424B4 1 d222007d424b4.htm FORM 424(B)(4) Form 424(b)(4)
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Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(4)
Registration No. 333-184414

PROSPECTUS

7,800,000 American Depositary Shares

LOGO

YY Inc.

REPRESENTING 156,000,000 CLASS A COMMON SHARES

 

 

YY Inc. is offering 7,800,000 American Depositary Shares, or ADSs. Each ADS represents 20 Class A common shares, par value $0.00001 per share. This is our initial public offering and no public market currently exists for our ADSs or our common shares.

 

 

Upon the completion of this offering, we will have a dual class common share structure. Our common shares will be divided into Class A common shares and Class B common shares. Holders of Class A common shares are entitled to one vote per share, while holders of Class B common shares are entitled to ten votes per share. Holders of Class A and Class B common shares will vote together as one class on all matters that require a shareholders’ vote. Each Class B common share is convertible into one Class A common share at any time by the holder thereof, while Class A common shares are not convertible into Class B common shares under any circumstance. Upon the completion of this offering, our senior management and other existing shareholders will own an aggregate of 907,833,224 Class B common shares and 30,100,000 Class A common shares represented by 1,505,000 ADSs, which will represent 98.6% of the then total voting power of our outstanding shares.

 

 

We are an “emerging growth company” under applicable U.S. federal securities laws and are eligible for reduced public company reporting requirements.

 

 

Our ADSs have been approved for listing on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “YY.”

 

 

Investing in our ADSs involves a high degree of risk. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 16.

 

 

PRICE $10.50 AN ADS

 

 

 

     Price to Public    Underwriting
Discounts and
Commissions
   Proceeds to
YY Inc.

Per ADS

   $10.50    $0.7350    $9.7650

Total

   $81,900,000    $5,733,000    $76,167,000

YY Inc. has granted the underwriters the right to purchase up to an additional 1,170,000 ADSs to cover over-allotments.

Our existing shareholders and their affiliates, including Granite Global Ventures and Steamboat Ventures Asia, as defined in the “Principal Shareholders” section, have subscribed for, and have been allocated by the underwriters, a total of 1,505,000 ADSs in this offering at the initial public offering price and on the same terms as the other ADSs being offered in this offering.

The Securities and Exchange Commission and state securities regulators have not approved or disapproved these securities, or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

The underwriters expect to deliver the ADSs to purchasers on November 27, 2012.

 

 

 

MORGAN STANLEY

 

DEUTSCHE BANK SECURITIES

  CITIGROUP

 

 

 

PACIFIC CREST SECURITIES    PIPER JAFFRAY

November 20, 2012.


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LOGO

 


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

     Page  

Business

     128   

PRC Regulation

     145   

Management

     164   

Principal Shareholders

     173   

Related Party Transactions

     176   

Description of Share Capital

     178   

Description of American Depositary Shares

     190   

Shares Eligible for Future Sale

     199   

Taxation

     201   

Underwriting

     207   

Expenses Relating to This Offering

     215   

Legal Matters

     216   

Experts

     217   

Where You Can Find Additional Information

     218   

Index to Consolidated Financial Statements

     F-1   
 

 

 

You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus or in any related free-writing prospectus. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with information different from that contained in this prospectus. We are offering to sell, and seeking offers to buy, the ADSs only in jurisdictions where offers and sales are permitted. The information contained in this prospectus is current only as of the date of this prospectus, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or of any sale of the ADSs.

We have not taken any action to permit a public offering of the ADSs outside the United States or to permit the possession or distribution of this prospectus outside the United States. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus must inform themselves about and observe any restrictions relating to the offering of the ADSs and the distribution of the prospectus outside the United States.

Until December 15, 2012, all dealers that buy, sell or trade ADS, whether or not participating in this offering, may be required to deliver a prospectus. This is in addition to the dealers’ obligation to deliver a prospectus when acting as underwriters and with respect to their unsold allotments or subscriptions.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

The following summary is qualified in its entirety by, and should be read in conjunction with, the more detailed information and financial statements appearing elsewhere in this prospectus. In addition to this summary, we urge you to read the entire prospectus carefully, especially the risks of investing in our ADSs discussed under “Risk Factors,” before deciding whether to buy our ADSs. This prospectus contains information from a consumer survey commissioned by us and conducted by iResearch Consulting Group, or iResearch, a third party market research firm, in July 2012 to provide information on our market position in China. We refer to this report as the iResearch Report in this prospectus.

Overview

YY is a revolutionary rich communication social platform that engages users in real-time online group activities through voice, text and video. YY Client, our core product launched in China in July 2008, has attracted 400.5 million registered user accounts as of September 30, 2012. We achieved approximately 10.0 million peak concurrent users and approximately 70.5 million monthly active users on YY in August 2012. Because we do not operate our platform on a real name basis, however, certain metrics may overstate the number of unique individuals using or paying for our products and services. See “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Business—The respective number of our registered user accounts, active users, paying users and unique visitors may overstate the number of unique individuals who register to use our products and services, log on to YY Client, purchase virtual items or other products and services on our platform or access Duowan.com, respectively, and may therefore lead to an inaccurate interpretation of our average revenue per paying user metric and of our business operations by our management and by investors, and may affect advertisers’ decisions on the amount spent on advertising with us.”

People are social creatures with a fundamental desire to connect, interact and communicate with each other. YY empowers users to create and organize groups of varying sizes to discover and participate in a wide range of online activities, including online games, karaoke, music concerts, education, live shows and conference calls. We believe that our proprietary technology infrastructure was the first to develop the capacity to support simultaneous communication among millions of concurrent users in a single channel. YY’s scale, social features and high quality voice and video make it popular among internet users in China, as evidenced by the 393.0 billion voice minutes that users spent on YY Client in the first nine months of 2012. “Voice minute” means a minute in which the user is using our voice- or video-enabled services, such as listening to or talking on YY channels.

Our platform consists of YY Client, the YY.com and Duowan.com web portals and Mobile YY. YY Client is our personal computer, or PC-based user software that provides real-time access to online activities groups, which we refer to as channels. Although online communication tools such as instant messenger and social networking services existed when we introduced YY Client in July 2008, these tools and services were confined to text or limited-scale voice or video communications. YY Client has transformed online social communications by enabling large-scale group activities through our platform. In 2011, we held an approximate 84.2% market share in the real-time online group voice communications market in China in terms of user time spent, according to the iResearch Report. On average, each active user spent approximately 51.7 hours on YY Client in September 2012. YY Client is available to download for free from YY.com, our online portal and guide to channels, events and content available across our platform. We also operate Duowan.com, which provides access to and interactive resources for online games, and was ranked the No. 2 game media website in China in terms of monthly unique visitors in the eight months ended August 31, 2012 according to iResearch. To increase the accessibility and usage of YY Client, we introduced our mobile application, Mobile YY, in September 2010. To

 

 

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make YY more easily and widely accessible, in October 2012, we launched web-based YY, a version of YY Client that enables users to conduct real-time interactions on the web using a flash plug-in without requiring any downloads or installations.

Delivering superior user experience is our core focus, which in turn relies on our proprietary technology and industry know-how. A single YY channel can currently have from only a handful to approximately 1.4 million concurrent users. YY enables users to continually create new channels to engage in activities on our open platform designed to make offline group activities more effective and efficient online. YY is supported by our highly scalable infrastructure throughout China, and our proprietary algorithms enabling low latency, low jitter and low loss rates in delivering voice and video data.

While the basic use of our platform is currently free, we monetize our user base through internet value-added services, or IVAS, and online advertising. Currently, revenues from IVAS are primarily generated through sales of virtual items and game tokens that our users may purchase for use in online activities on our platform, including online games, which are all web games, and YY Music, our music channels on YY Client. Online advertising revenues are primarily generated from sales of different forms of advertising on Duowan.com. Although we do not currently derive revenues from Mobile YY, we have plans to monetize it by selling virtual items on Mobile YY in the future. We believe that we will be able to capitalize on the large and highly engaged user base of our open platform by exploring additional monetization opportunities and diversifying our revenue sources.

We have achieved significant growth in recent years. Our total net revenues increased from RMB32.7 million in 2009 to RMB128.3 million in 2010 and to RMB319.7 million (US$50.8 million) in 2011, representing a CAGR of 212.6% from 2009 to 2011. For the nine months ended September 30, 2012, our total net revenues grew to RMB553.2 million (US$88.0 million), representing a 167.6% increase from RMB206.7 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2011. We had a net loss of RMB47.1 million, RMB238.9 million and RMB83.2 million (US$13.2 million) in 2009, 2010 and 2011, respectively, and in the nine months ended September 30, 2012, we had a net income of RMB56.0 million (US$8.9 million). Our adjusted net loss, a non-GAAP measure, decreased from RMB10.6 million in 2009 to RMB1.9 million in 2010, and in 2011, we had an adjusted net income of RMB51.8 million (US$8.2 million). In the nine months ended September 30, 2012, our adjusted net income amounted to RMB130.7 million (US$20.8 million) compared to an adjusted net income of RMB19.3 million in the same period in 2011. Our adjusted net (loss) income excludes non-cash share-based compensation expenses. For information regarding adjusted net (loss) income and a reconciliation of each to net (loss) income, see “—Our Summary Consolidated Financial Data—Non-GAAP Financial Measure” on page 14.

The PRC government extensively regulates foreign ownership of, and the licensing and permit requirements pertaining to, companies that provide internet-based services such as our YY platform. To comply with these restrictions, we conduct our operations primarily through our consolidated affiliated entities in China. We face risks and uncertainties associated with our corporate structure, as our control over these consolidated affiliated entities is based on contractual arrangements rather than equity ownership. See “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Corporate Structure and Our Industry” and “Corporate History and Structure.”

Our Strengths

We believe the following factors have contributed to the success of our rich communication social platform:

 

   

large and highly engaged user base;

 

   

powerful network effects;

 

   

superior user experience;

 

 

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scalable platform serving a broad range of potential end markets; and

 

   

proprietary and scalable technology infrastructure.

Our Strategies

Our goal is to make offline group activities available and better online. We intend to achieve our goal by pursuing the following strategies:

 

   

further expand our user base;

 

   

increase the monetization of our user base;

 

   

further develop and expand the use of Mobile YY; and

 

   

continue to invest in our leading technology infrastructure.

Monetization Opportunities

As users continue to unlock the full potential of our platform, we believe we will have increasing opportunities to expand our portfolio of products and services, and monetize them in various manners. Currently, we derive revenues from our IVAS users and third party advertisers. Although we do not currently derive revenues from Mobile YY, we have plans to monetize it in the future by selling virtual items on Mobile YY in the same way YY Client is currently monetized.

Internet Value-Added Services

We primarily generate revenues from paying users of online web games, YY Music and membership. We believe the following areas represent the most significant monetization opportunities for our platform:

Online Games. Online games, which include massive multiplayer online games and web games, have become an increasingly popular source of entertainment for individuals and groups of internet users. According to iResearch, China’s online games market generated revenue of RMB43.4 billion (US$6.9 billion) in 2011, and is expected to grow to RMB84.6 billion (US$13.3 billion) in 2016. Our platform attracts a large number of online game players and is particularly attractive to online game players’ guilds, the members of which congregate on YY Client to discuss gaming strategies and to communicate during online games. Our platform provides users with access to a wide variety of web games which we monetize. In the future, we intend to develop and introduce more online games-related services such as the recently introduced live broadcasting of online games to a large audience.

Music. YY has become a popular platform for live music performances on music channels. YY provides a stage for grassroots musicians, celebrities and professional performers to perform live. We create and offer to users virtual items that can be used on the music channels. Users can purchase consumable virtual items from us to show support for their favorite performers or time-based virtual items that provide users with recognized status, such as priority speaking rights or special symbols on the music channels. We share with certain popular performers and channel owners a portion of the revenues we derive from such in-channel virtual item sales on YY Music. According to a report we commissioned in 2012 conducted by the Data Center of China Internet, or DCCI, the total market size for karaoke and live music performance in ten major cities in China, including Beijing, Shanghai and Shenzhen, was US$8.6 billion. We have encouraged and facilitated numerous large-scale music events such as fan club gathering and meet-and-greets with various performers, as well as concerts and singing competitions for performers from various music channels. In the future, we intend to encourage more live music events which users can access in real-time for an entry fee.

 

 

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Membership. We provide enhanced membership privileges to users who pay a monthly fee and subscribe to our membership program. Enhanced privileges include access to new and unreleased channel functions, including additional video usage, priority entrance to certain live performances, and exclusive rights to access VIP avatars, VIP ring-tones, VIP fonts and VIP emoticons. In the future, we intend to continue exploring different ways to expand our members-only offerings to better serve our members and attract a larger membership base.

Education. YY provides a convenient and efficient platform for lectures or personal tutoring sessions to be conducted in real time. Our education channels provide numerous classes that cover diverse subjects such as foreign languages, the PRC government civil employee examination and IT training. In the future, we intend to continue enabling users to conduct education courses and cooperate with various educational institutions to provide online classes on YY for a fee.

Advertising Services

We believe that our extensive user base represents an attractive demographic target for advertisers. We believe our advertising business will continue to develop as we grow our user base and advertisers increasingly embrace our platform.

Online Display Advertising. According to iResearch, Duowan was the No. 2 game media website in China in the eight months ended August 31, 2012, with a market share of 15.7% in terms of monthly unique visitors during that period. Also, according to iResearch, total online advertising spending by game developers in China was approximately RMB687.0 million (US$108.1 million) in 2011, while the overall online advertising market in China was RMB51.3 billion (US$8.1 billion). According to iResearch, the overall online advertising market in China is expected to grow to as much as RMB187.7 billion (US$29.5 billion) in 2015, representing a CAGR of 38.3% from 2011 to 2015.

The vast majority of our current advertising revenues are generated from advertisements on Duowan.com. In 2011 and the nine months ended September 30, 2012, revenues generated from advertisements on Duowan.com contributed 93.8% and 96.7% of our total advertising revenues, respectively. We currently do not allow advertising on YY.com and Mobile YY, and have minimal advertising on YY Client. In the future, we intend to expand our capacity and advertisement solutions for online advertising and to launch additional special interest content-driven portals to complement Duowan.com. Currently, a significant majority of our advertisers are game developers and we intend to diversify our advertising client base.

Our Challenges

Our ability to achieve our goal and execute our strategies is subject to risks and uncertainties, including but not limited to those relating to our ability to:

 

   

successfully implement our relatively new business model, grow and monetize our user base and expand our product and service offerings;

 

   

continue developing innovative technologies in response to evolving user demand and maintain our technological leadership;

 

   

develop and maintain relationships with advertisers in a broad range of industries;

 

   

generate and increase revenues from a diverse group of online games; and

 

   

attract and retain qualified personnel.

 

 

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In addition, we expect to face risks and uncertainties related to our corporate structure and doing business in China, including:

 

   

risks associated with our control over our consolidated affiliated entities in China, which is based on contractual arrangements rather than equity ownership; and

 

   

uncertainties associated with our compliance with applicable PRC regulations and policies, including those relating to various channels on our YY platform.

Corporate Information

Our principal executive offices are located at Building 3-08, Yangcheng Creative Industry Zone, No. 309 Huangpu Avenue Middle, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510655, People’s Republic of China. Our telephone number at this address is (+86 20) 2916 2000. Our registered office in the Cayman Islands is located at the offices of Codan Trust Company (Cayman) Limited of Cricket Square, Hutchins Drive, P.O. Box 2681, Grand Cayman, KYI-1111, Cayman Islands. Our agent for service of process in the United States is Law Debenture Corporate Services Inc.

Investors should contact us for any inquiries through the address and telephone number of our principal executive offices. Our website is www.yy.com. The information contained on our website is not a part of this prospectus.

Corporate History

We commenced operations in April 2005 in China. In November 2007, we established Duowan Entertainment Corp., or Duowan BVI, in the British Virgin Islands. Through its wholly owned subsidiary, Duowan BVI entered into a series of contractual arrangements with certain PRC consolidated affiliated entities and their shareholders through which it exercises effective control over the operations of these PRC consolidated affiliated entities. Our current holding company, YY Inc., was incorporated in July 2011 as a limited liability company in the Cayman Islands. Through a share exchange in September 2011, the shareholders of Duowan BVI exchanged all of their outstanding common and preferred shares in Duowan BVI for common shares, meaning common shares with a par value US$0.00001 per share, and preferred shares, meaning series A, B, C-1 and C-2 preferred shares with a par value of US$0.00001 per share, of YY Inc. on a pro rata basis. No additional consideration was paid in connection with the share exchange. As a result, Duowan BVI became a wholly owned subsidiary of YY Inc. For more details, see “Corporate History and Structure.”

 

 

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The following diagram illustrates our corporate structure upon the completion of this offering, assuming that the underwriters do not exercise their option to purchase additional ADSs:

 

LOGO

 

(1) Upon the completion of this offering, our senior management and other existing shareholders will own an aggregate of 98.6% of the total voting power of our outstanding shares.
(2) Formerly known as Zhuhai Duowan Technology Company Limited.
(3) Formerly known as Duowan Entertainment Information Technology (Beijing) Company Limited.
(4) Beijing Tuda is our PRC consolidated affiliated entity. Mr. David Xueling Li, our co-founder, chief executive officer and director, Mr. Tony Bin Zhao, our chief technology officer and Mr. Jin Cao, the general manager of our website department, own 97.7%, 1.5% and 0.8% of Beijing Tuda’s equity interests, respectively.
(5) Guangzhou Huaduo is our PRC consolidated affiliated entity. Mr. David Xueling Li, Mr. Jun Lei, our co-founder and chairman, Mr. Tony Bin Zhao, Mr. Jin Cao and Beijing Tuda own approximately 1.7%, 1.5%, 0.1%, 0.1% and 96.6% of Guangzhou Huaduo’s equity interests, respectively.

 

 

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Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company

As a company with less than US$1.0 billion in revenue for our last fiscal year, we qualify as an “emerging growth company” pursuant to the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, or the JOBS Act. An emerging growth company may take advantage of specified reduced reporting and other requirements that are otherwise applicable generally to public companies. These provisions include exemption from the auditor attestation requirement under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or Section 404, in the assessment of the emerging growth company’s internal control over financial reporting. The JOBS Act also provides that an emerging growth company does not need to comply with any new or revised financial accounting standards until such date that a private company is otherwise required to comply with such new or revised accounting standards. However, we have elected to “opt out” of this provision and, as a result, we will comply with new or revised accounting standards as required when they are adopted for public companies. This decision to opt out of the extended transition period under the JOBS Act is irrevocable.

We will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest of (a) the last day of our fiscal year during which we have total annual gross revenues of at least US$1.0 billion; (b) the last day of our fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the completion of this offering; (c) the date on which we have, during the previous three-year period, issued more than US$1.0 billion in non-convertible debt; or (d) the date on which we are deemed to be a “large accelerated filer” under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, which would occur if the market value of our ADSs that are held by non-affiliates exceeds US$700 million as of the last business day of our most recently completed second fiscal quarter. Once we cease to be an emerging growth company, we will not be entitled to the exemptions provided in the JOBS Act discussed above.

 

 

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The Offering

The following information assumes that the underwriters will not exercise their option to purchase additional ADSs in the offering, unless otherwise indicated.

 

Offering price

US$10.50 per ADS.

 

ADSs offered by us

7,800,000 ADSs.

 

Common shares outstanding immediately after this offering

We will adopt a dual class common share structure immediately upon the completion of this offering. 1,063,833,224 common shares (or 1,087,233,224 common shares if the underwriters exercise their over-allotment option in full) will be outstanding immediately upon the completion of this offering, comprised of (1) 156,000,000 Class A common shares, par value US$0.00001 per share (or 179,400,000 Class A common shares if the underwriters exercise their over-allotment option in full), and (2) 907,833,224 Class B common shares, par value US$0.00001 per share. Class B common shares outstanding immediately after the completion of this offering will represent 85.3% of our total outstanding shares and 98.3% of the then total voting power.

 

ADSs outstanding immediately after this offering

7,800,000 ADSs (or 8,970,000 ADSs if the underwriters exercise their over-allotment option in full).

 

The ADSs

Each ADS represents 20 Class A common shares, par value US$0.00001 per share.

 

  The depositary will hold Class A common shares underlying your ADSs. You will have rights as provided in the deposit agreement.

 

  If we declare dividends on our common shares, the depositary will pay you the cash dividends and other distributions it receives on our Class A common shares, after deducting its fees and expenses.

 

  You may turn in your ADSs to the depositary in exchange for Class A common shares. The depositary will charge you fees for any exchange.

 

  We may amend or terminate the deposit agreement without your consent. If you continue to hold your ADSs, you agree to be bound by the deposit agreement as amended.

 

  To better understand the terms of the ADSs, you should carefully read the “Description of American Depositary Shares” section of this prospectus. You should also read the deposit agreement, which is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement that includes this prospectus.

 

 

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Common Shares

We will issue 156,000,000 Class A common shares represented by our ADSs in this offering.

 

  All of our existing common shares will be redesignated as Class B common shares and all of our outstanding preferred shares will be automatically re-designated or converted into Class B common shares on a one-for-one basis immediately prior to completion of this offering.

 

  All share-based compensation awards, including options, restricted shares and restricted share units, regardless of grant dates, will entitle holders to the equivalent number of Class A common shares once the vesting and exercising conditions on such share-based compensation awards are met.

 

  Immediately upon the completion of this offering, we will have 907,833,224 Class B common shares outstanding, 459,373,036 of these Class B common shares, or 43.2% of the total common shares then outstanding, will be beneficially owned by our founders, Messrs. David Xueling Li, Jun Lei, Tony Bin Zhao and Jin Cao and their affiliates collectively.

Holders of Class A common shares will be entitled to one vote per share, while holders of Class B common shares will be entitled to ten votes per share on all matters that require a shareholders’ vote.

 

  Each Class B common share is convertible into one Class A common share at any time by the holder. Class A common shares are not convertible into Class B common shares under any circumstances. Upon any transfer of Class B common shares by a holder to any person or entity which is not an affiliate of such holder and which is not any of our founders or any affiliates of our founders, such Class B common shares will be automatically and immediately converted into the equivalent number of Class A common shares.

 

  In addition, if at any time, Messrs. David Xueling Li, Jun Lei, Tony Bin Zhao and Jin Cao and their affiliates collectively own less than 5% of the total number of the issued and outstanding Class B common shares, each issued and outstanding Class B common share will be automatically and immediately converted into one Class A common share, and we will not issue any Class B common shares thereafter.

 

  Furthermore, if at any time more than 50% of the ultimate beneficial ownership of any holder of Class B common shares (other than our founders or our founders’ affiliates) changes, each such Class B common share will be automatically and immediately converted into one Class A common share.

 

  See “Description of Share Capital.”

 

 

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Over-allotment option

We have granted to the underwriters an option, which is exercisable within 30 days from the date of this prospectus, to purchase up to 1,170,000 additional ADSs.

 

Use of proceeds

We plan to use the net proceeds we receive from this offering for investing in our voice and video technology and infrastructure, expanding our product development and services offerings, expanding our sales and marketing activities and other general corporate purposes, including working capital needs. See “Use of Proceeds” for additional information.

 

Lock-up

We, our directors, our executive officers and all of our existing shareholders have agreed with the underwriters, subject to certain exceptions, not to sell, transfer or dispose of, directly or indirectly, any of our ADSs or common shares owned by such persons prior to this offering or acquired in this offering or securities convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for our ADSs or common shares until after 180 days after the date of this prospectus. In addition, through a letter agreement, we will instruct Deutsche Bank Trust Company Americas, as depositary, not to accept any deposit of any common shares or issue any ADSs until after 180 days following the date of this prospectus unless we consent to such deposit or issuance. This letter agreement applies to all of our common shares, options, restricted shares and restricted share units, including shares held by our directors, executive officers and other existing shareholders that are parties to the lock-up agreements. We will not provide such consent without the prior written consent of the representatives of the underwriters. The foregoing does not affect the right of ADS holders to cancel their ADSs and withdraw the underlying common shares. See “Underwriting” for more information.

 

Nasdaq Global Market symbol

Our ADSs have been approved for listing on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “YY.” Our ADSs and Class A common shares will not be listed on any other stock exchange or traded on any automated quotation system.

 

Payment and settlement

The underwriters expect to deliver the ADSs against payment therefor through the facilities of the Depository Trust Company on November 27, 2012.

 

Depositary

Deutsche Bank Trust Company Americas.

 

Directed share program

At our request, the underwriters have reserved for sale, at the initial public offering price, up to 390,000 ADSs offered by this prospectus to some of our directors, officers, employees, business associates and related persons.

 

Risk factors

See “Risk Factors” and other information included in this prospectus for a discussion of risks that you should carefully consider before investing in our ADSs.

 

 

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The number of common shares that will be outstanding immediately after this offering:

 

   

assumes re-designation or conversion of all outstanding common shares and series A, B, C-1 and C-2 preferred shares into 907,833,224 Class B common shares immediately upon the completion of this offering;

 

   

assumes no exercise of the underwriters’ over-allotment option;

 

   

excludes 92,601,778 Class A common shares issuable upon (i) the exercise of outstanding share options at a weighted average exercise price of US$0.0055 per Class A common share and (ii) the satisfaction of conditions and the removal of restrictions applicable to outstanding issuable restricted shares and restricted share units; and

 

   

excludes 63,497,168 Class A common shares available for future issuance upon the exercise of future option grants or the vesting of future restricted shares and restricted share units. The number of shares available for future issuance presented herein does not take into consideration the annual increase of up to 20,000,000 Class A common shares that our board of directors may add to the authorized pool of awards under our 2011 share incentive plan, or the 2011 Plan, beginning in 2013.

When calculating the shareholding percentage or voting power of existing and new shareholders after this offering, we do not take into account shares that any directors or officers may purchase through the directed share program in this offering.

 

 

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Our Summary Consolidated Financial Data

The following summary consolidated statements of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2009, 2010 and 2011 and the summary balance sheet data as of December 31, 2010 and 2011 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. Our consolidated financial statements are prepared and presented in accordance with the generally accepted accounting principles in the U.S., or U.S. GAAP. The summary consolidated statements of operations data for the nine months ended September 30, 2011 and 2012 and the summary consolidated balance sheet data as of September 30, 2012 have been derived from our unaudited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. The unaudited consolidated financial statements have been prepared on the same basis as our audited consolidated financial statements and include all adjustments, consisting only of normal and recurring adjustments, that we consider necessary for a fair presentation of our financial position and operating results for the periods presented. Our historical results for any period are not necessarily indicative of results to be expected for any future period. You should read the following summary financial information in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and related notes and the information under “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included elsewhere in this prospectus.

 

 

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    For the Year Ended December 31,     For the Nine Months Ended September 30,  
    2009     2010     2011     2011     2012  
    RMB     RMB     RMB     US$    

      RMB      

   

      RMB      

   

      US$      

 
                            (Unaudited)  
    (in thousands, except for share and per share data)  

Summary Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:

             

Internet value-added service

             

—Online game

    12,976        86,316        165,933        26,380        113,368        234,239        37,275   

—YY Music

    —          —          52,854        8,403        27,439        180,301        28,692   

—Others

    853        1,282        13,589        2,161        5,010        54,825        8,725   

Online advertising

    18,881        40,740        87,279        13,876        60,904        83,840        13,342   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total net revenues

    32,710        128,338        319,655        50,820        206,721        553,205        88,034   

Cost of revenues(1)

    (28,849     (110,062     (182,699     (29,046     (126,703     (277,194     (44,112
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Gross profit

    3,861        18,276        136,956        21,774        80,018        276,011        43,922   

Operating expenses(1):

             

Research and development expenses

    (12,597     (49,219     (106,804     (16,980     (74,109     (122,603     (19,510

Sales and marketing expenses

    (4,951     (12,363     (13,381     (2,127     (10,622     (10,993     (1,749

General and administrative expenses

    (32,878     (192,222     (118,241     (18,798     (88,775     (76,046     (12,102
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total operating expenses

    (50,426     (253,804     (238,426     (37,905     (173,506     (209,642     (33,361
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating (loss) income

    (46,565     (235,528     (99,488     (15,816     (93,488     67,673        10,769   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

(Loss) income before income tax expenses

    (46,534     (236,023     (80,455     (12,791     (80,639     75,862        12,072   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net (loss) income attributable to YY Inc.

    (47,116     (238,857     (83,156     (13,221     (87,181     55,950        8,904   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Amortization of beneficial conversion feature

    (237     —          —          —          —          —          —     

Accretion to convertible redeemable preferred shares redemption value

    (283,179     (1,808,853     (223,663     (35,559     (200,742     (115,013     (18,303

Deemed dividend to series A preferred shareholders

    (19     —          —          —          —          —          —     

Deemed dividend to series B preferred shareholders

    (176     —          —          —          —          —          —     
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net loss attributable to common shareholders

    (330,727     (2,047,710     (306,819     (48,780     (287,923     (59,063     (9,399
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Weighted average number of common shares used in calculating:

             

Basic

    407,613,328        406,304,672        485,883,845        485,883,845        477,970,805        542,521,102        542,521,102   

Diluted

    407,613,328        406,304,672        485,883,845        485,883,845        477,970,805        542,521,102        542,521,102   

Net loss per share:

             

Basic

    (0.81     (5.04     (0.63     (0.10     (0.60     (0.11     (0.02

Diluted

    (0.81     (5.04     (0.63     (0.10     (0.60     (0.11     (0.02

 

(1) Share-based compensation was allocated in cost of revenues and operating expenses as follows:

 

     For the Year Ended December 31,      For the Nine Months Ended
September 30,
 
     2009      2010      2011      2011      2012  
     RMB      RMB      RMB      US$     

RMB

    

RMB

    

US$

 
                                       

(Unaudited)

        
     (in thousands)  

Cost of revenues

     5,269         31,709         15,449         2,456         12,773         6,315         1,005   

Research and development expenses

     2,475         21,627         31,672         5,035         23,641         26,312         4,187   

Sales and marketing expenses

     194         1,499         1,336         212         1,024         668         106   

General and administrative expenses

     28,544         182,101         86,544         13,759         69,048         41,454         6,597   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

     36,482         236,936         135,001         21,462         106,486         74,749         11,895   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

 

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    As of December 31,     As of September 30,  
    2009     2010     2011     2012  
    RMB     RMB     RMB     US$     RMB     US$     RMB     US$     RMB     US$  
    Actual     Actual     Actual     Actual    

Actual

   

Actual

   

Pro forma(1)

(Unaudited)

   

Pro forma(1)

(Unaudited)

   

Pro forma as
adjusted(2)
(Unaudited)

   

Pro forma as
adjusted(2)
(Unaudited)

 
   

(in thousands)

 

Summary Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:

                   

Cash and cash equivalents

    106,427        83,683        128,891        20,491        317,997        50,604        317,997        50,604        767,096        122,071   

Total assets

    131,003        158,767        745,426        118,510        1,028,712        163,702        1,028,712        163,702        1,477,811        235,172   

Total current liabilities

    52,757        253,001        125,737        19,990        273,341        43,499        273,341        43,499        273,341        43,499   

Total mezzanine equity

    448,418        2,257,271        2,480,934        394,425        2,595,947        413,104        —          —          —          —     

Accumulated deficits

    (370,045     (2,350,448     (2,433,604     (386,900     (2,377,654     (378,366     (2,377,654     (378,366     (2,377,654     (378,366

Total shareholders’ (deficits) equity

    (370,172     (2,351,505     (1,861,693     (295,976     (1,842,837     (293,261     753,110        119,843        1,202,209        191,310   

 

  (1) The unaudited consolidated balance sheet data as of September 30, 2012 on a pro forma basis reflect the automatic conversion of all of our outstanding series A, B, C-1 and C-2 preferred shares into 359,424,310 Class B common shares immediately prior to the completion of this offering.
  (2) The unaudited consolidated balance sheet data as of September 30, 2012 on a pro forma as adjusted basis reflect (a) the automatic conversion of all of our outstanding series A, B, C-1 and C-2 preferred shares into 359,424,310 Class B common shares immediately prior to the completion of this offering; (b) the issuance of 5,068,000 common shares to certain executive officers upon vesting of their restricted shares in October 2012, which will be automatically converted into 5,068,000 Class B common shares upon the completion of this offering and (c) the sale of 156,000,000 Class A common shares in the form of ADSs by us in this offering at the initial public offering price of US$10.50 per ADS, after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

Non-GAAP Financial Measure

Adjusted Net Loss or Income

To provide investors with additional information about our financial results, we disclose within this prospectus adjusted net loss or income, a non-GAAP financial measure. We have provided below a reconciliation between adjusted net loss or income and net loss or income, the most directly comparable GAAP financial measure.

We have included adjusted net loss or income in this prospectus because it is a key measure we use to evaluate our operating performance, generate future operating plans and make strategic decisions for the allocation of capital. Accordingly, we believe that adjusted net loss or income provides useful information to investors and others in understanding and evaluating our operating results in the same manner as our management and board of directors. While we believe that this non-GAAP financial measure is useful in evaluating our business, this information should be considered as supplemental in nature and is not meant as a substitute for the related financial information prepared in accordance with GAAP.

 

 

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The following table presents a reconciliation between adjusted net loss or income and net loss or income, the most directly comparable GAAP financial measure.

 

     For the Year Ended December 31,     For the Nine Months Ended
September 30,
 
     2009     2010     2011     2011     2012  
     RMB     RMB     RMB     US$    

RMB

   

RMB

   

US$

 
                            

(Unaudited)

 
     (in thousands)  

Reconciliation of Net (Loss) Income to Adjusted Net (Loss) Income:

              

Net (loss) income

     (47,116     (238,857     (83,156     (13,221     (87,181     55,950        8,904   

Share-based compensation

     (36,482     (236,936     (135,001     (21,462     (106,486     (74,749     (11,895
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Adjusted net (loss) income

     (10,634     (1,921     51,845        8,241        19,305        130,699        20,799   

 

 

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RISK FACTORS

An investment in our ADSs involves significant risks. You should carefully consider all of the information in this prospectus, including the risks and uncertainties described below, before making an investment in our ADSs. Any of the following risks could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In any such case, the market price of our ADSs could decline, and you may lose all or part of your investment.

Risks Relating to Our Business

Our business is based on a relatively new business model that may not be successful.

Many of the elements of our business are unique, evolving and relatively unproven. The markets for our technology, especially our voice- and video-based technology, and products and services are relatively new and rapidly developing and are subject to significant challenges. Our business plan relies heavily upon increased revenues from IVAS and online advertising, and our ability to successfully monetize our user base and products and services, and we may not succeed in any of these respects.

Some of our current monetization methods are in a very preliminary stage; for example, we began selling virtual items on YY’s music channels in March 2011. If we fail to properly manage the supply and timing of our in-game virtual items and the appropriate price points for these products and services, our users may be less likely to purchase in-game virtual items from us. For non-game virtual items, we consider industry standards and expected user demand in determining how to most effectively optimize virtual item merchandizing. Furthermore, as the online music industry in China is relatively young and untested, there are few proven methods of projecting user demand or available industry standards on which we can rely. We cannot assure you that our attempts to monetize our user base and products and services will be successful, profitable or widely accepted and therefore the future revenue and income potential of our business are difficult to evaluate.

We may not be able to effectively manage our growth or implement our business strategies, in which case our business and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

We have experienced a period of significant rapid growth and expansion that has placed, and continues to place, significant strain on our management and resources. We cannot assure you that this level of significant growth will be sustainable or achieved at all in the future. We believe that our continued growth will depend on our ability to develop new sources of revenue, increase monetization, attract new users, retain and expand paying users, encourage additional purchases by our paying users, continue developing innovative technologies in response to user demand, increase brand awareness through marketing and promotional activities, react to changes in user access to and use of the internet, expand into new market segments, integrate new devices, platforms and operating systems, attract new advertisers and retain existing advertisers and take advantage of any growth in the relevant markets. We cannot assure you that we will achieve any of the above.

To manage our growth and attain and maintain profitability, we anticipate that we will need to implement a variety of new and upgraded operational and financial systems, procedures and controls, including the improvement of our accounting and other internal management systems. We will also need to further expand, train, manage and motivate our workforce and manage our relationships with users, third party game developers and advertisers. All of these endeavors involve risks and will require substantial management efforts and skills and significant additional expenditures. We cannot assure you that we will be able to effectively manage our growth or implement our future business strategies effectively, and failure to do so may materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.

 

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We have experienced net losses in the past, and you should consider our prospects in light of the risks and uncertainties which early-stage companies in evolving industries in China with limited operating histories may be exposed to or encounter, including possible volatility in the trading prices of our ADSs.

We had a net loss of RMB47.1 million, RMB238.9 million and RMB83.2 million (US$13.2 million) in 2009, 2010 and 2011, respectively, and a net income of RMB56.0 million (US$8.9 million) in the nine months ended September 30, 2012. Our net losses and income reflect the aggregate impact of non-cash items relating to share-based compensation, amortization of intangible assets and depreciation. In addition to the aggregate impact of these non-cash items, our results of operations for these periods were affected by costs and expenses required to build, operate and expand our platform, grow our user base, develop products and services, license third party products and services and make strategic investments. We expect that we will continue to incur costs and expenses such as research and development costs to launch new services and increasing bandwidth costs to support our video function, grow our user and advertiser base and generally expand our business operations. We have only recently become profitable, and may not generate sufficient revenues to offset such costs to achieve or sustain profitability in the future. In addition, we expect to invest heavily in our operations to support our anticipated future growth and to meet our expanded reporting and compliance obligations as a public company.

Our profitability is also affected by other factors beyond our control. For example, we cannot assure you that advertisers will increase or maintain their spending on game media websites or online social platforms, including our platform. The continued success of YY Client depends on our ability to identify which IVAS will appeal to our user base and to obtain them on commercially acceptable terms. Our ability to finance our planned expansion also depends in part on our ability to attract advertisers and successfully compete in a very competitive market.

We have a limited history operating our business. We introduced YY Client only in July 2008 and have experienced a high growth rate since then. As a result, our historical results of operations may not provide a meaningful basis for evaluating our business, financial performance and future prospects. We may not be able to achieve similar growth rates in future periods. Accordingly, you should not rely on our results of operations for any prior periods as an indication of our future performance. We may again incur net losses in the future and you should consider our prospects in light of the risks and uncertainties which early-stage companies in evolving industries in China with limited operating histories such as ours may be exposed to or encounter, including risks associated with being a public company with business operations located mainly in China. See “—Risks Relating to Our ADSs and This Offering—The trading prices of our ADSs are likely to be volatile, which could result in substantial losses to investors.”

We generate a significant portion of our revenues from a limited number of popular online games. If we cannot continue to offer these popular games for any reason, if we are unable to successfully source new online games, if the terms of the revenue-sharing arrangements become less favorable, or if the number of our paying users for online games declines or ceases to grow for any reason, our revenues from online games may decrease, and our financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

We generate a significant portion of our revenues from a limited number of popular online games on YY, all of which are web games, primarily through selling of game tokens to users for their purchase of in-game virtual items. For example, DDTank, one of our most popular online games, contributed 62.8%, 46.5% and 16.5% of our online game revenues, 62.0%, 33.3% and 8.2% of our total IVAS revenues as well as 42.3%, 24.2% and 7.0% of our total revenues in 2010, 2011 and the nine months ended September 30, 2012, respectively. A majority of our popular online web games are created by third party game developers under revenue-sharing arrangements that typically last one to two years, and which typically provide for automatic extension or renewal. If we fail to maintain or renew these contracts on acceptable terms or at all, we may be unable to continue offering these popular online games, and our operating results will be adversely affected. In addition, if our users decide to access these games through our competitors, or if they prefer other online games hosted by our competitors, our operating results could be materially and adversely affected.

 

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Our revenues from online games accounted for 39.7%, 67.3%, 51.9% and 42.3% of our total revenues in 2009, 2010, 2011 and the nine months ended September 30, 2012, respectively. We believe that most online games have a limited commercial lifespan. For instance, we believe that DDTank, launched in March 2009, is in a relatively mature stage of its commercial lifespan, and that the revenues we derive from it may decrease in the future. As a result, we must continually source new online games that appeal to our game players. We had previously developed some of our online games internally but source our new online games primarily through revenue-sharing arrangements with third party game developers. We must maintain good relationships with our third party game developers to have access to new popular games with reasonable revenue-sharing terms. Under our current revenue-sharing arrangements, we retain a majority of the gross revenues generated from each particular game. In the future, we may not be able to achieve similarly attractive revenue-sharing terms, which may adversely affect our net revenues. Additionally, we depend upon these third party game developers to provide the technical support necessary to operate their online games on our platform and to develop updates and expansion packs to sustain player interest in a game. Most of our third party game developers have limited operating histories and financial resources, and the contracts we enter into with them do not clearly provide for remedies to us in the event they fail to deliver the games as scheduled.

If we are not successful in sourcing and providing popular new online games, our revenues from online games under revenue-sharing arrangements and in-game virtual items may decrease. If this were to happen, our financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

In addition, the number of our paying users of online games may decline or cease to grow for various reasons. For example, the number of our paying users of online games decreased from 354,000 in the three months ended December 31, 2011 to 327,000 in the three months ended March 31, 2012 and further to 274,000 in the three months ended June 30, 2012. The second quarter of 2012 represented our lowest number of paying users of online games since the second quarter of 2011. The decrease in the number of paying users of online games in the first and second quarters of 2012 was primarily due to certain special operational measures that we took in those quarters. In the normal course of business, we sell bundled packages of virtual items at different face values. In the first and second quarters of 2012, to streamline administration of bundled packages, we suspended the sales of bundled packages below a certain face value. As a result, the users who only wanted to purchase bundled packages at lower face values ceased to purchase bundled packages during this period, which contributed to the reduction in the number of paying users in the first and second quarters of 2012. We resumed the normal practice of selling bundled packages at lower face value in August 2012. Seasonality, to a lesser extent, also contributed to the decrease in the number of paying users of online games in the first quarter of 2012. The number of paying users of online games tends to be lower during public holidays such as the Chinese New Year holidays, which in 2012 fell in late January. In the second quarter of 2012, we deactivated some paying user accounts suspected of being improper user accounts that were registered and used in violation of our policies. These deactivations also contributed to the decrease in the number of paying users of online games in the quarter. Although the number of paying users of online games has increased to 283,000 in the third quarter of 2012 from 274,000 in the second quarter of 2012, it has still decreased compared to its peak in the fourth quarter of 2011. We cannot assure you that the number of paying users of online games will continue to increase or that it will not decrease in the future, whether due to seasonality or other factors.

We rely on online advertising for a significant proportion of our revenues. If we fail to attract more advertisers to our platform or if advertisers are less willing to advertise with us, our revenues, profitability and prospects may be materially and adversely affected.

In 2009, 2010, 2011 and the nine months ended September 30, 2012, online advertising accounted for 57.7%, 31.7%, 27.3% and 15.2%, respectively, of our total revenues. Although we have become less dependent upon online advertising revenues due to a shift in the majority of our revenues from online advertising to IVAS, our profitability and prospects still partly depend on the continuous development of the online advertising industry in China and advertisers’ allocation of budgets to internet advertising. In addition, companies that decide

 

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to advertise online may utilize more established methods or channels for online advertising, such as more established Chinese internet portals or search engines, over advertising on our platform. If the online advertising market size does not increase from current levels, or if we are unable to capture and retain a sufficient share of that market, our ability to maintain or increase our current level of online advertising revenues and our profitability and prospects could be materially and adversely affected. These risks may increasingly affect our revenues because we intend to offer new and different forms of online advertising in addition to online game-related advertising on Duowan.com from which we have historically derived the majority of our revenues.

We offer advertising services substantially through contracts entered into with third party advertising agencies. We cannot assure you that we will be able to retain existing direct advertisers or advertising agencies or attract new direct advertisers and advertising agencies. In addition, if any direct advertisers or advertising agencies determine that their expenditures on YY do not generate expected returns, they may allocate a greater portion or all of their advertising budgets to others and reduce or discontinue business with us. Since our arrangements with third party advertising agencies typically involve one-year framework agreements, these advertising arrangements may be easily amended or terminated without incurring liabilities. Failure to retain existing advertisers and advertising agencies or attract new direct advertisers and direct advertising agencies may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We have and will become more dependent on revenues from IVAS. If our IVAS revenues decline in the future, our results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

As the majority of our revenues shift to IVAS from online advertising due to an increase in the number of web game virtual items a user may purchase, the launch and increasing popularity of YY Music and our membership subscription program, and an increase in average prices of in-channel virtual items, we have and will become more dependent on revenues from IVAS, so that any decline in IVAS revenues may materially and adversely affect our results of operations. See “—The revenue model we adopt for online games may not remain effective, causing us to lose game players, which may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations” and “—The revenue model for each of YY Music and our membership program is relatively new and may not remain effective, which may cause us to lose users and materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.”

We have granted employee stock options and other share-based awards in the past and will continue to do so in the future. We recognize share-based compensation expenses in our consolidated statements of operations in accordance with the relevant rules under U.S. GAAP, which have had and may continue to have a material and adverse effect on our results of operations.

We have granted share-based compensation awards, including share options, restricted shares and restricted share units, to various employees, key personnel and other non-employees to incentivize performance and align their interests with ours. Under our 2009 employee equity incentive scheme, or the 2009 Scheme, we are authorized to grant options or restricted shares to purchase a maximum of 118,166,946 common shares. Under the 2011 Plan, we are authorized to grant options, restricted shares or restricted share units to purchase a maximum of 43,000,000 common shares, plus an annual increase of 20,000,000 common shares on the first day of each fiscal year, beginning from 2013, or such smaller number of Class A common shares as determined by our board of directors. As of September 30, 2012, options to purchase 17,870,425 common shares, 53,000,732 restricted shares and 24,103,621 restricted share units were outstanding under the 2009 Scheme and the 2011 Plan. As of September 30, 2012, 14,839,241 restricted shares were granted to management and were outstanding outside of the 2009 Scheme and the 2011 Plan. As a result of these grants and potential future grants, we had incurred in the past and expect to continue to incur in future periods significant share-based compensation expenses. The amount of these expenses is based on the fair value of the share-based awards. We account for compensation costs for certain share-based compensation awards granted in the past using a graded-vesting method and recognize expenses in our consolidated statements of operations in accordance with the relevant

 

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rules under U.S. GAAP. The expenses associated with share-based compensation have materially increased our net losses and may reduce our net income in the future, and any additional securities issued under share-based compensation schemes will dilute the ownership interests of our shareholders, including holders of our ADSs. However, if we limit the scope of the share-based compensation schemes, we may not be able to attract or retain key personnel who expect to be compensated by options, restricted shares or restricted share units.

The rate at which we gain registered user accounts may decline, the number of active users we have may fluctuate and we may fail to attract more paying users, which may materially and adversely affect our revenues growth, results of operations and financial condition.

We had 36.5 million, 124.7 million and 266.2 million registered user accounts as of December 31, 2009, 2010 and 2011, respectively. The number of registered user accounts increased by 88.2 million, representing a 241.6% increase from December 31, 2009 to December 31, 2010 and further increased by 141.5 million, representing a 113.5% increase from December 31, 2010 to December 31, 2011. As of September 30, 2012, our registered user accounts reached 400.5 million, which increased by 168.7 million new registered user accounts or 72.8% from 231.8 million as of September 30, 2011. Although we experienced a larger increase of 168.7 million in registered user accounts for the 12 months ended September 30, 2012, as compared to the 141.5 million increase for the 12 months ended December 31, 2011 or to the 88.2 million increase for the 12 months ended December 31, 2010, the rate at which we gained registered user accounts declined from 241.6% for the 12 months ended December 31, 2010 to 113.5% for the 12 months ended December 31, 2011, and further decreased to 72.8% for the 12 months ended September 30, 2012. We believe that the growth rate declined as our total registered user account base continued to grow significantly.

The number of our monthly active users increased by 18.0 million from 35.4 million as of December 31, 2010 to 53.4 million as of December 31, 2011, representing a 50.8% growth. As of September 30, 2012, the number of our monthly active users increased to 66.1 million from 47.5 million as of September 30, 2011, representing a 39.2% growth. Although the growth rate declined from 50.8% for the year ended December 31, 2011 to 39.2% for the 12 months ended September 30, 2012, the increase in the absolute number of our monthly active users for the 12 months ended September 30, 2012 exceeded the increase for the year ended December 31, 2011. We believe that the growth rate declined due to the larger increase in the number of monthly active users, even though we continued to attract similar levels of new monthly active users during such periods.

However, we may fail to attract new registered user accounts at a similar rate in the future and the number of our monthly active users may substantially fluctuate from time to time. If we are unable to attract new registered users and retain them as active users and convert non-paying active users into paying users, our revenues may fail to grow and our results of operations and financial condition may suffer.

We may not be able to keep our users highly engaged, which may reduce our monetization opportunities and materially and adversely affect our revenues, profitability and prospects.

Our success depends on our ability to maintain and grow our user base and keep our users highly engaged. In order to attract and retain users and remain competitive, we must continue to innovate our products and services, implement new technologies and functionalities and improve the features of our platform in order to entice users to use our products and services more frequently and for longer durations.

The internet industry is characterized by constant changes, including rapid technological evolution, continual shifts in customer demands, frequent introductions of new products and services and constant emergence of new industry standards and practices. Thus our success will depend, in part, on our ability to respond to these changes on a cost-effective and timely basis; failure to do so may cause our user base to shrink and user engagement level to decline and our results of operations would be materially and adversely affected. For example, our plan to more fully extend online video-enabled services across our rich communication social platform and retain the ability to offer high quality delivery of voice and video data may cause us to incur significant additional costs and may not succeed.

 

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Because of the viral nature of online social interactions, users may leave us for competitors’ platforms more quickly than in other online sectors. A decrease in the number of active YY users may reduce the diversity and vibrancy of YY Client’s online social ecosystem and affect our user-generated channels, which may in turn reduce our monetization opportunities and have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We cannot assure you that our platform will continue to be sufficiently popular with our users to offset the costs incurred to operate and expand it. User satisfaction is particularly difficult to predict as internet users in China may not be familiar with the concept of a rich communication social platform such as ours which provides real-time voice, text and video online. We have historically relied on word of mouth referrals to increase user awareness of our products and services and to expand our user base. If we decide to engage in more conventional advertising or marketing campaigns, our sales and marketing expenses will increase, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations. Failure to maintain or grow our user base in a cost-effective manner, or at all, and keep our users highly engaged would materially and negatively affect our results of operations.

We face competition in several major aspects of our business. If we fail to compete effectively, we may lose users and advertisers which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We face competition in several major aspects of our business, particularly from companies that provide social networking, internet communication services and online games. Some of our competitors may have longer operating histories and significantly greater financial, technical and marketing resources than we do, and in turn may have an advantage in attracting and retaining users and advertisers. In addition, competitors in some areas of our business may have significantly larger user bases and more established brand names than we do and may be able to more effectively leverage their user bases and brand names to provide integrated social networking, internet communication, online games and other products and services, and thereby increase their respective market shares.

We may face potential competition from global online social networking service providers that seek to enter the China market, whether independently or through the formation of alliances with, or acquisition of, PRC domestic internet companies. In relation to voice-enabled technology, several internet voice communication service providers in China, including iSpeak, Tencent’s QQtalk and Dudu, and leading international internet voice communication service providers, such as Skype, are expanding in the China market, and some other leading Chinese internet companies have announced the launch of internet voice communication services. Competition in the online game media market in China and the overseas markets is also intense. Duowan.com’s primary competitor is 17173.com. Our competitors also include other major platforms that host online games, such as QQ, Renren and Qihoo 360. In addition, we compete with other internet companies that provide voice and video services to Chinese internet users.

If we are not able to effectively compete in any of our lines of business, our overall user base and level of user engagement may decrease, which could reduce our paying users or make us less attractive to advertisers. We may be required to spend additional resources to further increase our brand recognition and promote our products and services, and such additional spending could adversely affect our profitability. Furthermore, if we are involved in disputes with any of our competitors that result in negative publicity to us, such disputes, regardless of their veracity or outcome, may harm our reputation or brand image and in turn lead to reduced number of users and advertisers. Any legal proceedings or measures we take in response to such disputes may be expensive, time-consuming and disruptive to our operations and divert our management’s attention.

Our competitors may unilaterally decide to adopt a wide range of measures targeted at us, including possibly designing their products to negatively impact our operations, such as sending virus-like programs to attack elements of our platform. Some competitors may also make their applications incompatible with ours, effectively requiring users to either stop using our competitors’ products or uninstall our products, leading to a

 

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reduction in our number of users. For example, in a widely publicized dispute between two of the largest companies providing user-end software in China, one of the companies announced that it would disable its own software on computers that had installed its rival’s products. As a result, a significant number of users stopped using products from either or both of these companies. Due to the large number of internet users that were affected, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of China, or the MIIT, ordered the parties to ensure the compatibility of the relevant products. Similar events may occur in the future between our competitors and us, which may reduce our market share, negatively affect our brand and reputation, and materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Spammers and malicious applications may affect user experience, which could reduce our ability to attract users and advertisers and materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Spammers may use YY to send targeted and untargeted spam messages to users, which may affect user experience. As a result, our users may use our products and services less or stop using them altogether. In spamming activities, spammers typically create multiple user accounts for the purpose of sending spam messages. Although we attempt to identify and delete accounts created for spamming purposes, we may not be able to effectively eliminate all spam messages from our platform in a timely fashion. Any spamming activities could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The revenue model we adopt for online games may not remain effective, causing us to lose game players, which may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We currently operate substantially all of our online games on YY, all of which are web games, using the virtual items-based revenue model, whereby players can play games for free, but have the option of purchasing in-game virtual items, such as items that improve the strength of game characters, and in-game accessories. We have generated, and expect to continue to generate, a substantial majority of our online game revenues using this revenue model. However, we may not be able to continue successfully implementing the virtual items-based revenue model as we may not be able to develop or obtain the rights to host online games that attract game players or cause such game players to increase the amount of time spent playing and the amount of money spent on purchasing in-game virtual items. The sale of virtual items requires us to closely track game players’ tastes and preferences and in-game consumption patterns. If we fail to offer popular virtual items, we may not be able to effectively convert our game player base into paying users or encourage existing paying users to spend more on YY.

In addition, PRC regulators have been implementing regulations designed to reduce the amount of time that youths in China spend playing online games. See “PRC Regulation—Anti-fatigue Compliance System and Real-name Registration System.” A revenue model that does not charge for playing time may be viewed by the PRC regulators as inconsistent with this goal. If we were to start charging for playing time, we may lose game players who may choose to play online games from other providers and on other platforms or choose to engage in other alternative forms of entertainment, including traditional offline PC or video games.

We cannot assure you that the revenue model that we have adopted for any of our online games will continue to be suitable for that game, or that we will not in the future need to change our revenue model or introduce a new revenue model for that game. We may change the revenue model for some of our online games if we believe the existing models are not generating adequate revenues. A change in revenue model could result in various adverse consequences, including disruptions of our online games operations, criticism from game players who have invested time and money in a game, decrease in the number of our game players and decrease in the revenues we generate from our online games. Therefore, such a change in revenue model may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

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The revenue model for each of YY Music and our membership program is relatively new and may not remain effective, which may cause us to lose users and materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We operate YY Music using a virtual items-based revenue model whereby YY Music users can listen to music for free, but have the option of purchasing in-channel virtual items. We have generated, and expect to continue to generate, a substantial majority of our YY Music revenues using this revenue model. YY Music has begun to contribute an increasingly larger portion of our total revenues, reaching 32.6% of our total revenues in the nine months ended September 30, 2012.

However, we may not be able to continue successfully implementing the virtual items-based revenue model for YY Music, as popular performers may leave YY Music and we may be unable to attract new talents that bring in YY Music users or cause such users to increase the amount of time spent engaging in various activities on our music channels as well as the amount of money spent on purchasing in-channel virtual items.

Furthermore, under our current arrangements with certain popular performers and channel owners, we share with them a portion of the revenues we derive from the sales of in-channel virtual item on YY Music. In the future, the amount we pay to these music channel performers and channel owners may increase or we may fail to reach mutually acceptable terms with respect to these arrangements, which may adversely affect our revenues or cause them to leave our platform. In addition, we are currently a pioneer in offering YY Music performers and YY users an online concert platform. However, if our users decide to access online concert sources or channels offered by our current or future competitors, our operating results could be materially and adversely affected.

Since the launch of YY Music in March 2011, we have conducted marketing campaigns and promotional activities coinciding with popular western or Chinese festivals celebrated by young Chinese people, many of which are in the fourth quarter and ending with the Chinese New Year holidays which typically fall in the first half of the first quarter. These promotions encourage users to purchase virtual items and give them as gifts to performers on YY Music channels as a means of celebration, resulting in a higher number of paying users for YY Music for the fourth quarter. After the Chinese New Year holidays, we launched fewer special events since there are fewer festivals in the rest of the first quarter and the second quarter. As a result, the number of paying users of YY Music increased at a slower pace in the first and second quarters of 2012, from approximately 225,000 in the fourth quarter of 2011 to approximately 230,000 in the first quarter of 2012, 232,000 in the second quarter of 2012. Although the number of paying users of YY Music increased significantly to 355,000 in the third quarter of 2012, our revenues from YY Music may continue to be affected by seasonality.

In our membership program, users pay a flat monthly subscription fee in order to become members, and in exchange, we give them access to various privileges and enhanced features on our channels, including additional video usage, priority entrance to certain live performances, and exclusive rights to access VIP avatars, VIP ring-tones, VIP fonts and VIP emoticons. We generated membership subscription fees of RMB46.7 million (US$7.4 million) in the nine months ended September 30, 2012. However, we may not be able to further build or maintain our membership base in the future for various reasons; for example, if we fail to continue to provide innovative products and services that are attractive to members. Furthermore, the average revenue per paying user for our membership program is lower than that for our online games and YY Music. In the three months ended September 30, 2012, the average revenue per paying user for our membership program was RMB59, as compared to RMB296 for our online games and RMB247 for YY Music.

We use third party services and technologies in connection with our business, and any disruption to the provision of these services and technologies to us could result in adverse publicity and a slowdown in the growth of our users, which could materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.

Our business depends upon services provided by, and relationships with, third parties. Substantially all of our online advertising revenues are generated through agreements entered into with various third party advertising agencies that represent advertisers. We do not have long-term cooperation agreements or exclusive

 

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arrangements with these agencies and they may elect to direct business opportunities to other advertising service providers. If we fail to retain and enhance our business relationships with these third party advertising agencies, we may suffer from a loss of advertisers and our business and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

A significant portion of our IVAS revenues are generated from online games, all of which are web games, and increasingly, from YY Music. If we are unable to obtain or retain rights to host popular online games or popular in-game virtual items, or if we are required to share a bigger portion of our revenues with third party game developers, we could be required to devote greater resources and time to obtain hosting rights for new games and applications from other parties, and our results of operations may be impacted. Furthermore, if we are unable to attract popular talents such as performers, channel managers and hosts for YY Music channels or if these talents cannot draw large numbers of fans or participants, our results of operations may be adversely affected. Also, if channel owners are unable to reach or maintain mutually satisfactory cooperation arrangements with the performers on their channels, we may lose popular performers and our business and operations may be adversely affected. In addition, some third party software we use in our operations are currently publicly available without charge. If the owner of any such software decides to charge users or no longer makes the software publicly available, we may need to incur significant cost to license the software, find replacement software or develop it on our own. If we are unable to find or develop replacement software at a reasonable cost, or at all, our business and operations may be adversely affected.

Some of the games offered on our platform run on a complex network of servers located in and maintained by third party data centers throughout China and our overall network relies on broadband connections provided by third party operators. We expect this dependence on third parties to continue. The networks maintained and services provided by such third parties are vulnerable to damage or interruption, which could impact our results of operations. See “—System failure, interruptions and downtime can result in adverse publicity for our products and result in net revenue losses, a slowdown in the growth of our registered user accounts and a decrease in the number of our active users. If any of these system disruptions occurs, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.”

In addition, we sell a significant portion of our products and services through third party online payment systems. If any of these third party online payment systems suffer from security breaches, users may lose confidence in such payment systems and refrain from purchasing our virtual items online, in which case our results of operations would be negatively impacted. See “—The security of operations of, and fees charged by, third party online payment platforms may have material and adverse effects on our business.”

We exercise no control over the third parties with whom we have business arrangements. If such third parties increase their prices, fail to provide their services effectively, terminate their service or agreements or discontinue their relationships with us, we could suffer service interruptions, reduced revenues or increased costs, any of which may have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

System failure, interruptions and downtime can result in adverse publicity for our products and result in net revenue losses, a slowdown in the growth of our registered user accounts and a decrease in the number of our active users. If any of these system disruptions occurs, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

Although we seek to reduce the possibility of disruptions or other outages, our services may be disrupted by problems with our own technology and system, such as malfunctions in our software or other facilities and network overload. Our systems may be vulnerable to damage or interruption from telecommunication failures, power loss, computer attacks or viruses, earthquakes, floods, fires, terrorist attacks and similar events. We have experienced system failures, including a partial system outage in 2009 caused by hackers hired by a competing business intending to maliciously overwhelm and clog our servers and our routing system. Those responsible

 

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were subsequently found guilty and penalized by the PRC courts and we have subsequently updated our system to make it more difficult for similar attacks to succeed in the future, but we cannot assure you that there will be no similar failures in the future. Parts of our system are not fully redundant, and our disaster recovery planning is not sufficient for all eventualities. Despite any precaution we may take, the occurrence of a natural disaster or other unanticipated problems at our hosting facilities could result in lengthy interruptions in the availability of our products and services. Any interruption in the ability of our users to use our products and services could reduce our future revenues, harm our future profits, subject us to regulatory scrutiny and lead users to seek alternative forms of online social interactions.

Our servers that process user payments experience some downtime on a regular basis, which may negatively affect our brand and user perception of the reliability of our systems. Any scheduled or unscheduled interruption in the ability of users to use our payment systems could result in an immediate, and possibly substantial, loss of revenues.

Almost all internet access in China is maintained through state-owned telecommunication operators under the control and supervision of the MIIT, and we use a limited number of telecommunication service providers to provide us with data communications capacity through local telecommunications lines and internet data centers to host our servers. Internet data centers in China are generally owned by telecommunication service providers with their own broadband networks and are leased to various customers through third party agents. These third party agents negotiate the terms of the leases, enter into lease agreements with end customers, handle customer interactions and manage the data centers on behalf of the data center owners. In the past, we signed data center lease agreements with multiple third party agents. With the expansion of our business, we may be required to purchase more bandwidth and upgrade our technology and infrastructure to keep up with the increasing traffic on our websites and increasing user levels on our platform overall. We cannot assure you that the telecommunications providers whose networks we lease or the third party agents that operate our data centers would be able to accommodate all of our requests for more bandwidth or upgraded infrastructure or network, or that the internet infrastructure and the fixed telecommunications networks in China will be able to support the demands associated with the continued growth in our internet usage.

Our users may use our products or services for critical transactions and communications, especially business communications. As a result, any system failures could result in damage to such users’ businesses. These users could seek significant compensation from us for their losses. Even if unsuccessful, this type of claim likely would be time consuming and costly for us to address.

We have limited control over the prices of the services provided by telecommunication service providers and may have limited access to alternative networks or services. If the prices we pay for telecommunications and internet services rise significantly, our results of operations may be materially and adversely affected. Furthermore, if internet access fees or other charges to internet users increase, our user traffic may decline and our business may be harmed.

The respective number of our registered user accounts, active users, paying users and unique visitors may overstate the number of unique individuals who register to use our products and services, log on to YY Client, purchase virtual items or other products and services on our platform or access Duowan.com, respectively, and may therefore lead to an inaccurate interpretation of our average revenue per paying user metric and of our business operations by our management and by investors, and may affect advertisers’ decisions on the amount spent on advertising with us.

We do not operate our platform on a real-name basis and therefore we cannot and do not track the unique paying users. Instead, we track the number of registered user accounts, active users, paying users and unique visitors. We calculate certain operating metrics in the following ways: (a) the number of registered user accounts is the cumulative number of user accounts at the end of the relevant period that have logged onto YY Client at

 

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least once after registration, (b) the number of active users is the cumulative number of user accounts at the end of the relevant period that have signed onto YY Client at least once during the relevant period, (c) the number of paying users is the cumulative number of registered user accounts that have purchased virtual items or other products and services on our platform at least once during the relevant period, and (d) the number of unique visitors is the number of visits to Duowan.com from specific IP addresses for the relevant period, with each IP address counting as a separate unique visitor. The actual number of unique individual users, however, is likely to be lower than that of registered user accounts, active users, paying users and unique visitors, potentially significantly, for three primary reasons. First, each individual user may register more than once and therefore have more than one account, and sign onto each of these accounts during a given period. For example, a user may (a) create separate accounts for community and personal use and log onto each account at different times for different activities or (b) if he or she lost his or her original YY Client username or password, he or she can simply register again and create an additional account. Second, we experience irregular registration activities such as the creation of a significant number of improper user accounts by a limited number of individuals, which may be in violation of our policies, including for the purpose of clogging our network or posting spam to our channels. We believe that some of these accounts may also be created for specific purposes such as to increase the number of votes for certain performers in various contests, but the number of registered user accounts, paying users and active users do not exclude user accounts created for such purposes. We have limited ability to validate or confirm the accuracy of information provided during the user registration process to ascertain whether a new user account created was actually created by an existing user who is registering duplicative accounts. Third, each individual user may access Duowan.com from more than one IP address; although subsequent visits from the same IP address do not add to our total unique visitors count, each new IP address used by an individual would be counted as a different unique visitor to Duowan.com. For example, a user would be counted as a unique visitor three times if he or she accessed Duowan.com from the user’s home computer, office computer and mobile phone. Thus, the respective number of our registered user accounts, active users, paying users and unique visitors may overstate the number of unique individuals who register on our platform, sign onto YY Client, purchase virtual items or other products and services on our platform and access Duowan.com, respectively which may lead to an inaccurate interpretation of our average revenue per paying user metric.

In addition, we may be unable to track whether we are successfully converting registered users or active users into paying users since we do not track the number of unique individuals or operate our platform on a real-name basis. If the growth in the number of our registered user accounts, active users, paying users or unique visitors is lower than the actual growth in the number of unique individual registered, active or paying users or unique visitors, our user engagement level, sales of IVAS and our business may not grow as quickly as we expect, and advertisers may reduce the amount spent on advertising with us, which may harm our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, such overstatement may cause inaccurate evaluation of our business operations by our management and by investors, which may also materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.

If we are unable to successfully capture and retain the growing number of users that access internet services through mobile devices or successfully monetize Mobile YY, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

YY is now available to users from PCs, as well as mobile devices. An increasing number of users are accessing our platform through Mobile YY. For example, there were approximately 0.9 million and approximately 2.9 million activations of Mobile YY in January 2012 and September 2012, respectively. As Mobile YY does not require users to log in to their user accounts to use its general features of listening to different types of performances, we cannot and do not track how many Mobile YY users also access the YY platform from PCs. Mobile YY requires users to log in to their user accounts to access features that involve active user participation, including chatting and sending virtual flowers to performers free of charge. An important element of our strategy is to continue to further develop enhanced features for Mobile YY to capture a greater share of the growing number of users that access internet services such as ours through mobile devices.

 

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As new laptops, mobile devices and operating systems are continually being released, it is difficult to predict the problems we may encounter in developing versions of our products and services for use on these devices and operating systems, and we may need to devote significant resources to create, support and maintain these services. Devices providing access to our products and services are not manufactured and sold by us, and we cannot assure you that the companies manufacturing or selling these devices would always ensure that their devices perform reliably and are maximally compatible with our systems. Any faulty connection between these devices and our products and services may result in consumer dissatisfaction with us, which could damage our brand and have a material and adverse effect on our financial results. In addition, the lower resolution, functionality and memory associated with some mobile devices make the use of our products and services through such devices more difficult and the versions of our products and services we develop for these devices may fail to attract users. Manufacturers or distributors may establish unique technical standards for their devices and, as a result, Mobile YY may not work or be viewable on these devices. Furthermore, new social platforms or services may emerge which are specifically created to function on mobile operating systems, as compared to our platform that was originally designed to be accessed from PCs, and such new entrants may operate more effectively on mobile devices than Mobile YY does.

Although we currently do not monetize Mobile YY in any way, if we are unable to attract and retain the increasing number of Mobile YY users, or if we are slower than our competitors in developing attractive services adaptable for mobile devices, we may fail to capture a significant share of an increasingly important portion of the market or may lose existing users. In addition, even if we are able to retain the increasing number of Mobile YY users, we may not be able to successfully monetize them in the future. For example, because of the inherent limitations of mobile devices, such as a smaller display screen space as compared to PCs, we may not be able to provide as many kinds of virtual items on Mobile YY as we can on YY Client, which may limit the monetization potential of Mobile YY. In addition, for the benefit of user experience, we do not currently intend to monetize Mobile YY by placing advertisements on Mobile YY. We believe that advertising on Mobile YY may clutter the user interface and distract users from their in-channel activities. This restriction on advertisements may also limit Mobile YY’s ability to generate revenues. Any of the above may have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Growth in the use of Mobile YY, where our ability to monetize is unproven, as a substitute for the use of YY platform on PCs may negatively affect our revenues and financial results.

Although we believe users are unlikely to migrate to Mobile YY and cease to use YY through PCs, and that most of our Mobile YY users also access our YY platform through PCs, we cannot assure you that the increasing usage of Mobile YY will not cause Mobile YY users to cease accessing the YY platform from PCs. Although we do not currently monetize Mobile YY, we have plans to monetize it by selling virtual items on Mobile YY, but we cannot ensure that such plans will be commercially successful when we launch them in the future. If we are unable to successfully monetize Mobile YY, and if a significant number of users migrate to Mobile YY as a substitute for accessing the YY platform through PCs, our business, results of operations and financial condition would be negatively affected.

Concerns about collection and use of personal data could damage our reputation and deter current and potential users from using our products and services, which could lead to lower advertising revenues or lower IVAS revenues.

Concerns about our practices with regard to the collection, use or disclosure of personal information or other privacy-related matters, even if unfounded, could damage our reputation and operating results. YY Client, launched in July 2008, had attracted 400.5 million registered user accounts as of September 30, 2012 and had approximately 12.7 million channels as of September 30, 2012. We apply strict management and protection for any information provided by users and, under our privacy policy, without our users’ prior consent, we will not provide any of our users’ personal information to any unrelated third party. While we strive to comply with our privacy guidelines as well as all applicable data protection laws and regulations, any failure or perceived failure

 

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to comply may result in proceedings or actions against us by government entities or others, and could damage our reputation. User and regulatory attitudes towards privacy are evolving, and future regulatory or user concerns about the extent to which personal information is used or shared with advertisers or others may adversely affect our ability to share certain data with advertisers, which may limit certain methods of targeted advertising. Concerns about the security of personal data could also lead to a decline in general internet usage, which could lead to lower registered, active or paying user numbers on our platform. For example, if the PRC government authorities require real-name registration for YY Client users, the growth of our user numbers may slow and our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected. See “—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure and Our Industry—We may be adversely affected by the complexity, uncertainties and changes in PRC regulations of internet business and companies.” A significant reduction in registered, active or paying user numbers could lead to lower advertising revenues or lower IVAS revenues, which could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The security of operations of, and fees charged by, third party online payment platforms may have material and adverse effects on our business.

Currently, we sell all of our IVAS to our users through third party online payment systems. In the nine months ended September 30, 2012, 84.8% of our total net revenues were derived from IVAS. We expect that an increasing amount of our sales will be conducted over the internet as a result of the growing use of online payment systems. In all these online payment transactions, secured transmission of confidential information such as customers’ credit card numbers and personal information over public networks is essential to maintain consumer confidence.

We do not have control over the security measures of our third party online payment vendors, and security breaches of the online payment systems that we use could expose us to litigation and possible liability for failing to secure confidential customer information and could, among other things, damage our reputation and the perceived security of all of the online payment systems that we use. If a well-publicized internet or mobile network security breach were to occur, users concerned about the security of their online financial transactions may become reluctant to purchase our virtual items even if the publicized breach did not involve payment systems or methods used by us. In addition, there may be billing software errors that would damage customer confidence in these online payment systems. If any of the above were to occur and damage our reputation or the perceived security of the online payment systems we use, we may lose paying users and users may be discouraged from purchasing our IVAS, which may have an adverse effect on our business.

In addition, there are currently only a limited number of third party online payment systems in China, such as Alipay and Tenpay. If any of these major payment systems decides to significantly increase the percentage they charge us for using their payment systems for our virtual items and other services, our results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

Our core values of focusing on user experience and satisfaction first and acting for the long-term may conflict with the short-term operating results of our business, and also negatively impact our relationships with advertisers or other third parties.

One of our core values is to focus on user experience and satisfaction, which we believe is essential to our success and serves the best, long-term interests of our company and our shareholders. Therefore, we have made, and may make in the future, significant investments or changes in strategy that we think will benefit our users, even if our decision negatively impacts our operating results in the short-term. For example, in order to provide users of YY Client with uninterrupted entertainment options, we do not place significant advertising on YY Client. While this decision adversely affects our operating results in the short-term, we believe it enables us to provide higher quality user experience on YY Client, which will help us expand and maintain our current large user base and create better monetizing potential in the long-term. In addition, this philosophy of putting our users first may also negatively impact our relationships with advertisers or other third parties, and may not result in the

 

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long-term benefits that we expect, in which case the success of our business and operating results could be harmed.

Trademarks registered, internet search engine keywords purchased and domain names registered by third parties that are similar to our trademarks, brands or websites could cause confusion to our users, divert online customers away from our products and services or harm our reputation.

Competitors and other third parties may purchase (a) trademarks that are similar to our trademarks and (b) keywords that are confusingly similar to our brands or websites in internet search engine advertising programs and in the header and text of the resulting sponsored links or advertisements in order to divert potential customers from us to their websites. Preventing such unauthorized use is inherently difficult. If we are unable to prevent such unauthorized use, competitors and other third parties may continue to drive potential online customers away from our platform to competing, irrelevant or potentially offensive platforms, which could harm our reputation and cause us to lose revenue.

We may be held liable for information or content displayed on, retrieved from or linked to our platform, or distributed to our users, and PRC authorities may impose legal sanctions on us, including, in serious cases, suspending or revoking the licenses necessary to operate our platform.

Our rich communication social platform enables users to exchange information, generate content, advertise products and services, conduct business and engage in various other online activities. However, our platform does not require real-name registration by our users and because a majority of the communications on our platform is conducted in real time, we are unable to verify the sources of all information posted thereon or examine the content generated by users before they are posted. Therefore, it is possible that users may engage in illegal, obscene or incendiary conversations or activities, including the publishing of inappropriate or illegal content, that may be deemed unlawful under PRC laws and regulations on our platform. If any content on our platform is deemed illegal, obscene or incendiary, or if appropriate licenses and third party consents have not been obtained, claims may be brought against us for defamation, libel, negligence, copyright, patent or trademark infringement, other unlawful activities or other theories and claims based on the nature and content of the information delivered on or otherwise accessed through our platforms. For example, we have occasionally received fines for certain inappropriate materials placed by third parties on our platform, and may be subject to similar fines and penalties in the future. We also may face liability for copyright or trademark infringement, fraud, and other claims based on the nature and content of the materials that are delivered, shared or otherwise accessed through or published on our platform. Defending any such actions could be costly and involve significant time and attention of our management and other resources. In addition, if they find that we have not adequately managed the content on our platform, PRC authorities may impose legal sanctions on us, including, in serious cases, suspending or revoking the licenses necessary to operate our platform. See “PRC Regulation—Information Security and Censorship” and “PRC Regulation—Intellectual Property Rights.”

We may be subject to intellectual property infringement claims or other allegations, which could result in our payment of substantial damages, penalties and fines, removal of relevant content from our website or seeking license arrangements which may not be available on commercially reasonable terms.

Third party owners or right holders of technology patents, copyrights, trademarks, trade secrets and website content may assert intellectual property infringement or other claims against us. In addition, content generated through our platform, including real-time content, may also potentially cause disputes regarding content ownership or intellectual property. For example, we could face copyright infringement claims with respect to songs performed live, recorded or made accessible on YY Music or Mobile YY, which offers Sound Sharing, a function that allows users to record and share their own singing and evaluate other users’ performances. We could also face similar claims involving our recently launched mobile application, WeiChang, which provides background music and lyrics to various songs to enable users to sing online and also allows users to listen to copyrighted songs through their mobile devices. We generated approximately 16.5% and 32.6% of our net revenues in 2011 and the nine months ended September 30, 2012, respectively, from YY Music. We currently do not derive any revenues from WeiChang or Sound Sharing.

 

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The validity, enforceability and scope of protection of intellectual property rights in internet-related industries, particularly in China, are uncertain and still evolving. As we face increasing competition and as litigation becomes a more common way to resolve disputes in China, we face a higher risk of being the subject of intellectual property infringement claims. Under relevant PRC laws and regulations, online service providers which provide storage space for users to upload works or links to other services or content could be held liable for copyright infringement under various circumstances, including situations where an online service provider knows or should reasonably have known that the relevant content uploaded or linked to on its platform infringes the copyrights of others and the provider realizes economic benefits from such infringement activities. In particular, there have been cases in China in which the courts have found an online service provider to be liable for the copyrighted content posted by users which were accessible and stored on such provider’s servers, which is similar to the service we provide through the Sound Sharing function on Mobile YY. On the other hand, to our knowledge, there is currently no precedent or settled court practice which provides clear guidance as to whether a real-time online platform such as YY would be held liable for the unauthorized posting or live performances of copyrighted content by our users. See “PRC Regulation—Intellectual Property Rights.”

We are in the process of implementing procedures to reduce the likelihood that we may use, develop or make available any content or applications without the proper licenses or necessary third party consents; such procedures include requiring performers, channel owners and users to acknowledge and agree that they would not perform or upload copyrighted content without proper authorization and that they will indemnify us for any relevant copyright infringement claims. We currently have proper authorization for less than a majority of the copyrighted songs, and are in the process of obtaining licenses for an increasing number of copyrighted songs, on WeiChang. However, these procedures may not be effective in preventing unauthorized posting or use of copyrighted content on our platform or the infringement of other third party rights. Specifically, such acknowledgments and agreements by performers, channel owners and users are not enforceable against third parties who may nevertheless file claims of copyright infringement against us. Furthermore, individual performers or channel owners who generate content that may infringe on copyrights of third parties on our platform may not be easily traceable, if at all, by a plaintiff who may then choose to file a claim against us, and these individual performers and channel owners may not have resources to fully indemnify us, if at all, for any such claims. In addition, we have entered into revenue-sharing arrangements in the form of direct or indirect employment agreements with some of the popular singers, performers or channel owners on our platform, and we cannot assure you that PRC courts will not view these singers, performers or channel owners as our employees or agents, deem us to have control over their activities on our platform and the content they upload or otherwise make available on our platform, determine that we have knowingly uploaded such infringing content on our platform and hold us directly liable for their infringement activities on our platform. Separately, as our business expands, the cost of carrying out these procedures and obtaining authorization and licenses for the growing content on our platform may increase, which may potentially have material and adverse effects on our results of operations.

Although we have not been subject to claims or lawsuits outside China, we cannot assure you that we will not become subject to intellectual property laws in other jurisdictions, such as the United States, by virtue of our ADSs being listed on the Nasdaq Global Market, the ability of users to access our platform in the United States and other jurisdictions, the performance of songs and other content which are subject to copyright and other intellectual property laws of countries outside China, including the United States, the ownership of our ADSs by investors in the United States and other jurisdictions, or the extraterritorial application of foreign law by foreign courts or otherwise. In addition, as a publicly listed company, we may be exposed to increased risk of litigation.

If an infringement claim brought against us in China, the United States or any other jurisdiction is successful, we may be required to pay substantial statutory penalties or other damages and fines, remove relevant content from our platform or enter into license agreements which may not be available on commercially reasonable terms or at all. Litigation or other claims against us also subject us to adverse publicity which could harm our reputation and affect our ability to attract and retain users, including channel owners, singers and other performers, which could materially and adversely affect the popularity of our platform and therefore, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may be materially and adversely affected.

 

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We may not be able to successfully halt the operations of platforms that aggregate our data as well as data from other companies, including social networks, or “copycat” platforms that have misappropriated our data in the past or may misappropriate our data in the future. Those platforms may also lure away some of our users or advertisers or reduce our market share, causing material and adverse effects on our business operations.

From time to time, third parties have misappropriated our data through scraping our platform, robots or other means and aggregated this data on their platforms with data from other companies. In addition, “copycat” platforms or client applications have misappropriated data on our platform, implanted Trojan viruses in user PCs to steal user data from YY Client and attempted to imitate our brand or the functionality of our platform. When we became aware of such platforms, we employed technological and legal measures in an attempt to halt their operations. However, we may not be able to detect all such platforms in a timely manner and, even if we could, technological and legal measures may be insufficient to stop their operations. In those cases, our available remedies may not be adequate to protect us against such platforms. Regardless of whether we can successfully enforce our rights against these platforms, any measures that we may take could require significant financial or other resources from us. Those platforms may also lure away some of our users or advertisers or reduce our market share, causing material and adverse effects to our business operations.

We may not be able to prevent others from unauthorized use of our intellectual property, which could harm our business and competitive position.

We regard our trademarks, service marks, patents, domain names, trade secrets, proprietary technologies and similar intellectual property as critical to our success, and we rely on trademark and patent law, trade secret protection and confidentiality and license agreements with our employees and others to protect our proprietary rights. As of November 16, 2012, we had registered 32 domain names, including YY.com, Duowan.com and Chinaduo.com, 44 software copyrights, three patents and 73 trademarks and service marks in China. In addition, we have filed 22 patent applications covering certain of our proprietary technologies and 77 trademark applications in China.

It is often difficult to create and enforce intellectual property rights in China. Patents, trademarks and service marks may also be invalidated, circumvented, or challenged. Trade secrets are difficult to protect, and our trade secrets may be leaked or otherwise become known or be independently discovered by others. Confidentiality agreements may be breached, and we may not have adequate remedies for any breach. Even where adequate, relevant laws exist in China, it may not be possible to obtain swift and equitable enforcement of such laws, or to obtain enforcement of a court judgment or an arbitration award delivered in another jurisdiction, and accordingly, we may not be able to effectively protect our intellectual property rights or enforce agreements in China. Policing any unauthorized use of our intellectual property is difficult and costly and the steps we have taken may be inadequate to prevent the misappropriation of our technologies. Given the potential cost, effort, risks and downsides of obtaining patent protection, in some cases we have not and do not plan to apply for patents or other forms of formal intellectual property protection for certain key technologies. If some of these technologies are later proven to be important to our business and are used by third parties without our authorization, especially for commercial purposes, our business and competitive position may be harmed.

As our patents may expire and may not be extended, our patent applications may not be granted and our patent rights may be contested, circumvented, invalidated or limited in scope, our patent rights may not protect us effectively. In particular, we may not be able to prevent others from developing or exploiting competing technologies, which could have material and adverse effects on our business operations, financial condition and results of operations.

In China, the valid period of utility model patent right or design patent right is ten years and is not extendable. Currently, we have patent applications pending in China, but we cannot assure you that we will be granted patents pursuant to our pending applications. Even if our patent applications succeed and we are issued

 

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patents in accordance with them, it is still uncertain whether these patents will be contested, circumvented or invalidated in the future. The rights granted under any issued patents may not provide us with proprietary protection or competitive advantages. Further, the claims under any patents that issue from our patent applications may not be broad enough to prevent others from developing technologies that are similar or that achieve results similar to ours. It is also possible that the intellectual property rights of others will bar us from licensing and from exploiting any patents that issue from our pending applications. Numerous U.S. and foreign issued patents and pending patent applications owned by others exist in the fields in which we have developed and are developing our technology. These patents and patent applications might have priority over our patent applications and could subject our patent applications to invalidation. Finally, in addition to those who may claim priority, any of our existing or pending patents may also be challenged by others on the basis that they are otherwise invalid or unenforceable.

If we fail to maintain and enhance our brands, or if we incur excessive expenses in this effort, our business, results of operations and prospects may be materially and adversely affected.

We believe that maintaining and enhancing our brands is of significant importance to the success of our business. Well-recognized brands are important to increasing the number of users and the level of engagement of our users and enhancing our attractiveness to advertisers. Since we operate in a highly competitive market, brand maintenance and enhancement directly affect our ability to maintain our market position.

Although we have developed YY mostly through word of mouth referrals, as we expand, we may conduct various marketing and brand promotion activities using various methods to continue promoting our brands. We cannot assure you, however, that these activities will be successful or that we will be able to achieve the brand promotion effect we expect. In addition, any negative publicity in relation to our products or services, regardless of its veracity, could harm our brands and reputation.

We have sometimes received, and expect to continue to receive, complaints from users regarding the quality of the products and services we offer. For example, we have developed and made available on our platform, free of charge, certain feature-enhancing software that enhances users’ game playing experiences. In connection with the recent suspension of certain player accounts by the developer of a popular game, some players of this game claimed publicly that their accounts were suspended due to their use of our feature-enhancing software. We believe this claim is without merits and have been communicating with the third-party game developer and providing online updates to players. Nonetheless, negative publicity or public complaints by users of our software, albeit free of charge, may harm our reputation and affect our ability to attract new users and retain existing users. If our users’ complaints are not addressed to their satisfaction, our reputation and our market position could be significantly harmed, which may materially and adversely affect our business and prospects.

Our business depends substantially on the continuing efforts of our executive officers and key employees, and our business operations may be severely disrupted if we lose their services.

Our future success depends substantially on the continued efforts of our executive officers and key employees. If one or more of our executive officers or key employees were unable or unwilling to continue their services with us, we might not be able to replace them easily, in a timely manner, or at all. In addition, our executive officers and key employees hold the equity interests in Beijing Tuda and Guangzhou Huaduo, our PRC consolidated affiliated entities. In particular, Mr. David Xueling Li, our co-founder, chief executive officer and director, Mr. Tony Bin Zhao, our director and chief technology officer, and Mr. Jin Cao, the general manager of our website department, own 97.7%, 1.5% and 0.8% of Beijing Tuda’s equity interests, respectively. Messrs. Li, Zhao and Cao and Beijing Tuda also own approximately 1.7%, 0.1%, 0.1% and 96.6% of Guangzhou Huaduo’s equity interests, respectively, with the remaining 1.5% owned by Mr. Jun Lei, our co-founder and chairman. If any of these executive officers and key employees terminate their services with us, we have the contractual right to appoint designees to hold the PRC consolidated affiliated entities’ equity interests. However, our business may be severely disrupted, our financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected

 

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and we may incur additional expenses to recruit, train and retain personnel. If any of our executive officers or key employees joins a competitor or forms a competing company, we may lose customers, know-how and key professionals and staff members. Each of our executive officers and key employees has entered into an employment agreement and a non-compete agreement with us. However, as advised by our PRC counsel, Zhong Lun Law Firm, certain provisions under the non-compete agreement may not be deemed valid or enforceable under PRC laws, if any dispute arises between our executive officers and key employees and us, we cannot assure you that we would be able to enforce these non-compete agreements in China, where these executive officers reside, in light of uncertainties with China’s legal system. See “—Risks Relating to Doing Business in China—Uncertainties in the interpretation and enforcement of Chinese laws and regulations could limit the legal protections available to you and us.”

If we are unable to attract, train and retain qualified personnel, our business may be materially and adversely affected.

Our future success depends, to a significant extent, on our ability to attract, train and retain qualified personnel, particularly management, technical and marketing personnel with expertise in the internet industry; inability to do so may materially and adversely affect our business. Since the internet industry is characterized by high demand and intense competition for talent, we cannot assure you that we will be able to attract or retain qualified staff or other highly skilled employees. As our company is relatively young, our ability to train and integrate new employees into our operations may not meet the growing demands of our business which may materially and adversely affect our ability to grow our business and hence our results of operations.

Our results of operations are subject to substantial quarterly and annual fluctuations due to a number of factors that could adversely affect our business and the trading price of our ADSs.

We experience seasonality in our business, reflecting seasonal fluctuations in internet usage. As a result, comparing our operating results on a period-to-period basis may not be meaningful. For example, online user numbers tend to be lower during school holidays and certain parts of the school year, and advertising revenues tend to be lower during the Chinese New Year season, which negatively affects our cash flow for those periods. We may also experience a reduction in active users in the third quarter of each year because a significant portion of our users are students, and as the new school year begins, student access to computers and the internet are affected. Internet usage and the rate of internet growth may also be expected to decline during the summer school holidays as some students lose regular internet access. Furthermore, the number of paying users of YY Music correlates with the marketing campaigns and promotional activities we conduct which coincide with popular western or Chinese festivals celebrated by young Chinese people, many of which are in the fourth quarter and ending with the Chinese New Year holidays which typically fall in the first half of the first quarter.

Due to the foregoing factors, our operating results in one or more future quarters or years may fall below the expectations of securities analysts and investors. In such event, the trading price of our ADSs would likely be materially and adversely affected. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Seasonality” for additional details regarding the effects of seasonality on our cash flow, operating performance and financial results.

Our business, financial condition and results of operations, as well as our ability to obtain financing, may be adversely affected by the downturn in the global or Chinese economy.

The global financial markets have experienced significant disruptions since 2008 and the effect of such disruptions has persisted. China’s economy has also faced challenges. To the extent that there have been improvements in some areas, it is uncertain whether such recovery is sustainable. We derived approximately 97.4%, 99.0%, 79.2% and 57.5% of our net revenues in 2009, 2010, 2011 and the nine months ended September 30, 2012 from the online gaming and online advertising industries. In addition, we derived approximately 16.5% and 32.6% of our net revenues in 2011 and the nine months ended September 30, 2012

 

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from YY Music. The online gaming and online advertising industries, along with YY Music, may be affected by economic downturns. Thus, our business and prospects may be affected by the macroeconomic environment in China. A prolonged slowdown in the Chinese economy may lead to a reduced amount of online advertising, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, our products and services may be viewed as discretionary by our users, who may choose to discontinue or reduce spending on such products and services during an economic downturn. In such an event, our ability to retain existing users and increase new users will be adversely affected, which would in turn negatively impact our business and results of operations.

Moreover, a slowdown or disruption in the global or China’s economy may have a material and adverse impact on financings available to us. The weakness in the economy could erode investors’ confidence, which constitutes the basis of the credit market. The recent financial turmoil affecting the financial markets and banking system may significantly restrict our ability to obtain financing in the capital markets or from financial institutions on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. Although we are uncertain about the extent to which the recent global financial and economic crisis and slowdown of China’s economy may impact our business in the short-term and long-term, there is a risk that our business, results of operations and prospects would be materially and adversely affected by any global economic downturn or disruption or slowdown of China’s economy.

Future strategic alliances or acquisitions may have a material and adverse effect on our business, reputation and results of operations.

We may enter into strategic alliances, including joint ventures or minority equity investments, with various third parties to further our business purpose from time to time. These alliances could subject us to a number of risks, including risks associated with sharing proprietary information, non-performance by the third party and increased expenses in establishing new strategic alliances, any of which may materially and adversely affect our business. We may have limited ability to monitor or control the actions of these third parties and, to the extent any of these strategic third parties suffers negative publicity or harm to their reputation from events relating to their business, we may also suffer negative publicity or harm to our reputation by virtue of our association with any such third party.

In addition, although we have no current acquisition plans, if appropriate opportunities arise, we may acquire additional assets, products, technologies or businesses that are complementary to our existing business. Future acquisitions and the subsequent integration of new assets and businesses into our own would require significant attention from our management and could result in a diversion of resources from our existing business, which in turn could have an adverse effect on our business operations. Acquired assets or businesses may not generate the financial results we expect. Acquisitions could result in the use of substantial amounts of cash, potentially dilutive issuances of equity securities, the occurrence of significant goodwill impairment charges, amortization expenses for other intangible assets and exposure to potential unknown liabilities of the acquired business. Moreover, the costs of identifying and consummating acquisitions may be significant. In addition to possible shareholders’ approval, we may also have to obtain approvals and licenses from relevant government authorities for the acquisitions and to comply with any applicable PRC laws and regulations, which could result in increased delay and costs.

If we fail to implement and maintain an effective system of internal controls, we may be unable to accurately report our results of operations or prevent fraud or fail to meet our reporting obligations, and investor confidence and the market price of our ADSs may be materially and adversely affected.

Prior to this offering, we were a private company with limited accounting personnel and other resources with which to address our internal controls and procedures. Our independent registered public accounting firm has not conducted an audit of our internal control over financial reporting. However, in connection with the audit of our consolidated financial statements as of and for the three years ended December 31, 2011 and the review of our consolidated financial statements as of and for the three months ended March 31, 2012, we and our

 

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independent registered public accounting firm identified two material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, as defined in the standards established by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board of the United States. We have implemented and are continuing to implement a number of measures to address the material weaknesses identified. As a result of such efforts, subsequently, in connection with the review of our consolidated financial statements as of and for the nine months ended September 30, 2012, we and our independent registered public accounting firm identified only one significant deficiency. For details, see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Internal Control Over Financial Reporting.” However, although we have remediated one material weakness and reduced the other material weakness to a significant deficiency through our efforts, we cannot assure you that we will be able to continue implementing these measures in the future, or that we will not identify additional material weaknesses or significant deficiencies in the future.

Furthermore, it is possible that, had our independent registered public accounting firm conducted an audit of our internal control over financial reporting, such firm might have identified additional material weaknesses and deficiencies. Upon the completion of this offering, we will become a public company in the United States subject to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or Section 404, will require that we include a report of management on our internal control over financial reporting in our annual report on Form 20-F beginning with our annual report for the fiscal year ending December 31, 2013. In addition, once we cease to be an “emerging growth company” as such term is defined in the JOBS Act, our independent registered public accounting firm must attest to and report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. Our management may conclude that our internal control over financial reporting is not effective. Moreover, even if our management concludes that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, our independent registered public accounting firm, after conducting its own independent testing, may issue a report that is qualified if it is not satisfied with our internal controls or the level at which our controls are documented, designed, operated or reviewed, or if it interprets the relevant requirements differently from us. In addition, after we become a public company, our reporting obligations may place a significant strain on our management, operational and financial resources and systems for the foreseeable future. We may be unable to timely complete our evaluation testing and any required remediation.

During the course of documenting and testing our internal control procedures, in order to satisfy the requirements of Section 404, we may identify other weaknesses and deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting. In addition, if we fail to maintain the adequacy of our internal control over financial reporting, as these standards are modified, supplemented or amended from time to time, we may not be able to conclude on an ongoing basis that we have effective internal control over financial reporting in accordance with Section 404. If we fail to achieve and maintain an effective internal control environment, we could suffer material misstatements in our financial statements and fail to meet our reporting obligations, which would likely cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information. This could in turn limit our access to capital markets, harm our results of operations, and lead to a decline in the trading price of our ADSs. Additionally, ineffective internal control over financial reporting could expose us to increased risk of fraud or misuse of corporate assets and subject us to potential delisting from the stock exchange on which we list, regulatory investigations and civil or criminal sanctions. We may also be required to restate our financial statements from prior periods.

Some of our users may make sales or purchases through unauthorized third party platforms of virtual items we offer for free on our platform, which may affect our revenue-generating opportunities and exert downward pressure on the prices we charge for our virtual items.

We, from time to time, offer virtual items free of charge to attract users or encourage user participation in channels. Some of our users may sell or purchase such free virtual items through unauthorized third party sellers in exchange for real currency. For example, fans of a performer may pay other users to send flowers or gifts the latter have accumulated on YY Client to the performer, in order to show support and raise the popularity ranking of the performer of their choice. These unauthorized transactions are usually arranged on third party platforms

 

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which we do not and are unable to track or monitor. Accordingly, these unauthorized purchases and sales from third party sellers may affect our revenue-generating opportunities and may impede our revenue and profit growth by, among other things, reducing the revenues we could have generated and exerting downward pressure on the prices we charge for our virtual items.

We have limited business insurance coverage, so that any uninsured occurrence of business disruption may result in substantial costs to us and the diversion of our resources, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.

Insurance companies in China currently do not offer as extensive an array of insurance products as insurance companies do in more developed economies. We do not have any business liability or disruption insurance to cover our operations. We have determined that the costs of insuring for these risks and the difficulties associated with acquiring such insurance on commercially reasonable terms make it impractical for us to have such insurance. Any uninsured occurrence may disrupt our business operations, require us to incur substantial costs and divert our resources, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.

Risks Relating to Our Corporate Structure and Our Industry

If the PRC government finds that the structure we have adopted for our business operations does not comply with PRC laws and regulations, or if these laws or regulations or interpretations of existing laws or regulations change in the future, we could be subject to severe penalties, including the shutting down of our platform and our business operations.

Foreign ownership of internet-based businesses is subject to significant restrictions under current PRC laws and regulations. The PRC government regulates internet access, the distribution of online information and the conduct of online commerce through strict business licensing requirements and other government regulations. These laws and regulations also limit foreign ownership in PRC companies that provide internet information distribution services. Specifically, foreign ownership in an internet information provider or other value-added telecommunication service providers may not exceed 50%. In addition, according to the Several Opinions on the Introduction of Foreign Investment in the Cultural Industry promulgated by the Ministry of Culture, or the MOC, the State Administration of Radio, Film and Television, or the SARFT, the General Administration of Press and Publication, or the GAPP, the National Development and Reform Commission and the Ministry of Commerce, or the MOFCOM, in June 2005, foreign investors are prohibited from investing in or operating, among others, any internet cultural operating entities and from engaging in the business of transmitting audio-visual programs through information networks.

We are a Cayman Islands company and our PRC subsidiaries, Guangzhou Huanju Shidai Information Technology Company Limited, or Guangzhou Huanju Shidai, and Huanju Shidai Technology (Beijing) Co. Ltd., or Beijing Huanju Shidai, are each considered a wholly foreign owned enterprise. We conduct our operations in China primarily through a series of contractual arrangements entered into among our PRC subsidiary, Beijing Huanju Shidai, our PRC consolidated affiliated entities, Guangzhou Huaduo Network Technology Limited, or Guangzhou Huaduo, and Beijing Tuda Science and Technology Company Limited, or Beijing Tuda, and Guangzhou Huaduo and Beijing Tuda’s shareholders. As a result of these contractual arrangements, we exert control over our PRC consolidated affiliated entities and consolidate each of their operating results in our financial statements under U.S. GAAP. For a detailed description of these contractual arrangements, see “Corporate History and Structure.”

On September 28, 2009, the GAPP, the National Copyright Administration and the National Office of Combating Pornography and Illegal Publications, jointly issued a Notice on Further Strengthening the Administration of Pre-examination and Approval of Online Games and the Examination and Approval of Imported Online Games, or Circular 13. Circular 13 restates that foreign investors are not permitted to invest in

 

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online game-operating businesses in China via wholly owned, equity joint venture or cooperative joint venture investments and expressly prohibits foreign investors from gaining control over or participating in domestic online game operators through indirect ways such as establishing other joint venture companies or entering into contractual or technical arrangements such as the variable interest entity structural arrangements we adopted. We are not aware of any companies that have adopted a corporate structure that is the same as or similar to ours having been penalized or terminated under Circular 13 since the effective date of the circular. Furthermore, we are advised by our PRC counsel, Zhong Lun Law Firm, that the enforcement of Circular 13 is still subject to substantial uncertainty, including possible subsequent joint actions by relevant authorities in charge, such as the MOC. The Regulation on Three Provisions stipulates that the MOC is authorized to regulate the online game industry, while the GAPP is authorized to approve the publication of online games before their launch on the internet. The Interpretation on Three Provisions further provides that once an online game is launched on the internet, it will be completely under the regulation of the MOC, and that if an online game is launched on the internet without obtaining prior approval from the GAPP, the MOC, instead of the GAPP, is directly responsible for investigating the game. In the event that we, our PRC subsidiaries or PRC consolidated affiliated entities are found to be in violation of the prohibition under Circular 13, the GAPP, in conjunction with the relevant regulatory authorities in charge, may impose applicable penalties, which in the most serious cases may include suspension or revocation of relevant licenses and registrations. In addition, various media sources have recently reported that the CSRC prepared a report proposing pre-approval by a competent central government authority of offshore listings by China-based companies with variable interest entity structures, such as ours, that operate in industry sectors subject to foreign investment restrictions. However, it is unclear whether the CSRC officially issued or submitted such a report to a higher level government authority or what any such report provides, or whether any new PRC laws or regulations relating to variable interest entity structures will be adopted or what they would provide.

Based on understanding of current PRC laws, rules and regulations of our PRC legal counsel, Zhong Lun Law Firm, our current ownership structure for our business operations, the ownership structure of our PRC subsidiaries and our PRC consolidated affiliated entities, the contractual arrangements among our PRC subsidiaries, our PRC consolidated affiliated entities and their shareholders, as described in this prospectus, are in compliance with existing PRC laws, rules and regulations. However, we were further advised by Zhong Lun Law Firm that there is substantial uncertainty regarding the interpretation and application of current or future PRC laws and regulations and these laws or regulations or interpretations of these laws or regulations may change in the future. Furthermore, the relevant government authorities have broad discretion in interpreting these laws and regulations. Accordingly, we cannot assure you that PRC government authorities will not ultimately take a view contrary to the opinion of our PRC legal counsel.

If our ownership structure, contractual arrangements and businesses of our company, our PRC subsidiaries or our PRC consolidated affiliated entities are found to be in violation of any existing or future PRC laws or regulations, the relevant governmental authorities would have broad discretion in dealing with such violation, including levying fines, confiscating our income or the income of our PRC subsidiaries or PRC consolidated affiliated entities, revoking or suspending the business licenses or operating licenses of our PRC subsidiaries or PRC consolidated affiliated entities, shutting down our servers or blocking our platform, discontinuing or placing restrictions or onerous conditions on our operations, requiring us to discontinue our operations, requiring us to undergo a costly and disruptive restructuring, restricting or prohibiting our use of proceeds from this offering to finance our business and operations in China, and taking other regulatory or enforcement actions that could be harmful to our business. Any of these actions could cause significant disruption to our business operations and severely damage our reputation, which would in turn materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, if the imposition of any of these penalties causes us to lose the rights to direct the activities of our PRC consolidated affiliated entities or our right to receive their economic benefits, we would no longer be able to consolidate such entities. Our PRC consolidated affiliated entities contributed substantially all of our consolidated net revenues in the years ended December 31, 2009, 2010 and 2011 and the nine months ended September 30, 2012.

 

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We rely on contractual arrangements with our PRC consolidated affiliated entities and their shareholders for the operation of our business, which may not be as effective as direct ownership. If our PRC consolidated affiliated entities and their shareholders fail to perform their obligations under these contractual arrangements, we may have to resort to litigation to enforce our rights, which may be time-consuming, unpredictable, expensive and damaging to our operations and reputation.

Because of PRC restrictions on foreign ownership of internet-based businesses in China, we depend on contractual arrangements with our PRC consolidated affiliated entities in which we have no ownership interest to conduct our business. These contractual arrangements are intended to provide us with effective control over these entities and allow us to obtain economic benefits from them. Our PRC consolidated affiliated entities are owned directly by our directors, key executive officers and employees, namely Messrs. David Xueling Li, Jun Lei, Tony Bin Zhao and Jin Cao. For additional details on these ownership interests, see “—Risks Relating to Our Business—Our business depends substantially on the continuing efforts of our executive officers and key employees, and our business operations may be severely disrupted if we lose their services” and “Corporate History and Structure.” However, these contractual arrangements may not be as effective in providing control as direct ownership. For example, each of our PRC consolidated affiliated entities and their shareholders could breach their contractual arrangements with us by, among other things, failing to operate our business in an acceptable manner or taking other actions that are detrimental to our interests. If we were the controlling shareholder of these PRC consolidated affiliated entities with direct ownership, we would be able to exercise our rights as shareholders to effect changes to their board of directors, which in turn could implement changes at the management and operational level. However, under the current contractual arrangements, as a legal matter, if our PRC consolidated affiliated entities or their shareholders fail to perform their obligations under these contractual arrangements, we may have to incur substantial costs to enforce such arrangements, and rely on legal remedies under PRC law, including contract remedies, which may not be sufficient or effective. If we are unable to enforce these contractual arrangements, or if we suffer significant delay or other obstacles in the process of enforcing these contractual arrangements, our business and operations could be severely disrupted, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations and damage our reputation. See “—Risks Relating to Doing Business in China—Uncertainties in the interpretation and enforcement of Chinese laws and regulations could limit the legal protections available to you and us.”

Our existing shareholders have substantial influence over our company and their interests may not be aligned with the interests of our other shareholders, which may discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our company, which could deprive our shareholders of an opportunity to receive a premium for their securities.

Currently, our management group, including Mr. David Xueling Li, our co-founder, chief executive officer and director, Mr. Jun Lei, our co-founder and chairman, Mr. Tony Bin Zhao, our director and chief technology officer, and Mr. Jin Cao, the general manager of our website department and their respective affiliates, beneficially own an aggregate of 50.6% of our outstanding shares. Upon the completion of this offering, they will beneficially own an aggregate of 44.1% of our outstanding shares and 49.9% of the then total voting power, assuming the underwriters do not exercise their over-allotment option to purchase additional ADSs. Messrs. Li, Zhao and Cao together hold 100% of the equity interest in each of our PRC consolidated affiliated entities, Guangzhou Huaduo and Beijing Tuda. Our management group has substantial influence over our business, including decisions regarding mergers, consolidations and the sale of all or substantially all of our assets, election of directors and other significant corporate actions. This concentration of ownership may discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our company, which could deprive our shareholders of an opportunity to receive a premium for their shares as part of any contemplated sale of our company and may reduce the price of our ADSs. These risks could intensify if any members of our management group or their affiliates purchase ADSs in this offering. In addition, Messrs. Li, Zhao, Dong and Cao could violate the terms of their non-compete or employment agreements with us or their legal duties by diverting business opportunities from us, resulting in our loss of corporate opportunities. These actions may take place even if they are opposed by our other shareholders,

 

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including those who purchase ADSs in this offering. Additionally, Mr. Jun Lei, our co-founder, chairman and shareholder who will own 21.2% of our outstanding shares after the completion of this offering, is in the business of making investments in internet companies in China. Mr. Lei currently holds direct and indirect interests in our direct competitor, iSpeak, and other entities which may have businesses that compete with us. iSpeak is owned by Mr. Lei in part through Kingsoft Corporation Limited, or Kingsoft, which is engaged in the research, development operation and distribution of online games, mobile games, casual game services and internet software. He may, in the future, acquire additional interests in businesses that directly or indirectly compete with some of our lines of business or that are our suppliers or customers. Furthermore, Mr. Lei, whether through Kingsoft or otherwise, may pursue acquisitions or make further investments in our industries which may conflict with our interests. Although after the completion of this offering, we will adopt a code of business conduct and ethics to help restrict conflicts of interest involving directors and officers, any violation of this code by our existing officers or directors such as Mr. Lei may materially and adversely affect our business operations. For more information regarding the beneficial ownership of our company by our principal shareholders, see “Principal Shareholders.”

We may lose the ability to use and enjoy assets held by our PRC consolidated affiliated entities that are important to the operation of our business if such entities go bankrupt or become subject to a dissolution or liquidation proceeding.

As part of our contractual arrangements with our PRC consolidated affiliated entities, Guangzhou Huaduo and Beijing Tuda, such entities hold certain assets, such as patents for the proprietary technology that are essential to the operations of our platform and important to the operation of our business. If either Guangzhou Huaduo or Beijing Tuda goes bankrupt and all or part of its assets become subject to liens or rights of third party creditors, we may be unable to continue some or all of our business activities, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. If Guangzhou Huaduo or Beijing Tuda undergoes a voluntary or involuntary liquidation proceeding, the unrelated third party creditors may claim rights to some or all of these assets, thereby hindering our ability to operate our business, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our contractual arrangements with our PRC consolidated affiliated entities may result in adverse tax consequences to us.

As a result of our corporate structure and the contractual arrangements among our PRC subsidiaries, our PRC consolidated affiliated entities and their shareholders, we are effectively subject to the 5% PRC business tax and related surcharges on revenues generated by our subsidiaries from our contractual arrangements with our PRC consolidated affiliated entities. The PRC enterprise income tax law requires every enterprise in China to submit its annual enterprise income tax return together with a report on transactions with its affiliates or related parties to the relevant tax authorities. These transactions may be subject to audit or challenge by the PRC tax authorities within ten years after the taxable year during which the transactions are conducted. We may be subject to adverse tax consequences if the PRC tax authorities were to determine that the contracts between us and our PRC consolidated affiliated entities were not on an arm’s length basis and therefore constitute a favorable transfer pricing arrangements. If this occurs, the PRC tax authorities could request that either of our PRC consolidated affiliated entities adjust its taxable income upward for PRC tax purposes. Such a pricing adjustment could adversely affect us by reducing expense deductions recorded by either PRC consolidated affiliated entities and thereby increasing these entities’ tax liabilities, which could subject these entities to late payment fees and other penalties for the underpayment of taxes. Our consolidated net income may be materially and adversely affected if our PRC consolidated affiliated entities’ tax liabilities increase or if it becomes subject to late payment fees or other penalties.

 

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If our PRC consolidated affiliated entities fail to obtain and maintain the requisite licenses and approvals required under the complex regulatory environment for internet-based businesses in China, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

The internet industry in China is highly regulated. See “PRC Regulation.” Guangzhou Huaduo, as our PRC consolidated affiliated entity, is required to obtain and maintain applicable licenses or approvals from different regulatory authorities in order to provide its current services. For example, an internet information service provider shall obtain an operating license, or the ICP License, from MIIT or its local counterparts before engaging in any commercial internet information services. An online game operator must also obtain an Internet Culture Operation License from the MOC and an Internet Publishing License from the GAPP to distribute online games, in addition to filing its online games with the GAPP and the MOC. Prior to July 2010, specific approvals on online bulletin board services were also required for the provision of BBS services. Guangzhou Huaduo has obtained a valid ICP License for provision of internet and mobile network information services, an Internet Culture Operation License for online games and music products, and an Internet Publishing License for publication of online games and mobile phone games. In addition, Guangzhou Huaduo holds a valid License for Online Transmission of Audio-Visual Programs under the business classification of converging and play-on-demand service for certain kinds of internet audio-visual programs—literary, artistic and entertaining—as prescribed in the newly issued provisional categories. On October 8, 2011, Guangzhou Huaduo was granted a License for Production and Operation of Radio and TV Programs, covering the production, reproduction and publication of broadcasting plays, TV dramas, cartoons (excluding production), special subjects, special columns (excluding current political news category) and entertainment programs. These licenses are essential to the operation of our business and are generally subject to annual government review. However, we cannot assure you that we can successfully renew these licenses annually or that these licenses are sufficient to conduct all of our present or future business. For example, Guangzhou Huaduo’s Internet Culture Operation License does not include license to conduct comic-related business; as a result, we were fined approximately RMB30,000 when comics were posted onto and accessible through our platform.

As we further develop and expand our video capabilities and functions, we will need to obtain additional qualifications, permits, approvals or licenses. In addition, with respect to specific services offered online, we or the service or content providers may be subject to additional separate qualifications, permits, approvals or licenses. For example, while launching a variety of online education services on our platform, we are working closely with relevant local authorities in charge, for completion of statutorily required procedures such as approvals, if any. For financial-related content offered on our channels, we are tightening our internal review of the relevant qualifications of the content providers as instructed by the competent authorities, while complying with other statutory requirements. We cannot assure you that we or the service or content providers will be granted such qualifications, permits, approvals or licenses in a timely manner or at all. Prior to the receipt of such qualifications, permits, approvals or licenses, we may be deemed as being in violation of relevant laws or regulations and be subject to penalties.

As the internet industry in China is still at an early stage of development, new laws and regulations may be adopted from time to time to address new issues that come to the authorities’ attention. In the interpretation and implementation of existing and future laws and regulations governing our business activities, considerable uncertainties still exist. We cannot assure you that we will not be found in violation of any future laws and regulations or any of the laws and regulations currently in effect due to changes in the relevant authorities’ interpretation of these laws and regulations. In addition, we may be required to obtain additional license or approvals, and we cannot assure you that we will be able to timely obtain or maintain all the required licenses or approvals or make all the necessary filings in the future. If we fail to obtain or maintain any of the required licenses or approvals or make the necessary filings, we may be subject to various penalties, such as confiscation of the net revenues that were generated through the unlicensed internet activities, the imposition of fines and the discontinuation or restriction of our operations. Any such penalties may disrupt our business operations and materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

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Implementation of the new labor laws and regulations in China may adversely affect our business and results of operations.

Pursuant to a new labor contract law that became effective in January 2008 and its implementation rules that became effective in September 2008, employers are subject to stricter requirements in terms of signing labor contracts, minimum wages, paying remuneration, determining the term of employees’ probation and unilaterally terminating labor contracts. Due to the limited period since its effectiveness, and lack of detailed interpretation rules and uniform implementation practice and possible penalties, it is uncertain as to how they it would affect our current employment policies and practices. Our employment policies and practices may violate the labor contract law or its implementation rules, and we may thus be subject to related penalties, fines or legal fees. Compliance with the labor contract law and its implementation rules may increase our operating expenses, in particular our personnel expenses. In the event that we decide to terminate some of our employees or otherwise change our employment or labor practices, the labor contract law and its implementation rules may also limit our ability to effect those changes in a desirable or cost-effective manner, which could adversely affect our business and results of operations. On October 28, 2010, the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress promulgated the PRC Social Insurance Law, or the Social Insurance Law, which became effective on July 1, 2011. According to the Social Insurance Law, employees must participate in pension insurance, work-related injury insurance, medical insurance, unemployment insurance and maternity insurance and the employers must, together with their employees or separately, pay the social insurance premiums for such employees.

We expect our labor costs to increase due to the implementation of these new laws and regulations. As the interpretation and implementation of these new laws and regulations are still evolving, we cannot assure you that our employment practice will at all times be deemed in full compliance with labor-related laws and regulations in China, which may subject us to labor disputes or government investigations. If we are deemed to have violated relevant labor laws and regulations, we could be required to provide additional compensation to our employees and our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

Further, labor disputes, work stoppages or slowdowns at our laboratories, patient service centers or any of our clients or suppliers could significantly disrupt our daily operation or our expansion plans and have material adverse effects on our business.

Currently there is no law or regulation specifically governing virtual asset property rights and therefore it is not clear what liabilities, if any, online game operators may have for virtual assets.

While playing online games or participating on YY Client activities, players acquire and accumulate some virtual assets, such as special equipment and other accessories. Such virtual assets can be important to online game players and have monetary value and, in some cases, are sold for actual money. In practice, virtual assets can be lost for various reasons, often through unauthorized use of the game account of one user by other users and occasionally through data loss caused by a delay of network service, a network crash or hacking activities. Currently, there is no PRC law or regulation specifically governing virtual asset property rights. As a result, there is uncertainty as to who the legal owner of virtual assets is, whether and how the ownership of virtual assets is protected by law, and whether an operator of online games such as us would have any liability to game players or other interested parties (whether in contract, tort or otherwise) for loss of such virtual assets. Based on recent PRC court judgments, the courts have typically held online game operators liable for losses of virtual assets by game players, and ordered online game operators to return the lost virtual items to game players or pay damages and losses. In case of a loss of virtual assets, we may be sued by our game players or users and held liable for damages, which may negatively affect our reputation and business, financial condition and results of operations.

Compliance with the laws or regulations governing virtual currency may result in us having to obtain additional approvals or licenses or change our current business model.

The issuance and use of “virtual currency” in the PRC has been regulated since 2007 in response to the growth of the online games industry in China. In January 2007, the Ministry of Public Security, the MOC, the

 

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MIIT and the GAPP jointly issued a circular regarding online gambling which has implications for the use of virtual currency. To curtail online games that involve online gambling, as well as address concerns that virtual currency could be used for money laundering or illicit trade, the circular (a) prohibits online game operators from charging commissions in the form of virtual currency in relation to winning or losing of games; (b) requires online game operators to impose limits on use of virtual currency in guessing and betting games; (c) bans the conversion of virtual currency into real currency or property; and (d) prohibits services that enable game players to transfer virtual currency to other players. On June 4, 2009, the MOC and the MOFCOM jointly issued a notice regarding strengthening the administration of online game virtual currency, or the Virtual Currency Notice. The MOC issued the Provisional Administrative Measures of Online Games, or the Online Game Measures, in June 2010, which provides, among other things, that virtual currency issued by online game operators may be only used to exchange its own online game products and services and may not be used to pay for the products and services of other entities.

We issue virtual currency and prepaid game tokens to game players on YY Client for them to purchase various items to be used in online games and channels, including music channels. We are in the process of adjusting the content of our platform but we cannot assure you that our adjustments will be sufficient to comply with the Virtual Currency Notice. Moreover, although we believe we do not offer online game virtual currency transaction services, we cannot assure you that the PRC regulatory authorities will not take a view contrary to ours. For example, certain virtual items we issue to users based on in-game milestones they achieve or time spent playing games are transferable and exchangeable for our virtual currency or the other virtual items we issue to users. If the PRC regulatory authorities deem such transfer or exchange to be a virtual currency transaction, then in addition to being deemed to be engaging in the issuance of virtual currency, we may also be deemed to be providing transaction platform services that enable the trading of such virtual currency. Simultaneously engaging in both of these activities is prohibited under the Virtual Currency Notice. In that event, we may be required to cease either our virtual currency issuance activities or such deemed “transaction service” activities and may be subject to certain penalties, including mandatory corrective measures and fines. The occurrence of any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

In addition, the Virtual Currency Notice prohibits online game operators from setting game features that involve the direct payment of cash or virtual currency by players for the chance to win virtual items or virtual currency based on random selection through a lucky draw, wager or lottery. The notice also prohibits game operators from issuing currency to game players through means other than purchases with legal currency. It is unclear whether these restrictions would apply to certain aspects of our online games. Although we believe that we have rectified and ceased such prohibited activities and have taken adequate measures to prevent any of the above-mentioned prohibited activities, we cannot assure you that the PRC regulatory authorities will not take a view contrary to ours and deem such feature as prohibited by the Virtual Currency Notice, thereby subjecting us to penalties, including mandatory corrective measures and fines. For example, we were previously fined approximately RMB20,000 when a local authority in Guangzhou found that one of our games contained a lucky draw. The occurrence of any of the foregoing could materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.

Non-compliance on the part of third parties with which we conduct business could restrict our ability to maintain or increase our number of users or the level of traffic to our YY platform.

Our third party game developers or other business partners may be subject to regulatory penalties or punishments because of their regulatory compliance failures, which may disrupt our business. Although we conduct a rigid review of legal formalities and certifications before entering into contractual relationship with other businesses such as third party game developers and landlords, we cannot be certain whether such third party has or will infringe any third parties’ legal rights or violate any regulatory requirements. We regularly identify irregularities or noncompliance in the business practices of any parties with whom we pursue existing or future cooperation and we cannot assure you that any of these irregularities will be corrected in a prompt and proper manner. The legal liabilities and regulatory actions on our commercial partners may affect our business

 

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activities and reputation and in turn, our results of operations. For example, according to PRC regulations, all lease agreements are required to be registered with the local housing authorities. We presently lease properties at 10 different locations in China, and the landlords of some of these properties are still completing the registration of their ownership rights or the registration of our leases with the relevant authorities. Failure to complete these required registrations may expose our landlords, lessors and us to potential monetary fines. Some of our lessors have not provided us with appropriate title certificates, which may adversely affect the validity of the leases if the lessors do not have proper title. We cannot assure you that such certificates or registration will be obtained in a timely manner or at all, and in case of failures, we may be subject to monetary fines, have to relocate our offices and suffer economic losses.

We are now allowing providers of some online services such as online education and financial services, to establish channels on YY Client. We plan to encourage more service providers, such as recruiting agents, to establish YY channels in the future. In addition, we plan to establish a search, classification and ranking system and post advertisements relating to such service providers in the near future and derive related revenues under the relevant arrangements. These areas are all highly regulated, and the online service providers and the producers of content on YY Client are required to meet specific qualifying standards, evidenced by approvals, permits or certificates, and to comply with various requirements when conducting business. For example, financial service providers must be securities consulting institutions approved by the China Securities Regulatory Commission, or CSRC. We cannot predict if any noncompliance on the part of such commercial partners may cause potential liabilities to us and in turn disrupt our operations.

Intensified government regulation of the internet industry in China could restrict our ability to maintain or increase our user level or the level of user traffic to our YY platform.

The PRC government has, in recent years, intensified regulation on various aspects of the internet industry in China. For example, the PRC government recently adopted more stringent policies to monitor the online games industry due to adverse public reaction to perceived addiction to online games, particularly in children and minors. On April 15, 2007, eight PRC government authorities, including the GAPP, the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Public Security and the MIIT issued a notice requiring all Chinese online game operators to adopt an “anti-fatigue system” in an effort to curb addiction to online games by minors. To help game operators identify which game players are minors, online game players in China are now required to register their names and identity card numbers before playing an online game, which information was to be submitted to and verified by the National Citizen Identity Information Center, a subordinate public institution of the Ministry of Public Security, as of October 1, 2011. These restrictions could limit our ability to increase our online game business among minors. See “PRC Regulation—Anti-fatigue Compliance System and Real-name Registration System.” In order to comply with these anti-fatigue rules, we set up our system so that after three hours of playing our online games, minors only receive half of the virtual items or other in-game benefits they would otherwise earn, and after playing for more than five hours, receive no in-game benefits. Failure to implement these restrictions, if detected by the relevant government agencies, may result in fines and other penalties for us, including the shutting down of our online games operations and license revocation. Furthermore, if these restrictions were expanded to apply to adult game players in the future, our online games business could be materially and adversely affected.

In addition, in February 2007, 14 PRC regulatory authorities jointly promulgated a circular to further strengthen the oversight of internet cafes, one of the primary venues from which our platform is accessed. In recent years, a large number of unlicensed internet cafes have been closed, and the PRC government has imposed higher capital and facility requirements for the establishment of internet cafes. Governmental authorities may from time to time impose stricter requirements on internet cafes, such as customer age limits and regulated hours of operation. Since a substantial portion of our users access our platform from internet cafes, any reduction in the number, or slowdown in the growth, of internet cafes in China, or any new regulatory restrictions on their operations, could limit our ability to maintain or increase our revenues.

 

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More stringent governmental regulations such as the ones outlined above may discourage game players from playing our games and have a material effect on our business operations.

Risks Relating to Doing Business in China

Uncertainties in the interpretation and enforcement of Chinese laws and regulations could limit the legal protections available to you and us.

The PRC legal system is based on written statutes and prior court decisions have limited value as precedents. Each of our PRC subsidiaries, Beijing Huanju Shidai and Guangzhou Huanju Shidai, is a foreign-invested enterprise and is subject to laws and regulations applicable to foreign-invested enterprises as well as various Chinese laws and regulations generally applicable to companies incorporated in China. However, since these laws and regulations are relatively new and the PRC legal system continues to rapidly evolve, the interpretations of many laws, regulations and rules are not always uniform and enforcement of these laws, regulations and rules involves uncertainties.

From time to time, we may have to resort to administrative and court proceedings to enforce our legal rights. However, since PRC administrative and court authorities have significant discretion in interpreting and implementing statutory and contractual terms, it may be more difficult to evaluate the outcome of administrative and court proceedings and the level of legal protection we enjoy than in more developed legal systems. Furthermore, the PRC legal system is based in part on government policies and internal rules (some of which are not published in a timely manner or at all) that may have retroactive effect. As a result, we may not be aware of our violation of these policies and rules until some time after the violation. Such uncertainties, including uncertainty over the scope and effect of our contractual, property (including intellectual property) and procedural rights, could materially and adversely affect our business and impede our ability to continue our operations.

Changes in China’s economic, political or social conditions or government policies could have a material adverse effect on our business and operations.

Substantially all of our assets and almost all of our customers are located in China. Accordingly, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may be influenced to a significant degree by political, economic and social conditions in China generally and by continued economic growth in China as a whole.

The Chinese economy differs from the economies of most developed countries in many respects, including the level of government involvement, level of development, growth rate, control of foreign exchange and allocation of resources. Although the Chinese government has implemented measures emphasizing the utilization of market forces for economic reform, the reduction of state ownership of productive assets, and the establishment of improved corporate governance in business enterprises, a substantial portion of productive assets in China is still owned by the Chinese government. In addition, the Chinese government continues to play a significant role in regulating industry development by imposing industrial policies. The Chinese government also exercises significant control over the Chinese economic growth through allocating resources, controlling payment of foreign currency-denominated obligations, setting monetary policy, and providing preferential treatment to particular industries or companies.

While the Chinese economy has experienced significant growth over the past decades, growth has been uneven, both geographically and among various sectors of the economy. The Chinese government has implemented various measures to encourage economic growth and guide the allocation of resources. Some of these measures benefit the overall Chinese economy, but may also have a negative effect on us. The Chinese government has implemented certain measures, including interest rate increases, to control the pace of economic growth. These measures may cause decreased economic activity in China, which could in turn reduce the demand for our products and services and adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

 

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We may be adversely affected by the complexity, uncertainties and changes in PRC regulation of internet business and companies.

The PRC government extensively regulates the internet industry, including foreign ownership of, and the licensing and permit requirements pertaining to, companies in the internet industry. These internet-related laws and regulations are relatively new and evolving, and their interpretation and enforcement involve significant uncertainty. As a result, in certain circumstances it may be difficult to determine what actions or omissions may be deemed to be in violations of applicable laws and regulations. Issues, risks and uncertainties relating to PRC regulation of the internet business include, but are not limited to, the following:

 

   

We only have contractual control over our platform. Guangzhou Huaduo, our PRC consolidated affiliated entity, owns our platform due to the restriction of foreign investment in businesses providing value-added telecommunication services in China, including internet content provision services. If Guangzhou Huaduo breaches its contractual arrangements with us and no longer remains under our control, this may significantly disrupt our business, subject us to sanctions, compromise enforceability of related contractual arrangements, or have other harmful effects on us.

 

   

There are uncertainties relating to the regulation of the internet business in China, including evolving licensing practices and the requirement for real-name registrations. Permits, licenses or operations at some of our subsidiaries and PRC consolidated affiliated entities levels may be subject to challenge, or we may fail to obtain permits or licenses that may be deemed necessary for our operations or we may not be able to obtain or renew certain permits or licenses. See “—Risks Relating to Our Corporate Structure and Our Industry—If our PRC consolidated affiliated entities fail to obtain and maintain the requisite licenses and approvals required under the complex regulatory environment for internet-based businesses in China, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected” and “PRC Regulation.” In addition, although we currently have a real-name registration system in place for our online games in strict compliance with the relevant PRC regulations, we are currently not required by PRC law to ask users for their real name and personal information when they register for a YY user account. We cannot assure you that PRC regulators would not require us to implement compulsory real-name registration on our platform in the future. In late 2011, for example, the Beijing municipal government required microbloggers in China to implement real-name registration for all of their registered users. If we were required to implement real-name registration on YY, we may lose large numbers of registered user accounts for various reasons, because users may no longer maintain multiple accounts and users who dislike giving out their private information may cease to use our products and services altogether.

 

   

The evolving PRC regulatory system for the internet industry may lead to the establishment of new regulatory agencies. For example, in May 2011, the State Council announced the establishment of a new department, the State Internet Information Office (with the involvement of the State Council Information Office, or the SCIO, the MIIT and the Ministry of Public Security). The primary role of this new agency is to facilitate the policy-making and legislative development in this field to direct and coordinate with the relevant departments in connection with online content administration and to deal with cross-ministry regulatory matters in relation to the internet industry. We are unable to determine what policies this new agency or any new agencies to be established in the future may have or how they may interpret existing laws, regulations and policies and how they may affect us. Further, new laws, regulations or policies may be promulgated or announced that will regulate internet activities, including online video and online advertising businesses. If these new laws, regulations or policies are promulgated, additional licenses may be required for our operations. If our operations do not comply with these new regulations after they become effective, or if we fail to obtain any licenses required under these new laws and regulations, we could be subject to penalties.

In July 2006, the MIIT issued the Notice of the Ministry of Information Industry on Intensifying the Administration of Foreign Investment in Value-added Telecommunications Services. This notice prohibits domestic telecommunication service providers from leasing, transferring or selling telecommunication business

 

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operating licenses to any foreign investor in any form, or providing any resources, sites or facilities to any foreign investor for their illegal operation of a telecommunication business in China. According to this notice, either the holder of a value-added telecommunication business operating license or its shareholders must directly own the domain names and trademarks used by such license holders in their provision of value-added telecommunication services. The notice also requires each license holder to have the necessary facilities, including servers, for its approved business operations and to maintain such facilities in the regions covered by its license. Currently, all contracts with telecommunication carriers and other service providers to host the servers used in our business were entered into by Guangzhou Huaduo, our PRC consolidated affiliated entity, and such arrangements are in compliance with this notice. Guangzhou Huaduo also owns the related domain names and trademarks, and holds the ICP License necessary to conduct our operations in China.

In June 2010, the MOC promulgated the Provisional Administration Measures of Online Games, or the Online Game Measures, which became effective on August 1, 2010. The Online Game Measures provide that any entity engaging in online game operation activities shall obtain the Internet Culture Operation License and must meet certain requirements such as minimum registered capital. Online game developers are generally involved in the purchase of servers and bandwidth, the control and management of game data, the maintenance of game systems and certain other maintenance tasks in our operation of online games. The Guangzhou branch of the MOC has confirmed that such outsourcing and cooperation activities are not considered conducting online game operation activities, and that online game developers do not have to obtain the Internet Culture Operation License in accordance with the Online Game Measures. However, because of the limited time in which these measures have been in effect, there are still uncertainties on the MOC’s interpretation and implementation of these measures. If the MOC determines in the future that such qualifications or requirements apply to the online game developers for their involvement in the online game operations, we may have to terminate our revenue-sharing arrangements with certain unqualified online game developers and may even be subject to various penalties, which may negatively impact our results of operations and financial condition.

The interpretation and application of existing PRC laws, regulations and policies and possible new laws, regulations or policies relating to the internet industry have created substantial uncertainties regarding the legality of existing and future foreign investments in, and the businesses and activities of, internet businesses in China, including our business. There are also risks that we may be found to violate the existing or future laws and regulations given the uncertainty and complexity of China’s regulation of internet business.

Content posted or displayed on our platform may be found objectionable by PRC regulatory authorities and may subject us to penalties and other severe consequences.

The PRC government has adopted regulations governing internet access and the distribution of information over the internet. Under these regulations, internet content providers and internet publishers are prohibited from posting or displaying over the internet content that, among other things, violates PRC laws and regulations, impairs the national dignity of China or the public interest, or is obscene, superstitious, fraudulent or defamatory. Furthermore, internet content providers are also prohibited from displaying content that may be deemed by relevant government authorities as “socially destabilizing” or leaking “state secrets” of the PRC. Failure to comply with these requirements may result in the revocation of licenses to provide internet content and other licenses, the closure of the concerned platforms and reputational harm. The operator may also be held liable for such censored information displayed on or linked to their platform. For a detailed discussion, see “PRC Regulation.”

We allow visitors to our portal websites to upload written materials, images, pictures, and other content on the forums on our websites, and also allow users to share, link to and otherwise access audio, video, games and other content from third parties through our platform. For a description of how content can be accessed on or through our rich communication social platform, and what measures we take to lessen the likelihood that we will be held liable for the nature of such content, see “Business—Our Technology,” “Business—Intellectual Property,” and “—Risks Relating to Our Business—We may be subject to intellectual property infringement

 

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claims or other allegations, which could result in our payment of substantial damages, penalties and fines, removal of relevant content from our website or seeking license agreements which may not be available on commercially reasonable terms.”

Since our inception, we have worked closely with relevant government authorities to monitor the content on our platform and to make the utmost effort in complying with relevant laws and regulations. However, it may not be possible to determine in all cases the types of content that could result in our liability as an internet operator, and if any of our internet content is deemed by the PRC government to violate any content restrictions, we would not be able to continue to display such content and could become subject to penalties, including confiscation of income, fines, suspension of business and revocation of required licenses, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. We may also be subject to potential liability for any unlawful actions of our users or third party service providers on our platform or for content we distribute that is deemed inappropriate. For example, we have recently been subject to a few warnings or fines each of RMB90,000 or less for having inappropriate content on our platform. Although we corrected these non-compliances and undertook measures to prevent the recurrence of such instances, it may be difficult to determine the type of content or actions that may result in liability to us, and if we are found to be liable, we may be prevented from operating our business in China. Moreover, the costs of compliance with these regulations may continue to increase as a result of more content being uploaded or made available by an increasing number of users and third party partners and developers, which may adversely affect our results of operations. Although we have adopted internal procedures to monitor content uploaded to our website and to remove offending content once we become aware of any potential or alleged violation, we may not be able to identify all the content that may violate relevant laws and regulations or third party intellectual property rights and even if we manage to identify and remove offending content, we may still be held liable for such third-party content. Users may upload content or images containing copyright violations and other illegal content and we may be subject to claims or become involved in litigation proceedings. As a result, our reputation, business and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

Advertisements shown on our platform may subject us to penalties and other administrative actions.

Under PRC advertising laws and regulations, we are obligated to monitor the advertising content shown on our platform to ensure that such content is true and accurate and in full compliance with applicable laws and regulations. In addition, where a special government review is required for specific types of advertisements prior to internet posting, such as advertisements relating to pharmaceuticals, medical instruments, agrochemicals and veterinary pharmaceuticals, we are obligated to confirm that such review has been performed and approval has been obtained. Violation of these laws and regulations may subject us to penalties, including fines, confiscation of our advertising income, orders to cease dissemination of the advertisements and orders to publish an announcement correcting the misleading information. In circumstances involving serious violations by us, PRC governmental authorities may force us to terminate our advertising operations or revoke our licenses.

While we have made significant efforts to ensure that the advertisements shown on our platform are in full compliance with applicable PRC laws and regulations, we cannot assure you that all the content contained in such advertisements or offers is true and accurate as required by the advertising laws and regulations, especially given the uncertainty in the interpretation of these PRC laws and regulations. If we are found to be in violation of applicable PRC advertising laws and regulations, we may be subject to penalties and our reputation may be harmed, which may have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

 

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Under the PRC enterprise income tax law, we may be classified as a PRC “resident enterprise,” which could result in unfavorable tax consequences to us and our shareholders and have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and the value of your investment.

Under the PRC enterprise income tax law that became effective on January 1, 2008, an enterprise established outside the PRC with “de facto management bodies” within the PRC is considered a “resident enterprise” for PRC enterprise income tax purposes and is generally subject to a uniform 25% enterprise income tax rate on its worldwide income. On April 22, 2009, the State Administration of Taxation, or the SAT, issued the Notice Regarding the Determination of Chinese-Controlled Overseas Incorporated Enterprises as PRC Tax Resident Enterprise on the Basis of De Facto Management Bodies, or SAT Circular 82, which provides certain specific criteria for determining whether the “de facto management body” of a PRC-controlled enterprise that is incorporated offshore is located in China. Further to SAT Circular 82, on August 3, 2011, the SAT recently issued the Administrative Measures of Enterprise Income Tax of Chinese-Controlled Offshore Incorporated Resident Enterprises (Trial), or SAT Bulletin 45, to provide more guidance on the implementation of SAT Circular 82; the bulletin became effective on September 1, 2011. SAT Bulletin 45 clarified certain issues in the areas of resident status determination, post-determination administration and competent tax authorities.

According to SAT Circular 82, an offshore incorporated enterprise controlled by a PRC enterprise or a PRC enterprise group will be considered as a PRC tax resident enterprise by virtue of having its “de facto management body” in China and will be subject to PRC enterprise income tax on its worldwide income only if all of the following conditions are met: (a) the senior management and core management departments in charge of its daily operations function have their presence mainly in the PRC; (b) its financial and human resources decisions are subject to determination or approval by persons or bodies in the PRC; (c) its major assets, accounting books, company seals, and minutes and files of its board and shareholders’ meetings are located or kept in the PRC; and (d) more than half of the enterprise’s directors or senior management with voting rights habitually reside in the PRC. SAT Bulletin 45 further clarifies the resident status determination, post-determination administration, as well as competent tax authorities. It also specifies that when provided with a copy of Chinese tax resident determination certificate from a resident Chinese controlled offshore incorporated enterprise, the payer should not withhold 10% income tax when paying the Chinese-sourced dividends, interest, royalties, etc. to the Chinese controlled offshore incorporated enterprise.

Although SAT Circular 82 and SAT Bulletin 45 only apply to offshore incorporated enterprises controlled by PRC enterprises or PRC enterprise group instead of those controlled by PRC individuals or foreigners, the determination criteria set forth therein may reflect SAT’s general position on how the term “de facto management body” could be applied in determining the tax resident status of offshore enterprises, regardless of whether they are controlled by PRC enterprises, individuals or foreigners.

We do not meet all of the conditions above; therefore, we believe that we should not be treated as a “resident enterprise” for PRC tax purposes even if the standards for “de facto management body” prescribed in the SAT Circular 82 are applicable to us. For example, our minutes and files of the resolutions of our board of directors and the resolutions of our shareholders are maintained outside the PRC. In addition, we are not aware of any offshore holding companies with a corporate structure similar to ours ever having been deemed to be a PRC “resident enterprise” by the PRC tax authorities.

However, it is possible that the PRC tax authorities may take a different view. If the PRC tax authorities determine that our Cayman Islands holding company is a PRC resident enterprise for PRC enterprise income tax purposes, then our world-wide income could be subject to PRC tax at a rate of 25%, which could materially reduce our net income. In addition, we will also be subject to PRC enterprise income tax reporting obligations.

Although dividends paid by one PRC tax resident to another PRC tax resident should qualify as “tax-exempt income” under the enterprise income tax law, we cannot assure you that dividends by our PRC subsidiaries to our Cayman Islands holding company will not be subject to a 10% withholding tax, as the PRC foreign exchange

 

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control authorities, which enforce the withholding tax on dividends, and the PRC tax authorities have not yet issued guidance with respect to the processing of outbound remittances to entities that are treated as resident enterprises for PRC enterprise income tax purposes.

Foreign ADS holders may also be subject to PRC withholding tax on dividends payable by us and gains realized on the sale or other disposition of ADSs or common shares, if such income is sourced from within the PRC. Although our holding company is incorporated in the Cayman Islands, it remains unclear whether dividends received and gains realized by our foreign ADS holders will be regarded as income from sources within the PRC if we are classified as a PRC resident enterprise. Any such tax will reduce the returns on your investment in our ADSs.

Finally, we face uncertainties on the reporting and consequences on private equity financing transactions and share exchange involving the transfer of shares in our company by non-resident investors. According to the Notice on Strengthening Administration of Enterprise Income Tax for Share Transfers by Non-PRC Resident Enterprises issued by the PRC State Administration of Taxation on December 10, 2009, with retroactive effect from January 1, 2008, or SAT Circular 698, where a non-resident enterprise transfers the equity interests in a PRC resident enterprise indirectly through a disposition of equity interests in an overseas holding company, or an Indirect Transfer, and such overseas holding company is located in a tax jurisdiction that: (a) has an effective tax rate less than 12.5% or (b) does not tax foreign income of its residents, the a non-resident enterprise, as the seller, shall report such Indirect Transfer to the competent tax authority of the PRC resident enterprise within 30 days of execution of the equity transfer agreement for such Indirect Transfer. The PRC tax authority will examine the true nature of the Indirect Transfer, and if the tax authority considers that the foreign investor has adopted an abusive arrangement without reasonable commercial purposes and for the purpose of avoiding or reducing PRC tax, they will disregard the existence of the overseas holding company that is used for tax planning purposes and re-characterize the Indirect Transfer. As a result, gains derived from such Indirect Transfer may be subject to PRC withholding tax at the rate of up to 10%. SAT Circular 698 also points out that when a non-resident enterprise transfers its equity interests in a PRC resident enterprise to its related parties at a price lower than the fair market value, the competent tax authorities have the power to make a reasonable adjustment on the taxable income of the transaction.

If our preferential tax treatments are revoked, become unavailable or if the calculation of our tax liability is successfully challenged by the PRC tax authorities, we may be required to pay tax, interest and penalties in excess of our tax provisions, and our results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

The Chinese government has provided various tax incentives to our subsidiaries in China. These incentives include reduced enterprise income tax rates. For example, under the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law, or the New EIT Law, which became effective on January 1, 2008, the statutory enterprise income tax rate is 25%. However, Guangzhou Huaduo, our PRC consolidated affiliated entity in the PRC, was recognized as a high and new technology enterprise as of September 26, 2010 and, subject to the approval of and annual review by competent tax authorities in Guangdong, would be entitled to enjoy a preferential enterprise income tax rate of 15% for two years, from 2011 through 2012. Guangzhou Huaduo recorded losses in 2010 and has not benefited from such preferential tax rate. Guangzhou Huaduo has applied for and obtained the preferential tax treatment with Guangzhou State Tax Bureau, but the high and new technology enterprise qualification is only effective until September 26, 2013, and there is no guarantee that it can be successfully renewed. If Guangzhou Huaduo fails to successfully renew its high and new technology enterprise qualification in 2013, it would not be able to enjoy such preferential tax treatment for the year 2013; and if Guangzhou Huaduo fails to maintain its status as a high and new technology enterprise or is not granted the renewal of its preferential tax treatment at any time, it will be subject to a higher enterprise income tax rate of 25%. Any increase in the enterprise income tax rate applicable to our PRC subsidiaries or PRC consolidated affiliated entities in China, or any discontinuation or retroactive or future reduction of any of the preferential tax treatments currently enjoyed by our PRC subsidiaries or PRC consolidated affiliated entities in China, could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition. In addition, in the ordinary course of our business, we are subject to complex income tax and

 

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other tax regulations and significant judgment is required in the determination of a provision for income taxes. Although we believe our tax provisions are reasonable, if the PRC tax authorities successfully challenge our position and we are required to pay tax, interest and penalties in excess of our tax provisions, our results of operations and financial condition would be materially and adversely affected.

China’s M&A Rules establish complex procedures for some acquisitions of Chinese companies by foreign investors, which could make it more difficult for us to pursue growth through acquisitions in China.

Six PRC regulatory agencies promulgated regulations effective on September 8, 2006, subsequently amended, that are commonly referred to as the M&A Rules. See “PRC Regulation—New M&A Regulations and Overseas Listings.” The M&A Rules establish procedures and requirements that could make some acquisitions of Chinese companies by foreign investors more time-consuming and complex, including requirements in some instances that the MOFCOM be notified in advance of any change-of-control transaction in which a foreign investor takes control of a Chinese domestic enterprise. We may expand our business in part by acquiring complementary businesses. Complying with the requirements of the M&A Rules to complete such transactions could be time-consuming, and any required approval processes, including obtaining approval from the MOFCOM, may delay or inhibit our ability to complete such transactions, which could affect our ability to expand our business or maintain our market share.

PRC regulations relating to offshore investment activities by PRC residents may limit our PRC subsidiaries’ ability to increase their registered capital or distribute profits to us or otherwise expose us to liability and penalties under PRC law.

The PRC State Administration of Foreign Exchange, or SAFE, promulgated regulations in October 2005 that require PRC citizens or residents to register with SAFE or its local branch in connection with their establishment or control of an offshore entity established for the purpose of overseas equity financing involving a roundtrip investment whereby the offshore entity acquires or controls onshore assets or equity interests held by the PRC citizens or residents. In addition, such PRC citizens or residents must update their SAFE registrations when the offshore special purpose vehicle undergoes material events relating to increases or decreases in investment amount, transfers or exchanges of shares, mergers or divisions, long-term equity or debt investments, external guarantees, or other material events that do not involve roundtrip investments. Subsequent regulations further clarified that PRC subsidiaries of an offshore company governed by the SAFE regulations are required to coordinate and supervise the filing of SAFE registrations in a timely manner by the offshore holding company’s shareholders who are PRC citizens or residents. If these shareholders fail to comply, the PRC subsidiaries are required to report to the local SAFE branches. If our shareholders who are PRC citizens or residents do not complete their registration with the local SAFE branches, our PRC subsidiaries may be prohibited from distributing their profits and proceeds from any reduction in capital, share transfer or liquidation to us, and we may be restricted in our ability to contribute additional capital to our PRC subsidiaries. Moreover, failure to comply with the SAFE registration and amendment requirements described above could result in liability under PRC laws for evasion of applicable foreign exchange restrictions.

Our PRC resident shareholders, Messrs. David Xueling Li, Tony Bin Zhao, Jin Cao and Jun Lei, had registered with the local SAFE branch in relation to our existing private placement financings by the end of 2011 as required by the SAFE regulations. However, because of uncertainty over how the SAFE regulations will be interpreted and implemented and applied to us, we cannot predict how it will affect our business operations. For example, our present and prospective PRC subsidiaries’ ability to conduct foreign exchange activities, such as the remittance of dividends and foreign currency-denominated borrowings, may be subject to compliance with the SAFE regulations by our PRC resident shareholders. In addition, in some cases, we may have little control over either our present or prospective direct or indirect PRC resident shareholders or the outcome of such registration procedures. A failure by our current or future PRC resident shareholders to comply with the SAFE regulations could subject us to fines or other legal sanctions, restrict our cross-border investment activities, limit

 

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our subsidiary’s ability to make distributions or pay dividends or affect our ownership structure, which could adversely affect our business and prospects.

On February 15, 2012, SAFE promulgated the Notices on Issues Concerning the Foreign Exchange Administration for Domestic Individuals Participating in Stock Incentive Plans of Overseas Publicly-Listed Companies, or the Stock Option Rules, which replaced the Application Procedures of Foreign Exchange Administration for Domestic Individuals Participating in Employee Stock Ownership Plans or Stock Option Plans of Overseas Publicly-Listed Companies issued by SAFE on March 28, 2007. Under the Stock Option Rules and other relevant rules and regulations, PRC residents who participate in stock incentive plan in an overseas publicly-listed company are required to register with SAFE or its local branches and complete certain other procedures. Participants of a stock incentive plan who are PRC residents must retain a qualified PRC agent, which could be a PRC subsidiary of such overseas publicly listed company or another qualified institution selected by such PRC subsidiary, to conduct the SAFE registration and other procedures with respect to the stock incentive plan on behalf of its participants. Such participants must also retain an overseas entrusted institution to handle matters in connection with their exercise of stock options, the purchase and sale of corresponding stocks or interests and fund transfers. In addition, the PRC agent is required to amend the SAFE registration with respect to the stock incentive plan if there is any material change to the stock incentive plan, the PRC agent or the overseas entrusted institution or other material changes. We and our PRC employees who have been granted stock options, restricted shares and restricted share units will be subject to these regulations upon the completion of this offering. Failure of our PRC stock option holders, restricted shareholders or restricted share units holders to complete their SAFE registrations may subject these PRC residents to fines and legal sanctions and may also limit our ability to contribute additional capital into our PRC subsidiaries, limited our PRC subsidiaries’ ability to distribute dividends to us, or otherwise materially adversely affect our business.

PRC regulation of direct investment and loans by offshore holding companies to PRC entities may delay or limit us from using the proceeds of this offering to make additional capital contributions or loans to our PRC subsidiaries.

Any capital contributions or loans that we, as an offshore entity, make to our PRC subsidiaries, including from the proceeds of this offering, are subject to PRC regulations. For example, none of our loans to a PRC subsidiary can exceed the difference between its total amount of investment and its registered capital approved under relevant PRC laws, and the loans must be registered with the local branch of SAFE. Our capital contributions to our PRC subsidiaries must be approved by the MOFCOM or its local counterpart. We cannot assure you that we will be able to complete the necessary registration or obtain the necessary approval on a timely basis, or at all. If we fail to complete the necessary registration or obtain the necessary approval, our ability to make loans or equity contributions to our PRC subsidiaries may be negatively affected, which could adversely affect our PRC subsidiaries’ liquidity and their ability to fund their working capital and expansion projects and meet their obligations and commitments.

Our PRC subsidiaries and PRC consolidated affiliated entities are subject to restrictions on paying dividends or making other payments to us, which may restrict our ability to satisfy our liquidity requirements.

We are a holding company incorporated in the Cayman Islands. We rely on dividends from our PRC subsidiaries as well as consulting and other fees paid to us by our PRC consolidated affiliated entities for our cash and financing requirements, such as the funds necessary to pay dividends and other cash distributions to our shareholders, including holders of our ADSs, and service any debt we may incur. Current PRC regulations permit our PRC subsidiaries to pay dividends to us only out of their accumulated profits, if any, determined in accordance with Chinese accounting standards and regulations. In addition, each of our PRC subsidiaries is required to set aside at least 10% of its accumulated profits each year, if any, to fund certain reserve funds until the total amount set aside reaches 50% of its registered capital. These reserves are not distributable as cash dividends. Since we have not achieved profitability, we are not yet required to allocate funds for such reserve funds. Furthermore, if our PRC subsidiaries and PRC consolidated affiliated entities incur debt on their own

 

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behalf in the future, the instruments governing the debt may restrict their ability to pay dividends or make other payments to us, which may restrict our ability to satisfy our liquidity requirements.

In addition, the New EIT Law, and its implementation rules provide that withholding tax rate of 10% will be applicable to dividends payable by Chinese companies to non-PRC-resident enterprises unless otherwise exempted or reduced according to treaties or arrangements between the PRC central government and governments of other countries or regions where the non-PRC-resident enterprises are incorporated.

Fluctuations in exchange rates could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and the value of your investment.

The value of the Renminbi against the U.S. dollar and other currencies is affected by, among other things, changes in China’s political and economic conditions and China’s foreign exchange policies. On July 21, 2005, the PRC government changed its decade-old policy of pegging the value of the Renminbi to the U.S. dollar, and the Renminbi appreciated more than 20% against the U.S. dollar over the following three years. However, the People’s Bank of China regularly intervenes in the foreign exchange market to limit fluctuations in Renminbi exchange rates and achieve policy goals. During the period between July 2008 and June 2010, the exchange rate between the RMB and the U.S. dollar had been stable and traded within a narrow band. However, the Renminbi fluctuated significantly during that period against other freely traded currencies, in tandem with the U.S. dollar. Since June 2010, the Renminbi has started to slowly appreciate against the U.S. dollar, though there have been periods recently when the U.S. dollar has appreciated against the Renminbi. It is difficult to predict how long the current situation may last and when and how this relationship between the Renminbi and the U.S. dollar may change again.

There remains significant international pressure on the Chinese government to adopt a flexible currency policy to allow the Renminbi to appreciate against the U.S. dollar. Significant revaluation of the Renminbi may have a material adverse effect on your investment. Substantially all of our revenues and costs are denominated in Renminbi. Any significant revaluation of Renminbi may materially and adversely affect our revenues, earnings and financial position, and the value of, and any dividends payable on, our ADSs in U.S. dollars. For example, to the extent that we need to convert U.S. dollars we receive from this initial public offering into Renminbi to pay our operating expenses, appreciation of the Renminbi against the U.S. dollar would have an adverse effect on the Renminbi amount we would receive from the conversion. Conversely, a significant depreciation of the Renminbi against the U.S. dollar may significantly reduce the U.S. dollar equivalent of our earnings, which in turn could adversely affect the price of our ADSs.

Very limited hedging options are available in China to reduce our exposure to exchange rate fluctuations. To date, we have not entered into any hedging transactions in an effort to reduce our exposure to foreign currency exchange risk. While we may decide to enter into hedging transactions in the future, the availability and effectiveness of these hedges may be limited and we may not be able to adequately hedge our exposure or at all. In addition, our currency exchange losses may be magnified by PRC exchange control regulations that restrict our ability to convert Renminbi into foreign currency. As a result, fluctuations in exchange rates may have a material adverse effect on your investment.

Governmental control of currency conversion may limit our ability to utilize our revenues effectively and affect the value of your investment.

The PRC government imposes control on the convertibility of the Renminbi into foreign currencies and, in certain cases, the remittance of currency out of China. We receive substantially all of our revenues in Renminbi. Under existing PRC foreign exchange regulations, payments of current account items, including profit distributions, interest payments and trade and service-related foreign exchange transactions, can be made in foreign currencies without prior SAFE approval by complying with certain procedural requirements. Therefore, our PRC subsidiaries are able to pay dividends in foreign currencies to us without prior approval from SAFE. However, approval from or registration with appropriate government authorities is required where Renminbi is to

 

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be converted into foreign currency and remitted out of China to pay capital expenses such as the repayment of loans denominated in foreign currencies. The PRC government may also at its discretion restrict access to foreign currencies for current account transactions in the future. If the foreign exchange control system prevents us from obtaining sufficient foreign currencies to satisfy our foreign currency demands, we may not be able to pay dividends in foreign currencies to our shareholders, including holders of our ADSs.

Recently enacted regulations in the PRC may make it more difficult for us to pursue growth through acquisitions, adversely affecting our plans to expand our business or maintain our market share.

Among other things, the M&A Rules established additional procedures and requirements that could make merger and acquisition activities by foreign investors more time-consuming and complex. Such regulation requires, among other things, that the MOFCOM be notified in advance of any change-of-control transaction in which a foreign investor takes control of a PRC domestic enterprise or a foreign company with substantial PRC operations, if certain thresholds under the Provisions on Thresholds for Prior Notification of Concentrations of Undertakings, issued by the State Council on August 3, 2008, are triggered.

We may grow our business in part by directly acquiring complementary businesses in China. Complying with the requirements of these regulations to complete such transactions could be time-consuming, and any required approval processes, including obtaining approval from the MOFCOM, may delay or inhibit our ability to complete such transactions, which could affect our ability to expand our business or maintain our market share.

If the custodians or authorized users of controlling non-tangible assets of our company, including our corporate chops and seals, fail to fulfill their responsibilities, or misappropriate or misuse these assets, our business and operations could be materially and adversely affected.

Under PRC law, legal documents for corporate transactions, including contracts such as revenue-sharing contracts with online game developers which are important to our business, are executed using the chops or seal of the signing entity or with the signature of a legal representative whose designation is registered and filed with the relevant branch of the Administration of Industry and Commerce.

Although we usually utilize chops to enter into contracts, the designated legal representatives of each of our PRC subsidiaries and consolidated affiliated entities have the apparent authority to enter into contracts on behalf of such entities without chops and bind such entities. All designated legal representatives of our PRC subsidiaries and consolidated affiliated entities are members of our senior management team who have signed employment agreements with us or our PRC subsidiaries and consolidated affiliated entities under which they agree to abide by various duties they owe to us. In order to maintain the physical security of our chops and chops of our PRC entities, we generally store these items in secured locations accessible only by the authorized personnel in the legal or finance department of each of our subsidiaries and consolidated affiliated entities. Although we monitor such authorized personnel, there is no assurance such procedures will prevent all instances of abuse or negligence. Accordingly, if any of our authorized personnel misuse or misappropriate our corporate chops or seals, we could encounter difficulties in maintaining control over the relevant entities and experience significant disruption to our operations. If a designated legal representative obtains control of the chops in an effort to obtain control over any of our PRC subsidiaries or consolidated affiliated entities, we or our PRC subsidiary and consolidated affiliated entity would need to pass a new shareholder or board resolution to designate a new legal representative and we would need to take legal action to seek the return of the chops, apply for new chops with the relevant authorities, or otherwise seek legal redress for the violation of the representative’s fiduciary duties to us, which could involve significant time and resources and divert management attention away from our regular business. In addition, the affected entity may not be able to recover corporate assets that are sold or transferred out of our control in the event of such a misappropriation if a transferee relies on the apparent authority of the representative and acts in good faith.

 

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Our auditor, like other independent registered public accounting firms operating in China, is not permitted to be subject to inspection by Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, and as such, investors may be deprived of the benefits of such inspection.

Our independent registered public accounting firm that issues the audit reports included in this prospectus filed with the SEC, as an auditor of companies that are traded publicly in the United States and a firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), or PCAOB, is required by the laws of the United States to undergo regular inspections by PCAOB to assess its compliance with the laws of the United States and professional standards. Because our auditor is located in China, a jurisdiction where PCAOB is currently unable to conduct inspections without the approval of the PRC authorities, our auditor, like other independent registered public accounting firms operating in China, is currently not inspected by PCAOB.

Inspections of other firms that PCAOB has conducted outside of China have identified deficiencies in those firms’ audit procedures and quality control procedures, which may be addressed as part of the inspection process to improve future audit quality. The inability of PCAOB to conduct inspections of independent registered public accounting firms operating in China makes it more difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of our auditor’s audit procedures or quality control procedures. As a result, investors may be deprived of the benefits of PCAOB inspections.

Risks Relating to Our ADSs and This Offering

An active trading market for our ADSs may not develop and the trading price for our ADSs may fluctuate significantly.

Our ADSs have been approved for listing on the Nasdaq Global Market. Prior to the completion of this offering, there has been no public market for our ADSs or our Class A common shares underlying the ADSs, and we cannot assure you that a liquid public market for our ADSs will develop. If an active public market for our ADSs does not develop following the completion of this offering, the market price and liquidity of our ADSs may be materially and adversely affected. Even if an active public market for our common shares or ADSs develops, we cannot assure you that it will continue. The initial public offering price for our ADSs was determined by negotiation between us and the underwriters based upon several factors, and we can provide no assurance that the trading price of our ADSs after this offering will not decline below the initial public offering price. As a result, investors in our securities may experience a significant decrease in the value of their ADSs.

The trading prices of our ADSs are likely to be volatile, which could result in substantial losses to investors.

The trading prices of our ADSs are likely to be volatile and could fluctuate widely due to factors beyond our control. This may happen because of broad market and industry factors, like the performance and fluctuation in the market prices or the underperformance or deteriorating financial results of other similarly situated companies in China that have listed their securities in the United States in recent years. The securities of some of these companies have experienced significant volatility since their initial public offerings, including, in some cases, substantial price declines in the trading prices of their securities. The trading performances of these Chinese companies’ securities after their offerings, including companies in internet and social networking businesses, may affect the attitudes of investors toward Chinese companies listed in the United States, which consequently may impact the trading performance of our ADSs, regardless of our actual operating performance. In addition, any negative news or perceptions about inadequate corporate governance practices or fraudulent accounting or other practices at other Chinese companies may also negatively affect the attitudes of investors towards Chinese companies in general, including us, regardless of whether we have engaged in such practices. Furthermore, securities markets may from time to time experience significant price and volume fluctuations that are not related to our operating performance, which may have a material adverse effect on the market price of our ADSs.

 

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In addition to market and industry factors, the price and trading volume for our ADSs may be highly volatile due to specific factors, including the following:

 

   

variations in our net revenues, earnings and cash flow;

 

   

announcements of new investments, acquisitions, strategic partnerships, or joint ventures;

 

   

announcements of new services and expansions by us or our competitors;

 

   

changes in financial estimates by securities analysts;

 

   

changes in the number of our registered or active users;

 

   

fluctuations in the number of paying users or other operating metrics;

 

   

failure on our part to realize monetization opportunities as expected;

 

   

additions or departures of key personnel;

 

   

release of lock-up or other transfer restrictions on our outstanding equity securities or sales of additional equity securities;

 

   

detrimental negative publicity about us, our competitors or our industry; and

 

   

potential litigation or regulatory proceedings or changes.

Any of these factors may result in large and sudden changes in the volume and price at which our ADSs will trade.

The approval of the China Securities Regulatory Commission may be required in connection with this offering and, if required, we cannot assure you that we will be able to obtain such approval.

On August 8, 2006, six PRC regulatory agencies, including the CSRC, promulgated the M&A Rules, which became effective on September 8, 2006 and was amended on June 22, 2009. This regulation, among other things, requires offshore special purpose vehicles, or SPVs, formed for the purpose of an overseas listing and controlled by PRC companies or individuals, to obtain CSRC approval prior to listing their securities on an overseas stock exchange. The application of this regulation remains unclear. Our PRC legal counsel, Zhong Lun Law Firm, has advised us that, based on their understanding of the current PRC laws, rules and regulations:

 

   

CSRC currently has not issued any definitive rule or interpretation concerning whether offerings like ours under this prospectus are subject to this regulation; and

 

   

We are not required to submit an application to CSRC for its approval of the listing and trading of our ADSs on the Nasdaq Global Market, considering that (a) our PRC subsidiaries, Beijing Huanju Shidai and Guangzhou Huanju Shidai, are foreign-invested enterprises established by foreign enterprises, (b) we did not acquire any equity interest or assets of a PRC domestic company owned by PRC companies or individuals as defined under the M&A Rules and (c) there is no provision that clearly classifies the contractual arrangements among our PRC subsidiary, Beijing Huanju Shidai, our PRC consolidated affiliated entities and their respective shareholders as a transaction regulated by the M&A Rules.

However, our PRC legal counsel, Zhong Lun Law Firm, further advised us that because there has been no official interpretation or clarification of this regulation, there is uncertainty as to how this regulation will be interpreted or implemented. If it is determined that the CSRC approval is required for this offering, we may face sanctions by CSRC or other PRC regulatory agencies for failure to seek the CSRC approval for this offering. These sanctions may include fines and penalties on our operations in the PRC although, to our knowledge, no definitive rules or interpretations have been issued to determine or quantify such fines or penalties, delays or restrictions on the repatriation of the proceeds from this offering into the PRC, restrictions on or prohibition of the payments or remittance of dividends by our PRC subsidiaries, or other actions that may have a material adverse effect on our business and the trading price of our ADSs. CSRC or other PRC regulatory agencies may

 

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also take actions requiring us, or making it advisable to us, to halt this offering before the settlement and delivery of the ADSs that we are offering. Consequently, if you engage in market trading or other activities in anticipation of and prior to the settlement and delivery of the ADSs we are offering, you would be doing so at the risk that the settlement and delivery may not occur.

We are an emerging growth company within the meaning of the Securities Act and may take advantage of certain reduced reporting requirements.

We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the JOBS Act, and we may take advantage of certain exemptions from various requirements applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies including, most significantly, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 for so long as we are an emerging growth company. As a result, if we elect not to comply with such auditor attestation requirements, our investors may not have access to certain information they may deem important.

The JOBS Act also provides that an emerging growth company does not need to comply with any new or revised financial accounting standards until such date that a private company is otherwise required to comply with such new or revised accounting standards. However, we have elected to “opt out” of this provision and, as a result, we will comply with new or revised accounting standards as required when they are adopted for public companies. This decision to opt out of the extended transition period under the JOBS Act is irrevocable.

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business, or if they adversely change their recommendations regarding our ADSs, the market price for our ADSs and trading volume could decline.

The trading market for our ADSs will be influenced by research or reports that industry or securities analysts publish about our business. If one or more analysts who cover us downgrade our ADSs, the market price for our ADSs would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease to cover us or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which, in turn, could cause the market price or trading volume for our ADSs to decline.

The sale or availability for sale, or perceived sale or availability for sale, of substantial amounts of our ADSs could adversely affect their market price.

Sales of substantial amounts of our ADSs in the public market after the completion of this offering, or the perception that these sales could occur, could adversely affect the market price of our ADSs and could materially impair our ability to raise capital through equity offerings in the future. There will be 7,800,000 ADSs (equivalent to 156,000,000 Class A common shares) outstanding immediately after this offering, or 8,970,000 ADSs (equivalent to 179,400,000 Class A common shares) if the underwriters exercise their options to purchase additional ADSs in full. The ADSs sold in this offering will be freely tradable by persons other than our affiliates without restriction or further registration under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and shares held by our existing shareholders may also be sold in the public market in the future subject to the restrictions in Rule 144 and Rule 701 under the Securities Act and the applicable lock-up agreements. In connection with this offering, we and our officers, directors and all of our existing shareholders have agreed, subject to certain exceptions, not to sell any of our common shares or ADSs owned by such persons prior to this offering or acquired in this offering until after 180 days after the date of this prospectus without the prior written consent of the underwriters. However, the underwriters may release the securities subject to lock-up agreements from the lock-up restrictions at any time, subject to applicable regulations of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. In addition, common shares subject to our outstanding options as of the closing of this offering will become eligible for sale in the public market to the extent permitted by the provisions of various vesting agreements, the lock-up agreements and Rules 144 and 701 under the Securities Act. We may also issue additional options in the future which may be exercised for additional common shares. We cannot predict what

 

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effect, if any, market sales of securities held by our significant shareholders or any other shareholder or the availability of these securities for future sale will have on the market price of our ADSs. See “Underwriting” and “Shares Eligible for Future Sale” for a more detailed description of the restrictions on selling our securities after this offering.

Because the initial public offering price is substantially higher than the pro forma net tangible book value per share, you will experience immediate and substantial dilution.

If you purchase ADSs in this offering, you will pay more for each ADS than the corresponding amount paid by existing shareholders for their existing common shares. As a result, you will experience immediate and substantial dilution of approximately US$7.00 per ADS (assuming the over-allotment option is not exercised). This number represents the difference between our pro forma net tangible book value per ADS of US$3.50 as of September 30, 2012, after giving effect to this offering and the initial public offering price of US$10.50 per ADS. See “Dilution” for a more complete description of how the value of your investment in our ADSs will be diluted upon the completion of this offering.

We may be classified as a passive foreign investment company, or PFIC, for United States federal income tax purposes, which could subject United States investors in our ADSs or common shares to significant adverse United States income tax consequences.

We will be classified as a “passive foreign investment company,” or “PFIC” if, in the case of any particular taxable year, either (a) 75% or more of our gross income for such year consists of certain types of “passive” income or (b) 50% or more of the average quarterly value of our assets (as determined on the basis of fair market value) during such year produce or are held for the production of passive income (the “asset test”). Although the law in this regard is unclear, we treat Guangzhou Huaduo and Beijing Tuda as being owned by us for United States federal income tax purposes, not only because we exercise effective control over the operation of such entities but also because we are entitled to substantially all of their economic benefits, and, as a result, we consolidate their operating results in our consolidated financial statements. Assuming that we are the owner of Guangzhou Huaduo and Beijing Tuda for United States federal income tax purposes, and based upon our current income and assets (taking into account the proceeds from this offering) and projections as to the value of our ADSs and common shares following the offering, we do not presently expect to be classified as a PFIC for the current taxable year or the foreseeable future.

While we do not expect to become a PFIC, because the value of our assets for purposes of the asset test will generally be determined by reference to the market price of our ADSs or common shares, fluctuations in the market price of our ADSs or common shares may cause us to become a PFIC for the current or subsequent taxable years. The determination of whether we will be or become a PFIC will also depend, in part, on the composition of our income and assets, which will be affected by how, and how quickly, we use our liquid assets and the cash raised in this offering. Under circumstances where we determine not to deploy significant amounts of cash for active purposes or not to treat Guangzhou Huaduo or Beijing Tuda as owned by us for United States federal income tax purposes, our risk of being classified as a PFIC may substantially increase. Because there are uncertainties in the application of the relevant rules and PFIC status is a factual determination made annually after the close of each taxable year, there can be no assurance that we will not be a PFIC for the current taxable year or any future taxable year.

If we are classified as a PFIC in any taxable year, a U.S. holder (as defined in “Taxation—Material United States Federal Income Tax Considerations”) may incur significantly increased United States income tax on gain recognized on the sale or other disposition of the ADSs or common shares and on the receipt of distributions on the ADSs or common shares to the extent such gain or distribution is treated as an “excess distribution” under the United States federal income tax rules and such holders may be subject to burdensome reporting requirements. Further, if we are classified as a PFIC for any year during which a U.S. holder holds our ADSs or common shares, we generally will continue to be treated as a PFIC for all succeeding years during which such U.S. holder

 

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holds our ADSs or common shares. For more information see “Taxation—Material United States Federal Income Tax Considerations—Passive Foreign Investment Company Rules.”

Our dual class common share structure with different voting rights will limit your ability to influence corporate matters and could discourage others from pursuing any change of control transactions that holders of our Class A common shares and ADSs may view as beneficial.

Upon the completion of this offering, our common shares will be divided into Class A common shares and Class B common shares. Holders of Class A common shares will be entitled to one vote per share, while holders of Class B common shares will be entitled to ten votes per share, voting together as one class on all matters requiring a shareholders’ vote. We will issue Class A common shares represented by our ADSs in this offering. All of our outstanding common shares prior to this offering will be redesignated as Class B common shares and all of our outstanding preferred shares will be automatically re-designated or converted into Class B common shares on a one-for-one basis immediately upon the completion of this offering. Due to the disparate voting powers attached to these two classes of common shares, we anticipate that our existing shareholders will collectively own approximately 88.2% of our outstanding common shares immediately after this offering, representing 98.6% of our total voting power, assuming the underwriters do not exercise their over-allotment option to purchase additional ADSs, and will have considerable influence over all matters requiring a shareholders’ vote, including election of directors and significant corporate transactions, such as a merger or sale of our company or our assets. In particular, our founders, Messrs. David Xueling Li, Jun Lei, Tony Bin Zhao and Jin Cao and their affiliates will beneficially own approximately 44.1% of our outstanding common shares immediately after this offering, representing 49.9% of our total voting power, assuming the underwriters do not exercise their over-allotment option to purchase additional ADSs. This concentrated control will limit your ability to influence corporate matters and could discourage others from pursuing any potential merger, takeover or other change of control transactions that holders of Class A common shares and ADSs may view as beneficial.

Our articles of association contain anti-takeover provisions that could have a material adverse effect on the rights of holders of our common shares and ADSs.

We have adopted our second amended and restated articles of association that will become effective immediately upon completion of this offering. Our new articles of association contain provisions to limit the ability of others to acquire control of our company or cause us to engage in change-of-control transactions. These provisions could have the effect of depriving our shareholders of an opportunity to sell their shares at a premium over prevailing market prices by discouraging third parties from seeking to obtain control of our company in a tender offer or similar transaction. For example, our board of directors has the authority, without further action by our shareholders, to issue preferred shares in one or more series and to fix their designations, powers, preferences, privileges, and relative participating, optional or special rights and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions, including dividend rights, conversion rights, voting rights, terms of redemption and liquidation preferences, any or all of which may be greater than the rights associated with our common shares, in the form of ADS or otherwise. Preferred shares could be issued quickly with terms calculated to delay or prevent a change in control of our company or make removal of management more difficult. If our board of directors decides to issue preferred shares, the price of our ADSs may fall and the voting and other rights of the holders of our common shares and ADSs may be materially and adversely affected.

You may face difficulties in protecting your interests, and your ability to protect your rights through U.S. courts may be limited, because we are incorporated under Cayman Islands law.

We are a company limited by shares incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands. Our corporate affairs are governed by our memorandum and articles of association, the Companies Law, Cap. 22 (Law 3 of 1961, as consolidated and revised) of the Cayman Islands and the common law of the Cayman Islands. The rights

 

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of shareholders to take action against the directors, actions by minority shareholders and the fiduciary responsibilities of our directors to us under Cayman Islands law are to a large extent governed by the common law of the Cayman Islands. The common law of the Cayman Islands is derived in part from comparatively limited judicial precedent in the Cayman Islands as well as from the common law of England, the decisions of whose courts are of persuasive authority, but are not binding, on a court in the Cayman Islands. The rights of our shareholders and the fiduciary responsibilities of our directors under Cayman Islands law are not as clearly established as they would be under statutes or judicial precedent in some jurisdictions in the United States. In particular, the Cayman Islands has a less developed body of securities laws than the United States. Some U.S. states, such as Delaware, have more fully developed and judicially interpreted bodies of corporate law than the Cayman Islands. In addition, Cayman Islands companies may not have standing to initiate a shareholder derivative action in a federal court of the United States.

Unlike many jurisdictions in the United States, Cayman Islands law does not generally provide for shareholder appraisal rights on an approved arrangement and reconstruction of a company. For a discussion of significant differences between the provisions of the Corporate Law of the Cayman Islands and the law applicable to companies incorporated in the United States and their shareholders, see “Description of Share Capital—Differences in Corporate Law.” This may make it more difficult for you to assess the value of any consideration you may receive in a merger or consolidation or to require that the offeror give you additional consideration if you believe the consideration offered is insufficient. Moreover, holders of our ADSs are not entitled to appraisal rights under Cayman Islands law. ADS holders that wish to exercise their appraisal rights must convert their ADSs into our Class A common shares by surrendering their ADSs to the depositary and paying the ADS depositary fee. See “Description of Share Capital—Differences in Corporate Law—Mergers and Similar Arrangements” for additional details.

Shareholders of Cayman Islands exempted companies like us have no general rights under Cayman Islands law to inspect corporate records or to obtain copies of lists of shareholders of these companies. Our directors have discretion under our existing articles of association to determine whether or not, and under what conditions, our corporate records may be inspected by our shareholders, but are not obliged to make them available to our shareholders. This may make it more difficult for you to obtain the information needed to establish any facts necessary for a shareholder motion or to solicit proxies from other shareholders in connection with a proxy contest.

As a result of all of the above, public shareholders may have more difficulty in protecting their interests in the face of actions taken by management, members of the board of directors or controlling shareholders than they would as public shareholders of a company incorporated in the United States. For a discussion of significant differences between the provisions of the Companies Law of the Cayman Islands and the laws applicable to companies incorporated in the United States and their shareholders, see “Description of Share Capital—Differences in Corporate Law.”

Judgments obtained against us by our shareholders may not be enforceable in our home jurisdiction.

We are a Cayman Islands company and all of our assets are located outside of the United States. Substantially all of our current operations are conducted in China. In addition, a significant majority of our current directors and officers are nationals and residents of countries other than the United States and a substantial portion of their assets are located outside the United States. Substantially all of the assets of these persons are located outside the United States. As a result, it may be difficult or impossible for you to bring an action against us or against these individuals in the United States in the event that you believe that your rights have been infringed under the United States federal securities laws or otherwise. Even if you are successful in bringing an action of this kind, the laws of the Cayman Islands and of China may render you unable to enforce a judgment against our assets or the assets of our directors and officers.

 

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There are uncertainties as to whether Cayman Islands courts would:

 

   

recognize or enforce against us judgments of courts of the United States based on certain civil liability provisions of U.S. securities laws; and

 

   

impose liabilities against us, in original actions brought in the Cayman Islands, based on certain civil liability provisions of U.S. securities laws that are penal in nature.

There is no statutory recognition in the Cayman Islands of judgments obtained in the United States, although the courts of the Cayman Islands will in certain circumstances recognize and enforce a non-penal judgment of a foreign court of competent jurisdiction without retrial on the merits. For more information regarding the relevant laws of the Cayman Islands and China, see “Enforceability of Civil Liabilities.”

We have not determined a specific use for a portion of the net proceeds from this offering, and we may use these proceeds in ways with which you may not agree and such use may not produce income on increase our ADS price.

We have not determined a specific use for a portion of the net proceeds of this offering, and our management will have considerable discretion in deciding how to apply these proceeds. You will not have the opportunity to assess whether the proceeds are being used appropriately before you make your investment decision. You must rely on the judgment of our management regarding the application of the net proceeds of this offering. We cannot assure you that the net proceeds will be used in a manner that would improve our results of operations or increase our ADS price, or that these net proceeds will be placed only in investments that generate income or appreciate in value.

The voting rights of holders of ADSs are limited by the terms of the deposit agreement, and you may not be able to exercise your right to vote your Class A common shares.

As a holder of our ADSs, you will only be able to exercise the voting rights with respect to the underlying Class A common shares in accordance with the provisions of the deposit agreement. Under the deposit agreement, you must vote by giving voting instructions to the depositary. Upon receipt of your voting instructions, the depositary will vote the underlying Class A common shares in accordance with these instructions. You will not be able to directly exercise your right to vote with respect to the underlying shares unless you withdraw the shares. Under our second amended and restated memorandum and articles of association, the minimum notice period required for convening a general meeting is five days. When a general meeting is convened, you may not receive sufficient advance notice to withdraw the shares underlying your ADSs to allow you to vote with respect to any specific matter. If we ask for your instructions, the depositary will notify you of the upcoming vote and will arrange to deliver our voting materials to you. We cannot assure you that you will receive the voting materials in time to ensure that you can instruct the depositary to vote your shares. In addition, the depositary and its agents are not responsible for failing to carry out voting instructions or for their manner of carrying out your voting instructions. This means that you may not be able to exercise your right to vote and you may have no legal remedy if the shares underlying your ADSs are not voted as you requested.

The depositary for our ADSs will give us a discretionary proxy to vote our Class A common shares underlying your ADSs if you do not vote at shareholders’ meetings, except in limited circumstances, which could adversely affect your interests.

Under the deposit agreement for the ADSs, if you do not vote, the depositary will give us a discretionary proxy to vote our Class A common shares underlying your ADSs at shareholders’ meetings unless:

 

   

we have failed to timely provide the depositary with notice of meeting and related voting materials;

 

   

we have instructed the depositary that we do not wish a discretionary proxy to be given;

 

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we have informed the depositary that there is substantial opposition as to a matter to be voted on at the meeting;

 

   

a matter to be voted on at the meeting would have a material adverse impact on shareholders; or

 

   

the voting at the meeting is to be made on a show of hands.

The effect of this discretionary proxy is that if you do not vote at shareholders’ meetings, you cannot prevent our Class A common shares underlying your ADSs from being voted, except under the circumstances described above. This may make it more difficult for shareholders to influence the management of our company. Holders of our common shares are not subject to this discretionary proxy.

Because we do not expect to pay dividends in the foreseeable future after this offering, you must rely on price appreciation of our ADSs for return on your investment.

We currently intend to retain most, if not all, of our available funds and any future earnings after this offering to fund the development and growth of our business. As a result, we do not expect to pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Therefore, you should not rely on an investment in our ADSs as a source for any future dividend income.

Our board of directors has complete discretion as to whether to distribute dividends. Even if our board of directors decides to declare and pay dividends, the timing, amount and form of future dividends, if any, will depend on, among other things, our future results of operations and cash flow, our capital requirements and surplus, the amount of distributions, if any, received by us from our subsidiary, our financial condition, contractual restrictions and other factors deemed relevant by our board of directors. Accordingly, the return on your investment in our ADSs will likely depend entirely upon any future price appreciation of our ADSs. There is no guarantee that our ADSs will appreciate in value after this offering or even maintain the price at which you purchased the ADSs. You may not realize a return on your investment in our ADSs and you may even lose your entire investment in our ADSs.

You may not receive dividends or other distributions on our common shares and you may not receive any value for them, if it is illegal or impractical to make them available to you.

The depositary of our ADSs has agreed to pay to you the cash dividends or other distributions it or the custodian receives on Class A common shares or other deposited securities underlying our ADSs, after deducting its fees and expenses. You will receive these distributions in proportion to the number of Class A common shares your ADSs represent. However, the depositary is not responsible if it decides that it is unlawful or impractical to make a distribution available to any holders of ADSs. For example, it would be unlawful to make a distribution to a holder of ADSs if it consists of securities that require registration under the Securities Act but that are not properly registered or distributed under an applicable exemption from registration. The depositary may also determine that it is not feasible to distribute certain property through the mail. Additionally, the value of certain distributions may be less than the cost of mailing them. In these cases, the depositary may determine not to distribute such property. We have no obligation to register under U.S. securities laws any ADSs, common shares, rights or other securities received through such distributions. We also have no obligation to take any other action to permit the distribution of ADSs, common shares, rights or anything else to holders of ADSs. This means that you may not receive distributions we make on our common shares or any value for them if it is illegal or impractical for us to make them available to you. These restrictions may cause a material decline in the value of our ADSs.

You may not be able to participate in rights offerings and may experience dilution of your holdings.

We may, from time to time, distribute rights to our shareholders, including rights to acquire securities. Under the deposit agreement, the depositary will not distribute rights to holders of ADSs unless the distribution

 

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and sale of rights and the securities to which these rights relate are either exempt from registration under the Securities Act with respect to all holders of ADSs, or are registered under the provisions of the Securities Act. The depositary may, but is not required to, attempt to sell these undistributed rights to third parties, and may allow the rights to lapse. We may be unable to establish an exemption from registration under the Securities Act, and we are under no obligation to file a registration statement with respect to these rights or underlying securities or to endeavor to have a registration statement declared effective. Accordingly, holders of ADSs may be unable to participate in our rights offerings and may experience dilution of their holdings as a result.

You may be subject to limitations on transfer of your ADSs.

Your ADSs are transferable on the books of the depositary. However, the depositary may close its books at any time or from time to time when it deems expedient in connection with the performance of its duties. The depositary may close its books from time to time for a number of reasons, including in connection with corporate events such as a rights offering, during which time the depositary needs to maintain an exact number of ADS holders on its books for a specified period. The depositary may also close its books in emergencies, and on weekends and public holidays. The depositary may refuse to deliver, transfer or register transfers of our ADSs generally when our share register or the books of the depositary are closed, or at any time if we or the depositary thinks that it is advisable to do so because of any requirement of law or of any government or governmental body, or under any provision of the deposit agreement, or for any other reason in accordance with the terms of the deposit agreement. As a result, you may be unable to transfer your ADSs when you wish to.

We will incur increased costs as a result of being a public company, particularly after we cease to qualify as an “emerging growth company”.

Upon completion of this offering, we will become a public company and expect to incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as well as rules subsequently implemented by the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, and the Nasdaq Global Market, impose various requirements on the corporate governance practices of public companies. As a company with less than US$1.0 billion in revenues for our last fiscal year, we qualify as an “emerging growth company” pursuant to the JOBS Act. An emerging growth company may take advantage of specified reduced reporting and other requirements that are otherwise applicable generally to public companies. These provisions include exemption from the auditor attestation requirement under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or Section 404, in the assessment of the emerging growth company’s internal control over financial reporting and permission to delay adopting new or revised accounting standards until such time as those standards apply to private companies. However, we have elected to “opt out” of this provision and, as a result, we will comply with new or revised accounting standards as required when they are adopted for public companies. This decision to opt out of the extended transition period under the JOBS Act is irrevocable.

We expect these rules and regulations to increase our legal and financial compliance costs and to make some corporate activities more time-consuming and costly. After we are no longer an “emerging growth company,” we expect to incur significant expenses and devote substantial management effort toward ensuring compliance with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the other rules and regulations of the SEC. For example, as a result of becoming a public company, we will need to increase the number of independent directors and adopt policies regarding internal controls and disclosure controls and procedures. We also expect that operating as a public company will make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance, and we may be required to accept reduced policy limits and coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain the same or similar coverage. In addition, we will incur additional costs associated with our public company reporting requirements. It may also be more difficult for us to find qualified persons to serve on our board of directors or as executive officers. We are currently evaluating and monitoring developments with respect to these rules and regulations, and we cannot predict or estimate with any degree of certainty the amount of additional costs we may incur or the timing of such costs.

 

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In the past, shareholders of a public company often brought securities class action suits against the company following periods of instability in the market price of that company’s securities. If we were involved in a class action suit, it could divert a significant amount of our management’s attention and other resources from our business and operations, which could harm our results of operations and require us to incur significant expenses to defend the suit. Any such class action suit, whether or not successful, could harm our reputation and restrict our ability to raise capital in the future. In addition, if a claim is successfully made against us, we may be required to pay significant damages, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

 

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CONVENTIONS WHICH APPLY TO THIS PROSPECTUS

Except where the context otherwise requires and for purposes of this prospectus only:

 

   

“we,” “us,” “our company” and “our” refer to YY Inc., a Cayman Islands company, its offshore subsidiaries, Duowan Entertainment Corp., NeoTasks Inc. and NeoTasks Limited, and its PRC direct and indirect subsidiaries, Huanju Shidai Technology (Beijing) Company Limited, Guangzhou Huanju Shidai Information Technology Company Limited and Zhuhai Duowan Information Technology Company Limited, and, in the context of describing our operations and consolidated financial information, also include YY Inc.’s PRC consolidated affiliated entities, Beijing Tuda Science and Technology Company Limited and Guangzhou Huaduo Network Technology Company Limited;

 

   

“active user” for any period means a registered user account that has logged onto YY Client at least once during such relevant period. Active users do not include users of YY.com, Duowan.com and Mobile YY because we cannot track the numbers of active users of YY.com, Duowan.com, and Mobile YY, which, unlike on YY Client, do not require users to log in;

 

   

“concurrent users” for any point in time means the total number of YY users that are simultaneously logged onto YY Client at such point in time;

 

   

“paying user” for any period means a registered user account that has purchased virtual items or other products and services on our platform at least once during the relevant period. A paying user is not necessarily a unique user, however, as a unique user may set up multiple paying user accounts on our platform; thus, the number of paying users referred to in this prospectus may be higher than the number of unique users who are purchasing virtual items or other products and services. Please see “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Business—The respective number of our registered user accounts, active users, paying users and unique visitors may overstate the number of unique individuals who register to use our products and services, log onto YY Client, purchase virtual items or other products and services on our platform or access Duowan.com, respectively, and may therefore lead to an inaccurate interpretation of our average revenue per paying user metric and of our business operations by our management and by investors, and may affect advertisers’ decision on the amount spent on advertising with us;”

 

   

“registered user account” means a user account that has downloaded, registered and logged onto YY Client at least once since registration. We calculate registered user accounts as the cumulative number of user accounts at the end of the relevant period that have logged onto YY Client at least once after registration. Each individual user may have more than one registered user account, and consequently, the number of registered user accounts we present in this prospectus may overstate the number of unique individuals who are our registered users. Please see “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Business—The respective number of our registered user accounts, active users, paying users and unique visitors may overstate the numbers of unique individuals who register to use our products and services, log onto YY Client, purchase virtual items or other products and services on our platform or access Duowan.com, respectively, and may therefore lead to an inaccurate interpretation of our average revenue per paying user metric and of our business operations by our management and by investors, and may affect advertisers’ decision on the amount spent on advertising with us;”

 

   

“unique visitor” to Duowan.com means a visitor to Duowan.com from a specific IP address. We limit the definition to Duowan.com visitors because the unique visitor metric is meaningful only for those seeking to advertise on Duowan.com by allowing them to evaluate the costs and benefits of advertising on Duowan.com. No subsequent visits from the same IP address during a relevant period are added to our total unique visitors count for that period. An individual who accesses Duowan.com from more than one IP address is counted as a unique visitor for each IP address he or she uses. Please see “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Business—The respective number of our registered user accounts,

 

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active users, paying users and unique visitors may overstate the number of unique individuals who register to use our products and services, log onto YY Client, purchase virtual items or other products and services on our platform or access Duowan.com, respectively, and may therefore lead to an inaccurate interpretation of our average revenue per paying user metric and of our business operations by our management and by investors, and may affect advertisers’ decision on the amount spent on advertising with us;” and

 

   

“voice minute” means a minute in which a user is using our voice- or video-enabled services, such as listening to or talking on YY channels.

 

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

AND INDUSTRY DATA

This prospectus contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. All statements other than statements of historical facts are forward-looking statements. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements.

You can identify these forward-looking statements by words or phrases such as “may,” “will,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “aim,” “estimate,” “intend,” “plan,” “believe,” “likely to” or other similar expressions. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy and financial needs. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements about:

 

   

our growth strategies;

 

   

our ability to retain and increase our user base and expand our product and service offerings;

 

   

our ability to monetize our platform;

 

   

our future business development, results of operations and financial condition;

 

   

competition from companies in a number of industries including internet companies that provide online voice and video communications services and social networking companies;

 

   

expected changes in our revenues and certain cost or expense items;

 

   

our expectation regarding the use of proceeds from this offering;

 

   

general economic and business condition in China and elsewhere; and

 

   

assumptions underlying or related to any of the foregoing.

You should read thoroughly this prospectus and the documents that we refer to in this prospectus with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from and worse than what we expect. Other sections of this prospectus include additional factors which could adversely impact our business and financial performance. Moreover, we operate in an evolving environment. New risk factors and uncertainties emerge from time to time and it is not possible for our management to predict all risk factors and uncertainties, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.

You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. We undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

This prospectus also contains statistical data and estimates that we obtained from industry publications and reports generated by third party providers of market intelligence, including the iResearch Report that we commissioned for the purposes of this offering. These industry publications and reports generally indicate that the information contained therein was obtained from sources believed to be reliable, but do not guarantee the accuracy and completeness of such information. Although we believe that the publications and reports are reliable, we make no representation as to the accuracy of such data.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We estimate that we will receive net proceeds from this offering of approximately US$71.5 million, or approximately US$82.9 million if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional ADSs in full, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and the estimated offering expenses payable by us.

The primary purposes of this offering are to create a public market for our shares for the benefit of all shareholders, retain talented employees by providing them with equity incentives and obtain additional capital. We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering for the following purposes:

 

   

approximately US$15.0 million to invest in our voice and video technology and infrastructure, including purchasing servers and leasing more bandwidth to support our expanding user base and further enhancing user experience;

 

   

approximately US$15.0 million to expand our product development and services offerings, including through the hiring of additional research and development personnel and the further development of Mobile YY;

 

   

approximately US$15.0 million to expand our sales and marketing activities, including the hiring of additional sales and marketing personnel; and

 

   

the balance for other general corporate purposes, including working capital needs, potential acquisitions, partnerships, alliances and licensing opportunities.

The amounts and timing of any expenditures will vary depending on the amount of cash generated by our operations, and the rate of growth, if any, of our business. Accordingly, our management will have significant flexibility in applying the net proceeds of the offering. If an unforeseen event occurs or business conditions change, we may use the proceeds of this offering differently than as described in this prospectus.

In utilizing the proceeds from this offering, we are permitted under PRC laws and regulations to provide funding to our PRC subsidiaries only through loans or capital contributions, and only if we satisfy the applicable government registration and approval requirements. We cannot assure you that we will be able to meet these requirements on a timely basis, if at all. See “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Doing Business in China—PRC regulation of direct investment and loans by offshore holding companies to PRC entities may delay or limit us from using the proceeds of this offering to make additional capital contributions or loans to our PRC subsidiaries.”

Pending use of the net proceeds, we intend to hold our net proceeds in demand deposits or invest them in interest-bearing government securities.

 

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DIVIDEND POLICY

We have not previously declared or paid cash dividends and we have no plan to declare or pay any dividends in the near future on our shares or ADSs. We currently intend to retain most, if not all, of our available funds and any future earnings to operate and expand our business.

We are a holding company incorporated in the Cayman Islands. We rely principally on dividends from our PRC subsidiaries for our cash requirements, including any payment of dividends to our shareholders. PRC regulations may restrict the ability of our PRC subsidiaries to pay dividends to us. See “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Corporate Structure and Our Industry—Our PRC subsidiaries and PRC consolidated affiliated entities are subject to restrictions on paying dividends or making other payments to us, which may restrict our ability to satisfy our liquidity requirements.” and “PRC Regulation—Regulation of Foreign Currency Exchange and Dividend Distribution.”

Our board of directors has discretion as to whether to distribute dividends, subject to the approval of our shareholders and applicable laws. Even if our board of directors decides to pay dividends, the form, frequency and amount will depend upon our future operations and earnings, capital requirements and surplus, general financial condition, contractual restrictions and other factors that the board of directors may deem relevant. If we pay any dividends, we will pay our ADS holders to the same extent as holders of our Class A common shares, subject to the terms of the deposit agreement, including the fees and expenses payable thereunder. See “Description of American Depositary Shares.” Cash dividends on our Class A common shares, if any, will be paid in U.S. dollars.

 

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CAPITALIZATION

The following table sets forth our capitalization as of September 30, 2012:

 

   

on an actual basis;

 

   

on a pro forma basis to reflect the automatic conversion of all of our outstanding series A, B, C-1 and C-2 preferred shares into 359,424,310 Class B common shares immediately prior to the completion of this offering; and

 

   

on a pro forma as adjusted basis to reflect (a) the automatic conversion of all of our outstanding series A, B, C-1 and C-2 preferred shares into 359,424,310 Class B common shares immediately prior to the completion of this offering, (b) the issuance of 5,068,000 common shares to certain executive officers upon vesting of their restricted shares in October 2012, which will be automatically converted into Class B common shares upon the completion of this offering and (c) the sale of 156,000,000 Class A common shares represented by 7,800,000 ADSs by us in this offering, after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us (assuming the over-allotment option is not exercised).

You should read this table together with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus and the information under “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”

 

    As of September 30, 2012  
    Actual     Pro forma
(Unaudited)
    Pro
forma
as
adjusted(1)
(Unaudited)
 
   

RMB

   

US$

   

RMB

    US$    

RMB

    US$  
    (in thousands)  

Mezzanine equity:

           

Series A preferred shares (US$0.00001 par value; 136,100,930 shares authorized, issued and outstanding on an actual basis; and none outstanding on a pro forma or pro forma as adjusted basis as of September 30, 2012)

    980,144        155,975        —          —          —          —     

Series B preferred shares (US$0.00001 par value; 102,073,860 shares authorized, issued and outstanding on an actual basis; and none outstanding on a pro forma or pro forma as adjusted basis as of September 30, 2012)

    736,820        117,253        —          —          —          —     

Series C-1 preferred shares (US$0.00001 par value; 16,249,870 shares authorized, issued and outstanding on an actual basis; and none outstanding on a pro forma or pro forma as adjusted basis as of September 30, 2012)

    117,620        18,717        —          —          —          —     

Series C-2 preferred shares (US$0.00001 par value; 104,999,650 shares authorized, issued and outstanding on an actual basis; and none outstanding on a pro forma or pro forma as adjusted basis as of September 30, 2012)

    761,363        121,159        —          —          —          —     

Shareholders’ (deficits) equity:

           

Common shares (US$0.00001 par value; 4,640,575,690 shares authorized, 543,340,914 shares issued and outstanding on an actual basis; nil Class A common shares and 902,765,224 Class B common shares issued and outstanding on a pro forma basis and 156,000,000 Class A common shares and 907,833,224 Class B common shares issued and outstanding on a pro forma as adjusted basis)

    37        6        61        10        74        12   

Additional paid-in capital

    543,829        86,542        3,139,752        499,642        3,588,838        571,107   

Accumulated deficits

    (2,377,654     (378,366     (2,377,654     (378,366     (2,377,654     (378,366

Accumulated other comprehensive losses

    (9,049     (1,443     (9,049     (1,443     (9,049     (1,443
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total shareholders’ (deficits) equity

    (1,842,837     (293,261     753,110        119,843        1,202,209        191,310   

Total capitalization

    753,110        119,843        753,110        119,843        1,202,209        191,310   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

(1) The pro forma as adjusted information discussed above is illustrative only.

 

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DILUTION

If you invest in our ADSs, your interest will be diluted to the extent of the difference between the initial public offering price per ADS and our net tangible book value per ADS after this offering. Dilution results from the fact that the initial public offering price per Class A common share is substantially in excess of the book value per common share attributable to the existing shareholders for our presently outstanding common shares and holders of our outstanding series A, B, C-1 and C-2 preferred shares which will automatically convert into our Class B common shares upon the completion of this offering.

Our net tangible book value as of September 30, 2012 was approximately US$0.21 per common share and US$4.20 per ADS. Net tangible book value per common share represents the amount of total tangible assets, minus the amount of total liabilities, divided by the total number of common shares outstanding. Dilution is determined by subtracting net tangible book value per common share from the public offering price per Class A common share, after giving effect to the conversion of all outstanding preferred shares into Class B common shares immediately upon the completion of this offering and the net proceeds we will receive from this offering, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

Without taking into account any other changes in such net tangible book value after September 30, 2012, other than to give effect to (1) the planned automatic conversion of all of our issued and outstanding series A, B, C-1 and C-2 preferred shares and common shares into the equivalent number of Class B common shares, which will occur automatically immediately prior to the completion of this offering, (2) the issuance of 5,068,000 common shares to certain executive officers upon vesting of their restricted shares in October 2012, which will be automatically converted into Class B common shares upon the completion of this offering and (3) our issuance and sale of 156,000,000 Class A common shares represented by 7,800,000 ADSs in this offering, at an initial public offering price of US$10.50 per ADS, and after deduction of underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us (assuming the over-allotment option is not exercised), our pro forma net tangible book value at September 30, 2012 would have been US$0.18 per outstanding common share or US$3.50 per ADS. This represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value of US$0.05 per common share, or US$1.00 per ADS, to existing shareholders and an immediate dilution in net tangible book value of US$0.35 per Class A common share, or US$7.00 per ADS, to purchasers of ADSs in this offering.

The following table illustrates the dilution on a per common share basis assuming all ADSs are exchanged for Class A common shares:

 

Initial public offering price per Class A common share

   US$ 0.53   

Net tangible book value per common share as of September 30, 2012

   US$ 0.21   

Pro forma net tangible book value per common share after giving effect to the automatic conversion of all of our outstanding preferred shares as of September 30, 2012

   US$ 0.13   

Pro forma net tangible book value per common share as adjusted to give effect to the automatic conversion of all of our outstanding preferred shares and this offering as of September 30, 2012

   US$ 0.18   

Amount of dilution in net tangible book value per Class A common share to new investors in the offering

   US$ 0.35   

Amount of dilution in net tangible book value per ADS to new investors in the offering

   US$ 7.00   
  

 

 

 

The pro forma information discussed above is illustrative only.

 

 

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The following table summarizes, on a pro forma basis as of September 30, 2012, the differences between the shareholders as of September 30, 2012, including holders of our preferred shares and taking into account holders of 5,068,000 common shares issued to certain executive officers for vested restricted shares in October 2012 that will be automatically converted into Class B common shares upon the completion of this offering, and the new investors with respect to the number of Class A common shares purchased from us, the total consideration paid and the average price per Class A common share paid at the initial public offering price of US$10.50 per ADS before deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses. The total number of common shares does not include Class A common shares underlying the ADSs issuable upon the exercise of the option to purchase additional ADSs granted to the underwriters.

 

     Common Shares
Purchased
     Total
Consideration
     Average
Price Per
Common
Share
     Average
Price Per
ADS
 
     Number      Percent      Amount (US$)      Percent      US$      US$  

Existing shareholders

     937,933,224         88.2         108,691,854         62.2         0.12         2.40   

New investors

     125,900,000         11.8         66,097,500         37.8         0.53         10.50   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

       

Total

     1,063,833,224         100.0         174,789,354         100.0         
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

       

If the underwriters were to fully exercise the over-allotment option to purchase additional Class A common shares from us, the percentage of our common shares owned by existing shareholders would be 86.3%, and the percentage of our common shares held by new investors would be 13.7%.

The discussion and tables above assume that there has been no exercise of any outstanding stock options and that the conditions have not been satisfied for the removal of any restrictions on any other outstanding share-based awards, including restricted shares and restricted share units, as of the date of this prospectus. As of the date of this prospectus, there were 92,601,778 Class A common shares issuable upon (i) the exercise of outstanding stock options at a weighted average exercise price of US$0.0055 per Class A common share and (ii) the satisfaction of conditions and the removal of restrictions applicable to outstanding issuable restricted shares and restricted share units, and there were 63,497,168 Class A common shares available for future issuance upon the exercise of future option grants or the vesting of future restricted shares and restricted share units. The number of shares available for future issuance presented herein does not take into consideration the annual increase of up to 20,000,000 Class A common shares that the board may add to the authorized pool of awards under the 2011 Plan beginning in 2013. To the extent that (i) any of these options are exercised or (ii) the conditions for the vesting of any restricted shares or restricted share units are satisfied and applicable restrictions are removed, there will be further dilution to new investors.

 

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EXCHANGE RATE INFORMATION

Our reporting currency is the Renminbi because our business is primarily conducted in China and substantially all of our revenues are denominated in Renminbi. This prospectus contains translations of Renminbi amounts into U.S. dollars at specific rates solely for the convenience of the reader. The conversion of Renminbi into U.S. dollars in this prospectus is based on the rate certified for customs purposes by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Translation of financial data as of or for the year ended December 31, 2011 were made at a rate of RMB6.2939 to US$1.00, the exchange rate in effect as of December 30, 2011. Unless otherwise noted, all other translations from Renminbi to U.S. dollars and from U.S. dollars to Renminbi in this prospectus were made at a rate of RMB6.2840 to US$1.00, the rate in effect as of October 1, 2012. We make no representation that any Renminbi or U.S. dollar amounts could have been, or could be, converted into U.S. dollars or Renminbi, as the case may be, at any particular rate, the rates stated below, or at all. The PRC government imposes control over its foreign currency reserves in part through direct regulation of the conversion of Renminbi into foreign exchange and through restrictions on foreign trade. On November 16, 2012, the rate was RMB6.2354 to US$1.00.

The following table sets forth information concerning exchange rates between the Renminbi and the U.S. dollar for the periods indicated. These rates are provided solely for your convenience and are not necessarily the exchange rates that we used in this prospectus or will use in the preparation of our periodic reports or any other information to be provided to you.

 

     Certified Exchange Rate  

Period

   Period End      Average(1)      Low      High  
     (RMB per US$1.00)  

2007

     7.2946         7.5806         7.8127         7.2946   

2008

     6.8225         6.9193         7.2946         6.7800   

2009

     6.8259         6.8295         6.8470         6.8176   

2010

     6.6000         6.7603         6.8102         6.6000   

2011

     6.2939         6.4475         6.6364         6.2939   

2012

           

May

     6.3684         6.3242         6.3684         6.3052   

June

     6.3530         6.3633         6.3703         6.3530   

July

     6.3610         6.3717         6.3879         6.3487   

August

     6.3484         6.3593         6.3738         6.3484   

September

     6.2848         6.3200         6.3489         6.2848   

October

     6.2372         6.2627         6.2877         6.2372   

November (through November 16)

     6.2354         6.2383         6.2454         6.2250   

 

Source: Federal Reserve Statistical Release

 

(1) Annual averages were calculated by using the average of the exchange rates on the last day of each month during the relevant year. Monthly averages are calculated by using the average of the daily rates during the relevant month.

 

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ENFORCEABILITY OF CIVIL LIABILITIES

We were incorporated in the Cayman Islands in order to enjoy the following benefits:

 

   

political and economic stability;

 

   

a favorable tax system;

 

   

the absence of exchange control or currency restrictions; and

 

   

the availability of professional and support services.

However, certain disadvantages accompany incorporation in the Cayman Islands. These disadvantages include, but are not limited to, the following:

 

   

the Cayman Islands has a less developed body of securities laws as compared to the United States and these securities laws provide significantly less protection to investors; and

 

   

Cayman Islands companies may not have standing to sue before the federal courts of the United States.

Our constituent documents do not contain provisions requiring that disputes, including those arising under the securities laws of the United States, between us, our officers, directors and shareholders, be arbitrated. Under the deposit agreement with our depositary, Deutsche Bank Trust Company Americas, the federal or state courts in the City of New York shall have non-exclusive jurisdiction over any suit, action, proceeding or dispute that may arise out of or in connection with the deposit agreement, and with regard to any claim or dispute arising from the relationship created by the deposit agreement, the depositary, in its sole discretion, is entitled to refer such dispute or difference for final settlement by arbitration, with the seat and place of the arbitration being New York, New York State. Moreover, under the contractual arrangements that we entered into with Beijing Tuda and Guangzhou Huaduo, any disputes arising from those contracts that cannot be resolved through friendly negotiations will be resolved through arbitration conducted through the China International Economic and Trade Arbitration Commission in Beijing or Shanghai.

Our PRC legal counsel, Zhong Lun Law Firm, has advised us that in the event that a shareholder originates an action against a company in China for disputes related to contracts or other property interests, the PRC court may accept a course of action based on the laws or the parties’ express mutual agreement in contracts choosing PRC courts for dispute resolution if (a) the contract is signed and/or performed within the PRC, (b) the subject of the action is located within the PRC, (c) the company (as defendant) has seizable properties within the PRC, (d) the company has a representative organization within the PRC, or (e) other circumstances prescribed under the PRC law. The action may be initiated by a shareholder through filing a complaint with the PRC court. The PRC court will determine whether to accept the complaint in accordance with the PRC Civil Procedures Law. The shareholder may participate in the action by itself or entrust any other person or PRC legal counsel to participate on its behalf. Foreign citizens and companies will have the same rights as PRC citizens and companies in an action unless the home jurisdiction of such foreign citizens or companies restricts the rights of PRC citizens and companies.

Conyers Dill & Pearman, our legal counsel as to Cayman Islands law, has also advised us that a shareholder may commence an action against persons who have allegedly wronged the company, where the company itself has failed to enforce such claim against such persons directly. Such action is brought on the basis of a primary right of the corporation, but is asserted by a shareholder on behalf of the company commonly known as a “derivative action.” Generally, claims against a company by its shareholders must be based on the general laws of contract or tort applicable in the Cayman Islands or their individual rights as shareholders as established by the company’s articles of association. Civil proceedings are generally commenced by originating process (by writ or originating summons). A shareholder may commence proceedings in the Cayman Islands and may instruct an attorney to act on the shareholder’s behalf. Service of proceedings on the company is effected through the

 

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delivery of the originating process at the registered office of the company. There are no particular formalities that a non-resident shareholder must comply with to initiate and commence proceedings in the Cayman Islands.

All of our operations are conducted outside the United States, and substantially all of our assets are located outside the United States. A significant majority of our directors and officers are nationals or residents of jurisdictions other than the United States and a substantial portion of their assets are located outside the United States. As a result, it may be difficult for a shareholder to effect service of process within the United States upon these persons, or to enforce against us or them judgments obtained in United States courts, including judgments predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the United States or any state in the United States. It may also be difficult for you to enforce in Cayman Islands courts judgments obtained in United States courts based on the civil liability provisions of the United States federal securities laws against us and our officers and directors.

We have appointed Law Debenture Corporate Services Inc. as our agent upon whom process may be served in any action brought against us under the securities laws of the United States.

Conyers Dill & Pearman, our legal counsel as to Cayman Islands law, and Zhong Lun Law Firm, our legal counsel as to PRC law, have advised us, respectively, that there is uncertainty as to whether the courts of the Cayman Islands and China, respectively, would:

 

   

recognize or enforce judgments of United States courts obtained against us or our directors or officers predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the United States or any state in the United States; or

 

   

entertain original actions brought in each respective jurisdiction against us or our directors or officers predicated upon the securities laws of the United States or any state in the United States.

There is uncertainty with regard to Cayman Islands law relates to whether a judgment obtained from the United States courts under civil liability provisions of the securities laws will be determined by the courts of the Cayman Islands as penal or punitive in nature. If such a determination is made, the courts of the Cayman Islands will not recognize or enforce the judgment against a Cayman company. Because the courts of the Cayman Islands have yet to rule on whether such judgments are penal or punitive in nature, it is uncertain whether they would be enforceable in the Cayman Islands. Conyers Dill & Pearman has advised us that the courts of the Cayman Islands would recognize as a valid judgment, a final and conclusive judgment in personam obtained in the federal or state courts of the United States against us under which a sum of money is payable (other than a sum of money payable in respect of multiple damages, taxes or other charges of a like nature or in respect of a fine or other penalty) or, in certain circumstances, an in personam judgment for non-monetary relief, and would give a judgment based thereon provided that (a) such courts had proper jurisdiction over the parties subject to such judgment; (b) such courts did not contravene the rules of natural justice of the Cayman Islands; (c) such judgment was not obtained by fraud; (d) the enforcement of the judgment would not be contrary to the public policy of the Cayman Islands; (e) no new admissible evidence relevant to the action is submitted prior to the rendering of the judgment by the courts of the Cayman Islands; and (f) there is due compliance with the correct procedures under the laws of the Cayman Islands.

Zhong Lun Law Firm has further advised us that the recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments are provided for under PRC Civil Procedures Law. PRC courts may recognize and enforce foreign judgments in accordance with the requirements of PRC Civil Procedures Law based either on treaties between China and the country where the judgment is rendered or on reciprocity between the jurisdictions. China does not have any treaties or other form of reciprocity with the United States or the Cayman Islands that provide for the reciprocal recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments. In addition, according to the PRC Civil Procedures Law, courts in the PRC will not enforce a foreign judgment against us or our directors and officers if they decide that the judgment violates the basic principles of PRC law or national sovereignty, security or public interest. A judgment that does not violate the basic principles of PRC law or national sovereignty, security or public

 

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interest may be recognized and enforced by a PRC court base on treaties between China and the country where the judgment is made or on principles of reciprocity between jurisdictions. However, as of the date of this prospectus, no treaty or other form of reciprocity exists between China and the United States or the Cayman Islands governing the recognition and enforcement of judgments. As a result, it is uncertain whether and on what basis a PRC court would enforce a judgment rendered by a court in the United States or the Cayman Islands.

 

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CORPORATE HISTORY AND STRUCTURE

We commenced operations in April 2005 with the establishment of Guangzhou Huaduo Network Technology Company Limited, or Guangzhou Huaduo, in China. Guangzhou Huaduo later became one of our PRC consolidated affiliated entities through the contractual arrangements described below.

We established Dokhi Investments Limited in the British Virgin Islands, or BVI, in July 2006 and changed its name to Duowan Limited in September 2006. In August 2006, we established Double Top Limited, which is wholly owned by Dokhi Investments Limited, in Hong Kong and changed its name to Duowan (Hong Kong) Limited in September 2006. In April 2007, we established Guangzhou Duowan Information Technology Company Limited, or Guangzhou Duowan, which was wholly owned by Duowan (Hong Kong) Limited. Guangzhou Duowan entered into a series of contractual arrangements with Guangzhou Huaduo and its shareholders, which were subsequently amended solely to reflect updated shareholder equity interests in Guangzhou Huaduo, through which Guangzhou Duowan exercised effective control over the operations of Guangzhou Huaduo.

In November 2007, we established Duowan Entertainment Corp., or Duowan BVI, in the BVI. In March 2008, we established Huanju Shidai Technology (Beijing) Company Limited, formerly known as Duowan Entertainment Information Technology (Beijing) Company Limited, or Beijing Huanju Shidai, which is wholly owned by Duowan BVI. Beijing Huanju Shidai purchased all the equity interests in Guangzhou Duowan from Duowan (Hong Kong) Limited in August 2008, and entered into a series of contractual arrangements with Guangzhou Huaduo and its shareholders through which Beijing Huanju Shidai exercises effective control over the operations of Guangzhou Huaduo. Duowan (Hong Kong) Limited was deregistered as a company and ceased to operate in May 2010.

In December 2008, Duowan BVI entered into an agreement with Morningside Technology Investments Limited and two individuals, through which Duowan BVI purchased all the equity interests in NeoTasks Inc. from Morningside Technology Investments Limited.

In March 2009, Beijing Huanju Shidai entered into an agreement with NeoTasks New Age International Media Technology (Beijing) Company Limited, or NeoTasks Beijing, through which NeoTasks Beijing was merged into Beijing Huanju Shidai. After the merger and additional capital contribution, Beijing Huanju Shidai became 96.5% held by Duowan BVI, and 3.5% held by NeoTasks Limited (formerly known as Enlight Online Entertainment Limited), a Hong Kong company, which in turn was the shareholder of NeoTasks Beijing before the merger. NeoTasks Limited is 100% owned by NeoTasks Inc., a Cayman Islands Company. In August 2009, Guangzhou Duowan was renamed Zhuhai Duowan Information Technology Company Limited.

In December 2009, Beijing Huanju Shidai entered into a series of contractual agreements with Beijing Tuda and its shareholders, which were subsequently amended solely to reflect updated shareholder equity interests in Beijing Tuda, through which agreements Beijing Huanju Shidai exercises effective control over the operations of Beijing Tuda.

In December 2010, we established Guangzhou Huanju Shidai Information Technology Company Limited, formerly known as Zhuhai Duowan Technology Company Limited, or Guangzhou Huanju Shidai, which is 100% directly owned by Duowan BVI.

Guangzhou Huaduo currently owns the domain names of YY.com and Duowan.com. Our YY platform, including YY.com, is jointly operated by personnel from Guangzhou Huaduo and Zhuhai Duowan.

Our current holding company, YY Inc., was incorporated in July 2011 as a limited liability company in the Cayman Islands. Through a share exchange on September 6, 2011, the shareholders of Duowan BVI exchanged all of their outstanding common and preferred shares in Duowan BVI for common and preferred shares of YY

 

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Inc. on a pro rata basis. No additional consideration was paid in connection with the share exchange. As a result, Duowan BVI became a wholly owned subsidiary of YY Inc.

The following diagram illustrates our corporate structure upon the completion of this offering, assuming that the underwriters do not exercise their option to purchase additional ADSs:

 

LOGO

 

(1) Upon the completion of this offering, our senior management and other existing shareholders will own an aggregate of 98.6% of the total voting power of our outstanding shares.
(2) Formerly known as Zhuhai Duowan Technology Company Limited.
(3) Formerly known as Duowan Entertainment Information Technology (Beijing) Company Limited.
(4) Beijing Tuda is our PRC consolidated affiliated entity. Mr. David Xueling Li, our co-founder, chief executive officer and director, Mr. Tony Bin Zhao, our chief technology officer, and Mr. Jin Cao, the general manager of our website department, own 97.7%, 1.5% and 0.8% of Beijing Tuda’s equity interests, respectively.
(5) Guangzhou Huaduo is our PRC consolidated affiliated entity. Mr. David Xueling Li, Mr. Jun Lei, our co-founder and chairman, Mr. Tony Bin Zhao, Mr. Jin Cao and Beijing Tuda own approximately 1.7%, 1.5%, 0.1%, 0.1% and 96.6% of Guangzhou Huaduo’s equity interests, respectively.

 

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Contractual Arrangements with Beijing Tuda

The following is a summary of the currently effective contracts among our subsidiary, Beijing Huanju Shidai, our PRC consolidated affiliated entity, Beijing Tuda, and the shareholders of Beijing Tuda.

Agreements that transfer economic benefits to us

Exclusive Business Cooperation Agreement

Under the exclusive business cooperation agreement between Beijing Huanju Shidai and Beijing Tuda, as amended, Beijing Huanju Shidai has the exclusive right to provide to Beijing Tuda technology support, business support and consulting services related to Beijing Tuda’s business, the scope of which is to be determined by Beijing Huanju Shidai from time to time. Beijing Huanju Shidai owns the exclusive intellectual property rights created as a result of the performance of this agreement. The service fee payable by Beijing Tuda to Beijing Huanju Shidai is up to 100% of the net profit of Beijing Tuda, and the timing and amount of the fee payments shall be determined at the sole discretion of Beijing Huanju Shidai. The term of this agreement will expire in 2039 and may be extended with Beijing Huanju Shidai’s written confirmation prior to the expiration date. Beijing Huanju Shidai has sole discretion to terminate the agreement at any time by providing 30 days’ prior written notice to Beijing Tuda, while neither Beijing Tuda nor its shareholders are entitled to terminate the agreement.

Exclusive Technology Support and Technology Services Agreement

Under the exclusive technology support and technology services agreement between Beijing Huanju Shidai and Beijing Tuda, as amended, Beijing Huanju Shidai has the exclusive right to provide to Beijing Tuda technology support and technology services related to all technologies needed for its business. Beijing Huanju Shidai owns the exclusive intellectual property rights created as a result of the performance of this agreement. The service fee payable by Beijing Tuda to Beijing Huanju Shidai is 10% of Beijing Tuda’s gross revenues. The term of this agreement will expire in 2029 and may be extended with Beijing Huanju Shidai’s written confirmation prior to the expiration date. Beijing Huanju Shidai has sole discretion to terminate the agreement at any time by providing 30 days’ prior written notice to Beijing Tuda, while neither Beijing Tuda nor its shareholders are entitled to terminate the agreement.

Agreements that provide us effective control over Beijing Tuda

Powers of Attorney

Under the irrevocable powers of attorney executed by each shareholder of Beijing Tuda, each such shareholder appointed Beijing Huanju Shidai as its attorney-in-fact to exercise such shareholders’ rights in Beijing Tuda, including, without limitation, the power to vote on its behalf on all matters of Beijing Tuda requiring shareholder approval under PRC laws and regulations and the articles of association of Beijing Tuda. Each power of attorney will remain in force until the shareholder ceases to hold any equity interest in Beijing Tuda.

Exclusive Option Agreement

Under the exclusive option agreement between Beijing Huanju Shidai, each of the shareholders of Beijing Tuda and Beijing Tuda, each of the shareholders irrevocably granted Beijing Huanju Shidai or its designated representative(s) an exclusive option to purchase, to the extent permitted under PRC law, all or part of his or its equity interests in Beijing Tuda. Beijing Huanju Shidai or its designated representative(s) have sole discretion as to when to exercise such options, either in part or in full. Without Beijing Huanju Shidai’s prior written consent, Beijing Tuda’s shareholders shall not sell, transfer, mortgage or otherwise dispose their equity interests in Beijing Tuda. The term of this agreement is ten years and may be extended at Beijing Huanju Shidai’s sole discretion.

 

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Equity Interest Pledge Agreement

Under the equity interest pledge agreement between Beijing Huanju Shidai and the shareholders of Beijing Tuda, the shareholders of Beijing Tuda have pledged all of their equity interests in Beijing Tuda to Beijing Huanju Shidai to guarantee the performance by Beijing Tuda and its shareholders’ performance of their respective obligations under the exclusive business cooperation agreement, exclusive option agreement, exclusive technology support and technology services agreement and powers of attorney. If Beijing Tuda or its shareholders breach their contractual obligations under those agreements, Beijing Huanju Shidai, as the pledgee, will be entitled to certain rights, including the right to sell the pledged equity interests. This pledge became effective on the date the pledged equity interests were registered with the competent administration for industry and commerce and will remain effective until the pledgors are no longer the shareholders of Beijing Tuda.

Contractual Arrangements with Guangzhou Huaduo

The following is a summary of the currently effective contracts among Beijing Huanju Shidai, Guangzhou Huaduo and the shareholders of Guangzhou Huaduo.

Agreements that transfer economic benefits to us

Exclusive Business Cooperation Agreement

Under the exclusive business cooperation agreement between Beijing Huanju Shidai and Guangzhou Huaduo, as amended, Beijing Huanju Shidai has the exclusive right to provide to Guangzhou Huaduo technology support, business support and consulting services related to Guangzhou Huaduo’s business, the scope of which is to be determined by Beijing Huanju Shidai from time to time. Beijing Huanju Shidai owns the exclusive intellectual property rights created as a result of the performance of this agreement. The service fee payable by Guangzhou Huaduo to Beijing Huanju Shidai is up to 100% of the net profit of Guangzhou Huaduo, and the timing and amount of the fee payments will be determined at the sole discretion of Beijing Huanju Shidai. The term of this agreement will expire in 2038 and may be extended with Beijing Huanju Shidai’s written confirmation prior to the expiration date. Beijing Huanju Shidai has sole discretion to terminate the agreement at any time by providing 30 days’ prior written notice to Guangzhou Huaduo, while neither Guangzhou Huaduo nor its shareholders are entitled to terminate the agreement.

Exclusive Technology Support and Technology Services Agreement

Under the exclusive technology support and technology services agreement between Beijing Huanju Shidai and Guangzhou Huaduo, as amended, Beijing Huanju Shidai has the exclusive right to provide to Guangzhou Beijing Huaduo technology support and technology services related to all technologies needed for its business. Huanju Shidai owns the exclusive intellectual property rights created as a result of the performance of this agreement. The service fee payable by Guangzhou Huaduo to Beijing Huanju Shidai is 10% of Guangzhou Huaduo’s gross revenues. The term of this agreement will expire in 2028 and may be extended with Beijing Huanju Shidai’s written confirmation prior to the expiration date. Beijing Huanju Shidai has sole discretion to terminate the agreement at any time by providing 30 days’ prior written notice to Guangzhou Huaduo, while neither Guangzhou Huaduo nor its shareholders are entitled to terminate the agreement.

Agreements that provide us effective control over Guangzhou Huaduo

Powers of Attorney

Under the irrevocable powers of attorney executed by each shareholder of Guangzhou Huaduo, each such shareholder appointed Beijing Huanju Shidai as its attorney-in-fact to exercise such shareholders’ rights in Guangzhou Huaduo, including, without limitation, the power to vote on its behalf on all matters of Guangzhou Huaduo requiring shareholder approval under PRC laws and regulations and the articles of association of Guangzhou Huaduo. Each power of attorney will remain in force until the shareholder ceases to hold any equity interest in Guangzhou Huaduo.

 

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Exclusive Option Agreement

Under the exclusive option agreement between Beijing Huanju Shidai, each of the shareholders of Guangzhou Huaduo and Guangzhou Huaduo, each of the shareholders irrevocably granted Beijing Huanju Shidai or its designated representative(s) an exclusive option to purchase, to the extent permitted under PRC law, all or part of his or its equity interests in Guangzhou Huaduo. Beijing Huanju Shidai or its designated representative(s) have sole discretion as to when to exercise such options, either in part or in full. Without Beijing Huanju Shidai’s prior written consent, Guangzhou Huaduo’s shareholders shall not sell, transfer, mortgage or otherwise dispose their equity interests in Guangzhou Huaduo. The term of this agreement is ten years and may be extended at Beijing Huanju Shidai’s sole discretion.

Equity Interest Pledge Agreement

Under the equity interest pledge agreement between Beijing Huanju Shidai and the shareholders of Guangzhou Huaduo, the shareholders of Guangzhou Huaduo have pledged all of their equity interests in Guangzhou Huaduo to Beijing Huanju Shidai to guarantee the performance by Guangzhou Huaduo and its shareholders’ performance of their respective obligations under the exclusive business cooperation agreement, exclusive option agreement, exclusive technology support and technology services agreement and powers of attorney. If Guangzhou Huaduo and/or its shareholders breach their contractual obligations under those agreements, Beijing Huanju Shidai, as the pledgee, will be entitled to certain rights, including the right to sell the pledged equity interests. The pledge became effective on the date the pledged equity interests were registered with the competent administration for industry and commerce and will remain effective until the pledgors are no longer the shareholders of Guangzhou Huaduo.

In the opinion of our PRC legal counsel:

 

   

the ownership structures of our PRC consolidated affiliated entities and our PRC subsidiaries in China, both currently and after giving effect to this offering, comply with all existing PRC laws and regulations; and

 

   

the contractual arrangements among Beijing Huanju Shidai, Guangzhou Huaduo and its shareholders and the contractual arrangements among Beijing Huanju Shidai, Beijing Tuda and its shareholders governed by PRC law are valid, binding and enforceable, and will not result in any violation of PRC laws or regulations currently in effect.

 

   

each of our PRC subsidiaries and each of our PRC consolidated affiliated entities has all necessary corporate power and authority to conduct its business as described in its business scope under its business license. The business licenses of each of our PRC subsidiaries and each of our PRC consolidated affiliated entities are in full force and effect. Each of our PRC subsidiaries and each of our PRC consolidated affiliated entities is capable of suing and being sued and may be the subject of any legal proceedings in PRC courts. To the best of our PRC legal counsel’s knowledge after due inquiries, none of our PRC subsidiaries, PRC consolidated affiliated entities or their respective assets is entitled to any immunity, on the grounds of sovereignty, from any action, suit or other legal proceedings; or from enforcement, execution or attachment.

We have been advised by our PRC legal counsel, however, that there are substantial uncertainties regarding the interpretation and application of current and future PRC laws, regulations and rules. Accordingly, the PRC regulatory authorities may take a view that is contrary to the above opinion of our PRC legal counsel. We have been further advised by our PRC legal counsel that if the PRC government finds that the agreements that establish the structure for operating our internet-based business do not comply with PRC government restrictions on foreign investment in the aforesaid business we engage in, we could be subject to severe penalties including being prohibited from continuing operations. See “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Corporate Structure and Our Industry—If the PRC government finds that the structure we have adopted for our business operations does not comply with PRC laws and regulations, or if these laws or regulations or interpretations of existing laws or

regulations change in the future, we could be subject to severe penalties, including the shutting down of our platform and our business operations.”

 

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SELECTED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL DATA

The following selected consolidated statements of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2009, 2010 and 2011 and the selected balance sheet data as of December 31, 2010 and 2011 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. Our consolidated financial statements are prepared and presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP. The selected consolidated statements of operations data for the nine months ended September 30, 2011 and 2012 and the selected consolidated balance sheet data as of September 30, 2012 have been derived from our unaudited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. The unaudited consolidated financial statements have been prepared on the same basis as our audited consolidated financial statements and include all adjustments, consisting only of normal and recurring adjustments, that we consider necessary for a fair presentation of our financial position and operating results for the periods presented. Our historical results for any period are not necessarily indicative of results to be expected for any future period. You should read the following selected financial information in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and related notes and the information under “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included elsewhere in this prospectus.

 

    For the Year Ended December 31,     For the Nine Months Ended September 30,  
    2009     2010     2011             2011                      2012           
    RMB     RMB     RMB     US$    

RMB

   

RMB

   

US$

 
                            (Unaudited)        
    (in thousands, except for share and per share data)  

Selected Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:

             

Internet value-added service

             

—Online game

    12,976        86,316        165,933        26,380        113,368        234,239        37,275   

—YY Music

    —          —          52,854        8,403        27,439        180,301        28,692   

—Others

    853        1,282        13,589        2,161        5,010        54,825        8,725   

Online advertising

    18,881        40,740        87,279        13,876        60,904        83,840        13,342   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total net revenues

    32,710        128,338        319,655        50,820        206,721        553,205        88,034   

Cost of revenues(1)

    (28,849     (110,062     (182,699     (29,046     (126,703     (277,194     (44,112
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Gross profit

    3,861        18,276        136,956        21,774        80,018        276,011        43,922   

Operating expenses(1):

             

Research and development expenses

    (12,597     (49,219     (106,804     (16,980     (74,109     (122,603     (19,510

Sales and marketing expenses

    (4,951     (12,363     (13,381     (2,127     (10,622     (10,993     (1,749

General and administrative expenses

    (32,878     (192,222     (118,241     (18,798     (88,775     (76,046     (12,102
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total operating expenses

    (50,426     (253,804     (238,426     (37,905     (173,506     (209,642     (33,361
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating (loss) income

    (46,565     (235,528     (99,488     (15,816     (93,488     67,673        10,769   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

(Loss) income before income tax expenses

    (46,534     (236,023     (80,455     (12,791     (80,639     75,862        12,072   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net (loss) income attributable to YY Inc.

    (47,116     (238,857     (83,156     (13,221     (87,181     55,950        8,904   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Amortization of beneficial conversion feature

    (237     —          —          —          —          —          —     

Accretion to convertible redeemable preferred shares redemption value

    (283,179     (1,808,853     (223,663     (35,559     (200,742     (115,013     (18,303

Deemed dividend to series A preferred shareholders

    (19     —          —          —          —          —          —     

Deemed dividend to series B preferred shareholders

    (176     —          —          —          —          —          —     
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net loss attributable to common shareholders

    (330,727     (2,047,710     (306,819     (48,780     (287,923     (59,063     (9,399
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Weighted average number of common shares used in calculating:

             

Basic

    407,613,328        406,304,672        485,883,845        485,883,845        477,970,805        542,521,102        542,521,102   

Diluted

    407,613,328        406,304,672        485,883,845        485,883,845        477,970,805        542,521,102        542,521,102   

Net loss per share:

             

Basic

    (0.81     (5.04     (0.63     (0.10     (0.60     (0.11     (0.02

Diluted

    (0.81     (5.04     (0.63     (0.10     (0.60     (0.11     (0.02

 

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(1) Share-based compensation was allocated in cost of revenues and operating expenses as follows:

 

     For the Year Ended
December 31,
     For the Nine Months Ended
September 30,
 
     2009      2010      2011          2011              2012      
     RMB      RMB      RMB      US$     

RMB

    

RMB

    

US$

 
                         

(Unaudited)

 
     (in thousands)  

Cost of revenues

     5,269         31,709         15,449         2,456         12,773         6,315         1,005   

Research and development expenses

     2,475         21,627         31,672         5,035         23,641         26,312         4,187   

Sales and marketing expenses

     194         1,499         1,336         212         1,024         668         106   

General and administrative expenses

     28,544         182,101         86,544         13,759         69,048         41,454         6,597   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

     36,482         236,936         135,001         21,462         106,486         74,749         11,895   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

    As of December 31,     As of September 30,  
    2009     2010     2011     2012  
    RMB     RMB     RMB     US$     RMB     US$     RMB     US$     RMB     US$  
    Actual     Actual     Actual     Actual    

Actual

   

Actual

   

Pro forma(1)

(Unaudited)

   

Pro forma(1)

(Unaudited)

   

Pro forma as
adjusted(2)

(Unaudited)

   

Pro forma as
adjusted(2)

(Unaudited)

 
   

(in thousands)

 

Selected Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:

                   

Cash and cash equivalents

    106,427        83,683        128,891        20,491        317,997        50,604        317,997        50,604        767,096        122,071   

Total assets

    131,003        158,767        745,426        118,510        1,028,712        163,702        1,028,712        163,702        1,477,811        235,172   

Total current liabilities

    52,757        253,001        125,737        19,990        273,341        43,499        273,341        43,499        273,341        43,499   

Total mezzanine equity

    448,418        2,257,271        2,480,934        394,425        2,595,947        413,104        —          —          —          —     

Accumulated deficits

    (370,045     (2,350,448     (2,433,604     (386,900     (2,377,654     (378,366     (2,377,654     (378,366     (2,377,654     (378,366

Total shareholders’ (deficits) equity

    (370,172     (2,351,505     (1,861,693     (295,976     (1,842,837     (293,261     753,110        119,843        1,202,209        191,310   

 

(1) The unaudited consolidated balance sheet data as of September 30, 2012 on a pro forma basis reflect the automatic conversion of all of our outstanding series A, B, C-1 and C-2 preferred shares into 359,424,310 Class B common shares immediately prior to the completion of this offering.
(2) The unaudited consolidated balance sheet data as of September 30, 2012 on a pro forma as adjusted basis reflect (a) the automatic conversion of all of our outstanding series A, B, C-1 and C-2 preferred shares into 359,424,310 Class B common shares immediately prior to the completion of this offering; (b) the issuance of 5,068,000 common shares to certain executive officers upon vesting of their restricted shares in October 2012, which will be automatically converted into 5,068,000 Class B common shares upon the completion of this offering and (c) the sale of 156,000,000 Class A common shares in the form of ADSs by us in this offering at the initial public offering price of US$10.50 per ADS, after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

Non-GAAP Financial Measure

Adjusted Net Loss or Income

To provide investors with additional information about our financial results, we disclose within this prospectus adjusted net loss or income, a non-GAAP financial measure. We have provided below a reconciliation between adjusted net loss or income and net loss or income, the most directly comparable GAAP financial measure.

We have included adjusted net loss or income in this prospectus because it is a key measure we use to evaluate our operating performance, generate future operating plans and make strategic decisions for the allocation of capital. Accordingly, we believe that adjusted net loss or income provides useful information to investors and others in understanding and evaluating our operating results in the same manner as our

 

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management and board of directors. While we believe that this non-GAAP financial measure is useful in evaluating our business, this information should be considered as supplemental in nature and is not meant as a substitute for the related financial information prepared in accordance with GAAP.

The following table presents a reconciliation between adjusted net loss or income and net (loss)/income, the most directly comparable GAAP financial measure.

 

     For the year Ended December 31,     For the Nine Months Ended
September 30,
 
     2009     2010     2011     2011     2012  
     RMB     RMB     RMB     US$    

RMB

   

RMB

   

US$

 
                            

(Unaudited)

 
     (in thousands)  

Reconciliation of Net (Loss) Income to Adjusted Net (Loss) Income:

            

Net (loss) income

     (47,116     (238,857     (83,156     (13,221     (87,181     55,950        8,904   

Share-based compensation

     (36,482     (236,936     (135,001     (21,462     (106,486     (74,749     (11,895
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Adjusted net (loss) income

     (10,634     (1,921     51,845        8,241        19,305        130,699        20,799   

 

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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations in conjunction with the section headed “Selected Consolidated Financial Data” and our consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus. This discussion contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results and the timing of selected events could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including those set forth under “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus.

Overview

YY is a revolutionary rich communication social platform. YY Client, our core product launched in China in July 2008, has attracted 400.5 million registered user accounts as of September 30, 2012. Users spent an aggregate of 393.0 billion voice minutes on YY Client in the first nine months of 2012. We achieved approximately 10.0 million peak concurrent users and approximately 70.5 million monthly active users on YY in August 2012. Because we do not operate our platform on a real name basis, however, certain metrics may overstate the number of unique individuals using or paying for our products and services. See “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Business—The respective number of our registered user accounts, active users, paying users and unique visitors may overstate the number of unique individuals who register to use our products and services, log on to YY Client, purchase virtual items or other products and services on our platform or access Duowan.com, respectively, and may therefore lead to an inaccurate interpretation of our average revenue per paying user metric and of our business operations by our management and by investors, and may affect advertisers’ decisions on the amount spent on advertising with us.”

We derive our revenues primarily from IVAS and online advertising. We derived 42.3%, 68.3%, 72.7% and 84.8% of our total net revenues from IVAS in 2009, 2010, 2011 and the nine months ended September 30, 2012, respectively, with online advertising accounting for the remainder of our revenues. Revenues from IVAS are primarily generated through web games, YY Music and other services on our platform. Online advertising revenues are primarily generated from sales of different forms of advertising on Duowan.com. In 2011 and the nine months ended September 30, 2012, revenues generated from advertisements on Duowan.com contributed to 93.8% and 96.7% of our total advertising revenues, respectively. We currently do not allow advertising on YY.com and Mobile YY, and have minimal advertising on YY Client. Although we do not currently derive revenues from Mobile YY, we have plans to monetize it by selling virtual items on Mobile YY in the future. We expect to derive an increasing portion of our revenues from IVAS in the future. This trend may pose new challenges to us, including, for example, the need to develop more popular products and services in response to user demand and the need to recruit and retain talented personnel for technology and product development purposes. IVAS revenues depend on the popularity of the online games on our platform and the growth of other types of channels or activities for which IVAS are available, such as YY Music.

We began our operations in 2005 by launching Duowan.com, a popular online web portal hosting game media content. We have grown significantly in recent years, developing and introducing YY Client in 2008 and making YY Client available for mobile users through Mobile YY in September 2010. YY Client’s average daily active users increased from 10.3 million in December 2010 to 13.5 million in December 2011. In September 2012, the number of average daily active users for YY Client grew to 15.3 million, compared to 12.2 million in September 2011. We believe that we will be able to further expand our existing user base and to capitalize on our large and highly engaged user base and our open platform by exploring additional monetization opportunities. Our total net revenues increased from RMB32.7 million in 2009 to RMB128.3 million in 2010 and to RMB319.7 million (US$50.8 million) in 2011, representing a CAGR of 212.6% from 2009 to 2011. For the nine months ended September 30, 2012, our total net revenues grew to RMB553.2 million (US$88.0 million), representing a

 

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167.6% increase from RMB206.7 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2011. We had net losses of RMB47.1 million, RMB238.9 million and RMB83.2 million (US$13.2 million) in 2009, 2010 and 2011, respectively, and in the nine months ended September 30, 2012, we had a net income of RMB56.0 million (US$8.9 million). We have issued share incentive awards to motivate our employees, officers and consultants since our inception, and incurred significant share-based compensation expenses in the past. Our share-based compensation expenses increased significantly in 2010, primarily due to a charge caused by a re-measurement of our liability-classified share-based compensation awards. Treatment of our share-based compensation awards has reverted to the equity-based method in late 2011. Our adjusted net loss, a non-GAAP measure that excludes non-cash share-based compensation expenses, decreased from RMB10.6 million in 2009 to RMB1.9 million in 2010, and in 2011, we had an adjusted net income—also a non-GAAP measure that excludes non-cash share-based compensation—of RMB51.8 million (US$8.2 million). In the nine months ended September 30, 2012, our adjusted net income amounted to RMB130.7 million (US$20.8 million) compared to RMB19.3 million in the same period in 2011. For information regarding adjusted net (loss) income and a reconciliation of each to net (loss) net income, see “Prospectus Summary—Our Summary Consolidated Financial Data—Non-GAAP Financial Measure” on page 14.

Our results of operations are subject to certain seasonal fluctuations. For example, the number of online users tend to be lower during school holidays and certain parts of the school year, and advertising revenues tend to be lower during the Chinese New Year season, which negatively affects our cash flow for those periods. However, such seasonal fluctuations are relatively brief and predictable and have not posed any significant operational and financial challenges to our business. See “—Seasonality” for additional details regarding the effects of seasonality on our cash flow, operating performance and financial results.

Selected Statement of Operations and Comprehensive Loss Items

Revenues

In the years ended December 31, 2009, 2010 and 2011 and the nine months ended September 30, 2012, we had derived our revenues primarily from IVAS and online advertising. Our IVAS revenues are primarily comprised of revenues from the paying users of online games, YY Music and, to a lesser degree, our membership subscriptions. The online games we currently offer on YY Client are all web games, which are a type of online games that can be run from an internet browser and requires an internet connection to play. Our online advertising revenues primarily consist of revenues from the sale of online advertising in various formats primarily on our Duowan.com online portal. We expect that in the future, as is the case in 2012, an increasing portion of our revenues will be derived from non-game IVAS revenues, including revenues from in-channel virtual items sold on YY Client, such as virtual flowers and gifts for use in various channels, as well as other new online products and services that we recently launched or expect to offer in the future. We expect that revenues we receive from the membership program we launched in October 2011, which grants users enhanced privileges for monthly subscription fees, will increase in the future.

The average revenue per paying user for our membership program is lower than that for our online games and YY Music due to the fact that we charge a relatively low membership fee of RMB20.0 per month in order to attract a large subscriber base for this program. In the three months ended September 30, 2012, the average revenue per paying user for our membership program was RMB59, as compared to RMB296 for our online games and RMB247 for YY Music. Although the number of paying users of online games decreased since the launch of our membership program, primarily due to seasonality and certain events in the first nine months of 2012, we believe our membership program has attracted additional paying users rather than causing a migration of paying users from online games or YY Music to our membership program. Therefore, we believe that such decrease in the number of paying users of online games is separate from and not a result of the growth of our membership program and expect our membership program to continue to increase and have a positive impact on our revenues. For a detailed explanation of the reasons for the recent decrease in the number of paying users of online games, see “—IVAS revenues” below. See also “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Business—The

 

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revenue models for each of YY Music and our membership program is relatively new and may not remain effective, which may cause us to lose users and materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.”

The following table sets forth the principal components of our total net revenues by amount and as a percentage of our total net revenues for the periods presented.

 

    For the Year Ended December 31,     For the Nine Months Ended September 30,  
    2009     2010     2011     2011     2012  
    RMB     % of
total net
revenues
    RMB     % of
total net
revenues
    RMB     US$     % of
total net
revenues
    RMB     % of
total net
revenues
    RMB     US$     % of
total net
revenues
 
                                                          (Unaudited)              
    (in thousands, except for percentages)  

Total net revenues:(1)

         

IVAS:

         

Online games

    12,976        39.7        86,316        67.3        165,933        26,380        51.9        113,368        54.8        234,239        37,275        42.3   

YY Music

    —          —          —          —          52,854        8,403        16.5        27,439        13.3        180,301        28,692        32.6   

Others

    853        2.6        1,282        1.0        13,589        2,161        4.3        5,010        2.4        54,825        8,725        9.9   

Online advertising

    18,881        57.7        40,740        31.7        87,279        13,876        27.3        60,904        29.5        83,840        13,342        15.2   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total

    32,710        100.0        128,338        100.0        319,655        50,820        100.0        206,721        100.0        553,205        88,034        100.0   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

(1) Revenues are presented net of rebates and discounts.

IVAS revenues. We generate revenues from (i) the sales of virtual items under the offering of web games developed by us or by third parties under revenue-sharing arrangements on YY Client, (ii) the sale of in-channel virtual items to be used on YY Music and (iii) other revenues, including membership subscription fees. Users play web games on YY and access channels free of charge, but are charged for purchases of virtual items which can be used in online games or YY channels.

The most significant factors that directly affect our IVAS revenues include:

 

   

The number of paying users. The number of our paying users increased from approximately 31,000 in July 2009, the first month in which we began tracking paying user numbers, to 50,000 in December 2009, 70,000 in December 2010, 357,000 in December 2011 and 400,000 in September 2012. We had approximately 1.4 million paying users in the full year 2011 and approximately 1.8 million paying users in the first nine months of 2012. We calculate the number of paying users during a given period as the cumulative number of registered user accounts that have purchased virtual items or other products and services on YY Client at least once during the relevant period. We were able to achieve an increase in paying users primarily due to (a) a significant increase in the number of active users due to the increasing popularity of YY Client, and (b) an increase in the number of virtual items we offer, which in turn resulted from the increased number of online games we host and our launch of virtual items for sale on YY Music in March 2011. We expect that the number of our paying users will continue to grow in the future as we expand our services and products offerings and further monetize our existing platform. The number of our registered user accounts, paying users, active users and unique visitors overstates the number of unique individual users we have, however. See “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Business—The respective number of our registered user accounts, active users, paying users and unique visitors overstates the numbers of unique individuals who register to use our products and services, log on to YY Client, purchase virtual items or other products and services on our platform or access Duowan.com, respectively, and may therefore lead to an inaccurate interpretation of our average revenue per paying user metric and of our business operations by our management and by investors, and may cause advertisers to reduce the amount spent on advertising with us.”

 

   

The average revenue per paying user, or ARPU. Our ARPU for IVAS was approximately RMB177.9, RMB164.3 and RMB255.4 (US$40.6) in 2010 and 2011 and the nine months ended September 30,

 

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2012, respectively. ARPU is calculated by dividing our total revenues from IVAS during a given period by the number of paying users for that period. As we begin to generate revenues from an increasing variety of IVAS, our ARPU may fluctuate from period to period due to the mix of IVAS purchased by our paying users. The changes in ARPU are primarily the result of (a) an increase in the number of virtual items available on our platform, (b) an increase in the average price of the virtual items that can be purchased for use in our channels, (c) the launch of YY Music in March 2011, which has a lower ARPU when compared to online games, (d) the launch of our membership program, which currently charges a relatively low membership fee of RMB20.0 per month, in October 2011. We had approximately 158,000 members in our membership program as of December 31, 2011 and approximately 404,000 members as of September 30, 2012.

The number of paying users for each year typically increases as the number of active users increases. The number of our monthly active users increased from 35.4 million in December 2010 to 53.4 million in December 2011 to 66.1 million monthly active users in September 2012. Meanwhile, ARPU fluctuated during that period because of our launch of new online games, our effective promotion of commercially successful games and our launch of YY Music, offset by the fact that, at times, our paying user numbers grew faster than our revenues primarily due to the lower ARPU of paying users for YY Music and our membership program.

The following table sets forth the approximate paying users and average revenue per paying user data for each of the quarters in the period from July 1, 2010 to September 30, 2012, broken down by different key areas of our business. The numbers of paying users and average revenue per paying users fluctuate on a quarterly basis, because they are often affected by a variety of factors such as seasonality and the number and type of promotions that may be conducted from time to time.

 

    For the Three Months Ended  
    September 30,
2010
    December 31,
2010
    March 31,
2011
    June 30,
2011
    September 30,
2011
    December 31,
2011
    March 31,
2012
    June 30,
2012
    September 30,
2012
 

Average monthly active users:

                 

—Online games(1)

    —          24,342,000        28,991,000        31,581,000        32,210,000        33,242,000        33,705,000        36,862,000        37,307,000   

—YY Music(2)

    —          10,587,000        14,691,000        18,522,000        19,707,000        21,061,000        21,804,000        24,705,000        26,573,000   

—YY platform(3)

    —          32,178,000        39,366,000        46,537,000        49,250,000        51,877,000        56,127,000        62,960,000        68,856,000   

Paying users:

                 

—Online games(4)

    143,000        136,000        217,000        234,000        279,000        354,000        327,000        274,000        283,000   

—YY Music(5)

    —          —          2,700        97,000        150,000        225,000        230,000        232,000        355,000   

—Membership subscription(6)

    —          —          —          —          —          236,000        281,000        321,000        356,000   
    (RMB)     

Average revenue per paying user:

                 

—Online games(4)

    183        200        159        159        149        148        210        298        296   

—YY Music(5)

    —          —          15        99        119        113        147        254        247   

—Membership subscription(6)

    —          —          —          —          —          21        38        47        59   

 

(1) Data for online games herein refers to the average number of monthly active users that have visited the game channels of YY platform at least once in the relevant quarter.
(2) Data for online music herein refers to the average number of monthly active users that have visited the music channels of YY platform at least once in the relevant quarter.
(3) Data for YY platform herein refers to the average number of monthly active users that have visited YY platform at least once in the relevant quarter. A user that has visited both game channels and music channels of YY platform in the relevant period is counted as one active user for YY platform and one active user for each of online games and YY Music.
(4) Data for online games herein refers exclusively to data regarding YY platform’s web games available in the game center. See “Business—The YY Platform—YY Client—Game Center on YY Client.”
(5) We launched our YY Music platform in March 2011.
(6) We launched our membership program in October 2011.

 

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The number of paying users of online games decreased from 354,000 in the three months ended December 31, 2011 to 327,000 in the three months ended March 31, 2012 and further to 274,000 in the three months ended June 30, 2012, rising slightly to 283,000 in the three months ended September 30, 2012. The second quarter of 2012 represented our lowest number of paying users of online games since the second quarter of 2011. The decrease in the number of paying users of online games in the first and second quarters of 2012 was primarily due to certain special operational measures that we took in those quarters. In the normal course of business, we sell bundled packages of virtual items at different face values. In the first and second quarters of 2012, to streamline administration of bundled packages, we suspended the sales of bundled packages below a certain face value. As a result, the users who only wanted to purchase bundled packages at lower face values ceased to purchase bundled packages during this period, which contributed to the reduction in the number of paying users in the first and second quarters of 2012. We resumed the normal practice of selling bundled packages at lower face value in August 2012. Seasonality, to a lesser extent, also contributed to the decrease in the number of paying users of online games in the first quarter of 2012. The number of paying users of online games tends to be lower during public holidays such as the Chinese New Year holidays, which in 2012 fell in late January. In the second quarter of 2012, we deactivated some paying user accounts suspected of being improper user accounts that were registered and used in violation of our policies. These deactivations also contributed to the decrease in the number of paying users of online games in such quarter. Although the number of paying users of online games increased in the third quarter of 2012 compared to the second quarter of 2012, it has still decreased compared to its peak in the fourth quarter of 2011 and we cannot assure you that this number will continue to increase or that it will not decrease in the future, whether due to seasonality or other factors.

The number of paying users of YY Music increased slightly from 225,000 in the three month