10-K 1 l42109e10vk.htm FORM 10-K e10vk
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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, DC 20549
Form 10-K
 
     
þ
  ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
    for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2010
OR
o
  TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
    for the transition period from          to
 
 
COMMISSION FILE NUMBER: 001-33658
Horsehead Holding Corp.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
     
DELAWARE
  20-0447377
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
  (I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
     
4955 Steubenville Pike, Suite 405
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15205
(Address of Principal Executive Offices,
including Zip Code)
  (724) 774-1020
(Registrant’s Telephone Number,
Including Area Code)
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
     
Title of Each Class
 
Name of Exchange on Which Registered
 
Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share
  The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None.
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes o     No þ
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.  Yes o     No þ
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that it was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes þ     No o
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).  Yes o     No o
 
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of the registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.  þ
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer or a smaller reporting company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
 
             
Large accelerated filer o
  Accelerated filer þ   Non-accelerated filer o   Smaller reporting company o
        (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)    
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes o     No þ
 
As of June 30, 2010, the aggregate market value of the registrant’s common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately $293 million (based upon the closing sale price of the common stock on that date on The NASDAQ Global Select Market). For this purpose, all shares held by directors, executive officers and stockholders beneficially owning ten percent or more of the registrant’s common stock have been treated as held by affiliates.
 
The number of shares of the registrant’s common stock outstanding as of as of March 9, 2011 was 43,652,519
 
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE:
 
Portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement for its 2011 annual meeting of stockholders, which is expected to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission not later than April 11, 2011 are incorporated by reference into Part III of this report on Form 10-K. In the event such proxy statement is not filed by April 30, 2011, the required information will be filed as an amendment to this report on Form 10-K no later than that date.
 


 

 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
             
    1  
  Business     1  
  Risk Factors     16  
  Unresolved Staff Comments     25  
  Properties     25  
  Legal Proceedings     26  
  (Removed and Reserved)     26  
       
    26  
  Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities     26  
  Selected Financial Data     29  
  Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operation     30  
  Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk     47  
  Consolidated Financial Statements and Supplementary Data     48  
  Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure     48  
  Controls and Procedures     48  
  Other Information     50  
       
    50  
  Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance     50  
  Executive Compensation     50  
  Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters     50  
  Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence     50  
  Principal Accountant Fees and Services     50  
       
Part IV     51  
  Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules     51  
       
    E-1  
 EX-21.1
 EX-23.1
 EX-31.1
 EX-31.2
 EX-32.1


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CAUTIONARY STATEMENT FOR PURPOSES OF THE SAFE HARBOR PROVISIONS OF THE PRIVATE SECURITIES LITIGATION REFORM ACT OF 1995
 
This report contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the federal securities laws. These statements relate to analyses and other information, which are based on forecasts of future results and estimates of amounts not yet determinable. These statements also relate to our future prospects, developments and business strategies.
 
These forward looking statements are identified by the use of terms and phrases such as “anticipate”, “believe”, “could”, “estimate”, “expect”, “intend”, “may”, “plan”, “predict”, “project”, and similar terms and phrases, including references to assumptions. However, these words are not the exclusive means of identifying such statements. These statements are contained in many sections of this report, including “Part II, Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.” Although we believe that our plans, intentions and expectations reflected in or suggested by such forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot assure you that we will achieve those plans, intentions or expectations. We believe that the following factors, among others (including those described in “Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors”), could affect our future performance and the liquidity and value of our securities and cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by forward-looking statements made by us or on our behalf: the cyclical nature of the metals industry; decreases in the prices of zinc and nickel-related products; long-term declines in demand for zinc and nickel products due to competing technologies or materials; competition from global zinc and nickel manufacturers; our ability to implement our business strategy successfully; work stoppages and labor disputes; material disruptions at any of our manufacturing facilities, including for equipment or power failures; fluctuations in the costs or availability of our energy supplies; decreases in order volume from major customers; the costs of compliance with environmental, health and safety laws and responding to potential liabilities and changes under these laws; failure of our hedging strategies, including those relating to the prices of energy, raw materials and zinc products; our ability to attract and retain key personnel; our ability to protect our intellectual property and know-how; our dependence on third parties for transportation services; and risks associated with future acquisitions, joint ventures or asset dispositions.
 
There may be other factors that may cause our actual results to differ materially from the forward-looking statements. Our actual results, performance or achievements could differ materially from those expressed in, or implied by, the forward-looking statements. We can give no assurances that any of the events anticipated by the forward-looking statements will occur or, if any of them does, what impact they will have on our results of operations and financial condition. You should carefully read the factors described in the “Risk Factors” section of this report for a description of certain risks that could, among other things, cause our actual results to differ from these forward-looking statements.
 
All forward-looking statements are qualified in their entirety by this cautionary statement, and we undertake no obligation to revise or update this Annual Report on Form 10-K to reflect events or circumstances after the date hereof.


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PART I
 
ITEM 1.   BUSINESS
 
Horsehead Holding Corp. is the parent company of Horsehead Corporation, a leading U.S. producer of specialty zinc and zinc-based products and a leading recycler of electric arc furnace dust (“Horsehead”), and The International Metals Reclamation Company, Inc. a leading recycler of nickel-bearing wastes and nickel-cadmium (“Ni-Cd”) batteries in North America (“INMETCO”) that we acquired on December 31, 2009. We have production and/or recycling operations at seven facilities in five states. We also own and operate on our premises a 110 megawatt coal-fired power plant that provides us with a captive source of electricity and allows us to sell approximately one-fifth of its capacity. Our products are used in a wide variety of applications, including in the galvanizing of fabricated steel products, as components in rubber tires, alkaline batteries, paint, chemicals and pharmaceuticals and as a remelt alloy in the production of stainless steel. We believe that we are the largest refiner of zinc oxide and Prime Western (“PW”) zinc metal, a grade of zinc containing a minimum of 98.5% zinc, in North America. We believe we are also the largest North American recycler of electric arc furnace (“EAF”) dust, a hazardous waste produced by the carbon steel mini-mill manufacturing process. Through our INMETCO operations, we believe we are also a leading recycler of EAF dust and other nickel-bearing waste generated by specialty steel producers and a leading recycler of Ni-Cd batteries in North America. We, together with our predecessors, have been operating in the zinc industry for more than 150 years and in the nickel-bearing waste industry for more than 30 years. As a result of the acquisition of INMETCO, we now operate as two business segments.
 
While we vary our raw material inputs, or feedstocks, based on cost and availability, we generally produce our zinc products using 100% recycled zinc, including zinc recovered from our four EAF dust recycling operations located in four states. We believe that our ability to convert recycled zinc into finished products results in lower feed costs than for smelters that rely primarily on zinc concentrates. Our four EAF dust recycling facilities also generate service fee revenue from steel mini-mills by providing a convenient and safe means for recycling their EAF dust. In 2010, we commenced operations at our fourth EAF dust processing facility located in South Carolina. INMETCO provides recycling services, some of which are on a tolling basis, from a single production facility in Ellwood City, Pennsylvania.
 
During 2010, we sold approximately 273.3 million pounds of zinc products and 20.9 million pounds of nickel-based products, generally priced at amounts based on premiums to zinc and nickel prices on the London Metals Exchange (“LME”). For the year ended December 31, 2010, we generated sales and net income of $382.4 million and $24.8 million, respectively.
 
Competitive Strengths
 
Leading Market Positions and Strategically Located Recycling Facilities
 
We believe that we are the largest refiner of zinc oxide and PW zinc metal in North America, based on capacity, and that as a result of the INMETCO acquisition we are a leading recycler of nickel-bearing waste material generated by the stainless and specialty steel industry and a leading recycler of nickel-bearing batteries. We also believe that we are the largest North American recycler of EAF dust and that we currently recycle more than half of all EAF dust generated in the United States. In addition, our four company-owned EAF dust recycling facilities are strategically located near major EAF operators, reducing transportation costs and enhancing our ability to compete effectively with other means of EAF dust disposal. We believe that the location of our facilities, together with our competitive cost position, extensive zinc distribution network and proprietary market knowledge, will enable us to maintain our leading market positions and continue to capture market share in zinc products, zinc recycling and nickel-bearing waste recycling.
 
Strong Relationships with Diverse Customer Base
 
We believe that our product quality, reputation for on-time delivery and competitive pricing enable us to maintain strong relationships with a broad base of customers in each of our end markets. For example, we believe we are the leading supplier of zinc metal to the after-fabrication hot-dip segment of the North American galvanizing industry. We also sell zinc oxide to over 200 producers of tire and rubber products, chemicals, paints, plastics and


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pharmaceuticals. We have supplied zinc oxide to nine of our current ten largest zinc oxide customers for over ten years, and we believe that we are the sole or primary supplier of zinc to most of our customers. In addition, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) has designated our recycling processes as “Best Demonstrated Available Technology” in the area of high-temperature metals recovery related to the processing of EAF dust from both carbon steel mini-mill and stainless steel producers. We are the largest recycler of EAF dust in the U.S., and we now recycle EAF dust for nine of North America’s ten largest carbon steel EAF operators and North America’s three largest stainless steel producers, based on 2010 production volume. We are working to expand our recycling capacity further in order to better service these and other customers. In addition, INMETCO provides environmental services to over 200 customers that generate nickel-containing waste products such as filter cake, spent pickle liquor, grinding swarf and mill scale. INMETCO also collects and recycles batteries from The Rechargeable Battery Recycling Corporation, founded in 1994 by five major rechargeable battery makers, as well as through its own collection programs.
 
Low-Cost Feedstock Sources
 
We believe that we are the only zinc smelter in North America with the proven ability to refine zinc metal and zinc oxide using 100% recycled zinc feedstocks. Our use of large amounts of recycled feedstock reduces our exposure to increases in LME zinc prices and increases our operating margins during periods of high LME zinc prices. In addition, our EAF dust recycling operations provide us with a reliable, cost-effective source of recycled zinc without relying on third-party sellers.
 
Proven, Proprietary Technology with Flexible Processes
 
Since our recycling processes convert EAF dust and other wastes into saleable products, our customers generally face less exposure to environmental liabilities from EAF dust, which the EPA classifies as a listed hazardous waste, than if they disposed of their EAF dust in landfills. In addition, we believe our zinc smelter and refinery in Monaca, Pennsylvania is unique in its ability to refine zinc using almost any form of zinc-bearing feedstock. This flexibility allows us to modify our feedstock mix based on cost and availability, as well as to use 100% recycled zinc feedstock, whether purchased from third parties at a discount to the LME zinc price or generated by our EAF dust recycling operations. We believe that INMETCO’s recycling process is a successful technology for the recycling of a broad range of nickel-bearing waste products. INMETCO has successfully licensed this technology in the past.
 
Strong, Experienced Management Team
 
Our eight-member senior management team collectively has over 200 years of experience in zinc- and metal-related industries. James M. Hensler, our Chief Executive Officer, joined us in early 2004 and has since established a culture of continuous improvement in safety and operational excellence, which has led to significant cost reductions, productivity improvements and growth.
 
Business Strategy
 
Continue to Focus on Production Efficiencies and Operating Cost Reductions
 
We have reduced our manufacturing costs by increasing our usage of low-cost feedstock, streamlining our organizational structure and implementing “Six Sigma” (a business process improvement methodology) initiatives, and we intend to continue to focus on these and similar initiatives in the future. As part of our “Six Sigma” initiatives, we made a series of operating improvements at certain facilities. For example, at our Calumet plant we have reduced the amount of non-zinc materials fed to our smelter, thereby reducing operating costs by approximately $1.4 million on an annual basis without significant capital expenditures. Two projects, one directed at identifying better materials of construction for sinter machine pallets at our Monaca smelter, and the other, aimed at improving calcining process control at our Palmerton facility, have reduced our sinter machine pallet repair costs at Monaca by approximately $2.0 million annually. We also automated key operational parameters for the zinc smelting furnaces at Monaca leading to a more consistent operation and steadily improving our yields, which resulted in a cost savings of approximately $3.5 million in 2010. Finally, in response to the significant decrease in


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demand for zinc metals resulting from the economic downturn that began in the third quarter of 2008, we took aggressive steps to reduce our operating costs, including the shutdown of our smallest and highest cost recycling facility in Beaumont, Texas, reductions in the price paid for purchased feedstock as a percentage of the LME price, a reduction of our salaried and temporary workforce and a cost-saving revision to our construction strategy for our recently completed South Carolina facility. In 2009, we idled our Bartlesville, Oklahoma hydrometallurgical facility and began outsourcing the processing of the lead-bearing material at reduced costs. Please see our Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations for a further discussion of the economic downturn and the accompanying decrease in demand. We recently announced the completion of a preliminary feasibility study to construct a 150,000 ton per year zinc plant based on state-of-the-art “green” technology. The goals of the proposed plant would be to produce zinc at much lower costs, to significantly reduce air emissions and to provide opportunities for us to serve the broader market for special high grade zinc and the continuous galvanizing market, in addition to our traditional zinc markets. If our Board of Directors approves this project and if we secure financing for this project, construction may start before the end of 2011.
 
Expand EAF Dust Recycling Capacity
 
We estimate that in 2007 approximately one-third of the carbon steel EAF dust generated per year was deposited in landfills in the United States, including by existing customers. Since then, new EAF steel plant projects have come online, further increasing EAF dust generation in the United States. Due to productivity, capital and operating cost efficiencies relative to integrated steel mills, the mini-mill share of the U.S. steel market has doubled in the last ten years and is expected to account for over 70% of U.S. steel produced by 2017, according to the Steel Manufacturers Association. Steel mini-mill operators have increasingly relied on recyclers rather than landfills to manage this increased output. In order to grow our EAF dust recycling business, we placed a new kiln with an annual EAF dust recycling capacity of 80,000 tons into production in early 2008 at our facility in Rockwood, Tennessee and placed into production two kilns with a combined annual capacity of 180,000 tons at our new facility in Barnwell, South Carolina in 2010. We entered into a long term contract with a major U.S. steel mini-mill producer to process all of the EAF dust generated at its facilities located near our new plant. In 2009, we acquired the EAF dust contracts held by Envirosafe Services of Ohio, Inc (“ESOI”), a leading landfill disposer of EAF dust. In addition to generating additional service fees, we expect that our new kilns will provide us with additional low-cost recycled zinc that we can use in our own smelting process or that we can sell as feed to other zinc smelters. We estimate that with the increased recycling capacity, less than 10% of the EAF dust generated is now deposited in landfills.
 
Diversify and Expand Environmental Services Business
 
Our core strengths relate to our proven ability to manage hazardous and non-hazardous wastes generated by industrial processes and our experience and capabilities to recover valuable metals from these waste streams. We expect to expand our environmental services business into a broader range of metal-bearing wastes. The acquisition of INMETCO is an example of this diversification and we believe that INMETCO will be a platform for further growth. We expect to continue to pursue capital investment and acquisition opportunities in this area and believe this will reduce our exposure to changes in zinc prices.
 
Continue to Reduce Exposure to Commodity Price Fluctuations
 
We sourced approximately 73% of our zinc feedstock in 2010 from our EAF dust recycling operations. This source of feedstock is not significantly impacted by changes in LME zinc prices. We will continue to evaluate our zinc price hedging alternatives considering the costs and benefits in light of the commodity price environment, hedging transaction costs and the extent to which we are able to increase the percentage of zinc we acquire from our recycling operations. We hedged approximately 60% of our expected production of zinc in 2008 and 2009 through the purchase of put options whereby we would receive a minimum price per pound for the quantity hedged. We paid a total of $27.5 million for the options and received $31.9 million in cash as the 2008 options settled. In October 2008, we sold the 2009 put options for $64.5 million, resulting in a $50.3 million gain. We replaced the 2009 options with similar options having a strike price of $0.50 per pound for a cost of $10.5 million. In 2009, we purchased put options for approximately 80% of our expected production of zinc in 2010 having a strike price of $0.65 per pound. In 2010, we purchased put options for 2011 having a strike price of $0.65 per pound at a cost of $3.0 million. The


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purchases represent approximately 70% of our expected zinc production in 2011. We also sold put options for 2011 having a strike price of $0.55 per pound and received $0.2 million. The options we purchased provide that we will receive a minimum of $0.65 per pound for the quantity hedged and the options we sold provide that the buyer will receive a minimum of $0.55 per pound for the quantity hedged. The remainder of our zinc feedstock costs are derived primarily from zinc secondaries which use LME-based pricing, and therefore are somewhat naturally hedged against changes in the LME price. We have also entered into forward contracts for the purchase of coal for a fixed price through the end of 2011. We believe that locking in a price for coal, which comprised approximately 27% of our energy costs in 2010, will stabilize our production costs and reduce the risk of coal supply interruptions.
 
Pursue New Markets, Applications and Acquisition Opportunities
 
We intend to continue to leverage our technical expertise, culture of innovation and close customer relationships in order to identify and pursue new markets and applications for our products. For example, we are currently testing new, higher-margin applications for iron-rich material, a co-product of EAF dust recycling, such as its potential uses as a low-cost feed for iron and steel production, its use as a passive water-treatment medium at coal mining sites that have acidic mine drainage and as a daily cover or base material for municipal landfills to reduce ground water contamination. We are also evaluating new markets for our zinc powder, and we expect that our expanded EAF dust recycling capacity will allow us to enter new markets for the sale of crude zinc oxide (“CZO”) to other zinc smelters in the U.S. and internationally. In addition, we believe INMETCO provides new potential platforms for growth, including increasing capacity of the existing facility, growing our share of the battery recycling market, recycling other industrial wastes to recover metals in addition to nickel and enabling us to expand internationally. We also intend to continue to identify and explore strategic acquisition opportunities.
 
Our History
 
We, together with the previous owners of our assets, have been operating in the zinc industry for more than 150 years. Horsehead Industries, Inc. (“HII”) was formed as a result of several purchases of assets and entities that substantially form our existing company. In 2002, record-low zinc prices, production inefficiencies, high operational costs and legacy environmental costs associated with prior owners/operators of our facilities caused HII to file for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection. An affiliate of Sun Capital Partners, Inc. (together with its affiliates, “Sun Capital”) purchased substantially all of the operating assets and assumed limited liabilities of HII in December 2003 pursuant to a sale order under Section 363 of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code. Sun Capital assisted us in hiring our current chief executive officer and chief financial officer in 2004, and since that time we have implemented significant operational improvements as well as experienced significantly improved industry conditions. As a result of certain transactions in 2007, Sun Capital and its affiliates no longer own any of our outstanding common stock.
 
On November 30, 2006, we completed the private placement of 15,812,500 shares of our common stock at a price of $13.00 per share. On April 12, 2007, we completed the private placement of 13,973,862 shares of our common stock at a price of $13.50 per share. We used the net proceeds of the offerings primarily to repurchase shares and redeem warrants held by our pre-November 2006 stockholders (including Sun Capital). On August 15, 2007, we completed the public offering of 5,597,050 shares of our common stock at a price of $18.00 per share (less discounts and commissions of $1.26) as part of an underwritten public offering. We used a portion of the net proceeds to retire substantially all debt and used the remaining net proceeds of the public offering to fund capital expansion and improvements and for general corporate purposes.
 
On August 13, 2007, the SEC declared effective a registration statement that registered for resale up to 29,860,436 shares of our common stock issued in our 2006 and 2007 private placements.
 
In June 2009, we acquired the EAF dust collection business of ESOI, the largest land-filler in our market. As part of this acquisition, we purchased their EAF dust contracts, one of which was for 10 years with a major midwestern producer. We did not acquire their landfill or landfill operations.
 
In September 2009, we completed an underwritten public offering of 8,050,000 shares of common stock at $10.50 per share.
 
On December 31, 2009, we acquired INMETCO.


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Operations
 
Our zinc recycling facilities recycle EAF dust into CZO and zinc calcine, which we then use as raw material feedstocks in the production of zinc metal and value-added zinc products. Our INMETCO facility recycles a broad range of nickel-bearing wastes into a remelt alloy product used in the production of stainless steel. Our recycling and production operations form a complete recycling loop, as illustrated below, from recycled metals to finished zinc or nickel-bearing products. We believe we are the only primary zinc producer in the U.S. that uses recycled materials for substantially all of its zinc feedstocks.
 
(DIAGRAM)
 
Horsehead
 
Operations
 
Horsehead operates four hazardous waste recycling facilities for the recovery of zinc from EAF dust. Our recycling process has been designated by the EPA as a “Best Demonstrated Available Technology” for the processing of EAF dust. Our recycling facilities are strategically located near sources of EAF dust production. These facilities recover zinc from EAF dust generated primarily by carbon steel mini-mill manufacturers during the melting of steel scrap, as well as from other waste material. We extract zinc from EAF dust, and recycle the other components of EAF dust into non-hazardous materials, using our proprietary “Waelz Kiln” process at our Palmerton, Rockwood and Calumet facilities.
 
Our Waelz Kiln recycling process blends, conditions, adds carbon to and pelletizes EAF dust, and then feeds it into the kiln itself, a refractory-lined tube that is approximately 160 feet in length and 12 feet in diameter. During the passage through the kiln, the material is heated under reducing conditions at temperatures exceeding 1,100 degrees Celsius, thereby volatilizing the nonferrous metals, including zinc. The resulting volatized gas stream is oxidized and collected as CZO, which has a zinc content of between 55% and 65%. In addition, we produce iron-rich material that we sell for use as an aggregate in asphalt and as an iron source in cement.
 
The majority of the CZO generated is shipped to our Palmerton facility, where it is further refined in a process, called “calcining,” whereby we heat the material to drive off impurities. Through this rotary kiln process, which is fired with natural gas, the zinc content is further increased to approximately 65% to 70%, and the product is collected as zinc calcine in granular form for shipment to our Monaca facility or sale to other zinc refineries around the world. The metal concentrate product from the calcining process is shipped to a third-party processor for final metals recovery. We have added a washing facility to remove chlorine at our smelting facility to allow us to ship an increasing amount of CZO directly as a feed to our Monaca facility.
 
In order to expand our EAF dust recycling capacity, we brought an 80,000 tons per year kiln online at our Rockwood, Tennessee facility in January 2008 at a cost of approximately $33 million. This kiln provides approximately 14,500 tons of zinc that we either use directly in our own smelting process or sell as feed to other zinc smelters. In 2010, we brought a new 180,000 tons per year kiln facility online in Barnwell, South Carolina for a total investment of approximately $65 million.


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Production
 
Our 175,000 ton-per-year capacity electrothermic zinc smelter and refinery in Monaca produces zinc metal and value-added zinc products (e.g., zinc oxide) using a wide range of feedstocks, including zinc generated by our recycling operations, zinc secondary material from galvanizers and other users of zinc. This uniquely flexible electrothermic smelter and refinery in Monaca provides a substantial competitive advantage both in raw material costs (where we are able to use a wide range of zinc-bearing feedstocks) and in finished products (where, together with our refining operations, we can produce a wide range of zinc metal and value-added zinc products). As a result of reduced demand for our zinc products resulting from the economic downturn that began in the third quarter of 2008 and extended through 2009, we operated our smelting and refinery facility at less than capacity in 2009, producing 106,000 tons of zinc. Our smelting facility returned to operating at full capacity during 2010. We produced 124,000 tons of zinc in 2010.
 
Our Monaca smelter is the only smelter in North America that is able to use this wide range of feedstocks, including 100% recycled feedstocks, to produce our zinc products. Our unique ability to vary our feedstock blend lowers our overall raw materials costs without corresponding reductions in product quality, as compared to other zinc smelters and refiners, which generally can accept only a narrow slate of specific mined zinc concentrates and only small amounts of recycled materials. We also own and operate a 110 megawatt coal-fired power plant at our Monaca facility which provides us with a captive source of electricity and allows us to sell approximately one-fifth of its capacity.
 
The Monaca facility operates on a 24-hours-per-day, 365-days-per-year basis to maximize efficiency and output. EAF-sourced calcine and other purchased secondary zinc materials are processed through a sintering operation. The sintering process converts this combined zinc feedstock into a uniform, hard, porous material suitable for the electrothermic furnaces. Monaca’s seven electrothermic furnaces are the key to Monaca’s production flexibility. Sintered feedstock and metallic zinc secondary materials are mixed with metallurgical coke and fed directly into the top of the furnaces. Metallic zinc vapor is drawn from the furnaces into a vacuum condenser, which is then tapped to produce molten zinc metal. This metal is then either cast as slab zinc metal, or conveyed directly to the zinc refinery in liquid form. This integrated facility reduces costs by eliminating the need to cast and then remelt the zinc to refinery feed.
 
At the refinery, the molten zinc is fed directly through distillation columns to produce an ultra-high-purity zinc vapor that is condensed into “thermally refined” special special high grade (“SSHG’) zinc metal or processed through a combustion chamber into zinc oxide. The condensed metal is either sold or sent for further conversion into zinc powder. Damage caused by an explosion at the refinery in late July 2010, halted production. Production was resumed at a reduced rate in November 2010 and was able to meet market demand by the end of the year.
 
We believe that our thermally produced SSHG zinc metal is among the purest and highest quality SSHG zinc metal sold in North America. Our zinc oxide is processed and separately refined through our highly automated, zinc oxide screening, coating and packing facility which is the largest in North America, to create one of our 50 grades of zinc oxide with ISO:9002 certification.
 
Our Product Development Lab, located at our Monaca site, is designed for production of specially engineered zinc oxide products for unique “high tech” applications. One such product is an extremely fine particle size (micronized) zinc oxide that may be used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications.


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The chart below describes the flow of our operations, beginning with the input of raw materials, continuing through the production processes and identifying finished products and end uses for each such raw material.
 
(FLOW CHART)
 
Products and Services
 
We offer a wide variety of zinc products and services. In 2010, we sold approximately 137,000 tons of zinc products. The following are our primary zinc products.
 
Zinc Metal
 
Our primary zinc metal product is PW zinc metal, which we sell to the hot-dip galvanizing and brass industries. We also produce SSHG zinc metal, which is used as feed for the manufacture of high-purity zinc powder and zinc alloys. SSHG zinc metal is an ultra pure grade of zinc exceeding the American Society for Testing and Materials standard for special high-grade zinc. Our zinc metal is recognized within the galvanizing industry for its consistent quality and appearance. We believe we are the leading supplier of zinc metal to the after-fabrication hot-dip segment of the North American galvanizing industry, which uses our zinc metal to provide a protective coating to a myriad of fabricated products, from pipe and guard rails to heat exchangers and telecommunications towers. We also sell PW zinc metal for use in the production of brass, a zinc/copper alloy. We believe that our operational standards and proximity to customers allow us to deliver higher quality metal than many of our competitors. To accommodate various customer handling needs, our zinc metal is sold in numerous forms, from 55-pound slabs to 2,500-pound ingots.
 
Zinc Oxide
 
We sell over 50 different grades of zinc oxide with differing particle sizes, shapes, coatings and purity levels. Zinc oxide is an important ingredient in the production of tire and rubber products, chemicals, ceramics, plastics, paints, lubricating oils and pharmaceuticals. Various end uses for zinc oxide include the following.
 
  •  Tire and rubber applications.  Zinc oxide aids in the vulcanization process, acts as a strengthening and reinforcing agent, provides UV protection, and enhances thermal and electrical properties. There is approximately a half pound of zinc oxide in a typical automobile tire.
 
  •  Chemical applications.  In motor oil, zinc oxide is used to reduce oxidation, inhibit corrosion and extend the wear of automotive engines. In plastics, zinc oxide is an effective UV stabilizer for polypropylene and polyethylene.
 
  •  Ceramics.  Ceramics containing zinc oxide are used in electronic components. For example, in ceramic varistors (surge protectors), zinc oxide allows for high temperature stability, resistance to electrical load, current shock and humidity.
 
  •  Other applications.  In paints, zinc oxide provides mold and mildew protection, functions as a white pigment and provides UV protection and chalking resistance. In pharmaceutical applications, zinc oxide operates as a sunscreen, a vitamin supplement and a medicinal ointment.


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EAF Dust Recycling
 
We created the market for EAF dust recycling for carbon steel mini-mill producers with the development of our recycling technology in the early 1980s, which has since been designated by the EPA as the “Best Demonstrated Available Technology” for processing of EAF dust, a hazardous waste generated by steel mini-mills. To date, we have recycled over 8.5 million tons of EAF dust (equivalent to 1.7 million tons of zinc), representing the dust generated in the production of over 500 million tons of steel. We believe the recycling and conversion of EAF dust reduces the steel mini-mill’s exposure to environmental liabilities which may arise when the EAF dust is sent to a landfill.
 
In 2010, we recycled 549,000 tons of EAF dust compared to 411,000 tons in 2009. The increase in processing from 2009 was the result of our acquisition of the EAF dust contracts held by ESOI and increased production in the steel industry in 2010, brought about by the gradual strengthening of the economy. The installation of a new Waelz Kiln in Rockwood in early January 2008 increased our recycling capacity by 80,000 net tons, or 15%. We commenced operations at our new kiln facility in South Carolina in 2010, adding an additional 180,000 tons, or 31%, of EAF dust processing capacity.
 
In June 2009, we acquired the EAF dust collection business of ESOI, the largest land-filler in our market. As part of this acquisition we purchased ESOI’s EAF dust contracts, one of which was a ten year contract with a major midwestern producer, and obtained a 17 year non-compete agreement from ESOI.
 
CZO and Calcine Sales
 
In response to the strong demand for zinc-bearing feed materials and attractive pricing, we began selling CZO generated in our Waelz Kilns to other zinc smelters in 2007. We plan to continue selling CZO from time to time based on market conditions.
 
Zinc Powder and Copper-Based Powders
 
Our zinc powder is sold for use in a variety of chemical, metallurgical and battery applications as well as for use in corrosion-resistant coating applications. Zinc powder is manufactured by the atomization of molten zinc.
 
We manufacture the following three basic lines of powders at our Palmerton facility.
 
  •  Special Zinc Powders.  These are used in general chemical and metallurgical applications, and in friction applications, such as brake linings for automobiles.
 
  •  Battery Grade Zinc Powders.  These are used in most types of alkaline batteries, as well as mercuric oxide, silver oxide and zinc-air batteries.
 
  •  Copper-Based Powders.  These include brass, bronze and nickel-silver powders. These products are used in a variety of applications, including brazing and infiltrating and for powdered metallurgical hardware, such as lock bodies, valves and gears.
 
Sales and Marketing
 
Horsehead’s sales and marketing staff consists of :
 
  •  a sales and marketing group comprised of sales professionals whose goal is to develop and maintain excellent customer relationships and provide key market analysis;
 
  •  a customer service department responsible for processing zinc orders, scheduling product shipments and answering customer inquiries; and
 
  •  a technical service staff highly trained to assist zinc customers with specification development, new applications, process improvements and on-site troubleshooting assistance when needed.
 
Our process engineering group provides additional technical help to our EAF clients with monthly EAF analytical information and assistance with any problems encountered on EAF dust chemistry, transportation and environmental matters. Our quality assurance department provides extensive laboratory services critical to


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maintaining in-plant process control and providing customer support by certifying compliance to hundreds of unique product specifications. We are ISO 9002 certified. Our laboratory also offers sales and technical services support by assisting in new product developments and troubleshooting various application and processing issues both in-plant and with specific customers. We also rely on a network of distributors with warehouses throughout North America that assist us with supporting smaller customers.
 
Customers
 
Most of the zinc metal we produce is purchased by galvanizers and brass producers. We believe we are the leading supplier of zinc metal to the after-fabrication hot-dip segment of the North American galvanizing industry. We sell zinc metal to a broad group of approximately 100 hot-dip galvanizers. In many cases, these customers are also suppliers of secondary materials, including zinc remnants of steel galvanizing processes, to us.
 
We sell zinc oxide to over 200 different customers under contract as well as on a spot basis, principally to manufacturers of tire and rubber products, lubricating oils, chemicals, paints, ceramics, plastics and pharmaceuticals.
 
Our SSHG zinc metal product is used in the manufacturing of zinc powder for the alkaline battery industry.
 
We typically enter into multi-year service contracts with steel mini-mills to recycle their EAF dust. We provide our EAF dust recycling services to over 45 steel producing facilities.
 
Raw Material
 
In 2010, approximately 73% of the raw material used in our Monaca facility was sourced through our EAF dust recycling operations. The remaining 27% of the raw material was comprised of zinc secondaries, which are principally zinc-containing remnants of steel galvanizing processes, including top drosses, bottom drosses and skimmings that we purchase primarily from several of our metal customers. The prices of zinc secondaries vary according to the amount of recoverable zinc contained, and provide us with a diverse portfolio of low cost inputs from which to choose. In addition to the dross and skims from the galvanizing industry, we purchase other types of zinc-bearing residues from the zinc, brass and alloying industries. Many of these materials are acquired from our own customers. We also buy CZO from one of the other U.S. based EAF dust recyclers. In addition, we also have long standing relationships with zinc brokers in North America, Europe and South America. These brokers in some cases act as an agent for us and are favorably located to supply us with reliable and cost effective zinc feedstock.
 
Power Plant and Fuels
 
We rely on a combination of purchased and internally-generated electricity for our operations. We generate substantially all of our electricity requirements for Monaca at our on-site power plant, using Powder River Basin (“PRB”) coal as our principal input. Sales of excess power capacity from this power plant have also historically provided a reliable source of revenue. In addition to the electricity used by our Monaca facility, we use a combination of coke and natural gas in our smelting and refining processes. Our recycling facilities use a combination of coke, electricity and natural gas. In 2010, we purchased the majority of our energy under supply contracts, although we also engage in spot purchases. We purchase all of our coal requirements pursuant to a supply agreement that carries fixed prices through 2011.
 
Intellectual Property
 
We possess proprietary technical expertise and know-how related to EAF dust recycling and zinc production, particularly zinc production using recycled feedstocks. Our proprietary know-how includes production methods for zinc oxide and micro-fine zinc oxides and widely varying customer specifications. As a major supplier of zinc metal and other zinc-based products to industrial and commercial markets, we emphasize developing intellectual property and protecting our rights in our processes. However, the scope of protection afforded by intellectual property rights, including ours, is often uncertain and involves complex legal and factual issues. Also, there can be no assurance that intellectual property rights will not be infringed or designed around by others. In addition, we may not elect to


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pursue an infringer due to the high costs and uncertainties associated with litigation. Further, there can be no assurance that courts will ultimately hold issued intellectual property rights to be valid and enforceable.
 
Competition
 
We believe that we are a unique business, having no direct competitor that recycles similar secondary materials into zinc products in North America. Our primary competitors in the zinc oxide segment include U.S. Zinc Corporation (“US Zinc”), a wholly-owned subsidiary of Votorantim Metals, Ltda., and Zochem, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Hudson Bay Mining and Smelting Co. Limited, which is an integrated zinc mining company. US Zinc, located in the middle-southern states of the United States, is also a zinc recycler. US Zinc is our primary competitor but lacks our integrated processing and smelting capabilities. Zochem’s product is sourced through the Canadian operations of Hudson Bay Mining and Smelting Co. Limited.
 
Approximately 74% of the zinc metal consumed in the United States is imported. Therefore, we enjoy a domestic freight and reliability advantage over foreign competitors with respect to U.S. customers. Xstrata Plc, which acquired Falconbridge in 2006, Teck Cominco Limited and Penoles are the primary zinc metal producers in the North American market. The vast majority of the metal produced by these companies is used by continuous galvanizers in the coating of steel sheet products. In addition, these producers have mining and smelting operations while we engage only in smelting. We produce PW zinc metal primarily for use by hot-dip galvanizers.
 
We compete for EAF dust management contracts primarily with the two other domestic recyclers of EAF dust and to a lesser extent with landfill operators. The domestic recyclers are Steel Dust Recycling and an EAF dust processing facility built by The Heritage Group. Steel Dust Recycling commenced operations during the second quarter of 2008 and was subsequently acquired in October 2009 by Zinc Nacional, a Mexico-based recycler. The Heritage Group built an EAF dust processing facility in Arkansas and began operations in 2009. We expect to see new entrants once again explore opportunities in this area when zinc prices are at or near historical high levels . Our proven reliability, expanded processing capacity and customer service have helped us maintain long-standing customer relationships. Many of our EAF dust customers have been under contract with us since our predecessor began recycling EAF dust in the 1980s. In June of 2009, we acquired the EAF dust collection contracts of ESOI.
 
ZincOx Resources plc acquired Big River Zinc Corporation with the stated intention of producing zinc metal from recycled EAF dust sourced from the United States (Envirosafe) and Turkey, with initial estimated smelting output from EAF dust of 90,000 tons. They announced the groundbreaking for their recycling plant in Ohio in June, 2008; however, construction activity was placed on hold pending the development of other projects.
 
INMETCO
 
Recycling Operations for Nickel-Bearing Waste
 
INMETCO operates a high temperature metals recovery facility, which utilizes a combination rotary hearth furnace and electric arc smelting furnace to recover nickel, chromium and iron, along with smaller amounts of other metals, from a variety of metal-bearing waste materials, generated primarily by the specialty steel industry. INMETCO’s main product is a nickel-chromium-iron (“Ni-Cr-Fe”) remelt alloy ingot that is used as a feedstock to produce stainless and specialty steels. INMETCO also recycles nickel-cadmium batteries, producing a cadmium metal product that is reused in the production of nickel-cadmium batteries.
 
The INMETCO process for treating Ni-Cr-Fe metals waste is comprised of feed preparation, blending and pelletizing, thermal reduction and smelting and casting.
 
The first portion of the INMETCO process consists of material preparation, storage, blending, feeding and pelletizing. INMETCO receives the various wastes and pretreats them when necessary to ensure a uniform size of the raw material. These materials, as well as flue dust and carbon, are pelletized. Pellets are transferred to the Rotary Hearth Furnace (“RHF”) for the reduction of some oxidized metal to its metallic form. Reduced pellets are fed to the EAF for production of Ni-Cr-Fe remelt alloy. Slag discharged from the EAF is processed and sold primarily as road aggregate.


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Cadmium Recovery
 
The cadmium recovery process was added to the INMETCO facility in 1995, with production commencing in 1996. This process is operated under a licensing agreement with Saft AB. This process involves the separation of the metal components of Ni-Cd batteries. The cadmium recovery process involves a basic thermal operation where cadmium or cadmium oxide is processed into high purity cadmium metal. The cadmium metal is sold primarily back into the Ni-Cd battery industry.
 
The chart below describes the INMETCO flow of operations, beginning with the input of raw materials, continuing through the production processes and indentifying finished products.
 
(FLOW CHART)
 
Products and Services
 
INMETCO provides recycling services to its customers under two types of fee arrangements: toll processing arrangements and environmental services arrangements.
 
Tolling Services
 
Under the tolling arrangement, INMETCO charges a processing fee per ton of waste received and returns a remelt alloy product based on the waste’s metal content and INMETCO’s historical metal recovery factors for similar waste products. INMETCO serves almost all of the major austenitic stainless steel manufacturers in the United States in its tolling segment. We believe INMETCO is the only recycler of stainless steel wastes in North America and that INMETCO’s customers rely on its services to promote sustainable business practices, to avoid potential environmental liabilities associated with disposing of hazardous wastes at landfills and to take advantage of the return of valuable metals from their metal-bearing waste products. Most of INMETCO’s tolling customers have signed long-term, exclusive contracts, under which INMETCO processes their metal-bearing wastes. INMETCO receives four main nickel-containing waste materials from the specialty steel industry, which support the “tolling” segment of the business. These materials are flue dust, mill scale, grinding swarf and pickling filter cakes from spent pickling solution and are received either in a dry form or a wet form containing oil and/or water. Furnace baghouse dust or flue dust is generated during the melting and refining steps in the manufacture of stainless steel.


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Environmental Services
 
Under the environmental service fee arrangement, INMETCO acquires waste materials and processes those materials with no obligation to return any product to the customer. Depending on the state of the metals markets, INMETCO either charges a fee or pays to acquire environmental services materials. These materials include batteries and specialty steel industry wastes. Batteries include nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride, sodium-nickel-chloride and various other nickel-based batteries. INMETCO also processes limited quantities of household alkaline, zinc-carbon and lithium batteries. Additionally, lithium-ion and lead-acid batteries are sent to third-party recyclers for processing. Specialty steel industry wastes include flue dust, mill scale, grinding swarf and pickling filter cake along with a wide variety of other nickel-bearing wastes. Revenues are derived from these materials through the sale of remelt alloy product and cadmium product, as well as scrap sales and brokerage activities.
 
Remelt Alloy
 
INMETCO sells its remelt alloy product, produced from waste accepted as an environmental service, back to the stainless steel industry. Because the sale of remelt alloy product is based on metals market prices, INMETCO’s revenues and profits fluctuate with prevailing metal prices.
 
In addition to the production of the remelt alloy in 30-pound ingot size, INMETCO also produces a larger 1000-pound ingot on request.
 
Cadmium
 
INMETCO produces its cadmium metal in the form of shot or ingots to a specification of at least 99.95% purity. INMETCO also produces a portion of its product to a 99.99% grade. These products are sold on a global basis under the “CADMET” trademark.
 
Sales and Marketing
 
INMETCO’s marketing team consists of a sales manager and two inside sales assistants. The marketing team provides in-house INMETCO seminars in which current applicable regulations regarding storage and treatment of wastes, manifesting and transporting wastes and the recycling process are discussed. These seminars conclude with a tour of the INMETCO facility. INMETCO has also been active in exhibiting or presenting papers at outside seminars and trade shows to promote the capabilities of the business segment. The marketing team supplements these activities with advertisements in applicable industry publications, as well as on the Internet.
 
Customers
 
While INMETCO has over 950 customers in total, approximately 83% of its sales are made to its top three customers. INMETCO has had a long-term relationship with each of its major customers. Two of INMETCO’s top three customers have been customers since INMETCO commenced operations in the late 1970’s and one has been a customer since that customer’s startup in the early 2000’s.
 
Intellectual Property
 
The INMETCO process enables the business to treat and reclaim Ni-Cr-Fe bearing hazardous and non-hazardous materials in a low cost, environmentally safe manner. The INMETCO process is recognized by the EPA as the “Best Demonstrated Available Technology” for the treatment of steelmaking dust (i.e., low zinc KO61, KO62 and F006 designated hazardous waste). The INMETCO process has also been recognized by the EPA as the Best Demonstrated Available Technology for the treatment of cadmium-containing batteries.
 
Competition
 
We believe that our recycling facilities provide an environmentally favorable alternative for disposing of hazardous waste. Since 1978, INMETCO has provided a recycling alternative for a wide variety of hazardous waste products produced by the specialty steel industry, including steelmaking dust, mill scale and grinding swarf. Stainless steel producers are faced with the same dust disposal problems as carbon steel producers. However, the


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process requirements and economics of stainless steelmaking dust processing are different, since the cost of treating the dust may be substantially offset by the recovery of valuable metals such as nickel, chromium and iron, which are recycled and returned to the specialty steel industry under toll arrangements.
 
In the metal processing industry, the most commonly used techniques for managing and disposing of hazardous waste are land disposal facilities and recycling facilities such as INMETCO’s. We believe the INMETCO process offers three key advantages over landfill: (1) it is a preferred solution from an environmental and product stewardship perspective, (2) it offers potential cost advantages through the return of valuable metals and (3) it avoids exposure to long-term contingent liabilities associated with sending waste to landfill facilities. Accordingly, we expect the INMETCO process to continue to remain the alternative of choice for the specialty steel industry. We believe INMETCO is the largest recycler of nickel-bearing hazardous waste in the North America.
 
Governmental Regulation and Environmental Issues
 
Our facilities and operations are subject to various federal, state and local governmental laws and regulations with respect to the protection of the environment, including regulations relating to air and water quality and solid and hazardous waste management and disposal. These laws include the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (“CERCLA” or “Superfund”), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (“RCRA”), the Clean Air Act (“CAA”), the Clean Water Act, and their state equivalents. We are also subject to various other laws and regulations, including those administered by the Department of Labor, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (“FERC”), the Surface Transportation Board and the Department of Transportation. We believe that we are in material compliance with applicable laws and regulations, including environmental laws and regulations governing our ongoing operations, and that we have obtained or applied in a timely manner for all material permits and approvals necessary for the operation of our business.
 
Our process modifications have resulted in operations fully utilizing recycled feedstocks. The use of recycled zinc feedstocks preserves natural resources, precluding the need for mining and land reclamation and thereby operating in a manner consistent with the principles of sustainable development. Our recycling services avoid the potential environmental impacts that are associated with landfilling hazardous wastes. EAF dust itself is a listed hazardous waste created from the melting of steel scrap in electric arc furnaces by the steel mini-mill industry. Our recycling process has been designated by the EPA as “Best Demonstrated Available Technology” for the recycling of EAF dust.
 
We maintain irrevocable letters of credit to address financial assurance requirements for potential future remediation costs and RCRA permit termination for several facilities. Financial assurance is required under RCRA permit requirements for the Ellwood City, Pennsylvania and Palmerton, Pennsylvania facilities. Financial assurance, through an irrevocable letter of credit, is also required for eventual closure of our residual landfill at the Monaca, Pennsylvania facility.
 
In Bartlesville, Oklahoma, we and our predecessor formerly operated a primary zinc processing facility which was closed in the 1990’s and subsequently dismantled. Environmental remediation work at this facility was completed in 2003 in connection with closing these former facilities under an agreement with the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality. We currently manage this facility in accordance with the agreement for certain activities described as post closure care. We, along with two other responsible parties, provide financial assurance for future post closure care activities at the Bartlesville facility. A reserve on our balance sheet has been established for our share of future costs associated with this matter.
 
Our Palmerton property is part of a CERCLA site that was added to the National Priorities List in 1983. When the Palmerton assets were purchased out of bankruptcy in December 2003, we acquired only those assets, including real property, needed to support the ongoing recycling and metal powders businesses at that location. We currently hold approximately 100 acres within an area of the approximately 1,500 acres owned by HII. The successor in interest to previous owners has contractually assumed responsibility for historic site contamination and associated remediation and has indemnified us against any liabilities related to the property, including Natural Resource Damages. Exceptions to this indemnity include our obligations under the 1995 consent decree described below and non-Superfund RCRA obligations and environmental liabilities resulting from our ongoing operations.


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We inherited certain of HII’s environmental liabilities related to our Palmerton operations pursuant to a 1995 Consent Decree between HII, the EPA and the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (“PADEP”). Our obligations pursuant to this consent decree included construction of a storage building for calcine kiln feed materials and the removal of historic accumulations of lead concentrate from three buildings. These obligations are currently being managed to the satisfaction of the regulatory agencies and are reserved for on our balance sheet. Removal of historic accumulations of lead concentrate was completed in 2008.
 
During 2009, our Ellwood City facility completed installation of a new baghouse complex to control air emissions from its RHF, which were previously controlled by a wet scrubber system. The RHF baghouse complex was installed in accordance with a Consent Order & Assessment (“CO&A”) entered into with PADEP prior to our acquisition of INMETCO. Compliance certification testing of the RHF baghouse installation was conducted and submitted to the State in the later part of 2009. The CO&A was extinguished in 2011 upon final approval of compliance certification testing by the PADEP.
 
Employees
 
As of December 31, 2010, we employed 1,089 persons at the following locations.
 
                         
                Union
 
    Salaried
    Hourly
    Contract
 
Location
  Personnel     Personnel     Expiration  
 
Monaca
    124       521       10/31/11 *
Pittsburgh
    19             N/A  
Bartlesville
    1             N/A  
Beaumont
    2             N/A  
Calumet
    13       48       08/02/11  
Palmerton
    24       122       04/26/11  
Palmerton (Chestnut Ridge Railroad)
          3       12/15/11  
Rockwood
    11       48       07/01/11  
Barnwell
    10       41       N/A  
Ellwood City
    29       73       10/31/13  
                         
Total
    233       856          
                         
 
 
* 33 of the hourly employees are covered by a separate union contract that expires on March 15, 2011.
 
The vast majority of our hourly personnel are unionized. Hourly workers receive medical, dental and prescription drug benefits. We do not have a defined benefit plan for hourly or salaried employees and no company-paid medical plan for retirees. We have a 401(k) plan for both our hourly and salaried employees. Our labor contracts provide for a company contribution, and in most cases a company match, which varies from contract to contract. We believe we have satisfactory relations with our employees.


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Executive Officers and Key Employees of the Registrant
 
Set forth below is information concerning our executive officers and key employees.
 
             
Name
 
Age
 
Position
 
James M. Hensler
    55     Chairman of the Board of Directors, Class I Director, President and Chief Executive Officer
Robert D. Scherich
    50     Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
Lee Burkett
    54     Vice President — Manufacturing
James A. Totera
    54     Vice President — Sales and Marketing
Timothy R. Basilone
    51     Vice President — Environmental Affairs
Ali Alavi
    49     Vice President — Corporate Administration, General Counsel and Secretary
Bruce Morgan
    39     Vice President — Human Resources
Mark Tomaszewski
    54     President — INMETCO
 
James M. Hensler, Chairman of the Board of Directors, President and Chief Executive Officer, joined us in April 2004. He has over 31 years of experience working in the metals industry. From 2003 to April 2004, Mr. Hensler was a consultant to various companies in the metals industry. From 1999 to 2003, Mr. Hensler was Vice President of Global Operations and Vice President and General Manager of the Huntington Alloys Business Unit for Special Metals Corp., a leading international manufacturer of high performance nickel and cobalt alloys. Prior to that, Mr. Hensler was the Executive Vice President for Austeel Lemont Co., General Manager of Washington Steel Co. and Director of Business Planning for Allegheny Teledyne Inc. He received a BS in Chemical Engineering from the University of Notre Dame in 1977, an MSE in Chemical Engineering from Princeton University in 1978 and an MBA from the Katz Graduate School of Business at the University of Pittsburgh in 1987.
 
Robert D. Scherich, Vice President and Chief Financial Officer, joined us in July 2004. From 1996 to 2004, Mr. Scherich was the Chief Financial Officer of Valley National Gases, Inc. Prior to that, he was the Controller and General Manager at Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corp. and an accountant at Ernst & Whinney. Mr. Scherich received a BS in Business Administration from The Pennsylvania State University in 1982.
 
Lee Burkett, Vice President — Manufacturing, joined us in November 2006 with over 27 years of industry experience. For three years prior to joining us he was General Manager of the Bridgeville Facility of Universal Stainless. Previous positions included General Manager — Finishing Operations of J&L Specialty Steel, Plant Manager of Timet’s Toronto, Ohio facility, Vice President Operations for Caparo Steel and 14 years with Washington Steel with responsibilities in all aspects of the operation including Plant Manager of Finishing. Mr. Burkett received a BS in Mechanical Engineering from The Pennsylvania State University in 1979.
 
James A. Totera, Vice President — Sales and Marketing, joined us in 1997. Prior to that, he was the Vice President of Sales for Steel Mill Products (EAF dust recycling) and also spent over 15 years working in sales positions (including as General Manager of Sales) at Insul Company. Mr. Totera received a BA in Economics, Administrative Management Science and Psychology from Carnegie Mellon University in 1979.
 
Timothy R. Basilone, Vice President — Environmental Affairs, joined us in January 2010. Mr. Basilone has over 20 years of experience working in all aspects of environmental affairs in a variety of industries. Prior to joining us, he spent ten years with Koppers Inc., including seven years as a Senior Manager in the Corporate Environmental Affairs Department and three years as Operations Superintendent at the Koppers coal tar distillation facility in Clairton, Pennsylvania. Prior to that Mr. Basilone spent nine years at Westinghouse Electric Corporation as the Environmental Remediation Program Manager in the Corporate Legal and Environmental Affairs Department. He began his professional career as an Exploration / Production Geologist with Marathon Oil Company before moving on to Westinghouse. Mr. Basilone earned an MS degree in Earth and Planetary Science from the University of Pittsburgh in 1984 and a BA degree in Geology from the College of Wooster in 1981.
 
Ali Alavi, Vice President — Corporate Administration, General Counsel and Secretary, joined us in 1996. Mr. Alavi previously served as our Director & Counsel of Environment, Health & Safety and Director of Environmental Performance. Prior to joining us, Mr. Alavi worked as Assistant General Counsel of Clean Sites,


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Inc., Senior Regulatory Analyst of the American Petroleum Institute and Project Manager/Engineer for the U.S. Army Toxic & Hazardous Materials Agency. Mr. Alavi received a BA in Geography/Environmental Studies from the University of Pittsburgh in 1983, an MS in Petroleum Engineering from the University of Pittsburgh School of Engineering in 1985 and a JD from the University of Maryland Law School in 1993.
 
Bruce Morgan, Vice President — Human Resources joined us in May 2010. Prior to joining us, from November 2006 to May 2010, Mr. Morgan served as Director of Human Resources — North America for the Steel Mill Services division of Harsco Corporation. Prior to that, Mr. Morgan served as Director of Human Resources for both the Steel and Foundry Divisions of Vesuvius USA, a global refractory manufacturer, where he was employed from March 1997 to November 2006. Among other previous employment, Mr. Morgan served as an HR Associate for the construction and start-up of Gallatin Steel Company, where he was employed from June 1994 to August 1995. Mr. Morgan received a BS degree in Industrial and Labor Relations from Cornell University in 1994.
 
Mark Tomaszewski, President-INMETCO, joined us on December 31, 2009 when we acquired INMETCO, where he has served for over 30 years in positions ranging from General Manager-Finance and Administration to his current position of President of INMETCO, which position he has held since August 2008. Mr. Tomaszewski received a BS in Business Administration from West Virginia Wesleyan College in 1978 and an MS in Business Administration from Robert Morris University in 1992.
 
Available Information
 
We file annual, quarterly and current reports and other information with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). These filings are available to the public at the SEC’s web site at http://www.sec.gov. You may also read and copy any document we file at the SEC’s public reference room located in Washington, DC 20549. Please call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for further information on the public reference room.
 
Our internet website address is www.horsehead.net. Our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act are available free of charge through our website as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. Additionally, our Code of Ethics may be accessed within the Investor Relations section of our web site. Our website and the information contained or incorporated therein are not intended to be incorporated into this report.
 
ITEM 1A.   RISK FACTORS
 
In addition to the other information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, the following risk factors should be read carefully in connection with evaluating our business and the forward-looking information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Any of the following risks could materially adversely affect our business, operating results, financial condition and the actual outcome of matters as to which we have made forward-looking statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. There may be additional risks and uncertainties that are not presently known or that we do not currently consider to be significant that may adversely affect our business, performance or financial condition in the future.
 
The metals industry is highly cyclical. Fluctuations in the availability of zinc and nickel and in levels of customer demand have historically been severe, and future changes and/or fluctuations could cause us to experience lower sales volumes, which would negatively impact our profit margins.
 
The metals industry is highly cyclical. The length and magnitude of industry cycles have varied over time and by product but generally reflect changes in macroeconomic conditions, levels of industry capacity and availability of usable raw materials. The overall levels of demand for our products containing zinc or nickel reflect fluctuations in levels of end-user demand, which depend in large part on general macroeconomic conditions in North America and regional economic conditions in our markets. For example, many of the principal consumers of zinc metal and zinc-related products operate in industries such as transportation, construction or general manufacturing, that themselves are heavily dependent on general economic conditions, including the availability of affordable energy sources, employment levels, interest rates, consumer confidence and housing demand. These cyclical shifts in our


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customers’ industries tend to result in significant fluctuations in demand and pricing for our products and services. As a result, in periods of recession or low economic growth, such as the one we are currently experiencing, metals companies, including ours, have generally tended to under-perform compared to other industries. We generally have high fixed costs, so changes in industry demand that impact our production volume also can significantly impact our profit margins and our overall financial condition. Economic downturns in the national and international economies and a prolonged recession in our principal industry segments have had a negative impact on our operations and on those of our predecessor both recently and in the past, and a continuation or further deterioration of current economic conditions could have a negative impact on our future financial condition or results of operations.
 
Current or future credit and financial market conditions could materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations in several ways.
 
Financial markets in the United States, Europe and Asia have experienced extreme disruption, including, among other things, extreme volatility in securities prices, severely diminished liquidity and credit availability, rating downgrades of certain investments and declining valuations of others. Despite some improvement in credit and financial markets, there can be no assurance that there will not be further deterioration in these markets and confidence in economic conditions. These economic developments affect businesses such as ours in a number of ways. Tightening of credit in financial markets may delay or prevent our customers from securing funding adequate to honor their existing contracts with us or to enter into new contracts to purchase our products and could result in a decrease in or cancellation of orders for our products. Our customers may also seek to delay deliveries of our products under existing contracts, which may postpone our ability to recognize revenue on contracts in our order backlog.
 
Our business is also adversely affected by decreases in the general level of economic activity, including the levels of purchasing and investment in general. Strengthening of the rate of exchange for the U.S. dollar against certain major currencies may adversely affect our results or may adversely affect our domestic customers’ ability to export their product. We may also face increased risk that the counterparty to a hedging transaction that we enter or have entered into may default on its obligation to pay or deliver under the forward contract.
 
We are unable to predict the likely duration and severity of disruptions in financial markets and sluggish economic conditions in the United States and other countries, and any resulting effects or changes, including those described above, may have a material and adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
 
Changes in the prices of zinc and nickel will have a significant impact on our operating results and financial condition.
 
We derive most of our revenue from the sale of zinc and nickel -based products. Changes in the market price of zinc and nickel impact the selling prices of our products, and therefore our profitability is significantly affected by decreased zinc and nickel prices. Market prices of these metals are dependent upon supply and demand and a variety of factors over which we have little or no control, including:
 
  •  U.S. and world economic conditions;
 
  •  availability and relative pricing of metal substitutes;
 
  •  labor costs;
 
  •  energy prices;
 
  •  environmental laws and regulations;
 
  •  weather; and
 
  •  import and export restrictions.
 
Declines in the price of zinc have had a negative impact on our operations in the past, and future declines could have a negative impact on our future financial condition or results of operations. In 2002, record low zinc prices, together with high operational and legacy environmental costs and inefficiencies, caused our predecessor, HII, to


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file for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection. Market conditions beyond our control determine the prices for our products, and the price for any one or more of our products may fall below our production costs, requiring us to either incur short-term losses and/or idle or permanently shut down production capacity. Market prices for zinc and nickel may decrease, and therefore our operating results may be significantly harmed.
 
Some of our products and services are vulnerable to long-term declines in demand due to competing technologies, materials or imports, which would significantly reduce our sales.
 
Our zinc and nickel-based products compete with other materials in many of their applications. For example, our zinc is used by steel fabricators in the hot dip galvanizing process, in which steel is coated with zinc in order to protect it from corrosion. Steel fabricators also can use paint, which we do not sell, for corrosion protection. Demand for our zinc as a galvanizing material may shift depending on how customers view the respective merits of hot dip galvanizing and paint. In addition, some of our customers may reduce or eliminate their usage of PW grade zinc metal because it contains a small amount of lead and may switch to other grades of zinc metal that we do not produce.
 
Our nickel-based products are used in the stainless steel industry. Demand for our products and services may decline if demand for stainless steel lessens. Nickel-bearing stainless steel faces competition from stainless steels containing a lower level of nickel or no nickel. Domestic production of stainless steel may be negatively impacted by imports.
 
In addition, in periods of high zinc and nickel prices, consumers of these metals may have additional incentives to invest in the development of technologically viable substitutes for zinc and nickel-based products. Similarly, customers may develop ways to manufacture their products by using less zinc and nickel-based material than they do currently. If one or more of our customers successfully identify alternative products that can be substituted for our zinc or nickel-based products, or find ways to reduce their zinc or nickel consumption, our sales to those and other customers would likely decline.
 
Demand for our EAF dust or nickel-bearing waste recycling operations may decline to the extent that steel mini-mill producers identify less expensive or more convenient alternatives for the disposal of their EAF dust or nickel-bearing waste or if the EPA were to no longer classify EAF dust as a listed hazardous waste. We may in the future face increased competition from other EAF dust or nickel-bearing waste recyclers, including new entrants into those recycling markets, or from landfills implementing more effective disposal techniques. Furthermore, our current recycling customers may seek to capitalize on the value of the EAF dust or nickel-bearing waste produced by their operations, or may seek to recycle their material themselves, or reduce the price they pay to us for the material they deliver to us. Any of these developments would have an adverse effect on our financial results.
 
We may be unable to compete effectively against manufacturers of zinc and nickel products in one or more of our markets, which would limit our market share and/or reduce our sales and our operating profit margins.
 
We face intense competition from regional, national and global companies in each of the markets we serve, where we face also the potential for future entrants and competitors. We compete on the basis of product quality, on-time delivery performance and price, with price representing a more important factor for our larger customers and for sales of standard zinc products than for smaller customers and customers to whom we sell value-added zinc-based products. Our competitors include other independent zinc producers as well as vertically integrated zinc companies that mine and produce zinc. Some of our competitors have substantially greater financial and other resources than we do. In addition, we estimate that our products comprised only approximately 12% of total zinc consumption in the United States in 2010, and several of our competitors have greater market share than we do. Our competitors may also foresee the course of market development more accurately than we do, sell products at a lower price than we can and/or adapt more quickly to new technologies or industry and customer requirements. We operate in a global marketplace, and zinc metal imports now represent approximately 74% of U.S. zinc metal consumption.
 
In the future, foreign zinc metal producers may develop new ways of packaging and transporting zinc metal that could mitigate the freight cost and other shipping limitations that we believe currently limit their ability to more


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fully penetrate the U.S. zinc market. If our customers in any of the end-user markets we serve were to shift their production outside the United States and Canada, then those customers would likely source zinc overseas, and, as a result, our net sales and results of operations would be adversely affected. If we cannot compete other than by reducing prices, we may lose market share and suffer reduced profit margins. If our competitors lower their prices, it could inhibit our ability to compete for customers with higher value-added sales and could lead to a reduction in our sales volumes and profit. If our product mix changed as a result of competitive pricing, it could have an adverse impact on our gross margins and profitability.
 
If we fail to implement our business strategy, our financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
 
Our ability to achieve our business and financial objectives is subject to a variety of factors, many of which are beyond our control. For example, factors such as increased competition, legal and regulatory developments, general economic conditions or increased operating costs could prevent us from increasing our capacity, implementing further productivity improvements, investing in technology upgrades or continuing to enhance our business and product mix.
 
An important part of our strategy is to grow our business by expanding our capacity to process EAF dust. One new kiln was placed into service in 2008 at our Rockwood, Tennessee facility and two new kilns were placed into service in 2010 at our new recycling facility in Barnwell, South Carolina. We have also initiated a project to invest in a new, lower-cost technology to process EAF dust-based feedstock and other recycled materials into special high grade zinc and other zinc products. We may need additional financing to implement our strategy and we may not have access to the funding required for the investments on acceptable terms. Our construction costs may also increase to levels that would make our facilities unprofitable to operate. Our planned projects may also suffer significant delays or cost overruns as a result of a variety of factors, such as shortages of workers or materials, transportation constraints, adverse weather, unforeseen difficulties or labor issues, any of which could prevent us from completing our expansion plans as currently expected. Our project plans may also result in other unanticipated adverse consequences, such as the diversion of management’s attention from our existing operations. In addition, even if we are able to implement our strategy, projected increases in EAF dust recycling may not materialize to the extent we expect, or at all, resulting in unutilized capacity. Any failure to successfully implement our business strategy, including for any of the above reasons, could materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. We may, in addition, decide to alter or discontinue certain aspects of our business strategy at any time.
 
Our business could be harmed if we do not successfully manage the integration of businesses that we acquire in the future or we may not realize all or any of the anticipated benefits from acquisitions we make in the future.
 
As part of our business strategy, we have and may continue to acquire other businesses that complement our core capabilities. The benefits of an acquisition may often take considerable time to develop and may not be realized. Business acquisitions entail a number of inherent risks such as:
 
  •  the potential loss of key customers and employees of the acquired business;
 
  •  the in-ability to achieve the operating and financial synergies anticipated from an acquisition;
 
  •  disruptions that can arise from the integration of the acquired business; and
 
  •  potential unknown liabilities or other difficulties associated with the acquired businesses.
 
As a result of the aforementioned and other risks, we may not realize the anticipated benefits from acquisitions, which could adversely affect our business.


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Work stoppages and other labor matters could interrupt our production or increase our costs, either of which would negatively impact our operating results.
 
As of December 31, 2010, we had 1,089 employees, 815, or approximately 75%, of whom were covered by union contracts. Six of the seven collective bargaining agreements to which we are a party are scheduled to expire in 2011. We may be unable to resolve any of these contract negotiations without work stoppages or significant increases in costs, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, cash flows and operating results. We may be unable to maintain satisfactory relationships with our employees and their unions, and we may encounter strikes, further unionization efforts or other types of conflicts with labor unions or our employees, which may interfere with our production or increase our costs, either of which would negatively impact our operating results.
 
Equipment or power failures, delays in deliveries or catastrophic loss at any of our facilities, such as experienced in the explosion at our Monaca, Pennsylvania facility that occurred on July 22, 2010, could prevent us from meeting customer demand, reduce our sales, increase our costs and/or negatively impact our results of operations.
 
An interruption in production or service capabilities at any of our production facilities as a result of equipment or power failure or other reasons could limit our ability to deliver products to our customers, reducing our net sales and net income, increasing our costs and potentially damaging relationships with our customers. Any significant delay in deliveries to our customers could lead to increased returns or cancellations, damage to our reputation and/or permanent loss of customers. Any such production stoppage or delay could also require us to make unplanned capital expenditures, which together with reduced sales and increased costs, could adversely affect our results or operations.
 
For instance, in July 2010, we experienced an explosion at our Monaca, Pennsylvania facility that resulted in two fatalities and injuries to at least two employees. It was determined that each of the ten columns used to produce zinc oxide and refined zinc metal needed to be rebuilt before production could be restarted using these columns, and we were unable to commence reconstruction for several weeks pending completion of various regulatory and other investigations. Consequently, during 2010 we lost approximately 12,000 tons of zinc production, incurred $16.4 million in increased costs related to the incident and estimate that our profit in 2010 was decreased by $17.3 million excluding the amounts of any insurance recovery.
 
Furthermore, because many of our customers are, to varying degrees, dependent on deliveries from our facilities, customers that have to reschedule their own production due to our missed deliveries could pursue financial claims against us. Our facilities are also subject to the risk of catastrophic loss due to unanticipated events such as fires, the explosion at our Monaca, Pennsylvania facility, adverse weather conditions or other events. We have experienced, and may experience in the future, periods of reduced production as a result of repairs that are necessary to our kiln, smelting and refinery operations. If any of these events occur in the future, they could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. Our insurance policies may not cover all of our losses and we could incur uninsured losses and liabilities arising from, among other things, loss of life, physical damage, business interruptions and product liability including losses resulting from the explosion at our Monaca, Pennsylvania facility.
 
Fluctuations in the cost or availability of electricity, coke, coal and/or natural gas would lead to higher manufacturing costs, thereby reducing our margins and limiting our cash flows from operations.
 
Energy is one of our most significant costs, comprising approximately $70 million of our production costs in 2010. Our processes rely on electricity, coke and natural gas in order to operate, our freight operations depend heavily on the availability of diesel fuel and our Monaca power plant uses coal to generate electricity for our operations in that facility. Energy prices, particularly for electricity, natural gas, coal, coke and diesel fuel, have been volatile and have exceed historical averages in recent years. These fluctuations impact our manufacturing costs and contribute to earnings volatility. We estimate that a hypothetical 10% increase in electricity, natural gas and coke costs would have reduced our income from operations by approximately $7 million for 2010. In addition, in the event of an interruption in the supply of coal to our power plant at our Monaca facility, that facility would be


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required to purchase electricity, which may not be available and would be subject to the same risks related to an increase in electricity costs. In addition, at most of our facilities we do not maintain sources of secondary power, and therefore any prolonged interruptions in the supply of energy to our facilities could result in lengthy production shutdowns, increased costs associated with restarting production and waste of production in progress. We have experienced rolling power outages in the past, and any future outages would reduce our production capacity, reducing our net sales and potentially impacting our ability to deliver products to our customers.
 
If we were to lose order volumes from any of our major customers, our sales could decline significantly and our cash flows may be reduced.
 
In 2010, our ten largest customers were responsible for 46% of our consolidated sales. In 2010, three of INMETCO’s customers provided 83% of its sales. A loss of order volumes from, or a loss of industry share by, any major customer could negatively affect our financial condition and results of operations by lowering sales volumes, increasing costs and lowering profitability. In addition, several of our customers have become involved in bankruptcy or insolvency proceedings and have defaulted on their obligations to us in recent years. We may be required to record significant additional reserves for accounts receivable from customers which may have a material impact on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
 
In addition, approximately 20% by volume of our zinc product shipments in 2010 were to customers who do not have long-term contractual arrangements with us. These customers purchase products and services from us on a spot basis and may choose not to continue to purchase our products and services. The loss of these customers or a significant reduction in their purchase orders could have a negative impact on our sales volume and business.
 
Our operations are subject to numerous federal and state statutes that regulate the protection of the health and safety of our employees, and changes in health and safety regulation could result in significant costs, which would reduce our margins and adversely affect our cash flow from operations.
 
We are subject to the requirements of the OSHA, and comparable state statutes that regulate the protection of the health and safety of workers. In addition, the OSHA hazard communication standard requires that information be maintained about hazardous materials used or produced in operations and that this information be provided to employees, state and local government authorities and citizens. We are also subject to federal and state laws regarding operational safety. Costs and liabilities related to worker safety may be incurred and any violation of health and safety laws or regulations could impose substantial costs on us. Possible future developments, including stricter safety laws for workers or others, regulations and enforcement policies and claims for personal injury or property damages resulting from our operations could result in substantial costs and liabilities that could reduce the amount of cash that we would otherwise have to distribute or use to service our indebtedness or further enhance our business.
 
Litigation related to worker safety may result in significant liabilities and limit our profitability.
 
We may be involved in claims and litigation filed on behalf of persons alleging injuries suffered predominantly because of occupational exposure to substances at our facilities. It is not possible to predict the ultimate outcome of these claims and lawsuits due to the unpredictable nature of personal injury litigation. If these claims and lawsuits, individually or in the aggregate, were finally resolved against us, our results of operations and cash flows could be adversely affected.
 
We are subject to stringent environmental regulation, which may cause us to incur significant costs and liabilities that could materially harm our operating results.
 
Our business is subject to a variety of environmental regulations and our operations expose us to various potential environmental liabilities. For example, we recycle EAF dust, which is listed and regulated as a hazardous waste under the EPA’s solid waste Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (“RCRA”). Failure to properly process and manage EAF dust could result in significant liability for us, including, among other things, costs for health-related claims or for reclamation of hazardous substances in the environment. In addition, as part of the purchase of assets out of bankruptcy, we inherited responsibility for several environmental issues from our predecessor at our Palmerton and Bartlesville facilities. The Palmerton issues are cited in a 1995 EPA and PADEP consent decree, and


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the Bartlesville issues are covered in a consent agreement with the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality for RCRA cleanup work. A reserve in the amount of $2.2 million was established as of December 31, 2010, to cover the cost of construction of a storage building for calcine kiln feed materials at our Palmerton facility, and for cleanup costs at our Bartlesville, Oklahoma facility. We may also incur costs related to future compliance with air emission regulations including “Maximum Achievable Control Technology” (“MACT”) rules relating to industrial boilers, future MACT regulations relating to the non-ferrous secondary metals production category, revised rules related to the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (“NAAQS”) for lead emissions at our Monaca facility, the proposed “Clean Air Transport Rule” that focuses on reducing emissions that affect a “downwind” state’s ability to meet NAAQS for a variety of pollutants, including nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides, from our Monaca power plant and Pennsylvania regulations that are more stringent than the federal MACT regulations that would apply to mercury emissions from coal combustion at our Monaca power plant. Our total cost of environmental compliance at any time depends on a variety of regulatory, technical and factual issues, some of which cannot be anticipated. Additional environmental issues could arise, or laws and regulations could be passed and promulgated, resulting in additional costs, which our reserves may not cover and which could materially harm our operating results.
 
Potential federal climate change legislation or greenhouse gas regulation could result in increased operating costs and reduced demand for our products.
 
Over the past two years, Congress has considered legislation that would cap and reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (“GHGs”) for most industrial sectors, although to date no major climate change bill has been enacted. In June 2009, the U.S. House of Representatives passed the American Clean Energy Security Act of 2009, which was introduced by Rep. Henry Waxman (D-CA) and Rep. Edward Markey (D-MA) and commonly known as “Waxman-Markey.” This bill would have established an economy-wide cap-and-trade system for emissions of GHGs, seeking to reduce them 17% below 2005 levels by 2020 and 83% below 2005 levels by 2050. Under Waxman-Markey, sources that emit GHGs would have been required to hold an emission allowance or an offset credit for each carbon dioxide-equivalent ton of a GHG emitted or produced on site. Broadly, Waxman-Markey and similar regulatory programs would likely have resulted in increased costs associated with the production and combustion of carbon-intensive fuels such as coal, oil, refined petroleum products, and gas. The U.S. Senate did not vote on the House-passed bill in the last Congressional term. It is possible that similar legislation could be proposed again in the near future.
 
In addition, the EPA has begun regulating GHG emissions under the Clean Air Act in response to the Supreme Court’s 2007 decision in Massachusetts v. EPA. In December 2009, EPA published its findings that atmospheric concentrations of GHGs endanger public health and welfare pursuant to the Clean Air Act and that GHG emissions from new motor vehicles and new motor vehicle engines are contributing to air pollution endangering public health and welfare pursuant to the Clean Air Act. Although these findings do not by themselves impose any requirements with respect to sources emitting GHGs and contain no specific emission reduction targets, they have resulted in subsequent efforts by EPA to regulate GHGs under the Clean Air Act.
 
Following the endangerment finding, the EPA conducted several rulemakings that, although currently subject to pending legal challenges, would regulate GHGs from certain stationary sources under the Clean Air Act. Separately, EPA has promulgated a series of rulemakings requiring the reporting of GHG emissions. The adoption and implementation of any regulations imposing reporting obligations on, or limiting emissions of GHGs from, our equipment and operations could require us to incur significant costs to reduce emissions of GHGs associated with our operations.
 
We believe we are in substantial compliance with existing environmental laws and regulations applicable to our current operations. However, accidental spills or releases may occur in the course of our operations, and we cannot give any assurance that we will not incur substantial costs and liabilities as a result of such spills or releases, including those relating to claims for damage to property and persons. Moreover, we cannot give any assurance that the passage of more stringent laws or regulations in the future will not have a negative effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.


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Our hedging strategies may fail to protect us from changes in the prices for natural gas, coal and zinc, which could reduce our gross margin and cash flow.
 
We pursue various hedging strategies, including entering into forward purchase contracts and put options, in order to reduce our exposure to losses from adverse changes in the prices for natural gas, coal and zinc. Our hedging activities vary in scope based upon the level and volatility of natural gas, coal and zinc prices and other changing market conditions. Our hedging activity may fail to protect or could harm our operating results because, among other things:
 
  •  hedging can be expensive, particularly during periods of volatile prices;
 
  •  available hedges may not correspond directly with the risks that we are seeking to protect ourselves against;
 
  •  the duration of the hedge may not match the duration of the risk that we are seeking to protect ourselves against; and
 
  •  the counterparty to a hedging transaction may default on its obligation to pay or deliver under the forward contract.
 
We depend on the service of key individuals, the loss of whom could materially harm our business.
 
Our success will depend, in part, on the efforts of our executive officers and other key employees, none of whom are covered by key person insurance policies. These individuals possess sales, marketing, engineering, manufacturing, financial and administrative skills that are critical to the operation of our business. If we lose or suffer an extended interruption in the services of one or more of our executive officers or other key employees, our business, results of operations and financial condition may be negatively impacted. Moreover, the market for qualified individuals may be highly competitive and we may not be able to attract and retain qualified personnel to succeed members of our management team or other key employees, should the need arise.
 
We may not be able to protect our intellectual property, particularly our proprietary technology related to the recycling of EAF dust, the smelting of recycled zinc and the processing of nickel-bearing materials. Our market share and results of operations could be harmed.
 
We rely upon proprietary know-how and continuing technological innovation and other trade secrets to develop and maintain our competitive position. Our competitors could gain knowledge of our know-how or trade secrets, either directly or through one or more of our employees or other third parties. If one or more of our competitors can use or independently develop such know-how or trade secrets, our market share, sales volumes and profit margins could be adversely affected.
 
We depend on third parties for transportation services, and their failure to deliver raw material to us or finished products to our customers could increase our costs and harm our reputation and operating results.
 
We rely primarily on third parties for transportation of the products we manufacture, as well as the delivery of EAF dust to our recycling plants and other raw materials, including recycled zinc, to our Monaca production facility. In particular, a substantial portion of the raw materials we use is transported by railroad, which is highly regulated. If any of our third-party transportation providers were to fail to deliver our products in a timely manner, we may be unable to sell those products at full value or at all. Similarly, if any of these providers were to fail to deliver raw materials to us in a timely manner, we may be unable to meet customer demand. In addition, if any of these third parties were to cease operations or cease doing business with us, we may be unable to replace them at reasonable cost. Any failure of a third-party transportation provider to deliver raw materials or finished products in a timely manner could disrupt our operations, harm our reputation and have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and operating results.


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The market price for shares of our common stock has been and may continue to be highly volatile and subject to wide fluctuations.
 
The market for common stock has been subject to significant disruptions that have caused substantial volatility in the prices of these securities, which may or may not have corresponded to the business or financial success of the particular company. The market price for shares of our common stock has been volatile and could decline if our future operating results fail to meet or exceed the expectations of market analysts and investors or current economic or market conditions persist or worsen.
 
Some specific factors that may have a significant effect on the future market price of our shares of common stock include:
 
  •  actual or expected fluctuations in our operating results;
 
  •  actual or expected changes in our growth rates or our competitors’ growth rates;
 
  •  changes in general economic conditions or conditions in our industry generally;
 
  •  changes in conditions in the financial markets;
 
  •  our inability to raise additional capital;
 
  •  increases in our cost of capital;
 
  •  changes in applicable laws or regulations, court rulings and enforcement and legal actions;
 
  •  adverse market reaction to any increased indebtedness we incur in the future;
 
  •  additions or departures of key management personnel;
 
  •  actions by our stockholders;
 
  •  changes in market prices for our products or for our raw materials; and
 
  •  changes in stock market analyst research and recommendations regarding the shares of our common stock, other comparable companies or our industry generally.
 
As a result of these and other factors, you may be unable to resell your shares of our common stock at or above the price you paid for such shares.
 
We do not have any current plan to pay dividends on our common stock, and as a result, your only opportunity to achieve a return on your investment in our common stock is if the price of our common stock increases.
 
We anticipate that we will retain all future earnings and other cash resources for the future operation and development of our business. Accordingly, we do not intend to declare or pay regular cash dividends on our common stock in the near future. Payment of any future dividends will be at the discretion of our board of directors after taking into account many factors, including our operating results, financial conditions, current and anticipated cash needs and plans for expansion. The declaration and payment of any dividends on our common stock may also be restricted by the terms of any future credit facilities. As a result, your only opportunity to achieve a return on your investment in us will be if the price of our common stock increases and if you are able to sell your shares at a profit. You may not be able to sell shares of our common stock at a price that exceeds the price that you pay.
 
Provisions of our amended certificate of incorporation and by-laws could delay or prevent a takeover of us by a third party and may prevent attempts by stockholders to replace or remove our current management.
 
Provisions in our amended certificate of incorporation and by-laws and of Delaware corporate law may make it difficult and expensive for a third party to pursue a tender offer, change in control or takeover attempt that is opposed by our management and board of directors. These anti-takeover provisions could substantially impede the ability of public stockholders to benefit from a change of control or change our management and board of directors.


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In addition, Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law may discourage, delay or prevent a change in control by prohibiting us from engaging in a business combination with an interested stockholder for a period of three years after the person becomes an interested stockholder. These provisions could limit the price that certain investors might be willing to pay in the future for shares of our common stock and limit the return, if any, you are able to achieve on your investment in us.
 
ITEM 1B.   UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
 
None.
 
ITEM 2.   PROPERTIES
 
As of December 31, 2010, our zinc production operations are located in Monaca and Palmerton, Pennsylvania and our principal zinc recycling operations are located in Palmerton, Calumet, Illinois, Rockwood, Tennessee and Barnwell, South Carolina. Our INMETCO recycling operations are located in Ellwood City, Pennsylvania.
 
The chart below provides a brief description of each of our production facilities:
 
                     
    Own/
          Annual
 
Location
  Lease  
Process
 
Product
  Capacity  
                (Tons)  
 
Monaca, PA
  Own   Finished Product   PW Metal     88,000  
            Zinc Oxide     90,000  
            SSHG Metal     15,000  
            Zinc Dust     5,900  
Barnwell, SC
  Own   Recycling   CZO(2)     180,000 *
Calumet, IL
  Own   Recycling   CZO     169,000 *
Palmerton, PA
  Own   Recycling   Calcine     130,000 (3)
            CZO     273,000 *
            Zinc Powder     5,000 to 14,000 (4)
        Finished Products   Zinc Copper Base     3,000  
Rockwood, TN
  Own   Recycling   CZO     148,000 *
            Nickel-chromium-iron        
Ellwood City, PA
  Own   Recycling   alloy     70,000 *
            Cadmium     5,000  
Total carbon steel EAF dust Recycling Capacity
                770,000  
Total Smelting Capacity
                175,000  
 
 
EAF dust and other metal-bearing wastes recycling and processing capacity
 
(1) Facility is owned, property is leased; lease expires July 2011.
 
(2) CZO, with approximately 55% — 65% zinc content, is produced by our recycling operations and is used as a feedstock for our zinc facility in Monaca or further processed in Palmerton into zinc calcine (up to 65% — 70% zinc content) before being used as a feedstock in Monaca.
 
(3) Assumes that one of four kilns is operated to produce calcine and the other three kilns are operated to produce CZO.
 
(4) Depending upon grade.
 
We believe that our existing space is adequate for our current operations. We believe that suitable replacement and additional space will be available in the future on commercially reasonable terms.


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ITEM 3.   LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
 
We are party to various litigation, claims and disputes, including labor regulation claims and U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Act (“OSHA”) and environmental regulation violations, some of which are for substantial amounts, arising in the ordinary course of business. While the ultimate effect of such actions cannot be predicted with certainty, we expect that the outcome of these matters will not result in a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
 
We entered into a Consent Order and Agreement with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, dated June 28, 2006, related to the resolution of fugitive emission violations at our Monaca facility. Under the Consent Order and Agreement, we are required to submit a written plan for evaluating and implementing corrective action regarding fugitive air emissions at our Monaca facility and to implement the required corrective action. We have delivered the implementation plan and have begun corrective measures, including enhancements to emission incident reporting and follow-up; maintenance and preventive maintenance on certain emission control equipment such as ducts, capture hoods, fabric-filter collectors and appurtenances; and development and implementation of department-specific emission-control plans. Additionally, we paid an initial civil penalty of $50,000 and were obligated to pay an additional $2,500 monthly, subject to extended or early termination. The consent order was renewed in June 2010, with an agreement that extended the payment of the monthly civil penalty to July 2011, increased the amount to $6,500 monthly and is subject to extension to July 2012.
 
ITEM 4.   (REMOVED AND RESERVED)
 
PART II
 
ITEM 5.   MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
 
Market Information
 
Our common stock has been listed on The NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol “ZINC” since August 10, 2007. The highest and lowest sale prices of our common stock for the most recent eight quarters were:
 
                 
Quarter
  High     Low  
 
2010
               
10/01/10 — 12/31/10
  $ 13.81     $ 9.45  
07/01/10 — 09/30/10
    10.09       7.11  
04/01/10 — 06/30/10
    12.81       7.33  
01/01/10 — 03/31/10
    13.92       8.31  
2009
               
10/01/09 — 12/31/09
  $ 13.36     $ 9.35  
07/01/09 — 9/30/09
    12.90       7.11  
04/01/09 — 6/30/09
    9.34       5.15  
01/01/09 — 3/31/09
    5.90       3.15  
 
As of March 9, 2011, there were six holders of record of our common stock and approximately 9,100 beneficial owners of such stock. The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Computershare, P.O. Box 43078, Providence, Rhode Island, 02940-3078, Toll-free telephone 800-622-6757 (US, Canada, Puerto Rico), 781-575-4735 (non-US).


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Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities
 
None.
 
Dividends
 
We currently do not plan to pay dividends on our common stock. Any future credit facility that we may enter into might restrict our ability to pay dividends.
 
Any future determination to pay dividends will depend upon, among other factors, our results of operations, financial condition, capital requirements, debt covenants, any contractual restrictions and any other considerations our board of directors deems relevant.
 
Securities Authorized for Issuance under Equity Compensation Plans
 
Information regarding securities authorized for issuance under our equity compensation plans may be found in our Proxy Statement related to the 2011 Annual Meeting of Stockholders and is incorporated herein by reference.


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Performance Graph
 
The following graph compares the forty month cumulative stockholder return on our common stock with the return on the Russell 2000 Index and a Peer Group Index, from August 31, 2007 through December 31, 2010, the end of our fiscal year. The graph assumes investments of $100 on August 10, 2007 in our common stock, the Russell 2000 Index and the Peer Group Index and assumes the reinvestment of all dividends. The Peer Group Index is composed of Harsco Corp., Lundin Mining Corp., Nyrstar, Schnitzer Steel Industries Inc., Teck Cominco Limited, Umicore SA, Sims Group Limited, Hudbay Minerals Inc. and Breakwater Resources Limited and is weighted by each of their relative market capitalizations at the beginning of each month for which returns are reported. One member of the Peer Group in 2007, Metals Management, Inc., merged in 2008 with another member of the Peer Group, Sims Group Limited, and is therefore no longer included in the Peer Group Index.
 
COMPARISON OF 40 MONTH CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURN*
Among Horsehead Holding Corp., The Russell 2000 Index
And A Peer Group
 
(PERFORMANCE GRAPH)
 
*$100 invested on 8/10/07 in stock or index, including reinvestment of dividends.
Fiscal year ending December 31.
 
                                                                                                                                                                                     
      2007     2008
      8/10     8     9     10     11     12     1     2     3     4     5     6     7     8     9     10     11     12
      All amounts rounded to the nearest dollar
                                                                                                                                                                                     
Horsehead Holding Corp. 
    $ 100       $ 101       $ 121       $ 123       $ 89       $ 91       $ 81       $ 84       $ 62       $ 75       $ 76       $ 65       $ 66       $ 44       $ 32       $ 19       $ 17       $ 25  
                                                                                                                                                                                     
Russell 2000
      100         101         102         105         98         98         91         88         88         92         96         88         92         95         88         69         61         65  
                                                                                                                                                                                     
Peer Group
      100         107         116         119         108         112         101         113         111         117         124         114         101         95         67         36         36         40  
                                                                                                                                                                                     
 
                                                                                                                         
      2009
      1     2     3     4     5     6     7     8     9     10     11     12
      All amounts rounded to the nearest dollar
                                                                                                                         
Horsehead Holding Corp. 
    $ 21       $ 20       $ 30       $ 38       $ 39       $ 40       $ 57       $ 60       $ 63       $ 51       $ 60       $ 69  
                                                                                                                         
Russell 2000
      57         50         55         63         65         66         73         75         79         74         76         82  
                                                                                                                         
Peer Group
      38         32         39         46         55         54         60         61         68         68         73         73  
                                                                                                                         
 
                                                                                                                         
      2010
      1     2     3     4     5     6     7     8     9     10     11     12
      All amounts rounded to the nearest dollar
                                                                                                                         
Horsehead Holding Corp. 
    $ 53       $ 55       $ 64       $ 64       $ 56       $ 41       $ 41       $ 42       $ 53       $ 59       $ 63       $ 70  
                                                                                                                         
Russell 2000
      79         83         89         95         87         81         86         80         90         93         97         104  
                                                                                                                         
Peer Group
      71         71         78         78         69         63         69         69         79         82         85         97  
                                                                                                                         
 
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
 
We did not repurchase any of our common stock during the fourth quarter of the fiscal year ended December 31, 2010, and we do not have a formal or publicly announced stock repurchase program.


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ITEM 6.   SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
 
We have derived the selected historical consolidated financial information as of December 31, 2008, 2007 and 2006 and for the years ended December 31, 2007 and 2006 from our audited consolidated financial statements, which are not included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. We have derived the selected historical consolidated financial information as of December 31, 2010 and 2009 and for the years ended December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008 from our audited consolidated financial statements, which are included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
 
The selected historical consolidated financial and other information presented below is condensed and may not contain all of the information that you should consider. You should read this information in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements of us and our predecessor, including, where applicable, the related notes, and the “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” section included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
 
                                         
    Year Ended December 31,  
    2010     2009     2008     2007     2006  
    (In thousands, except for LME price and per share data)  
 
Statement of income (loss) data:
                                       
Net sales
  $ 382,362     $ 216,530     $ 445,921     $ 545,579     $ 496,413  
Cost of sales (excluding depreciation)
    305,522       226,171       353,248       373,359       360,181  
Depreciation
    18,612       15,982       12,797       10,150       8,536  
Selling, general and administrative expenses
    18,672       17,080       18,184       15,688       31,294  
                                         
Total costs and expenses
    342,806       259,233       384,229       399,197       400,011  
Income (loss) from operations
    39,556       (42,703 )     61,692       146,382       96,402  
Interest expense
    (1,226 )     (2,340 )     (1,474 )     (7,589 )     (9,555 )
Interest and other income
    849       883       1,871       3,037       327  
                                         
Income (loss) before income taxes
    39,179       (44,160 )     62,089       141,830       87,174  
Income tax provision (benefit)
    14,409       (16,689 )     22,647       51,147       32,717  
                                         
Net income (loss)
  $ 24,770     $ (27,471 )   $ 39,442     $ 90,683     $ 54,457  
                                         
Net income (loss) per share:
                                       
Basic
  $ 0.57     $ (0.73 )   $ 1.12     $ 3.13     $ 2.70  
Diluted
  $ 0.57     $ (0.73 )   $ 1.12     $ 2.85     $ 2.01  
Balance sheet data (at end of period):
                                       
Cash and cash equivalents
  $ 109,557     $ 95,480     $ 122,768     $ 76,169     $ 958  
Working capital
    170,120       143,455       160,912       150,018       58,863  
Property, plant and equipment, net
    218,652       191,307       136,141       98,932       63,794  
Total assets
    496,136       438,262       358,478       314,804       205,706  
Total long-term obligations, less current maturities
    255       255       58       121       58,225  
Stockholders’ equity
    373,010       345,417       286,559       242,054       49,994  
Cash flow statement data:
                                       
Operating cash flow
  $ 57,306     $ (6,733 )   $ 94,007     $ 102,575     $ 15,627  
Investing cash flow
    (44,134 )     (104,924 )     (50,671 )     (45,288 )     (14,249 )
Financing cash flow
    905       84,369       3,263       17,924       (973 )
Other data:
                                       
Tons of zinc product shipped
    137       118       154       153       158  
Average LME zinc price(1)
  $ 0.98     $ 0.75     $ 0.85     $ 1.47     $ 1.48  
Capital expenditures
    44,704       37,151       50,671       45,288       14,249  
Depreciation and amortization
    18,612       16,981       13,463       12,656       9,504  
 
 
(1) Average LME zinc price equals the average of each closing LME price for zinc on a dollars per pound basis during the measured period.


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ITEM 7.   MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
You should read the following discussion and analysis in conjunction with the other sections of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including “Business” and “Selected Financial Data,” as well as our consolidated financial statements, including the notes thereto. The statements in this discussion and analysis regarding industry outlook, our expectations regarding our future performance and our liquidity and capital resources and other non-historical statements in this discussion are forward-looking statements. See the “Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.” Our actual results may differ materially from those contained in or implied in any forward-looking statements due to numerous risks and uncertainties, including, but not limited to, the risks and uncertainties described in “Risk Factors.”
 
Overview
 
Our History
 
We are a leading U.S. producer of zinc and nickel-based products. Our products are used in a wide variety of applications, including in the galvanizing of fabricated steel products and as components in rubber tires, alkaline batteries, paint, chemicals, pharmaceuticals and as a remelt alloy in the production of stainless steel. We believe that we are the largest refiner of zinc oxide and PW zinc metal in North America. We believe we are also the largest North American recycler of EAF dust, a hazardous waste produced by the carbon steel mini-mill manufacturing process. Through our INMETCO operations, we believe we are also a leading recycler of EAF dust and other nickel-bearing waste generated by specialty steel producers and a leading recycler of nickel-cadmium (“Ni-Cd”) batteries in North America. We, together with our predecessors, have been operating in the zinc industry for more than 150 years and in the nickel-bearing waste industry for more than 30 years. As a result of the acquisition of INMETCO, we now operate as two business segments.
 
While we vary our raw material inputs, or feedstocks, based on cost and availability, we generally produce our zinc and nickel-based products using nearly 100% recycled zinc, including zinc recovered from our EAF dust recycling operations. We believe that our ability to convert recycled zinc into finished products results in lower feed costs than for smelters that rely primarily on zinc concentrates. Our four EAF dust recycling facilities also generate service fee revenue from steel mini-mills by providing a convenient and safe means for recycling their EAF dust In 2008, we began construction of a new EAF dust processing facility located in South Carolina. We placed the first of two kilns into production in April 2010 and the second kiln into production in September 2010. INMETCO provides recycling services, some of which is on a tolling basis, from a single production facility in Ellwood City, Pennsylvania.
 
Strategic acquisitions and investments
 
In June 2009, we grew our EAF dust collection operations through the purchase of ESOI’s customer contracts related to its EAF dust collection business.
 
On December 31, 2009, we purchased all of the issued and outstanding capital stock of INMETCO from Vale Inco Americas Inc. The acquisition of INMETCO enhanced our hazardous waste services platform and diversified our range of capabilities and products including the recycling of EAF dust and stainless steel flue dust for the recovery and reuse of a wide range of valuable metals. It expanded our industrial metals portfolio while leveraging our key strengths in hazardous waste management and high temperature metals recovery.
 
We recently announced the completion of a preliminary feasibility study to construct a 150,000 ton per year zinc plant based on state-of-the-art “green” technology. The goals of the proposed plant would be to produce zinc at much lower costs, to significantly reduce air emissions and to provide opportunities for us to serve the broader market for special high grade zinc and the continuous galvanizing market, in addition to our traditional zinc markets. If our Board of Directors approves this project and if we secure financing for this project, construction may start before the end of 2011.


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Economic Conditions and Outlook
 
The economy remains relatively weak but continued to slowly improve through 2010. Our quarterly zinc product shipment levels for 2010 continued to improve over the quarterly shipment levels for 2009 but continued to lag the quarterly shipment levels for the first three quarters of 2008. In March 2010, we started operations of our sixth furnace at our Monaca smelter but returned to five furnaces after the explosion that occurred at our zinc oxide refining facility in July of 2010. We returned to full capacity at our Monaca smelter late in the fourth quarter of 2010 and expect to operate our facilities near full capacity during the first quarter of 2011 with intermittent outages on some kilns based on inventory levels. Our results, particularly in comparison to 2009, reflect the impact this limited improvement has had on the markets we serve, as well as the impact of the explosion.
 
Factors Affecting Our Operating Results
 
Market Price for Zinc and Nickel.  Since we generate the substantial majority of our net sales from the sale of zinc and nickel-based products, our operating results depend heavily on the prevailing market price for zinc and nickel. Our principal raw materials are zinc extracted from recycled EAF dust, for which we receive revenue from the carbon steel mini-mill companies, and other zinc-bearing secondary materials (“purchased feedstock” or “purchased feed”) that we purchase from third parties. Costs to acquire and recycle EAF dust, which, during 2010, comprised approximately 73% of our raw materials, were not impacted significantly by fluctuations in the market price of zinc on the LME. However, the cost for the remaining portion of our raw materials is directly impacted by changes in the market price of zinc. The price of our finished products is impacted directly by changes in the market price of zinc, which can result in rapid and significant changes in our monthly revenues. Zinc prices experienced a period of general decline between 2000 and 2003, primarily due to increased exports from China and declines in global zinc consumption. During 2004, however, zinc prices began to recover, primarily due to increases in global zinc demand, including in China, and to declines in global production due to closed or permanently idled zinc mining and smelting capacity. Zinc prices rose throughout 2005 and 2006 to a historical high of $2.08 per pound on December 5, 2006 and fell steadily to $0.47 per pound on December 17, 2008 for an average of $0.85 per pound for 2008.
 
In 2008, the LME average zinc price fell approximately 54.6% from the fourth quarter of 2007. Significantly reduced construction activity and sharply reduced demand for automobiles, particularly in the fourth quarter of 2008, brought on by the global recession caused demand for zinc products to fall faster than production cuts and announced mine closures. Zinc prices strengthened in 2009, reaching a high of $1.17 per pound on December 31, 2009 for an average of $0.75 per pound for 2009. The increase reflected not only the announced mine closures and production cuts that began in the fourth quarter of 2008 and continued into 2009 but also increased investor activity in the zinc markets.
 
Monthly average zinc prices in 2010 have fluctuated between $0.79 per pound and $1.10 per pound, for an average of $0.98 per pound for the period. The movement and level of zinc prices reflect the gradual improvement in economic conditions and continued investor activity in the metal markets. For 2010, LME average nickel prices ranged from $8.36 per pound to $11.81 per pound and averaged $9.89 per pound.
 
To mitigate the effects of any decrease in the LME average zinc price, we hedged approximately 60% of our expected zinc production in 2008 and 2009 through the purchase of put options whereby we would receive a minimum price per pound for the quantity hedged. We paid a total of $27.5 million for the options and received $31.9 million in cash as the 2008 options settled. In October 2008, we sold the 2009 put options for $64.5 million resulting in a $50.3 million gain. We replaced the 2009 options with similar options having a strike price of $0.50 per pound for a cost of $10.5 million to mitigate the effects of any further decrease in the LME average zinc price. In 2009, we purchased put options for 2010 having a strike price of $0.65 per pound at a cost of $5.3 million. At the time of the purchase, they represented approximately 80% of our expected sales volume for 2010. In 2010, we purchased put options for 2011 having a strike price of $0.65 per pound at a cost of $3.0 million. The purchases represent approximately 70% of our expected zinc production for 2011. We also sold put options for 2011 having a strike price of $0.55 per pound and received $0.2 million. The options we purchased provide that we will receive a minimum of $0.65 per pound for the quantity hedged and the options we sold provide that the buyer will receive a


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minimum of $0.55 per pound for the quantity hedged. For a further discussion, see “Results from Operating Activities” in the “Liquidity and Capital Resources” section.
 
Demand for Zinc and Nickel-Based Products.  We generate revenue from the sale of zinc metal, zinc oxide, zinc- and copper-based powders, as well as from the collection and recycling of EAF dust. For the periods of 2004 through mid-year 2008, North American consumption of PW zinc metal (the grade of zinc metal in which we specialize) and zinc oxide (the value-added zinc-based product from which we generate the most net sales on an historical basis) had increased. Because of the need to perform additional maintenance on key equipment that was deferred due to our predecessor’s financial difficulties, we had not been able to produce at capacity to take full advantage of this consumption increase.
 
Demand for our products and services decreased significantly in the fourth quarter of 2008 due to the severe economic slowdown and continued into the first quarter of 2009. Demand for our products began to increase in the second quarter of 2009 and has continued to increase through 2010. Our production of zinc products for 2010 was 124,000 tons compared to 106,000 tons in 2009 and 137,000 tons for 2008.
 
Weekly steel production declined approximately 59.7% during the fourth quarter of 2008 and continued to decline through the first quarter of 2009 thereby reducing the amount of EAF dust generated and the demand for our EAF dust recycling services. Steel production began to increase in the second quarter of 2009 and continued to increase through the second quarter of 2010 but moderated in the third and fourth quarters of 2010. Despite the increase, steel production remains at reduced levels compared to 2008. In response to the sharp decline in 2008, we suspended our recycling operations during the December 2008 holiday period and operated them below capacity for a majority of 2009. We restarted one of the kilns at our Rockwood, Tennessee facility in September of 2009 as steel production increased and we began processing the additional EAF dust associated with the customer contracts we purchased from ESOI in June of 2009. We restarted the second kiln at that facility in November of 2009. This brought our recycling operations to capacity, excluding our smallest and highest cost facility located in Beaumont, Texas. We do not intend to resume recycling operations at that facility and wrote down the assets to net realizable value in the third quarter of 2009. We also began operations at the first kiln at our Barnwell, South Carolina facility in April of 2010 and the second kiln in September of 2010.
 
The table below illustrates historical sales volumes and revenues for zinc and nickel-based products and EAF dust:
 
                                                 
    Shipments/EAF Dust Receipts     Revenue/Ton  
    Year Ended December 31,     Year Ended December 31,  
    2010     2009     2008     2010     2009     2008  
    (Tons, in thousands)     (In U.S. dollars)  
 
Product:
                                               
Zinc Products
    137       118       154     $ 1,976     $ 1,529     $ 1,932  
EAF Dust
    532       409       507     $ 74     $ 80     $ 97  
Nickel-based products
    27       25       27     $ 1,768     $ 1,453     $ 2,102  
 
Cost of Sales (excluding depreciation and amortization).  Our cost of producing zinc products consists principally of purchased feedstock, energy, maintenance and labor costs. In 2010 and 2009, purchased feedstock-related costs comprised approximately 19% of our operating costs and are driven by the percentage of purchased feed used in the feed mix, the average LME zinc price and the price we pay for the purchased feed expressed as a percentage of the LME average zinc price. The remaining 81% of our production costs were conversion-related. A portion of our conversion costs do not change proportionally with changes in production volume. Consequently, as volume changes our conversion cost per ton changes inversely. The increase in our production volume in 2010 caused our conversion cost per ton to decrease accordingly. Other components of cost of sales include transportation costs, as well as other manufacturing expenses. The main factors that influence our cost of sales as a percentage of net sales are fluctuations in zinc prices, production and shipment volumes, efficiencies, energy costs, our ability to implement cost control measures aimed at improving productivity and our efforts to reduce our conversion costs. Our purchased feedstock is priced at a discount to the LME.


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We value our inventories using the weighted average actual cost method. Under this method, the cost of our purchased feedstock generally takes three to four months to flow through our cost of sales. In an environment of rapidly declining LME average zinc or nickel prices, our inventory cost can exceed the market value of our finished goods. A significant lower-of-cost-or-market (“LCM”) adjustment can result. In the fourth quarter of 2008, we recorded an LCM adjustment of $9.0 million. In the first quarter of 2009, we recorded an LCM adjustment of $2.8 million. No LCM adjustment was recorded in 2010.
 
Selling, General and Administrative Expenses.  Our selling, general and administrative expenses consist of all sales and marketing expenditures, as well as administrative overhead costs, such as salary and benefit costs for sales personnel and administrative staff, expenses related to the use and maintenance of administrative offices, other administrative expenses, including expenses relating to logistics and information systems and legal and accounting expense, and other selling expenses, including travel costs. Salary and benefit costs historically have comprised the largest single component of our selling, general and administrative expenses. Expenses associated with acquisitions are also included. Selling, general and administrative expenses as a percent of net sales historically have been impacted by changes in salary and benefit costs, as well as by changes in sales volumes and selling prices.
 
Explosion at our Monaca, Pennsylvania facility
 
On July 22, 2010, an explosion occurred at our Monaca, PA zinc oxide refining facility which resulted in two fatalities. The zinc refinery was shut down for repairs and an investigation and assessment of the damage. Teams from OSHA and the U.S. Chemical Safety & Hazard Investigation Board (CSB) investigated the cause and the circumstances that may have contributed to the occurrence of this incident. In addition, we and our insurance underwriters conducted our own investigations into the cause and the circumstances that contributed to this incident. The United Steel Workers union also participated in the investigations.
 
Each of the ten columns used to produce zinc oxide and refined zinc metal in the refining facility has been redesigned and rebuilt. Production resumed in the fourth quarter.
 
The smelting facility at the Monaca plant was returned to full capacity late in the fourth quarter of 2010. Although it operated at a reduced rate during the third quarter and much of the fourth quarter, we were able to offset a portion of the lost revenue from zinc oxide with additional zinc metal sales beyond our traditional markets.
 
We are pursuing recovery of the cost of repairs, lost profit and other losses from our zinc oxide and refined metal, subject to customary deductibles, under our business interruption and property insurance. We submitted a preliminary claim to our insurer for $32.7 million. In the fourth quarter of 2010, we recorded insurance income of $19.3 million consisting of insurance proceeds of $11.0 million and a receivable in the amount of $8.3 million based upon preliminary undisputed claims for business interruption, property damage and other expenses associated with the incident. We are pursuing the amounts in excess of the preliminary undisputed claims and expect to recover all or a portion of it in 2011. We also expect to file additional claims in 2011 for any loss of zinc oxide business realized during the first half 2011 as a result of the incident. We believe that we will continue to have adequate liquidity to support the business.
 
Trends Affecting Our Business
 
Our operating results are and will be influenced by a variety of factors, including:
 
  •  LME price of zinc and nickel;
 
  •  changes in cost of energy and fuels;
 
  •  gain and loss of customers;
 
  •  pricing pressures from competitors, including new entrants into the EAF dust or nickel-bearing waste recycling markets;
 
  •  increases and decreases in the use of zinc and nickel-based products;
 
  •  expansions into new products and expansion of our capacity, which requires us to incur costs prior to generating revenues;


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  •  expenditures required to comply with environmental and other operational regulations;
 
  •  access to credit by customers; and
 
  •  our operational efficiency improvement programs.
 
We have experienced fluctuations in our sales and operating profits in recent years due to fluctuations in zinc and energy prices. Historically, zinc prices have been extremely volatile, and we expect that volatility to continue. For example, the LME price of zinc rose from $0.58 per pound on December 31, 2004 to $2.08 per pound on December 5, 2006 and fell to as low as $0.47 per pound on December 17, 2008. In 2009, the LME price of zinc ranged from a low of $0.48 per pound on February 20, 2009 to a high of $1.17 per pound on December 31, 2009. The average price was $0.75 per pound for 2009. In 2010, the LME price of zinc ranged from a high of $1.20 per pound on January 7, 2010 to a low of $0.72 per pound on June 7, 2010. The average price was $0.98 per pound for 2010. Changes in zinc pricing have impacted our sales revenues, since the prices of the products we sell are based primarily on LME zinc prices, and they have impacted our costs of production, since the prices of some of our feedstocks are based on LME zinc prices. Therefore, since a large portion of our sales and a portion of our costs are affected by the LME zinc price, we expect that changing zinc prices will continue to impact our operations and financial results in the future and any significant drop in zinc prices will negatively impact our results of operations. We employ various hedging instruments in an attempt to reduce the impact of decreases in the selling prices of a portion of our expected production.
 
Energy is one of our most significant costs. Our processes rely on electricity, coke and natural gas in order to operate. Our freight operations depend heavily on the availability of diesel fuel, and our Monaca power plant uses coal to generate electricity for our operations in that facility. Energy prices, particularly for electricity, natural gas, coal, coke and diesel fuel, have been volatile in recent years and have exceeded historical averages. These fluctuations impact our manufacturing costs and contribute to earnings volatility.
 
The historically high zinc prices from 2006 into 2008 also made it attractive for new competitors to enter the EAF dust recycling market to compete for dust generated by existing EAF producers as well as anticipated new EAF capacity. The entry of new competitors could have an adverse impact on our price realization and market share from EAF dust recycling. For example, Steel Dust Recycling started up its Waelz kiln facility located in Alabama in 2008 and The Heritage Group built an EAF dust processing facility in Arkansas and began operations in 2009.
 
Our zinc products compete with other materials in many of their applications, and in some cases our customers may shift to new processes or products. For example, our zinc is used by steel fabricators in the hot dip galvanizing process, in which steel is coated with zinc in order to protect it from corrosion. Demand for our zinc as a galvanizing material may shift depending on how customers view the respective merits of hot dip galvanizing and paint. Our stainless steel customers face competition from producers of material containing lower levels of nickel, which could have an impact on the demand for our nickel-based products. Our ability to anticipate shifts in product usage and to produce new products to meet our current and future customers’ needs will significantly impact our operating results. We also face intense competition from regional, national and global providers of zinc based products, and the growth of any of those competitors could reduce our market share and negatively impact our operating results.
 
Finally, our business is subject to a wide variety of environmental and other regulations and our operations expose us to a wide variety of potential liabilities. Our total cost of environmental compliance at any time depends on a variety of regulatory, technical and factual issues, some of which cannot be anticipated. Changes in regulations and/or our failure to comply with existing regulations can result in significant capital expenditure requirements or penalties.
 
Summary of Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
 
Our discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based on our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. Note B to the audited consolidated financial statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K contains a summary of our significant accounting policies. Certain of these accounting polices are described below.


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Inventories
 
Inventories, which consist primarily of zinc and nickel bearing materials, and supplies and spare parts, are valued at the lower of cost or market using a moving average cost method. Raw materials are purchased, as well as produced from the processing of EAF dust. Supplies and spare parts inventory used in the production process are purchased. Work-in-process and finished goods inventories are valued based on the costs of raw materials plus applicable conversion costs, including depreciation and overhead costs relating to associated process facilities.
 
Zinc and nickel are traded as commodities on the LME and, accordingly, product inventories are subject to price fluctuations. When reviewing inventory for the lower of cost or market, we consider the forward prices as quoted on the LME as of the reporting date in determining our estimate of net realizable value to determine if an adjustment is required. Our product revenues are based on the current or prior months’ LME average price. The LME average price upon which our product revenue is based has been reasonably correlated with the forward LME prices that we use to make the lower of cost or market adjustments.
 
Financial Instruments
 
The following methods are used to estimate the fair value of our financial instruments.
 
  •  Cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, notes payable due within one year, accounts payable and accrued expenses approximate their fair value due to the short-term nature of these instruments.
 
  •  Our financial swap and financial option instruments are carried at fair value. We recognize changes in fair value within the consolidated statements of operations as they occur (see Note S to our audited consolidated financial statements).
 
We do not purchase, hold or sell derivative financial instruments unless we have an existing asset or obligation or anticipate a future activity that is likely to occur and will expose us to market risk. We use various strategies to manage our market risk, including the use of derivative instruments to limit, offset or reduce such risk. Derivative financial instruments are used to manage well-defined commodity price risks from our primary business activity. The fair values of derivative instruments are based upon a comparison of our internal valuations to the valuations provided by third party counterparties with whom we have entered into substantially identical derivative contracts. We also compare their valuations to ensure that there is an acceptable level of consistency among them. The valuations utilize forward pricing and an implied volatility of the underlying commodity as well as interest rate forwards and are therefore subject to fluctuation based on the movements of the commodity markets.
 
We are exposed to credit loss in cases where counter-parties with which we have entered into derivative transactions are unable to pay us when they owe us funds as a result of agreements with them. To minimize the risk of such losses, we use highly rated counter-parties that meet certain requirements. We currently do not anticipate that any of our counter-parties will default on their obligations to us.
 
Impairment
 
We review the carrying value of our intangible assets and our long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or circumstances indicate that the carrying amounts may not be recoverable. In 2009, we wrote-down to net realizable value certain machinery and equipment and supplies inventories by $1.1 million. The write-down relates primarily to our Beaumont, Texas recycling facility. In the third quarter of 2009, we made a decision to proceed with the construction of our Barnwell, South Carolina kiln project, and we started operations there in 2010. The Waelz kiln process used at the Barnwell facility is a lower cost process than the process that was used at the Beaumont facility. Therefore, we do not intend to use the higher cost capacity at the Beaumont facility.
 
We examined our assets at December 31, 2010 and found no events that would suggest any impairment. We have no goodwill. In the event we would determine the carrying amounts would not be recovered, an impairment charge would be recorded for the difference between the fair value and the carrying value.


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Results of Operations
 
The following table sets forth the percentages of sales that certain items of operating data constitute for the periods indicated.
 
                         
    Year Ended December 31,  
    2010     2009     2008  
 
Net sales
    100.0 %     100.0 %     100.0 %
Cost of sales (excluding depreciation)
    79.9       104.4       79.2  
Depreciation
    4.8       7.4       2.9  
Selling, general and administrative expenses
    4.9       7.9       4.1  
                         
Income (loss) from operations
    10.4       (19.7 )     13.8  
Interest expense
    .3       1.1       0.3  
Other income
    .2       .4       0.4  
                         
Income (loss) before income taxes
    10.3       (20.4 )     13.9  
Income tax provision (benefit)
    3.8       (7.7 )     5.1  
                         
Net income (loss)
    6.5 %     (12.7 )%     8.8 %
                         
Net income (loss) per share
                       
Basic
  $ 0.57     $ (0.73 )   $ 1.12  
Diluted
  $ 0.57     $ (0.73 )   $ 1.12  
 
The following table sets forth the activity and the fair values of our hedging instruments at the reporting dates.
 
                                                 
    Put Options              
    2008     2009     2010     2011     Swaps     Total  
 
Fair value December 31, 2007
  $ 9,871                       $ (757 )   $ 9,114  
Purchases
          7,008                         7,008  
Settlements of closed positions
                            566       566  
Gain (loss) on settlements of closed positions
    (3,322 )                       (182 )     (3,504 )
Mark to market adjustment on open positions
    2,612       932                   (1,441 )     2,103  
                                                 
Fair value March 31, 2008
    9,161       7,940                   (1,814 )     15,287  
Purchases
          7,208                         7,208  
Settlements of closed positions
    (2,267 )                       827       (1,440 )
Gain (loss) on settlements of closed positions
    736                         (60 )     676  
Mark to market adjustment on open positions
    5,730       7,233                   4,522       17,485  
                                                 
Fair value June 30, 2008
    13,360       22,381                   3,475       39,216  
Purchases
                                   
Settlements of closed positions
    (8,866 )                       175       (8,691 )
Gain (loss) on settlements of closed positions
    2,601                         (358 )     2,243  
Mark to market adjustment on open positions
    3,926       11,553                   (655 )     14,824  
                                                 
Fair value September 30, 2008
    11,021       33,934                   2,637       47,592  
Sales
          (33,934 )                       (33,934 )
Purchases
          10,472                         10,472  
Settlements of closed positions
    (20,806 )                       907       (19,899 )
Gain (loss) on settlements of closed positions
    9,785                         (1,086 )     8,699  
Mark to market adjustment on open positions
          (3,626 )                 (690 )     (4,316 )
                                                 


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    Put Options              
    2008     2009     2010     2011     Swaps     Total  
 
Fair value December 31, 2008
          6,846                   1,768       8,614  
Settlements of closed positions
                            356       356  
Gain (loss) on settlements of closed positions
          (744 )                 (256 )     (1,000 )
Mark to market adjustment on open positions
          (3,903 )                 284       (3,619 )
                                                 
Fair value March 31, 2009
          2,199                   2,152       4,351  
Settlements of closed positions
                            (916 )     (916 )
Gain (loss) on settlements of closed positions
          (217 )                 411       194  
Mark to market adjustment on open positions
          (1,566 )                 446       (1,120 )
                                                 
Fair value June 30, 2009
          416                   2,093       2,509  
Purchases
                2,374                   2,374  
Settlements of closed positions
                            (1,260 )     (1,260 )
Gain (loss) on settlements of closed positions
          (51 )                 398       347  
Mark to market adjustment on open positions
          (364 )     (870 )           778       (456 )
                                                 
Fair value September 30, 2009
          1       1,504             2,009       3,514  
Purchases
                2,902                   2,902  
Settlements of closed positions
                            (1,965 )     (1,965 )
Gain (loss) on settlements of closed positions
          (1 )                 616       615  
Mark to market adjustment on open positions
                (3,669 )           497       (3,172 )
                                                 
Fair value December 31, 2009
                737             1,157       1,894  
Purchases
                                   
Settlements of closed positions
                            (228 )     (228 )
Gain (loss) on settlements of closed positions
                            (34 )     (34 )
Mark to market adjustment on open positions
                (368 )           119       (249 )
                                                 
Fair value March 31, 2010
                369             1,014       1,383  
Purchases
                      882             882  
Settlements of closed positions
                            (74 )     (74 )
Gain (loss) on settlements of closed positions
                (1 )           (209 )     (210 )
Mark to market adjustment on open positions
                813       1,441       (616 )     1,638  
                                                 
Fair value June 30, 2010
                1,181       2,323       115       3,619  
Purchases
                      1,307             1,307  
Settlements of closed positions
                            (439 )     (439 )
Gain (loss) on settlements of closed positions
                (214 )           452       238  
Mark to market adjustment on open positions
                (962 )     (2,668 )     461       (3,169 )
                                                 
Fair value September 30, 2010
                5       962       589       1,556  
Purchases
                      585             585  
Settlements of closed positions
                            233       233  
Gain (loss) on settlements of closed positions
                (5 )           (532 )     (537 )
Mark to market adjustment on open positions
                      (968 )     115       (853 )
                                                 
Fair value December 31, 2010
  $     $     $     $ 579     $ 405     $ 984  
                                                 
 
A significant portion of our zinc oxide shipments are priced based on prior months’ LME average zinc price. Consequently, changes in the LME average zinc price are not fully realized until subsequent periods. The LME

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average zinc prices for the most recent eight quarters and the average LME zinc prices for the year to date as of the end of each quarter are listed in the table below:
 
                                                                 
    2009     2010  
Average LME zinc
  Quarter Ended     Quarter Ended  
price
  March 31     June 30     September 30     December 31     March 31     June 30     September 30     December 31  
 
Quarter
  $ 0.53     $ 0.67     $ 0.80     $ 1.00     $ 1.04     $ 0.92     $ 0.91     $ 1.05  
Year-to-date
  $ 0.53     $ 0.60     $ 0.67     $ 0.75     $ 1.04     $ 0.98     $ 0.96     $ 0.98  
 
Year Ended December 31, 2010 Compared with Year Ended December 31, 2009
 
Net sales.  Consolidated net sales increased $165.9 million, or 76.6%, to $382.4 million for 2010, compared to $216.5 million for 2009. The increase includes a $111.7 million increase in net sales for Horsehead and $54.2 million in net sales related to INMETCO.
 
Net sales relating to Horsehead increased $111.7 million, or 51.6%, to $328.2 million for 2010, compared to $216.5 million for 2009. The increase was a result of a $61.1 million increase in price realization, due primarily to a higher average LME zinc price for 2010 versus 2009, a $40.5 million increase in sales volume reflecting a net increase in shipments and an increase in EAF dust receipts and a $1.8 million increase in our co-product and miscellaneous sales. Our net sales for 2010 further exceeded net sales for 2009 by $8.3 million relating to our hedging activity. We recorded an unfavorable non-cash adjustment of $3.7 million in 2010 relating to our hedging activity versus an unfavorable non-cash adjustment of $12.0 million in 2009. Zinc product shipments were 136,661 tons for 2010, or 126,720 tons on a zinc contained basis, compared to 118,242 tons, or 107,470 tons on a zinc contained basis, for 2009.
 
The average sales price realization for zinc products on a zinc contained basis, excluding the effects from the non-cash mark to market adjustments of our open hedge positions, was $1.07 per pound for 2010, compared to $0.84 per pound for 2009. The increase reflects the 30.1% increase in the average LME zinc price for 2010 compared to 2009. The increase in zinc prices reflects the general economic recovery that began in 2009 and continued into 2010, as well as continued investor activity in the metal markets.
 
Net sales of zinc metal increased $71.8 million, or 72.2%, to $171.2 million for 2010, compared to $99.4 million for 2009. The increase was attributable primarily to a $36.7 million increase in price realization and a $35.1 million increase in sales volume. The increase in price realization was attributable to a higher average LME zinc price for 2010 versus 2009, partially offset by the effects of a decrease in the average premium to the LME on zinc metal sold for 2010 versus 2009. The increase in shipment volume reflects the gradual improvement in demand for our products that began in the second quarter of 2009 and continued throughout 2010. It also reflects our efforts to increase shipments of zinc metal beyond our traditional markets to partially offset the loss of zinc oxide shipments in the third and fourth quarters of 2010 resulting from the explosion that occurred in late July 2010 at our zinc oxide refining facility in Monaca, Pennsylvania.
 
Net sales of zinc oxide increased $17.0 million, or 21.4%, to $96.6 million for 2010, compared to $79.6 million for 2009. The increase was attributable to a $23.1 million increase in price realization partially offset by a $6.1 million decrease in sales volume. The increase in price realization reflects the increase of the average LME zinc prices over the past twelve months partially offset by the lag effect of pricing a majority of our zinc oxide shipments on prior months’ average LME zinc prices. The discount to the LME on sales of zinc oxide decreased in 2010 from the discount realized in 2009. The volume decrease reflects the reduced shipment volumes in the third and fourth quarters of 2010 as a result of the explosion at our zinc oxide refining facility in Monaca, Pennsylvania in late July of 2010. Shipments to our largest tire customers increased in the first two quarters of 2010 reflecting the strengthening in the market that began in the second quarter of 2009 and continued into 2010. However, we were unable to fully capitalize on the improving zinc oxide market in 2010 as a result of the explosion.
 
Net sales of zinc and copper-based powder increased $6.1 million, or 73.5%, to $14.4 million for 2010, compared to $8.3 million for 2009. The increase was attributable primarily to increases in prices and shipment volumes of our copper-based powders.


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Revenues from EAF dust recycling increased $6.8 million, or 20.9%, to $39.4 million for 2010, compared to $32.6 million for 2009. Increased volumes caused revenues to increase by $9.8 million. A 7.0% decrease in price realization on EAF dust recycling fees for 2010 compared to 2009 resulted in a decrease in net sales of $3.0 million. EAF dust receipts for 2010 increased 30.0% to 531,714 tons compared to 408,967 tons for 2009, reflecting the increase in volume associated with the purchase of the customer contracts from ESOI in June 2009, the startup of our new recycling facility at Barnwell, South Carolina in 2010 and the increase in steel production that began in the second quarter of 2009 and continued into 2010. According to data from the American Iron & Steel Institute, reported steel production for 2010 increased 27.5% from 2009.
 
Cost of sales (excluding depreciation and amortization).  Consolidated cost of sales increased $79.3 million, or 35.1%, to $305.5 million for 2010, compared to $226.2 million for 2009. The increase includes a $45.9 million increase in cost of sales for Horsehead and $33.4 million in cost of sales related to INMETCO. Cost of sales for 2010 also includes a benefit from business interruption and property damage insurance recoveries totaling $19.3 million partially offset by additional costs of repairs and clean-up totaling $6.8 million relating to the explosion at our Monaca refinery. As a percentage of consolidated net sales, consolidated cost of sales was 79.9% for 2010, compared to 104.4% for 2009.
 
Cost of sales related to Horsehead, excluding the additional costs and insurance recoveries associated with the explosion, increased $58.3 million, or 25.8%, to $284.5 million for 2010, compared to $226.2 million for 2009. As a percentage of net sales related to Horsehead excluding the additional insurance and explosion related items, cost of sales was 86.7% for 2010, compared to 104.4% for 2009. The change in percentage reflects the net effect of changes in the average LME zinc prices on our net sales and cost of sales. Changes in the average LME zinc price are restricted to the purchased feed component of our cost of sales; therefore any changes in the average LME zinc price have a smaller effect on our cost of sales than on our net sales. The change in percentage also reflects the effect of increased production on our cost per ton.
 
The cost of zinc material and other products sold increased $49.7 million, or 23.6% to $267.3 million for 2010, compared to $210.6 million for 2009. The increase was primarily the result of a net $27.5 million increase in shipment volume, a $29.9 million increase in the cost of products shipped and a $7.7 million decrease in recycling and other costs. The increases reflect higher feed costs and higher conversion costs for 2010 compared to 2009. Purchased feed costs increased by $17.8 million, reflecting both the higher LME average zinc price as well as a slightly increased cost of purchased feeds we pay expressed as a percentage of the LME average zinc price. The increase in our purchased feed costs also reflects a 11.0% increase in the number of tons of purchased feed consumed. The cost of zinc material and other products sold for 2010 included property and workers’ compensation insurance deductibles relating to the explosion at our zinc oxide refining facility in late July 2010. Our costs for 2009 include a $1.0 million write-down of certain machinery and equipment and supplies inventories primarily at our Beaumont, Texas recycling facility.
 
Our conversion costs were $30.8 million higher in 2010 than in 2009. The increase reflects a $18.2 million increase in energy costs, the majority of which resulted from an increase in the cost of coke, a $4.8 million increase in labor costs, a $5.8 million increase in maintenance and supplies costs and the startup of the new recycling facility in Barnwell, South Carolina. These increases were driven primarily by higher production levels for 2010 as compared to 2009 in response to the gradual economic recovery that began late in 2009 and continued into 2010.
 
The cost of EAF dust services increased $8.5 million, or 54.8%, to $24.0 million for 2010, compared to $15.5 million for 2009 primarily reflecting an increased volume of EAF dust received and an increase in transportation costs.
 
Depreciation and amortization.  Consolidated depreciation and amortization expense increased $2.6 million, or 16.5%, to $18.6 million for 2010, compared to $16.0 million for 2009. The increase reflects increased capital expenditures during the twelve months ended December 31, 2010.
 
Selling, general and administrative expenses.  Selling, general and administrative expenses increased $1.6 million to $18.7 million for 2010, compared to $17.1 million for 2009. Horsehead related costs decreased $1.2 million reflecting primarily a decrease in bad debt expense of $1.6 million and a decrease in legal and professional services of $1.4 million partially offset by an increase in labor and benefit costs of $1.4 million. The


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decrease in bad debt expense reflects higher bad debt write-offs in 2009 coupled with bad debt recoveries in 2010. The decrease in legal and professional fees reflects legal and professional fees of approximately $1.0 million included in 2009 expenses relating to acquisition activity in 2009. Selling, general and administrative expenses relating to INMETCO were $2.8 million.
 
Interest expense.  Interest expense decreased $1.1 million to $1.2 million for 2010, compared to $2.3 million for 2009. The decrease largely reflects a $1.5 million reduction in expenses related to the credit facility we cancelled in December, 2009, partially offset by a $0.5 million increase in accretion expense associated with the liability we incurred to purchase the ESOI EAF dust contracts in June of 2009.
 
Income tax provision (benefit).  Our income tax provision was $14.4 million for 2010, compared to a benefit of $(16.7) million for 2009. Our effective tax rates for 2010 and 2009 were 36.8% and 37.8% respectively.
 
Net income.  For the reasons stated above, our net income was $24.8 million for 2010, compared to a net loss of ($27.5) million for 2009.
 
Year Ended December 31, 2009 Compared with Year Ended December 31, 2008 (excluding INMETCO)
 
Net sales.  Net sales decreased $229.4 million, or 51.4%, to $216.5 million for 2009, compared to $445.9 million for 2008. The decrease was a result of a $57.1 million decrease in price realization, due primarily to a lower average LME zinc price for 2009 versus 2008, a $79.6 million decrease in sales volume reflecting decreases in shipments across all product lines and a decrease in EAF dust receipts. Our net sales were further decreased by $83.3 million relating to our hedging activity and by a $9.4 million decrease in co-product and miscellaneous sales. The $83.3 million reduction in net sales relating to our hedging positions consisted of an unfavorable adjustment of $12.0 million for 2009 versus a favorable adjustment of $71.3 million for 2008. The favorable adjustment in 2008 includes a $50.3 million gain on the sale of our 2009 zinc put options in October 2008. The average premium to the LME on zinc products sold for 2009 versus 2008 declined for both zinc metal and zinc oxide. Zinc product shipments were 118,242 tons for 2009, or 107,470 tons on a zinc contained basis, compared to 153,936 tons, or 138,901 tons on a zinc contained basis, for 2008.
 
The average sales price realization for zinc products on a zinc contained basis, excluding the effects from the non-cash mark to market adjustments of our open hedge positions, was $0.84 per pound for 2009, compared to $1.07 per pound for 2008. The decrease reflects the sharp decline in the average LME zinc price in 2008 from an average high of $1.14 per pound for March of 2008 to an average low of $0.50 per pound for December of 2008. The decline was particularly sharp in the fourth quarter of 2008, where the average LME zinc price declined from $0.79 per pound for September 2008 to the December low of $0.50 per pound. The decline was caused by the general economic recession that began in 2008 and continued into 2009. The average LME zinc price began to recover in 2009 to an average high of $1.08 per pound for December of 2009, however, the average price for 2009 was $0.75 per pound, or 11.8% below the average LME zinc price for 2008.
 
Net sales of zinc metal decreased $45.6 million, or 31.4%, to $99.4 million for 2009, compared to $145.0 million for 2008. The decrease was attributable primarily to a $19.1 million decrease in price realization and a $26.5 million decrease in sales volume. The decrease in price realization was attributable to both a lower average LME zinc price for 2009 versus 2008 and a lower average premium to the LME on zinc products sold for 2009 versus 2008. The decrease in shipment volume reflects the weakened demand for our products that began in the fourth quarter of 2008 and continued throughout 2009.
 
Net sales of zinc oxide decreased $70.3 million, or 46.9%, to $79.6 million for 2009, compared to $149.9 million for 2008. The decrease was attributable to a $42.5 million decrease in sales volume and a $27.8 million decrease in price realization. The volume decrease was caused primarily by decreased shipments to our largest tire customers reflecting the general slowdown in the market that began in 2008 and continued into 2009. The decrease in price realization reflects the lower average LME zinc prices for 2009 compared to the average LME zinc prices for 2008. The average LME zinc prices declined during 2008 to an average of $0.85 per pound for the 2008 period. They began to recover during 2009 to an average of $0.75 per pound for the 2009 period. The movements in the average LME zinc prices are partially offset by the lag effect of pricing a majority of our zinc oxide shipments on prior months’ average LME zinc prices. We realized a discount to the LME on sales of zinc


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oxide in 2009 versus a premium in 2008, both reflecting the lag effect and the movements of the average LME zinc prices from the immediately preceding quarters.
 
Net sales of zinc and copper-based powder decreased $4.4 million, or 34.6%, to $8.3 million for 2009, compared to $12.7 million for 2008. The decrease was attributable primarily to decreases in prices and shipment volumes of our copper-based powders.
 
Revenues from EAF dust recycling decreased $16.5 million, or 33.6%, to $32.6 million for 2009, compared to $49.1 million for 2008. Decreased volumes caused revenues to decrease by $9.5 million. A 17.7% decrease in price realization on EAF dust recycling fees for 2009 compared to 2008 resulted in a decrease in net sales of $7.0 million. The decrease reflects, in part, the effects of two temporary items. The first is an increase in freight allowances to certain customers for freight diversion charges. These charges were incurred by those customers in shipping their EAF dust greater distances to those of our recycling facilities that had not been temporarily idled during the current economic downturn. As we resumed operations at our idled facilities, these charges diminished. The second is related to EAF dust received and processed in April and May of 2009 that generated no revenue. This EAF dust was associated with the purchase of the customer contracts from ESOI in June 2009. EAF dust receipts for 2009 declined 19.4% to 408,967 tons compared to 507,170 tons for 2008, reflecting the sharp drop in steel production that began in the fourth quarter of 2008 and continued into 2009. According to data from the American Iron & Steel Institute, reported steel production for 2009 declined 37.2% from 2008.
 
Cost of sales (excluding depreciation).  Cost of sales decreased $127.0 million, or 36.0%, to $226.2 million for 2009, compared to $353.2 million for 2008. As a percentage of net sales, cost of sales was 104.4% for 2009, compared to 79.2% for 2008. The change in percentage reflects the net effect of changes in the average LME zinc prices on our net sales and cost of sales. Changes in the average LME zinc price are restricted to the purchased feed component of our cost of sales; therefore any changes in the average LME zinc price have a smaller effect on our cost of sales than on our net sales. The change in percentage also reflects the effect of decreased production on our cost per ton. Excluding the effect the hedges had on our net sales, cost of sales would have been 99.0% and 94.3% of net sales in fiscal 2009 and 2008, respectively.
 
The cost of zinc material and other products sold decreased $129.1 million, or 38.0%, to $210.6 million for 2009, compared to $339.7 million for 2008. The decrease was primarily the result of a $63.4 million decrease in shipment volume across all major product lines, a $43.1 million decrease in the cost of products shipped and an $27.6 million decrease in recycling and other costs. The decreases reflect lower feed costs and lower conversion costs for 2009 compared to 2008. Purchased feed costs were reduced by $50.5 million, reflecting both the lower LME average zinc price as well as the lower price of purchased feeds we pay expressed as a percentage of the LME. The reduction in our purchased feed costs also reflects a 33.0% reduction in the number of tons of purchased feed consumed and a reduction in the percentage of purchased feed used in our feed mix. The cost of zinc material and other products sold for 2009 include a $1.0 million write-down of certain machinery and equipment and supplies inventories primarily at our Beaumont, Texas recycling facility. Our cost of zinc material and other products sold for 2008 include a $9.0 million LCM adjustment relating to a write-down of inventory values during the fourth quarter.
 
Our conversion costs were $56.3 million lower in 2009 than in 2008. The reduction reflects a $24.2 million decrease in utility costs, a $9.4 million reduction in labor costs and a $12.0 million reduction in maintenance and supplies costs. These reductions were driven primarily by our cost reduction initiatives along with lower production levels for 2009 as compared to 2008 in response to the economic slowdown that accelerated in the fourth quarter of 2008 and continued into 2009. Although our conversion costs declined, a portion of them do not change proportionally with changes in volume. Therefore our conversion cost per ton increased as the decline in our production occurred faster than the decline in our conversion costs through the first three quarters of 2009. The increase was partially offset in the fourth quarter of 2009 as our conversion costs continued to decline compared to those in the fourth quarter of 2008 while our production in the fourth quarter of 2009 increased relative to the fourth quarter of 2008.
 
The cost of EAF dust services increased $2.0 million, or 14.8%, to $15.5 million for 2009, compared to $13.5 million for 2008 primarily reflecting an increase in transportation costs partially offset by a reduced volume of EAF dust received.


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Depreciation.  Depreciation expense increased $3.2 million, or 24.9%, to $16.0 million for 2009, compared to $12.8 million for 2008. The increase reflects the increased capital expenditures during the twelve months ended December 31, 2009.
 
Selling, general and administrative expenses.  Selling, general and administrative expenses decreased $1.1 million to $17.1 million for 2009, compared to $18.2 million for 2008. The decrease reflects primarily a reduction in labor and benefit costs of $2.7 million resulting from a workforce reduction, partially offset by a $1.2 million increase in legal and professional fees reflecting costs incurred related to acquisition activity in 2009.
 
Interest expense.  Interest expense increased $0.8 million to $2.3 million for 2009, compared to $1.5 million for 2008. The increase reflects accretion expense of $0.4 million associated with the liability we incurred to purchase the ESOI EAF dust contracts in June of 2009. The increase also reflects higher fees under our credit facility during the second half of the year and the write-off of the remaining deferred finance charges associated with our credit facility, which we terminated in December of 2009. The facility was originally scheduled to expire in July 2010.
 
Interest and other income.  Interest and other income decreased $1.0 million for 2009. The decrease was attributable primarily to a $1.3 million decrease in interest earned on excess cash in a lower interest rate environment and a $0.3 million decrease in scrap sales partially offset by a $0.6 million decrease in losses related to asset disposals.
 
Income tax (benefit) provision.  Our income tax benefit was $16.7 million for 2009, compared to a provision for income taxes of $22.6 million for 2008. Our effective tax rates were (37.8%) for 2009 and 36.5% for 2008. The tax rate for the nine months ended September 30, 2009 was (33.3%). The significant increase in rates was primarily the result of recently enacted tax law changes in the fourth quarter of 2009 as well as to changes in estimates and corrections to certain deferred tax items. The changes will allow us to carry back the 2009 losses five years versus two years, which reduces the negative impact of losing the domestic production activities deduction benefit in earlier years.
 
Net income (loss).  For the reasons stated above, we incurred a net loss of $27.5 million for 2009, compared to net income of $39.4 million for 2008.
 
Liquidity and Capital Resources
 
We finance our operations, capital expenditures and debt service primarily with funds generated by our operations. We believe the combination of our cash balance, our cost reduction initiatives, our hedging positions, and our cash generated from operations will be sufficient to satisfy our liquidity and capital requirements for the next twelve months. Our cash is not restricted with the exception of $26.4 million related to the following three items. The first is the New Markets Tax Credit (“NMTC”), the second is the financial assurance associated with the ESOI customer contracts purchased by us and the third is the collateral for our letters of credit, all of which are described below. The portion that is unrestricted is available to satisfy our liquidity and capital requirements. We believe our cash balance is sufficient to satisfy our liquidity and capital requirements for the next twelve months. We believe we could obtain a new credit facility and reduce our capital requirements, if necessary, to maintain liquidity. Our ability to continue to fund these requirements may be affected by industry factors, including LME zinc prices, and by general economic, financial, competitive, legislative, regulatory and other factors discussed in this report including the impact on our operating results of the explosion that occurred in July 2010 at our Monaca, Pennsylvania facility.
 
Year Ended December 31, 2010
 
Our balance of cash and cash equivalents at December 31, 2010, excluding $26.4 million of restricted cash, was $109.6 million, a $14.1 million increase from the December 31, 2009 balance of $95.5 million. Cash and cash equivalents are held in three U.S. banks. In 2009 we invested in certificates of deposit and other short term investments. The funds invested in certificates of deposit on December 31, 2009 matured in January 2010 and were invested in a money market demand account and subsequently transferred to our cash account. We re-invested


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$25.0 million in a money market demand account in October 2010. The funds we had invested in the government money market fund on December 31, 2009 matured in January 2010.
 
Cash Flows from Operating Activities
 
Our operations provided a net $57.3 million in cash in 2010, reflecting the gradual improvement in the overall economy as well as the generally higher LME average prices of zinc and nickel during the period. The improving economy and the higher LME average prices for zinc and nickel also contributed to the increase in accounts receivable and inventory during the period.
 
Our investment in working capital was $170.1 million at December 31, 2010 and $143.5 million at December 31, 2009. The increase includes $19.3 million in undisputed claims for business interruption and property damage insurance relating to the explosion at our refinery in Monaca, PA. We received cash payments of $11.0 million in 2010 relating to the claims with the remaining $8.3 million included in our accounts receivable balance. The increase in our accounts receivable also reflects higher sales volumes resulting from the strengthening economy and the higher LME average zinc price. The increase in our inventories primarily reflects cost and volume increases associated with our raw materials, work in process and zinc products finished goods inventories. The decrease in our prepaid expenses and other current assets reflects the receipt of an $18.9 million federal tax refund and an unfavorable, non-cash fair value adjustment of $2.9 million on our zinc put options partially offset by an $11.8 million income tax refund receivable for 2010. We entered into put option contracts in 2009 and 2010 to protect our cash flows from declines in the LME price of zinc. The options settle monthly. In 2010, we were entitled to receive the amount, if any, by which the option strike price, set at $0.65 per pound, exceeded the average LME price of zinc during the preceding month. During 2010, the average LME zinc price exceeded the strike price; consequently, the options settled with no payment due to us.
 
The post closing adjustments associated with our purchase of INMETCO in December 2009 reduced working capital by $0.9 million during the first quarter of 2010.
 
Cash Flows from Investing Activities
 
Capital expenditures were $44.7 million for 2010, of which $24.0 million related to the construction of the two kilns in Barnwell, South Carolina. The first kiln commenced operation in mid-April of 2010 and the second kiln commenced operation in late September of 2010. In December, funds totaling $4.9 million were released from escrow in accordance with the provisions of the NMTC program related to the financing and development of the Barnwell site. The arrangement provided $5.9 million of NMTC funds to be used for completion of the development of the project site and construction of buildings and other real property. The funds and the accrued interest thereon are being held in escrow and are being released as the project is completed.
 
We funded our capital expenditures with cash on hand. Additionally, we made payments totaling $4.6 million representing the remaining purchase price of INMETCO.
 
Cash Flows from Financing Activities
 
Cash flows from financing activities include proceeds of $1.2 million from the exercise of 102,596 stock options in the fourth quarter of 2010.
 
Year Ended December 31, 2009
 
Our balance of cash and cash equivalents at December 31, 2009, excluding the $31.5 million of restricted cash, was $95.5 million, a $27.3 million decrease from the December 31, 2008 balance of $122.8 million. In December 2008, we purchased $40.0 million of commercial paper from a major U.S. bank to mitigate the risk associated with the concentration of our cash balance with a single U.S. bank. In January 2009, we purchased an additional $20.0 million of commercial paper with a second major U.S. bank. The commercial paper carried interest rates ranging from 0.3% to 0.4% and had various maturity dates through July 7, 2009. A portion was reinvested in new commercial paper with maturity dates through August 10, 2009 with similar interest rates. The funds were not reinvested in commercial paper as they matured. The commercial paper was guaranteed by the Federal Deposit


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Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) through its Temporary Liquidity Guarantee Program (“TLGP”). The goal of the TLGP is to preserve confidence in the U.S. banking system and to restore liquidity to the credit markets. The program covered eligible debt issued by financial institutions between October 13, 2008 and June 30, 2009 with the guarantees expiring no later than June 30, 2012.
 
In June 2009, we began purchasing certificates of deposit with maturities ranging from four weeks to thirteen weeks and having interest rates ranging from 0.3% to 1.10%. We purchased them through the Certificate of Deposit Account Registration Service (“CDARS”). CDARS allows a depositor to keep large deposits federally insured by conveniently investing in certificates of deposit in amounts covered by the FDIC. Under the program the depositor invests one amount with a financial institution participating in the CDARS program. That financial institution purchases certificates of deposit from other participating financial institutions in amounts covered by the FDIC. As they matured, a portion of the funds were reinvested in certificates of deposit through CDARS having similar maturities and interest rates. The remaining funds were invested in a money market demand account. As of December 31, 2009, we had $20.0 million invested in certificates of deposit having four week maturities and an interest rate of 0.4% and $30.1 million invested in the money market demand account with an interest rate of 1.25%. The certificates of deposit matured in January 2010 and the funds were invested in the money market demand account.
 
In December 2009, we invested $35.0 million in a liquidity management fund through a U.S. financial institution. The fund invests in obligations guaranteed by the U.S. Treasury only and does not invest in repurchase agreements. The fund seeks to provide high levels of current income, liquidity and stability of principal. We expect to continue to invest our cash in secured positions.
 
In June 2009, we purchased the customer contracts related to the EAF dust collection business of ESOI for $11.7 million. We expect the cost of the zinc units recovered from the EAF dust under these contracts will be lower than the cost of zinc units we would need to purchase. As part of the purchase, we obtained a standard agreement from ESOI not to compete in the EAF dust collection business for a period of 17 years. We paid $3.0 million on the effective date with the balance of the purchase price to be paid in a series of annual fixed and quarterly variable payments through 2025. The payments have been discounted using rates of approximately 11.8% and 16.0% for the fixed and variable payments, respectively. At December 31, 2009 the net present value of the payments was approximately $7.6 million, of which $1.7 million was recorded as a current liability and $5.9 million was recorded as a non-current liability. We are required to provide security in the amount of $4.0 million for the fixed payment stream until December 31, 2010 at which time the amount of the security will be reduced to $2.5 million. On July 30, 2009 we placed $4.0 million into an escrow account to satisfy the requirement.
 
On June 4, 2009 and again on June 30, 2009, we amended our financing agreement. The June 4, 2009 amendment enabled us to participate in the NMTC to help us fund our expansion project in Barnwell, South Carolina. The June 4, 2009 amendment also increased our borrowing costs and increased the threshold below which we would be required to comply with certain financial covenants under our revolving credit facility (the “Revolver”). The June 30, 2009 amendment primarily reduced the amount of borrowing available to us under the Revolver by $30.0 million, from $75.0 million to $45.0 million. In July 2009, we requested an advance on our Revolver which was not honored by the agent, resulting in the lender being in default under our financing agreement. The default was cured shortly afterward. On November 1, 2009, the lender voluntarily filed a prepackaged plan of reorganization with the U.S. Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New York. On December 11, 2009 we terminated the financing agreement, which was scheduled to expire on July 15, 2010. We expect the termination to reduce our financing costs in 2010 by approximately $0.2 million in unused line of credit fees and collateral management fees. We believe that we currently have adequate liquidity based on our expected cash flow and our cash on-hand and will be able to obtain a new financing agreement with a revolving credit facility, if necessary.
 
The letters of credit outstanding under the Revolver were cancelled in October and December 2009 and replaced with letters of credit in the amount of $14.7 million. We issued an additional letter of credit in the amount of $5.9 million to satisfy the environmental financial assurance requirements we assumed in connection with our purchase of INMETCO. As of December 31, 2009, we had $20.6 million in letters of credit outstanding that were backed by $21.6 million in restricted cash.


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On June 8, 2009 we completed a financing arrangement under the NMTC program to help us fund our expansion project in Barnwell, South Carolina. The arrangement provides $5.9 million of NMTC funds in the form of equity and loans to be used for completion of development of the site and construction of buildings and other real property. The equity portion may be purchased by us at the end of seven years for a nominal amount. The equity holders are entitled to receive guaranteed annual payments equal to 2% of their investment. The cash underlying the NMTC equity is currently being held in escrow and will be released upon completion of the project site development, which is anticipated to be in the next twelve months. The NMTC program is designed to encourage investment in underserved areas and is part of the Community Renewal Tax Relief Act of 2000.
 
Cash Flows from Operating Activities
 
Our operations used a net $6.7 million in cash for 2009, reflecting the dramatic economic downturn that began in the fourth quarter of 2008 and the overall economic weakness in 2009. The LME average price of zinc during 2009 was lower than 2008, however it increased 115.8% during 2009 from a low of $0.50 per pound for December 2008 to a high of $1.08 for December 2009. This use of cash by operating activities included the purchase of put options for 2010 at a cost of $5.3 million and the first scheduled annual fixed payment under the ESOI acquisition of $1.4 million.
 
Our investment in working capital at December 31, 2009, excluding the acquisition of INMETCO, decreased $31.2 million, or 19.4%, from December 31, 2008. The decrease includes decreases in cash and cash equivalents, inventory and deferred income taxes, partially offset by increases in accounts receivable and in prepaid expenses and other current assets.
 
The decrease in cash and cash equivalents primarily reflects the acquisitions of INMETCO and the EAF dust contracts from ESOI, capital spending and increases in restricted cash, partially offset by the successful underwritten public offering of our stock in September of 2009. The reduction in inventory reflects decreases of 64.8% and 65.5% in the cost and volume, respectively, of zinc-based purchased feeds inventory and decreases of 92.0% and 93.2% in the cost and volume, respectively, of our zinc-based work in process inventory. The cost of our zinc-based finished goods inventory declined 3.6% versus a 31.7% decline in volume, reflecting lower production and sales volumes for 2009 partially offset by the increase in the LME average price of zinc in 2009.
 
The increase in prepaid expenses and other current assets consists primarily of a $20.4 million income tax receivable, partially offset by an unfavorable, non-cash fair value adjustment of $11.4 million on our zinc put options. We purchased the put options in October of 2008 and throughout 2009 to protect our cash flows from declines in the LME price of zinc. The options settle monthly. We are entitled to receive the amount, if any, by which the option strike price exceeds the average LME price of zinc during the preceding month. During 2009, the average LME zinc price exceeded the strike price, consequently the options purchased for 2009 settled with no payment due to us. The strike prices were $0.50 per pound for the options expiring in 2009 and are $0.65 per pound for the options expiring in 2010.
 
Cash Flows from Investing Activities
 
Cash used in investing activities was $104.9 million for 2009. Capital expenditures were $37.2 million and included $25.4 million related to the construction of two kilns in South Carolina, an increase of $31.5 million in restricted cash, $3.0 million in expenditures related to the purchase of the EAF dust collection business of ESOI and $33.2 million for the acquisition of INMETCO.
 
Our funding of restricted cash is related to the NMTC financing of the development of the South Carolina project site, a $4.0 million deposit into an escrow account as security for the fixed portion of the payments in connection with the ESOI purchase and $21.6 million related to letters of credit we issued in September and December of 2009. The projected completion date of the first South Carolina kiln is currently the second quarter of 2010. The development of the South Carolina project site is expected to be completed and the $5.9 million in restricted cash released within the next twelve months. The letters of credit were issued to replace the letters of credit outstanding under our credit facility, which we cancelled in December of 2009, and to satisfy the environmental financial assurance requirement we assumed in connection with our purchase of INMETCO.


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We funded capital expenditures with cash on hand. Our current capital expenditure plan for 2010 is approximately $45.0 million, of which approximately $25.0 million will be related to the construction of the new kilns in South Carolina.
 
Cash Flows from Financing Activities
 
Our financing activities for 2009 provided a net $84.4 million in cash. In September we successfully completed an underwritten public offering of 8,050,000 shares of common stock at $10.50 per share, including 1,050,000 shares sold pursuant to the underwriters’ exercise of their over-allotment option to purchase additional shares. We received approximately $79.8 million in net proceeds from the offering, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and offering expenses.
 
The financing received in connection with the South Carolina project through the NMTC program totaled $5.9 million and consisted of an equity contribution of $5.6 million, of which $0.3 million relates to our commitment to purchase the equity at the end of the NMTC program’s seven year investment period in the project. Additionally, a portion of the $5.9 million in financing consisted of a seven-year $0.3 million loan. The commitment is classified as a non-current liability and the note payable is classified as long-term debt on our consolidated balance sheet. We incurred $0.8 million in equity issuance costs which were deducted from the equity proceeds. The net proceeds were $4.5 million.
 
Contractual Obligations and Commercial Commitments
 
The following table summarizes our contractual obligations and commitments as of December 31, 2010:
 
                                         
    Payments Due by Period  
    Total     Less Than 1 Year     1-3 Years     3-5 Years     More Than 5 Years  
    (Dollars in millions)  
 
Long-term debt obligations (excluding interest)
  $ 0.3     $     $     $     $ 0.3  
Purchase obligations
    17.0       17.0                    
Operating lease obligations
    16.7       4.7       6.2       4.0       1.8  
Executive compensation
    1.3       1.3                    
Other long-term liabilities
    15.6       1.0       2.2       2.2       10.2  
                                         
Total
  $ 50.9     $ 24.0     $ 8.4     $ 6.2     $ 12.3  
                                         
 
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
 
Our off-balance sheet arrangements include operating leases and letters of credit. As of December 31, 2010, we had letters of credit outstanding in the amount of $20.4 million to collateralize self-insured claims for workers’ compensation and other general insurance claims and closure bonds for our two facilities in Pennsylvania. These letters of credit are covered by $21.4 million in restricted cash.
 
Inflation
 
Inflation can affect us primarily as it relates to material purchases, energy, labor and other costs. We do not believe that inflation has had a material effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations in recent years. However, if our costs were to become subject to significant inflationary pressures, either as described above or otherwise, we may not be ably to fully offset such higher costs through price increases.
 
Seasonality
 
Due in large part to the diverse end-markets into which we sell our products and services, our sales are generally not impacted by seasonality with the exception of a slight reduction in demand in the fourth quarter of the year as some customers reduce production during the period.


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ITEM 7A.   QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
 
In the ordinary course of our business, we are exposed to potential losses arising from changes in the prices of zinc, nickel, lead, natural gas and coal. We have historically used derivative instruments, such as swaps, put options and forward purchase contracts to manage the effect of these changes. When we use forward contract hedging instruments to reduce our exposure to rising energy prices, we are limited in our ability to take advantage of future reductions in energy prices, because the hedging instruments require us to exercise the hedging instrument at the settlement date regardless of the market price at the time. We have also used put options to reduce our exposure to future declines in zinc prices. We have entered into arrangements hedging a portion of our exposure to future changes in the prices of zinc, nickel and lead for 2011, 2010, 2009 and 2008.
 
Our risk management policy seeks to meet our overall goal of managing our exposure to market price risk, particularly risks related to changing zinc and nickel prices. All derivative contracts are held for purposes other than trading and are used primarily to mitigate uncertainty and volatility of expected cash flow and cover underlying exposures. We are exposed to losses in the event of non-performance by the counter-parties to the derivative contracts discussed below, as well as any similar contracts we may enter into in future periods. Counter-parties are evaluated for creditworthiness and risk assessment both prior to our initiating contract activities and on an ongoing basis.
 
Commodity Price Risk
 
Our business consists principally of the sale of zinc and nickel-based products. As a result, our results of operations are subject to risk of fluctuations in the market prices of zinc and nickel. While our finished products are generally priced based on a spread to the price of zinc or nickel on the LME, our revenues are impacted significantly by changes in the market prices of these metals. Changes in zinc prices will also impact our ability to generate revenue from our EAF recycling operations as well as our ability to procure raw materials. In addition, we consume substantial amounts of energy in our zinc production and EAF dust recycling operations, and therefore our cost of sales is vulnerable to changes in prevailing energy prices, particularly natural gas, coke and coal.
 
In December 2007, we purchased put options for 2008 for a financial hedge for approximately 90,000 tons of zinc, (7,500 tons monthly), or approximately 60% of our anticipated 2008 sales volume. The cost of these options was approximately $13.3 million. The options settled on a monthly basis, and in each settlement we were entitled to receive the amount, if any, by which the option strike price, set at $1.00 per pound for the duration of 2008, exceeded the average LME price for zinc during the preceding month. Similar put options for 90,000 tons, (7,500 tons monthly) were purchased in 2008 for each of the 12 months of 2009 with a $0.90 per pound strike price, for a cost of approximately $14.2 million.
 
In October of 2008, we sold the put options we purchased for 2009 primarily to reduce our exposure to credit risk with the counter-parties to these options. We received cash of $64.5 million on the sale resulting in a pre-tax gain of $50.3 million in 2008. The gain was recorded as an increase in our net sales. We subsequently replaced these options with similar options for 2009 having a strike price of $0.50 per pound for the same quantity of tons for a cost of approximately $10.5 million.
 
In 2009, we purchased put options for approximately 100,000 tons of zinc for 2010. The cost of the options was $5.3 million and they had a strike price of $0.65 per pound. At the time of the purchases, the options represented approximately 80% of our anticipated sales volume for 2010.
 
In 2010, we purchased put options for approximately 99,000 tons of zinc for 2011 having a strike price of $0.65 per pound. The purchases represent approximately 70% of our expected zinc production in 2011. We also sold put options for approximately 35,000 tons of zinc for 2011 having a strike price of $0.55 per pound. The options we purchased provide that we will receive a minimum of $0.65 per pound for the quantity hedged and the options we sold provide that the buyer will receive a minimum of $0.55 per pound for the quantity hedged. The cost of the options purchased was $3.0 million and the cost of the options sold was $0.2 million. The options are included in “Prepaid expenses and other current assets” in our consolidated financial statements.
 
As of December 31, 2010, we were party to a contract for the purchase and delivery of the coal requirements for the power plant in Monaca through 2011. We were party to a similar contract for 2009 and 2010. Each year, we


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enter into contracts for the forward purchase of natural gas to cover the majority of natural gas requirements in order to reduce our exposure to the volatility of natural gas prices.
 
ITEM 8.   CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
 
Our consolidated financial statements, together with the related notes and the report of the independent registered public accounting firm, are set forth on the pages indicated in Item 15 in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
 
ITEM 9.   CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE
 
There were no changes in or disagreements with accountants on accounting and financial disclosure.
 
ITEM 9A.   CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES
 
Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures
 
Based on our management’s evaluation (with the participation of our principal executive officer and principal financial officer), as of the end of the period covered by this report, our principal executive officer and principal financial officer have concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, (the “Exchange Act”)) are effective to ensure that information required to be disclosed by us in reports that we file or submit under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in Securities and Exchange Commission rules and forms and is accumulated and communicated to our management, including our principal executive officer and principal financial officer, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure.
 
Management’s Annual Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
 
Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over our financial reporting (as defined in Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) under the Exchange Act). Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
 
Our management assessed the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2010. In making this assessment, our management used the criteria set forth by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO) in Internal Control Integrated Framework. Based on our assessment, management believes that, as of December 31, 2010, our internal control over financial reporting is effective based on those criteria.
 
The independent registered public accounting firm which audited our financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K has issued an attestation report on our internal control over financial reporting. Please see “Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm.”
 
Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting
 
No change in our internal control over financial reporting occurred during the quarter ended December 31, 2010 that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.


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REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
 
Board of Directors and Shareholders
Horsehead Holding Corp.
 
We have audited Horsehead Holding Corp. (a Delaware Corporation) and Subsidiaries’ (the “Company”) internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2010, based on criteria established in Internal Control — Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO). The Company’s management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the accompanying Management’s Annual Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audit.
 
We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audit included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk, and performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.
 
A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
 
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
 
In our opinion, Horsehead Holding Corp. and Subsidiaries maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2010, based on criteria established in Internal Control — Integrated Framework issued by COSO.
 
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), the consolidated balance sheets as of December 31, 2010 and 2009 of Horsehead Holding Corp. and Subsidiaries, and the related consolidated statements of operations, stockholder’s equity and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2010, and our report dated March 16, 2011 expressed an unqualified opinion.
 
/s/  GRANT THORNTON LLP
 
Cleveland, Ohio
March 16, 2011


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ITEM 9B.   OTHER INFORMATION
 
None.
 
PART III
 
ITEM 10.   DIRECTORS, EXECUTIVE OFFICERS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE
 
The information required by this item may be found in our Proxy Statement related to the 2011 Annual Meeting of Stockholders and is incorporated herein by reference and in “Executive Officers of the Registrant” as set forth in “Item 1. Business” in this report.
 
There have been no material changes to the procedures through which stockholders may recommend nominees to our Board of Directors since April 10, 2006. We have adopted a Code of Ethics that applies to our principal executive officer, principal financial officer and principal accounting officer. The text of our Code of Ethics is posted on our website: www.horsehead.net — click on “Investor Relations”, then click on “Corp. Governance” and then click on “Code of Ethics for Senior Management.” We intend to disclose future amendments to, or waivers from, certain provisions of the Code of Ethics on the website within four business days following the date of such amendment or waiver. Stockholders may request a free copy of the Code of Ethics from: Horsehead Holding Corp., Attention: Corporate Secretary, 4955 Steubenville Pike, Suite 405, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15205.
 
ITEM 11.   EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION
 
The information required by this item may be found in our Proxy Statement related to the 2011 Annual Meeting of Stockholders and is incorporated herein by reference.
 
ITEM 12.   SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS
 
The information required by this item may be found in our Proxy Statement related to the 2011 Annual Meeting of Stockholders and is incorporated herein by reference.
 
ITEM 13.   CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED TRANSACTIONS, AND DIRECTOR INDEPENDENCE
 
The information required by this item may be found in our Proxy Statement related to the 2011 Annual Meeting of Stockholders and is incorporated herein by reference.
 
ITEM 14.   PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES
 
The information required by this item may be found in our Proxy Statement related to the 2011 Annual Meeting of Stockholders and is incorporated herein by reference.


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PART IV
 
ITEM 15.   EXHIBITS AND FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES
 
(a)(1) Financial Statements.
 
     
    Page
 
  F-1
  F-2
  F-3
  F-4
  F-5
  F-6
 
(a)(2) Financial Statement Schedule.
 
None
 
All remaining schedules have been omitted because they are not required or applicable or the information is included in the consolidated financial statements or notes thereto.
 
(a)(3) Exhibits. See Exhibit Index appearing on page E-1 for a list of exhibits filed with or incorporated by reference as a part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.


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SIGNATURES
 
Pursuant to the requirements of Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized on March 16, 2011.
 
HORSEHEAD HOLDING CORP.
 
  By: 
/s/  James M. Hensler
James M. Hensler
Its: Chief Executive Officer
 
POWER OF ATTORNEY
 
KNOW ALL PERSONS BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below constitutes and appoints James M. Hensler and Robert D. Scherich, jointly and severally, his attorney-in-fact, each with the full power of substitution, for such person, in any and all capacities, to sign any and all amendments to this Annual Report on Form 10-K, and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorney-in-fact and agent full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite and necessary to be done in connection therewith, as fully to all intents and purposes as he might do or could do in person hereby ratifying and confirming all that each of said attorneys-in-fact and agents, or his substitute, may do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.
 
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, this report has been signed below by the following persons on behalf of the registrant and in the capacities indicated and on March 16, 2011.
 
         
Signature
 
Title
 
     
/s/  James M. Hensler

James M. Hensler
  Chairman of the Board of Directors,
President and Chief Executive Officer
(Principal Executive Officer)
     
/s/  Robert D. Scherich

Robert D. Scherich
  Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
(Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)
     
/s/  John Van Roden

John Van Roden
  Director
     
/s/  T. Grant John

T. Grant John
  Director
     
/s/  Bryan D. Rosenberger

Bryan D. Rosenberger
  Director
     
/s/  Jack Shilling

Jack Shilling
  Director


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REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
 
Board of Directors and Shareholders
Horsehead Holding Corp.
 
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Horsehead Holding Corp. (a Delaware corporation) and subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2010 and 2009, and the related consolidated statements of operations, stockholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2010. These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these financial statements based on our audits.
 
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement. An audit includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. An audit also includes assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
 
In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of Horsehead Holding Corp. as of December 31, 2010 and 2009, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2010 in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
 
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), Horsehead Holding Corp.’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2010, based on criteria established in Internal Control — Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO) and our report dated March 16, 2011 expressed an unqualified opinion.
 
/s/  GRANT THORNTON LLP
 
Cleveland, Ohio
March 16, 2011


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    2010     2009  
 
ASSETS
Current assets
               
Cash and cash equivalents
  $ 109,557     $ 95,480  
Accounts receivable, net of allowance of $1,741 and $2,032 in 2010 and 2009, respectively
    53,075       40,652  
Inventories, net
    50,855       39,908  
Prepaid expenses and other current assets
    16,178       25,195  
Deferred income taxes
    6,090       175  
                 
Total current assets
    235,755       201,410  
Property, plant and equipment, net
    218,652       191,307  
Other assets
               
Intangible assets
    13,026       13,758  
Restricted cash
    26,399       31,536  
Deferred income taxes
    1,984        
Deposits and other
    320       251  
                 
Total other assets
    41,729       45,545  
                 
Total assets
  $ 496,136     $ 438,262  
                 
 
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
Current liabilities
               
Current maturities of long-term debt
  $     $ 58  
Accounts payable
    39,374       32,313  
Accrued expenses
    26,261       25,584  
                 
Total current liabilities
    65,635       57,955  
Long-term debt, less current maturities
    255       255  
Other long-term liabilities
    17,501       18,865  
Deferred income taxes
    39,735       15,770  
Commitments and contingencies
               
Stockholders’ equity
               
Common stock, par value $.01 per share; 100,000 shares with voting rights authorized; 43,468 and 43,334 shares issued and outstanding in 2010 and 2009, respectively
    434       433  
Preferred stock, par value $.01 per share; 10,000 shares authorized; no shares issued or outstanding
           
Additional paid-in capital
    214,406       211,517  
Retained earnings
    153,765       128,995  
                 
Total stockholders’ equity before noncontrolling interest
    368,605       340,945  
                 
Noncontrolling interest
    4,405       4,472  
                 
Total stockholders’ equity
    373,010       345,417  
                 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity
  $ 496,136     $ 438,262  
                 
 
The accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements are an integral part of these statements.


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Table of Contents

 
                         
    2010     2009     2008  
 
Net sales of zinc material and other goods
  $ 288,796     $ 183,949     $ 396,810  
Net sales of nickel-based material and other services
    54,162              
EAF dust service fees
    39,404       32,581       49,111  
                         
Net sales
    382,362       216,530       445,921  
Cost of sales of zinc material and other goods
    267,283       210,642       339,726  
Cost of sales of nickel-based material and other services
    33,466              
Cost of EAF dust services
    24,040       15,529       13,522  
Insurance claim income
    (19,267 )            
                         
Cost of sales (excluding depreciation and amortization)
    305,522       226,171       353,248  
Depreciation and amortization
    18,612       15,982       12,797  
Selling, general and administrative expenses
    18,672       17,080       18,184  
                         
Total costs and expenses
    342,806       259,233       384,229  
Income (loss) from operations
    39,556       (42,703 )     61,692  
Other income (expense)
                       
Interest expense
    (1,226 )     (2,340 )     (1,474 )
Interest and other income
    849       883       1,871  
                         
      (377 )     (1,457 )     397  
Income (loss) before income taxes
    39,179       (44,160 )     62,089  
Income tax provision (benefit)
    14,409       (16,689 )     22,647  
                         
NET INCOME(LOSS)
  $ 24,770     $ (27,471 )   $ 39,442  
                         
Earnings (loss) per common share:
                       
Basic
  $ 0.57     $ (0.73 )   $ 1.12  
Diluted
  $ 0.57     $ (0.73 )   $ 1.12  
Weighted average shares outstanding:
                       
Basic
    43,353       37,604       35,089  
Diluted
    43,668       37,604       35,287  
 
The accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements are an integral part of these statements.


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                      Retained
             
                Additional
    Earnings
             
    Common Stock     Paid-In
    (Accumulated
    Noncontrolling
       
    Shares     Amount     Capital     Deficit)     Interest     Total  
 
Balance at January 1, 2008
    34,775     $ 348     $ 124,682     $ 117,024           $ 242,054  
Stock option exercise
    478       4       1,000                   1,004  
Stock compensation expense
                1,739                   1,739  
Excess tax benefit of stock option exercise
                2,320                   2,320  
Net income
                      39,442             39,442  
                                                 
Balance at December 31, 2008
    35,253       352       129,741       156,466             286,559  
Restricted stock vesting
    19       1       (1 )                  
Stock option exercise
    12             12                   12  
Equity offering
    8,050       80       79,705                   79,785  
Stock compensation expense
                2,153                   2,153  
Contribution by noncontrolling interest
                            4,472       4,472  
Reduction of tax benefit of equity award exercise
                (93 )                 (93 )
Net loss
                      (27,471 )           (27,471 )
                                                 
Balance at December 31, 2009
    43,334       433       211,517       128,995       4,472       345,417  
Restricted stock vesting
    31       1       (1 )                  
Stock option exercise
    103             1,183                   1,183  
Stock compensation expense
                1,860                   1,860  
Distribution by noncontrolling interest
                            (67 )     (67 )
Reduction of tax benefit of equity award exercise
                (153 )                 (153 )
Net income
                      24,770             24,770  
                                                 
Balance at December 31, 2010
    43,468     $ 434     $ 214,406     $ 153,765     $ 4,405     $ 373,010  
                                                 
 
The accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements are an integral part of these statements.


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Table of Contents

 
                         
    2010     2009     2008  
 
Cash Flows from Operating Activities:
                       
Net income (loss)
  $ 24,770     $ (27,471 )   $ 39,442  
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by (used in) operating activities:
                       
Depreciation and amortization
    18,612       16,981       13,463  
Deferred income tax provision
    16,026       9,486       770  
Accretion on ESOI liabilities
    905       366        
Losses on write down or disposal of assets
    203       1,153       665  
Losses (gains) on derivative financial instruments
    3,686       11,997       (8,746 )
Lower of cost or market adjustment to inventories
                8,994  
Non-cash compensation expense
    1,860       2,153       1,739  
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
                       
(Increase) decrease in accounts receivable, net
    (12,616 )     (1,152 )     21,027  
(Increase) decrease in inventories, net
    (11,551 )     13,760       13,715  
Decrease (increase) in prepaid expenses and other current assets
    5,322       (24,827 )     8,180  
(Increase) decrease in other assets
    (87 )     (49 )     83  
Increase (decrease) in accounts payable
    7,019       (6,308 )     (2,173 )
Increase (decrease) increase in accrued expenses
    5,427       (2,634 )     (833 )
(Decrease) in other non-current liabilities
    (2,270 )     (188 )     (2,319 )
                         
Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities
    57,306       (6,733 )     94,007  
Cash Flows from Investing Activities:
                       
Purchase of property, plant and equipment
    (44,704 )     (37,151 )     (50,671 )
Purchase of INMETCO, net of cash
    (4,567 )     (33,237 )      
Purchase of intangibles
          (3,000 )      
Decrease (increase) in restricted cash
    5,137       (31,536 )      
                         
Net cash used in investing activities
    (44,134 )     (104,924 )     (50,671 )
Cash Flows from Financing Activities:
                       
Proceeds from equity offering, net of expenses
          79,785        
Proceeds from exercise of warrants and options
    1,183       12       1,004  
(Distributions to) proceeds from noncontrolling interest equity holders
    (67 )     4,472        
Tax effect of share based compensation award exercise and vesting
    (153 )     (93 )     2,320  
Proceeds from issuance of notes payable
          255        
Payments on notes payable and long-term debt
    (58 )     (62 )     (61 )
                         
Net cash provided by financing activities
    905       84,369       3,263  
                         
Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents
    14,077       (27,288 )     46,599  
Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of year
    95,480       122,768       76,169  
                         
Cash and cash equivalents at end of year
  $ 109,557     $ 95,480     $ 122,768  
                         
 
The accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements are an integral part of these statements.


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Table of Contents

HORSEHEAD HOLDING CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
December 31, 2010 and 2009
and for the Years Ended December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008
(Amounts in thousands, except per share data)
 
NOTE A — ORGANIZATION
 
Horsehead Holding Corp. (“HHC”, “Horsehead” or the “Company”) was incorporated in the state of Delaware in May 2003. On December 23, 2003, the Company acquired substantially all of the operating assets and assumed certain liabilities of Horsehead Industries, Inc. and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. The Company commenced operations on December 24, 2003.
 
The Company is a producer of specialty zinc and nickel-based products sold primarily to customers throughout the United States of America. It is also the largest recycler of electric arc furnace dust in the United States and a leading U.S. recycler of hazardous and non-hazardous waste for the specialty steel industry. It also provides short-line railroad service for the movement of materials for both Horsehead Corporation and outside customers. The Company operates as two business segments.
 
NOTE B — SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
 
A summary of the significant accounting policies consistently applied in the preparation of the accompanying consolidated financial statements follows.
 
Principles of Consolidation
 
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Horsehead and its wholly-owned subsidiaries, Horsehead Corporation (“HC”), Chestnut Ridge Railroad Corp., Horsehead Zinc Recycling, LLC, Horsehead Metals Development, LLC, Horsehead Materials Recycling, LLC and The International Metals Reclamation Company, Inc. (“INMETCO”). Intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
 
Use of Estimates
 
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. The more significant items requiring the use of management estimates and assumptions relate to inventory reserves, bad debt reserves, environmental and asset retirement obligations, workers’ compensation liabilities, reserves for contingencies and litigation and fair value of financial instruments and business acquisitions. Management bases its estimates on the Company’s historical experience and its expectations of the future and on various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
 
Revenue Recognition
 
The Company recognizes revenues from the sale of finished goods at the point of passage of title or risk of loss, which is generally at the time of shipment. The Company’s service fee revenue is generally recognized at the time of receipt of electric arc furnace (“EAF”) dust, which the Company collects from steel mini-mill operators.


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Table of Contents

HORSEHEAD HOLDING CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES
 
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
 
The components of net sales for the years ended December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008 are as follows:
 
                         
    2010     2009     2008  
 
Zinc and nickel material goods
  $ 305,371     $ 176,628     $ 380,685  
Service fee revenue
    65,113       32,581       49,111  
Other
    11,878       7,321       16,125  
                         
    $ 382,362     $ 216,530     $ 445,921  
                         
 
No customer exceeded 10% of consolidated net sales. However, our ten largest customers comprise 46% of our consolidated sales. Three customers comprise 83% of INMETCO’s net sales. Products and services are sold primarily to customers in the hot-dipped galvanizing, rubber, stainless steel and mini-mill markets.
 
Shipping and Handling Fees and Costs
 
The Company classifies all amounts billed to a customer in a sales transaction related to shipping and handling as revenue. The Company records shipping and handling costs incurred in cost of sales.
 
Cash and Cash Equivalents
 
The Company considers all highly liquid investments with maturities of approximately 90 days or less when purchased to be cash equivalents.
 
Accounts Receivable
 
The majority of the Company’s accounts receivable are due from customers primarily in the steel, rubber and galvanizing industries. Credit is extended based on an evaluation of a customer’s financial condition. Generally collateral is not required. Accounts receivable are stated at amounts due from customers net of an allowance for doubtful accounts. Accounts receivable outstanding longer than the contractual payment terms are considered past due. The Company determines its allowance by considering a number of factors, including the length of time trade accounts receivable are past due, the Company’s previous loss history, the customer’s current ability to pay its obligation to the Company, and the condition of the general economy and industry as a whole. The Company writes off accounts receivable when they become uncollectible. Payments subsequently received on such receivables are credited to the allowance for doubtful accounts. In 2010 and in 2009, the Company wrote off $22 and $206, respectively, in uncollectable accounts and recovered $292 and $13, respectively, of previously written off balances. The provision for bad debt expense was ($484), $1,475 and $327 for 2010, 2009 and 2008, respectively. The accounts receivable balance at December 31, 2010 includes $8,267 from the Company’s insurance carrier relating to business interruption and property damage claims associated with the explosion at the Company’s Monaca, Pennsylvania facility in July of 2010. The accounts receivable balance at December 31, 2009 includes $742 from the Company’s hedge counter-parties resulting from the settlement of open positions, which was collected in January 2010.
 
Inventories
 
Inventories, which consist primarily of zinc and nickel-bearing materials, zinc products and supplies and spare parts, are valued at the lower-of-cost-or-market (“LCM”) using a moving average cost method. Raw materials are purchased as well as produced from the processing of EAF dust. Supplies and spare parts inventory used in the production process are purchased. Work-in-process and finished goods inventories are valued based on the costs of raw materials plus applicable conversion costs, including depreciation and overhead costs relating to associated process facilities.
 
Zinc and nickel are traded as commodities on the London Metals Exchange (“LME”) and, accordingly, product inventories are subject to price fluctuations. When reviewing inventory for LCM adjustments, the Company


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HORSEHEAD HOLDING CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES
 
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
 
considers the forward metals prices as quoted on the LME as of the balance sheet date to determine if an LCM adjustment is required.
 
Property, Plant and Equipment
 
Property, plant and equipment are stated at cost. Depreciation is provided using the straight-line method. Ordinary maintenance and repairs are expensed as incurred; replacements and betterments are capitalized if they extend the useful life of the related asset. The estimated useful lives of property, plant and equipment are as follows:
 
     
Buildings, land and building improvements
  3 - 40 years
Machinery and equipment
  3 - 30 years
 
The Company reviews the carrying value of its long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or circumstances indicate that the carrying amounts may not be recoverable. There were no such events or circumstances during 2010 and 2008 and therefore no impairment write-downs were charged to operations. See Note F for a discussion of asset write-downs in 2009.
 
Environmental Obligations
 
The Company accrues for costs associated with environmental obligations when such costs are probable and reasonably estimated. Accruals for estimated costs are generally undiscounted and are adjusted as further information develops or circumstances change.
 
Insurance Claim Liabilities
 
The Company accrues for costs associated with self-insured retention under certain insurance policies (primarily workers’ compensation) based on estimates of claims, including projected development, from information provided by the third party administrator and the insurance carrier. Accruals for estimated costs are undiscounted and are subject to change based on development of such claims.
 
Asset Retirement Obligations
 
The fair values of asset retirement obligations are recognized in the period they are incurred if a reasonable estimate of fair value can be made. Asset retirement obligations primarily relate to environmental remediation at three Company locations. The liability is estimated based upon cost studies prepared to estimate environmental remediation upon closure and for purposes of obtaining state permits to operate the facilities. The liability is discounted using the Company’s estimated credit-adjusted risk free interest rate at the time the obligations are recognized.
 
Income Taxes
 
Deferred income taxes reflect the tax consequences on future years of differences between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their respective financial reporting amounts. The Company recognizes the financial statement benefit of a tax position only after determining that the relevant tax authority would more likely than not sustain the position following an audit. For tax positions meeting the more-likely-than-not threshold, the amount recognized in the financial statements is the largest benefit that has a greater than 50 percent likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement with the relevant tax authority.
 
Stock-Based Compensation
 
The Company has a stock-based compensation plan and an equity incentive plan which are more fully described in Note R. Employee stock options granted on or after January 1, 2006 are expensed by the Company over


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HORSEHEAD HOLDING CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES
 
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
 
the option vesting period, based on the estimated fair value of the award on the date of the grant using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model.
 
Financial Instruments
 
The following methods are used to estimate the fair value of the Company’s financial instruments:
 
Cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, notes payable due within one year, accounts payable, and accrued expenses approximate their fair value due to the short-term nature of these instruments. The money market demand account is considered to be in level 1 of the fair value hierarchy (see Note G).
 
The financial swap and financial option instruments are carried at fair value and are considered to be in level 2 of the fair value hierarchy. The Company recognizes changes in fair value within the consolidated statements of operations as they occur (see Note S).
 
The Company does not purchase, hold or sell derivative financial instruments unless it has an existing asset or obligation or anticipates a future activity that is likely to occur and will result in exposing it to market risk. The Company uses various strategies to manage its market risk, including the use of derivative instruments to limit, offset or reduce such risk. Derivative financial instruments are used to manage well-defined commodity price risks from the Company’s primary business activity. The fair values of derivative instruments are based upon a comparison of the Company’s internal valuations to the valuations provided by third party counterparties with whom they have entered into substantially identical derivative contracts. The Company also compares the counterparties valuations to ensure that there is an acceptable level of consistency among them. The valuations utilize forward pricing and an implied volatility of the underlying commodity as well as interest rate forwards and are therefore subject to fluctuation based on the movements of the commodity markets.
 
The Company is exposed to credit loss should counter-parties with which it has entered into derivative transactions become unable to satisfy their obligations in accordance with the underlying agreements. To minimize this risk the Company uses highly rated counter-parties that meet certain requirements.
 
Impairment
 
The Company reviews the carrying value of its intangible assets and long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or circumstances indicate that the carrying amounts may not be recoverable. In the event the Company would determine the carrying amounts would not be recovered, an impairment charge would be recorded for the difference between the fair value and the carrying value.
 
Supplemental Disclosure of Cash Flow Information
 
Cash paid for net interest in 2010, 2009 and 2008 approximated $70, $797 and $714, respectively. Cash paid for income taxes in 2010, 2009 and 2008 approximated $8,740, $753 and $19,281, respectively.
 
Reclassifications
 
Certain reclassifications have been made to the prior years’ consolidated financial statements to conform to the 2010 presentation.
 
NOTE C — EQUITY OFFERINGS AND STOCK REPURCHASE
 
On September 1, 2009, the SEC declared effective the Company’s registration statement on Form S-3 originally filed by the Company with the SEC on July 16, 2009. On September 16, 2009, the Company completed an underwritten public offering of 8,050 shares of its common stock, including 1,050 shares sold pursuant to the underwriter’s exercise of their over-allotment option to purchase additional shares. At the public offering price of $10.50 per share, the aggregate price of shares of common stock sold by the Company was $84,525. The net


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HORSEHEAD HOLDING CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES
 
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
 
proceeds realized by the Company from the offering, after accounting for $4,226 in underwriting discounts and commissions and $514 in expenses relating to the offering, were $79,785. The Company is using the net proceeds for general corporate purposes, which include capital expenditures, working capital, acquisitions and investments. Pending these uses, the net proceeds may also be temporarily invested in short- and medium-term securities.
 
NOTE D — ACQUISITION OF BUSINESS
 
On December 31, 2009, the Company purchased all of the issued and outstanding capital stock of INMETCO, from Vale Inco Americas Inc. The Company estimated it would pay cash of $38,802, of which $33,237, net of cash acquired, was paid at closing. The final purchase price, after post-closing adjustments, was $38,567 and was settled in the first quarter of 2010. The difference between the estimated and the final purchase price is immaterial and is not reflected in the Company’s Consolidated Balance Sheet at December 31, 2009.
 
The purchase price was allocated as follows:
 
                 
    Final at
    Estimated at
 
    December 31, 2010     December 31, 2009  
 
Cash
  $ 763     $ 763  
Accounts receivable
    8,970       9,164  
Inventories
    6,190       6,794  
Prepaid expenses and other current assets
    500       489  
Deferred income tax asset
    672       672  
Property, plant and equipment
    35,175       34,469  
Intangible assets
    2,400       2,400  
Other assets
    54       54  
                 
Total identifiable assets purchased
    54,724       54,805  
Accounts payable
    2,314       3,446  
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities
    1,895       650  
Deferred income tax liability
    10,421       10,380  
Other long-term liabilities
    1,527       1,527  
                 
Total liabilities assumed
    16,157       16,003  
                 
Net assets purchased
    38,567       38,802  
                 
Purchase price
  $ 38,567     $ 38,802  
                 
 
NOTE E — NEW MARKETS TAX CREDIT PROGRAM FINANCING
 
On June 8, 2009, the Company completed a financing arrangement under the New Markets Tax Credit (“NMTC”) program to help fund its expansion project in Barnwell, South Carolina. The arrangement provides $5,925 of NMTC funds to be used for completion of the development of the project site and construction of buildings and other real property. The funds and the accrued interest thereon are being held in escrow and will be released upon completion of the aforementioned project site development. The funds are recorded as “Restricted cash” on the consolidated balance sheets of the Company as of December 31, 2010 and 2009. In December 2010, funds totaling $4,925 were released from escrow in accordance with the provisions of the program. A portion of the funds are in the form of an equity investment by Banc of America CDE III, LLC and CCM Community Development IV LLC, in the amount of $5,670. The equity holders are consolidated in the Company’s consolidated balance sheets as of December 31, 2010 and 2009 and do not share in the earnings and losses of the Company, however, they are entitled to guaranteed payments of 2% per annum on their investment. The equity holders also have the option (the “purchase option”) of having their investment purchased by the Company at the end of their


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HORSEHEAD HOLDING CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES
 
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
 
seven year investment period in the project. The purchase option totals $360 and is treated as a reduction of their equity holdings and is recorded in “Other long-term liabilities” on the consolidated balance sheets of the Company as of December 31, 2010 and 2009. The Company incurred $838 in equity issuance costs which were deducted from the equity proceeds, leaving net proceeds of $4,472 as a non-controlling interest in the Company’s Stockholders’ equity section of the consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2009. The first guaranteed payment was made in January 2010, reducing the balance of the non-controlling interest to $4,405 at December 31, 2010. A portion of the NMTC funds are in the form of a seven-year loan in the amount of $255. The loan is recorded in “Long-term debt, less current maturities” on the consolidated balance sheets of the Company as of December 31, 2010 and 2009.
 
NOTE F — ASSET WRITE-DOWNS AND DISPOSALS
 
In 2009, the Company wrote-down to net realizable value certain machinery and equipment and supplies inventories by $1,056 primarily related to its Beaumont, Texas recycling facility. The write-down resulted in a reduction of $1,349 in the cost and $628 in the accumulated depreciation of the Company’s machinery and equipment and $335 in its supplies inventories. In the third quarter of 2009, the Company made a decision to proceed with the completion of the construction of its Barnwell, South Carolina recycling facility and started both kilns in 2010. The Waelz kiln process that will be used at the Barnwell facility is a lower cost process than the process that was used at the Beaumont facility, therefore, management does not intend to use the higher cost capacity at the Beaumont facility. The total amount of the write-down is included in “Cost of sales of zinc material and other goods (excluding depreciation)” on the consolidated statement of operations.
 
The Company incurred a loss of $203 in the fourth quarter of 2010 and a loss of $97 in the fourth quarter of 2009 on the disposal of machinery and equipment. The cost and accumulated depreciation of the assets disposed were $341 and $138 in 2010 and $270 and $173 in 2009. The losses are recorded in “Interest and other income” on the consolidated statement of operations.
 
NOTE G — CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS
 
Cash and cash equivalents consisted of the following at December 31, 2010 and 2009.
 
                 
    2010     2009  
 
Cash in bank
  $ 84,549     $ 10,358  
Government money market funds
          35,000  
Money market demand account
    25,008       30,075  
Certificates of deposit
          20,047  
                 
    $ 109,557     $ 95,480  
                 
 
The Company’s cash in bank balance is held in three U.S. banks at December 31, 2010 and was concentrated in two U.S. banks in 2009. The Company purchased government money market funds and certificates of deposit to mitigate the risk associated with this level of concentration in 2009.
 
The government money market funds invested only in US Treasury bills, notes and other obligations guaranteed by the US Treasury, and its goal was to provide high levels of current income, liquidity and stability of principal. The fund did not invest in repurchase agreements.
 
The money market demand accounts carried interest rates of 0.40% and 1.25% at December 31, 2010 and 2009, respectively. The certificates of deposit had a four week maturity and an interest rate of 0.4%. They were purchased through the Certificate of Deposit Account Registration Service (“CDARS”). CDARS allows a depositor to keep large deposits federally insured by investing in certificates of deposit in amounts covered by the FDIC. Under the program the depositor invests one amount with a financial institution participating in the CDARS


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HORSEHEAD HOLDING CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES
 
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
 
program. That financial institution purchases certificates of deposit from other participating financial institutions in amounts covered by the FDIC. The balances approximate fair value.
 
NOTE H — INVENTORIES
 
Inventories consisted of the following at December 31, 2010 and 2009:
 
                 
    2010     2009  
 
Raw materials
  $ 13,202     $ 10,413  
Work-in-process
    7,289       1,471  
Finished goods
    17,486       13,939  
Supplies and spare parts
    12,878       14,085  
                 
    $ 50,855     $ 39,908  
                 
 
Inventories are net of reserves for slow moving inventory of $2,546 and $2,971 at December 31, 2010 and 2009, respectively. The provisions for slow-moving inventory were $ (425), $84 and $1,309 for 2010, 2009 and 2008, respectively. The significant and rapid decline of the average LME price of zinc in 2008, particularly in the fourth quarter, resulted in the company recording LCM adjustments of $1,272 and $7,722 to its raw materials and finished goods inventories in 2008 and $2,822 to its finished goods inventory in the first quarter of 2009. No LCM adjustment was recorded in 2010.
 
NOTE I — PREPAID EXPENSES AND OTHER CURRENT ASSETS
 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets consists of the following at December 31, 2010 and 2009.
 
                 
    2010     2009  
 
Refundable income taxes
  $ 11,762     $ 20,786  
Prepaid hedge contracts
    984       1,914  
Other
    3,432       2,495  
                 
    $ 16,178     $ 25,195  
                 
 
NOTE J — PROPERTY, PLANT AND EQUIPMENT
 
Property, plant and equipment consisted of the following at December 31, 2010 and 2009:
 
                 
    2010     2009  
 
Land and land improvements
  $ 18,412     $ 11,110  
Buildings and building improvements
    38,614       27,734  
Machinery and equipment
    229,768       169,296  
Construction in progress
    8,326       41,906  
                 
      295,120       250,046  
Less accumulated depreciation
    (76,468 )     (58,739 )
                 
    $ 218,652     $ 191,307  
                 
 
Depreciation expense for 2010, 2009 and 2008 was $17,880, $15,637 and $12,797, respectively.


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HORSEHEAD HOLDING CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES
 
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
 
NOTE K — INTANGIBLE ASSETS
 
Intangible assets consisted of the following at December 31, 2010 and 2009.
 
                 
    2010     2009  
 
Customer contracts
  $ 10,915     $ 10,915  
Customer relationships
    1,400       1,400  
Non-compete agreement
    789       789  
Trademark
    600       600  
Technology
    400       400  
                 
      14,104       14,104  
Less accumulated amortization
    (1,078 )     (346 )
                 
    $ 13,026     $ 13,758  
                 
 
The intangible assets are being amortized on a straight-line basis over their useful lives, which are twenty years for the customer contracts, customer relationships and the trademark, seventeen years for the non-compete agreement and ten years for the technology asset. The Company amortized $732 and $346 in 2010 and 2009, respectively and will amortize approximately $732 each year thereafter.
 
NOTE L — RESTRICTED CASH
 
Restricted cash is related to the following at December 31, 2010 and 2009.
 
                 
    2010     2009  
 
Letters of credit
  $ 21,379     $ 21,602  
ESOI deferred purchase price obligation
    3,997       4,000  
NMTC
    1,023       5,934  
                 
    $ 26,399     $ 31,536  
                 
 
The restricted cash relating to our letters of credit and the ESOI deferred purchase price obligation are held in third-party managed trust accounts and are invested in money market and other liquid investment accounts. The restricted cash relating to the NMTC is held in escrow in an interest bearing checking account. See Note E.
 
NOTE M — NOTES PAYABLE AND LONG-TERM DEBT
 
Long-term debt consisted of the following at December 31, 2010 and 2009:
 
                         
    2010     2009        
 
Loan payable
  $ 255     $ 255          
Note payable to Beaver County Corporation for Economic Development
          58          
                         
      255       313          
Less portion currently payable
          (58 )        
                         
    $ 255     $ 255          
                         
 
The loan payable is associated with the NMTC program discussed below and in Note E to these consolidated financial statements. It is an interest only loan with the principal due at the end of the term.
 
In September 2005, HC entered into a $300 term loan with the Beaver County Corporation for Economic Development. The proceeds of the loan were used to purchase equipment for the Monaca, Pennsylvania location.


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HORSEHEAD HOLDING CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES
 
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
 
The loan was a five year note with principal and interest payments due monthly through October 2010. Interest was charged at 3.125% per annum. The loan required the company to maintain a minimum number of employees at the Monaca location.
 
In 2009, the Company’s credit facility consisted of a $75,000 revolving credit facility (“Revolver”) including a letter of credit sub-line of $35,000 under the terms of a Financing Agreement with CIT Group/Business Credit, Inc. The Revolver required a lock-box arrangement, which provided for all receipts to be swept daily to reduce borrowings outstanding under the credit facility and contained a subjective acceleration clause in the revolving credit facility. Accordingly, any outstanding borrowings under the Revolver were classified as a current liability.
 
The outstanding borrowings on the Revolver, together with the outstanding letters of credit, could not exceed the Company’s borrowing base, which included eligible receivables, inventories, and certain other assets. The Financing Agreement also provided for certain covenants, the most restrictive of which limited indebtedness, sales of assets, dividends, investments, related party transactions and certain payment restrictions and provided for the maintenance of certain financial covenants. If an event of default were to have occurred, the rate on all obligations owed under the Revolver and other borrowings from CIT would have been increased by 2% per annum.
 
On June 4, 2009 and again on June 30, 2009, the Company amended its Financing Agreement. The June 4, 2009 amendment enabled the Company to participate in the NMTC program to help fund the Company’s expansion project in Barnwell, South Carolina. It also provided for amendments to certain terms of the Financing Agreement, the most significant of which increased the two interest rate margins applicable to amounts outstanding under the Revolver from 2.50% to 4.00% for LIBOR loans and from 0.25% to 3.00% for prime rate loans; increased the fee rate applicable to undrawn letters of credit from 2.50% to 4.00%; established a minimum rate for LIBOR loans equal to 1.75% and increased the unused line of credit fee rate from 0.375% to 0.75%. It also increased the threshold below which the Company would be required to comply with certain financial covenants under the Revolver from net availability for any ten consecutive days of $5,000 to $12,500. Below this threshold, the Company was to comply with the consolidated senior leverage ratio, consolidated fixed charge coverage ratio and consolidated EBIDTA maintenance covenants in the Financing Agreement. The June 30, 2009 amendment primarily reduced the amount of borrowing available to the Company under the Revolver by $30,000, from $75,000 to $45,000. The Revolver was originally scheduled to expire in 2010 but was cancelled in December 2009. As a result, amortization of the costs associated with the credit facility were written off in 2009. Amortization was $999 in 2009 and $666 in 2008 and is included in interest expense in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations.
 
At December 31, 2010 and 2009, the Company had $20,360 and $20,574, respectively, of letters of credit outstanding to collateralize self-insured claims for workers’ compensation and other general insurance claims and closure bonds for the Company’s three facilities in Pennsylvania. The Company provided cash as collateral for the letters of credit, see Note L.
 
Aggregate future maturities of long-term debt are as follows:
 
         
Year Ending December 31,
   
 
2016
  $ 255  
         
    $ 255  
         


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Table of Contents

HORSEHEAD HOLDING CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES
 
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
 
NOTE N — ACCRUED EXPENSES
 
Accrued expenses at December 31, 2010 and December 31, 2009 consisted of the following:
 
                 
    2010     2009  
 
Employee related costs
  $ 8,877     $ 6,722  
EAF dust processing reserve
    4,826       3,564  
Accrued INMETCO purchase price (see Note D)
          4,802  
Workers Compensation insurance claim liabilities (see Note P)
    2,400       2,400  
Unearned tolling revenue
    1,872       1,173  
Other
    8,286       6,923  
                 
    $ 26,261     $ 25,584  
                 
 
NOTE O — INCOME TAXES
 
The components of income tax provision (benefit) for the years ended December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008 are as follows:
 
                         
    2010     2009     2008  
 
Current provision (benefit):
                       
Federal
  $ (2,815 )   $ (25,189 )   $ 18,994  
State and local
    1,369       (986 )     2,883  
                         
      (1,446 )     (26,175 )     21,877  
Deferred provision (benefit):
                       
Federal
    17,907       10,584       892  
State and local
    (2,052 )     (1,098 )     (122 )
                         
      15,855       9,486       770  
                         
Income tax provision (benefit)
  $ 14,409     $ (16,689 )   $ 22,647  
                         
 
The reconciliation between income tax expense (benefit) and the amount computed by applying the statutory federal income tax rate of 35% to income before income taxes is as follows:
 
                         
    2010     2009     2008  
 
Income taxes at statutory rate
  $ 13,713     $ (15,456 )   $ 21,731  
State and local income taxes, net of federal tax effect
    (444 )     (1,354 )     1,794  
Domestic production activity deduction
    197       571       (1,002 )
Other
    943       (450 )     124  
                         
Income tax provision (benefit)
  $ 14,409     $ (16,689 )   $ 22,647