10-K 1 d661545d10k.htm 10-K 10-K
Table of Contents

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM 10-K

 

 

(Mark One)

 

x ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2013

or

 

¨ TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from              to             .

Commission File Number: 001-36061

 

 

Benefitfocus, Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

 

 

Delaware   46-2346314

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

100 Benefitfocus Way

Charleston, South Carolina 29492

(Address of principal executive offices and zip code)

(843) 849-7476

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class

 

Name of each exchange of which registered

Common Stock, $0.001 Par Value   NASDAQ Global Market

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

None

 

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  ¨    No  x

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes  ¨    No  x

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  x    No  ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes  x    No  ¨

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.    x

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

 

Large accelerated filer    ¨      Accelerated filer     ¨      Non-accelerated filer    x   Smaller reporting company     ¨
          (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).    Yes  ¨    No  x

As of June 30, 2013, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, there was no established public market for the registrant’s common stock and, therefore, the registrant cannot calculate the aggregate market value of its common stock held by non-affiliates as of such date. The aggregate market value of the registrant’s common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant on December 31, 2013 (based on the closing sale price of $57.74 on that date), was approximately $353,872,000. Common stock held by each officer and director and by each person known to the registrant who owned 10% or more of the outstanding common stock have been excluded in that such persons may be deemed to be affiliates. This determination of affiliate status is not necessarily a conclusive determination for other purposes.

The number of shares of the registrant’s common stock outstanding as of February 28, 2014 was 24,531,166.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the registrant’s definitive Proxy Statement for its 2014 Annual Meeting of Stockholders currently scheduled to be held on June 7, 2014 are incorporated by reference into Part III hereof.


Table of Contents

Benefitfocus, Inc.

Form 10-K

For Year Ended December 31, 2013

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

PART I

     2   

Item 1. Business

     2   

Item 1A. Risk Factors

     18   

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

     42   

Item 2. Properties

     43   

Item 3. Legal Proceedings

     43   

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

     43   

PART II

     44   

Item  5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

     44   

Item 6. Selected Financial Data

     47   

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operation

     51   

Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Risk

     85   

Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

     86   

Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosures

     87   

Item 9A. Controls and Procedures

     87   

Item 9B. Other Information

     88   

PART III

     89   

Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

     89   

Item 11. Executive Compensation

     89   

Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

     89   

Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

     90   

Item 14. Principal Accounting Fees and Services

     90   

PART IV

     91   

Item 15. Exhibits and Financial Schedules

     91   

SIGNATURES

     94   

 

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PART I

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains “forward-looking statements” that involve risks and uncertainties, as well as assumptions that, if they never materialize or prove incorrect, could cause our results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. The statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K that are not purely historical are forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or Exchange Act. Such forward-looking statements include any expectation of earnings, revenue or other financial items; any statements of the plans, strategies and objectives of management for future operations; factors that may affect our operating results; statements about our ability to establish and maintain intellectual property rights; statements about our ability to retain and hire necessary associates and appropriately staff our operations; statements related to future capital expenditures; statements related to future economic conditions or performance; statements as to industry trends; and other matters that do not relate strictly to historical facts or statements of assumptions underlying any of the foregoing. Forward-looking statements are often identified by the use of words such as, but not limited to, “anticipate,” “believe,” “can,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “might,” “will,” “plan,” “project,” “seek,” “should,” “target,” “would,” and similar expressions or variations intended to identify forward-looking statements. These statements are based on the beliefs and assumptions of our management based on information currently available to management. Such forward-looking statements are subject to risks, uncertainties and other important factors that could cause actual results and the timing of certain events to differ materially from future results expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those discussed in the section titled “Risk Factors” included in Item 1A of Part I of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, and the risks discussed in our other SEC filings. Furthermore, such forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this report. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of such statements.

As used in this report, the terms “Benefitfocus, Inc.,” “Benefitfocus,” “Company,” “company,” “we,” “us,” and “our” mean Benefitfocus, Inc. and its subsidiaries unless the context indicates otherwise.

Item 1. Business

Overview

Benefitfocus is a leading provider of cloud-based benefits software solutions for consumers, employers, insurance carriers, and brokers. The Benefitfocus platform provides an integrated suite of solutions that enables our employer and insurance carrier customers to more efficiently shop, enroll, manage, and exchange benefits information. Our web-based platform has a user-friendly interface designed to enable the insured consumers to access all of their benefits in one place. Our comprehensive solutions support core benefits plans, including healthcare, dental, life, and disability insurance, and voluntary benefits plans, such as critical illness, supplemental income, and wellness programs. As the number of employer benefits plans has increased, with each plan subject to many different business rules and requirements, demand for the Benefitfocus platform has grown.

The Benefitfocus platform enables our customers to simplify the management of complex benefits processes, from sales through enrollment and implementation to ongoing administration. It provides consumers with an engaging, highly intuitive, and personalized user interface for selecting and managing all of their benefits via the web or mobile devices. Employers use our solutions to streamline benefits processes, keep up with complex regulatory requirements, control costs, and offer a greater

 

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variety of plans to attract, retain, and motivate their employees. Insurance carriers use our solutions to more effectively market offerings, manage billing, and improve the enrollment process. We also provide a network of over 900 benefit provider data exchange connections, which facilitates the otherwise highly fragmented interaction among employees, employers, and carriers.

We serve two separate but related market segments. Our fastest growing market segment, the employer market, consists of employers offering benefits to their employees. Within this segment, we mainly target large employers with more than 1,000 employees, of which we believe there are approximately 18,000 in the United States. In our other market segment, we sell our solutions to insurance carriers, enabling us to expand our overall footprint in the benefits marketplace by aggregating many key constituents, including consumers, employers, and brokers. We believe our presence in both the employer and insurance carrier markets gives us a strong position at the center of the benefits ecosystem. As of December 31, 2013, we served over 20 million consumers on the Benefitfocus platform. As of December 31, 2013, we served 393 large employer customers, an increase from 121 in 2009, and 40 carrier customers, an increase from 28 in 2009.

We sell the Benefitfocus platform on a subscription basis, typically through annual contracts with our employer customers and multi-year contracts with our insurance carrier customers, with subscription fees paid monthly. The multi-year contracts with our carrier customers are generally only cancellable by the carrier in an instance of our uncured breach, although some of our carrier customers are able to terminate their respective contracts without cause or for convenience. Our software-as-a-service (“SaaS”) model provides us visibility into our future operating results through increased revenue predictability, which enhances our ability to manage our business. Historically, our annual software services revenue retention rate has been in excess of 95%. Our total revenue increased from $81.7 million in 2012 to $104.8 million in 2013, representing a 28.2% year-over-year increase. Our employer revenue increased from $23.8 million in 2012 to $40.7 million in 2013, representing a 71.1% year-over-year increase. Our carrier revenue increased from $58.0 million in 2012 to $64.1 million in 2013, representing a 10.6% year-over-year increase. We had net losses of $14.9 million in 2012 and $30.4 million in 2013. Our company was founded in 2000, and we currently employ approximately 981 associates.

Industry Background

The administration and distribution of benefits to employees is a mainstay of the U.S. economy. Providing these benefits is costly and complex and requires the exchange of information, application of rules, and transfer of funds among a wide variety of constituents, including consumers, employers, insurance carriers, brokers, benefits outsourcers, payroll processors, and financial institutions. According to IBISWorld calculations, in 2012, the market for HR benefits administration in the United States was over $59 billion. In addition, Gartner estimates that in 2012, the U.S. insurance industry spent over $55 billion on software and related services.1

The variety and complexity of core benefits plans, including healthcare, dental, life, and disability insurance continues to grow. In addition, employers are increasingly offering a range of voluntary benefits plans, such as critical illness, supplemental income, and wellness programs. The current system for providing benefits is changing rapidly and suffers from significant inefficiency as a result of complexity, regulation, and the involvement of multiple parties, leaving room for substantial improvement along the entire benefits value chain.

 

1  Gartner, Forecast: Enterprise IT Spending by Vertical Industry Market, Worldwide, 1Q13 Update, United States Insurance Market Spending on Software, IT Services, and Internal Services.

 

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Employer Market

As of 2010, according to the United States Census Bureau, there were approximately 5.7 million employers in the United States. Currently, we believe there are over 18,000 entities that employ more than 1,000 individuals. A significant and growing portion of employers’ costs is non-salary benefits, such as the health insurance that they provide to their employees. With healthcare and other premiums increasing, senior executives are prioritizing benefits administration in their organizations, searching for ways to contain costs without sacrificing benefits. In addition, the expense burden continues to shift to employees. Employees’ contributions to premiums for health insurance have grown from approximately $318 in 1999 to approximately $951 per employee in 2012. Employers recognize the importance of offering a greater variety of core and voluntary benefits as a means to attract, motivate, and retain employees. They must maintain relationships with multiple insurance carriers and many other benefits providers, placing a substantial administrative burden on their organizations.

Employers’ distribution, management, and administration of employee benefits has historically consisted of error-prone, paper-based processes, and a patchwork of customized software tools, which are costly to maintain, often lack necessary functionality, and fail to address the increasing complexity of the benefits marketplace. As benefits offerings become more complex and employees bear more of the cost of those benefits, HR software solutions that streamline information, simplify choices, and engage employees are increasingly in demand. Employees desire tailored, dynamic, and interactive communication of critical benefits information as they become accustomed to receiving personalized content through various consumer applications on a range of devices.

Legacy HR systems were generally designed as extensions of enterprise resource planning, or ERP, systems, built for back-office responsibilities like finance and accounting. As a result, these systems lack functionality and ease-of-use for employees. Many legacy HR systems were not designed to integrate with the broader benefits ecosystem, including brokers, carriers, and wellness providers. This results in expensive, error-prone, and frustrating experiences for employers and employees. Benefits outsourcers have attempted to compensate for the shortcomings of legacy HR systems, but they have generally lacked adequate technology solutions necessary to keep up with the rapidly evolving benefits landscape. As a result, employees are often not provided with the appropriate functionality and information required to select and manage their benefits effectively.

Modern technology, changing communication patterns, and a constantly evolving benefits ecosystem have changed the employee-employer relationship. HR executives continue to search for effective strategies to increase efficiency and contain costs, while increasing employee engagement and satisfaction. Employers are increasingly interested in SaaS solutions that can help capture and analyze benefits data and ultimately lead to healthier, happier, and more productive employees. In order to manage the distribution and administration of benefits effectively, employers need an integrated platform, capable of handling all benefits in one place and providing a highly personalized experience for employees.

Insurance Carrier Market

The employee benefits market consists of a myriad of insurance carriers and products. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the single largest benefit provided to employees in the United States is healthcare insurance, often encompassing more than 90% of all insurance benefits spending by employers. According to SNL Financial data, the U.S. private healthcare insurance market consists of approximately 313 carriers covering approximately 176 million individual consumers. Carriers provide benefits primarily through over 5.7 million U.S. employers.

Large, national insurance carriers also offer numerous individual health plans of different types, including health maintenance organizations, preferred provider organizations, point-of-service plans, and health savings accounts across the 50 states. Each carrier offers a complex variety of health

 

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insurance plans, with each plan requiring multiple decisions to address the specific needs of employers and their individual employees. Despite widespread carrier consolidation, numerous disparate systems remain in place, with many large carriers operating on multiple IT systems. Carriers often rely on manual processes and siloed software applications to bridge gaps in legacy administration systems. Even as carriers attempt to modernize and keep up with evolving industry practices and a changing regulatory landscape, they have difficulty connecting with the broader healthcare system.

The effective delivery and management of healthcare benefits depends on the timely, continuous exchange of data among carriers, their employer customers, and individual members. Legacy benefits management systems often lack important functionality such as web and mobile self-service capabilities and real-time data exchange. Critical carrier processes, including member enrollment, billing, communications, and retail marketing have often been under-optimized or neglected by legacy systems, and carriers have devoted significant internal resources to cover technology gaps. In addition, healthcare reform mandates and the rise of exchanges have increased focus on carriers’ retail distribution capabilities, which require additional investment.

Governmental oversight, punctuated with the passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, or PPACA, has led to an increasingly intricate regulatory framework under which health benefits are delivered, accessed, and maintained. PPACA significantly expands insurance coverage through the individual mandate, with the goal of providing healthcare insurance to all U.S. citizens. To encourage enrollment, PPACA introduces a new distribution model in the form of healthcare exchanges—online marketplaces that allow insurance carriers to compete directly for new members. PPACA authorized the creation of publicly funded state exchanges in which individuals and small businesses can purchase health insurance directly from carriers. In addition to these federally mandated public exchanges, a number of private entities, including benefit outsourcers, carriers, and brokers are establishing their own private exchanges. We expect private exchanges will be less rigid, promoting both health and non-health benefits, with substantially fewer rules around the types of benefits offered. As insurance carriers continue to bolster their retail distribution capabilities, we believe they will require new technology solutions to attract additional members through private exchanges.

Reportable Segments

Our reportable segments, Employer and Carrier, are based on type of customer. Financial information for Benefitfocus’ reportable segments is included in Note 14 to our consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

The Benefitfocus Solutions

We provide a multi-tenant cloud-based benefit platform to the employer and carrier markets. The Benefitfocus platform offers an integrated suite of software solutions that enables our customers to more efficiently shop, enroll, manage, and exchange benefits information.

We believe our solutions help employers in the following important ways:

Simplify Benefits Enrollment.    Our solutions reduce the complexity of benefits enrollment by integrating all plan information in one place and presenting it to employees in an organized and easy- to-understand manner. Employees shop and enroll using a highly intuitive and engaging consumer-oriented interface. Side-by-side comparison tools and real-time quotes enable employees to understand and compare plans and determine how much each option will cost them every month. Notifications are sent in real-time when revised plan designs or new legislation affect coverage. We create videos and use avatars to give employees straightforward explanations of plan details, limitations, changes, and cost-sharing levels.

 

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Transition to Defined Contribution Benefits Funding Model.    Our solutions help enable employers’ ongoing shift to defined contribution plans. Defined contribution plans differ from traditional defined benefit plans as they grant employees a stipend with which to purchase benefits of their choosing. Defined contribution plans also offer more discretion and options compared to defined benefit plans. Our products support traditional defined benefit plans, allowing employees to select from a list of benefits offered by their employer, calculating required member contributions, and recording and transmitting elections and other important information to payroll. Separately, with respect to defined contribution plans, our exchange solutions help facilitate an online shopping environment with many benefits options that allows employees to select personalized benefit offerings to suit their individual needs.

Reduce Cost and Increase ROI.    Our solutions automate the benefits management process and reduce the cost associated with clerical errors and covering ineligible employees and dependents. They significantly reduce errors resulting from manual file creation, data entry, and sending enrollment materials via mail or fax. The Benefitfocus platform ensures plan information is more accurately captured and submitted in real-time. Automated audits and dependent verification functionality accurately ensure employers only pay benefits for eligible employees. Our solutions also include advanced analytics that enable employers and employees to quickly gather, report, and forecast benefit costs.

Attract, Retain, and Motivate Employees.    Our solutions help employers attract, retain, and motivate top talent by delivering benefits information through a highly intuitive and engaging user interface. The Benefitfocus platform supports more than 100 types of plans and numerous third-party apps. Our solutions enable employees to have better visibility into the value of the plans available through their employers. Employees have a better understanding of their benefits and are empowered to make informed decisions. We believe that when employees understand the value of their benefits, they are more likely to be satisfied with and engaged in their jobs.

Streamline HR Processes.    Our solutions eliminate the time-consuming and labor-intensive, often paper-based, processes associated with managing employee benefits plans, making HR professionals more efficient. Our solutions reduce the need to store paper forms and new hire enrollment packets, and provide one place to easily manage all benefits and related information. Employers and HR professionals can efficiently enroll users or update information, and communicate or make changes to plans in real-time. An intuitive user interface and a library of contextual online content explaining complex concepts and terms promote manager and employee self-service.

Integrate Seamlessly with other Related Systems.    Our solutions can be easily and securely integrated with a variety of related systems, including carrier membership and billing systems, payroll and HR systems, banks, and other third-party administrators. We provide a network of over 900 benefit provider data exchange connections. Our solutions ensure accurate paycheck deductions and real-time enrollment in a variety of benefits plans. The Benefitfocus platform supports multiple data integration methods, including event-driven transactions, real-time web services, and XML or fixed-width file-based data exchange. In addition to convenient and flexible data exchange, the Benefitfocus platform also ensures that data is secure and accurate. Our open architecture further extends our functionality by allowing third parties to develop and offer apps and services on our platform.

We believe our solutions help insurance carriers in the following important ways:

Attract and Maintain Membership.    Our solutions allow carriers to maximize sales capacity and efficiency by communicating directly with their employer customers and individual members. Carriers can track leads, generate quotes, create proposals with multiple products, and quickly follow-up with potential customers and members. The Benefitfocus platform also allows carriers to automate and integrate direct marketing, sales, underwriting, and enrollment to provide a high quality, efficient, and engaging online consumer shopping experience. Our solutions provide a library of customizable video

 

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content to deliver customized messages, reflect carrier branding, introduce new products, upsell ancillary consumer benefits, and enable consumers to navigate through complex healthcare processes to make informed decisions.

Reduce Administrative Costs.    Our solutions improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the relationship between carriers and members. The Benefitfocus platform allows carriers to automate and simplify various aspects of the benefits administration process, such as enrollment, plan changes, eligibility updates, and billing, from one centralized location. Carriers can more easily apply complex business rules that enforce data accuracy and eliminate unnecessary costs such as coverage of ineligible employees. Members are able to view consolidated online invoices and pay electronically, eliminating the cost and inefficiencies inherent in paper-based billing and reducing time associated with bill payment and collection.

Bolster Retail Distribution Capabilities Through Private Exchanges.    Our solutions help carriers respond to an evolving marketplace in which retail distribution capabilities are increasingly important to attracting and retaining new members. Our private exchange platform offers carriers a lower cost direct sales channel to employer groups and individuals. We offer the ability to sell both healthcare and non-healthcare benefit products in an online shopping environment that serves as an alternative to government-sponsored public exchanges.

Facilitate Real-Time Data Exchange.    Our solutions simplify interactions and data exchange, and foster collaboration among carriers and their partners, brokers, employer customers, and individual members. This allows carriers to rapidly tailor and offer new benefits packages.

Our Growth Strategy

We intend to strengthen our position as a leading provider of cloud-based benefits software solutions. Key elements of our growth strategy include the following:

Expand our Customer Base.    We believe that our current customer base represents a small fraction of our targeted employers and carriers that could benefit from our solutions. While we currently serve approximately 393 large employer customers, we believe that there are over 18,000 large employers in the United States. We also currently serve approximately 40 carrier customers, but, according to SNL Financial data, the U.S. private healthcare insurance market alone consists of approximately 313 carriers. In order to reach new customers in our existing employer and carrier markets, we are aggressively investing in our sales and marketing resources.

Deepen our Relationships with our Existing Customer Base.    We are deepening our employer relationships by continuing to provide a unified platform to manage increasingly complex benefits processes and simplify the distribution and administration of employee benefits. We are expanding our carrier relationships through both the upsell of additional software products and increased adoption across our carriers’ member populations. We also believe our customers will use our benefits software solutions more if they are satisfied with our services. As we extend and strengthen the functionality of products, we plan to continue to invest in initiatives to increase the depth of adoption of our solutions and maintain our high levels of customer satisfaction.

Extend our Suite of Applications and Continue our Technology Leadership.    We are extending the number, range, and functionality of our benefits applications. For example, we recently launched the new Benefitfocus Plan Shopping app, which allows employees to use actual claims data when comparing available benefits plans, helping them better understand the relationship among healthcare usage, available coverages options, and out-of-pocket costs. We have also extended the functionality of our products with various mobile applications. We intend to continue our collaboration with customers and partners, so we can respond quickly to evolving market needs with innovative applications and support our leadership position.

 

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Further Develop our Partner Ecosystem.    We have established strong relationships with organizations such as SuccessFactors, Allstate Insurance Company, the Mayo Clinic, and others in a variety of industries to deliver best-in-class applications to our customers. Each of these partners brings additional functionality to the Benefitfocus platform, making it more attractive to customers. This in turn creates a broader audience and makes the Benefitfocus platform more attractive to potential partners. We believe that providing third-party applications to our network of employers, carriers, and consumers will help accelerate our growth, create revenue opportunities and deepen our relationships with existing customers. In support of these and other collaborations, we plan to continue to invest in our integration infrastructure to allow third parties and customers to build custom applications on the Benefitfocus platform and create deep integrations between their systems and ours.

Leverage our Corporate Culture.    We believe our culture benefits our associates and customers and supports our growth. In 2012, we published “Benefitfocus—Winning With Culture”, which includes associates’ descriptions about our culture of collaboration, commitment, opportunity, and service, and describes the environment we created to encourage technology innovation. We plan to continue to invest in our culture to help attract and retain top design and engineering professionals that are passionate about Benefitfocus and motivated to create superior software technology. With loyal and engaged associates, we believe we can provide high levels of customer satisfaction, leading to greater sales of our benefits software solutions.

Target New Markets.    We believe substantial demand for our solutions exists in markets and geographies beyond our current focus. We intend to leverage opportunities we believe will arise from the complexities of changing government regulation and increased enrollment impacting both Medicare and Medicaid. We also plan to grow our sales capability internationally by expanding our direct sales force and collaborating with strategic partners in new, international locations.

The Benefitfocus Portfolio of Products

Our portfolio of products, as summarized below, provides a seamless, integrated experience for the entire life cycle of benefits enrollment and management for insurance carriers and employers. We also provide extensive applications to help carriers and employers manage their programs more effectively.

 

Products and Services for Insurance Carriers

 

Products and Services for Employers

eEnrollment

  HR InTouch

eBilling

  HR InTouch Marketplace

eExchange

  Benefit Informatics

eSales

  Implementation Services

eDirect

  HR Support Center

Marketplace

  Media and Animation Services

Benefit Informatics

  App Development Platform

Implementation Services

  Software-Enabled Services

Media and Animation Services

 

App Development Platform

 

Software-Enabled Services

 

Products for Insurance Carriers

 

  Ÿ  

eEnrollment is our flagship product for carriers, providing them with online enrollment for all types of benefits. We designed eEnrollment to enhance our users’ experience by presenting information in a user-friendly format and integrating educational videos, and plan comparison and decision support tools to help navigate the enrollment process. In addition to helping customers find suitable plans, eEnrollment supports complex business rules, such as eligibility and rating criteria. eEnrollment facilitates the following activities:

 

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Initial Enrollment.    Employees and brokers can complete applications and health statements prior to making elections. Once the selection occurs, eEnrollment automatically calculates group numbers, finalizes benefit elections, and sends the data to the insurance carriers’ membership systems.

 

  Ÿ  

Open Enrollment.    eEnrollment simplifies open enrollment by providing tools to map employees from one plan to another, such as workflow, to-do lists, e-mail reminders, and a wide range of reports.

 

  Ÿ  

New Hire Enrollment.    New hires can enroll in benefits anytime during their initial enrollment period. eEnrollment calculates wait periods and effective dates automatically to ensure compliance with the employers’ business rules.

 

  Ÿ  

Life Events.    Employees can make changes to their elections for specific reasons, including a birth, marriage, and military leave. eEnrollment calculates effective dates and helps employees understand what types of coverage changes are permitted with each type of life event.

 

  Ÿ  

eBilling is an electronic invoice presentment and payment solution, or EIPP. It consolidates invoices from multiple insurance products so employers and individuals receive one invoice that can be viewed and paid electronically. eBilling automates the synchronization of billing and membership data to improve the accuracy of billing processes and provides options to simplify bill payment, such as scheduled one-time and/or recurring payments.

 

  Ÿ  

eExchange is a solution that bridges the communication gap between carrier and employer systems, allowing a seamless exchange of data between the two. Our customers use eExchange to integrate data from multiple systems, convert data from one format to another, and manage the flow of employee data between carriers and employers.

 

  Ÿ  

eSales gives carriers and brokers tools to organize and proactively manage accounts, track leads, generate quotes, and create proposals for multiple products. eSales allows carriers to define their own market segments and configure them with unique workflows and business rules. It also enables greater data accuracy by automatically incorporating updated products, options and pricing for the most current rates and quotes. Carriers purchase eSales to increase productivity in their sales force.

 

  Ÿ  

eDirect provides a high quality online retail experience for carriers to sell policies directly to individuals. eDirect integrates direct marketing, pricing, sales, and enrollment into one product. eDirect provides an interactive, user-friendly experience for customers during the shopping and enrollment process and offers side-by-side comparisons, videos, and other educational materials to help customers understand the options available to them.

 

  Ÿ  

Marketplace is an online shopping environment, sometimes referred to as an exchange,that allows customers to select from a variety of benefits plan choices to suit their individual needs. Marketplace supports the shift toward defined contribution benefits plans, which are increasing in popularity. Marketplace provides consumer-centric experiences focused on personalization, and integrates social tools to help drive informed choices while selecting benefits. It also includes features to track plans and compare pricing and features across multiple benefit plans.

 

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Benefit Informatics is our data analytics solution for use by carriers and their self-insured employer customers. Benefit Informatics is a privately-labeled analytics solution that helps carriers and their self-insured employers identify cost drivers, recognize trends, and predict future risks and costs. Additional analytical capabilities help create “what-if” scenarios to model different variables, such as co-pay, deductibles, benefits, inflation, and member populations.

 

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Products for Employers

 

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HR InTouch supports online enrollment, employee communication, benefit education and administration for all types of benefits. The product is designed to increase participation, simplify enrollment, and improve communication between HR departments and their employees. HR InTouch provides a personalized enrollment to-do list that guides employees through each benefit decision with educational videos, avatars, cost trackers, and reminders from the HR team throughout the enrollment process. HR InTouch enables employees to review each step in the enrollment process and electronically sign-off when it is complete.

 

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HR InTouch Marketplace creates a private exchange environment for large employers who offer defined contribution plans. In one cohesive, engaging workflow, HR InTouch Marketplace presents employees with all of the plans their employers offer. Employees who need extra assistance can access avatars, animated videos, and live chat sessions as they explore their benefit options. As employees shop for the plans that best fit their individual needs, a virtual shopping cart keeps a running tally of the employers’ defined contribution in addition to the employees’ out-of-pocket costs. If employees choose to purchase more coverage on their own, they can easily view and pay their bills in the HR InTouch Marketplace.

 

  Ÿ  

Benefit Informatics is our data analytics solution that helps employers make more informed, data-driven decisions about their benefits offerings. This product aggregates benefit cost and claims data from relevant sources and allows customers to analyze, forecast, and monitor costs. Benefit Informatics enables employers and their advisors to identify cost drivers, recognize trends, and predict future risks and costs. Additional analytical capabilities create “what-if” scenarios to model different variables, such as co-pays, deductibles, benefits, inflation, and member populations.

Professional Services and Customer Support

 

  Ÿ  

Implementation Services.    We provide implementation services to our customers in order to help ensure seamless deployment and effective utilization of our solutions. Our carrier and employer implementation teams follow a five-step approach for each implementation:

 

  Ÿ  

Discovery, including project planning and coordination to establish key milestones, documenting business and technical requirements, establishing a deployment strategy, and planning operational and market adoption activities.

 

  Ÿ  

Configuration and deployment, including configuring products to meet requirements identified during discovery, and defining needs for data exchange, payroll integration, and file transfer protocol.

 

  Ÿ  

Integration, including connecting the Benefitfocus platform functionality to a customer’s currently existing systems, such as carrier membership and billing, payroll and HR systems, employee communications, intranets, and others.

 

  Ÿ  

Testing, including testing of various scenarios and uses cases, inbound and outbound payroll integration, and regression testing.

 

  Ÿ  

Training and technical support, including sessions to learn how to implement and access our products.

 

  Ÿ  

HR Support Center.    We provide employers with expanded support services where our benefits specialists help customers’ employees understand benefit offerings, navigate the enrollment process, and find answers to frequently asked HR questions. Our HR Support Center provides employees with personalized, guided support. Additional services, such as fulfillment, dependent verification, and HR administration, are available to meet unique organizational needs.

 

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  Ÿ  

Media and Animation Services.    We create video and animated content that can be licensed within our applications or independently for distribution via client portals or websites. Benefitfocus provides a comprehensive video library and also can produce custom videos to meet specific communication requirements of its carrier and employer customers. Our staff of executive producers, project managers, writers, graphic designers, editors, and on-camera talent guide customers through the process from concept development to delivery. Benefitfocus hosts videos, eliminating the need for additional investments or internal IT resources by our customers. In addition, we incorporate our customers’ unique branding to provide a seamless extension of corporate websites and messaging.

Partner Offerings

 

  Ÿ  

App Development Platform.    We allow our partners and customers to develop custom apps that integrate directly with HR InTouch. HR professionals can easily work with external data and services through the same platform they are using to manage their benefits. Apps are organized into the following categories: voluntary benefits, health and wellness, benefits administration, finance, and communication. Representative apps include the Mayo Clinic App, which provides access to customizable health assessments, disease management tools, and a 24/7 nurse line, and the LifeLock App, which allows employees to purchase identity theft protection when they are enrolling in other benefit programs.

 

  Ÿ  

Software-Enabled Services.    In addition to our app development platform, the open and flexible nature of our software architecture allows us to build deeper integrations with partner organizations and offer custom services in response to customer demand. Some examples include:

 

  Ÿ  

SuccessFactors provides employee performance management solutions. We partnered with them to create a full HR and benefits management suite that combines employee talent, profile, and core HR information to help drive employee onboarding, promotion, and development. The SuccessFactors suite of products provides an enterprise-class system of record, as well as powerful analytics and intuitive tools.

 

  Ÿ  

WageWorks supports benefits such as health savings accounts, flexible spending accounts, and health reimbursement programs, as well as commuter benefits, direct billing, and COBRA, through a single sign-on from our platform.

 

  Ÿ  

Spectra Integration provides print fulfillment services which enable customers to send employee information via mail to educate their workforce about benefit offerings, total compensation statements, and communication campaigns.

Customers

Our customers include employers of all sizes across a variety of industries and some of the nation’s largest insurance carriers and aggregators. Following is a list of some of our significant employer and carrier customers.

 

Employer Customers

 

Carrier Customers

Bon Secours Health System, Inc.

  Aetna Life Insurance Company

Brooks Brothers Group, Inc.

  Allstate Insurance Company

Columbia Sportswear Company

  Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Kansas City

Fender Musical Instruments Corporation

  BlueCross and BlueShield of South Carolina

Morganite Industries Inc.

  Tufts Associated Health Plans, Inc.

The Wet Seal, Inc.

  WellPoint, Inc.

UFCW TFO-Employers Benefit Plan of Northern California Group Administration, LLC

 

Vangent, Inc.

 

 

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During the year ended December 31, 2013, no customer accounted for more than 10.0% of our total revenue.

Sales and Marketing

We sell substantially all of our software solutions through our direct sales organization. Our direct sales team comprises employer-focused and carrier-focused field sales professionals who are organized primarily by geography and account size.

We generate customer leads, accelerate sales opportunities and build brand awareness through our marketing programs and strategic relationships. Our marketing programs target HR, benefits, and finance executives, technology professionals, and senior business leaders. Our principal marketing programs include:

 

  Ÿ  

use of our website to provide application and company information, as well as learning opportunities for potential customers;

 

  Ÿ  

territory development representatives who respond to incoming leads and convert them into new sales opportunities;

 

  Ÿ  

participation in, and sponsorship of, user conferences, executive events, trade shows and industry events, including our annual user and partner conference, One Place;

 

  Ÿ  

integrated marketing campaigns, including direct email, online web advertising, blogs and webinars; and

 

  Ÿ  

public relations, analyst relations and social media initiatives.

Technology Infrastructure and Operations

As an enterprise cloud software vendor, we have always deployed our solutions using a SaaS model. Our customers access our software via the web or mobile devices, rather than by installing software on their premises. Through our multi-tenant platform, our customers access a single instance of our software with multiple possible configurations enabled by our metadata-driven framework. The multi-tenant approach provides significant operating leverage and improved efficiency as it helps us to reduce our fixed cost base and minimize unused capacity on our hardware. In addition, our software architecture gives us an advantage over vendors of legacy systems, who may be using a less flexible architecture that would require significant time and expense to update.

We host our applications and serve all of our customers from two redundant data centers in separate locations. We rely on third-party vendors to operate these data centers, which are designed to host mission-critical computer systems and have industry-standard measures in place to minimize service interruptions. Our technical operations staff manages the technology stacks supporting the Benefitfocus platform and uses automated monitoring tools throughout our system to detect unusual events or malfunctions that could interfere with our customers’ or partners’ use of the Benefitfocus platform. We monitor application health by verifying that all applications, interfaces and supporting middleware are operational. If our monitoring tools detect a problem, they notify our technical operations staff, who responds immediately to diagnose and resolve the problem. We take the security of our data and our systems very seriously, and we focus on minimizing the risk of vulnerabilities in our system at every level of software design and system and network administration.

 

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Compliance and Certifications

We voluntarily obtain third-party security examinations relating to security and data privacy. Statement on Standards for Attestation Engagements, or SSAE, No. 16 (Reporting on Controls at a Service Organization) replaced SAS-70 Type II examinations as the authoritative standard for reporting on service organizations. An independent third-party auditor conducts our SSAE examination every 12 months and addresses, among other areas, our physical and environmental safeguards for production data centers, data availability and integrity procedures, change management procedures, and logical security procedures.

We also obtain independent third-party audit opinions related to security and data privacy annually. Service Organization Controls, or SOC, reports are covered under SSAE No. 16. Benefitfocus obtains an SOC 1 Type II, SOC 2 Type II, and SOC 3 report. The SOC 1 report includes a third-party assessment and opinion on our description of our system for processing user entities’ transactions. The SOC 2 and SOC 3 reports are based on a set of standards related to security with a focus on internal controls related to unauthorized physical and logical access to systems and data.

On an annual basis, we complete an internal audit of compliance against the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standards, or PCI-DSS, applicable to Level 2 service providers. These standards focus on application and network security controls for companies that transmit and store credit card data on behalf of clients. Benefitfocus meets PCI compliance requirements as a Level 2 service provider and submits its Service Assessment Questionnaire Part D documenting this assessment to the four major credit card brands annually.

In addition to PCI-DDS, Benefitfocus meets all applicable security requirements required by the National Automated Clearinghouse Association, or NACHA, for third-party service providers, as well as all requirements for Covered Entities as required by HIPAA. We validate both NACHA and HIPAA compliance annually through internal audits.

As a response to concerns about the adequacy of data privacy laws in the United States, the U.S. Department of Commerce, in consultation with the European Commission, developed a “Safe Harbor” framework. The European Commission has agreed to consider that a self-certifying company provides “adequate” data privacy protection, as required by the European Data Protection Directive. We are in the process of self-certifying to the Safe Harbor framework on an annual basis, making it easier for our customers based in Europe or with offices or employees in Europe to store their data with us.

Competition

While we do not believe any single competitor offers similarly expansive software solutions, we face competition from various sources, many of which have greater resources than us. Competition in our employer segment includes:

 

  Ÿ  

ERP software companies, including SAP, Oracle (PeopleSoft) and Infor (Lawson), each offering a cloud-based benefits administration software solution;

 

  Ÿ  

HR outsourcing companies, including Aon/Hewitt and Towers Watson, both of which have recently launched benefits exchange solutions;

 

  Ÿ  

payroll service providers, including ADP and Paychex, both of which have expanded their core payroll services to include some form of cloud-based benefits administration services; and

 

  Ÿ  

various niche software vendors.

 

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Competitors in our carrier segment include:

 

  Ÿ  

insurance carriers that have invested in internally developed benefit management solutions;

 

  Ÿ  

member services companies, including those providing web-based subscriber enrollment and claims adjudication services, such as Trizetto and DST Health Solutions; and

 

  Ÿ  

various niche software vendors.

We believe that competition for benefits software and services is based primarily on the following factors:

 

  Ÿ  

capability for customization through configuration, integration, security, scalability, and reliability of applications;

 

  Ÿ  

competitive and understandable pricing;

 

  Ÿ  

breadth and depth of application functionality;

 

  Ÿ  

size of customer base and level of user adoption;

 

  Ÿ  

extensive data exchange network;

 

  Ÿ  

cloud-based delivery model;

 

  Ÿ  

dynamic communication capabilities with contextual media, animation, and acknowledgement tools;

 

  Ÿ  

ability to integrate with legacy enterprise infrastructures and third-party applications;

 

  Ÿ  

domain expertise in benefits and healthcare consumerism;

 

  Ÿ  

extensive base of rules and event-driven benefit eligibility and enrollment;

 

  Ÿ  

accessible on any browser or mobile device;

 

  Ÿ  

modern and adaptive technology platform;

 

  Ÿ  

access to third-party apps;

 

  Ÿ  

clearly defined implementation timeline;

 

  Ÿ  

customer-branding and styling; and

 

  Ÿ  

ability to innovate and respond to customer and legislative needs rapidly.

We believe that we compete effectively based upon all of these criteria, and that we are likely to continue to retain a high percentage of our customers. Nonetheless, we believe that the increasing acceptance of automated solutions in the healthcare marketplace and the adoption of more sophisticated technology and legislative reform will result in increased competition, including potentially from large software companies with greater resources than ours. Other companies might develop superior or more economical service offerings that our customers could find more attractive than our offerings. Moreover, the regulatory landscape might shift in a direction that is more strategically advantageous to competitors.

Research and Development

Our ability to compete depends, in large part, on our continuous commitment to rapidly introduce new applications, technologies, features, and functionality. We deliver multiple software releases per year, updating the Benefitfocus platform to leverage advances in cloud computing, mobile applications, and data management. Our research and development team is responsible for the design and development of our applications. We follow state-of-the-art practices in software development using

 

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modern programming languages, data storage systems, and other tools. We use both commercial and open source products, following a “best tool for the job” philosophy in product selection. Our software has a multi-tiered architecture that ensures flexibility to add or modify features quickly in response to changing market dynamics, customer needs, or regulatory requirements.

Our research and development expenses were $23.5 million, $14.6 million, $9.1 million and $8.7 million, for the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively.

Intellectual Property

We rely on a combination of patent, trade secret, copyright, and trademark laws, license agreements, confidentiality procedures, confidentiality and nondisclosure agreements, and technical measures to protect the intellectual property used in our business. We generally enter into confidentiality and nondisclosure agreements with our associates, consultants, vendors, and customers. We also seek to control access to and distribution of our software, documentation, and other proprietary information.

We use numerous trademarks for our products and services, and “Benefitfocus”, “HR InTouch”, “HR InTouch Marketplace”, “All Your Benefits. One Place.”, and “Shop. Enroll. Manage. Exchange.” are registered marks of Benefitfocus in the United States. Through claimed common law trademark protection, we also protect other Benefitfocus marks which identify our services, such as “All Your Benefits. In Your Pocket.”, Benefitfocus eEnrollment, Benefitfocus eBilling, Benefitfocus eExchange, and Benefitfocus eSales, and we have reserved numerous domain names, including “benefitfocus.com”. We also have registered trademarks and pending trademark applications in foreign jurisdictions such as Australia, Canada, India, Ireland, New Zealand, South Africa, and the United Kingdom.

We have been granted two U.S. patents (utility patent) and have four U.S. patent applications (all for utility patents) pending. Our first patent, which protects specified systems and methods for the automatic creation of agent-based systems, was issued in April 2013 and will not expire until May 2030. Our second patent, which protects specified systems and methods for secure agent information, was issued in October 2013 and will not expire until November 19, 2030. We also have 30 pending patent applications under foreign jurisdictions and treaties, such as Australia, Canada, China, Hong Kong, India, Japan, Taiwan, the European Patent Convention, and the Patent Cooperation Treaty.

We also rely on certain intellectual property rights that we license from third parties. Although we believe that alternative technologies are generally available to replace such licenses, these third-party technologies may not continue to be available to us on commercially reasonable terms.

Although we rely on intellectual property rights, including trade secrets, patents, copyrights, and trademarks, as well as contractual protections to establish and protect our proprietary rights, we believe that factors such as the technological and creative skills of our personnel, creation of new modules, features and functionality, and frequent enhancements to our applications are more essential to establishing and maintaining our technology leadership position.

The steps we have taken to protect our copyrights, trademarks, and other intellectual property may not be adequate, and the potential exists that third parties could infringe, misappropriate, or misuse our intellectual property. If this were to occur, it could harm our reputation and adversely affect our competitive position or operations. In addition, laws of other jurisdictions may not protect our intellectual property and proprietary rights from unauthorized use or disclosure in the same manner as the United States. The risk of unauthorized use of our proprietary and intellectual property rights may increase as our company expands outside of the United States.

 

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Geographic Areas

We operate solely in the United States. As such, we held substantially all our assets and generated all our revenue in the United States during the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012, 2011 and 2010.

Corporate Information

We were incorporated in June 2000 as Benefitfocus.com, Inc., a South Carolina corporation. In September 2013, we reincorporated in Delaware as Benefitfocus, Inc. Our pincincipal executive offices are located at 100 Benefitfocus Way, Charleston, South Carolina 29492, and our phone number is (843) 849-7476. Our website address is www.benefitfocus.com. The information on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not part of this report. We currently employ approximately 981 associates.

Executive Officers

The following table sets forth information concerning our executive officers as of December 31, 2013:

 

Name

   Age     

Position

Shawn A. Jenkins

     46       President and Chief Executive Officer, Director

Mason R. Holland, Jr.

     49       Executive Chairman, Director

Milton A. Alpern

     62       Chief Financial Officer and Secretary

Andrew L. Howell

     47       Chief Operating Officer

Donald Taylor

     53       Chief Technology Officer

Shawn A. Jenkins—President, Chief Executive Officer, and Director

Shawn Jenkins, one of our founders, has been our President and Chief Executive Officer and a member of our board of directors since our founding in June 2000. Prior to founding Benefitfocus, from 1995 to 2000, he served as Vice President with American Pensions, Inc., leading sales, operations, and technology. From 1994 to 1995, Mr. Jenkins was a program analyst with Rockwell Automation, Inc. Mr. Jenkins serves on the Advisory Board for the School of Computing at Clemson University, Medical University of South Carolina Foundation Board of Directors, College of Charleston Board of Governors, and Charleston Southern University Board of Visitors. He previously served as Chairman of the Growing Forward Campaign for the Lowcountry Food Bank. Mr. Jenkins received an M.B.A. from Charleston Southern University and a B.A. from Geneva College in Beaver Falls, Pennsylvania.

Mason R. Holland, Jr.—Executive Chairman of the Board

Mason Holland, one of our founders, has been our Executive Chairman and a member of our board of directors since our founding in June 2000. Mr. Holland is responsible for the coordination of strategic partnerships with industry leaders and client relations and serves on the audit, and nominating and corporate governance committees of our board. Mr. Holland founded American Pensions, Inc. in 1988, serving as its Chairman and President from 1988 to 2003. Mr. Holland’s other ventures have included establishing Holland Properties, LLC, a real estate development firm, in 1989, and acquiring Eclipse Aerospace, Inc., a jet aircraft manufacturer, in May 2009, for which he serves as Chairman and Chief Executive Officer. Mr. Holland attended Old Dominion University in Norfolk, Virginia.

Milton A. Alpern—Chief Financial Officer

Milt Alpern has served as our Chief Financial Officer since January 2012. Prior to joining Benefitfocus, from April 2008 to December 2011, he was the Chief Financial Officer for ITA Software,

 

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Inc., a SaaS provider of technology solutions to the travel industry, which was acquired by Google in 2011, where he was responsible for leading all financial and administrative functions for the company. Prior to ITA Software, from 2003 to 2008, Mr. Alpern served as the Chief Financial Officer for Applix, Inc., a publicly held international provider of business performance management and business intelligence software where he directed all finance, human resources, legal activities, and financial community relationships. From 1998 to 2002, Mr. Alpern served as the Chief Financial Officer at Eprise Corporation, a publicly held provider of business website content management software and solutions, where he was a member of the management team leading the company’s successful initial public offering. Mr. Alpern holds a B.S. in accounting from Montclair State University.

Andrew L. Howell—Chief Operating Officer

Andy Howell has served as our Chief Operating Officer since June 2010. During his tenure at Benefitfocus, he previously served as our Senior Vice President and General Manager of the insurance carrier business unit from June 2009 to June 2010, as well as Senior Vice President and General Counsel from April 2007 to June 2009. Prior to joining Benefitfocus, Mr. Howell served from July 2002 to March 2007 as Vice President and General Counsel at Blackbaud, Inc., a publicly held software company. Prior to joining Blackbaud, he was a practicing attorney with Sutherland Asbill & Brennan LLP, where he focused on corporate and technology law. Mr. Howell received a B.A. in economics from Washington & Lee University and a J.D. from Mercer University.

Donald Taylor—Chief Technology Officer

Don Taylor has served as our Chief Technology Officer since February 2008. As a software industry veteran of more than 25 years, Mr. Taylor brings expertise from his experience developing and providing advanced software solutions to the healthcare, banking, and logistics industries. Prior to joining Benefitfocus, from 2001 to 2006, Mr. Taylor was the founder and Chief Technology Officer of Boxcar Central, Inc., which developed a multi-tenant suite of SaaS applications for the third-party logistics market. Mr. Taylor received an A.S. from Charleston Southern University.

As of December 31, 2013, we had approximately 922 full-time associates, or employees, including approximately 411 engaged in technology development and deployment. None of our associates is represented by a labor union and we consider our current relations with our associates to be good.

 

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Item 1A. Risk Factors

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should consider carefully the risks and uncertainties described below, together with all of the other information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including the consolidated financial statements and the related notes, before deciding to invest in shares of our common stock. If any of the following risks were to materialize, our business, financial condition, results of operations, and future growth prospects could be materially and adversely affected. In that event, the market price of our common stock could decline and you could lose part or all of your investment in our common stock.

Risks Related to Our Business

We have had a history of losses, and we may be unable to achieve or sustain profitability.

We experienced net losses of $30.4 million in 2013, $14.9 million in 2012, $15.1 million in 2011, and $2.5 million in 2010. We cannot predict if we will achieve sustained profitability in the near future or at all. We expect to make significant future expenditures to develop and expand our business. In addition, as a public company, we incur significant legal, accounting, and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company. These increased expenditures will make it harder for us to achieve and maintain future profitability. Our recent growth in revenue and number of customers may not be sustainable, and we might not achieve sufficient revenue to achieve or maintain profitability. We may incur significant losses in the future for a number of reasons, including the other risks described in this report, and we may encounter unforeseen expenses, difficulties, complications and delays and other unknown events. Accordingly, we may not be able to achieve or maintain profitability and we may incur significant losses for the foreseeable future.

Our quarterly operating results have fluctuated in the past and might continue to fluctuate, causing the value of our common stock to decline substantially.

Our quarterly operating results might fluctuate due to a variety of factors, many of which are outside of our control. As a result, comparing our operating results on a period-to-period basis might not be meaningful. You should not rely on our past results as indicative of our future performance. Moreover, our stock price might be based on expectations of future performance that are unrealistic or that we might not meet and, if our revenue or operating results fall below the expectations of investors or securities analysts, the price of our common stock could decline substantially.

Our operating results have varied in the past. In addition to other risk factors listed in this section, some of the important factors that may cause fluctuations in our quarterly operating results include:

 

  Ÿ  

the extent to which our products and services achieve or maintain market acceptance;

 

  Ÿ  

our ability to introduce new products and services and enhancements to our existing products and services on a timely basis;

 

  Ÿ  

new competitors and the introduction of enhanced products and services from competitors;

 

  Ÿ  

the financial condition of our current and potential customers;

 

  Ÿ  

changes in customer budgets and procurement policies;

 

  Ÿ  

the amount and timing of our investment in research and development activities;

 

  Ÿ  

technical difficulties with our products or interruptions in our services;

 

  Ÿ  

our ability to hire and retain qualified personnel, including the rate of expansion of our sales force;

 

  Ÿ  

changes in the regulatory environment related to benefits and healthcare;

 

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  Ÿ  

regulatory compliance costs;

 

  Ÿ  

the timing, size, and integration success of potential future acquisitions; and

 

  Ÿ  

unforeseen legal expenses, including litigation and settlement costs.

In addition, a significant portion of our operating expense is relatively fixed in nature, and planned expenditures are based in part on expectations regarding future revenue. Accordingly, unexpected revenue shortfalls might decrease our gross margins and could cause significant changes in our operating results from quarter to quarter. If this occurs, the trading price of our common stock could fall substantially, either suddenly or over time.

As a result of our variable sales and implementation cycles, we might not be able to recognize revenue to offset expenditures, which could result in fluctuations in our quarterly results of operations or otherwise harm our future operating results.

The sales cycle for our products and services can be variable, averaging four months in our employer market segment and 15 months in our carrier market segment, each from initial contact to contract execution. During the sales cycle, we expend time and resources, and we do not recognize any revenue to offset such expenditures.

After a customer contract is signed, we provide an implementation process for the customer during which we establish and test appropriate integrations, connections and registrations, load data into our system, and train customer personnel. Our implementation cycle is also variable, typically ranging from four to five months for employer implementations and from eight to 10 months for complex carrier implementations, each from contract execution to completion of implementation. Some of our new customer projects are complex and require a lengthy set-up period and significant implementation work. During the implementation cycle, we expend substantial time, effort, and financial resources implementing our products and services, but accounting principles do not allow us to recognize the resulting revenue until implementation is complete and the services are available for use, at which time we begin recognition of implementation revenue over the longer of the life of the contract or the expected life of the customer relationship. Each customer’s situation is different, and unanticipated difficulties and delays might arise as a result of failure by us or by the customer to complete our respective responsibilities. If implementation periods are extended, revenue recognition could be delayed and our financial condition might be adversely affected. In addition, cancellation of any implementation after it has begun might result in lost time, effort, and expenses invested in the cancelled implementation process and lost opportunity for implementing paying clients in that same period of time.

These factors might contribute to substantial fluctuations in our quarterly operating results. As a result, in future quarters, our operating results could fall below the expectations of securities analysts or investors, in which event our stock price would likely decline.

Because we recognize revenue and expense relating to monthly subscriptions and professional services over varying periods, downturns or upturns in sales are not immediately reflected in full in our operating results.

As a software-as-a-service, or SaaS, company, we recognize our subscription revenue monthly for the term of our contracts and recognize the majority of our professional services revenue ratably over the longer of the contract term or the estimated expected life of the customer relationship. As a result, a portion of the revenue we report each quarter is the recognition of deferred revenue from contracts we entered into during previous quarters. Consequently, a shortfall in demand for our software solutions and professional services or a decline in new or renewed contracts in any one

 

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quarter might not significantly reduce our revenue for that quarter, but could negatively affect our revenue in future quarters. Accordingly, the effect of significant downturns in new or renewed sales of our products and services is not reflected in full in our results of operations until future periods. Our revenue recognition model also makes it difficult for us to rapidly increase our revenue through additional sales in any period, because revenue from new customers must be recognized over the applicable term of the contracts or the estimated expected life of the customer relationship period. In addition, we recognize professional services expenses as incurred, which could cause professional services gross margin to be negative.

We operate in a highly competitive industry, and if we are not able to compete effectively, our business and operating results will be harmed.

The benefits management software market is highly competitive and is likely to attract increased competition, which could make it hard for us to succeed. Small, specialized providers continue to become more sophisticated and effective. In addition, large, well-financed, and technologically sophisticated software companies might focus more on our market. The size and financial strength of these entities is increasing as a result of continued consolidation in both the IT and healthcare industries. We expect large integrated software companies to become more active in our market, both through acquisitions and internal investment. As costs fall and technology improves, increased market saturation might change the competitive landscape in favor of our competitors.

Some of our current large competitors have greater name recognition, longer operating histories, and significantly greater resources than we do. As a result, our competitors might be able to respond more quickly and effectively than we can to new or changing opportunities, technologies, standards, or customer requirements. In addition, current and potential competitors have established, and might in the future establish, cooperative relationships with vendors of complementary products, technologies, or services to increase the availability of their products in the marketplace. Accordingly, new competitors or alliances might emerge that have greater market share, a larger customer base, more widely adopted proprietary technologies, greater marketing expertise, greater financial resources, and larger sales forces than we have, which could put us at a competitive disadvantage. Further, in light of these advantages, even if our products and services are more effective than those of our competitors, current or potential customers might accept competitive offerings in lieu of purchasing our offerings. Increased competition is likely to result in pricing pressures, which could negatively impact our sales, profitability, or market share. In addition to new niche vendors, who offer stand-alone products and services, we face competition from existing enterprise vendors, including those currently focused on software solutions that have information systems in place with potential customers in our target market. These existing enterprise vendors might promise products or services that offer ease of integration with existing systems and which leverage existing vendor relationships. In addition, large insurance carriers often have internal technology staffs and proprietary software for benefits management, making them less likely to buy our solutions.

The market for our products and services is immature and volatile, and if it does not develop or if it develops more slowly than we expect, the growth of our business will be harmed.

The cloud-based benefits management software market is relatively new and unproven, and it is uncertain whether it will achieve and sustain high levels of demand and market acceptance. Our success will depend to a substantial extent on the willingness of employers, carriers, and consumers to increase their use of benefits management software. Many employers and carriers have invested substantial personnel and financial resources to integrate internally developed solutions or traditional enterprise software into their businesses for benefits management, and therefore might be reluctant or unwilling to migrate to our cloud-based solutions. Furthermore, some businesses might be reluctant to use cloud-based solutions because they have concerns about the security of their data and the reliability of the technology delivery model associated with these solutions. If employers, carriers and

 

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consumers do not perceive the benefits of our solutions, then our market might not develop at all, or it might develop more slowly than we expect, either of which could significantly adversely affect our operating results. In addition, we have limited insight into trends that might develop and affect our business. We might make errors in predicting and reacting to relevant business trends, which could harm our business. If any of these risks occur, it could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.

The SaaS pricing model is evolving and our failure to manage its evolution and demand could lead to lower than expected revenue and profit.

We derive most of our revenue growth from subscription offerings and, specifically, SaaS offerings. This business model depends heavily on achieving economies of scale because the initial upfront investment is costly and the associated revenue is recognized on a ratable basis. If we fail to achieve appropriate economies of scale or if we fail to manage or anticipate the evolution and demand of the SaaS pricing model, then our business and operating results could be adversely affected.

If we do not continue to innovate and provide products and services that are useful to consumers, employers, insurance carriers, and brokers and provide high quality support services, we might not remain competitive, and our revenue and operating results could suffer.

Our success depends in part on providing products and services that consumers, employers, insurance carriers, and brokers will use to manage benefits. We must continue to invest significant resources in research and development in order to enhance our existing products and services and introduce new high quality products and services that customers will want. If we are unable to predict user preferences or industry changes, or if we are unable to modify our products and services on a timely basis, we might lose customers. Our operating results would also suffer if our innovations are not responsive to the needs of our customers, are not appropriately timed with market opportunity, or are not effectively brought to market. As technology continues to develop, our competitors might be able to offer results that are, or that are perceived to be, substantially similar to or better than those generated by us. This would force us to compete on additional product and service attributes and to expend significant resources in order to remain competitive.

In addition, we may experience difficulties with software development, industry standards, design, or marketing that could delay or prevent our development, introduction, or implementation of new solutions and enhancements. The introduction of new solutions by competitors, the emergence of new industry standards, or the development of entirely new technologies to replace existing offerings could render our existing or future solutions obsolete.

Our success also depends on providing high quality support services to resolve any issues related to our products and services. High quality education and customer support is important for the successful marketing and sale of our products and services and for the renewal of existing customers. If we do not help our customers quickly resolve issues and provide effective ongoing support, our ability to sell additional products and services to existing customers would suffer and our reputation with existing or potential customers would be harmed.

If we are unable to retain our existing customers, our revenue and results of operations would be adversely affected.

We sell our products and services pursuant to agreements that are generally one year for employers and three to five years for carriers. While our employer contracts generally automatically renew on an annual basis, our carrier customers have no obligation to renew their contracts after their contract period expires, and these contracts may not be renewed on the same or on more profitable terms if at all. Additionally, some of our carrier customers are able to terminate their respective contracts

 

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without cause or for convenience, although generally our carrier contracts are only cancellable by the carrier in an instance of our uncured breach. As a result, our ability to grow depends in part on the continuance and renewal of our carrier contracts. We may not be able to accurately predict future trends in customer renewals, and our customers’ renewal rates may decline or fluctuate because of several factors, including their level of satisfaction or dissatisfaction with our services, the cost of our services, the cost of services offered by our competitors, or reductions in our customers’ spending levels. If our carrier customers terminate or do not renew their contracts for our services, renew on less favorable terms, or do not purchase additional functionality or products, our revenue may grow more slowly than expected or decline, and our profitability and gross margins may be harmed.

A significant amount of our revenue is derived from our largest customers, and any reduction in revenue from any of these customers would reduce our revenue and net income.

Our ten largest customers by revenue in the past four years accounted for approximately 47.4%, 58.6%, 64.1%, and 70.0% of our consolidated revenue in each of 2013, 2012, 2011, and 2010, respectively. Our largest customer by revenue in the past four years accounted for approximately 9.5%, 10.5%, 11.7%, and 11.6% of our revenue in each of 2013, 2012, 2011, and 2010, respectively. If any of our key customers decides not to renew its contracts with us, or to renew on less favorable terms, our business, revenues, reputation, and our ability to obtain new customers could be materially and adversely affected.

If the number of individuals covered by our employer and carrier customers decreases or the number of products or services to which our employer and carrier customers subscribe decreases, our revenue will decrease.

Under most of our customer contracts, we base our fees on the number of individuals to whom our customers provide benefits and the number of products or services subscribed to by our customers. Many factors may lead to a decrease in the number of individuals covered by our customers and the number of products or services subscribed to by our customers, including:

 

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failure of our customers to adopt or maintain effective business practices;

 

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changes in the nature or operations of our customers;

 

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government regulations; and

 

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increased competition or other changes in the benefits marketplace.

If the number of individuals covered by our customers or the number of products or services subscribed to by our customers decreases for any reason, our revenue will likely decrease.

Economic uncertainties or downturns in the general economy or the industries in which our customers operate could disproportionately affect the demand for our solutions and negatively impact our results of operations.

General worldwide economic conditions have experienced a significant downturn, and market volatility and uncertainty remain widespread, making it extremely difficult for our customers and us to accurately forecast and plan future business activities. In addition, these conditions could cause our customers or prospective customers to decrease headcount, benefits, or HR budgets, which could decrease corporate spending on our products and services, resulting in delayed and lengthened sales cycles, a decrease in new customer acquisition, and/or loss of customers. Furthermore, during challenging economic times, our customers may have difficulty gaining timely access to sufficient credit or obtaining credit on reasonable terms, which could impair their ability to make timely payments to us and adversely affect our revenue. If that were to occur, our financial results could be harmed. Further,

 

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challenging economic conditions might impair the ability of our customers to pay for the products and services they already have purchased from us and, as a result, our write-offs of accounts receivable could increase. We cannot predict the timing, strength, or duration of any economic slowdown or recovery. If the condition of the general economy or markets in which we operate worsens, our business could be harmed.

Failure to manage our rapid growth effectively could increase our expenses, decrease our revenue, and prevent us from implementing our business strategy.

We have been experiencing a period of rapid growth, which puts strain on our business. To manage this and our anticipated future growth effectively, we must continue to maintain and enhance our IT infrastructure, financial and accounting systems, and controls. We also must attract, train, and retain a significant number of qualified sales and marketing personnel, customer support personnel, professional services personnel, software engineers, technical personnel, and management personnel. Failure to effectively manage our rapid growth could lead us to over-invest or under-invest in development and operations, result in weaknesses in our infrastructure, systems, or controls, give rise to operational mistakes, losses, loss of productivity or business opportunities, and result in loss of employees and reduced productivity of remaining employees. Our growth could require significant capital expenditures and might divert financial resources from other projects such as the development of new products and services. If our management is unable to effectively manage our growth, our expenses might increase more than expected, our revenue could decline or might grow more slowly than expected, and we might be unable to implement our business strategy. The quality of our products and services might suffer, which could negatively affect our reputation and harm our ability to retain and attract customers.

We depend on our senior management team, and the loss of one or more key associates or an inability to attract and retain highly skilled associates could adversely affect our business.

Our success depends largely upon the continued services of our key executive officers. We also rely on our leadership team in the areas of research and development, marketing, services, and general and administrative functions, and on mission-critical individual contributors in research and development. From time to time, there may be changes in our executive management team resulting from the hiring or departure of executives, which could disrupt our business. The loss of one or more of our executive officers or key associates could have a serious adverse effect on our business.

To continue to execute our growth strategy, we also must attract and retain highly skilled personnel. Competition is intense for engineers with high levels of experience in designing and developing software and Internet-related services. We might not be successful in maintaining our unique culture and continuing to attract and retain qualified personnel. We have from time to time in the past experienced, and we expect to continue to experience in the future, difficulty in hiring and retaining highly skilled personnel with appropriate qualifications. The pool of qualified personnel with SaaS experience and/or experience working with the benefits market is limited overall and specifically in Charleston, South Carolina, where our principal office is located. In addition, many of the companies with which we compete for experienced personnel have greater resources than we have and are located in geographic areas, like Silicon Valley, that may attract more qualified technology workers.

In addition, in making employment decisions, particularly in the Internet and high-technology industries, job candidates often consider the value of the stock options they are to receive in connection with their employment. Volatility in the price of our stock might, therefore, adversely affect our ability to attract or retain highly skilled personnel. Furthermore, the requirement to expense stock options might discourage us from granting the size or type of stock option awards that job candidates require to join our company. If we fail to attract new personnel or fail to retain and motivate our current personnel, our business and future growth prospects could be severely harmed.

 

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If we fail to maintain awareness of our brand cost-effectively, our business might suffer.

We believe that maintaining awareness of our brand in a cost-effective manner is critical to continuing the widespread acceptance of our existing solutions and is an important element in attracting new customers. Furthermore, we believe that the importance of brand recognition will increase as competition in our market increases. Successful promotion of our brand will depend largely on the effectiveness of our marketing efforts and on our ability to provide reliable and useful services at competitive prices. Our efforts to build and maintain our brand nationally have involved significant expenses. Brand promotion activities may not yield increased revenue, and even if they do, any increased revenue may not offset the expenses we incur in maintaining our brand. If we fail to successfully maintain our brand, or incur substantial expenses in an unsuccessful attempt to maintain our brand, we may fail to attract enough new customers or retain our existing customers to the extent necessary to realize a sufficient return on our brand-building efforts, and our business could suffer.

Our growth depends in part on the success of our strategic relationships with third parties.

In order to grow our business, we anticipate that we will continue to depend on our relationships with third parties, including our partner organizations, and technology and content providers. Identifying partners, and negotiating and documenting relationships with them, requires significant time and resources. Our competitors might be effective in providing incentives to third parties to favor their products or services or to prevent or reduce subscriptions to our products and services. In addition, acquisitions of our partners by our competitors could result in a decrease in the number of our current and potential customers, as our partners may no longer facilitate the adoption of our applications by potential customers. If we are unsuccessful in establishing or maintaining our relationships with third parties, our ability to compete in the marketplace or to grow our revenue could be impaired and our operating results may suffer. Even if we are successful, we cannot assure you that these relationships will result in increased customer use of our applications or increased revenue.

If we are required to collect sales and use taxes in additional jurisdictions, we might be subject to liability for past sales and our future sales may decrease.

We might lose sales or incur significant expenses if states successfully impose broader guidelines on state sales and use taxes. A successful assertion by one or more states requiring us to collect sales or other taxes on the licensing of our software or sale of our services could result in substantial tax liabilities for past transactions and otherwise harm our business. Each state has different rules and regulations governing sales and use taxes, and these rules and regulations are subject to varying interpretations that change over time. We review these rules and regulations periodically and, when we believe we are subject to sales and use taxes in a particular state, voluntarily engage state tax authorities in order to determine how to comply with their rules and regulations. We cannot assure you that we will not be subject to sales and use taxes or related penalties for past sales in states where we currently believe no such taxes are required.

Vendors of services, like us, are typically held responsible by taxing authorities for the collection and payment of any applicable sales and similar taxes. If one or more taxing authorities determines that taxes should have, but have not, been paid with respect to our services, we might be liable for past taxes in addition to taxes going forward. Liability for past taxes might also include substantial interest and penalty charges. Our customer contracts typically provide that our customers must pay all applicable sales and similar taxes. Nevertheless, our customers might be reluctant to pay back taxes and might refuse responsibility for interest or penalties associated with those taxes. If we are required to collect and pay back taxes and the associated interest and penalties, and if our clients fail or refuse to reimburse us for all or a portion of these amounts, we will incur unplanned expenses that may be substantial. Moreover, imposition of such taxes on us going forward will effectively increase the cost of our software and services to our customers and might adversely affect our ability to retain existing customers or to gain new customers in the areas in which such taxes are imposed.

 

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We might not be able to utilize a significant portion of our net operating loss or other tax credit carryforwards, which could adversely affect our profitability.

As of December 31, 2013, we had federal and state net operating loss carryforwards due to prior period losses, which if not utilized will begin to expire in 2022 for federal and state purposes. We also have South Carolina jobs tax credit and headquarters tax credit carryforwards, which if not utilized will begin to expire in 2020. These tax credit carryforwards could expire unused and be unavailable to offset future income tax liabilities, which could adversely affect our profitability.

In addition, under Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, our ability to utilize net operating loss carryforwards or other tax attributes in any taxable year may be limited if we experience an “ownership change”. A Section 382 “ownership change” generally occurs if one or more stockholders or groups of stockholders who own at least 5% of our stock increase their ownership by more than 50 percentage points over their lowest ownership percentage within a rolling three-year period. Similar rules might apply under state tax laws. Future issuances of our stock could cause an “ownership change”. It is possible that an ownership change, or any future ownership change, could have a material effect on the use of our net operating loss carryforwards or other tax attributes, which could adversely affect our profitability.

We might be unable to adequately protect, and we might incur significant costs in enforcing, our intellectual property and other proprietary rights.

Our success depends in part on our ability to enforce our intellectual property and other proprietary rights. We rely on a combination of trademark, trade secret, copyright, patent, and unfair competition laws, as well as license and access agreements and other contractual provisions, to protect our intellectual property and other proprietary rights. In addition, we attempt to protect our intellectual property and proprietary information by requiring employees and consultants to enter into confidentiality, noncompetition, and assignment of inventions agreements. Our attempts to protect our intellectual property might be challenged by others or invalidated through administrative process or litigation. While we have two U.S. patents granted and a number of applications pending, we might not be able to obtain meaningful patent protection for our software. In addition, if any patents are issued in the future, they might not provide us with any competitive advantages, or might be successfully challenged by third parties. Agreement terms that address non-competition are difficult to enforce in many jurisdictions and might not be enforceable in certain cases. To the extent that our intellectual property and other proprietary rights are not adequately protected, third parties might gain access to our proprietary information, develop and market products or services similar to ours, or use trademarks similar to ours, each of which could materially harm our business. Existing U.S. federal and state intellectual property laws offer only limited protection. Moreover, the laws of other countries in which we might in the future conduct operations or contract for services might afford little or no effective protection of our intellectual property. The failure to adequately protect our intellectual property and other proprietary rights could materially harm our business.

In addition, if we resort to legal proceedings to enforce our intellectual property rights or to determine the validity and scope of the intellectual property or other proprietary rights of others, the proceedings could be burdensome and expensive, even if we were to prevail. Any litigation that is necessary in the future could result in substantial costs and diversion of resources and could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results or financial condition.

We might be sued by third parties for alleged infringement of their proprietary rights.

The software and Internet industries are characterized by the existence of a large number of patents, trademarks, and copyrights and by frequent litigation based on allegations of infringement or other violations of intellectual property rights. We have received in the past, and might receive in the

 

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future, communications from third parties claiming that we have infringed the intellectual property rights of others. Our technologies might not be able to withstand any third-party claims or rights against their use. Any intellectual property claims, with or without merit, could be time-consuming and expensive to resolve, divert management attention from executing our business plan, and require us to pay monetary damages or enter into royalty or licensing agreements. In addition, many of our contracts contain warranties with respect to intellectual property rights, and most require us to indemnify our clients for third-party intellectual property infringement claims, which would increase the cost to us of an adverse ruling on such a claim.

Moreover, any settlement or adverse judgment resulting from such a claim could require us to pay substantial amounts of money or obtain a license to continue to use the software or information that is the subject of the claim, or otherwise restrict or prohibit our use of it. We might not be able to obtain a license on commercially reasonable terms, if at all, from third parties asserting an infringement claim; we might not be able to develop alternative technology on a timely basis, if at all; and we might not be able to obtain a license to use a suitable alternative technology to permit us to continue offering, and our clients to continue using, our affected services. Accordingly, an adverse determination could prevent us from offering our services to others.

Failure to adequately expand our direct sales force will impede our growth.

We believe that our future growth will depend on the continued development of our direct sales force and its ability to obtain new customers and to manage our existing customer base. Identifying and recruiting qualified personnel and training them in the use of our software requires significant time, expense, and attention. It can take six months or longer before a new sales representative is fully trained and productive. Our business may be adversely affected if our efforts to expand and train our direct sales force do not generate a corresponding increase in revenues. In particular, if we are unable to hire and develop sufficient numbers of productive direct sales personnel or if new direct sales personnel are unable to achieve desired productivity levels in a reasonable period of time, sales of our products and services will suffer and our growth will be impeded.

Any future litigation against us could be costly and time-consuming to defend.

We may become subject, from time to time, to legal proceedings and claims that arise in the ordinary course of business such as claims brought by our clients in connection with commercial disputes or employment claims made by our current or former associates. Litigation might result in substantial costs and may divert management’s attention and resources, which might seriously harm our business, overall financial condition, and operating results. Insurance might not cover such claims, might not provide sufficient payments to cover all the costs to resolve one or more such claims, and might not continue to be available on terms acceptable to us. A claim brought against us that is uninsured or underinsured could result in unanticipated costs, thereby reducing our operating results and leading analysts or potential investors to reduce their expectations of our performance, which could reduce the trading price of our stock.

 

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If we acquire companies or technologies in the future, they could prove difficult to integrate, disrupt our business, dilute stockholder value, and adversely affect our operating results and the value of our common stock.

As part of our business strategy, we might acquire, enter into joint ventures with, or make investments in complementary companies, services, and technologies in the future. For example, in 2010, we acquired 100% of the net assets of Beninform Holdings, Inc., including its wholly owned subsidiary Benefit Informatics, Inc., and the intellectual property assets of BeliefNetworks, Inc. We spent considerable time, effort, and money pursuing these companies and successfully integrating them into our business. Acquisitions and investments involve numerous risks, including:

 

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difficulties in identifying and acquiring products, technologies or businesses that will help our business;

 

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difficulties in integrating operations, technologies, services and personnel;

 

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diversion of financial and managerial resources from existing operations;

 

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risk of entering new markets in which we have little to no experience; and

 

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delays in customer purchases due to uncertainty and the inability to maintain relationships with customers of the acquired businesses.

If we fail to properly evaluate acquisitions or investments, we might not achieve the anticipated benefits of any such acquisitions, we might incur costs in excess of what we anticipate, and management resources and attention might be diverted from other necessary or valuable activities.

We might require additional capital to support business growth, and this capital might not be available.

We intend to continue to make investments to support our business growth and might require additional funds to respond to business challenges or opportunities, including the need to develop new products and services or enhance our existing services, enhance our operating infrastructure, and acquire complementary businesses and technologies. Accordingly, we might need to engage in equity or debt financings to secure additional funds. If we raise additional funds through further issuances of equity or convertible debt securities, our existing stockholders could suffer significant dilution, and any new equity securities we issue could have rights, preferences and privileges superior to those of holders of our common stock. Any debt financing secured by us in the future could involve restrictive covenants relating to our capital-raising activities and other financial and operational matters, which might make it more difficult for us to obtain additional capital and to pursue business opportunities, including potential acquisitions. In addition, we might not be able to obtain additional financing on terms favorable to us, if at all. If we are unable to obtain adequate financing or financing on terms satisfactory to us when we require it, our ability to continue to support our business growth and to respond to business challenges could be significantly limited.

 

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Future sales to customers outside the United States or with international operations might expose us to risks inherent in international sales which, if realized, could adversely affect our business.

An element of our growth strategy is to expand internationally. Operating in international markets requires significant resources and management attention and will subject us to regulatory, economic, and political risks that are different from those in the United States. Because of our limited experience with international operations, our international expansion efforts might not be successful in creating demand for our products and services outside of the United States or in effectively selling our solutions in the international markets we enter. In addition, we will face risks in doing business internationally that could adversely affect our business, including:

 

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the need to localize and adapt our solutions for specific countries, including translation into foreign languages and associated expenses;

 

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data privacy laws which require that customer data be stored and processed in a designated territory;

 

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difficulties in staffing and managing foreign operations;

 

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different pricing environments, longer sales cycles and longer accounts receivable payment cycles and collections issues;

 

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new and different sources of competition;

 

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weaker protection for intellectual property and other legal rights than in the United States and practical difficulties in enforcing intellectual property and other rights outside of the United States;

 

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laws and business practices favoring local competitors;

 

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compliance challenges related to the complexity of multiple, conflicting and changing governmental laws and regulations, including employment, tax, privacy, and data protection laws and regulations;

 

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increased financial accounting and reporting burdens and complexities;

 

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restrictions on the transfer of funds;

 

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adverse tax consequences; and

 

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unstable regional economic and political conditions.

If we denominate our international contracts in local currencies, fluctuations in the value of the U.S. dollar and foreign currencies might impact our operating results when translated into U.S. dollars.

Risks Related to Our Products and Services Offerings

If our security measures are breached or fail, and unauthorized persons gain access to customers’ and consumers’ data, our products and services might be perceived as not being secure, customers and consumers might curtail or stop using our products and services, and we might incur significant liabilities.

Our products and services involve the storage and transmission of customers’ and consumers’ confidential information, which may include sensitive individually identifiable information that is subject to stringent legal and regulatory obligations. Because of the sensitivity of this information, security features of our software are very important. If our security measures are breached or fail and/or are bypassed as a result of third-party action, employee error, malfeasance, or otherwise, someone might be able to obtain unauthorized access to our customers’ confidential information and/or patient data.

 

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As a result, our reputation could be damaged, our business might suffer, information might be lost, and we could face damages for contract breach, penalties for violation of applicable laws or regulations, and significant costs for remediation and remediation efforts to prevent future occurrences.

In addition, we rely on various third parties, including employers’ HR departments, carriers, and other third-party service providers and consumers themselves, as users of our system for key activities to protect and promote the security of our systems and the data and information accessible within them, such as administration of enrollment, consumer status changes, claims, and billing. On occasion, people have failed to perform these activities. For example, employers sometimes have failed to terminate the login/password of former employees, or permitted current employees to share login/passwords. When we become aware of such breaches, we work with employers to terminate inappropriate access and provide additional instruction in order to avoid the reoccurrence of such problems. Although to date these breaches have not resulted in claims against us or in material harm to our business, failures to perform these activities might result in claims against us, which could expose us to significant expense, legal liability, and harm to our reputation, which might result in loss of business.

Because techniques used to obtain unauthorized access or to sabotage systems change frequently and generally are not recognized until launched against a target, we might not be able to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate preventive measures. If an actual or perceived breach of our security occurs, the market perception of the effectiveness of our security measures could be harmed and we could lose sales and customers. Any significant violations of data privacy could result in the loss of business, litigation and regulatory investigations and penalties that could damage our reputation and adversely impact our results of operations and financial condition. In addition, our customers might authorize or enable third parties to access their information and data that is stored on our systems. Because we do not control such access, we cannot ensure the complete integrity or security of such data in our systems.

Failure by our customers to obtain proper permissions and waivers might result in claims against us or may limit or prevent our use of data, which could harm our business.

We require our customers to provide necessary notices and to obtain necessary permissions and waivers for use and disclosure of information on the Benefitfocus platform, and we require contractual assurances from them that they have done so and will do so. If, however, despite these requirements and contractual obligations, our customers do not obtain necessary permissions and waivers, then our use and disclosure of information that we receive from them or on their behalf might be limited or prohibited by state or federal privacy laws or other laws. This could impair our functions, processes and databases that reflect, contain, or are based upon such data and might prevent use of such data. In addition, this could interfere with, or prevent creation or use of, rules, analyses, or other data-driven activities that benefit us and our business. Moreover, we might be subject to claims or liability for use or disclosure of information by reason of lack of valid notices, agreements, permissions or waivers. These claims or liabilities could subject us to unexpected costs and adversely affect our operating results.

Our proprietary software might not operate properly, which could damage our reputation, give rise to claims against us, or divert application of our resources from other purposes, any of which could harm our business and operating results.

Proprietary software development is time-consuming, expensive, and complex. Unforeseen difficulties can arise. We might encounter technical obstacles, and it is possible that we discover problems that prevent our proprietary applications from operating properly. If they do not function reliably or fail to achieve customer expectations in terms of performance, customers could assert liability claims against us and/or attempt to cancel their contracts with us. This could damage our reputation and impair our ability to attract or maintain customers.

 

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Moreover, benefits management software as complex as ours has in the past contained, and may in the future contain, or develop, undetected defects or errors. Material performance problems or defects in our products and services might arise in the future. Errors might result from the interface of our services with legacy systems and data, which we did not develop and the function of which is outside of our control. Defects or errors might arise in our existing or new software or service processes. Because changes in employer, carrier, and legal requirements and practices relating to benefits are frequent, we are continuously discovering defects and errors in our software and service processes compared against these requirements and practices. Undiscovered vulnerabilities could expose our software to unscrupulous third parties who develop and deploy software programs that could attack our software or result in unauthorized access to customer data. Defects and errors and any failure by us to identify and address them could result in loss of revenue or market share, liability to customers or others, failure to achieve market acceptance or expansion, diversion of development and other resources, injury to our reputation, and increased service and maintenance costs. Defects or errors in our product or service processes might discourage existing or potential customers from purchasing services from us. Correction of defects or errors could prove to be impossible or impracticable. The costs incurred in correcting any defects or errors or in responding to resulting claims or liability might be substantial and could adversely affect our operating results.

In addition, customers that rely on our products and services to collect, manage, and report benefits data might have a greater sensitivity to service errors and security vulnerabilities than customers of software products in general. We market and sell services that, among other things, provide information to assist care providers in tracking and treating ill patients. Any operational delay in or failure of our software service processes might result in the disruption of patient care and could cause harm to our business and operating results.

Our customers might assert claims against us in the future alleging that they suffered damages due to a defect, error, or other failure of our product or service processes. A product liability claim or errors or omissions claim could subject us to significant legal defense costs and adverse publicity regardless of the merits or eventual outcome of such a claim.

Various events could interrupt customers’ access to the Benefitfocus platform, exposing us to significant costs.

The ability to access the Benefitfocus platform is critical to our customers. Our operations and facilities are vulnerable to interruption and/or damage from a number of sources, many of which are beyond our control, including, without limitation: (i) power loss and telecommunications failures, (ii) fire, flood, hurricane, and other natural disasters, (iii) software and hardware errors, failures or crashes in our own systems or in other systems, (iv) computer viruses, denial-of-service attacks, hacking and similar disruptive problems in our own systems and in other systems, and (v) civil unrest, war, and/or terrorism. We have implemented various measures to protect against interruptions of customers’ access to our platform. If customers’ access is interrupted because of problems in the operation of our facilities, we could be exposed to significant claims by customers, particularly if the access interruption is associated with problems in the timely delivery of funds due to customers or medical information relevant to patient care. Our plans for disaster recovery and business continuity rely on third-party providers of related services. If those vendors fail us at a time when our systems are not operating correctly, we could incur a loss of revenue and liability for failure to fulfill our obligations. Any significant instances of system downtime could negatively affect our reputation and ability to retain customers and sell our services, which would adversely impact our revenue.

In addition, retention and availability of patient care and physician reimbursement data are subject to federal and state laws governing record retention, accuracy, and access. Some laws impose

 

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obligations on our customers and on us to produce information for third parties and to amend or expunge data at their direction. Our failure to meet these obligations might result in liability, which could increase our costs and reduce our operating results.

We rely on data center providers, internet infrastructure, bandwidth providers, third-party computer hardware and software, other third parties, and our own systems for providing services to our customers, and any failure or interruption in the services provided by these third parties or our own systems could expose us to litigation and negatively impact our relationships with customers, adversely affecting our brand and our business.

We serve all our customers from two data centers, one located in Raleigh, North Carolina and the other located in Charlotte, North Carolina. While we control and have access to our servers, we do not control the operation of these facilities. The owners of our data center facilities have no obligation to renew their agreements with us on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. If we are unable to renew these agreements on commercially reasonable terms, or if one of our data center operators is acquired, we may be required to transfer our servers and other infrastructure to new data center facilities, and we may incur significant costs and possible service interruption in connection with doing so. Problems faced by our third-party data center locations, with the telecommunications network providers with whom we or they contract, or with the systems by which our telecommunications providers allocate capacity among their customers, including us, could adversely affect the experience of our customers. Our third-party data centers operators could decide to close their facilities without adequate notice. In addition, any financial difficulties, such as bankruptcy faced by our third-party data centers operators or any of the service providers with whom we or they contract may have negative effects on our business, the nature and extent of which are difficult to predict.

In addition, our ability to deliver our web-based services depends on the development and maintenance of the infrastructure of the Internet by third parties. This includes maintenance of a reliable network backbone with the necessary speed, data capacity, bandwidth capacity, and security. Our services are designed to operate without interruption in accordance with our service level commitments. However, we have experienced and expect that we will experience future interruptions and delays in services and availability from time to time. In the event of a catastrophic event with respect to one or more of our systems, we may experience an extended period of system unavailability, which could negatively impact our relationship with customers. To operate without interruption, both we and our service providers must guard against:

 

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damage from fire, power loss, natural disasters and other force majeure events outside our control;

 

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communications failures;

 

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software and hardware errors, failures, and crashes;

 

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security breaches, computer viruses, hacking, denial-of-service attacks, and similar disruptive problems; and

 

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other potential interruptions.

We also rely on computer hardware purchased or leased and software licensed from third parties in order to offer our services, including software from Oracle Corporation and Microsoft Corporation, and routers and network equipment from Cisco and Hewlett-Packard Company. These licenses are generally commercially available on varying terms. However, it is possible that this hardware and software might not continue to be available on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. Any loss of the right to use any of this hardware or software could result in delays in the provisioning of our services until equivalent technology is either developed by us, or, if available, is identified, obtained and integrated.

 

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We exercise limited control over third-party vendors, which increases our vulnerability to problems with technology and information services they provide. Interruptions in our network access and services might in connection with third-party technology and information services reduce our revenue, cause us to issue refunds to customers for prepaid and unused subscription services, subject us to potential liability, or adversely affect our renewal rates. Although we maintain insurance for our business, the coverage under our policies might not be adequate to compensate us for all losses that may occur. In addition, we might not be able to continue to obtain adequate insurance coverage at an acceptable cost, if at all.

The use of open source software in our products and solutions may expose us to additional risks and harm our intellectual property rights.

Some of our products and solutions use or incorporate software that is subject to one or more open source licenses. Open source software is typically freely accessible, usable, and modifiable. Certain open source software licenses require a user who intends to distribute the open source software as a component of the user’s software to disclose publicly part or all of the source code to the user’s software. In addition, certain open source software licenses require the user of such software to make any derivative works of the open source code available to others on potentially unfavorable terms or at no cost.

The terms of many open source licenses to which we are subject have not been interpreted by U.S. or foreign courts. Accordingly, there is a risk that those licenses could be construed in a manner that imposes unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our ability to commercialize our solutions. In that event, we could be required to seek licenses from third parties in order to continue offering our products or solutions, to re-develop our products or solutions, to discontinue sales of our products or solutions, or to release our proprietary software code under the terms of an open source license, any of which could harm our business. Further, given the nature of open source software, it may be more likely that third parties might assert copyright and other intellectual property infringement claims against us based on our use of these open source software programs.

While we monitor the use of all open source software in our products, solutions, processes, and technology and try to ensure that no open source software is used in such a way as to require us to disclose the source code to the related product or solution when we do not wish to do so, it is possible that such use may have inadvertently occurred in deploying our proprietary solutions. In addition, if a third-party software provider has incorporated certain types of open source software into software we license from such third party for our products and solutions without our knowledge, we could, under certain circumstances, be required to disclose the source code to our products and solutions. This could harm our intellectual property position and our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

Risks Related to Regulation

Government regulation of the areas in which we operate creates risks and challenges with respect to our compliance efforts and our business strategies.

The employee benefits industry is highly regulated and is subject to changing political, legislative, regulatory, and other influences. Existing and new laws and regulations affecting the employee benefits industry could create unexpected liabilities for us, cause us to incur additional costs and restrict our operations. These laws and regulations are complex and their application to specific services and relationships are not clear. In particular, many existing laws and regulations affecting employee benefits, when enacted, did not anticipate the services that we provide, and these laws and regulations might be applied to our services in ways that we do not anticipate. Our failure to accurately anticipate the application of these laws and regulations, or our failure to comply, could create liability for us, result in adverse publicity, and negatively affect our business. Some of the risks we face from the regulation of employee benefits are as follows:

 

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Although numerous lawsuits challenged the constitutionality of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, or PPACA, the U.S. Supreme Court on June 28, 2012, upheld the

 

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constitutionality of PPACA except for provisions that would have allowed the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or HHS, to penalize states that did not implement the Medicaid expansion with the loss of existing federal Medicaid funding. While many of the provisions of PPACA will not be directly applicable to us, PPACA, as enacted, might affect the business of many of our customers. Carriers and large employers might experience changes in the numbers of individuals they insure as a result of Medicaid expansion and the creation of state and national exchanges, though it is unclear how many states will decline to implement the Medicaid expansion or adopt state-specific exchanges. Although we are unable to predict with any reasonable certainty or otherwise quantify the likely impact of PPACA on our business model, financial condition, or results of operations, changes in the business of our customers and the number of individuals they insure may negatively impact our business.

 

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False or Fraudulent Claim Laws.    There are numerous federal and state laws that forbid submission of false information or the failure to disclose information in connection with submission and payment of claims for reimbursement from the government. In some cases, these laws also forbid abuse of existing systems for such submission and payment. Although our business operations are generally not subject to these laws and regulations, any contract we have with a government entity requires us to comply with these laws and regulations. Any failure of our services to comply with these laws and regulations could result in substantial liability, including but not limited to criminal liability, could adversely affect demand for our services, and could force us to expend significant capital, research and development, and other resources to address the failure. Any determination by a court or regulatory agency that our services with government clients violate these laws and regulations could subject us to civil or criminal penalties, invalidate all or portions of some of our government client contracts, require us to change or terminate some portions of our business, require us to refund portions of our services fees, cause us to be disqualified from serving not only government clients but also all clients doing business with government payers, and have an adverse effect on our business.

 

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HIPAA and Other Privacy and Security Requirements.    There are numerous U.S. federal and state laws and regulations related to the privacy and security of personal health information. In particular, regulations promulgated pursuant to the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, or HIPAA, established privacy and security standards that limit the use and disclosure of individually identifiable health information, and require the implementation of administrative, physical, and technological safeguards to ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of individually identifiable health information in electronic form. Health plans, healthcare clearinghouses, and most providers are considered by the HIPAA regulations to be “Covered Entities”. With respect to our operations as a healthcare clearinghouse, we are directly subject to the privacy regulations established under HIPAA, or Privacy Standards, and the security regulations established under HIPAA, or Security Standards. In addition, our carrier customers, or payors, are considered to be Covered Entities and are required to enter into written agreements with us, known as Business Associate Agreements, under which we are considered to be a “Business Associate” and that require us to safeguard individually identifiable health information and restrict how we may use and disclose such information. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, or ARRA, and the HIPAA Omnibus Final Rules extended the direct application of certain provisions of the Privacy Standards and Security Standards to us when we are functioning as a Business Associate of our carrier customers. ARRA and the HIPAA Omnibus Final Rule also subject Business Associates to direct oversight and audit by the HHS.

Violations of the Privacy Standards and Security Standards might result in civil and criminal penalties, and ARRA increased the penalties for HIPAA violations and strengthened the enforcement provisions of HIPAA. For example, ARRA authorizes state attorneys general to bring civil actions seeking either injunctions or damages in response to violations of Privacy Standards and Security Standards that threaten the privacy of state residents.

 

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We might not be able to adequately address the business risks created by HIPAA implementation. Furthermore, we are unable to predict what changes to HIPAA or other laws or regulations might be made in the future or how those changes could affect our business or the costs of compliance.

Some payors and clearinghouses interpret HIPAA transaction requirements differently than we do. Where payors or clearinghouses require conformity with their interpretations as a condition of a successful transaction, we seek to comply with their interpretations.

In addition to the Privacy Standards and Security Standards, most states have enacted patient confidentiality laws that protect against the disclosure of confidential medical and/or health information, and many states have adopted or are considering further legislation in this area, including privacy safeguards, security standards, and data security breach notification requirements. Such state laws, if more stringent than HIPAA requirements, are not preempted by the federal requirements and we are required to comply with them.

Failure by us to comply with any state standards regarding patient privacy may subject us to penalties, including civil monetary penalties and, in some circumstances, criminal penalties. Such failure may injure our reputation and adversely affect our ability to retain customers and attract new customers.

 

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Medicare and Medicaid Regulatory Requirements.    We have contracts with insurance carriers who offer Medicare Managed Care (also known as Medicare Advantage or Medicare Part C) and Medicaid Managed Care benefits plans. We also have contracts with insurance carriers who offer Medicare prescription drug benefits (also known as Medicare Part D) plans. The activities of the Medicare plans are regulated by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, or CMS, the federal agency that provides oversight of the Medicare and Medicaid programs. The Medicaid Managed Care plans are regulated by both CMS and the individual states where the plans are offered. Some of the activities that we might perform, such as the enrollment of beneficiaries, may be subject to CMS and/or state regulation, and such regulations may force us to change the way we do business or otherwise restrict our ability to provide services to such plans. Moreover, the regulatory environment with respect to these programs has become, and will likely continue to become, increasingly complex.

 

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Financial Services-Related Laws and Rules.    Financial services and electronic payment processing services are subject to numerous laws, regulations and industry standards, some of which might impact our operations and subject us, our vendors, and our customers to liability as a result of the payment distribution and processing solutions we offer. Although we do not act as a bank, we offer solutions that involve banks, or vendors who contract with banks and other regulated providers of financial services. As a result, we might be impacted by banking and financial services industry laws, regulations, and industry standards, such as licensing requirements, solvency standards, requirements to maintain the privacy and security of nonpublic personal financial information, and Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation deposit insurance limits. In addition, our patient billing and payment distribution and processing solutions might be impacted by payment card association operating rules, certification requirements, and rules governing electronic funds transfers. If we fail to comply with applicable payment processing rules or requirements, we might be subject to fines and changes in transaction fees and may lose our ability to process credit and debit card transactions or facilitate other types of billing and payment solutions. Moreover, payment transactions processed using the Automated Clearing House Network, or ACH, are subject to network operating rules promulgated by the National Automated Clearing House Association and to various federal laws regarding such operations, including laws pertaining to electronic funds transfers, and these rules and laws might impact our billing and payment solutions. Further, our solutions might impact the ability of our payor customers to comply with state prompt payment laws. These laws require payors to pay healthcare claims meeting the statutory or regulatory definition of a “clean claim” within a specified time frame.

 

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Insurance Broker Laws.    Insurance laws in the United States are often complex, and states have broad authority to adopt regulations regarding brokerage activities. These regulations typically include the licensing of insurance brokers and agents and govern the handling and investment of client funds held in a fiduciary capacity. Although we believe our activities do not currently constitute the provision of insurance brokerage services, regulations may change from state to state, which could require us to comply with such expanded regulations.

 

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ERISA.    The Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended, or ERISA, regulates how employee benefits are provided to or through certain types of employer-sponsored health benefits plans. ERISA is a set of laws and regulations that is subject to periodic interpretation by the U.S. Department of Labor as well as the federal courts. In some circumstances, and under certain customer contracts, we might be deemed to have assumed duties that make us an ERISA fiduciary, and thus be required to carry out our operations in a manner that complies with ERISA in all material respects. We believe that our current operations do not render us subject to ERISA fiduciary obligations, and therefore that we are in material compliance with ERISA and that any such compliance does not currently have a material adverse effect on our operations. However, there can be no assurance that continuing ERISA compliance efforts or any future changes to ERISA will not have a material adverse effect on us.

 

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Third-Party Administrator Laws.    Numerous states in which we do business have adopted regulations governing entities engaged in third-party administrator, or TPA, activities. TPA regulations typically impose requirements regarding enrollment into benefits plans, claims processing and payments, and the handling of customer funds. Although we do not believe we are currently acting as a TPA, changes in state regulations could result in us being obligated to comply with such regulations, which might require us to obtain licenses to provide TPA services in such states.

We are subject to banking regulations that may limit our business activities.

The Goldman Sachs Group, affiliates of which owned approximately 46.5% of the voting and economic interest in our business at December 31, 2013, is regulated as a bank holding company and a financial holding company under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended, or the BHC Act. The BHC Act imposes regulations and requirements on The Goldman Sachs Group and on any company that is deemed to be controlled by The Goldman Sachs Group under the BHC Act and the regulations of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, or the Federal Reserve. Due to the size of its voting and economic interest, we are deemed to be controlled by The Goldman Sachs Group and are therefore considered to be a “subsidiary” of The Goldman Sachs Group under the BHC Act. We will remain subject to this regulatory regime until The Goldman Sachs Group is no longer deemed to control us for purposes of the BHC Act, which we do not generally have the ability to control and which will not occur until The Goldman Sachs Group has significantly reduced its voting and economic interest in us.

As a controlled subsidiary of The Goldman Sachs Group, we are restricted from engaging in activities that are not permissible under the BHC Act, or the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder. Permitted activities for a bank holding company or any controlled subsidiary generally include activities that the Federal Reserve has previously determined to be closely related to banking, financial in nature or incidental or complementary to financial activities, including data processing services such as those that we provide with our software solutions. Restrictions placed on The Goldman Sachs Group as a result of supervisory or enforcement actions under the BHC Act or otherwise may restrict us or our activities in certain circumstances, even if these actions are unrelated to our conduct or business. Further, as a result of being subject to regulation and supervision by the Federal Reserve, we may be required to obtain the prior approval of the Federal Reserve before

 

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engaging in certain new activities or businesses, whether organically or by acquisition. The Federal Reserve could exercise its power to restrict us from engaging in any activity that, in the Federal Reserve’s opinion, is unauthorized or constitutes an unsafe or unsound business practice. To the extent that these regulations impose limitations on our business, we could be at a competitive disadvantage because some of our competitors are not subject to these limitations.

Additionally, any failure of The Goldman Sachs Group to maintain its status as a financial holding company could result in further limitations on our activities and our growth. In particular, our permissible activities could be restricted to only those that constitute banking or activities closely related to banking. The Goldman Sachs Group’s loss of its financial holding company status could be caused by several factors, including any failure by The Goldman Sachs Group’s bank subsidiaries to remain sufficiently capitalized, by any examination downgrade of one of The Goldman Sachs Group’s bank subsidiaries, or by any failure of one of The Goldman Sachs Group’s bank subsidiaries to maintain a satisfactory rating under the Community Reinvestment Act. In addition, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, or Dodd-Frank Act, broadened the requirements for maintaining financial holding company status by also requiring the holding company to remain “well capitalized” and “well managed”. We have no ability to prevent such occurrences from happening.

As a subsidiary of a bank holding company, we are subject to examination by the Federal Reserve and required to provide information and reports for use by the Federal Reserve under the BHC Act. In addition, we may be subject to regulatory oversight and examination because we are a technology service provider to regulated financial institutions. The Federal Reserve may also impose substantial fines and other penalties for violations of applicable banking laws, regulations and orders. Further, the Dodd-Frank Act, including Title VI thereunder known as the “Volcker Rule”, and related financial regulatory reform call for the issuance of numerous regulations designed to increase and strengthen the regulation of bank holding companies, including The Goldman Sachs Group and its affiliates. U.S. financial regulators approved the final rules to implement the Volcker Rule in December 2013. The Volker Rule, in relevant part, restricts banking entities from proprietary trading (subject to certain exemptions) and from acquiring or retaining any equity, partnership or other interests in, or sponsoring, a private equity fund, subject to satisfying certain conditions, and from engaging in certain transactions with funds.

We have agreed to certain covenants for the benefit of The Goldman Sachs Group that are intended to facilitate its compliance with the BHC Act, but that may impose certain obligations on our company. In particular, The Goldman Sachs Group has rights to conduct audits on, and access certain information of, our company and certain rights to review the policies and procedures that we implement to comply with the laws and regulations that relate to our activities. In addition, we are obligated to provide The Goldman Sachs Group with notice of certain events and business activities and cooperate with The Goldman Sachs Group to mitigate potential adverse consequences resulting therefrom.

Potential regulatory requirements placed on our software, services, and content could impose increased costs on us, delay or prevent our introduction of new service types, and impair the function or value of our existing service types.

Our products and services are and are likely to continue to be subject to increasing regulatory requirements in a number of ways. As these requirements proliferate, we must change or adapt our products and services to comply. Changing regulatory requirements might render our services obsolete or might block us from accomplishing our work or from developing new services. This might in turn impose additional costs upon us to comply or to further develop our products and services. It might also make introduction of new product or service types more costly or more time-consuming than we currently anticipate. It might even prevent introduction by us of new products or services or cause the continuation of our existing products or services to become unprofitable or impossible.

 

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Potential government subsidy of services similar to ours, or creation of a single payor system, might reduce customer demand.

Recently, entities including brokers and U.S. federal and state governments have offered to subsidize adoption of online benefits platforms or clearinghouses. In addition, federal regulations have been changed to permit such subsidy from additional sources subject to certain limitations. To the extent that we do not qualify or participate in such subsidy programs, demand for our services might be reduced, which may decrease our revenue. In addition, prior proposals regarding healthcare reform have included the concept of creation of a single payor for healthcare insurance. This kind of consolidation of critical benefits activity could negatively impact the demand for our services.

Our services present the potential for embezzlement, identity theft, or other similar illegal behavior by our associates with respect to third parties.

Among other things, certain services offered by us involve collecting payment information from individuals, and this frequently includes check and credit card information. Even though we do not handle direct payments, our services also involve the use and disclosure of personal and business information that could be used to impersonate third parties, commit identity theft, or otherwise gain access to their data or funds. If any of our associates take, convert, or misuse such funds, documents, or data, we could be liable for damages, and our business reputation could be damaged or destroyed. Moreover, if we fail to adequately prevent third parties from accessing personal and/or business information and using that information to commit identity theft, we might face legal liabilities and other losses than can have a negative impact on our business.

Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock

Our stock price might be volatile or might decline regardless of our operating performance, and you might not be able to resell your shares at or above the price at which you purchase it.

The stock market historically has experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations. As a result of this volatility, you might not be able to sell your common stock at or above the price at which you purchase it. The public market for our stock is very new, and the trading price of our common stock might fluctuate significantly in response to various factors, some of which are beyond our control. These factors include:

 

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our operating performance and the operating performance of similar companies;

 

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the overall performance of the equity markets;

 

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announcements by us or our competitors of acquisitions, business plans, or commercial relationships;

 

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threatened or actual litigation;

 

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changes in laws or regulations relating to the sale of health insurance;

 

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any major change in our board of directors or management;

 

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publication of research reports or news stories about us, our competitors, or our industry, or positive or negative recommendations or withdrawal of research coverage by securities analysts;

 

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large volumes of sales of our shares of common stock by existing stockholders; and

 

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general political and economic conditions.

In addition, the stock market in general, and the market for Internet-related companies in particular, has experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of those companies. These fluctuations might be even more pronounced in the relatively new trading market for our stock. Additionally, securities class action

 

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litigation has often been instituted against companies following periods of volatility in the overall market and in the market price of a company’s securities. This litigation, if instituted against us, could result in substantial costs, divert our management’s attention and resources, and harm our business, operating results, and financial condition.

We do not currently intend to pay dividends on our common stock and, consequently, your ability to achieve a return on your investment will depend on appreciation in the price of our common stock.

We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our common stock and do not currently intend to do so for the foreseeable future. We currently intend to invest our future earnings, if any, to fund our growth. Therefore, you are not likely to receive any dividends on your common stock for the foreseeable future, and the success of an investment in shares of our common stock will depend upon future appreciation in its value, if any. There is no guarantee that shares of our common stock will appreciate in value or even maintain the price at which our stockholders purchased their shares.

Our stock price could decline due to the large number of outstanding shares of our common stock eligible for future sale.

Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market or the market perception that the holder or holders of a large number of shares intend to sell shares, could reduce the market price of our common stock. These sales could also make it more difficult for us to sell equity or equity-related securities in the future at a time and price that we deem appropriate.

As of December 31, 2013, we had an aggregate of 24,495,651 shares of common stock outstanding. Of these shares, approximately 18,768,882 shares became eligible for sale on March 16, 2014, upon the expiration of lock-up agreements with the underwriters for our IPO, subject in some cases to volume and other restrictions of Rule 144 and Rule 701 under the Securities Act. As of December 31, 2013, there were outstanding options, restricted stock units and a warrant to purchase 3,656,495 shares of our common stock that, if exercised, will result in these additional shares becoming available for sale subject in some cases to Rule 144 and Rule 701 under the Securities Act. On November 12, 2013, we also registered an aggregate of 6,249,766 shares of our common stock that we may issue under our stock plans. These shares can be freely sold in the public market upon issuance, unless they are held by “affiliates”, as that term is defined in Rule 144 of the Securities Act. If a large number of these shares are sold in the public market, the sales could reduce the trading price of our common stock.

We have broad discretion in the use of the net proceeds we received from our IPO and might not use them effectively.

Our management has broad discretion to use the net proceeds from our IPO, and you will be relying on the judgment of our management regarding the application of these proceeds. Our management might not apply the net proceeds of our initial public offering, or IPO, in ways that increase the value of your investment. Until we use the net proceeds from our IPO, we plan to invest them, and these investments may not yield a favorable rate of return. If we do not invest or apply the net proceeds from our IPO in ways that enhance stockholder value, we may fail to achieve expected financial results, which could cause our stock price to decline.

A limited number of stockholders will have the ability to influence the outcome of director elections and other matters requiring stockholder approval.

As of December 31, 2013, our directors, executive officers, and their affiliated entities beneficially owned more than 75.0% of our outstanding common stock. In particular, GS Capital Partners VI Parallel, L.P., GS Capital Partners VI Offshore Fund, L.P., GS Capital Partners VI Fund, L.P., and GS Capital Partners VI GmbH & CO. KG, which are affiliates of Goldman, Sachs & Co. and which we refer

 

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to as the Goldman Funds, collectively beneficially owned approximately 46.5%. These stockholders, if they act together, could exert substantial influence over matters requiring approval by our stockholders, including the amendment of our restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws, and the approval of mergers or other business combination transactions. For example, our amended and restated bylaws provide that so long as The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. and its affiliates own, collectively, at least 35% of our common stock, we may not amend, without the written consent of the Goldman Sachs Group, provisions in our restated certificate of incorporation or our amended and restated bylaws related to the ability of our stockholders to act by written consent, the procedures by which our stockholders may call a special meeting of stockholders, and the classification of our board of directors into three classes.

Additionally, the Goldman Funds, Oak Investment Partners XII, L.P., Mason R. Holland, Jr., our Executive Chairman and a director, and Shawn A. Jenkins, our President and Chief Executive Officer and a director, entered into a voting agreement for the election of directors. As of December 31, 2013, these stockholders collectively beneficially owned more than 75.0% of our common stock. Pursuant to the voting agreement, the parties agree to vote all of their shares to elect two directors nominated by the Goldman Funds, one director nominated by Oak Investment Partners, and each of Messrs. Holland and Jenkins to our board of directors. As a result, these stockholders will have significant influence on the outcome of director elections. This concentration of ownership might discourage, delay, or prevent a change in control of our company, which could deprive our stockholders of an opportunity to receive a premium for their stock as part of a sale of our company and might reduce our stock price. These actions may be taken even if they are opposed by other stockholders.

We are a “controlled company” within the meaning of the NASDAQ Stock Market listing rules, and take advantage of exemptions from certain corporate governance requirements.

As of December 31, 2013, approximately 75.0% of the voting power of our outstanding common stock was beneficially owned by a group of our significant stockholders consisting of Oak Investment Partners XII, L.P., the Goldman Funds, and Messrs. Holland and Jenkins. Under the NASDAQ Stock Market listing rules, a company of which more than 50% of the voting power is held by an individual, group or another company is a “controlled company” and is exempt from the corporate governance requirements that a majority of our directors be independent, as defined in the NASDAQ Stock Market listing rules, and that our compensation and nominating and corporate governance committees consist entirely of independent directors. We rely on the “controlled company” exemption under the NASDAQ Stock Market listing rules. As a result, a majority of the members of our Board of Directors are not independent directors and our nominating and corporate governance and compensation committees do not consist entirely of independent directors. While we remain a controlled company and during any transition period following a time when we are no longer a controlled company, you will not have the same protections afforded to stockholders of companies that are subject to all of the NASDAQ Stock Market’s corporate governance requirements.

Provisions in our certificate of incorporation and bylaws and Delaware law might discourage, delay, or prevent a change in control of our company or changes in our management and, therefore, depress the trading price of our common stock.

Provisions of our certificate of incorporation and bylaws and Delaware law might discourage, delay, or prevent a merger, acquisition, or other change in control that stockholders consider favorable, including transactions in which you might otherwise receive a premium for your shares of our common stock. These provisions might also prevent or frustrate attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our management. These provisions include:

 

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limitations on the removal of directors;

 

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advance notice requirements for stockholder proposals and nominations;

 

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limitations on the ability of stockholders to call special meetings;

 

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The Goldman Sachs Group and its affiliates cease to own at least 35% of our voting equity, the inability of stockholders to act by written consent;

 

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the inability of stockholders to cumulate votes at any election of directors;

 

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the classification of our board of directors into three classes with only one class, representing approximately one-third of our directors, standing for election at each annual meeting; and

 

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the ability of our board of directors to make, alter or repeal our bylaws.

Our Board of Directors has the ability to designate the terms of and issue new series of preferred stock without stockholder approval. In addition, Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law prohibits a publicly held Delaware corporation from engaging in a business combination with an interested stockholder, generally a person which together with its affiliates owns, or within the last three years has owned, 15% of our voting stock, for a period of three years after the date of the transaction in which the person became an interested stockholder, unless the business combination is approved in a prescribed manner.

The existence of the foregoing provisions and anti-takeover measures could limit the price that investors are willing to pay in the future for shares of our common stock. They could also deter potential acquirers of our company, thereby reducing the likelihood that you could receive a premium for your common stock in an acquisition.

Our business is subject to changing regulations regarding corporate governance, disclosure controls, internal control over financial reporting, and other compliance areas that will increase both our costs and the risk of noncompliance.

As a public company, we are subject to the reporting requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, or the Exchange Act, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the Dodd-Frank Act, and the rules and regulations of our stock exchange. The requirements of these rules and regulations will increase our legal, accounting, and financial compliance costs, will make some activities more difficult, time-consuming, and costly, and may also place undue strain on our personnel, systems, and resources.

The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires, among other things, that we maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting. Commencing with our fiscal year ending December 31, 2014, we must perform system and process evaluation and testing of our internal control over financial reporting to allow management to report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting, as required by Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. Our compliance with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act will require that we incur substantial accounting expense and expend significant management efforts. Prior to our IPO, we had never been required to test our internal controls within a specified period, and, as a result, we may experience difficulty in meeting these reporting requirements in a timely manner.

We will be required to disclose changes made to our internal control and procedures on a quarterly basis. However, our independent registered public accounting firm will not be required to formally attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act until the later of the year following our first annual report required to be filed with the SEC or the date we are no longer an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, or the JOBS Act, if we take advantage of the exemption available under the JOBS Act to the auditor attestation requirement in Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. If we are not able to comply with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act in a timely

 

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manner, the market price of our stock could decline and we could be subject to sanctions or investigations by the stock exchange on which our common stock is listed, the SEC, or other regulatory authorities, which would require additional financial and management resources.

We have identified material weaknesses in connection with the preparation of our financial statements, and failure to develop and maintain adequate financial controls could cause us to have additional material weaknesses, which could adversely affect our operations and financial position.

As previously reported, in connection with the preparation of our consolidated financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2012, we identified a material weakness in our accounting for certain deferred revenue balances and the related revenue recognition. This material weakness arose in connection with increasing the estimated expected life of our customer relationships, which results in extending the term over which we recognize deferred revenue. As of December 31, 2013, this previously reported material weakness was remediated.

In connection with the preparation of our consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2013, we identified a separate material weakness in the internal controls over the accounting for leasing transactions which resulted in the identification of a material error in the accounting for our headquarters lease executed in May 2005. This material error resulted from our incorrect interpretation of standards under ASC 840, Leases, related to this build-to-suit lease where we, as the lessee, were involved in asset construction. As a result, we previously incorrectly accounted for the lease as an operating lease rather than a financing obligation. To correct the error, we have included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K restated consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2012 and 2011 and for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2012. Our management is in the process of remediating this material weakness in accounting, which included a review of all of our leases to identify and correct instances where we were not complying with generally accepted accounting principles with regard to lease accounting. In addition, we are developing updated procedures to reflect the technical guidance for lease accounting and have engaged external technical resources to assist with the proper implementation of accounting standards for leases going forward.

While we believe that the planned steps will remediate the material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting with respect to lease accounting, no assurances can be made that our remediation is effective until our remedial controls operate for a period of time. We expect to have the material weakness remediated by mid-2014.

We may in the future also discover additional material weaknesses that require remediation. In addition, an internal control system, no matter how well-designed, cannot provide absolute assurance that misstatements due to error or fraud will not occur or that all control issues and instances of fraud will be detected. If we are not able to comply with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act in a timely manner, or if we are unable to maintain proper and effective internal controls, we might not be able to produce timely and accurate financial statements. If that were to happen, the market price of our stock could decline and we could be subject to sanctions or investigations by the stock exchange on which our common stock is listed, the SEC, or other regulatory authorities.

Any failure to develop or maintain effective controls, or any difficulties encountered in their implementation or improvement, could harm our operating results or cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations. Any failure to implement and maintain effective internal controls also could adversely affect the results of periodic management evaluations regarding the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting that we will be required to include in our periodic reports filed with the SEC, beginning for our fiscal year ending December 31, 2014 under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. Ineffective disclosure controls and procedures or internal control over financial reporting could also cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial and other information, which would likely have a negative effect on the trading price of our common stock. Implementing any

 

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appropriate changes to our internal controls may require specific compliance training of our directors, officers, and employees, entail substantial costs in order to modify our existing accounting systems, and take a significant period of time to complete. Such changes may not be effective, however, in maintaining the adequacy of our internal controls, and any failure to maintain that adequacy, or consequent inability to produce accurate financial statements on a timely basis, could increase our operating costs and could materially impair our ability to operate our business. In the event that we are not able to demonstrate compliance with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act in a timely manner, that our internal controls are perceived as inadequate, or that we are unable to produce timely or accurate financial statements, investors may lose confidence in our operating results and our stock price could decline.

We are an emerging growth company and we cannot be certain if the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies will make our common stock less attractive to investors.

We are an emerging growth company. Under the JOBS Act, emerging growth companies can delay adopting new or revised accounting standards until such time as those standards apply to private companies. We have irrevocably elected not to avail ourselves of this exemption from new or revised accounting standards and, therefore, we will be subject to the same new or revised accounting standards as other public companies that are not emerging growth companies.

For as long as we continue to be an emerging growth company, we intend to take advantage of certain other exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies including, but not limited to, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements, exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved, and exemptions from the requirements of auditor attestation reports on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. We cannot predict if investors will find our common stock less attractive because we will rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our common stock less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our common stock and our stock price may be more volatile.

We will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest of (i) the end of the fiscal year in which the market value of our common stock that is held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of June 30 of that fiscal year, (ii) the end of the fiscal year in which we have total annual gross revenue of $1 billion or more during such fiscal year, (iii) the date on which we issue more than $1 billion in non-convertible debt in a three-year period, or (iv) September 17, 2018.

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business, or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research or reports about our business, our stock price and trading volume could decline.

The trading market for our common stock depends, to some extent, on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us and our business. We do not have any control over these analysts. If one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrade our common stock or change their opinion of our common stock, our stock price would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of our company or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which could cause our stock price or trading volume to decline.

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

None.

 

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Item 2. Properties

As of December 31, 2013, our corporate headquarters occupied approximately 65,000 square feet in a facility on the Daniel Island Executive Center campus in Charleston, South Carolina under a lease expiring in 2021, and we had a second facility on the Daniel Island Executive Center campus that occupied approximately 78,000 square feet under a lease expiring in 2024. As of December 31, 2013, we had also executed a lease that expires January 1, 2030 to extend our campus in Charleston, South Carolina with a Customer Success Center of approximately 145,000 square feet and, at our option and under new leases, have either a four-story office building of approximately 145,000 square feet and/or a two-story welcome center of approximately 18,500 square feet built.

As of December 31, 2013, we also leased facilities in Greenville, South Carolina, San Francisco, California, and Tulsa, Oklahoma.

We believe that our current and planned facilities are sufficient for our needs. We may add other facilities or expand existing facilities as we expand our associate base and geographic markets in the future, and we believe that suitable additional space will be available as needed to accommodate any such expansion of our operations.

Item 3. Legal Proceedings

From time to time, we might become involved in legal or regulatory proceedings arising in the ordinary course of our business. We are not currently a party to any material litigation or regulatory proceeding and we are not aware of any pending or threatened litigation or regulatory proceeding against us that could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, financial condition or cash flows.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.

 

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PART II

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Market Information for Common Stock

Our common stock has been listed on the NASDAQ Global Market under the symbol “BNFT” since September 18, 2013. Prior to that date, there was no public trading market for our common stock. The following table sets forth for the periods indicated the high and low sales prices per share of our common stock as reported on the NASDAQ Global Market.

 

     High      Low  

Year ended December 31, 2013

     

Third quarter (from September 18, 2013)

   $ 53.55       $ 44.97   

Fourth quarter

   $ 58.56       $ 38.31   

As of December 31, 2013, we had 89 holders of record of our common stock. The actual number of stockholders is greater than this number of record holders and includes stockholders who are beneficial owners but whose shares are held in street name by brokers and other nominees. This number of holders of record also does not include stockholders whose shares may be held in trust by other entities.

Dividend Policy

We have never declared or paid any cash dividend on our common stock. We currently intend to retain all of our future earnings, if any, generated by our operations for the development and growth of our business for the foreseeable future. The decision to pay dividends is at the discretion of our board of directors and depends upon our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, and other factors that our board of directors deems relevant.

 

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Stock Performance Graph

The following shall not be deemed “filed” for purposes of Section 18 of the Exchange Act, or incorporated by reference into any of our other filings under the Exchange Act or the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, except to the extent we specifically incorporate it by reference into such filing.

This chart compares the cumulative total return on our common stock with that of the S&P 500 Index and the S&P 1500 Application Software Index. The chart assumes $100 was invested at the close of market on September 18, 2013, in the common stock of Benefitfocus, Inc., the S&P 500 Index and the S&P 1500 Application Software Index, and assumes the reinvestment of any dividends. The stock price performance on the following graph is not necessarily indicative of future stock price performance.

LOGO

 

Company / Index

   Base
Period
9/18/2013
     9/30/2013      10/31/2013      11/30/2013      12/31/2013  

Benefitfocus, Inc.

   $ 100       $ 91.80       $ 93.56       $ 90.21       $ 107.82   

S&P 500 Index

   $ 100       $ 97.45       $ 101.80       $ 104.65       $ 107.12   

S&P 1500 Application Software Index

   $ 100       $ 99.07       $ 99.34       $ 102.53       $ 107.46   

Sales of Unregistered Securities

During the three months ended December 31, 2013, we issued an aggregate of 39,466 shares of our common stock upon the exercise of stock options granted under our 2012 Stock Plan and Amended and Restated 2000 Stock Option Plan at exercise prices between $0.80 and $10.30 per share, for aggregate proceeds of approximately $0.1 million. These issuances were deemed to be exempt from registration under the Securities Act in reliance on Section 4(2) of the Securities Act and Rule 701 promulgated under Section 3(b) of the Securities Act, as transactions by an issuer not involving a public offering and transactions pursuant to compensatory benefit plans and contracts relating to compensation as provided under Rule 701.

Equity Compensation Plans

The information required by Item 5 of Form 10-K regarding equity compensation plans is incorporated herein by reference to “Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters”.

 

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Use of Proceeds from Public Offering of Common Stock

On September 17, 2013, our Registration Statement on Form S-1, (File No. 333-190610) was declared effective in connection with our IPO, pursuant to which 5,675,250 shares of common stock were registered, including the full exercise of the underwriters’ over-allotment option. Of the shares registered, we sold 3,000,000 shares of common stock at a price to the public of $26.50 per share for an aggregate price of $79,500,000. Selling shareholders sold the remaining 2,675,250 shares registered at the same per share price for an aggregate price of $70,894,000. The offering closed on September 23, 2013, and, as a result, we received net proceeds of $70,064,000 (after underwriters’ discounts and commissions of $5,565,000 and additional offering related costs of $3,871,000). The joint managing underwriters of the offering were Goldman Sachs & Co., Deutsche Bank Securities Inc. and Jefferies LLC.

Of the expenses incurred by us in connection with our IPO, $134,000 were paid to or for the underwriters and $52,000 were paid to a related party vendor for private air travel. This vendor is owned and controlled by the Executive Chairman of our board of directors, who is also a greater than 10% owner of our common stock.

There was no material change in the use of proceeds from our IPO as described in our final prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) of the Securities Act with the SEC on September 18, 2013. From the effective date of the registration statement through December 31, 2013, we have used the net proceeds from our IPO for working capital purposes and other general corporate purposes, including executing our growth strategy, developing new products and services, and funding additional capital expenditures, potential acquisitions, and investments. We have invested the funds received in short-term, interest bearing, investment-grade securities.

 

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Item 6. Selected Financial Data

CONSOLIDATED SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

The following selected consolidated financial data for the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012, 2011, and 2010 and the selected consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2013, 2012, 2011, and 2010 are derived from our audited consolidated financial statements. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected in the future. The selected consolidated financial data should be read together with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations”, our consolidated financial statements, related notes, and other financial information included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Consolidated Statement of Operations Data

 

     Year Ended December 31,  
     2013     2012     2011     2010  
     (in thousands, except share and per share data)  
           (Restated)     (Restated)     (Restated)  

Revenue (1)

   $ 104,752      $ 81,739      $ 68,783      $ 67,122   

Cost of revenue (2)

     62,411        44,400        42,133        38,870   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Gross profit

     42,341        37,339        26,650        28,252   

Operating expenses:

        

Sales and marketing (2)

     36,072        27,905        22,553        14,174   

Research and development (2)

     23,532        14,621        9,120        8,650   

General and administrative (2)

     10,974        7,494        5,821        6,038   

Impairment of goodwill

                   1,670          

Change in fair value of contingent consideration

     (43     121        503          
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total operating expenses

     70,535        50,141        39,667        28,862   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Loss from operations

     (28,194     (12,802     (13,017     (610

Total other expense, net

     (2,198     (1,987     (2,012     (1,855
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Loss before income taxes

     (30,392     (14,789     (15,029     (2,465

Income tax (benefit) expense

     (31     84        35        10   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net loss

   $ (30,361   $ (14,873   $ (15,064   $ (2,475
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net loss per common share—basic and diluted

   $ (2.99   $ (3.09   $ (3.09   $ (0.39
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Weighted-average common shares outstanding—basic and diluted

     10,144,243        4,812,632        4,875,157        6,405,944   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Other Financial Data:

        

Adjusted gross profit (3)

   $ 49,735      $ 45,161      $ 33,283      $ 34,682   

Adjusted EBITDA (4)

   $ (18,915   $ (3,594   $ (3,455   $ 6,785   

 

(1) In the first quarter of 2011, we increased the estimated expected life of our customer relationships for both employer and carrier customers. This change extends the term over which we will recognize our deferred revenue and results in less revenue recognized in each period.

 

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(2) Cost of revenue and operating expenses include stock-based compensation expense as follows:

 

     Year Ended December 31,  
         2013              2012              2011              2010      
     (in thousands)  

Cost of revenue

   $ 274       $ 195       $ 252       $ 352   

Sales and marketing

     171         68         102         77   

Research and development

     255         130         121         87   

General and administrative

     502         319         246         519   

 

(3) We define adjusted gross profit as gross profit before depreciation and amortization expense, as well as stock-based compensation expense. Please see “Adjusted Gross Profit and Adjusted EBITDA” below for more information and for a reconciliation of adjusted gross profit to gross profit, the most directly comparable financial measure calculated and presented in accordance with GAAP.

 

(4) We define adjusted EBITDA as net loss before net interest and other expense, taxes, and depreciation and amortization expense, adjusted to eliminate stock-based compensation expense and expense related to the impairment of goodwill and intangible assets. See “Adjusted Gross Profit and Adjusted EBITDA” below for more information and for a reconciliation of adjusted EBITDA to net loss, the most directly comparable financial measure calculated and presented in accordance with GAAP.

Our Segments

 

     Years Ended December 31,  
     2013     2012     2011     2010  
     (in thousands)  
           (Restated)     (Restated)     (Restated)  

Revenue from external customers by segment:

        

Employer

   $ 40,656      $ 23,760      $ 15,938      $ 9,356   

Carrier

     64,096        57,979        52,845        57,766   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total revenue

   $ 104,752      $ 81,739      $ 68,783      $ 67,122   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Gross profit by segment:

        

Employer

   $ 13,316      $ 9,810      $ 6,059      $ 3,121   

Carrier

     29,025        27,529        20,591        25,131   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total gross profit

   $ 42,341      $ 37,339      $ 26,650      $ 28,252   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Income (loss) from operations by segment:

        

Employer

   $ (26,312   $ (19,015   $ (19,533   $ (6,628

Carrier

     (1,882     6,213        6,516        6,018   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total loss from operations

   $ (28,194   $ (12,802   $ (13,017   $ (610
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

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Consolidated Balance Sheet Data

 

     As of December 31,  
     2013      2012     2011  
     (in thousands)  
            (Restated)     (Restated)  

Cash and cash equivalents

   $ 65,645       $ 19,703      $ 15,856   

Marketable securities

     13,168                  

Accounts receivable, net

     23,668         13,372        9,060   

Total assets

     139,611         58,226        52,842   

Deferred revenue, total

     80,221         57,520        42,773   

Total liabilities

     128,179         89,357        69,809   

Total redeemable convertible preferred stock

             135,478        135,478   

Common stock

     24         6,109        4,923   

Additional paid-in capital

     214,487                  

Total stockholders’ equity (deficit)

     11,432         (166,609     (152,445

Adjusted Gross Profit and Adjusted EBITDA

Within this prospectus we use adjusted gross profit and adjusted EBITDA to provide investors with additional information regarding our financial results. Adjusted gross profit and adjusted EBITDA are non-GAAP financial measures. We have provided below reconciliations of these measures to the most directly comparable GAAP financial measures, which for adjusted gross profit is gross profit, and for adjusted EBITDA is net loss.

We have included adjusted gross profit and adjusted EBITDA in this Annual Report on Form 10-K because they are key measures used by our management and board of directors to understand and evaluate our core operating performance and trends, to prepare and approve our annual budget, and to develop short- and long-term operational plans. In particular, we believe that the exclusion of the expenses eliminated in calculating adjusted gross profit and adjusted EBITDA can provide a useful measure for period-to-period comparisons of our core business. Accordingly, we believe that adjusted gross profit and adjusted EBITDA provide useful information to investors and others in understanding and evaluating our operating results.

Our use of adjusted gross profit and adjusted EBITDA as analytical tools has limitations, and you should not consider them in isolation or as substitutes for analysis of our financial results as reported under GAAP. Some of these limitations are:

 

  Ÿ  

although depreciation and amortization are non-cash charges, the assets being depreciated and amortized might have to be replaced in the future, and adjusted gross profit and adjusted EBITDA do not reflect cash capital expenditure requirements for such replacements or for new capital expenditure requirements;

 

  Ÿ  

adjusted gross profit and adjusted EBITDA do not reflect changes in, or cash requirements for, our working capital needs;

 

  Ÿ  

adjusted gross profit and adjusted EBITDA do not reflect the potentially dilutive impact of stock-based compensation;

 

  Ÿ  

adjusted gross profit and adjusted EBITDA do not reflect interest or tax payments that would reduce the cash available to us; and

 

  Ÿ  

other companies, including companies in our industry, might calculate adjusted gross profit and adjusted EBITDA or similarly titled measures differently, which reduces their usefulness as comparative measures.

 

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Because of these and other limitations, you should consider adjusted gross profit and adjusted EBITDA alongside other GAAP-based financial performance measures, including various cash flow metrics, gross profit, net income (loss) and our other GAAP financial results. The following table presents a reconciliation of adjusted gross profit to gross profit and adjusted EBITDA to net loss for each of the periods indicated:

 

     Year Ended December 31,  
     2013     2012     2011     2010  
     (in thousands)  
           (Restated)     (Restated)     (Restated)  

Reconciliation from Gross Profit to Adjusted Gross Profit:

        

Gross profit

   $ 42,341      $ 37,339      $ 26,650      $ 28,252   

Depreciation and amortization

     7,120        7,627        6,381        6,078   

Stock-based compensation expense

     274        195        252        352   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Adjusted gross profit

   $ 49,735      $ 45,161      $ 33,283      $ 34,682   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Reconciliation from Net Loss to Adjusted EBITDA:

        

Net loss

   $ (30,361   $ (14,873   $ (15,064   $ (2,475

Depreciation and amortization

     8,172        8,560        7,306        6,609   

Interest income

     (46     (53     (151     (364

Interest expense

     2,149        1,976        1,974        1,970   

Income tax (benefit) expense

     (31     84        35        10   

Stock-based compensation expense

     1,202        712        721        1,035   

Impairment of goodwill and intangible assets

                   1,724          
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total net adjustments

   $ 11,446      $ 11,279      $ 11,609      $ 9,260   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Adjusted EBITDA

   $ (18,915   $ (3,594   $ (3,455   $ 6,785   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operation

MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS

OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations together with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes and other financial information included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Some of the information contained in this discussion and analysis or set forth elsewhere in this report including information with respect to our plans and strategy for our business, includes forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. You should review the “Risk Factors” section of this report beginning on page 18 for a discussion of important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from the results described in or implied by the forward-looking statements contained in the following discussion and analysis.

Overview

We are a leading provider of cloud-based benefits software solutions for consumers, employers, insurance carriers, and brokers. The Benefitfocus platform provides an integrated suite of solutions that enables our employer and insurance carrier customers to more efficiently shop, enroll, manage, and exchange benefits information. Our web-based platform has a user-friendly interface designed to enable the insured consumers to access all of their benefits in one place. Our comprehensive solutions support core benefits plans, including healthcare, dental, life, and disability insurance, and voluntary benefits plans, such as critical illness, supplemental income, and wellness programs. As the number of employer benefits plans has increased, with each plan subject to many different business rules and requirements, demand for the Benefitfocus platform has grown.

We serve two separate but related market segments. Our fastest growing market segment, the employer market, consists of employers offering benefits to their employees. Within this segment, we mainly target large employers with more than 1,000 employees, of which we believe there are approximately 18,000 in the United States. In our other market segment, we sell our solutions to insurance carriers, enabling us to expand our overall footprint in the benefits marketplace by aggregating many key constituents, including consumers, employers, and brokers. Our business model capitalizes on the close relationship between carriers and their members, and the carriers’ ability to serve as lead generators for potential employer customers. Carriers pay for services at a rate reflective of the aggregated nature of their customer base on a per application basis. Carriers can then deploy their applications to employer groups and members. As employers become direct customers through our employer segment, we provide them our platform offering that bundles many software applications into a comprehensive benefits solution through HR InTouch. We believe our presence in both the employer and insurance carrier markets gives us a strong position at the center of the benefits ecosystem.

We sell our software solutions and related services primarily through our direct sales force. We derive most of our revenue from software services fees, which primarily consist of monthly subscription fees paid to us for access to and usage of our cloud-based benefits software solutions, and related professional services. Software services fees paid to us from our employer customers are generally based on the number of employees covered by the relevant benefits plans at contracted rates for a specified period of time, which is usually one year. Software services fees paid to us from our carrier customers are based on the number of members contracted to use our solutions at contracted rates for a specified period of time, which usually ranges from three to five years. Our carrier contracts are generally only cancellable by the carrier in an instance of our uncured breach, although some of our carrier customers are able to terminate their respective contracts without cause or for convenience. Software services revenue accounted for approximately 93%, 93%, 95%, and 89% of our total revenue during the years ended 2013, 2012, 2011, and 2010, respectively.

 

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Another component of our revenue is professional services. We derive the majority of our professional services revenue from the implementation of our customers onto our platform, which typically includes discovery, configuration and deployment, integration, testing, and training. In general, it takes from four to five months to implement a new employer customer’s benefits systems and eight to 10 months to implement a new carrier customer’s benefits systems. We also provide customer support services and customized media content that supports our customers’ effort to educate and communicate with consumers. Professional services revenue accounted for approximately 7%, 7%, 5%, and 11% of our total revenue during the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012, 2011, and 2010, respectively.

Increasing our base of large employer customers is an important source of revenue growth for us. We actively pursue new employer customers in the U.S. market, and we have increased the number of large employer customers utilizing our solutions from 121 as of December 31, 2009 to 393 as of December 31, 2013, a 34.2% compound annual growth rate. We believe that our continued innovation and new solutions, such as online benefits marketplaces, also known as private exchanges, enhanced mobile offerings, and more robust data analytics capabilities will help us attract additional large employer customers and increase our revenue from existing customers.

We believe that there is a substantial market for our services, and we have been investing in growth over the past three years. In particular, we have continued to invest in technology and services to better serve our larger employer customers, which we believe are an important source of growth for our business. We have also substantially increased our marketing and sales efforts and expect those increased efforts to continue. As we have invested in growth, we have had operating losses in each of the last three years, and expect our operating losses to continue for the foreseeable future. Due to the nature of our customer relationships, which have been very stable with relatively few customer losses over the past years, and the subscription nature of our financial model, we believe that our current investment in growth should lead to substantially increased revenue, which will allow us to achieve profitability in the relatively near future. Of course, our ability to achieve profitability will continue to be subject to many factors beyond our control.

Key Financial and Operating Performance Metrics

We regularly monitor a number of financial and operating metrics in order to measure our current performance and project our future performance. These metrics help us develop and refine our growth strategies and make strategic decisions. We discuss revenue, gross margin, and the components of operating loss, as well as segment revenue and components of segment loss from operations, in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Components of Operating Results”. In addition, we utilize other key metrics as described below.

Number of Large Employer and Carrier Customers

We believe the number of large employer and carrier customers is a key indicator of our market penetration, growth, and future revenue. We have aggressively invested in and intend to continue to invest in our direct sales force to grow our customer base. We generally define a customer as an entity with an active software services contract as of the measurement date. The following table sets forth the number of large employer and carrier customers for the periods indicated:

 

     Year Ended December 31,  
         2013              2012          2011              2010              2009      

Number of customers:

              

Large employer

     393         286         193         141         121   

Carrier

     40         34         30         29         28   

 

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Software Services Revenue Retention Rate

We believe that our ability to retain our customers and expand the revenue they generate for us over time is an important component of our growth strategy and reflects the long-term value of our customer relationships. We measure our performance on this basis using a metric we refer to as our software services revenue retention rate. We calculate this metric for a particular period by establishing the group of our customers that had active contracts for a given period. We then calculate our software services revenue retention rate by taking the amount of software services revenue we recognized for this group in the subsequent comparable period (for which we are reporting the rate) and dividing it by the software services revenue we recognized for the group in the prior period.

For 2013, 2012, 2011, and 2010 our software services revenue retention rate exceeded 95%.

Adjusted Gross Profit and Adjusted EBITDA

Adjusted gross profit represents our gross profit before depreciation and amortization, as well as stock-based compensation expense. Adjusted EBITDA represents our earnings before net interest and other expense, taxes, and depreciation and amortization expense, adjusted to eliminate stock-based compensation and impairment of goodwill and intangible assets. Adjusted gross profit and adjusted EBITDA are not measures calculated in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles, or GAAP. Please refer to “Selected Consolidated Financial Data—Adjusted Gross Profit and Adjusted EBITDA” in this report for a discussion of the limitations of adjusted gross profit and adjusted EBITDA and reconciliations of adjusted gross profit to gross profit and adjusted EBITDA to net loss, the most comparable GAAP measurements, respectively, for 2013, 2012, 2011, and 2010.

Components of Operating Results

Revenue

We derive the majority of our revenue from software services fees, which consist primarily of monthly subscription fees paid to us by our employer and carrier customers for access to, and usage of, our cloud-based benefits software solutions for a specified contract term. We also derive revenue from professional services fees, which primarily include fees related to the implementation of our customers onto our platform. Our professional services typically include discovery, configuration and deployment, integration, testing, and training.

The following table sets forth a breakdown of our revenue between software services and professional services for the periods indicated (in thousands):

 

     Year Ended December 31,  
     2013      2012      2011      2010  

Revenue:

           

Software services

   $ 97,713       $ 75,931       $ 65,210       $ 59,425   

Professional services

     7,039         5,808         3,573         7,697   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total revenue

   $ 104,752       $ 81,739       $ 68,783       $ 67,122   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

We generally recognize software services fees monthly based on the number of employees covered by the relevant benefits plans at contracted rates for a specified period of time, provided that an enforceable contract has been signed by both parties, access to our software has been granted to the customer and is available for their use, the fee for the software services is fixed or determinable, and collection is reasonably assured. We defer recognition of our professional services fees paid by customers in connection with implementation of our software services, or implementation fees, and

 

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recognize them, beginning once the software services have commenced, ratably over the longer of the contract term or the estimated expected life of the customer relationship. We will periodically evaluate the term over which revenue is recognized for most professional services as we gain more experience with customer contract renewals.

In the first quarter of 2011, we increased the estimated expected life of our customer relationships for both employer and carrier customers. This change in estimate was a result of growing demand for our software services, reduced uncertainties in the regulatory environment, and increased confidence in customer retention. This change extends the term over which we recognize our deferred revenue. Most of our deferred revenue relates to professional services performed for our carrier customers, which require a more extensive and lengthy implementation. Further, prior to 2012, we generally did not charge implementation fees to our large employer customers. We will continue to periodically evaluate the term over which revenue is recognized for most professional services as we gain more experience with customer contract renewals.

We generally invoice our employer and carrier customers for software services in advance, in monthly installments. We invoice our employer customers for implementation fees at the inception of the arrangement. We generally invoice our carrier customers for implementation fees at various contractually defined times throughout the implementation process. Implementation fees that have been invoiced are initially recorded as deferred revenue until recognized as described above.

Overhead Allocation

Expenses associated with our facilities, IT costs, and depreciation and amortization, are allocated between cost of revenue and operating expenses based on employee headcount determined by the nature of work performed.

Cost of Revenue

Cost of revenue primarily consists of salaries and other personnel-related costs, including benefits, bonuses, and stock-based compensation, for associates providing services to our customers and supporting our SaaS platform infrastructure. Additional expenses in cost of revenue include co-location facility costs for our data centers, depreciation expense for computer equipment directly associated with generating revenue, infrastructure maintenance costs, amortization expenses associated with capitalized software development costs, allocated overhead, and other direct costs.

Our cost of revenue is expensed as we incur the costs. However, the related revenue from fees we receive for our implementation services performed before a customer is operating on our platform is deferred until the commencement of the monthly subscription and recognized as revenue ratably over the longer of the related contract term or the estimated expected life of the customer relationship. Therefore, the cost incurred in providing these services is expensed in periods prior to the recognition of the corresponding revenue. Our cost associated with providing implementation services has been significantly higher as a percentage of revenue than our cost associated with providing our monthly subscription services due to the labor associated with providing implementation services.

We plan to continue to expand our capacity to support our growth, which will result in higher cost of revenue in absolute dollars. However, we expect cost of revenue as a percentage of revenue to decline and gross margins to increase primarily from the growth of the percentage of our revenue from large employers and the realization of economies of scale driven by retention of our customer base.

 

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Operating Expenses

Operating expenses consist of sales and marketing, research and development, and general and administrative expenses. Salaries and personnel-related costs are the most significant component of each of these expense categories. We expect to continue to hire new associates in these areas in order to support our anticipated revenue growth. As a result, we expect our operating expenses to increase in both aggregate dollars and as a percentage of revenue in the near term, but to decrease over the longer term as we achieve economies of scale.

Sales and marketing expense.    Sales and marketing expense consists primarily of salaries and other personnel-related costs, including benefits, bonuses, stock-based compensation, and commissions for our sales and marketing associates. We record expense for commissions at the time of contract signing. Additional expenses include advertising, lead generation, promotional event programs, corporate communications, travel, and allocated overhead. For instance, our most significant promotional event is One Place, which we hold annually in the second quarter. We expect our sales and marketing expense to increase in both absolute dollars and as a percentage of revenue in the foreseeable future as we further increase the number of our sales and marketing professionals and expand our marketing activities in order to continue to grow our business.

Research and development expense.    Research and development expense consists primarily of salaries and other personnel-related costs, including benefits, bonuses, and stock-based compensation for our research and development associates. Additional expenses include costs related to the development, quality assurance, and testing of new technology, and enhancement of our existing platform technology, consulting, travel, and allocated overhead. We believe continuing to invest in research and development efforts is essential to maintaining our competitive position. We expect our research and development expense to increase in absolute dollars and as a percentage of revenue for the near term, but decrease as a percentage of revenue over the longer term as we achieve economies of scale.

General and administrative expense.    General and administrative expense consists primarily of salaries and other personnel-related costs, including benefits, bonuses, and stock-based compensation for administrative, finance and accounting, information systems, legal, and human resource associates. Additional expenses include consulting and professional fees, insurance and other corporate expenses, and travel. We expect our general and administrative expenses to increase in absolute terms as a result of operating as a public company and will include costs associated with compliance with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and other regulations governing public companies, increased costs of directors’ and officers’ liability insurance, increased professional services expenses, and costs associated with an enhanced investor relations function.

Impairment of goodwill.    On August 3, 2010, we acquired 100% of the net assets of Beninform Holdings, Inc. and recorded $3.3 million of goodwill in connection with the acquisition. During the year ended December 31, 2011, we recorded an impairment of goodwill of $1.7 million due to lower than expected sales forecast at the October 31, 2011 impairment testing date.

Other Income and Expense

Other income and expense consists primarily of interest income and expense, accretion of contingent consideration, and gain (loss) on disposal of fixed assets. Interest income represents interest received on our cash and cash equivalents. Interest expense consists primarily of the interest incurred on outstanding borrowings under our financing obligations, existing notes and credit facilities.

 

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Income Tax Expense

Income tax expense consists of U.S. federal and state income taxes. We incurred minimal income tax expense for 2013, 2012, 2011, and 2010. Net operating loss carryforwards for federal income tax purposes were $41.4 million at December 31, 2013. State net operating loss carryforwards were approximately $33.7 million at December 31, 2013. Federal net operating loss carryforwards will expire at various dates beginning in 2022, if not utilized. State net operating losses will expire at various dates beginning in 2022, if not utilized. Valuation allowances are recorded to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount we believe is more likely than not to be realized.

Results of Operations

Consolidated Statements of Operations Data

The following table sets forth our consolidated statements of operations data for each of the periods indicated (in thousands).

 

     Year Ended December 31,  
     2013     2012     2011     2010  
           (Restated)     (Restated)     (Restated)  

Revenue

   $ 104,752      $ 81,739      $ 68,783      $ 67,122   

Cost of revenue (1)

     62,411        44,400        42,133        38,870   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Gross profit

     42,341        37,339        26,650        28,252   

Operating expenses:

        

Sales and marketing (1)

     36,072        27,905        22,553        14,174   

Research and development (1)

     23,532        14,621        9,120        8,650   

General and administrative (1)

     10,974        7,494        5,821        6,038   

Impairment of goodwill

                   1,670          

Change in fair value of contingent consideration

     (43     121        503          
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total operating expenses

     70,535        50,141        39,667        28,862   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Loss from operations

     (28,194     (12,802     (13,017     (610

Other income (expense):

        

Interest income

     46        53        151        364   

Interest expense

     (2,149     (1,976     (1,974     (1,970

Other expense

     (95     (64     (189     (249
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total other expense, net

     (2,198     (1,987     (2,012     (1,855
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Loss before income taxes

     (30,392     (14,789     (15,029     (2,465

Income tax (benefit) expense

     (31     84        35        10   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net loss

   $ (30,361   $ (14,873   $ (15,064   $ (2,475
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

(1) Cost of revenue and operating expenses include stock-based compensation expense as follows (in thousands):

 

     Year Ended December 31,  
         2013               2012              2011              2010      
            (Restated)      (Restated)      (Restated)  

Cost of revenue

   $ 274       $ 195       $ 252         352   

Sales and marketing

     171         68         102         77   

Research and development

     255         130         121         87   

General and administrative

     502         319         246         519   

 

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The following table sets forth our consolidated statements of operations data as a percentage of revenue for each of the periods indicated (as a percentage of revenue).

 

     Year Ended December 31,  
         2013             2012             2011             2010      
           (Restated)     (Restated)     (Restated)  

Revenue

     100.0     100.0     100.0     100.0

Cost of revenue

     59.6        54.3        61.3        57.9   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Gross profit

     40.4        45.7        38.7        42.1   

Operating expenses:

        

Sales and marketing

     34.4        34.1        32.8        21.1   

Research and development

     22.5        17.9        13.3        12.9   

General and administrative

     10.5        9.2        8.5        9.0   

Impairment of goodwill

                   2.4        0.0   

Change in fair value of contingent consideration

     0.0        0.1        0.7        0.0   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total operating expenses

     67.3        61.3        57.7        43.0   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Loss from operations

     (26.9     (15.7     (18.9     (0.9

Other income (expense):

        

Interest income

            0.1        0.2        0.5   

Interest expense

     (2.1     (2.4     (2.9     (2.9

Other expense

     (0.1     (0.1     (0.3     (0.4
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total other expense, net

     (2.1     (2.4     (2.9     (2.8
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Loss before income taxes

     (29.0     (18.1     (21.8     (3.7

Income tax (benefit) expense

            0.1        0.1          
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net loss

     (29.0 %)      (18.2 %)      (21.9 %)      (3.7 %) 
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Our Segments

The following table sets forth segment results for revenue, gross profit, and loss from operations for the periods indicated (in thousands):

 

     Year Ended December 31,  
     2013     2012     2011     2010  
           (Restated)     (Restated)     (Restated)  

Revenue from external customer by segment:

        

Employer

   $ 40,656      $ 23,760      $ 15,938      $ 9,356   

Carrier

     64,096        57,979        52,845        57,766   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total revenue

   $ 104,752      $ 81,739      $ 68,783      $ 67,122   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Gross profit by segment:

        

Employer

   $ 13,316      $ 9,810      $ 6,059      $ 3,121   

Carrier

     29,025        27,529        20,591        25,131   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total gross profit

   $ 42,341      $ 37,339      $ 26,650      $ 28,252   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Income (loss) from operations by segment:

        

Employer

   $ (26,312   $ (19,015   $ (19,533   $ (6,628

Carrier

     (1,882     6,213        6,516        6,018   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total loss from operations

   $ (28,194   $ (12,802   $ (13,017   $ (610
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

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Comparison of Years Ended December 31, 2013 and 2012

Revenue

 

     Year Ended December 31,               
     2013     2012     Period-to-Period Change  
     Amount      Percentage of
Revenue
    Amount      Percentage of
Revenue
   
               Amount      Percentage  
     (dollars in thousands)  

Software services

   $ 97,713         93.3   $ 75,931         92.9   $ 21,782         28.7

Professional services

     7,039         6.7        5,808         7.1        1,231         21.2
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

Total revenue

   $ 104,752         100.0   $ 81,739         100.0   $ 23,013         28.2
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

Growth in both software services and professional services revenues year over year was primarily attributable to the addition of new customers, as the number of large employer and carrier customers increased to 433 as of December 31, 2013 from 320 as of December 31, 2012.

Segment Revenue

 

     Year Ended December 31,               
     2013     2012     Period-to-Period Change  
     Amount      Percentage of
Revenue
    Amount      Percentage of
Revenue
   
               Amount      Percentage  
     (dollars in thousands)  

Employer

   $ 40,656         38.8   $ 23,760         29.1   $ 16,896         71.1

Carrier

     64,096         61.2        57,979         70.9        6,117         10.6
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

Total revenue

   $ 104,752         100.0   $ 81,739         100.0   $ 23,013         28.2
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

The growth in employer revenue for the year ended December 31, 2013 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2012 was primarily attributable to a $16.5 million increase in our employer software services revenue driven primarily by an increase in the number of large employer customers using our platform as of December 31, 2013 as compared to December 31, 2012. The growth in carrier revenue year over year was primarily attributable to an increase of $5.3 million in our carrier software services revenue, driven primarily by an increase in the number of carrier customers using our platform as well as an increase in the number of products being utilized by our carrier customers during the year ended December 31, 2013 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2012.

Cost of Revenue

 

     Year Ended December 31,               
     2013     2012     Period-to-Period Change  
     Amount      Percentage of
Revenue
    Amount      Percentage of
Revenue
   
               Amount      Percentage  
     (dollars in thousands)  
     (Restated)  

Cost of revenue

   $ 62,411         59.6   $ 44,400         54.3   $ 18,011         40.6

The increase in cost of revenue for the year ended December 31, 2013 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2012 was primarily attributable to a $10.7 million increase in salaries and personnel-related costs and a $4.6 million increase in professional fees. Customer services salaries and personnel-related costs increased $6.8 million and professional fees increased by $2.6 million to support a growing number of customers and to prepare for and assist with an open enrollment period

 

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at a large customer. Engineering salaries and personnel-related costs increased $3.4 million and professional fees increased by $1.8 million to perform customer implementations for a certain large employer customer and for our Marketplace product at carrier customers. In addition, we experienced a $0.4 million increase in telecommunications and other expense related to increased open enrollment volume and $0.6 million increase in travel expenses to client sites. Further, we experienced a $1.3 million increase in infrastructure maintenance costs to support our products and platform and a $0.8 million increase in facilities expenses as a result of adding office space. Additional hiring led to a $0.2 million increase in recruiting costs. These increases were partially offset by a net decrease of $0.5 million in amortization expense primarily due to an impairment charge during the year ended December 31, 2012 related to capitalized software development costs offset by additions to property and equipment related to our growth.

Gross Profit

 

     Year Ended December 31,               
     2013     2012     Period-to-Period Change  
     Amount     Percentage of
Revenue
    Amount     Percentage of
Revenue
   
             Amount      Percentage  
     (dollars in thousands)  
    

(Restated)

 

Software services

   $ 61,564        63.0   $ 47,115        62.0   $ 14,449         30.7

Professional services

     (19,223     (273.1     (9,776     (168.3     (9,447      96.6   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

Gross profit

   $ 42,341        40.4   $ 37,339        45.7   $ 5,002         13.4
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

The increase in software services gross profit for the year ended December 31, 2013 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2012 was driven by a $21.8 million, or 28.7%, increase in software services revenue, partially offset by a $7.3 million, or 25.5%, increase in software services cost of revenue. Software services cost of revenue included $93,000 and $100,000 of stock-based compensation expense for the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively; and $6.7 million and $7.2 million of depreciation and amortization for the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively. The net decrease in depreciation and amortization expense was primarily due to an impairment charge during the year ended December 31, 2013 related to capitalized software development costs partially offset by additions to property and equipment related to our growth.

The increase in professional services gross loss for the year ended December 31, 2013 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2012 was driven by a $10.7 million, or 68.5%, increase in professional services cost of revenue, partially offset by a $1.2 million, or 21.2%, increase in professional services revenue. Professional services cost of revenue included $181,000 and $95,000 of stock-based compensation expense for the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively. In addition, professional services cost of revenue included approximately $0.4 million in depreciation and amortization for the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012.

Segment Gross Profit

 

     Year Ended December 31,               
     2013     2012     Period-to-Period Change  
     Amount      Percentage of
Revenue
    Amount      Percentage of
Revenue
   
               Amount      Percentage  
     (dollars in thousands)  
    

(Restated)

 

Employer

   $ 13,316         32.8   $ 9,810         41.3   $ 3,506         35.7

Carrier

     29,025         45.3        27,529         47.5        1,496         5.4   
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Gross profit

   $ 42,341         40.4   $ 37,339         45.7   $ 5,002         13.4
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

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The increase in employer gross profit for the year ended December 31, 2013 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2012 was driven by a $16.9 million, or 71.1%, increase in employer revenue, partially offset by a $13.4 million, or 96.0%, increase in employer cost of revenue. The increase in cost of revenue was primarily attributable to costs associated with providing implementation services, which increased due to a higher number of new individual employer customer implementations. Our employer gross profit included $2.5 million and $1.9 million of depreciation and amortization for the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively. In addition, our employer gross profit included $115,000 and $60,000 of stock-based compensation expense for the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively.

The increase in carrier gross profit year over year was driven by a $6.1 million, or 10.6%, increase in carrier revenue, partially offset by a $4.6 million, or 15.2%, increase in carrier cost of revenue. The increase in cost of revenue is primarily attributable to new individual carrier customer and product implementations, including our Marketplace product. Our carrier gross profit included $4.6 million and $5.7 million in depreciation and amortization for the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively. In addition, our carrier gross profit included $159,000 and $135,000 of stock-based compensation expense for the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively.

Sales and Marketing

 

     Year Ended December 31,               
     2013     2012     Period-to-Period  Change  
     Amount      Percentage of
Revenue
    Amount      Percentage of
Revenue
   
                 Amount          Percentage    
     (dollars in thousands)  
     (Restated)  

Sales and marketing

   $ 36,072         34.4   $ 27,905         34.1   $ 8,167         29.3

The increase in sales and marketing expense for the year ended December 31, 2013 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2012 was primarily attributable to a $5.1 million increase in commissions and sales bonus expenses due to increased sales year over year. We also hired sales and marketing personnel to continue driving revenue growth, leading to a $1.5 million increase in salaries and personnel related costs. The additional hiring resulted in a $0.5 million increase in recruiting costs.

Research and Development

 

    Year Ended December 31,              
    2013     2012     Period-to-Period Change  
    Amount     Percentage of
Revenue
    Amount     Percentage of
Revenue
   
            Amount     Percentage  
    (dollars in thousands)  
    (Restated)  

Research and development

  $ 23,532        22.5   $ 14,621        17.9   $ 8,911        60.9

The increase in research and development expense for the year ended December 31, 2013 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2012 was primarily attributable to a $6.0 million increase in salaries and personnel-related costs, a $0.3 million increase in recruiting costs, and a $1.7 million increase in engineering consulting fees, all related to continued product development and feature enhancement. Additionally, we experienced a $0.3 million increase in travel expenses to client sites and a $0.3 million increase in facilities expenses and depreciation as a result of adding office space and equipment to accommodate increased headcount.

 

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General and Administrative

 

     Year Ended December 31,               
     2013     2012     Period-to-Period Change  
     Amount      Percentage of
Revenue
    Amount      Percentage of
Revenue
   
               Amount      Percentage  
     (dollars in thousands)  
     (Restated)  

General and administrative

   $ 10,974         10.5   $ 7,494         9.2   $ 3,480        46.4

The increase in general and administrative expense for the year ended December 31, 2013 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2012 was primarily attributable to a $1.8 million increase in salaries and personnel-related costs associated with an increase in general and administrative personnel to support our growing business and an increase in performance-driven management bonuses. We also experienced a $0.2 million increase in stock-based compensation expense due to grants made in October 2012, May 2013, and August 2013 to incentivize our management. In addition, we experienced a $0.8 million increase in consulting and professional fees and a $0.3 million increase in travel costs incurred in connection with our IPO. Further, other operating expense increased by $0.2 million year over year primarily due to increased insurance costs.

Segment Income (Loss) From Operations

 

     Year Ended December 31,               
     2013     2012     Period-to-Period Change  
     Amount     Percentage of
Revenue
    Amount     Percentage of
Revenue
   
             Amount      Percentage  
     (dollars in thousands)  
    

(Restated)

 

Employer

   $ (26,312     (64.7 )%    $ (19,015     (80.0 )%    $ (7,297      38.4

Carrier

     (1,882     (2.9     6,213        10.7        (8,095      (130.3
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

Loss from operations

   $ (28,194     (26.9 )%    $ (12,802     (15.7 )%    $ (15,392      120.2
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

The increase in employer loss from operations for the year ended December 31, 2013 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2012 was attributable to an increase in employer operating expenses of $10.8 million offset by an increase of $3.5 million in employer gross profit. The increase in operating expenses was primarily attributable to a $5.4 million increase in sales and marketing expense, a $3.5 million increase in research and development expense and a $2.1 million increase in general and administrative expense. The increase in sales and marketing expense was attributable to an increase in commissions and sales bonus expenses due to increased sales to new employer customers during the year ended December 31, 2013 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2012. We also hired employer sales personnel to continue driving revenue growth. The increase in research and development expense was primarily driven by a headcount increase to work on improving our existing products and technology infrastructure to allow further growth in our employer customer base. The increase in general and administrative expense was primarily attributable to an increase in professional fees and general and administrative personnel to support our growing business.

The carrier loss from operations for the year ended December 31, 2013 was attributable to an increase in carrier operating expenses of $9.6 million offset by an increase of $1.5 million in carrier gross profit. The increase in operating expenses was primarily attributable to an increase of $5.4 million in research and development expense, an increase of $2.8 million in sales and marketing expense, and an increase of $1.4 million in general and administrative expense. The increase in research and development expense was primarily driven by a headcount increase attributable to the

 

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increased development activity related to our Marketplace product during the year ended December 31, 2013. The increase in sales and marketing expense was primarily attributable to an increase in commissions and sales bonus expenses due to increased sales during the year ended December 31, 2013 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2012. The increase in general and administrative expense was primarily attributable to an increase in professional fees and general and administrative personnel to support our growing business.

Comparison of Years Ended December 31, 2012 and 2011

Revenue

 

     Year Ended December 31,               
     2012     2011     Period-to-Period Change  
     Amount      Percentage of
Revenue
    Amount      Percentage of
Revenue
   
               Amount      Percentage  
     (dollars in thousands)  

Software services

   $ 75,931         92.9   $ 65,210         94.8   $ 10,721         16.4

Professional services

     5,808         7.1        3,573         5.2        2,235         62.6
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

Total revenue

   $ 81,739         100.0   $ 68,783         100.0   $ 12,956         18.8
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

The growth in software service revenue for the year ended December 31, 2012 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2011 was primarily attributable to the addition of new customers as the number of large employer and carrier customers increased from 223 as of December 31, 2011 to 320 as of December 31, 2012. The increase in professional services revenue for 2012 as compared to 2011 was primarily attributed to an increase in the number of new carrier customers requiring implementation services, as well as completion of those services during the year ended December 31, 2012 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2011.

Segment Revenue

 

     Year Ended December 31,               
     2012     2011     Period-to-Period Change  
     Amount      Percentage of
Revenue
    Amount      Percentage of
Revenue
   
               Amount      Percentage  
     (dollars in thousands)  

Employer

   $ 23,760         29.1   $ 15,938         23.2   $ 7,822         49.1

Carrier

     57,979         70.9        52,845         76.8        5,143         9.7
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

Total revenue

   $ 81,739         100.0   $ 68,783         100.0   $ 12,956         18.8
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

The growth in employer revenue for the year ended December 31, 2012 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2011 was primarily attributable to a $7.8 million increase in our employer software services revenue driven primarily by a 48.2% increase in the number of large employer customers using our platform during the year ended December 31, 2012 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2011. The growth in carrier revenue for the year ended December 31, 2012 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2011 was primarily attributable to an increase of $3.0 million in our carrier software services revenue, driven primarily by an increase in the number of products being utilized by our carrier customers, as well as by increases in the number of members using our platform during the year ended December 31, 2012 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2011.

 

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Cost of Revenue

 

     Year Ended December 31,               
     2012     2011     Period-to-Period Change  
     Amount      Percentage of
Revenue
    Amount      Percentage of
Revenue
   
               Amount      Percentage  
     (dollars in thousands)  
    

(Restated)

    (Restated)               

Cost of revenue

   $ 44,400         54.3   $ 42,133         61.3   $ 2,267         5.4

The increase in cost of revenue for the year ended December 31, 2012 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2011 was in part attributable to a $1.1 million increase in amortization expense associated with capitalized software development costs, primarily due to the impairment of certain internally developed software that we concluded would not produce expected cash flows for the remainder of its estimated useful life. Salaries and personnel-related costs increased by $0.6 million during the year ended December 31, 2012, as we increased the number of associates providing services to our expanded customer base and supporting our platform infrastructure. In addition, we experienced a $0.3 million increase in infrastructure maintenance costs to support our platform. As a percentage of revenue, cost of revenue was higher during the year ended December 31, 2011 in part because of a large carrier customer implementation during that year.

Gross Profit

 

     Year Ended December 31,               
     2012     2011     Period-to-Period  Change  
     Amount     Percentage of
Revenue
    Amount     Percentage of
Revenue
   
               Amount          Percentage    
     (dollars in thousands)  
     (Restated)     (Restated)               

Software services

   $ 47,115        62.0   $ 38,808        59.5   $ 8,307         21.4

Professional services

     (9,776     (168.3     (12,157     (340.2     2,381         (19.6
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Gross profit

   $ 37,339        45.7   $ 26,651        38.7   $ 10,688         40.1
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

The increase in software services gross profit for the year ended December 31, 2011 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2012 was driven by a $10.7 million, or 16.4%, increase in software services revenue, partially offset by a $2.4 million, or 9.1%, increase in software services cost of revenue. Software services cost of revenue included $0.1 million of stock-based compensation expense for each of the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2012; and $5.6 million and $7.0 million of depreciation and amortization for the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2012, respectively. The increase in depreciation and amortization expense was primarily due to a charge taken during the year ended December 31, 2012 related to impairment of capitalized software development costs.

The decrease in professional services loss year over year was driven by a $2.2 million, or 62.6%, increase in professional services revenue and a $0.2 million, or 0.9%, decrease in professional services cost of revenue. Our professional services cost of revenue was higher during the year ended December 31, 2011 in part because of a large customer implementation during that year. Professional services cost of revenue included $0.1 million of stock-based compensation expense for each of the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2012. In addition, professional services cost of revenue included $0.5 million and $0.4 million in depreciation and amortization for the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2012, respectively.

 

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Segment Gross Profit

 

     Year Ended December 31,               
     2012     2011     Period-to-Period Change  
     Amount      Percentage of
Revenue
    Amount      Percentage of
Revenue
   
               Amount      Percentage  
     (dollars in thousands)  
     (Restated)     (Restated)               

Employer

   $ 9,810         41.3   $ 6,059         38.0   $ 3,751         61.9

Carrier

     27,529         47.5        20,591         39.0        6,938         33.7   
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

Gross profit

   $ 37,339         45.7   $ 26,650         38.7   $ 10,689         40.1
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

The increase in employer gross profit year over year was driven by a $7.8 million, or 49.1%, increase in employer revenue, partially offset by a $4.1 million, or 41.2%, increase in employer cost of revenue. Our employer gross profit included $1.3 million and $1.7 million of depreciation and amortization for the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2012, respectively, and $0.1 million of stock-based compensation expense for each of the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2012.

The increase in carrier gross profit year over year was driven by a $5.1 million, or 9.7%, increase in carrier revenue and a $1.8 million, or 5.6%, decrease in carrier cost of revenue. Our carrier cost of revenue was higher for the year ended December 31, 2011 in part because of a large carrier customer implementation. Our carrier gross profit included $4.8 million and $5.7 million in depreciation and amortization for the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2012, respectively. In addition, our carrier gross profit included $0.2 million and $0.1 million of stock-based compensation expense for the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2012, respectively.

Sales and Marketing

 

     Year Ended December 31,               
     2012     2011     Period-to-Period Change  
     Amount      Percentage of
Revenue
    Amount      Percentage of
Revenue
   
               Amount      Percentage  
    

(Restated)

    (dollars in thousands)               
           (Restated)               

Sales and marketing

   $ 27,905         34.1   $ 22,553         32.8   $ 5,352         23.7

The increase in sales and marketing expense year over year was primarily attributable to a $4.2 million increase in salaries and personnel-related costs, as we increased the number of sales and marketing personnel to continue driving revenue growth. The increase was also driven by a $1.4 million increase in marketing events, including the expansion of our annual One Place user and partner conference in April 2012, and additional external marketing events.

Research and Development

 

     Year Ended December 31,               
     2012     2011     Period-to-Period Change  
     Amount      Percentage of
Revenue
    Amount      Percentage of
Revenue
   
               Amount      Percentage  
    

(Restated)

    (dollars in thousands)               
           (Restated)               

Research and development

   $ 14,621         17.9   $ 9,120         13.3   $ 5,501         60.3

 

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The increase in research and development expense year over year was primarily attributable to a $4.1 million increase in salaries and personnel-related costs associated with additional research and development headcount, as well as a $0.4 million increase in consulting expense, to accommodate increased focus on development of our products, including the incorporation of and compliance with PPACA, the development of the HR InTouch Marketplace product, and investment of development resources in a new electronic data interchange platform. In addition we experienced a $0.5 million increase in allocated overhead for the year ended December 31, 2012 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2011 related to increased depreciation and amortization and facilities costs.

General and Administrative

 

     Year Ended December 31,               
     2012     2011     Period-to-Period Change  
     Amount      Percentage of
Revenue
    Amount      Percentage of
Revenue
   
               Amount      Percentage  
           (dollars in thousands)               
    

(Restated)

    (Restated)               

General and administrative

   $ 7,494         9.2   $ 5,821         8.5   $ 1,673         28.7

The increase in general and administrative expense year over year was primarily attributable to a $1.4 million increase in salaries and personnel-related costs associated with an increase in general and administrative personnel to support our growing business and to prepare for our IPO.

Segment Income (Loss) From Operations

 

     Year Ended December 31,               
     2012     2011     Period-to-Period Change  
     Amount     Percentage of
Revenue
    Amount     Percentage of
Revenue
   
             Amount      Percentage  
     (dollars in thousands)  
    

(Restated)

    (Restated)               

Employer

   $ (19,015     (80.0 )%    $ (19,533     (122.6 )%    $ 518         (2.7 )% 

Carrier

     6,213        10.7        6,516        12.3        (303      (4.7
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

Loss from operations

   $ (12,802     (15.7 )%    $ (13,017     (18.9 )%    $ 215         (1.7 )% 
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

The decrease in employer loss from operations year over year was primarily attributable to a $7.8 million increase in employer revenue for the year ended December 31, 2012. In addition, we recognized a $1.7 million goodwill impairment during the year ended December 31, 2011. These changes were partially offset by increases of $4.4 million and $4.1 million in sales and marketing expenses and cost of revenue, respectively. The increase in sales and marketing expenses was attributable to an increase in salaries and personnel-related costs of the sales associates who were hired during the year ended December 31, 2011 to market our solutions to employers and received a full year of salary in the year ended December 31, 2012. Commissions of our sales associates increased as a result of increased sales to new employer customers. The increase in sales and marketing expenses was also attributable to an increase in marketing events, including One Place, as well as increases attributable to other external marketing events during the year ended December 31, 2012. The increase in cost of revenue was primarily driven by a 40.0% increase in our employer client service associate headcount.

The decrease in carrier income from operations year over year was primarily attributable to a $5.5 million increase in research and development expenses. The increase in research and development expense was attributable to efforts to develop and improve carrier segment-specific product

 

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enhancements. In addition, we experienced increases of $0.9 million and $0.8 million in sales and marketing and general and administrative expenses, respectively, for the year ended December 31, 2012 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2011. The increase in sales and marketing expense was attributable to associates hired during the year ended December 31, 2011, who received a full year of salary during the year ended December 31, 2012. The increase in general and administrative expense for the year ended December 31, 2012 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2011 was primarily attributable to increases in salaries and personnel-related costs. These increases were partially offset by an increase in carrier gross profit of $6.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2012 as compared to 2011.

Comparison of Years Ended December 31, 2011 and 2010

As previously mentioned, in the first quarter of 2011, we increased the estimated expected life of our customer relationships for both employer and carrier customers. This change had the effect of extending the term over which we recognize our deferred revenue. Most of our deferred revenue relates to implementation services performed for our carrier customers, which require a more extensive and lengthy implementation. In the absence of this change, each of revenue, gross profit, and segment loss from operations would have improved by $5.8 million during the year ended December 31, 2011.

Revenue

 

     Year Ended December 31,               
     2011     2010     Period-to-Period Change  
     Amount      Percentage of
Revenue
    Amount      Percentage of
Revenue
   
                 Amount          Percentage    
     (dollars in thousands)         

Software services

   $ 65,210         94.8   $ 59,425         88.5   $ 5,785         9.7

Professional services

     3,573         5.2        7,697         11.5        (4,124      (53.6 )% 
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

Total revenue

   $ 68,783         100.0   $ 67,122         100.0   $ 1,661         2.5
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

Revenue increased by $1.7 million, or 2.5%, from $67.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2010 to $68.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2011. Our software services revenue increased $5.8 million, or 9.7%, during the year ended December 31, 2011 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2010. This growth was primarily attributable to the addition of new customers as the number of large employer and carrier customers increased from 170 as of December 31, 2010 to 223 as of December 31, 2011. This growth was offset by a $4.1 million, or 53.6%, decrease in our professional services revenue during the year ended December 31, 2011 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2010. This decrease was primarily attributable to the increase in the first quarter of 2011 in the estimated expected customer relationship period over which we recognize our implementation fees.

Segment Revenue

 

     Year Ended December 31,               
     2011     2010     Period-to-Period Change  
     Amount      Percentage of
Revenue
    Amount      Percentage of
Revenue
   
                 Amount          Percentage    
    

(dollars in thousands)

 

Employer

   $ 15,938         23.2   $ 9,356         13.9   $ 6,582         70.4

Carrier

     52,845         76.8        57,766         86.1        (4,921      (8.5 )% 
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

Total revenue

   $ 68,783         100.0   $ 67,122         100.0   $ 1,661         2.5
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

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Our employer revenue increased $6.6 million, or 70.4%, from the year ended December 31, 2010 to the year ended December 31, 2011. This growth was primarily attributable to a $7.0 million increase in our employer software services revenue driven primarily by a 36.9% increase in the number of large employer customers using our platform during the year ended December 31, 2011 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2010. Our carrier revenue decreased $4.9 million, or 8.5%, during the year ended December 31, 2011 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2010. This decline was attributable to decreases of $3.7 million and $1.2 million in our carrier professional services and software services revenue, respectively. The decrease in carrier professional services revenue was primarily driven by the increase in the first quarter of 2011 in the estimated expected customer relationship period over which we recognize our implementation fees. In addition, our carrier segment revenue was impacted by the uncertainty around the implementation of healthcare reform, which resulted in delayed purchasing decisions on the part of our carrier customers.

Cost of Revenue

 

     Year Ended December 31,               
     2011     2010     Period-to-Period Change  
     Amount      Percentage of
Revenue
    Amount      Percentage of
Revenue
   
                 Amount          Percentage    
    

(dollars in thousands)

 
    

(Restated)

    (Restated)               

Cost of revenue

   $ 42,133         61.3   $ 38,870         57.9   $ 3,263         8.4

Cost of revenue increased by $3.3 million, or 8.4%, from $38.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2010 to $42.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2011. The increase in cost of revenue was primarily attributable to a $1.4 million increase in salaries and personnel-related costs, as we increased the number of associates providing services to our expanding customer base and supporting our platform infrastructure. In addition, we experienced increased implementation costs related to a large carrier customer implementation during the year ended December 31, 2011. As a percentage of revenue, cost of revenue increased from 57.9% for the year ended December 31, 2010 to 61.3% for the year ended December 31, 2011. The increase in cost of revenue as a percentage of revenue and resulting decrease in gross margin is primarily attributable to the change in estimated life of our customer relationships during the year ended December 31, 2011. In the absence of this change, each of revenue, gross profit, and net loss would have improved by $5.8 million during the year ended December 31, 2011.

Segment Gross Profit

 

     Year Ended December 31,               
     2011     2010     Period-to-Period Change  
     Amount      Percentage of
Revenue
    Amount      Percentage of
Revenue
   
                 Amount          Percentage    
    

(dollars in thousands)

 
    

(Restated)

   

(Restated)

              

Employer

   $ 6,059         38.0   $ 3,121         33.4   $ 2,938         94.1

Carrier

     20,591         39.0        25,131         43.5        (4,540      (18.1 )% 
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

Gross profit

   $ 26,650         38.7   $ 28,252         42.1   $ (1,602      (5.7 )% 
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

The increase in employer gross profit for the year ended December 31, 2010 to the year December 31, 2011 was driven by a $6.6 million, or 70.4%, increase in employer revenue, partially offset by a $3.6 million, or 58.4%, increase in employer cost of revenue for the year ended December 31, 2011. Our employer gross profit included $1.3 million and $0.6 million of depreciation and amortization for the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively, and $0.1 million of stock-based compensation expense for each of the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2010.

 

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The decrease in carrier gross profit for the year ended December 31, 2010 to the year ended December 31, 2011 was driven by a $4.9 million, or 8.5%, decrease in carrier revenue, partially offset by a $0.4 million, or 1.2%, decrease in carrier cost of revenue for the year ended December 31, 2011. The decrease in carrier revenue and gross profit was primarily attributable to the increase in the first quarter of 2011 in the estimated expected customer relationship period over which we recognize our implementation fees, which decreased the amount of professional services revenue recognized during the year ended December 31, 2011 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2010. Our carrier gross profit included $4.8 million and $5.5 million in depreciation and amortization for the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively. In addition, our carrier gross profit included $0.2 million and $0.3 million of stock-based compensation expense for the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively.

Sales and Marketing

 

     Year Ended December 31,               
     2011     2010     Period-to-Period Change  
     Amount      Percentage of
Revenue
    Amount      Percentage of
Revenue
   
                 Amount          Percentage    
    

(dollars in thousands)

 
    

(Restated)

    (Restated)               

Sales and marketing

   $ 22,553         32.8   $ 14,174         21.1   $ 8,379         59.1

The increase in sales and marketing expense for the year ended December 31, 2010 to the year ended December 31, 2011 was primarily attributable to a $6.0 million increase in salaries and personnel-related costs, as we increased the number of sales and marketing personnel to continue driving revenue growth. As a result of the increased headcount in 2011, we experienced a $0.6 million increase in overhead expenses allocated to our sales and marketing functions during the year. In addition, we experienced increases of $0.7 million and $0.3 million, respectively, in travel and recruiting costs.

Research and Development

 

    Year Ended December 31,              
    2011     2010     Period-to-Period Change  
    Amount     Percentage of
Revenue
    Amount     Percentage of
Revenue
   
              Amount         Percentage    
   

(dollars in thousands)

 
    (Restated)     (Restated)              

Research and development

  $ 9,120        13.3   $ 8,650        12.9   $ 470        5.4

The increase in research and development expense for the year ended December 31, 2010 to the year ended December 31, 2011 was primarily attributable to a $0.3 million increase in consulting expenses and a $0.1 million increase in salaries and personnel-related costs due to our product development efforts.

General and Administrative

 

    Year Ended December 31,              
    2011     2010     Period-to-Period Change  
    Amount     Percentage of
Revenue
    Amount     Percentage of
Revenue
   
              Amount         Percentage    
   

(dollars in thousands)

 
    (Restated)     (Restated)              

General and administrative

  $ 5,821        8.5   $ 6,038        9.0   $ (217     (3.6 )% 

 

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The decrease in general and administrative expense for the year ended December 31, 2010 to the year ended December 31, 2011 was primarily attributable to a $0.2 million decrease in salaries and personnel-related costs during the year ended December 31, 2011 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2010.

Segment Income (Loss) From Operations

 

     Years Ended December 31,               
     2011     2010     Period-to-Period Change  
     Amount     Percentage of
Revenue
    Amount     Percentage of
Revenue
   
               Amount          Percentage    
    

(dollars in thousands)

 
    

(Restated)

   

(Restated)

              

Employer

   $ (19,533     (122.6 )%    $ (6,628     (70.8 )%    $ (12,905      *   

Carrier

     6,516        12.3        6,018        10.4        498         8.3
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

Loss from operations

   $ (13,017     (18.9 )%    $ (610     (0.9 )%    $ (12,407      *   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

* Not meaningful.

The increase in employer loss from operations was primarily attributable to a $8.9 million increase in employer sales and marketing expenses. During the year ended December 31, 2011, we increased the number of sales associates by 110.0%, resulting in a $6.2 million increase in employer sales and marketing salaries and personnel-related costs. We also experienced a $4.3 million increase in employer segment-specific research and development expenses. As a result of an increase in employer customer volume, we devoted more research and development efforts to our employer segment specific products. In addition, we recognized a goodwill impairment of $1.7 million in the year ended December 31, 2011. These changes were partially offset by a $2.9 million increase in employer gross profit, driven primarily by a $6.6 million increase in employer revenue during the year.

The increase in carrier income from operations was primarily attributable to decreases of $3.8 million and $0.7 million in research and development expenses and general and administrative expenses, respectively. These declines were primarily the result of the shift of our research and development efforts to products in our employer segment. Additionally, we experienced a $0.5 million decrease in marketing expenses due primarily to a realignment of promotional efforts to grow our employer business. These decreases in costs were partially offset by a decline in carrier gross profit of $4.5 million, driven by the change in estimated life of our customer relationships during the year ended December 31, 2011. In the absence of this change, each of carrier revenue, gross profit, and income from operations would have improved by $5.8 million during the year ended December 31, 2011.

Critical Accounting Policies and Significant Judgments and Estimates

Our management’s discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations is based on our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with GAAP. The preparation of these consolidated financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses. In accordance with GAAP, we base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results might differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.

 

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While our significant accounting policies are more fully described in Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements appearing elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, we believe the following accounting policies are critical to the process of making significant judgments and estimates in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements.

Revenue Recognition and Deferred Revenue

We derive the majority of our revenue from software services fees, which consist primarily of monthly subscription fees paid to us by our customers for access to, and usage of, our cloud-based benefits software solutions for a specified contract term. We also derive revenue from professional services which primarily include fees related to the implementation of our customers onto our platform, which typically includes discovery, configuration and deployment, integration, testing, and training.

We recognize revenue when there is persuasive evidence of an arrangement, we have provided the service, the fees to be paid by the customer are fixed and determinable and collectability is reasonably assured. We consider that delivery of our cloud-based software services has commenced once we have granted the customer access to our platform.

We generally recognize software services fees monthly based on the number of employees covered by the relevant benefits plans at contracted rates for a specified period of time once the criteria for revenue recognition described above have been satisfied. We defer recognition of our professional services fees and begin recognizing them once the services are performed and related software services have commenced, ratably over the longer of the contract term or the estimated expected life of the customer relationship.

We estimate our customer relationship period based on various factors including, but not limited to, contract terms, contract extensions and renewals, customer attrition, the nature and pace of technology advancements and obsolescence, and the anticipated impact of demand, competition, and other regulatory and economic factors.

Most of our deferred revenue relates to professional services performed for our carrier customers, which require a more extensive and lengthy implementation. We will evaluate the term over which revenue is recognized for our implementation fees as we gain more experience with customer contract renewals.

Accounts Receivable and Allowances for Doubtful Accounts and Returns

We state accounts receivable at realizable value, net of an allowance for doubtful accounts that we maintain for estimated losses expected to result from the inability of some customers to make payments as they become due. We base our estimated allowance on our analysis of past due amounts and ongoing credit evaluations. Historically, our actual collection experience has not varied significantly from our estimates, due primarily to our credit and collection policies and the financial strength of our customers.

The allowances for returns are accounted for as reductions of revenue and are estimated based on the Company’s periodic assessment of historical experience and trends. The Company considers factors such as the time lag since the initiation of revenue recognition, historical reasons for adjustments, new customer volume, complexity of billing arrangements, timing of software availability, and past due customer billings.

 

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Goodwill

Goodwill represents the excess of the aggregate of the fair value of consideration transferred in a business combination over the fair value of assets acquired, net of liabilities assumed. Goodwill is not amortized, but is subject to an annual impairment test. We test goodwill for impairment at the reporting unit level annually on October 31, or more frequently if events or changes in business circumstances indicate the asset might be impaired.

When testing goodwill for impairment, we first perform an assessment of qualitative factors, including but not limited to, macroeconomic conditions, industry and market conditions, company-specific events, changes in circumstances, and after-tax cash flows. If qualitative factors indicate that it is more likely than not that the fair value of the relevant reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, we test goodwill for impairment at the reporting unit level using a two-step approach. In step one, we determine if the fair value of the reporting unit exceeds the unit’s carrying value. If step one indicates that the fair value of the reporting unit is less than its carrying value, we perform step two, determining the fair value of goodwill and, if the carrying value of goodwill exceeds the implied fair value, recording an impairment charge.

We have determined that we have two operating segments, employer and carrier. Further, we have identified that the employer operating segment contains a component, Benefit Informatics. Prior to 2013 Benefit Informatics was a reporting unit that was part of the employer operating segment. Starting in 2013, Benefit Informatics no longer had discreet financial information, ceased to be a reporting unit and is integrated within the employer segment. To determine the fair value of our reporting units, we primarily use a discounted cash flow analysis, which requires significant assumptions and estimates about future operations. Significant judgments inherent in this analysis include the determination of an appropriate discount rate, estimated terminal value and the amount and timing of expected future cash flows.

Stock-Based Compensation

We have issued two types of stock-based awards under our stock plans: stock options and restricted stock units. Stock-based awards granted to associates, directors, and non-associate third parties are measured at fair value at each grant date. When determining the fair market value of our common stock, we consider what we believe to be comparable publicly traded companies, discounted free cash flows, and an analysis of our enterprise value. We recognize stock-based compensation expense, net of forfeitures, ratably over the requisite service period of the option award. Generally, options vest 25% on the one-year anniversary of the grant date with the balance vesting over the following 36 months. We previously granted options that vest 100% on the fifth anniversary of the grant date. Restricted stock unit awards vest 25% on each anniversary of the grant date over 4 years.

Determination of the Fair Value of Stock-Based Compensation Grants

The determination of the fair value of stock-based compensation arrangements is affected by a number of variables, including estimates of the fair value of our common stock, expected stock price volatility, risk-free interest rate, and the expected life of the award. We value stock options using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model, which was developed for use in estimating the fair value of traded options that are fully transferable and have no vesting restrictions. Black-Scholes and other option valuation models require the input of highly subjective assumptions, including the expected stock price volatility. For restricted stock unit awards, fair value is based on the closing price of our stock on the trading day preceding the grant date.

 

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The following summarizes the assumptions used for estimating the fair value of stock options granted during the periods indicated (we did not grant any options in 2011):

 

                                                                                           
     Year Ended December 31,  
     2013      2012      2011    2010  

Risk-free interest rate

     1.0% - 1.7%         0.8% - 1.2%            1.9% - 3.2%   

Expected term (years)

     6.08         6.08            6.08 - 6.58   

Expected volatility

     52%         53% - 55%            57% - 59%   

Dividend yield

     0%         0%            0%   

Weighted-average grant date fair value per share

     $7.71         $4.24            2.43%   

We have assumed no dividend yield because we do not expect to pay dividends in the foreseeable future, which is consistent with our past practice. The risk-free interest rate assumption is based on observed interest rates for constant maturity U.S. Treasury securities consistent with the expected life of our associate stock options. The expected life represents the period of time the stock options are expected to be outstanding and is based on the simplified method. Under the simplified method, the expected life of an option is presumed to be the midpoint between the vesting date and the end of the contractual term. We used the simplified method due to the lack of sufficient historical exercise data to provide a reasonable basis upon which to otherwise estimate the expected life of the stock options. Expected volatility is based on historical volatilities for publicly traded stock of comparable companies over the estimated expected life of the stock options. The list of comparable companies we used to determine expected volatility was consistent with those used to determine the corresponding fair value of our common stock at each grant date.

We based our estimate of pre-vesting forfeitures, or forfeiture rate, on our analysis of historical behavior by stock option holders. We apply the estimated forfeiture rate to the total estimated fair value of the awards, as derived from the Black-Scholes model, to compute the stock-based compensation expense, net of pre-vesting forfeitures, to be recognized in our consolidated statements of operations.

Based upon stock closing stock price on December 31, 2013 of $57.74, the aggregate intrinsic value of outstanding options to purchase shares of our common stock as of December 31, 2013 was $156.0 million, of which $127.4 million related to vested options and $28.6 million to unvested options. The aggregate intrinsic value of outstanding restricted stock units as of December 31, 2013 was $5.6 million, of which all were unvested.

Determination of the Fair Value of Common Stock on Grant Dates

Prior to our IPO, we were a private company with no active public market for our common stock. We have periodically determined for financial reporting purposes the estimated per share fair value of our common stock at various dates using contemporaneous valuations performed in accordance with the guidance outlined in the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants Practice Aid, “Valuation of Privately Held Company Equity Securities Issued as Compensation,” or the Practice Aid. We performed these valuations as of January 1, July 1, October 1, 2012, and April 1, 2013. In conducting the valuations, we considered all objective and subjective factors that we believed to be relevant for each valuation conducted, including management’s estimate of our business condition, prospects, and operating performance at each valuation date. Within the valuations performed by our management, a range of factors, assumptions, and methodologies were used. The significant factors included:

 

  Ÿ  

independent third-party valuations performed contemporaneously or shortly before the grant date, as applicable;

 

  Ÿ  

the fact that we are a privately held technology company and our common stock is illiquid;

 

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  Ÿ  

the nature and history of our business;

 

  Ÿ  

our historical financial performance;

 

  Ÿ  

our discounted future cash flows, based on our projected operating results;

 

  Ÿ  

valuations of comparable public companies;

 

  Ÿ  

the potential impact on common stock of liquidation preference rights of redeemable convertible preferred stock under different valuation scenarios;

 

  Ÿ  

general economic conditions and the specific outlook for our industry;

 

  Ÿ  

the likelihood of achieving a liquidity event for shares of our common stock such as an IPO or a sale of our company, given prevailing market conditions, or remaining a private company; and

 

  Ÿ  

the state of the IPO market for similarly situated privately held technology companies.

The dates of our contemporaneous valuations have not always coincided with the dates of our stock-based compensation grants. In such instances, management’s estimates of the fair value of our common stock on the date of grant have been based on the most recent valuation of our shares of common stock and our assessment of additional objective and subjective factors we believed were relevant as of the grant date. The additional factors considered when determining any changes in fair value between the most recent valuation and the grant dates included our stage of development, our operating and financial performance, current business conditions, and the market performance of comparable publicly traded companies.

There are significant judgments and estimates inherent in these contemporaneous valuations. These judgments and estimates include assumptions regarding our future operating performance, the time to completing an IPO or other liquidity event, and the determinations of the appropriate valuation methods. If we made different assumptions, our stock-based compensation expense, net loss, and net loss per common share could have been significantly different.

Common Stock Valuation Methodology

Probability-Weighted Expected Return Method

We utilize the probability-weighted expected return method, or PWERM, approach to allocate our equity value to our common shares. The PWERM approach employs various market, income or cost approach calculations depending on the likelihood of various liquidation scenarios. For each of the various scenarios, an equity value is estimated and the rights and preferences for each shareholder class are considered to allocate the equity value to common shares. The common share value is then multiplied by a discount factor reflecting the calculated discount rate and the timing of the event. Lastly, the common share value is multiplied by an estimated probability for each scenario. The probability and timing of each scenario are based on discussions between our board of directors and our management team. Under the PWERM, the value of our common stock is based on four possible future events for our company:

 

  Ÿ  

an IPO;

 

  Ÿ  

a strategic merger or sale;

 

  Ÿ  

our remaining a private company; and

 

  Ÿ  

the sale of our assets and the resulting dissolution of our company.

When determining the value of any of these four possible outcomes, we use the market and income approaches to determine the equity value of our company. These valuation methodologies are described below.

 

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Market Approach

The market approach evaluates similar companies or transactions in the marketplace. When using the guideline company method of the market approach in determining the fair value of our common stock under the IPO scenario, we identified companies similar to our business who had recently completed IPOs and used these companies as guidelines to develop relevant market multiples and ratios. We then applied these market multiples and ratios to our financial forecasts to create an indication of total equity value. In selecting the guideline companies used in our analysis, we applied several criteria, including companies in the e-commerce platform industry, companies displaying economic and financial similarity to us in certain aspects of primary importance in the eyes of the investing public, and businesses that entail a similar degree of investment risk. When using the similar transaction methodology of the market approach in determining the fair value of our common stock under the strategic merger or sale scenario, we used publicly disclosed data from arm’s-length transactions involving similar companies to develop relationships or value measures between the prices paid for the target companies and the underlying financial performance of those companies. These value measures are then applied to our applicable operating data to create an indication of total equity value.

We used the market approach as the valuation method of determining the fair value of our common stock under the IPO and strategic merger or sale scenarios for all independent valuations. For each of the independent valuations, we performed an assessment of publicly traded comparable companies, including companies that recently completed IPOs or were recently acquired, to ensure that we had a current representative sample of guideline companies upon which to base each valuation.

Income Approach

For the income approach, we used the discounted free cash flow method, which is based on the premise that equity value as of the respective valuation date is equal to the projected future free cash flows and expected terminal value of the business, discounted by a required rate of return that investors would demand given the risks of ownership and the risks associated with achieving the stream of projected future free cash flows.

We used a combination of the market approach and the income approach in determining the fair value of our common stock under the remaining private scenario for each of our independent valuations.

The following table summarizes by grant date the number of shares of common stock subject to stock options granted from January 1, 2012 through the September 17, 2013, as well as the associated per share exercise price and the final estimated fair value per share of our common stock on the grant date. We did not grant any stock options during the year ended December 31, 2011.

 

Grant Date

   Number of Shares
Underlying
Options Granted
     Exercise Price per
Share
     Estimated Fair
Value per Share
 

January 31, 2012

     201,844       $ 8.11       $ 6.80   

April 9, 2012

     10,000       $ 8.11       $ 6.80   

July 1, 2012

     12,115       $ 9.33       $ 8.79   

October 1, 2012

     368,500       $ 10.30       $ 9.88   

April 1, 2013

     5,000       $ 13.53       $ 13.53   

May 8, 2013

     137,000       $ 13.53       $ 13.53   

August 5, 2013

     30,000       $ 13.53       $ 20.30   

 

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For each of our new stock option grants during 2012, the exercise price exceeded the fair market value of our common stock on the date of grant. In determining the fair value of our common stock on the grant dates, our board of directors placed significant emphasis on the contemporaneous valuations performed by an independent third party, which did not consider the impact of completion of our revenue recognition customer relationship change as the available data had not yet been fully analyzed as of the time of these original valuations. These original valuations were retroactively updated to reflect the Company’s completion of its final analysis of customer relationship data available as of each valuation date and the effect of such data on the revised projected operating results taking into account the impact of our change in estimated customer relationship period.

Significant factors contributing to the determination of common stock fair value at the date of each grant were as follows:

January and April 2012 Stock Option Grants.    On January 31, 2012, our board of directors granted Mason Holland, our Executive Chairman of the Board, the authority to make grants of stock rights under our 2012 Stock Plan. Pursuant to this designated authority, Mr. Holland granted options to purchase 201,844 shares of common stock with an exercise price per share of $8.11 on January 31, 2012. In estimating the fair value of our common stock to set the exercise price of such options, we reviewed and considered a contemporaneous independent valuation report for our common stock as of January 1, 2012. The retroactively updated independent valuation report reflected a fair value for our common stock of $6.80 as of January 1, 2012.

Three months later, on April 9, 2012, when our results were similar to prior months, Mr. Holland, pursuant to his designated authority from our board, granted options to purchase 10,000 shares of common stock with an exercise price per share of $8.11. Little had changed since the last stock option grant date and, although we finished the first quarter on plan, overall market conditions had not changed significantly. Therefore, we determined that the estimated fair value of common stock had not changed since the January 31, 2012 grants.

The primary valuation considerations in the retroactively updated independent valuation report were:

 

  Ÿ  

a discount rate of 22%, based on our estimated cost of capital; and

 

  Ÿ  

a lack of marketability discount of 27%.

The liquidity event scenario probabilities and valuation method used for determining the fair value of our common stock were as follows:

 

Scenario

   Probability    

Valuation
Method

IPO

     50   Market

Strategic merger or sale

     30   Market

Remain private

     15   Market / Income

Dissolution / technology sale

     5   N/A

The 50% probability for an IPO scenario reflected our consideration of the improvement in the IPO market during the last half of 2011, particularly within the technology sector and for companies of similar size and scale to us. In addition, it reflected our belief that if a liquidity event were to occur within the next 18 months, the most likely outcome would be an IPO.

July 2012 Stock Option Grants.    Mr. Holland, pursuant to his designated authority from our board, granted options to purchase 12,115 shares of common stock with an exercise price per share of $9.33 on July 1, 2012. In estimating the fair value of our common stock to set the exercise price of such options, we reviewed and considered a contemporaneous independent valuation report for our common stock as of July 1, 2012. The retroactively updated independent valuation report reflected a fair value for our common stock of $8.79 as of July 1, 2012.

 

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The primary valuation considerations were:

 

  Ÿ  

a discount rate of 22%, based on our estimated cost of capital; and

 

  Ÿ  

a lack of marketability discount of 21%.

The liquidity event scenario probabilities and valuation method used for determining the fair value of our common stock were as follows:

 

Scenario

   Probability    

Valuation
    Method    

IPO

     50   Market

Strategic merger or sale

     30   Market

Remain private

     15   Market / Income

Dissolution / technology sale

     5   N/A

The 50% probability for an IPO scenario reflected our consideration of the continued stability in the IPO market during the first half of 2012, particularly within the technology sector and for companies of similar size and scale to us. In addition, it reflected our belief that if a liquidity event were to occur within the next 15 months, the most likely outcome would be an IPO.

The increase in the estimated fair value of our common stock from $6.80 per share as of April 9, 2012 to $8.79 per share as of July 1, 2012 was primarily due to the following:

 

  Ÿ  

greater proximity of an anticipated IPO date;

 

  Ÿ  

increased market valuations of the guideline companies used in determining total equity value;

 

  Ÿ  

application of a higher revenue multiple used under the strategic merger scenario based on the then-current market conditions for our guideline companies to our trailing twelve-month revenue;

 

  Ÿ  

our strong operating performance during the first half of 2012, primarily attributable to revenue growth from an increase in the number of customers using our cloud-based benefits software; and

 

  Ÿ  

continued improvement in overall macroeconomic conditions.

October 2012 Stock Option Grants.    Mr. Holland, pursuant to his designated authority from our board, granted options to purchase 368,500 shares of common stock on October 1, 2012 with an exercise price per share of $10.30. In estimating the fair value of our common stock to set the exercise price of such options as of the grant date, the board reviewed and considered a contemporaneous independent valuation report for our common stock as of October 1, 2012. The retroactively updated independent valuation report reflected a fair value for our common stock of $9.88 as of October 1, 2012.

The primary valuation considerations were:

 

  Ÿ  

a discount rate of 20%, based on our estimated cost of capital; and

 

  Ÿ  

a lack of marketability discount of 19%.

 

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The liquidity event scenario probabilities and valuation method used for determining the fair value of our common stock were as follows:

 

Scenario

   Probability    

Valuation
    Method    

IPO

     50   Market

Strategic merger or sale

     30   Market

Remain private

     15   Market / Income

Dissolution / technology sale

     5   N/A

The 50% probability for an IPO scenario reflected our consideration of the continued stability in the IPO market during the first three quarters of 2012, particularly within the technology sector and for companies of similar size and scale to us. In addition, it reflected our belief that if a liquidity event were to occur within the next three quarters, the most likely outcome would be an IPO.

The increase in the estimated fair value of our common stock from $8.79 per share as of July 1, 2012 to $9.88 per share as of October 1, 2012 was primarily due to the following:

 

  Ÿ  

greater proximity of anticipated IPO date;

 

  Ÿ  

increased market valuations of the guideline companies used in determining total equity value;

 

  Ÿ  

our strong operating performance during the first three quarters of 2012, primarily attributable to revenue growth from an increase in the number of customers using our cloud-based benefits software; and

 

  Ÿ  

continued improvement in overall macroeconomic conditions.

April and May Stock Option Grants.    Mr. Holland, pursuant to his designated authority from our board, granted options to purchase 5,000 shares of common stock with an exercise price per share of $13.53 on April 1, 2013. In estimating the fair value of our common stock to set the exercise price of such options, we reviewed and considered a contemporaneous independent valuation report for our common stock as of April 1, 2013.

One month later, on May 8, 2013, when our results were similar to prior months, our board granted options to purchase 137,000 shares of common stock with an exercise price per share of $13.53. Overall market conditions had not changed significantly since the last stock option grant date. Therefore, we determined that the estimated fair value of common stock had not changed since the April 1, 2013 grant.

The primary valuation considerations were:

 

  Ÿ  

a discount rate of 17%, based on our estimated cost of capital; and

 

  Ÿ  

a lack of marketability discount of 11%.

The liquidity event scenario probabilities and valuation method used for determining the fair value of our common stock as of April 1, 2013 were as follows:

 

Scenario

   Probability    

Valuation
    Method    

IPO

     60   Market

Strategic merger or sale

     30   Market

Remain private

     10   Market / Income

 

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The 60% probability for an IPO scenario reflected our consideration of the continued stability in the IPO market during the fourth quarter of 2012 and the first quarter of 2013. In addition, it reflected our belief that if a liquidity event were to occur within the next three months, the most likely outcome would be an IPO. In the first quarter of 2013, we began to prepare for an initial public offering, including appointment of underwriters.

The increase in the estimated fair value of our common stock from $9.88 per share as of October 1, 2012 to $13.53 per share as of April 1, 2013 was primarily due to the following: