s net capital.

While CSC is not currently subject to specific statutory capital requirements, CSC is required to serve as a source of strength for Schwab Bank and must have the ability to provide financial assistance if Schwab Bank experiences financial distress. To manage capital adequacy, the Company currently utilizes a target Tier 1 Leverage Ratio, as defined by the Federal Reserve, of at least 6%. At December 31, 2012, the Company’s Tier 1 Leverage Ratio was 6.5%, Tier 1 Capital Ratio was 16.9%, and Total Capital Ratio was 17.0%.

In January and June 2012, the Company completed offerings of its Series A and Series B preferred stock under the Shelf Registration Statement, with an aggregate liquidation preference of $885 million. CSC’s preferred stock is rated Baa2 by Moody’s Investors Service (Moody’s), BBB+ by Standard & Poor’s Ratings Group (Standard & Poor’s), and BB+ by Fitch Ratings, Ltd (Fitch). For further discussion of these equity offerings, see “Item 8 – Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – 18. Stockholders’ Equity.”

In August 2012, CSC completed an exchange offer with certain eligible holders of its 4.950% Senior Notes due 2014 (Old Senior Notes), whereby Old Senior Notes in an aggregate principal amount of $256 million were exchanged for the same aggregate principal amount of 3.225% Senior Notes due 2022 (New Senior Notes) and cash consideration of $19 million. On December 6, 2012, CSC issued $350 million of additional Senior Notes that mature in 2015 under the Shelf Registration Statement, which have a fixed interest rate of 0.850% with interest payable semi-annually. Additionally, on December 21, 2012, CSC redeemed all of its remaining outstanding Old Senior Notes of $494 million. In connection with the redemption, CSC paid the holders of the Old Senior Notes a make-whole premium of $31 million in addition to the $494 million principal payment. For further discussion of the Senior Notes, see “Item 8 – Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – 14. Borrowings.”

On August 31, 2012, CSC redeemed all of the fixed-to-floating rate trust preferred securities issued by Schwab Capital Trust (Trust) of which $202 million in principal was outstanding for $207 million. The trust preferred securities were redeemed, along with the common securities issued by the Trust and held by CSC, as a result of the concurrent redemption in whole by CSC of the Junior Subordinated Notes held by the Trust which underlay the trust preferred securities. For further discussion of this redemption, see “Item 8 – Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – 14. Borrowings.”

 

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Table of Contents

THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

(Tabular Amounts in Millions, Except Ratios, or as Noted)

 

The following are details of CSC’s long-term debt:

 

December 31, 2012

   Par
Outstanding
     Maturity    Interest Rate    Moody’s    Standard
& Poor’s
   Fitch

Senior Notes

   $     1,306       2015 – 2022    0.850% to 4.45% fixed    A2    A    A

Medium Term Notes

   $ 250       2017    6.375% fixed    A2    A    A

 

CSC has authorization from its Board of Directors to issue unsecured commercial paper notes (Commercial Paper Notes) not to exceed $1.5 billion. Management has set a current limit for the commercial paper program of $800 million. The maturities of the Commercial Paper Notes may vary, but are not to exceed 270 days from the date of issue. The commercial paper is not redeemable prior to maturity and cannot be voluntarily prepaid. The proceeds of the commercial paper program are to be used for general corporate purposes. At December 31, 2012, the amount of Commercial Paper Notes outstanding was $300 million, which is included in accrued expenses and other liabilities in the Company’s consolidated balance sheets. The amount outstanding was repaid on January 2, 2013. CSC’s ratings for these short-term borrowings are P1 by Moody’s, A1 by Standard & Poor’s, and F1 by Fitch.

 

CSC maintains an $800 million committed, unsecured credit facility with a group of 11 banks, which is scheduled to expire in June 2013. This facility replaced a similar facility that expired in June 2012 and was unused in 2012. The funds under this facility are available for general corporate purposes. The financial covenants under this facility require Schwab to maintain a minimum net capital ratio, as defined, Schwab Bank to be well capitalized, as defined, and CSC to maintain a minimum level of stockholders’ equity. At December 31, 2012, the minimum level of stockholders’ equity required under this facility was $5.8 billion (CSC’s stockholders’ equity at December 31, 2012, was $9.6 billion). Management believes that these restrictions will not have a material effect on CSC’s ability to meet foreseeable dividend or funding requirements.

 

CSC also has direct access to $642 million of the $842 million uncommitted, unsecured bank credit lines discussed below, that are primarily utilized by Schwab to manage short-term liquidity. These lines were not used by CSC during 2012.

 

In addition, Schwab provides CSC with a $1.0 billion credit facility maturing in December 2014. There were no funds drawn under this facility at December 31, 2012.

 

Schwab

 

Liquidity needs relating to client trading and margin borrowing activities are met primarily through cash balances in brokerage client accounts, which were $37.4 billion and $33.5 billion at December 31, 2012 and 2011, respectively. Management believes that brokerage client cash balances and operating earnings will continue to be the primary sources of liquidity for Schwab.

 

Schwab is subject to regulatory requirements that are intended to ensure the general financial soundness and liquidity of broker-dealers. These regulations prohibit Schwab from repaying subordinated borrowings from CSC, paying cash dividends, or making unsecured advances or loans to its parent company or employees if such payment would result in a net capital amount of less than 5% of aggregate debit balances or less than 120% of its minimum dollar requirement of $250,000. At December 31, 2012, Schwab’s net capital was $1.4 billion (9% of aggregate debit balances), which was $1.1 billion in excess of its minimum required net capital and $623 million in excess of 5% of aggregate debit balances.

 

Schwab is also subject to Rule 15c3-3 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and other applicable regulations that require it to maintain cash or qualified securities in a segregated reserve account for the exclusive benefit of clients. These funds are included in cash and investments segregated and on deposit for regulatory purposes in the Company’s consolidated balance sheets and are not available as a general source of liquidity.

 

Most of Schwab’s assets are readily convertible to cash, consisting primarily of short-term (i.e., less than 150 days) investment-grade, interest-earning investments (the majority of which are segregated for the exclusive benefit of clients pursuant to regulatory requirements), receivables from brokerage clients, and receivables from brokers, dealers, and clearing

 

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THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

(Tabular Amounts in Millions, Except Ratios, or as Noted)

 

organizations. Client margin loans are demand loan obligations secured by readily marketable securities. Receivables from and payables to brokers, dealers, and clearing organizations primarily represent current open transactions, which usually settle, or can be closed out, within a few business days.

 

Schwab has a finance lease obligation related to an office building and land under a 20-year lease. The remaining finance lease obligation of $95 million at December 31, 2012, is being reduced by a portion of the lease payments over the remaining lease term of 12 years.

 

To manage short-term liquidity, Schwab maintains uncommitted, unsecured bank credit lines with a group of six banks totaling $842 million at December 31, 2012. The need for short-term borrowings arises primarily from timing differences between cash flow requirements, scheduled liquidation of interest-earnings investments, and movements of cash to meet regulatory brokerage client cash segregation requirements. Schwab used such borrowings for three days in 2012, with average daily amounts borrowed of $62 million. There were no borrowings outstanding under these lines at December 31, 2012.

 

To partially satisfy the margin requirement of client option transactions with the Options Clearing Corporation, Schwab has unsecured standby letter of credit agreements (LOCs) with five banks in favor of the Options Clearing Corporation aggregating $325 million at December 31, 2012. In connection with its securities lending activities, Schwab is required to provide collateral to certain brokerage clients. Schwab satisfies the collateral requirements by arranging LOCs, in favor of these brokerage clients, which are issued by multiple banks. At December 31, 2012, the aggregate face amount of these LOCs totaled $74 million. There were no funds drawn under any of these LOCs during 2012.

 

To manage Schwab’s regulatory capital requirement, CSC provides Schwab with a $1.4 billion subordinated revolving credit facility, which is scheduled to expire in March 2014. The amount outstanding under this facility at December 31, 2012, was $315 million. Borrowings under this subordinated lending arrangement qualify as regulatory capital for Schwab.

 

In addition, CSC provides Schwab with a $2.5 billion credit facility, which is scheduled to expire in December 2014. Borrowings under this facility do not qualify as regulatory capital for Schwab. There were no funds drawn under this facility at December 31, 2012.

 

Schwab Bank

 

Schwab Bank’s liquidity needs are met through deposits from banking clients and equity capital.

 

The excess cash held in certain Schwab brokerage client accounts is swept into deposit accounts at Schwab Bank. At December 31, 2012, these balances totaled $56.9 billion. Beginning in the fourth quarter of 2012, the excess cash held in certain optionsXpress, Inc. brokerage accounts was swept into deposit accounts at Schwab Bank, which totaled $1.3 billion at December 31, 2012.

 

Schwab Bank is subject to regulatory requirements that restrict and govern the terms of affiliate transactions, such as extensions of credit and repayment of loans between Schwab Bank and CSC or CSC’s other subsidiaries. In addition, Schwab Bank is required to provide notice to and may be required to obtain approval of the OCC and the Federal Reserve to declare dividends to CSC.

 

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THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

(Tabular Amounts in Millions, Except Ratios, or as Noted)

 

Schwab Bank is required to maintain capital levels as specified in federal banking laws and regulations. Failure to meet the minimum levels could result in certain mandatory, and possibly additional discretionary actions by the regulators that, if undertaken, could have a direct material effect on Schwab Bank. Based on its regulatory capital ratios at December 31, 2012, Schwab Bank is considered well capitalized. Schwab Bank’s regulatory capital and ratios at December 31, 2012, are as follows:

 

     Actual     Minimum Capital
Requirement
    Minimum to be
Well Capitalized
 
     Amount      Ratio     Amount      Ratio     Amount      Ratio  

Tier 1 Risk-Based Capital

   $       5,707                 20.0   $       1,139                   4.0   $       1,709         6.0

Total Risk-Based Capital

   $       5,760         20.2   $       2,279         8.0   $       2,848                 10.0

Tier 1 Leverage

   $       5,707         6.7   $       3,412         4.0   $       4,266         5.0

Tangible Equity

   $       5,707         6.7   $       1,706         2.0     N/A      

 

N/A Not applicable.

 

In the third quarter of 2012, management lowered its target Tier 1 Leverage Ratio for Schwab Bank from at least 7.5% to at least 6.25%. This change reflects Schwab Bank’s approach to lending and investing, which results in a lower risk profile relative to the industry and risk-based capital ratios significantly in excess of well capitalized levels. This allows greater flexibility in managing capital resources to either support Schwab Bank’s balance sheet growth or return capital to CSC.

 

Schwab Bank has access to traditional funding sources such as deposits, federal funds purchased, and repurchase agreements. Additionally, Schwab Bank has access to short-term funding through the Federal Reserve Bank (FRB) discount window. Amounts available under the FRB discount window are dependent on the fair value of certain of Schwab Bank’s securities available for sale and/or securities held to maturity that are pledged as collateral. Schwab Bank maintains policies and procedures necessary to access this funding and tests discount window borrowing procedures annually. At December 31, 2012, $2.8 billion was available under this arrangement. There were no funds drawn under this arrangement during 2012.

 

Schwab Bank maintains a credit facility with the Federal Home Loan Bank System. Amounts available under this facility are dependent on the amount of Schwab Bank’s residential real estate mortgages and HELOCs that are pledged as collateral. At December 31, 2012, $5.5 billion was available under this facility. There were no funds drawn under this facility during 2012.

 

CSC provides Schwab Bank with a $100 million short-term credit facility, which is scheduled to expire in December 2014. Borrowings under this facility do not qualify as regulatory capital for Schwab Bank. There were no funds drawn under these facilities during 2012.

 

optionsXpress

 

Liquidity needs relating to client trading and margin borrowing activities are met primarily through cash balances in brokerage client accounts, which were $1.1 billion at December 31, 2012. Management believes that brokerage client cash balances and operating earnings will continue to be the primary sources of liquidity for optionsXpress, Inc.

 

optionsXpress, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of optionsXpress, is a registered broker-dealer and is subject to regulatory requirements that are intended to ensure the general financial soundness and liquidity of broker-dealers. These regulations prohibit optionsXpress, Inc. from paying cash dividends or making unsecured advances or loans to its parent company or employees if such payment would result in a net capital amount of less than 5% of aggregate debit balances or less than 120% of its minimum dollar requirement of $250,000. At December 31, 2012, optionsXpress Inc.’s net capital was $87 million (40% of aggregate debit balances), which was $82 million in excess of its minimum required net capital and $76 million in excess of 5% of aggregate debit balances.

 

optionsXpress, Inc. is also subject to Commodity Futures Trading Commission Regulation 1.17 (Reg. 1.17) under the Commodity Exchange Act, which also requires the maintenance of minimum net capital. optionsXpress, Inc. as a futures commission merchant, is required to maintain minimum net capital equal to the greater of its net capital requirement under

 

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THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

(Tabular Amounts in Millions, Except Ratios, or as Noted)

 

Reg. 1.17 ($1 million), or the sum of 8% of the total risk margin requirements for all positions carried in customer accounts and 8% of the total risk margin requirements for all positions carried in non-customer accounts (as defined in Reg. 1.17).

 

Additionally, optionsXpress, Inc. is subject to Rule 15c3-3 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and other applicable regulations that require it to maintain cash or qualified securities in a segregated reserve account for the exclusive benefit of clients. These funds are included in cash and investments segregated and on deposit for regulatory purposes in the Company’s consolidated balance sheets and are not available as a general source of liquidity.

 

CSC provides optionsXpress, Inc. with a $200 million credit facility, which is scheduled to expire in December 2014. There were no borrowings outstanding under this facility at December 31, 2012. Borrowings under this facility do not qualify as regulatory capital for optionsXpress, Inc.

 

optionsXpress has a term loan with CSC, of which $89 million was outstanding at December 31, 2012, and it matures in December 2017.

 

Capital Resources

 

The Company monitors both the relative composition and absolute level of its capital structure. Management is focused on limiting the Company’s use of capital and currently targets a long-term debt to total financial capital ratio not to exceed 30%. The Company’s total financial capital (long-term debt plus stockholders’ equity) at December 31, 2012, was $11.2 billion, up $1.5 billion, or 16%, from December 31, 2011.

 

The Company’s cash position (reported as cash and cash equivalents on its consolidated balance sheets) and cash flows are affected by changes in brokerage client cash balances and the associated amounts required to be segregated under regulatory guidelines. Timing differences between cash and investments actually segregated on a given date and the amount required to be segregated for that date may arise in the ordinary course of business and are addressed by the Company in accordance with applicable regulations. Other factors which affect the Company’s cash position and cash flows include investment activity in security portfolios, levels of capital expenditures, acquisition and divestiture activity, banking client deposit activity, brokerage and banking client loan activity, financing activity in long-term debt, payments of dividends, and repurchases and issuances of CSC’s preferred and common stock. The combination of these factors can cause significant fluctuations in the cash position during specific time periods.

 

Long-term Debt

 

At December 31, 2012, the Company had long-term debt of $1.6 billion, or 15% of total financial capital, that bears interest at a weighted-average rate of 3.85%. At December 31, 2011, the Company had long-term debt of $2.0 billion, or 21% of total financial capital. For further discussion of the Company’s long-term debt, see “Liquidity and Capital Resources – Liquidity” and “Item 8 – Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – 14. Borrowings.”

 

In addition, the Company repaid $5 million of other long-term debt in 2012. The Company repaid $116 million of long-term debt in 2011, which included the pay off of long-term debt acquired from optionsXpress of $110 million subsequent to the acquisition date.

 

Capital Expenditures

 

The Company’s capital expenditures were $138 million (3% of net revenues) and $190 million (4% of net revenues) in 2012 and 2011, respectively. Capital expenditures in 2012 and 2011 were primarily for capitalized costs for developing internal-use software, software and equipment relating to the Company’s information technology systems, and leasehold improvements. Capitalized costs for developing internal-use software were $61 million and $57 million in 2012 and 2011, respectively.

 

Management currently anticipates that 2013 capital expenditures will be approximately 85% higher than 2012 primarily due to increased spending on buildings, leasehold improvements, and software and equipment relating to the Company’s information

 

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THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

(Tabular Amounts in Millions, Except Ratios, or as Noted)

 

technology systems. A majority of this increase is planned to be spent on buildings and leasehold improvements related to the consolidation and relocation of the Company’s existing office campus in Denver, Colorado. As in recent years, the Company adjusts its capital expenditures periodically as business conditions change. Management believes that funds generated by its operations will continue to be the primary funding source of its capital expenditures.

 

Equity Offerings

 

In January 2012, the Company issued and sold 400,000 shares of fixed-to-floating rate (currently fixed at 7.000%) non-cumulative perpetual preferred stock, Series A, with a liquidation preference of $1,000 per share for net proceeds of $394 million (Series A Preferred Stock). In June 2012, the Company issued and sold 485,000 shares of 6.00% non-cumulative perpetual preferred stock, Series B, with a liquidation preference of $1,000 per share for net proceeds of $469 million (Series B Preferred Stock). Net proceeds received from these sales were used for general corporate purposes. For further discussion of these equity offerings, see “Item 8 – Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – 18. Stockholders’ Equity.”

 

Dividends

 

CSC paid common stock cash dividends of $308 million ($0.24 per share) and $295 million ($0.24 per share) in 2012 and 2011, respectively. Since the initial dividend in 1989, CSC has paid 95 consecutive quarterly dividends and has increased the quarterly dividend rate 19 times, including a 20% increase in the third quarter of 2008. Since 1989, dividends have increased by a 23% compounded annual growth rate, excluding the special cash dividend of $1.00 per common share in 2007. While the payment and amount of dividends are at the discretion of the Board of Directors, subject to certain regulatory and other restrictions, the Company currently targets its cash dividend at approximately 20% to 30% of net income.

 

CSC paid Series A Preferred Stock cash dividends of $14 million ($36.17 per share) and Series B Preferred Stock cash dividends of $14 million ($29.17 per share) in 2012. On December 12, 2012, CSC declared a semi-annual dividend of $35.00 per share of Series A Preferred Stock that is payable February 1, 2013, to stockholders of record on January 17, 2013. Under the respective terms of the Series A Preferred Stock and Series B Preferred Stock, the Company’s ability to pay dividends on, make distributions with respect to, or to repurchase, redeem or acquire its common stock or any preferred stock ranking on parity with or junior to the relevant series of preferred stock, is subject to restrictions in the event that the Company does not declare and either pay or set aside a sum sufficient for payment of dividends on the relevant series of preferred stock for the immediately preceding dividend period. For further discussion of the Series A and Series B Preferred Stock offerings, see “Item 8 – Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – 18. Stockholders’ Equity.”

 

Share Repurchases

 

There were no repurchases of CSC’s common stock in 2012 or 2011. As of December 31, 2012, CSC had remaining authority from the Board of Directors to repurchase up to $596 million of its common stock, which does not have an expiration date.

 

Business Acquisitions

 

On December 14, 2012, the Company acquired ThomasPartners, Inc., a growth and dividend income-focused asset management firm, for $85 million in cash.

 

On September 1, 2011, the Company acquired optionsXpress, an online brokerage firm primarily focused on equity option securities and futures, for total consideration of $714 million. Under the terms of the merger agreement, optionsXpress stockholders received 1.02 shares of the Company’s common stock for each share of optionsXpress stock. As a result, the Company issued 59 million shares of the Company’s common stock valued at $710 million, based on the closing price of the Company’s common stock on September 1, 2011. The Company also assumed optionsXpress’ stock-based compensation awards valued at $4 million.

 

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Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

(Tabular Amounts in Millions, Except Ratios, or as Noted)

 

For more information on these acquisitions, see “Item 8 – Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – 3. Business Acquisitions.”

 

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

 

The Company enters into various off-balance sheet arrangements in the ordinary course of business, primarily to meet the needs of its clients. These arrangements include firm commitments to extend credit. Additionally, the Company enters into guarantees and other similar arrangements as part of transactions in the ordinary course of business. For information on each of these arrangements, see “Item 8 – Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – 15. Commitments and Contingencies.”

 

Contractual Obligations

 

The Company’s principal contractual obligations as of December 31, 2012, are shown in the following table. Management believes that funds generated by its continuing operations, as well as cash provided by external financing, will continue to be the primary funding sources in meeting these obligations. Excluded from this table are liabilities recorded on the consolidated balance sheet that are generally short-term in nature (e.g., payables to brokers, dealers, and clearing organizations) or without contractual payment terms (e.g., deposits from banking clients, payables to brokerage clients, and deferred compensation).

 

     Less than
1 Year
     1-3
    Years     
     3-5
    Years     
     More than
5 Years
     Total  

Credit-related financial instruments (1)

   $ 1,395       $ 981       $ 1,061       $ 2,975       $ 6,412   

Long-term debt (2)

     58         467         361         1,091         1,977   

Leases (3)

     91         148         107         166         512   

Purchase obligations (4)

     159         139         7         1         306   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

   $     1,703       $       1,735       $       1,536       $     4,233       $     9,207   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

(1) 

Represents Schwab Bank’s commitments to extend credit to banking clients and purchase mortgage loans.

(2) 

Includes estimated future interest payments through 2017 for Medium-Term Notes and through 2022 for Senior Notes. Amounts exclude maturities under a finance lease obligation and unamortized discounts and premiums.

(3) 

Represents minimum rental commitments, net of sublease commitments, and includes facilities under the Company’s past restructuring initiatives and rental commitments under a finance lease obligation.

(4) 

Consists of purchase obligations for services such as advertising and marketing, telecommunications, professional services, and hardware- and software-related agreements. Includes purchase obligations that can be canceled by the Company without penalty.

 

RISK MANAGEMENT

 

Overview

 

The Company’s business activities expose it to a variety of risks, including operational, credit, market, liquidity, and reputational risk. Identification and management of these risks are essential to the success and financial soundness of the Company.

 

The Board of Directors has approved an enterprise risk management framework that is commensurate with the size, risk profile, complexity, and continuing growth of the Company. Senior management takes an active role in the Company’s risk management process and has developed policies and procedures under which specific business and control units are responsible for identifying, measuring, and controlling various risks. The Global Risk Committee, which is comprised of senior managers of major business and control functions, is responsible for reviewing and monitoring the Company’s risk exposures and leading the continued development of the Company’s risk management policies and practices.

 

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Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

(Tabular Amounts in Millions, Except Ratios, or as Noted)

 

Functional risk sub-committees focusing on specific areas of risk report into the Global Risk Committee. These sub-committees include the:

 

   

Corporate Asset-Liability Management and Pricing Committee, which focuses on the Company’s liquidity, capital resources, interest rate risk, and investments;

 

   

Credit and Market Risk Oversight Committee, which focuses on credit exposures resulting from client borrowing activity (e.g., margin lending activities and loans to banking clients), investing activities of certain of the Company’s proprietary funds, corporate credit and investment activity, and market risk resulting from the Company taking positions in certain securities to facilitate client trading activity;

 

   

New Products & Services Subcommittee, which reviews the risks associated with the launch of new product classes, services and offers;

 

   

Operational Risk Oversight Committee, which provides oversight of and approves operational risk management policies, risk tolerance levels, and operational risk governance processes, and includes the following subcommittees:

 

   

Information Security and Privacy Committee, which oversees information security and privacy policies, procedures and controls; and the

 

   

Model Governance Committee, which provides oversight of model risk throughout the Company.

 

The Global Risk Committee reports regularly to the Audit and Risk Committees of the Board of Directors, which review major risk exposures and the steps management has taken to monitor and control such exposures.

 

The Company’s Disclosure Committee is responsible for monitoring and evaluating the effectiveness of the Company’s (a) disclosure controls and procedures and (b) internal control over financial reporting as of the end of each fiscal quarter. The Disclosure Committee reports on this evaluation to the CEO and CFO prior to their certification required by Sections 302 and 906 of the Sarbanes Oxley Act of 2002.

 

The Company’s compliance, finance, internal audit, legal, and corporate risk management departments assist management and the various risk committees in evaluating, testing, and monitoring the Company’s risk management.

 

Risk is inherent in the Company’s business. Consequently, despite the Company’s efforts to identify areas of risk and implement risk management policies and procedures, there can be no assurance that the Company will not suffer unexpected losses due to operational or other risks. The following discussion highlights the Company’s policies and procedures for identification, assessment, and management of the principal areas of risk in its operations.

 

Operational Risk

 

Operational risk is the potential for loss due to inadequate or failed internal processes, people, and systems or from external events and relationships impacting CSC and/or any of its key business partners and vendors. Operational risk includes fiduciary, legal and compliance risk, and each are also described in detail below.

 

The Company’s operations are highly dependent on the integrity of its technology systems and the Company’s success depends, in part, on its ability to make timely enhancements and additions to its technology in anticipation of evolving client needs. To the extent the Company experiences system interruptions, errors or downtime (which could result from a variety of causes, including changes in client use patterns, technological failure, changes to its systems, linkages with third-party systems, and power failures), the Company’s business and operations could be significantly negatively impacted. To minimize business interruptions, Schwab has two data centers intended, in part, to further improve the recovery of business processing in the event of an emergency. The Company is committed to an ongoing process of upgrading, enhancing, and testing its technology systems. This effort is focused on meeting client needs, meeting market and regulatory changes, and deploying standardized technology platforms.

 

Operational risk also includes the risk of human error, employee misconduct, external fraud, computer viruses, distributed denial of service attacks, terrorist attacks, and natural disaster. Employee misconduct could include fraud and misappropriation of client or Company assets, improper use or disclosure of confidential client or Company information, and unauthorized activities, such as transactions exceeding acceptable risks or authorized limits. External fraud includes

 

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Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

(Tabular Amounts in Millions, Except Ratios, or as Noted)

 

misappropriation of client or Company assets by third parties, including through unauthorized access to Company systems and data and client accounts. The frequency and sophistication of such fraud attempts continue to increase.

 

Operational risk is mitigated through a system of internal controls and risk management practices that are designed to keep operational risk and operational losses at levels appropriate to the inherent risk of the business in which the Company operates. The Company has specific policies and procedures to identify and manage operational risk, and uses periodic risk self-assessments and internal audit reviews to evaluate the effectiveness of these internal controls. The Company maintains backup and recovery functions, including facilities for backup and communications, and conducts periodic testing of disaster recovery plans. The Company also maintains policies and procedures and technology to protect against fraud and unauthorized access to systems and data.

 

Despite the Company’s risk management efforts, it is not always possible to deter or prevent technological or operational failure, or fraud or other misconduct, and the precautions taken by the Company may not be effective in all cases. The Company may be subject to litigation, losses, and regulatory actions in such cases, and may be required to expend significant additional resources to remediate vulnerabilities or other exposures.

 

The Company also faces operational risk when it employs the services of various external vendors, including domestic and international outsourcing of certain technology, processing, servicing, and support functions. The Company manages its exposure to external vendor risk through contractual provisions, control standards, and ongoing monitoring of vendor performance. The Company maintains policies and procedures regarding the standard of care expected with Company data, whether the data is internal company information, employee information, or non-public client information. The Company clearly defines for employees, contractors, and vendors the Company’s expected standards of care for confidential data. Regular training is provided by the Company in regard to data security.

 

The Company is actively engaged in the research and development of new technologies, services, and products. The Company endeavors to protect its research and development efforts, and its brands, through the use of copyrights, patents, trade secrets, and contracts.

 

Fiduciary Risk

 

Fiduciary risk is the potential for financial or reputational loss through breach of fiduciary duties to a client. Fiduciary activities include, but are not limited to, individual and institutional trust, investment management, custody, and cash and securities processing. The Company attempts to manage this risk by establishing procedures to ensure that obligations to clients are discharged faithfully and in compliance with applicable legal and regulatory requirements. Business units have the primary responsibility for adherence to the procedures applicable to their business. Guidance and control are provided through the creation, approval, and ongoing review of applicable policies by business units and various risk committees.

 

Legal and Compliance Risk

 

The Company faces significant legal and compliance risk in its business, and the volume of litigation and regulatory proceedings against financial services firms and the amount of damages claimed have been increasing. Among other things, these risks relate to the suitability of client investments, conflicts of interest, disclosure obligations and performance expectations for Company products and services, supervision of employees, and the adequacy of the Company’s controls. Claims against the Company may increase due to a variety of factors, such as if clients suffer losses during a period of deteriorating equity market conditions, as the Company increases the level of advice it provides to clients, and as the Company enhances the services it provides to IAs. In addition, the Company and its affiliates are subject to extensive regulation by federal, state and foreign regulatory authorities, and SROs, and such regulation is becoming increasingly extensive and complex.

 

The Company attempts to manage legal and compliance risk through policies and procedures reasonably designed to avoid litigation claims and prevent or detect violations of applicable legal and regulatory requirements. These procedures address issues such as business conduct and ethics, sales and trading practices, marketing and communications, extension of credit,

 

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Table of Contents

THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

(Tabular Amounts in Millions, Except Ratios, or as Noted)

 

client funds and securities, books and records, anti-money laundering, client privacy, employment policies, and contracts management. Despite the Company’s efforts to maintain an effective compliance program and internal controls, legal breaches and rule violations could result in reputational harm, significant losses and disciplinary sanctions, including limitations on the Company’s business activities.

 

Credit Risk

 

Credit risk is the potential for loss due to a borrower, counterparty, or issuer failing to perform its contractual obligations. The Company’s direct exposure to credit risk mainly results from margin lending activities, securities lending activities, mortgage lending activities, its role as a counterparty in financial contracts and other investing activities. To manage the risks of such losses, the Company has established policies and procedures which include: establishing and reviewing credit limits, monitoring of credit limits and quality of counterparties, and adjusting margin requirements for certain securities. Collateral arrangements relating to margin loans, securities lending agreements, and resale agreements include provisions that require additional collateral in the event that market fluctuations result in declines in the value of collateral received. Additionally, for margin loan and securities lending agreements, collateral arrangements require that the fair value of such collateral exceeds the amounts loaned.

 

The Company’s credit risk exposure related to loans to banking clients is actively managed through individual and portfolio reviews performed by management. Management regularly reviews asset quality including concentrations, delinquencies, nonaccrual loans, charge-offs, and recoveries. All are factors in the determination of an appropriate allowance for loan losses, which is reviewed quarterly by management. The Company’s mortgage loan portfolios primarily include First Mortgages of $6.5 billion and HELOCs of $3.3 billion at December 31, 2012.

 

The Company’s First Mortgage portfolio underwriting requirements are generally consistent with the underwriting requirements in the secondary market for loan portfolios. The Company’s underwriting guidelines include maximum loan-to-value (LTV) ratios, cash out limits, and minimum Fair Isaac Corporation (FICO) credit scores. The specific guidelines are dependent on the individual characteristics of a loan (for example, whether the property is a primary or secondary residence, whether the loan is for investment property, whether the loan is for an initial purchase of a home or refinance of an existing home, and whether the loan is conforming or jumbo). These credit underwriting standards have limited the exposure to the types of loans that experienced high foreclosures and loss rates elsewhere in the industry in recent years. There have been no significant changes to the LTV ratio or FICO credit score underwriting guidelines related to the Company’s First Mortgage or HELOC portfolios during 2012. The Company does not offer loans that allow for negative amortization and does not originate or purchase subprime loans (generally defined as extensions of credit to borrowers with a FICO credit score of less than 620 at origination), unless the borrower has compensating credit factors. At December 31, 2012, approximately 1% of both the First Mortgage and HELOC portfolios consisted of loans to borrowers with updated FICO credit scores of less than 620.

 

At December 31, 2012, the weighted-average originated LTV ratios were 60% and 59% for the First Mortgage and HELOC portfolios, respectively. The computation of the origination LTV ratio for a HELOC includes any first lien mortgage outstanding on the same property at the time of origination. At December 31, 2012, 22% of HELOCs ($725 million of the HELOC portfolio) were in a first lien position. The weighted-average originated FICO credit score was 768 for both the First Mortgage and HELOC portfolios.

 

The Company monitors the estimated current LTV ratios of its First Mortgage and HELOC portfolios on an ongoing basis. At December 31, 2012, the weighted-average estimated current LTV ratios were 62% and 72% for the First Mortgage and HELOC portfolios, respectively. The computation of the estimated current LTV ratio for a HELOC includes any first lien mortgage outstanding on the same property at the time of the HELOC’s origination. The Company estimates the current LTV ratio for each loan by reference to a home price appreciation index. The Company also monitors updated borrower FICO scores, delinquency trends, and verified liquid assets held by individual borrowers. At December 31, 2012, the weighted-average updated FICO scores were 768 and 767 for the First Mortgage and HELOC portfolios, respectively.

 

A portion of the Company’s HELOC portfolio is secured by second liens on the associated properties. Second lien mortgage loans possess a higher degree of credit risk given the subordination to the first lien holder in the event of default. At

 

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Table of Contents

THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

(Tabular Amounts in Millions, Except Ratios, or as Noted)

 

December 31, 2012, $2.6 billion, or 78%, of the HELOC portfolio was in a second lien position. In addition to the credit monitoring activities described above, the Company also monitors credit risk on second lien HELOC loans by reviewing the delinquency status of the first lien loan on the associated property, when such status is available. The portion of the Company’s second lien HELOC portfolio for which the Company either holds the first lien or has the ability to monitor the delinquency status of the related first mortgage was $477 million, or 15%, of the HELOC portfolio at December 31, 2012. Additionally, at December 31, 2012, approximately 35% of the HELOC borrowers that had a balance only paid the minimum amount due.

 

For more information on the Company’s credit quality indicators relating to its First Mortgage and HELOC portfolios, including delinquency characteristics, borrower FICO scores at origination, updated borrower FICO scores, LTV ratios at origination, and estimated current LTV ratios, see “Item 8 – Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – 7. Loans to Banking Clients and Related Allowance for Loan Losses.”

 

The following table presents certain of the Company’s loan quality metrics as a percentage of total outstanding loans:

 

December 31,

   2012     2011  

Loan delinquencies (1)

     0.77     0.81

Nonaccrual loans

     0.45     0.53

Allowance for loan losses

     0.52     0.55

 

(1) 

Loan delinquencies are defined as loans that are 30 days or more past due.

 

The Company has exposure to credit risk associated with its securities available for sale and securities held to maturity portfolios, whose fair values totaled $46.1 billion and $18.7 billion at December 31, 2012, respectively. These portfolios include U.S. agency and non-agency mortgage-backed securities, asset-backed securities, corporate debt securities, certificates of deposit, U.S. agency notes, commercial paper, and other securities. U.S. agency mortgage-backed securities do not have explicit credit ratings, however, management considers these to be of the highest credit quality and rating given the guarantee of principal and interest by the U.S. government-sponsored enterprises. Included in non-agency residential mortgage-backed securities are securities collateralized by loans that are considered to be “Prime” (defined by the Company as loans to borrowers with a FICO credit score of 620 or higher at origination), and “Alt-A” (defined by the Company as Prime loans with reduced documentation at origination).

 

Residential mortgage-backed securities, particularly Alt-A securities, experienced continued credit deterioration in 2012, including increased payment delinquency rates and losses on foreclosures of underlying mortgages. For a discussion of the impact of current market conditions on residential mortgage-backed securities, see “Current Market and Regulatory Environment and Other Developments.” At December 31, 2012, the amortized cost of non-agency residential mortgage-backed securities represented 2% of the total mortgage-backed securities portfolio. These securities were originated between 2003 and 2007. At December 31, 2012, all of the corporate debt securities and non-mortgage asset-backed securities were rated investment grade (defined as a rating equivalent to a Moody’s rating of “Baa” or higher, or a Standard & Poor’s rating of “BBB-” or higher).

 

Schwab performs clearing services for all securities transactions in its client accounts. Schwab has exposure to credit risk due to its obligation to settle transactions with clearing corporations, mutual funds, and other financial institutions even if Schwab’s client or a counterparty fails to meet its obligations to Schwab.

 

The Company sponsors a number of proprietary money market mutual funds and other proprietary funds. Although the Company has no obligation to do so, the Company may decide for competitive reasons to provide credit, liquidity or other support to its funds in the event of significant declines in valuation of fund holdings or significant redemption activity that exceeds available liquidity. Such support could cause the Company to take significant charges and could reduce the Company’s liquidity. If the Company chose not to provide credit, liquidity or other support in such a situation, the Company could suffer reputational damage and its business could be adversely affected.

 

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Table of Contents

THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

(Tabular Amounts in Millions, Except Ratios, or as Noted)

 

Concentration Risk

 

The Company has exposure to concentration risk when holding large positions in financial instruments collateralized by assets with similar economic characteristics or in securities of a single issuer or industry.

 

The fair value of the Company’s investments in mortgage-backed securities totaled $39.5 billion at December 31, 2012. Of these, $38.8 billion were issued by U.S. agencies and $733 million were issued by private entities (non-agency securities). The U.S. agency securities are included in securities available for sale and securities held to maturity and the non-agency securities are included in securities available for sale. Included in non-agency residential mortgage-backed securities are securities collateralized by Alt-A loans. At December 31, 2012, the amortized cost and fair value of Alt-A mortgage-backed securities were $308 million and $269 million, respectively.

 

The Company’s investments in corporate debt securities and commercial paper totaled $8.0 billion at December 31, 2012, with the majority issued by institutions in the financial services industry. These securities are included in securities available for sale, securities held to maturity, cash and cash equivalents, and other securities owned in the Company’s consolidated balance sheets.

 

The Company’s loans to banking clients include $6.0 billion of adjustable rate first lien residential real estate mortgage loans at December 31, 2012. The Company’s adjustable rate mortgages have initial fixed interest rates for three to ten years and interest rates that adjust annually thereafter. Approximately 50% of these mortgages consisted of loans with interest-only payment terms. The interest rates on approximately 65% of these interest-only loans are not scheduled to reset for three or more years. The Company’s mortgage loans do not include interest terms described as temporary introductory rates below current market rates. At December 31, 2012, 45% of the residential real estate mortgages and 50% of the HELOC balances were secured by properties which are located in California.

 

The Company’s HELOC product has a 30-year loan term with an initial draw period of 10 years from the date of origination. After the initial draw period, the balance outstanding at such time is converted to a 20-year amortizing loan. The interest rate during the initial draw period and the 20-year amortizing period is a floating rate based on the prime rate plus a margin. The following table presents when current outstanding HELOCs will convert to amortizing loans:

 

December 31, 2012

   Balance  

Within 1 year

   $ 152   

> 1 year – 3 years

     598   

> 3 years – 5 years

     436   

> 5 years

     2,101   
  

 

 

 

Total

   $     3,287   
  

 

 

 

 

As of December 31, 2012, all of the Company’s HELOC loans are within the 10-year initial draw period, and as such, none of the HELOCs have converted to an amortizing loan.

 

The Company also has exposure to concentration risk from its margin and securities lending activities collateralized by securities of a single issuer or industry. This concentration risk is mitigated by collateral arrangements that require the fair value of such collateral exceeds the amounts loaned.

 

The Company has indirect exposure to U.S. Government and agency securities held as collateral to secure its resale agreements. The Company’s primary credit exposure on these resale transactions is with its counterparty. The Company would have exposure to the U.S. Government and agency securities only in the event of the counterparty’s default on the resale agreements. The fair value of U.S. Government and agency securities held as collateral for resale agreements totaled $19.7 billion at December 31, 2012.

 

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Table of Contents

THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

(Tabular Amounts in Millions, Except Ratios, or as Noted)

 

European Holdings

 

The Company has exposure to non-sovereign financial and non-financial institutions in Europe. The following table shows the balances of this exposure by each country in Europe in which the issuer or counterparty is domiciled. The Company has no direct exposure to sovereign governments in Europe. The Company does not have unfunded commitments to counterparties in Europe, nor does it have exposure as a result of credit default protection purchased or sold separately as of December 31, 2012.

 

The determination of the domicile of exposure varies by the type of investment. For time deposits and certificates of deposit, the exposure is grouped in the country in which the financial institution is chartered under the regulatory framework of the European country. For asset-backed commercial paper, the exposure is grouped by the country of the sponsoring bank that provides the credit and liquidity support for such instruments. For corporate debt securities, the exposure is grouped by the country in which the issuer is domiciled. In situations in which the Company invests in a corporate debt security of a U.S. subsidiary of a European parent company, such holdings will be attributable to the European country only if significant reliance is placed on the European parent company for credit support underlying the security. For substantially all of the holdings listed below, the issuers or counterparties were financial institutions. All of the Company’s resale agreements, which are included in investments segregated and on deposit for regulatory purposes, are collateralized by U.S. government securities. Additionally, the Company’s securities lending activities are collateralized by cash. Therefore, the Company’s resale agreements and securities lending activities are not included in the table below even if the counterparty is a European institution.

 

    Fair Value as of December 31, 2012  
    Denmark(1)     France     Germany     Italy     Netherlands     Norway     Sweden     Switzerland     United
Kingdom
    Total  

Cash equivalents:

                   

Time deposits

  $      $ 500      $      $      $      $      $      $      $ 200      $ 700   

Commercial paper

           45               100                                    100        245   

Cash and investments segregated and on deposit for regulatory purposes:

                   

Trust deposits

                  400                                                  400   

Securities available for sale:

                   

Certificates of deposit

           100        300               100        200        1,201        802        1,100        3,803   

Corporate debt securities

    213                             193               101               307        814   

Commercial paper

           100                                                  400        500   

Securities held to maturity:

                   

Corporate debt securities

                                                     100               100   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total fair value

  $ 213      $ 745      $ 700      $ 100      $ 293      $ 200      $ 1,302      $ 902      $ 2,107      $ 6,562   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total amortized cost

  $ 212      $ 745      $ 700      $ 100      $ 292      $ 200      $ 1,300      $ 900      $ 2,103      $ 6,552   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Maturities:

                   

Overnight

  $      $ 500      $ 400      $      $      $      $      $      $ 200      $ 1,100   

1 day – < 6 months

    113        245        300        100        70        100        200        225        1,201        2,554   

6 months – < 1 year

    100                             123               501        501        298        1,523   

1 year – 2 years

                                100        100        601        176        304        1,281   

> 2 years

                                                            104        104   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total fair value

  $ 213      $ 745      $ 700      $ 100      $ 293      $ 200      $ 1,302      $ 902      $ 2,107      $ 6,562   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

(1) 

The exposures in Denmark are also backed by the full faith and credit of the Danish government.

 

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Table of Contents

THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

(Tabular Amounts in Millions, Except Ratios, or as Noted)

 

In addition to the direct holdings of European companies listed above, the Company also has indirect exposure to Europe through its investments in Schwab sponsored money market funds (collectively, the Funds) resulting from clearing activities. At December 31, 2012, the Company had $329 million in investments in these Funds. Certain of the Funds’ positions include certificates of deposits, time deposits, commercial paper and corporate debt securities issued by counterparties in Europe.

Management mitigates exposure to European holdings by employing a separate team of credit analysts that evaluate each issuer, counterparty, and country. Management monitors its exposure to European issuers by 1) performing risk assessments of the foreign countries, which include evaluating the size of the country and economy, currency trends, political landscape and the countries’ regulatory environment and developments, 2) performing ad hoc stress tests that evaluate the impact of sovereign governments’ debt write-downs on the issuers and counterparties to our investments, 3) reviewing publicly available stress tests that are published by various regulators in the European market, 4) establishing credit and maturity limits by issuer, and 5) monitoring aggregate exposures by country.

Market Risk

Market risk is the potential for changes in revenue or the value of financial instruments held by the Company as a result of fluctuations in interest rates, equity prices or market conditions. For discussion of the Company’s market risk, see “Item 7A – Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.”

FAIR VALUE OF FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS

The Company uses fair value measurements to record certain financial assets and liabilities at fair value, and to determine fair value disclosures. Assets are measured at fair value using quoted prices or market-based information and accordingly are classified as Level 1 or Level 2 measurements in accordance with the fair value hierarchy described in fair value measurement accounting guidance. Liabilities recorded at fair value were not material at December 31, 2012 or 2011. See “Item 8 – Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – 2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and 17. Fair Values of Assets and Liabilities” for more information on the Company’s assets and liabilities recorded at fair value.

When available, the Company uses quoted prices in active markets to measure the fair value of assets and liabilities. When utilizing market data with a bid-ask spread, the Company uses the price within the bid-ask spread that best represents fair value. When quoted prices do not exist, the Company uses prices obtained from independent third-party pricing services to measure the fair value of investment assets. The Company generally obtains prices from at least three independent pricing sources for assets recorded at fair value and may obtain up to five prices on assets with higher risk of limited observable information, such as non-agency residential mortgage-backed securities. The Company’s primary independent pricing service provides prices based on observable trades and discounted cash flows that incorporate observable information such as yields for similar types of securities (a benchmark interest rate plus observable spreads) and weighted-average maturity for the same or similar “to-be-issued” securities. The Company compares the prices obtained from its primary independent pricing service to the prices obtained from the additional independent pricing services to determine if the price obtained from the primary independent pricing service is reasonable. The Company does not adjust the prices received from independent third-party pricing services unless such prices are inconsistent with the definition of fair value and result in a material difference in the recorded amounts. At December 31, 2012 and 2011, the Company did not adjust prices received from the primary independent third-party pricing service.

CRITICAL ACCOUNTING ESTIMATES

The consolidated financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the U.S. While the majority of the Company’s revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities are not based on estimates, there are certain accounting principles that require management to make estimates regarding matters that are uncertain and susceptible to change where such change may result in a material adverse impact on the Company’s financial position and

 

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Table of Contents

THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

(Tabular Amounts in Millions, Except Ratios, or as Noted)

 

reported financial results. These critical accounting estimates are described below. Management regularly reviews the estimates and assumptions used in the preparation of the Company’s financial statements for reasonableness and adequacy.

 

Other-than-Temporary Impairment of Securities Available for Sale and Securities Held to Maturity

 

Management evaluates whether securities available for sale and securities held to maturity are other-than-temporarily impaired (OTTI) on a quarterly basis. Debt securities with unrealized losses are considered OTTI if the Company intends to sell the security or if it is more likely than not that the Company will be required to sell such security prior to any anticipated recovery. If management determines that a security is OTTI under these circumstances, the impairment recognized in earnings is measured as the entire difference between the amortized cost and the then-current fair value.

 

A security is also OTTI if management does not expect to recover the amortized cost of the security. In this circumstance, management utilizes cash flow models to estimate the expected future cash flow from the securities and to estimate the credit loss. The impairment recognized in earnings is measured by the difference between the present value of expected cash flows and the amortized cost of the security. Expected cash flows are discounted using the security’s effective interest rate.

 

The evaluation of whether the Company expects to recover the amortized cost of a security is inherently judgmental. The evaluation includes the assessment of several bond performance indicators including: the portion of the underlying loans that are delinquent (30 days, 60 days, 90+ days), in bankruptcy, in foreclosure or converted to real estate owned; the actual amount of loss incurred on the underlying loans in which the property has been foreclosed and sold; the amount of credit support provided by the structure of the security available to absorb credit losses on the underlying loans; the current price and magnitude of the unrealized loss; and whether the Company has received all scheduled principal and interest payments. Management uses cash flow models to further assess the likelihood of other-than-temporary impairment for the Company’s non-agency residential mortgage-backed securities. To develop the cash flow models, the Company uses forecasted loss severity, prepayment speeds (i.e. the rate at which the principal on underlying loans are paid down), and default rates over the securities’ expected remaining maturities.

 

Valuation of Goodwill

 

The Company tests goodwill for impairment at least annually, or whenever indications of impairment exist. Impairment exists when the carrying amount of goodwill exceeds its implied fair value, resulting in an impairment charge for this excess. Adverse changes in the Company’s planned business operations such as unanticipated competition, a loss of key personnel, the sale of a reporting unit or a significant portion of a reporting unit, or other unforeseen developments could result in an impairment of the Company’s recorded goodwill.

 

The Company’s annual goodwill impairment testing date is April 1st. In testing for a potential impairment of goodwill on April 1, 2012, the fair values of the Company’s reporting units (generally defined as the Company’s businesses for which financial information is available and reviewed regularly by management) substantially exceeded their carrying values, and therefore management concluded that no amount of goodwill was impaired. The estimated fair values of the reporting units were established using a discounted cash flow model that includes significant assumptions about the future operating results and cash flows of each reporting unit and a market capitalization analysis. As allowed by applicable accounting standards, the Company can elect to qualitatively assess goodwill for impairment if it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit exceeds its carrying value.

 

Allowance for Loan Losses

 

The appropriateness of the allowance is reviewed quarterly by management, taking into consideration current economic conditions, the existing loan portfolio composition, past loss experience, and risks inherent in the portfolio.

 

The methodology to establish an allowance for loan losses utilizes statistical models that estimate prepayments, defaults, and probable losses for the loan segments based on predicted behavior of individual loans within the segments. The methodology considers the effects of borrower behavior and a variety of factors including, but not limited to, interest rates, housing price

 

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Table of Contents

THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

(Tabular Amounts in Millions, Except Ratios, or as Noted)

 

movements as measured by a housing price index, economic conditions, estimated defaults and foreclosures measured by historical and expected delinquencies, changes in prepayment speeds, loan-to-value (LTV) ratios, past loss experience, estimates of future loss severities, borrower credit risk measured by FICO scores, and the adequacy of collateral. The methodology also evaluates concentrations in the loan segments including loan products, year of origination, geographical distribution of collateral, and the portion of borrowers who have other client relationships with the Company.

 

Probable losses are forecast using a loan-level simulation of the delinquency status of the loans over the term of the loans. The simulation starts with the current relevant risk indicators, including the current delinquent status of each loan, the estimated current LTV ratio of each loan, the term and structure of each loan, current key interest rates including U.S. Treasury and London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR) rates, and borrower FICO scores. The more significant variables in the simulation include delinquency roll rates, loss severity, housing prices, and interest rates. Delinquency roll rates (i.e., the rates at which loans transition through delinquency stages and ultimately result in a loss) are estimated from the Company’s historical loss experience adjusted for current trends and market information. Further, the delinquency roll rates within the loan-level simulation discussed above are calibrated to match a moving average of the delinquency roll rates actually experienced in the respective First Mortgage and HELOC portfolios. Loss severity estimates are based on the Company’s historical loss experience and market trends. The estimated loss severity (i.e. loss given default) used in the allowance for loan loss methodology for HELOCs is higher than that used in the methodology for First Mortgages. Housing price trends are derived from historical home price indices and econometric forecasts of future home values. Factors affecting the home price index include: housing inventory, unemployment, interest rates, and inflation expectations. Interest rate projections are based on the current term structure of interest rates and historical volatilities to project various possible future interest rate paths. As a result, the current state of house prices, including the decrease in general house prices experienced over the last several years, as well as the current state of delinquencies unique to the Company’s First Mortgage and HELOC portfolios, are considered in the allowance for loan loss methodology.

 

This methodology results in loss factors that are applied to the outstanding balances to determine the allowance for loan loss for each loan segment.

 

Legal and Regulatory Reserves

 

Reserves for legal and regulatory claims and proceedings reflect an estimate of probable losses for each matter, after considering, among other factors, the progress of the case, prior experience and the experience of others in similar cases, available defenses, insurance coverage and indemnification, and the opinions and views of legal counsel. In many cases, including most class action lawsuits, it is not possible to determine whether a loss will be incurred, or to estimate the range of that loss, until the matter is close to resolution, in which case no accrual is made until that time. Reserves are adjusted as more information becomes available or when an event occurs requiring a change. Significant judgment is required in making these estimates, and the actual cost of resolving a matter may ultimately differ materially from the amount reserved.

 

The Company’s management has discussed the development and selection of these critical accounting estimates with the Audit Committee. Additionally, management has reviewed with the Audit Committee the Company’s significant estimates discussed in this Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

 

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

In addition to historical information, this Annual Report on Form 10-K contains “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Forward-looking statements are identified by words such as “believe,” “anticipate,” “expect,” “intend,” “plan,” “will,” “may,” “estimate,” “appear,” “aim,” “target,” “could,” and other similar expressions. In addition, any statements that refer to expectations, projections, or other characterizations of future events or circumstances are forward-looking statements.

 

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THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

(Tabular Amounts in Millions, Except Ratios, or as Noted)

 

These forward-looking statements, which reflect management’s beliefs, objectives, and expectations as of the date hereof, are necessarily estimates based on the best judgment of the Company’s senior management. These statements relate to, among other things:

 

   

the Company’s ability to pursue its business strategy (see “Part I – Item 1. – Business – Business Strategy and Competitive Environment”);

 

   

the expected impact of the Federal Reserve’s NPRs (see “Part I – Item 1A. – Risk Factors” and “Current Market and Regulatory Environment and Other Developments”);

 

   

the impact of legal proceedings and regulatory matters (see “Part I – Item 3. – Legal Proceedings” and “Item 8 – Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements –15. Commitments and Contingencies – Legal Contingencies”);

 

   

the impact of current market conditions on the Company’s results of operations (see “Current Market and Regulatory Environment and Other Developments,” “Results of Operations – Net Interest Revenue,” and “Item 8 – Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – 6. Securities Available for Sale and Securities Held to Maturity”);

 

   

sources of liquidity, capital, and level of dividends (see “Part I – Item 1. – Business – Regulation,” “Liquidity and Capital Resources,” “Contractual Obligations,” and “Item 8 – Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – 24. Regulatory Requirements”);

 

   

target capital ratios (see “Liquidity and Capital Resources” and “Item 8 – Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – 24. Regulatory Requirements”);

 

   

capital expenditures (see “Liquidity and Capital Resources – Capital Resources – Capital Expenditures”);

 

   

the impact of changes in management’s estimates on the Company’s results of operations (see “Critical Accounting Estimates”);

 

   

the impact of changes in the likelihood of indemnification and guarantee payment obligations on the Company’s results of operations (see “Item 8 – Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – 15. Commitments and Contingencies”); and

 

   

the impact on the Company’s results of operations of recording stock option expense (see “Item 8 – Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – 20. Employee Incentive, Retirement, and Deferred Compensation Plans”).

 

Achievement of the expressed beliefs, objectives and expectations described in these statements is subject to certain risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from the expressed beliefs, objectives, and expectations. Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K or, in the case of documents incorporated by reference, as of the date of those documents.

 

Important factors that may cause actual results to differ include, but are not limited to:

 

   

changes in general economic and financial market conditions;

 

   

changes in revenues and profit margin due to changes in interest rates;

 

   

adverse developments in litigation or regulatory matters;

 

   

the extent of any charges associated with litigation and regulatory matters;

 

   

amounts recovered on insurance policies;

 

   

the Company’s ability to attract and retain clients and grow client assets and relationships;

 

   

the Company’s ability to develop and launch new products, services and capabilities in a timely and successful manner;

 

   

fluctuations in client asset values due to changes in equity valuations;

 

   

the Company’s ability to monetize client assets;

 

   

the performance or valuation of securities available for sale and securities held to maturity;

 

   

trading activity;

 

   

the level of interest rates, including yields available on money market mutual fund eligible instruments;

 

   

the adverse impact of financial reform legislation and related regulations;

 

   

the amount of loans to the Company’s brokerage and banking clients;

 

   

the level of the Company’s stock repurchase activity;

 

   

the level of brokerage client cash balances and deposits from banking clients;

 

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THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

(Tabular Amounts in Millions, Except Ratios, or as Noted)

 

   

the availability and terms of external financing;

 

   

capital needs;

 

   

level of expenses;

 

   

competitive pressures on rates and fees;

 

   

acquisition integration costs;

 

   

the timing and impact of changes in the Company’s level of investments in buildings, leasehold improvements, and software and equipment relating to its information technology systems; and

 

   

potential breaches of contractual terms for which the Company has guarantee obligations.

 

Certain of these factors, as well as general risk factors affecting the Company, are discussed in greater detail in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including “Item 1A – Risk Factors.”

 

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THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

 

Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

 

Market risk is the potential for changes in revenue or the value of financial instruments held by the Company as a result of fluctuations in interest rates, equity prices or market conditions.

 

For the Company’s market risk related to interest rates, a sensitivity analysis, referred to as a net interest revenue simulation model, is shown below. The Company is exposed to interest rate risk primarily from changes in market interest rates on its interest-earning assets relative to changes in the costs of its funding sources that finance these assets.

 

Net interest revenue is affected by various factors, such as the distribution and composition of interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities, the spread between yields earned on interest-earning assets and rates paid on interest-bearing liabilities, which may re-price at different times or by different amounts, and the spread between short and long-term interest rates. Interest-earning assets include residential real estate loans and mortgage-backed securities. These assets are sensitive to changes in interest rates and to changes to prepayment levels, which tend to increase in a declining rate environment.

 

To mitigate the risk of loss, the Company has established policies and procedures which include setting guidelines on the amount of net interest revenue at risk, and monitoring the net interest margin and average maturity of its interest-earning assets and funding sources. To remain within these guidelines, the Company manages the maturity, repricing, and cash flow characteristics of the investment portfolios. Because the Company establishes the rates paid on certain brokerage client cash balances and deposits from banking clients, the rates charged on margin loans, and controls the composition of its investment securities, it has some ability to manage its net interest spread, depending on competitive factors and market conditions.

 

The Company is also subject to market risk as a result of fluctuations in equity prices. The Company’s direct holdings of equity securities and its associated exposure to equity prices are not material. The Company is indirectly exposed to equity market fluctuations in connection with securities collateralizing margin loans to brokerage customers, and customer securities loaned out as part of the Company’s securities lending activities. Equity market valuations may also affect the level of brokerage client trading activity, margin borrowing, and overall client engagement with the Company. Additionally, the Company earns mutual fund service fees and asset management fees based upon daily balances of certain client assets. Fluctuations in these client asset balances caused by changes in equity valuations directly impact the amount of fee revenue earned by the Company.

 

Financial instruments held by the Company are also subject to liquidity risk – that is, the risk that valuations will be negatively affected by changes in demand and the underlying market for a financial instrument. Recent conditions in the credit markets have significantly reduced market liquidity in a wide range of financial instruments, including the types of instruments held by the Company, and fair value can differ significantly from the value implied by the credit quality and actual performance of the instrument’s underlying cash flows.

 

Financial instruments held by the Company are also subject to valuation risk as a result of changes in valuations of the underlying collateral, such as housing prices in the case of residential real estate loans and mortgage-backed securities.

 

For discussion of the impact of current market conditions on asset management and administration fees, net interest revenue, and securities available for sale, see “Item 7 – Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Current Market and Regulatory Environment and Other Developments.”

 

The Company’s market risk related to financial instruments held for trading is not material.

 

Net Interest Revenue Simulation

 

The Company uses net interest revenue simulation modeling techniques to evaluate and manage the effect of changing interest rates. The simulation model (the model) includes all interest-sensitive assets and liabilities. Key variables in the model include the repricing of financial instruments, prepayment, reinvestment, and product pricing assumptions. The Company uses constant balances and market rates in the model assumptions in order to minimize the number of variables and to better isolate risks. The simulations involve assumptions that are inherently uncertain and, as a result, cannot precisely estimate net interest revenue or predict the impact of changes in interest rates on net interest revenue. Actual results may differ from simulated

 

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THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

 

results due to balance growth or decline and the timing, magnitude, and frequency of interest rate changes, as well as changes in market conditions and management strategies, including changes in asset and liability mix.

 

As represented by the simulations presented below, the Company’s investment strategy is structured to produce an increase in net interest revenue when interest rates rise and, conversely, a decrease in net interest revenue when interest rates fall (i.e., interest-earning assets generally reprice more quickly than interest-bearing liabilities).

 

The simulations in the following table assume that the asset and liability structure of the consolidated balance sheet would not be changed as a result of the simulated changes in interest rates. As the Company actively manages its consolidated balance sheet and interest rate exposure, in all likelihood the Company would take steps to manage any additional interest rate exposure that could result from changes in the interest rate environment. The following table shows the results of a gradual 100 basis point increase or decrease in market interest rates relative to the Company’s current market rates forecast on simulated net interest revenue over the next 12 months beginning December 31, 2012 and 2011.

 

December 31,

   2012     2011  

Increase of 100 basis points

     19.2     19.1

Decrease of 100 basis points

     (10.0 %)      (8.1 %) 

 

The sensitivities shown in the simulation reflect the fact that short-term interest rates in 2012 remained at historically low levels, including the federal funds target rate, which was unchanged at a range of zero to 0.25%. The current low interest rate environment limits the extent to which the Company can reduce interest expense paid on funding sources in a declining interest rate scenario. A decline in interest rates could therefore negatively impact the yield on the Company’s investment portfolio to a greater degree than any offsetting reduction in interest expense, further compressing net interest margin. Any increases in short-term interest rates result in a greater impact as yields on interest-earning assets are expected to rise faster than the cost of funding sources.

 

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THE CHARLES SCHWAB CORPORATION

 

Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Consolidated Statements of Income

    50   

Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income

    51   

Consolidated Balance Sheets

    52   

Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

    53   

Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity

    54   

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

    55   
 

      Note 1.

   Introduction and Basis of Presentation     55   
 

      Note 2.

   Summary of Significant Accounting Policies     55   
 

      Note 3.

   Business Acquisitions     61   
 

      Note 4.

   Receivables from Brokerage Clients     63   
 

      Note 5.

   Other Securities Owned     64   
 

      Note 6.

   Securities Available for Sale and Securities Held to Maturity     64   
 

      Note 7.

   Loans to Banking Clients and Related Allowance for Loan Losses     68   
 

      Note 8.

   Equipment, Office Facilities, and Property     72   
 

      Note 9.

   Intangible Assets and Goodwill     72   
 

      Note 10.

   Other Assets     73   
 

      Note 11.

   Deposits from Banking Clients     73   
 

      Note 12.

   Payables to Brokers, Dealers, and Clearing Organizations     73   
 

      Note 13.

   Payables to Brokerage Clients     74   
 

      Note 14.

   Borrowings     74   
 

      Note 15.

   Commitments and Contingencies     76   
 

      Note 16.

   Financial Instruments Subject to Off-Balance Sheet Risk, Credit Risk, or Market Risk     78   
 

      Note 17.

   Fair Values of Assets and Liabilities     80   
 

      Note 18.

   Stockholders’ Equity     83   
 

      Note 19.

   Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)     84   
 

      Note 20.

   Employee Incentive, Retirement, and Deferred Compensation Plans     84   
 

      Note 21.

   Class Action Litigation and Regulatory Reserve and Money Market Mutual Fund Charges     87   
 

      Note 22.

   Taxes on Income     87   
 

      Note 23.

   Earnings Per Common Share     88   
 

      Note 24.

   Regulatory Requirements     89   
 

      Note 25.

   Segment Information     90   
 

      Note 26.

   Subsequent Events     91   
 

      Note 27.

   The Charles Schwab Corporation – Parent Company Only Financial Statements     92   
 

      Note 28.

   Quarterly Financial Information (Unaudited)     94   

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

    95   

Management’s Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

    96   

 

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Consolidated Statements of Income

 

(In Millions, Except Per Share Amounts)

 

Year Ended December 31,

   2012     2011     2010  

Net Revenues

      

Asset management and administration fees

   $     2,043      $     1,928      $     1,822   

Interest revenue

     1,914        1,900        1,723   

Interest expense

     (150     (175     (199
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net interest revenue

     1,764        1,725        1,524   

Trading revenue

     868        927        830   

Other — net

     256        160        135   

Provision for loan losses

     (16     (18     (27

Net impairment losses on securities (1) 

     (32     (31     (36
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total net revenues

     4,883        4,691        4,248   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Expenses Excluding Interest

      

Compensation and benefits

     1,803        1,732        1,573   

Professional services

     388        387        341   

Occupancy and equipment

     311        301        272   

Advertising and market development

     241        228        196   

Communications

     220        220        207   

Depreciation and amortization

     196        155        146   

Class action litigation and regulatory reserve

            7        320   

Money market mutual fund charges

                   132   

Other

     274        269        282   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total expenses excluding interest

     3,433        3,299        3,469   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Income before taxes on income

     1,450        1,392        779   

Taxes on income

     522        528        325   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net Income

     928        864        454   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Preferred stock dividends

     45                 
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net Income Available to Common Stockholders

   $ 883      $ 864      $ 454   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Weighted-Average Common Shares Outstanding — Diluted

     1,275        1,229        1,194   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Earnings Per Common Share — Basic

   $ .69      $ .70      $ .38   

Earnings Per Common Share — Diluted

   $ .69      $ .70      $ .38   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

(1) 

Net impairment losses on securities include total other-than-temporary impairment losses of $15 million, $18 million, and $41 million, net of $(17) million, $(13) million, and $5 million recognized in other comprehensive income in 2012, 2011, and 2010, respectively.

 

See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

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Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income

 

(In Millions)

 

Year Ended December 31,

   2012     2011     2010  

Net income

   $ 928      $ 864      $ 454   

Other comprehensive income (loss), before tax:

      

Change in net unrealized gain on securities available for sale:

      

Net unrealized gain (loss)

     470        (43     300   

Reclassification of impairment charges included in earnings

     32        31        36   

Other reclassifications included in earnings

     (38     1        1   

Other

     1        (1     (1
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Other comprehensive income (loss), before tax

     465        (12     336   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Income tax effect

     175        (4     129   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax

     290        (8     207