S-1/A 1 d318373ds1a.htm AMENDMENT NO. 4 TO FORM S-1 Amendment No. 4 to Form S-1
Table of Contents

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on July 17, 2012

Registration No. 333-180620

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

 

AMENDMENT NO. 4

TO

FORM S-1

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

 

PALO ALTO NETWORKS, INC.

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

 

Delaware  

3577

  20-2530195
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
  (Primary Standard Industrial
Classification Code Number)
 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification Number)

 

3300 Olcott Street

Santa Clara, California 95054

(408) 753-4000

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of Registrant’s principal executive offices)

 

 

 

Mark D. McLaughlin

President and Chief Executive Officer

Palo Alto Networks, Inc.

3300 Olcott Street

Santa Clara, California 95054

(408) 753-4000

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

 

 

 

Copies to:

 

Jeffrey D. Saper

Jon C. Avina

Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati, P.C.

650 Page Mill Road

Palo Alto, California 94304

(650) 493-9300

 

Jeffrey C. True

General Counsel

Palo Alto Networks, Inc.

3300 Olcott Street

Santa Clara, California 95054

(408) 753-4000

 

Bruce K. Dallas

Davis Polk & Wardwell LLP

1600 El Camino Real

Menlo Park, California 94025

(650) 752-2000

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: As soon as practicable after this registration statement becomes effective.

 

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act, check the following box:  ¨

 

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ¨

 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ¨

 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ¨

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

 

Large accelerated filer   ¨    Accelerated filer   ¨  
Non-accelerated filer   x  (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)    Smaller reporting company   ¨  

 

 

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

 

Title of Each Class of

Securities to be Registered

 

Amount

to be

Registered(1)

 

Proposed

Maximum

Offering Price

Per Share

 

Proposed

Maximum
Aggregate

Offering Price(2)

 

Amount of

Registration Fee(3)

Common Stock, $0.0001 par value per share

 

7,130,000

  $40.00   $285,200,000   $32,684

 

 

(1)   Estimated pursuant to Rule 457(a) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended. Includes the aggregate offering price of additional shares that the underwriters have the option to purchase.
(2)   Estimated solely for the purpose of calculating the registration fee.
(3)   The Registrant previously paid $30,233 of the registration fee with the initial filing of this Registration Statement.

 

The Registrant hereby amends this Registration Statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this Registration Statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until the Registration Statement shall become effective on such date as the Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

 


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The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We and the selling stockholders may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and we and the selling stockholders are not soliciting offers to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

PROSPECTUS (Subject to Completion)

Issued July 17, 2012

 

6,200,000 Shares

 

LOGO

 

COMMON STOCK

 

 

 

Palo Alto Networks, Inc. is offering 4,687,259 shares of its common stock and the selling stockholders are offering 1,512,741 shares. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares by the selling stockholders. This is our initial public offering and no public market currently exists for our shares. We anticipate that the initial public offering price will be between $38.00 and $40.00 per share.

 

 

 

Our common stock has been approved for listing on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “PANW.”

 

 

 

We are an “emerging growth company” under the federal securities laws. Investing in our common stock involves risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 13.

 

 

 

PRICE $             A SHARE

 

 

 

      

Price to

Public

    

Underwriting

Discounts and

Commissions

    

Proceeds to

Palo Alto

Networks

    

Proceeds to

Selling

Stockholders

Per Share

     $               $               $               $         

Total

     $                          $                          $                          $                    

 

We have granted the underwriters the right to purchase up to an additional 930,000 shares of common stock to cover over-allotments.

 

The Securities and Exchange Commission and state securities regulators have not approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

The underwriters expect to deliver the shares of common stock to purchasers on                 , 2012.

 

 

 

MORGAN STANLEY   GOLDMAN, SACHS & CO.   CITIGROUP
CREDIT SUISSE   BARCLAYS   UBS INVESTMENT BANK   RAYMOND JAMES

 

                    , 2012


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

     Page  

Prospectus Summary

     1   

Risk Factors

     13   

Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

     41   

Market and Industry Data

     42   

Use of Proceeds

     43   

Dividend Policy

     43   

Capitalization

     44   

Dilution

     46   

Selected Consolidated Financial Data

     48   

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

     51   

Business

     84   
     Page  

Management

     107   

Executive Compensation

     114   

Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions

     139   

Principal and Selling Stockholders

     141   

Description of Capital Stock

     146   

Shares Eligible for Future Sale

     150   

Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Consequences to Non-U.S. Holders

     152   

Underwriters

     156   

Legal Matters

     162   

Experts

     162   

Additional Information

     162   

Index to Consolidated Financial Statements

     F-1   
 

 

 

 

We and the selling stockholders have not authorized anyone to provide any information or make any representations other than those contained in this prospectus or in any free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. We take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. We and the selling stockholders are offering to sell, and seeking offers to buy, shares of common stock only in jurisdictions where offers and sales are permitted. The information contained in this prospectus is accurate only as of the date of this prospectus, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or of any sale of the common stock.

 

Through and including                     , 2012 (the 25th day after the date of this prospectus), all dealers effecting transactions in these securities, whether or not participating in this offering, may be required to deliver a prospectus. This is in addition to a dealer’s obligation to deliver a prospectus when acting as an underwriter and with respect to an unsold allotment or subscription.

 

For investors outside of the United States: Neither we, the selling stockholders, nor the underwriters have done anything that would permit this offering or possession or distribution of this prospectus in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required, other than in the United States. You are required to inform yourselves about and to observe any restrictions relating to this offering and the distribution of this prospectus outside of the United States.


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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

 

This summary highlights information contained elsewhere in this prospectus. You should read the following summary together with the more detailed information appearing in this prospectus, including “Risk Factors,” “Selected Consolidated Financial Data,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” “Business,” and our consolidated financial statements and related notes before deciding whether to purchase shares of our common stock. Unless the context otherwise requires, the terms “Palo Alto Networks,” “the company,” “we,” “us,” and “our” in this prospectus refer to Palo Alto Networks, Inc. and its subsidiaries. Our fiscal year end is July 31, and our fiscal quarters end on October 31, January 31, April 30, and July 31. Our fiscal years ended July 31, 2009, 2010, and 2011 and our fiscal year ending July 31, 2012 are referred to herein as fiscal 2009, 2010, 2011, and 2012, respectively.

 

PALO ALTO NETWORKS, INC.

 

Overview

 

We have pioneered the next generation of network security with our innovative platform that allows enterprises, service providers, and government entities to secure their networks and safely enable the increasingly complex and rapidly growing number of applications running on their networks. The core of our platform is our Next-Generation Firewall, which delivers application, user, and content visibility and control integrated within the firewall through our proprietary hardware and software architecture. Our platform offers a number of compelling benefits for our end-customers, including the ability to identify, control, and safely enable applications while inspecting all content for all threats in real time. We believe our platform also offers superior performance compared to legacy approaches and reduces the total cost of ownership for organizations by simplifying their network security infrastructure and eliminating the need for multiple, stand-alone security appliances. Our products and services can address a broad range of our end-customers’ network security requirements, from the data center to the network perimeter, as well as the distributed enterprise, which includes branch offices and a growing number of mobile devices.

 

Our platform is based on an innovative traffic classification engine that identifies network traffic by application, user, and content. As a result, it provides in-depth visibility into all traffic and all applications, at the user level, at all times, and at the full speed of the network in order to control usage, content, risks, and threats. This enables our end-customers to transform their organizations by safely enabling applications through a positive security model with fine-grained policy implementation capabilities.

 

Our platform is delivered in the form of a hardware appliance and includes a suite of subscription services as well as support and maintenance. Our subscription services can be easily activated on any of our appliances without requiring additional hardware or processing resources, thereby providing a seamless implementation path for our end-customers. All of our appliances incorporate our PAN-OS operating system and are based on our proprietary identification technologies, App-ID, User-ID, and Content-ID, which allow security policies to be defined within the context of applications, users, and content. We deliver these capabilities through an innovative, single-pass parallel processing architecture that simultaneously performs multiple identification, security, and networking functions. As a result, our end-customers achieve safe application enablement and advanced levels of security, while maintaining high network performance.

 

Our team has substantial experience in network security. As a result, we understand the architectural limitations of legacy network security approaches and have designed our platform to avoid these limitations in order to address current network security requirements. We released our Next-Generation Firewall in 2007, and since then, we have grown significantly faster than industry growth rates. We have been recognized as a technology and market leader. Gartner categorized us as a market leader in its “2011 Magic Quadrant for Enterprise Network Firewalls” based on our ability to execute and completeness of vision. As of April 30, 2012, we had more than 7,750 end-customers in more than 100 countries.

 

 

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We serve the enterprise network security market, which consists of Firewall, Unified Threat Management (UTM), Web Gateway, Intrusion Detection and Prevention (IDS/IPS), and Virtual Private Network (VPN) technologies. According to IDC, the worldwide enterprise network security market, defined as IDC’s Network Security market and Web Security market, is estimated to be $10.0 billion in 2012 and is projected to grow to $12.5 billion by 2015.

 

We sell our platform through a high touch, channel fulfilled sales model. Our business is geographically diversified, with 62% of our total revenue from the Americas, 26% from Europe, the Middle East, and Africa (EMEA), and 12% from Asia Pacific and Japan (APAC) for the nine month period ended April 30, 2012.

 

We have experienced rapid growth in recent periods. For fiscal 2009, 2010, and 2011, our revenues were $13.4 million, $48.8 million, and $118.6 million, respectively, representing year-over-year growth of 265% for fiscal 2010 and 143% for fiscal 2011, and our net losses were $19.0 million, $21.1 million, and $12.5 million, respectively. For the nine month periods ended April 30, 2011 and 2012, our revenues were $78.4 million and $179.5 million, respectively, representing year-over-year growth of 129%. For the nine month period ended April 30, 2011, we recorded a net loss of $6.5 million, and for the nine month period ended April 30, 2012, we recorded net income of $5.3 million. For the nine month period ended April 30, 2011 and 2012, we generated $22.0 million and $58.5 million, respectively, of cash flow provided by operating activities, and we have generated positive cash flow provided by operating activities for each of our last eight fiscal quarters.

 

Our Industry

 

Fundamental Shifts in the Application Landscape, User Behavior, and IT Infrastructure Have Led to Increased Network Vulnerability

 

Organizations are transforming the way they do business as a result of IT innovation. New technology trends, such as the adoption of web-based applications, including Software-as-a-Service (SaaS), the consumerization of IT, the proliferation of mobile devices, virtualization, and cloud computing, are changing the way employees consume and organizations manage IT. By embracing these new technology trends, organizations have become more susceptible to security breaches and compromised data.

 

Legacy approaches to network security have significantly limited the ability of organizations to adopt many of the new applications that leverage new technology trends. Organizations can have thousands of enterprise and consumer applications running on their networks that can be either safe or unsafe depending on the user and usage. In today’s complex application landscape, organizations need the ability to selectively enable certain applications for certain users, while protecting against a wide array of security threats.

 

The Legacy Network Security Model Prevents Organizations from Safely Enabling Modern Web Applications

 

Despite the rapidly changing application and threat landscape, the firewall, the mainstay of network security that serves as the barrier between an organization’s trusted, internal network and the Internet, has remained largely unchanged for decades. These legacy firewalls examine the network port and protocol of the data packets through a classification approach known as stateful inspection, which was designed to decide whether or not to let traffic associated with the inspected packets pass into the network. This approach worked well for basic email and web browsing applications, which behaved in a predictable fashion and adhered to standard network ports and protocols. However, a growing number of applications, such as Web 2.0, social media, and SaaS, are allowing users to collaborate and share information on the Internet in ways that previously were not possible. These applications are becoming increasingly and often deliberately more complex and unpredictable and are therefore challenging to the legacy firewall.

 

 

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Because the relationship between applications and network ports and protocols is becoming less standardized and less predictable, legacy stateful inspection firewall technology can no longer provide the level of security, control, and intelligence required by organizations to safely enable and control today’s applications. In an attempt to compensate for the limitations of the stateful inspection firewall, three approaches have evolved, including stateful inspection “helpers” (such as web filters and intrusion detection and prevention systems), UTM appliances, and application control blades that supplement legacy firewalls. However, these approaches still fundamentally rely on stateful inspection technology at their core and are unable to truly identify and safely enable applications. As a result, by using legacy approaches, organizations have to either unsafely allow or completely block many of today’s applications, such as Web 2.0, social media, SaaS, and other productivity enhancing applications.

 

Organizations Need a Fundamentally New Approach to Network Security

 

We believe organizations require a next-generation network security platform that can safely enable applications for certain users while protecting against a wide array of security threats. Such a platform must incorporate the following key elements:

 

   

improved application visibility and control;

 

   

protection against threats, vulnerabilities, data leakage, abusive use, and targeted malware;

 

   

high performance and low latency;

 

   

simplified security infrastructure and lower total cost of ownership; and

 

   

deployment flexibility for any point in the network.

 

Our Solution

 

Our platform offers a fundamentally new approach to network security and allows organizations to secure their networks and safely enable the increasingly complex and rapidly growing number of applications running on their networks. The core of our platform is our Next-Generation Firewall, which delivers application, user, and content visibility and control integrated within the firewall through our proprietary hardware and software architecture.

 

The key benefits of our next-generation network security platform include its ability to:

 

   

Identify, Control, and Safely Enable Applications. Our platform provides visibility and control over applications, users, and content, regardless of network port, protocol, evasive tactics, or encryption. This allows our end-customers to safely enable almost any application.

 

   

Inspect All Content for All Threats in Real Time. Our platform allows end-customers to limit traffic to approved applications and scan it in real time and in context for threats, including exploits, viruses, spyware, confidential data leaks, and other targeted malware.

 

   

Deliver High Throughput and Performance. Our platform examines all network traffic only once, using hardware with dedicated processing resources for security, networking, content scanning, and management to provide real-time performance at the full speed of the network with very low latency.

 

   

Simplify Network Security Infrastructure and Reduce Total Cost of Ownership. Our platform provides our end-customers a broad range of network security functionality delivered through a single platform, allowing them to simplify their network security infrastructure and achieve a substantially lower total cost of ownership, eliminating the need for multiple, stand-alone security appliances.

 

   

Enable Diverse Deployment Scenarios. Our platform can be broadly deployed in the enterprise network environment, including in the data center, at the network perimeter, through the distributed enterprise, and in the evolving environments of cloud computing, virtualization, and mobility.

 

 

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Our Strategy

 

Our goal is to be the global leader of network security solutions for enterprises, service providers, and government entities. The key elements of our growth strategy are:

 

   

Extend Our Network Security Technology Leadership through Continued Innovation. We intend to extend our technology leadership in network security by continuing to innovate and invest in research and development to enhance our products and services.

 

   

Promote Our Disruptive Platform to Grow Our End-Customer Base. We intend to grow our base of end-customers by promoting our disruptive platform, increasing our investment in direct sales and marketing, leveraging our network of motivated channel partners, and furthering our international expansion.

 

   

Increase Sales to Existing End-Customers. We intend to expand deployment of our platform within existing end-customers by expanding our product footprint to other areas of our end-customers’ networks and by selling additional subscription services to provide increasing levels of network security.

 

   

Focus on Customer Satisfaction. We intend to continue to prioritize end-customer satisfaction. This typically results in new sales opportunities as well as receiving valuable feedback from our end-customers on the direction of our customer support and development roadmap.

 

Competitive Strengths

 

We believe we have a number of competitive advantages that will enable us to maintain and expand our leadership position in next-generation network security. Our competitive strengths include:

 

   

Next-Generation Network Security Platform Built from the Ground Up. Our approach to network security focuses on integrating application visibility and control within the firewall. We integrate our application, user, and content classifications in our single-pass software with purpose-built hardware to deliver a comprehensive security platform while also maximizing performance.

 

   

Industry Leading Application and Threat Expertise. Our internal application and threat research capabilities position us as an IT security thought leader and differentiate us from other network security companies that cannot identify applications and simply repackage threat technologies from one or more security vendors.

 

   

Experienced Technology Team. We have assembled a team of leading technology experts from well-established network and security companies who are focused on developing our proprietary technologies.

 

   

Large and Growing End-Customer Base. We focus on serving enterprises, service providers, and government entities, and we have seen significant momentum in the adoption of our platform as our end-customer base has increased from approximately 1,800 as of July 31, 2010 to more than 7,750 as of April 30, 2012.

 

   

Clear Leadership Position. We were the first company to define and lead the industry’s transition from the legacy stateful inspection approach to the next-generation firewall paradigm, and we believe that our position as a technology and market leader contributes to our ability to maintain and grow our leadership position in the network security market.

 

 

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Our Go-to-Market Strategy

 

In addition to redesigning the fundamental architecture of the firewall, we have also redesigned the traditional go-to-market approach in the network security industry. Key elements of our go-to-market strategy include:

 

   

Targeting New End-Customers through Multiple Initial Insertion Points. We can target initial sales opportunities as either a firewall replacement or as a replacement of any of the firewall helper technologies. As our end-customers realize the benefits of our platform, we believe that we can accelerate refresh cycles for the existing firewall and its helpers and can replace the core firewall over time.

 

   

Promoting Our Platform’s Capabilities to Upsell to Existing End-Customers. Our architecture enables our end-customers to easily activate additional subscription services without requiring additional hardware, software, or processing resources. This seamless upsell capability offers us significant recurring revenue opportunities from subscription services over time.

 

   

Leveraging Our Highly Incentivized Channel Model. We incentivize our accredited channel partners on both the initial products and services sale, as well as on subsequent product and subscription sales, by allowing them to purchase our products and services at a discount to our list prices and then reselling them to our end-customers. This motivates our channel partners to maintain high levels of end-customer satisfaction and to promote products and services upsell.

 

Risks Affecting Us

 

Our business is subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, including those highlighted in the section entitled “Risk Factors” immediately following this prospectus summary. These risks include, but are not limited to, the following:

 

   

our limited operating history makes it difficult to evaluate our current business and future prospects;

 

   

our business and operations have experienced rapid growth in recent periods, and if we do not effectively manage any future growth or are unable to improve our systems and processes, our operating results will be adversely affected;

 

   

our operating results are likely to vary significantly from period to period and be unpredictable;

 

   

we are involved in the early stages of litigation in which Juniper Networks, Inc. alleges that our appliances infringe six of its patents; this litigation may be costly and time-consuming to defend and, if we are unable to prevail, it could result in a material adverse effect on our business;

 

   

our revenue growth rate in recent periods may not be indicative of our future performance;

 

   

we have a history of losses, anticipate increasing our operating expenses in the future, and may not be able to achieve or maintain profitability on a consistent basis;

 

   

if we are unable to sell additional products and services to our end-customers, our future revenue and operating results will be harmed;

 

   

we face intense competition in our market, especially from larger, well-established companies, and we may lack sufficient financial or other resources to maintain or improve our competitive position;

 

   

if functionality similar to that offered by our products is incorporated into existing infrastructure products, organizations may decide against adding our appliances to their network;

 

   

if we are unable to hire, retain, train, and motivate qualified personnel and senior management, our business could suffer; and

 

 

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our directors, executive officers, and each of our stockholders who own greater than 5% of our outstanding common stock and their affiliates, in the aggregate, will beneficially own approximately 61% of the outstanding shares of our common stock after this offering, which could limit your ability to influence the outcome of key transactions, including a change of control.

 

Corporate Information

 

Our principal executive offices are located at 3300 Olcott Street, Santa Clara, California 95054, and our telephone number is (408) 753-4000. Our website is www.paloaltonetworks.com. Information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus, and you should not consider information on our website to be part of this prospectus. We were incorporated in 2005 as Palo Alto Networks, Inc., a Delaware corporation.

 

The Palo Alto Networks design logo and the marks “Palo Alto Networks,” “PAN-OS,” “App-ID,” “User-ID,” “Content-ID,” “GlobalProtect,” and “WildFire” are the property of Palo Alto Networks, Inc. This prospectus contains additional trade names, trademarks, and service marks of other companies. We do not intend our use or display of other companies’ trade names, trademarks, or service marks to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, these other companies.

 

 

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THE OFFERING

 

Common stock offered by us

   4,687,259 shares

Common stock offered by the selling stockholders

   1,512,741 shares

Total common stock offered

   6,200,000 shares

Over-allotment option being offered by us

   930,000 shares

Common stock to be outstanding after this offering

   66,601,444 shares (67,531,444 shares, if the underwriters exercise their over-allotment option in full)

Use of proceeds

  

The principal purposes of this offering are to increase our capitalization and financial flexibility, create a public market for our stock and thereby enable access to the public equity markets by our employees and stockholders, obtain additional capital, facilitate an orderly distribution of shares for the selling stockholders, and increase our visibility in the marketplace.

 

We intend to use the net proceeds we receive from this offering for general corporate purposes, including working capital, sales and marketing activities, product development, general and administrative matters, and capital expenditures. We also may use a portion of the net proceeds to acquire complementary businesses, products, services, or technologies. However, we do not have agreements or commitments for any specific acquisitions at this time. We will not receive any of the proceeds from the sale of shares to be offered by the selling stockholders. See “Use of Proceeds.”

Proposed NYSE symbol

   “PANW”

 

The number of shares of our common stock to be outstanding after this offering is based on 61,914,185 shares of our common stock outstanding as of April 30, 2012, and excludes:

 

   

12,900,814 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of options outstanding as of April 30, 2012, with a weighted-average exercise price of $7.16 per share;

 

   

1,559,000 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of options granted after April 30, 2012, with a weighted-average exercise price of $20.19 per share;

 

   

30,000 shares of common stock to be issued to a charitable foundation prior to the completion of this offering; and

 

   

13,185,001 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our stock-based compensation plans, consisting of 2,185,001 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2005 Equity Incentive Plan (including options to purchase 1,559,000 shares of common stock granted after April 30, 2012), which shares will be added to the shares to be reserved under our 2012 Equity Incentive Plan, which will become effective in connection with this offering, 10,000,000 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2012 Equity Incentive Plan, 1,000,000 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2012 Employee Stock Purchase Plan, which will become effective

 

 

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in connection with this offering, and shares that become available under our 2012 Equity Incentive Plan and 2012 Employee Stock Purchase Plan, pursuant to provisions thereof that automatically increase the share reserves under the plans each year, as more fully described in “Executive Compensation—Employee Benefit and Stock Plans.”

 

Except as otherwise indicated, all information in this prospectus assumes:

 

   

the automatic conversion of all shares of our convertible preferred stock outstanding as of April 30, 2012 into an aggregate of 41,304,600 shares of common stock immediately prior to the completion of this offering;

 

   

the effectiveness of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation in connection with the completion of this offering;

 

   

no exercise of outstanding options; and

 

   

no exercise of the underwriters’ over-allotment option.

 

 

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SUMMARY CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL DATA

 

The summary consolidated statements of operations data presented below for fiscal 2009, 2010, and 2011 are derived from audited consolidated financial statements that are included in this prospectus. The summary consolidated statements of operations data for the nine month periods ended April 30, 2011 and 2012 and the consolidated balance sheet data as of April 30, 2012 are derived from unaudited consolidated financial statements that are included in this prospectus. The unaudited consolidated financial statements were prepared on a basis consistent with our audited financial statements and include all adjustments, consisting of normal and recurring adjustments that we consider necessary for a fair presentation of the financial position and results of operations as of and for such periods. Operating results for the nine month period ended April 30, 2012 are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for fiscal 2012. The following summary consolidated financial data should be read with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus.

 

    Year Ended July 31,     Nine Months
Ended April  30,
 
    2009     2010     2011     2011     2012  
    (in thousands, except per share data)  

Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:

         

Revenue:

         

Product

  $ 10,110      $ 36,789      $ 84,800      $ 55,716      $ 125,023   

Services

    3,242        11,993        33,797        22,655        54,473   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total revenue

    13,352        48,782        118,597        78,371        179,496   

Cost of revenue:

         

Product(1)

    3,952        10,822        21,766        14,003        32,082   

Services(1)

    2,324        4,812        10,507        6,917        16,904   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total cost of revenue

    6,276        15,634        32,273        20,920        48,986   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total gross profit

    7,076        33,148        86,324        57,451        130,510   

Operating expenses:

         

Research and development(1)

    8,208        12,788        21,366        14,437        26,824   

Sales and marketing(1)

    15,372        29,726        62,254        38,747        78,196   

General and administrative(1)

    2,536        11,291        13,108        9,290        17,355   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total operating expenses

    26,116        53,805        96,728        62,474        122,375   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating income (loss)

    (19,040     (20,657     (10,404     (5,023     8,135   

Interest income

    52        4        3        3        7   

Other expense, net

    (5     (424     (1,651     (1,195     (1,033
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Income (loss) before income taxes

    (18,993     (21,077     (12,052     (6,215     7,109   

Provision for income taxes

    12        56        476        333        1,773   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net income (loss)

  $ (19,005   $ (21,133   $ (12,528   $ (6,548   $ 5,336   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

  (1)   Includes share-based compensation expense as follows:
     Year Ended July 31,      Nine Months
Ended April 30,
 
     2009      2010      2011      2011      2012  
     (in thousands)  

Cost of product revenue

   $ 6       $ 9       $ 27       $ 16       $ 68   

Cost of services revenue

     9         46         179         108         365   

Research and development

     126         318         1,020         703         2,217   

Sales and marketing

     186         364         1,133         739         2,049   

General and administrative

     47         132         2,374         2,244         2,674   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total share-based compensation

   $ 374       $ 869       $ 4,733       $ 3,810       $ 7,373   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

 

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    Year Ended July 31,     Nine Months
Ended
April 30,
 
    2009     2010     2011     2011     2012  
    (in thousands, except per share data)  

Net income (loss) attributable to common stockholders:

         

Basic

  $ (19,005   $ (21,133   $ (12,528   $ (6,548   $ 40   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Diluted

  $ (19,005   $ (21,133   $ (12,528   $ (6,548   $ 49   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net income (loss) per share attributable to common stockholders:

         

Basic

  $ (2.01   $ (1.78   $ (0.88   $ (0.48   $ 0.00   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Diluted

  $ (2.01   $ (1.78   $ (0.88   $ (0.48   $ 0.00   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Weighted-average shares used to compute net income (loss) per share attributable to common stockholders:

         

Basic

    9,435        11,901        14,201        13,559        17,238   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Diluted

    9,435        11,901        14,201        13,559        23,020   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Pro forma net income (loss) per share attributable to common stockholders:

         

Basic

      $ (0.20     $ 0.10   
     

 

 

     

 

 

 

Diluted

      $ (0.20     $ 0.09   
     

 

 

     

 

 

 

Pro forma weighted-average shares used to compute net income (loss) per share attributable to common stockholders:

         

Basic

        55,285          58,421   
     

 

 

     

 

 

 

Diluted

        55,285          64,328   
     

 

 

     

 

 

 

 

 

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Our consolidated balance sheet as of April 30, 2012 is presented on:

 

   

an actual basis;

 

   

a pro forma basis, giving effect to the automatic conversion of all outstanding shares of our convertible preferred stock into 41,304,600 shares of common stock and the effectiveness of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation as of immediately prior to the completion of this offering, as if such conversion had occurred and our amended and restated certificate of incorporation had become effective on April 30, 2012; and

 

   

a pro forma as adjusted basis, giving effect to the pro forma adjustments and the sale of shares of common stock by us in this offering, based on an assumed initial public offering price of $39.00 per share, the midpoint of the range reflected on the cover page of this prospectus, after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

 

The pro forma as adjusted information set forth in the table below is illustrative only and will be adjusted based on the actual initial public offering price and other terms of this offering determined at pricing.

 

     April 30, 2012  
     Actual     Pro Forma      Pro Forma  As
Adjusted(1)
 
     (in thousands)  

Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:

       

Cash and cash equivalents

   $ 90,283      $ 90,283       $ 257,093   

Working capital

     36,047        36,047         202,857   

Total assets

     166,489        166,489         332,244   

Current and long-term deferred revenue

     116,652        116,652         116,652   

Current and long-term notes payable

                      

Total liabilities

     155,586        155,586         155,234   

Total stockholders’ equity (deficit)

     (56,614     10,903         177,010   

 

  (1)   Each $1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed initial public offering price of $39.00 per share, the midpoint of the price range reflected on the cover page of this prospectus, would increase (decrease) our cash and cash equivalents, working capital, total assets, and total stockholders’ equity (deficit) by approximately $4.4 million, assuming that the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same and after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

 

 

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     Year Ended July 31,     Nine Months Ended
April 30,
 
     2009     2010     2011     2011     2012  
     (dollars in thousands)  

Key Financial Metrics:

  

Total revenue

   $ 13,352      $ 48,782      $ 118,597      $ 78,371      $ 179,496   

Year-over-year percentage increase

     327.7     265.4     143.1     153.0     129.0

Gross margin percentage

     53.0     68.0     72.8     73.3     72.7

Operating income (loss)

   $ (19,040   $ (20,657   $ (10,404   $ (5,023   $ 8,135   

Operating margin percentage

     (142.6 )%      (42.3 )%      (8.8 )%      (6.4 )%      4.5

Total deferred revenue at period end(1)

   $ 5,593      $ 24,121      $ 67,255      $ 47,125      $ 116,652   

Cash flow provided by (used in) operating activities(2)

   $ (13,523   $ (2,683   $ 32,102      $ 21,961      $ 58,478   

Free cash flow (non-GAAP)(3)

   $ (14,568   $ (4,368   $ 19,102      $ 11,059      $ 47,197   

 

  (1)   Our deferred revenue consists of amounts that have been invoiced but that have not yet been recognized as revenue as of the period end. The majority of our deferred revenue balance consists of subscription and support and maintenance revenue that is recognized ratably over the contractual service period. We monitor our deferred revenue balance because it represents a significant portion of revenue to be recognized in future periods.
  (2)   We monitor cash flow provided by (used in) operating activities as a measure of our overall business performance. Our cash flow provided by (used in) operating activities is driven in large part by sales of our products and from up-front payments for both new and renewal contracts for subscription and support and maintenance. Monitoring cash flow provided by (used in) operating activities enables us to analyze our financial performance without the non-cash effects of certain items such as depreciation, amortization, and share-based compensation costs, thereby allowing us to better understand and manage the cash needs of our business.
  (3)   We define free cash flow as cash provided by (used in) operating activities less purchase of property, equipment, and other assets. We consider free cash flow to be a liquidity measure that provides useful information to management and investors about the amount of cash generated by the business that, after the purchase of property, equipment, and other assets, can be used for strategic opportunities, including investing in our business, making strategic acquisitions, and strengthening the balance sheet. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Key Financial Metrics” for more information and a reconciliation of free cash flow to cash flow provided by (used in) operating activities, the most directly comparable financial measure calculated and presented in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, or GAAP.

 

 

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RISK FACTORS

 

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below, together with all of the other information in this prospectus, including our consolidated financial statements and related notes, before investing in our common stock. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones we face. If any of the following risks occur, our business, financial condition, operating results, and prospects could be materially harmed. In that event, the price of our common stock could decline, and you could lose part or all of your investment.

 

Risks Related to Our Business and Our Industry

 

Our limited operating history makes it difficult to evaluate our current business and future prospects, and may increase the risk of your investment.

 

We were founded in 2005 and shipped our first products in 2007. The majority of our revenue growth has occurred since 2009. In addition, our management team has only been working together for a relatively short period of time. Our limited operating history makes it difficult to evaluate our current business and our future prospects, including our ability to plan for and model future growth. We have encountered and will continue to encounter risks and difficulties frequently experienced by rapidly growing companies in constantly evolving industries, including the risks described in this prospectus. If we do not address these risks successfully, our business and operating results will be adversely affected, and our stock price could decline. Further, we have limited historic financial data, and we operate in a rapidly evolving market. As such, any predictions about our future revenue and expenses may not be as accurate as they would be if we had a longer operating history or operated in a more predictable market.

 

Our business and operations have experienced rapid growth in recent periods, and if we do not effectively manage any future growth or are unable to improve our systems and processes, our operating results will be adversely affected.

 

We have experienced rapid growth and increased demand for our products over the last few years. Our employee headcount and number of end-customers have increased significantly, and we expect to continue to grow our headcount significantly over the next 12 months. For example, from the end of fiscal 2010 to the end of fiscal 2011, our headcount increased from more than 200 to more than 400 employees, and our number of end-customers increased from approximately 1,800 to approximately 4,700 over the same period. The growth and expansion of our business and product and service offerings places a continuous significant strain on our management, operational, and financial resources. As we have grown, we have increasingly managed more complex deployments of our products and services with larger end-customers. To manage any future growth effectively, we must continue to improve and expand our information technology and financial infrastructure, our operating and administrative systems, and our ability to manage headcount, capital, and processes in an efficient manner.

 

We may not be able to successfully implement improvements to our systems and processes in an efficient or timely manner, and we may discover deficiencies in our existing systems and processes. We have licensed technology from third parties, which we are in the process of implementing, to help us accomplish this objective. We also intend to launch a new enterprise resource planning system in the first six months of fiscal 2013. We may experience difficulties in managing improvements to our systems and processes or in connection with third-party software, which could disrupt existing customer relationships, causing us to lose customers, limit us to smaller deployments of our products or increase our technical support costs. Our failure to improve our systems and processes, or their failure to operate in the intended manner, may result in our inability to manage the growth of our business and to accurately forecast our revenue, expenses, and earnings, or to prevent certain losses. In addition, our systems and processes may not prevent or detect all errors, omissions, or fraud. Our productivity and the quality of our products and services may be adversely affected if we do not integrate and train our new

 

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employees quickly and effectively. Any future growth would add complexity to our organization and require effective coordination throughout our organization. For example, we anticipate that additional growth in our employee headcount in Santa Clara, California may require us to seek additional office space for our corporate headquarters. As a result, we expect to incur additional expense and any expansion may also disrupt our operations and distract our management team. Failure to manage any future growth effectively could result in increased costs, negatively impact our end-customers’ satisfaction with our products and services, and harm our operating results.

 

Our operating results are likely to vary significantly from period to period and be unpredictable, which could cause the trading price of our common stock to decline.

 

Our operating results have historically varied from period to period, and we expect that this trend will continue as a result of a number of factors, many of which are outside of our control and may be difficult to predict, including:

 

   

our ability to attract and retain new end-customers;

 

   

the budgeting cycles and purchasing practices of end-customers;

 

   

changes in end-customer, distributor or reseller requirements, or market needs;

 

   

changes in the growth rate of the enterprise network security market;

 

   

the timing and success of new product and service introductions by us or our competitors or any other change in the competitive landscape of our industry, including consolidation among our competitors or end-customers;

 

   

deferral of orders from end-customers in anticipation of new products or product enhancements announced by us or our competitors;

 

   

our ability to successfully expand our business domestically and internationally;

 

   

decisions by potential end-customers to purchase enterprise network security solutions from larger, more established security vendors or from their primary network equipment vendors;

 

   

price competition;

 

   

changes in end-customer renewal rates for our services;

 

   

insolvency or credit difficulties confronting our customers, which could adversely affect their ability to purchase or pay for our products and services, or confronting our key suppliers, including our sole source suppliers, which could disrupt our supply chain;

 

   

any disruption in our channel or termination of our relationship with important channel partners;

 

   

our inability to fulfill our customers’ orders due to supply chain delays or events that impact our manufacturers or their suppliers;

 

   

the cost and potential outcomes of existing and future litigation, which could have a material adverse effect on our business;

 

   

seasonality or cyclical fluctuations in our markets;

 

   

future accounting pronouncements or changes in our accounting policies;

 

   

increases or decreases in our expenses caused by fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates, as an increasing portion of our expenses are incurred and paid in currencies other than the U.S. dollar; and

 

   

general economic conditions, both domestically and in our foreign markets.

 

Any one of the factors above or the cumulative effect of some of the factors referred to above may result in significant fluctuations in our financial and other operating results. This variability and unpredictability could

 

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result in our failure to meet our revenue or other operating result expectations or those of securities analysts or investors for a particular period. If we fail to meet or exceed such expectations for these or any other reasons, the market price of our common stock could fall substantially, and we could face costly lawsuits, including securities class action suits.

 

We are involved in the early stages of litigation in which Juniper alleges that our appliances infringe six of its patents. If Juniper prevails in the litigation, we could be required to pay substantial damages for past sales of any infringing appliances, enjoined from manufacturing, using, selling, and importing such appliances if a license or other right to continue selling our appliances is not made available to us, and required to pay substantial ongoing royalties and comply with unfavorable terms if such a license is made available to us.

 

In December 2011, Juniper Networks, Inc. filed a lawsuit against us in the United States District Court for the District of Delaware, alleging that our appliances infringe six of its U.S. patents. One or both of Nir Zuk and Yuming Mao are named inventors on each of the patents being asserted against us. Both Mr. Zuk and Mr. Mao were employed by NetScreen Technologies, Inc., which was acquired by Juniper in April 2004. Mr. Zuk left Juniper in 2005 and founded Palo Alto Networks in that same year. Mr. Mao joined Palo Alto Networks in 2006. Juniper seeks preliminary and permanent injunctions against infringement, treble damages, and attorney’s fees. On February 9, 2012, we filed an answer to Juniper’s complaint, which denied that we infringed Juniper’s patents and asserted that Juniper’s patents were invalid.

 

On February 28, 2012, Juniper filed a motion to strike our defense of invalidity based on the legal doctrine of “assignor estoppel.” Under the doctrine of assignor estoppel, an inventor of a patented invention who assigns the patent to another for value cannot later challenge the validity of the patent. Under some circumstances, courts have held that the doctrine of assignor estoppel applies not only to the assigning inventor but also to a company in privity with the inventor. On March 23, 2012, we filed a brief in opposition to that motion. Juniper filed a brief in response on April 2, 2012. We filed a motion for leave to file an additional response on April 25, 2012, and Juniper filed a brief in opposition to that motion in response on May 4, 2012. If Juniper’s motion to strike is granted with respect to some or all of the patents at issue, we would not be able to argue in the District Court that the patents as to which the motion to strike is granted are invalid.

 

The judge has issued a scheduling order which sets forth the current expectation for important events in the lawsuit, although no assurances can be given that the schedule will not change. The scheduling order does not set a date for the court to rule on Juniper’s motion to strike. On June 18, 2012, Juniper served its infringement contentions, which, among other things, assert that each of our products that run our PAN-OS operating system infringes each of the Juniper patents-in-suit. According to an agreement between the parties, on July 18, 2012, we must provide our invalidity contentions. A claims construction hearing, also known as a Markman hearing, as well as motions for summary judgment, are scheduled to be heard on November 11, 2013, and a trial date has been scheduled for February 24, 2014. Pursuant to the court’s general standing order, the February 2014 trial will be limited to determining whether the patents are valid and whether we infringe some or all of those patents. Thereafter, the Court will rule on any post-trial motions and enter a judgment on validity and infringement. According to the Court’s general standing order, if Juniper were to prevail on one or more of its patents, a subsequent trial on damages would be scheduled following an appeal on the liability issues to the appellate court.

 

Should Juniper prevail on its claims that one or more of our appliances infringe one or more of its valid patents, we could be required to pay substantial damages for past sales of such appliances, enjoined from manufacturing, using, selling, and importing such appliances if a license or other right to continue selling our appliances is not made available to us, and required to pay substantial ongoing royalties and comply with unfavorable terms if such a license is made available to us. Any of these outcomes could result in a material adverse effect on our business. Even if we were to prevail, this litigation could be costly and time-consuming, divert the attention of our management and key personnel from our business operations, deter distributors from selling our appliances, and dissuade potential end-customers from purchasing our appliances, which would also materially harm our business. During the course of litigation, we anticipate announcements of the results of

 

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hearings and motions, and other interim developments related to the litigation. If securities analysts or investors regard these announcements as negative, the market price of our common stock may decline.

 

We intend to defend the lawsuit vigorously. Given the early stage in the litigation, we are unable to predict the likelihood of success of Juniper’s infringement claims. Refer to the discussion under “Business—Legal Proceedings” for more information related to this litigation.

 

Our revenue growth rate in recent periods may not be indicative of our future performance.

 

You should not consider our revenue growth rate in recent periods as indicative of our future performance. We have recently experienced revenue growth rates of 265% and 143% in fiscal 2010 and 2011, respectively. We do not expect to achieve similar revenue growth rates in future periods. You should not rely on our revenue for any prior quarterly or annual periods as any indication of our future revenue or revenue growth. If we are unable to maintain consistent revenue or revenue growth, our stock price could be volatile, and it may be difficult to achieve and maintain profitability.

 

We have a history of losses, anticipate increasing our operating expenses in the future, and may not be able to maintain or increase profitability or cash flow on a consistent basis. If we cannot maintain or increase our profitability or cash flow, our business, financial condition, and operating results may suffer.

 

We have incurred net losses in all fiscal years since our inception, including net losses of approximately $12.5 million in fiscal 2011, $21.1 million in fiscal 2010, and $19.0 million in fiscal 2009. As a result, we had an accumulated deficit of $80.8 million at July 31, 2011. We anticipate that our operating expenses will increase substantially in the foreseeable future as we continue to enhance our product and service offerings, broaden our end-customer base, expand our sales channels, expand our operations, hire additional employees, and continue to develop our technology. These efforts may prove more expensive than we currently anticipate, and we may not succeed in increasing our revenues sufficiently, or at all, to offset these higher expenses. Revenue growth may slow or revenue may decline for a number of possible reasons, including slowing demand for our products or services, increasing competition, a decrease in the growth of our overall market, or a failure to capitalize on growth opportunities. Any failure to increase our revenues as we grow our business could prevent us from maintaining or increasing profitability or cash flow on a consistent basis. If we are unable to meet these risks and challenges as we encounter them, our business, financial condition, and operating results may suffer.

 

If we are unable to sell additional products and services to our end-customers, our future revenue and operating results will be harmed.

 

Our future success depends on our ability to expand the deployment of our platform with existing end-customers by selling additional products to secure other areas of our end-customers’ network and by upselling additional subscription services to provide increasing levels of network security. This may require increasingly sophisticated and costly sales efforts and may not result in additional sales. In addition, the rate at which our end-customers purchase additional products and services depends on a number of factors, including the perceived need for additional network security products and services as well as general economic conditions. If our efforts to sell additional products and services to our end-customers are not successful, our business may suffer.

 

Further, existing end-customers that purchase our subscriptions have no contractual obligation to renew their contracts after the initial contract period, which is typically one year, and we cannot accurately predict renewal rates. Our end-customers’ renewal rates may decline or fluctuate as a result of a number of factors, including their satisfaction with our services and our end-customer support, the frequency and severity of subscription outages, our product uptime or latency, and the pricing of our, or competing, services. If our end-customers renew their subscriptions, they may renew for shorter contract lengths or on other terms that are less economically beneficial to us. We have limited historical data with respect to rates of end-customer renewals, so

 

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we may not accurately predict future renewal trends. We cannot assure you that our end-customers will renew their subscriptions, and if our end-customers do not renew their agreements or renew on less favorable terms, our revenues may grow more slowly than expected or decline.

 

We also depend on our installed end-customer base for future support and maintenance revenues. Our support and maintenance agreements are typically one year. If end-customers choose not to continue renewing their support and maintenance or seek to renegotiate the terms of support and maintenance agreements prior to renewing such agreements, our revenue may decline.

 

We face intense competition in our market, especially from larger, well-established companies, and we may lack sufficient financial or other resources to maintain or improve our competitive position.

 

The market for network security products is intensely competitive, and we expect competition to increase in the future from established competitors and new market entrants. Our current competitors include networking companies such as Cisco Systems, Inc. and Juniper, large companies, such as Intel Corporation, International Business Machines (IBM), and Hewlett-Packard Company (HP) that have acquired large network security vendors in recent years, security vendors such as Check Point Software Technologies Ltd., Fortinet, Inc., and Sourcefire, Inc., and other point solution security vendors. New, privately held companies, as well as established public companies, are currently attempting to enter this market, some of which may become significant competitors in the future. Many of our existing competitors have, and some of our potential competitors could have, substantial competitive advantages such as:

 

   

greater name recognition and longer operating histories;

 

   

larger sales and marketing budgets and resources;

 

   

broader distribution and established relationships with distribution partners and end-customers;

 

   

greater customer support resources;

 

   

greater resources to make acquisitions;

 

   

lower labor and development costs;

 

   

larger and more mature intellectual property portfolios; and

 

   

substantially greater financial, technical, and other resources.

 

In addition, some of our larger competitors have substantially broader product offerings and leverage their relationships based on other products or incorporate functionality into existing products to gain business in a manner that discourages users from purchasing our products, including through selling at zero or negative margins, product bundling, or closed technology platforms. Potential end-customers may also prefer to purchase from their existing suppliers rather than a new supplier regardless of product performance or features. These larger competitors often have broader product lines and market focus and will therefore not be as susceptible to downturns in a particular market. Many of our smaller competitors that specialize in providing protection from a single type of network security threat are often able to deliver these specialized network security products to the market more quickly than we can. Conditions in our market could change rapidly and significantly as a result of technological advancements, partnering by our competitors or continuing market consolidation. New start-up companies that innovate and large competitors that are making significant investments in research and development may invent similar or superior products and technologies that compete with our products and technology. Our current and potential competitors may also establish cooperative relationships among themselves or with third parties that may further enhance their resources.

 

Some of our competitors have made acquisitions of businesses that may allow them to offer more directly competitive and comprehensive solutions than they had previously offered, such as Intel’s acquisition of McAfee and Check Point’s acquisition of Nokia’s security appliance business. As a result of such acquisitions, our current

 

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or potential competitors might be able to adapt more quickly to new technologies and end-customer needs, devote greater resources to the promotion or sale of their products and services, initiate or withstand substantial price competition, take advantage of acquisition or other opportunities more readily, or develop and expand their product and service offerings more quickly than we do. Due to various reasons, organizations may be more willing to incrementally add solutions to their existing network security infrastructure from competitors than to replace it with our solutions. These competitive pressures in our market or our failure to compete effectively may result in price reductions, fewer orders, reduced revenue and gross margins, and loss of market share. Any failure to meet and address these factors could seriously harm our business and operating results.

 

If functionality similar to that offered by our products is incorporated into existing network infrastructure products, organizations may decide against adding our appliances to their network, which would have an adverse effect on our business.

 

Large, well-established providers of networking equipment such as Cisco and Juniper offer, and may continue to introduce, network security features that compete with our products, either in stand-alone security products or as additional features in their network infrastructure products. The inclusion of, or the announcement of an intent to include, functionality perceived to be similar to that offered by our security solutions in networking products that are already generally accepted as necessary components of network architecture may have an adverse effect on our ability to market and sell our products. Furthermore, even if the functionality offered by network infrastructure providers is more limited than our products, a significant number of end-customers may elect to accept such limited functionality in lieu of adding appliances from an additional vendor such as us. Many organizations have invested substantial personnel and financial resources to design and operate their networks and have established deep relationships with other providers of networking products, which may make them reluctant to add new components to their networks, particularly from other vendors such as us. In addition, an organization’s existing vendors or new vendors with a broad product offering may be able to offer concessions that we are not able to match because we currently offer only network security products and have fewer resources than many of our competitors. If organizations are reluctant to add additional network infrastructure from new vendors or otherwise decide to work with their existing vendors, our ability to increase our market share and improve our financial condition and operating results will be adversely affected.

 

If we are unable to hire, retain, train, and motivate qualified personnel and senior management, our business could suffer.

 

Our future success depends, in part, on our ability to continue to attract and retain highly skilled personnel. The loss of the services of any of our key personnel, the inability to attract or retain qualified personnel, or delays in hiring required personnel, particularly in engineering and sales, may seriously harm our business, financial condition, and operating results. Although we have entered into employment offer letters with our key personnel, these agreements have no specific duration and constitute at-will employment. We are also substantially dependent on the continued service of our existing development personnel because of the complexity of our platform. Additionally, any failure to hire, train, and adequately incentivize our sales personnel could negatively impact our growth. Further, the inability of our recently hired sales personnel to effectively ramp to target productivity levels could negatively impact our operating margins. In addition, we recently hired a new Senior Vice President, Worldwide Field Operations, and it will take time for this executive officer to become fully integrated into his new role. If we are not effective in managing the leadership transition in our sales organization, our business could be adversely impacted and our operating results and financial condition could be harmed.

 

Competition for highly skilled personnel is often intense, especially in the San Francisco Bay Area where we have a substantial presence and need for highly skilled personnel. We may not be successful in attracting, integrating, or retaining qualified personnel to fulfill our current or future needs. Also, to the extent we hire personnel from competitors, we may be subject to allegations that they have been improperly solicited, or that they have divulged proprietary or other confidential information, or that their former employers own their inventions or other work product.

 

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Our future performance also depends on the continued services and continuing contributions of our senior management to execute on our business plan and to identify and pursue new opportunities and product innovations. The loss of services of senior management could significantly delay or prevent the achievement of our development and strategic objectives, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and operating results.

 

Our employees do not have employment arrangements that require them to continue to work for us for any specified period, and therefore, they could terminate their employment with us at any time. We do not maintain key person life insurance policies on any of our employees. The loss of one or more of our key employees or groups could seriously harm our business.

 

We rely on third-party channel partners to sell substantially all of our products, and if our partners fail to perform, our ability to sell and distribute our products and services will be limited, and our operating results will be harmed.

 

Substantially all of our revenue is generated through sales by our channel partners, including distributors and resellers. We provide our sales channel partners with specific training and programs to assist them in selling our products, but there can be no assurance that these steps will be effective. In addition, our channel partners may be unsuccessful in marketing, selling, and supporting our products and services. If we are unable to develop and maintain effective sales incentive programs for our third-party channel partners, we may not be able to incentivize these partners to sell our products to end-customers and, in particular, to large enterprises. These partners may also market, sell, and support products and services that are competitive with ours and may devote more resources to the marketing, sales, and support of such competitive products. These partners may have incentives to promote our competitors’ products to the detriment of our own or may cease selling our products altogether. Our agreements with our channel partners may generally be terminated for any reason by either party with advance notice prior to each annual renewal date. We cannot assure you that we will retain these channel partners or that we will be able to secure additional or replacement channel partners. The loss of one or more of our significant channel partners or a decline in the number or size of orders from them could harm our operating results. In addition, any new sales channel partner requires extensive training and may take several months or more to achieve productivity. Our channel partner sales structure could subject us to lawsuits, potential liability, and reputational harm if, for example, any of our channel partners misrepresent the functionality of our products or services to end-customers or violate laws or our corporate policies. If we fail to effectively manage our existing sales channels, or if our channel partners are unsuccessful in fulfilling the orders for our products, or if we are unable to enter into arrangements with, and retain a sufficient number of, high quality channel partners in each of the regions in which we sell products and keep them motivated to sell our products, our ability to sell our products and operating results will be harmed. The termination of our relationship with any significant channel partner may also adversely impact our sales and operating results.

 

If we are not successful in executing our strategy to increase sales of our products to new and existing medium and large enterprise end-customers, our operating results may suffer.

 

Our growth strategy is dependent, in part, upon increasing sales of our products to medium and large enterprises. Sales to these types of end-customers involve risks that may not be present (or that are present to a lesser extent) with sales to smaller entities. These risks include:

 

   

competition from larger competitors, such as Cisco, Check Point, and Juniper, that traditionally target larger enterprises, service providers, and government entities and that may have pre-existing relationships or purchase commitments from those end-customers;

 

   

increased purchasing power and leverage held by large end-customers in negotiating contractual arrangements with us;

 

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more stringent requirements in our worldwide support service contracts, including stricter support response times and penalties for any failure to meet support requirements; and

 

   

longer sales cycles and the associated risk that substantial time and resources may be spent on a potential end-customer that elects not to purchase our products and services.

 

Large enterprises often undertake a significant evaluation process that results in a lengthy sales cycle, in some cases over 12 months. Although we have a channel sales model, our sales representatives typically engage in direct interaction with our distributors and resellers in connection with sales to larger end-customers. Because these evaluations are often lengthy, with significant size and scope and stringent requirements, we typically provide evaluation products to these end-customers. We may spend substantial time, effort, and money in our sales efforts without being successful in generating any sales. In addition, product purchases by large enterprises are frequently subject to budget constraints, multiple approvals, and unplanned administrative, processing, and other delays. Finally, large enterprises typically have longer implementation cycles, require greater product functionality and scalability and a broader range of services, demand that vendors take on a larger share of risks, sometimes require acceptance provisions that can lead to a delay in revenue recognition, and expect greater payment flexibility from vendors. All of these factors can add further risk to business conducted with these end-customers. If we fail to realize an expected sale from a large end-customer in a particular quarter or at all, our business, operating results, and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected.

 

Our corporate culture has contributed to our success, and if we cannot maintain this culture as we grow, we could lose the innovation, creativity, and teamwork fostered by our culture, and our business may be harmed.

 

We believe that a critical contributor to our success has been our corporate culture, which we believe fosters innovation, teamwork, passion for customers, and focus on execution, as well as facilitating critical knowledge transfer and knowledge sharing. As we grow and change, we may find it difficult to maintain these important aspects of our corporate culture, which could limit our ability to innovate and operate effectively. Any failure to preserve our culture could also negatively affect our ability to retain and recruit personnel, continue to perform at current levels or execute on our business strategy.

 

Reliance on shipments at the end of the quarter could cause our revenue for the applicable period to fall below expected levels.

 

As a result of end-customer buying patterns and the efforts of our sales force and channel partners to meet or exceed their sales objectives, we have historically received a substantial portion of sales orders and generated a substantial portion of revenue during the last few weeks of each fiscal quarter. In addition, a significant interruption in our information technology systems, which manage critical functions such as order processing, revenue recognition, financial forecasts, inventory and supply chain management, and trade compliance reviews, could result in delayed order fulfillment and decreased revenue for that fiscal quarter. If expected revenue at the end of any fiscal quarter is delayed for any reason, including the failure of anticipated purchase orders to materialize, our logistics partners’ inability to ship products prior to fiscal quarter-end to fulfill purchase orders received near the end of the fiscal quarter, our failure to manage inventory to meet demand, our inability to release new products on schedule, any failure of our systems related to order review and processing, or any delays in shipments based on trade compliance requirements, our revenue for that quarter could fall below our expectations, resulting in a decline in the trading price of our common stock.

 

We rely on revenue from subscription and support services which may decline, and because we recognize revenue from subscriptions and support services over the term of the relevant service period, downturns or upturns in sales are not immediately reflected in full in our operating results.

 

Services revenue accounts for a significant portion of our revenue, comprising 29% of total revenue in fiscal 2011, 25% of total revenue for fiscal 2010, and 24% of total revenue for fiscal 2009. Sales of new or renewal

 

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subscription and support and maintenance contracts may decline and fluctuate as a result of a number of factors, including end-customers’ level of satisfaction with our products and services, the prices of our products and services, the prices of products and services offered by our competitors, and reductions in our end-customers’ spending levels. If our sales of new or renewal subscription and support and maintenance contracts decline, our revenue and revenue growth may decline and our business will suffer. In addition, we recognize subscription and support and maintenance revenue monthly over the term of the relevant service period, which is typically one year and can be up to three years. As a result, much of the subscription and support and maintenance revenue we report each fiscal quarter is the recognition of deferred revenue from subscription and support and maintenance contracts entered into during previous fiscal quarters. Consequently, a decline in new or renewed subscription or support and maintenance contracts in any one fiscal quarter will not be fully reflected in revenue in that fiscal quarter but will negatively affect our revenue in future fiscal quarters. Accordingly, the effect of significant downturns in new or renewed sales of our subscriptions or support and maintenance is not reflected in full in our operating results until future periods. Also, it is difficult for us to rapidly increase our services revenue through additional service sales in any period, as revenue from new and renewal service contracts must be recognized over the applicable service period. Furthermore, any increase in the average term of services contracts would result in revenue for services contracts being recognized over longer periods of time.

 

If the network security market does not continue to adopt our network security platform, our sales will not grow as quickly as anticipated, and our stock price could decline.

 

We are seeking to disrupt the network security market with our network security platform. However, organizations that use legacy products and services for their network security needs may believe that these products and services sufficiently achieve their purpose. Organizations may also believe that our products and services only serve the needs of a portion of the network security market. Accordingly, organizations may continue allocating their IT budgets for legacy products and services and may not adopt our network security platform. If the market for network security solutions does not continue to adopt our network security platform, if end-customers do not recognize the value of our platform compared to legacy products and services, or if we are otherwise unable to sell our products and services to organizations, then our revenue may not grow or may decline, which would have a material adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition.

 

If we do not accurately predict, prepare for, and respond promptly to the rapidly evolving technological and market developments and changing end-customer needs in the network security market, our competitive position and prospects will be harmed.

 

The network security market is expected to continue to evolve rapidly. Moreover, many of our end-customers operate in markets characterized by rapidly changing technologies and business plans, which require them to add numerous network access points and adapt increasingly complex enterprise networks, incorporating a variety of hardware, software applications, operating systems, and networking protocols. The technology in our products is especially complex because it needs to effectively identify and respond to new and increasingly sophisticated methods of attack, while minimizing the impact on network performance. Additionally, some of our new products and enhancements may require us to develop new hardware architectures that involve complex, expensive, and time consuming research and development processes. Although the market expects rapid introduction of new products or product enhancements to respond to new threats, the development of these products is difficult and the timetable for commercial release and availability is uncertain as there can be long time periods between releases and availability of new products. We may experience unanticipated delays in the availability of new products and services and fail to meet customer expectations for such availability. If we do not quickly respond to the rapidly changing and rigorous needs of our end-customers by developing, releasing, and making available on a timely basis new products and services or enhancements that can respond adequately to new security threats, our competitive position and business prospects will be harmed.

 

Additionally, the process of developing new technology is complex and uncertain, and if we fail to accurately predict end-customers’ changing needs and emerging technological trends, our business could be

 

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harmed. We must commit significant resources to developing new products before knowing whether our investments will result in products the market will accept. The success of new products depends on several factors, including appropriate new product definition, component costs, timely completion and introduction of these products, differentiation of new products from those of our competitors, and market acceptance of these products. There can be no assurance that we will successfully identify new product opportunities, develop and bring new products to market in a timely manner, or achieve market acceptance of our products, or that products and technologies developed by others will not render our products or technologies obsolete or noncompetitive.

 

Defects, errors, or vulnerabilities in our products or services or the failure of our products or services to block a virus or prevent a security breach could harm our reputation and adversely impact our results of operations.

 

Because our products and services are complex, they have contained and may contain design or manufacturing defects or errors that are not detected until after their commercial release and deployment by our end-customers. For example, from time to time, certain of our end-customers have reported defects in our products related to performance, scalability and compatibility that were not detected before shipping the product. Additionally, defects may cause our products or services to be vulnerable to security attacks, cause them to fail to help secure networks or temporarily interrupt end-customers’ networking traffic. Because the techniques used by computer hackers to access or sabotage networks change frequently and generally are not recognized until launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques and provide a solution in time to protect our end-customers’ networks. Furthermore, as a well-known provider of network security solutions, our networks, products, and services could be targeted by attacks specifically designed to disrupt our business and harm our reputation. In addition, defects or errors in our subscription updates or our products could result in a failure of our services to effectively update end-customers’ hardware products and thereby leave our end-customers vulnerable to attacks. Our data centers and networks may experience technical failures and downtime, may fail to distribute appropriate updates, or may fail to meet the increased requirements of a growing end-customer base, any of which could temporarily or permanently expose our end-customers’ networks, leaving their networks unprotected against the latest security threats.

 

Any defects, errors or vulnerabilities in our products could result in:

 

   

expenditure of significant financial and product development resources in efforts to analyze, correct, eliminate, or work-around errors or defects or to address and eliminate vulnerabilities;

 

   

loss of existing or potential end-customers or channel partners;

 

   

delayed or lost revenue;

 

   

delay or failure to attain market acceptance;

 

   

an increase in warranty claims compared with our historical experience, or an increased cost of servicing warranty claims, either of which would adversely affect our gross margins; and

 

   

litigation, regulatory inquiries, or investigations that may be costly and harm our reputation.

 

Our business is subject to the risks of warranty claims, product returns, product liability and product defects.

 

Our products are very complex and, despite testing prior to their release, have contained and may contain undetected defects or errors, especially when first introduced or when new versions are released. Product defects or errors could affect the performance of our products and could delay the development or release of new products or new versions of products, adversely affect our reputation and our end-customers’ willingness to buy products from us, and adversely affect market acceptance or perception of our products. Any such errors or delays in releasing new products or new versions of products or allegations of unsatisfactory performance could cause us to lose revenue or market share, increase our service costs, cause us to incur substantial costs in redesigning the products, cause us to lose significant end-customers, subject us to liability for damages and divert

 

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our resources from other tasks, any one of which could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. Our products must successfully interoperate with products from other vendors. As a result, when problems occur in a network, it may be difficult to identify the sources of these problems. For example, from time to time certain of our end-customers have experienced temporary delays or interoperability issues when implementing our products in large complex global deployments where our products are required to interoperate with a complex environment of third party products. The occurrence of hardware or software errors, whether or not caused by our products, could delay or reduce market acceptance of our products, and have an adverse effect on our business and financial performance, and any necessary revisions may cause us to incur significant expenses. The occurrence of any such problems could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Although we have limitation of liability provisions in our standard terms and conditions of sale, they may not fully or effectively protect us from claims as a result of federal, state, or local laws or ordinances, or unfavorable judicial decisions in the United States or other countries. The sale and support of our products also entail the risk of product liability claims. Although we may be indemnified by our contract manufacturers for product liability claims arising out of manufacturing defects, because we control the design of our products, we may not be indemnified for product liability claims arising out of design defects. We maintain insurance to protect against certain claims associated with the use of our products, but our insurance coverage may not adequately cover any claim asserted against us. In addition, even claims that ultimately are unsuccessful could result in our expenditure of funds in litigation, divert management’s time and other resources, and harm our reputation.

 

Because we depend on third-party manufacturers to build our products, we are susceptible to manufacturing delays and pricing fluctuations that could prevent us from shipping customer orders on time, if at all, or on a cost-effective basis, which may result in the loss of sales and customers.

 

We depend on third-party manufacturers, primarily Flextronics International Ltd., our contract manufacturer, as sole source manufacturers for our product lines. Our reliance on these third-party manufacturers reduces our control over the manufacturing process and exposes us to risks, including reduced control over quality assurance, product costs, and product supply and timing. Any manufacturing disruption by these third-party manufacturers could severely impair our ability to fulfill orders. Our reliance on outsourced manufacturers also yields the potential for infringement or misappropriation of our intellectual property. If we are unable to manage our relationships with these third-party manufacturers effectively, or if these third-party manufacturers suffer delays or disruptions for any reason, experience increased manufacturing lead-times, capacity constraints or quality control problems in their manufacturing operations, or fail to meet our future requirements for timely delivery, our ability to ship products to our customers would be severely impaired, and our business and operating results would be seriously harmed.

 

These manufacturers typically fulfill our supply requirements on the basis of individual orders. We do not have long term contracts with our third-party manufacturers that guarantee capacity, the continuation of particular pricing terms, or the extension of credit limits. Accordingly, they are not obligated to continue to fulfill our supply requirements, which could result in supply shortages, and the prices we are charged for manufacturing services could be increased on short notice. Our contract with one of our contract manufacturers permits them to terminate the agreement for their convenience, subject to prior notice requirements. If we are required to change contract manufacturers, our ability to meet our scheduled product deliveries to our customers could be adversely affected, which could cause the loss of sales to existing or potential customers, delayed revenue or an increase in our costs which could adversely affect our gross margins. Any production interruptions for any reason, such as a natural disaster, epidemic, capacity shortages, or quality problems, at one of our manufacturing partners would negatively affect sales of our product lines manufactured by that manufacturing partner and adversely affect our business and operating results.

 

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Managing the supply of our products and product components is complex. Insufficient supply and inventory may result in lost sales opportunities or delayed revenue, while excess inventory may harm our gross margins.

 

Our third-party manufacturers procure components and build our products based on our forecasts, and we generally do not hold inventory for a prolonged period of time. These forecasts are based on estimates of future demand for our products, which are in turn based on historical trends and analyses from our sales and marketing organizations, adjusted for overall market conditions. In order to reduce manufacturing lead times and plan for adequate component supply, from time to time we may issue forecasts for components and products that are non-cancelable and non-returnable.

 

Our inventory management systems and related supply chain visibility tools may be inadequate to enable us to forecast accurately and effectively manage supply of our products and product components. Supply management remains an increased area of focus as we balance the need to maintain supply levels that are sufficient to ensure competitive lead times against the risk of obsolescence because of rapidly changing technology and end-customer requirements. If we ultimately determine that we have excess supply, we may have to reduce our prices and write-down inventory, which in turn could result in lower gross margins. Alternatively, insufficient supply levels may lead to shortages that result in delayed revenue or loss of sales opportunities altogether as potential end-customers turn to competitors’ products that are readily available. Additionally, any increases in the time required to manufacture our products or ship products could result in supply shortfalls. If we are unable to effectively manage our supply and inventory, our operating results could be adversely affected.

 

Because some of the key components in our products come from limited sources of supply, we are susceptible to supply shortages or supply changes, which could disrupt or delay our scheduled product deliveries to our customers and may result in the loss of sales and customers.

 

Our products rely on key components, including integrated circuit components, which our contract manufacturers purchase on our behalf from a limited number of suppliers, including sole source providers. We do not have volume purchase contracts with any of our component suppliers, and they could cease selling to us at any time. In addition, our component suppliers change their selling prices frequently in response to market trends, including industry-wide increases in demand, and because we do not have contracts with these suppliers, we are susceptible to price fluctuations related to raw materials and components. If we are unable to pass component price increases along to our customers or maintain stable pricing, our gross margins and operating results could be negatively impacted. If we are unable to obtain a sufficient quantity of these components in a timely manner for any reason, sales of our products could be delayed or halted or we could be forced to expedite shipment of such components or our products at dramatically increased costs, which would negatively impact our revenue and gross margins. Additionally, poor quality in any of the sole-sourced components in our products could result in lost sales or lost sales opportunities. If the quality of the components does not meet our or our end-customers’ requirements, if we are unable to obtain components from our existing suppliers on commercially reasonable terms, or if any of our sole source providers cease to remain in business or continue to manufacture such components, we could be forced to redesign our products and qualify new components from alternate suppliers. The resulting stoppage or delay in selling our products and the expense of redesigning our products could result in lost sales opportunities and damage to customer relationships, which would adversely affect our business and operating results.

 

Our current research and development efforts may not produce successful products or features that result in significant revenue, cost savings or other benefits in the near future, if at all.

 

Developing our products and related enhancements is expensive. Our investments in research and development may not result in significant design improvements, marketable products or features or may result in products that are more expensive than anticipated. Additionally, we may not achieve the cost savings or the anticipated performance improvements we expect, and we may take longer to generate revenue, or generate less revenue, than we anticipate. Our future plans include significant investments in research and development and

 

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related product opportunities. We believe that we must continue to dedicate a significant amount of resources to our research and development efforts to maintain our competitive position. However, we may not receive significant revenue from these investments in the near future, if at all, or these investments may not yield the expected benefits, either of which could adversely affect our business and operating results.

 

The sales prices of our products and services may decrease, which may reduce our gross profits and adversely impact our financial results.

 

The sales prices for our products and services may decline for a variety of reasons, including competitive pricing pressures, discounts, a change in our mix of products and services, anticipation of the introduction of new products or services, or promotional programs. Competition continues to increase in the market segments in which we participate, and we expect competition to further increase in the future, thereby leading to increased pricing pressures. Larger competitors with more diverse product and service offerings may reduce the price of products or services that compete with ours or may bundle them with other products and services. Additionally, although we price our products and services worldwide in U.S. dollars, currency fluctuations in certain countries and regions may negatively impact actual prices that partners and end-customers are willing to pay in those countries and regions. Furthermore, we anticipate that the sales prices and gross profits for our products will decrease over product life cycles. We cannot assure you that we will be successful in developing and introducing new offerings with enhanced functionality on a timely basis, or that our product and service offerings, if introduced, will enable us to maintain our prices and gross profits at levels that will allow us to maintain profitability.

 

We generate a significant amount of revenue from sales to distributors, resellers, and end-customers outside of the United States, and we are therefore subject to a number of risks associated with international sales and operations.

 

We have a limited history of marketing, selling, and supporting our products and services internationally. As a result, we must hire and train experienced personnel to staff and manage our foreign operations. To the extent that we experience difficulties in recruiting, training, managing, and retaining an international staff, and specifically staff related to sales management and sales personnel, we may experience difficulties in sales productivity in foreign markets. We also enter into strategic distributor and reseller relationships with companies in certain international markets where we do not have a local presence. If we are not able to maintain successful strategic distributor relationships internationally or recruit additional companies to enter into strategic distributor relationships, our future success in these international markets could be limited. Business practices in the international markets that we serve may differ from those in the United States and may require us in the future to include terms other than our standard terms in customer contracts, although to date we generally have not done so. To the extent that we may enter into customer contracts in the future that include non-standard terms related to payment, warranties, or performance obligations, our operating results may be adversely impacted.

 

Additionally, our international sales and operations are subject to a number of risks, including the following:

 

   

greater difficulty in enforcing contracts and accounts receivable collection and longer collection periods;

 

   

increased expenses incurred in establishing and maintaining office space and equipment for our international operations;

 

   

fluctuations in exchange rates between the U.S. dollar and foreign currencies in markets where we do business;

 

   

greater difficulty in recruiting local experienced personnel, and the costs and expenses associated with such activities;

 

   

general economic and political conditions in these foreign markets;

 

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economic uncertainty around the world, including continued economic uncertainty as a result of sovereign debt issues in Europe;

 

   

management communication and integration problems resulting from cultural and geographic dispersion;

 

   

risks associated with trade restrictions and foreign legal requirements, including the importation, certification, and localization of our products required in foreign countries;

 

   

greater risk of unexpected changes in regulatory practices, tariffs, and tax laws and treaties;

 

   

the uncertainty of protection for intellectual property rights in some countries;

 

   

greater risk of a failure of foreign employees to comply with both U.S. and foreign laws, including antitrust regulations, the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, and any trade regulations ensuring fair trade practices; and

 

   

heightened risk of unfair or corrupt business practices in certain geographies and of improper or fraudulent sales arrangements that may impact financial results and result in restatements of, or irregularities in, financial statements.

 

These factors and other factors could harm our ability to gain future international revenues and, consequently, materially impact our business, operating results, and financial condition. The expansion of our existing international operations and entry into additional international markets will require significant management attention and financial resources. Our failure to successfully manage our international operations and the associated risks effectively could limit the future growth of our business.

 

A portion of our revenue is generated by sales to government entities, which are subject to a number of challenges and risks.

 

Sales to U.S. and foreign, federal, state, and local governmental agency end-customers have accounted for an increasingly significant amount of our revenue, and we may in the future increase sales to government entities. Sales to government entities are subject to a number of risks. Selling to government entities can be highly competitive, expensive, and time consuming, often requiring significant upfront time and expense without any assurance that these efforts will generate a sale. The substantial majority of our sales to date to government entities have been made indirectly through our channel partners. Government certification requirements for products like ours may change and in doing so restrict our ability to sell into the federal government sector until we have attained the revised certification. Government demand and payment for our products and services may be impacted by public sector budgetary cycles and funding authorizations, with funding reductions or delays adversely affecting public sector demand for our products and services. Government entities may have statutory, contractual or other legal rights to terminate contracts with our distributors and resellers for convenience or due to a default, and any such termination may adversely impact our future operating results. Governments routinely investigate and audit government contractors’ administrative processes, and any unfavorable audit could result in the government refusing to continue buying our products and services, a reduction of revenue or fines or civil or criminal liability if the audit uncovers improper or illegal activities, which could adversely impact our operating results in a material way. Finally, for purchases by the U.S. government, the government may require certain products to be manufactured in the United States and other relatively high cost manufacturing locations, and we may not manufacture all products in locations that meet the requirements of the U.S. government, affecting our ability to sell these products to the U.S. government.

 

If our products do not interoperate with our end-customers’ infrastructure, sales of our products and services could be negatively affected, which would harm our business.

 

Our products must interoperate with our end-customers’ existing infrastructure, which often have different specifications, utilize multiple protocol standards, deploy products from multiple vendors, and contain multiple generations of products that have been added over time. As a result, when problems occur in a network, it may be

 

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difficult to identify the sources of these problems. If we find defects in the hardware, we replace the hardware as part of our normal warranty process. If we find errors in the existing software that create problematic network configurations or settings, as we have in the past, we may have to issue software updates as part of our normal maintenance process. Any delays in identifying the sources of problems or in providing necessary modifications to our software or hardware could have a negative impact on our reputation and our end-customers’ satisfaction with our products and services, and our ability to sell products and services could be adversely affected. In addition, government and other end-customers may require our products to comply with certain security or other certifications and standards. If our products are late in achieving or fail to achieve compliance with these certifications and standards, or our competitors achieve compliance with these certifications and standards, we may be disqualified from selling our products to such end-customers, or at a competitive disadvantage, which would harm our business, operating results, and financial condition.

 

Our ability to sell our products is dependent on the quality of our technical support services, and our failure to offer high quality technical support services could have a material adverse effect on our end-customers’ satisfaction with our products and services, our sales, and our operating results.

 

Once our products are deployed within our end-customers’ networks, our end-customers depend on our technical support services, as well as the support of our channel partners, to resolve any issues relating to our products. Our distribution partners often provide similar technical support for third parties’ products, and may therefore have fewer resources to dedicate to the support of our products. If we or our channel partners do not effectively assist our end-customers in deploying our products, succeed in helping our end-customers quickly resolve post-deployment issues, or provide effective ongoing support, our ability to sell additional products and services to existing end-customers would be adversely affected and our reputation with potential end-customers could be damaged. Many larger enterprise, service provider, and government entity end-customers have more complex networks and require higher levels of support than smaller end-customers. If we fail to meet the requirements of the larger end-customers, it may be more difficult to execute on our strategy to increase our coverage with larger end-customers. Additionally, if our channel partners do not effectively provide support to the satisfaction of our end-customers, we may be required to provide direct support to such end-customers, which would require us to hire additional personnel and to invest in additional resources. It can take several months to recruit, hire, and train qualified technical support employees. We may not be able to hire such resources fast enough to keep up with unexpected demand, particularly when the sales of our products exceed our internal forecasts. To the extent that we or our partners are unsuccessful in hiring, training, and retaining adequate support resources, our and our distribution partners’ ability to provide adequate and timely support to our end-customers will be negatively impacted, and our end-customers’ satisfaction with our products and services will be adversely affected. Additionally, to the extent that we may need to rely on our sales engineers to provide post-sales support while we are ramping our support resources, our sales productivity will be negatively impacted, which would harm our revenues. Our failure to maintain high quality support services would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and operating results.

 

False detection of applications, viruses, spyware, vulnerability exploits, data patterns or URL categories could adversely affect our business.

 

Our classifications of application type, virus, spyware, vulnerability exploits, data or URL categories may falsely detect applications, content or threats that do not actually exist. This risk is heightened by the inclusion of a “heuristics” feature in our products, which attempts to identify applications and other threats not based on any known signatures but based on characteristics or anomalies which indicate that a particular item may be a threat. These false positives, while typical in our industry, may impair the perceived reliability of our products and may therefore adversely impact market acceptance of our products. If our products restrict important files or applications based on falsely identifying them as malware or some other item that should be restricted, this could adversely affect end-customers’ systems and cause material system failures. Any such false identification of important files or applications could result in damage to our reputation, negative publicity, loss of end-customers and sales, increased costs to remedy any problem, and costly litigation.

 

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Our brand name and our business may be harmed by aggressive marketing strategies of our competitors.

 

Because of the early stage of development of our markets, we believe that building and maintaining brand recognition and customer goodwill is critical to our success. Our efforts in this area have, on occasion, been complicated by the marketing efforts of our competitors, which may include incomplete, inaccurate, and false statements about our company and our products that could harm our business. Our ability to respond to our competitors’ misleading marketing efforts may be limited by legal prohibitions on permissible public communications by us during our initial public offering process. If we are unable to effectively respond to our competitors’ misleading marketing efforts and protect our brand and customer goodwill now or in the future, our business, financial condition, and operating results will be adversely affected, and we will not be able to achieve sustained growth.

 

Claims by others that we infringe their proprietary technology or other rights could harm our business.

 

Companies in the enterprise network security industry own large numbers of patents, copyrights, trademarks, domain names, and trade secrets and frequently enter into litigation based on allegations of infringement, misappropriation or other violations of intellectual property or other rights. As we face increasing competition and gain an increasingly high profile, the possibility of intellectual property rights claims against us grows. Third parties have asserted and may in the future assert claims of infringement of intellectual property rights against us. They may also assert such claims against our end-customers or channel partners, whom our standard license and other agreements obligate us to indemnify against claims that our products infringe the intellectual property rights of third parties. As the number of products and competitors in our market increases and overlaps occur, infringement claims may increase. While we intend to increase the size of our patent portfolio, our competitors and others may now and in the future have significantly larger and more mature patent portfolios than we have. In addition, future litigation may involve patent holding companies or other adverse patent owners who have no relevant product revenue and against whom our own patents may therefore provide little or no deterrence or protection. In addition, we have not registered our trademarks, including our “Palo Alto Networks” name, in all of our geographic markets and failure to secure those registrations could adversely affect our ability to enforce and defend our trademark rights. In 2007, our application to register our “Palo Alto Networks” trademark in the United States was refused, in part on the grounds that consumers may confuse it with a registered trademark owned by a third party. Any claim of infringement by a third party, even those without merit, could cause us to incur substantial costs defending against the claim, could distract our management from our business and could require us to cease use of such intellectual property. Furthermore, because of the substantial amount of discovery required in connection with intellectual property litigation, there is a risk that some of our confidential information could be compromised by disclosure during this type of litigation. Refer to the discussion under “Business—Legal Proceedings” for information related to pending litigation.

 

Although third parties may offer a license to their technology or other intellectual property, the terms of any offered license may not be acceptable and the failure to obtain a license or the costs associated with any license could cause our business, financial condition, and operating results to be materially and adversely affected. In addition, some licenses may be non-exclusive, and therefore our competitors may have access to the same technology licensed to us. If a third party does not offer us a license to its technology or other intellectual property on reasonable terms, or at all, we could be enjoined from continued use of such intellectual property. As a result, we may be required to develop alternative, non-infringing technology, which could require significant time (during which we would be unable to continue to offer our affected products or services), effort, and expense and may ultimately not be successful. Furthermore, a successful claimant could secure a judgment or we may agree to a settlement that prevents us from distributing certain products or performing certain services or that requires us to pay substantial damages, royalties or other fees. Any of these events could seriously harm our business, financial condition, and operating results.

 

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Our proprietary rights may be difficult to enforce or protect, which could enable others to copy or use aspects of our products without compensating us.

 

We rely and expect to continue to rely on a combination of confidentiality and license agreements with our employees, consultants, and third parties with whom we have relationships, as well as trademark, copyright, patent, and trade secret protection laws, to protect our proprietary rights. We have filed various applications for certain aspects of our intellectual property. Valid patents may not issue from our pending applications, and the claims eventually allowed on any patents may not be sufficiently broad to protect our technology or products. Any issued patents may be challenged, invalidated or circumvented, and any rights granted under these patents may not actually provide adequate defensive protection or competitive advantages to us. Patent applications in the United States are typically not published until 18 months after filing, or, in some cases, not at all, and publications of discoveries in industry-related literature lag behind actual discoveries. We cannot be certain that we were the first to make the inventions claimed in our pending patent applications or that we were the first to file for patent protection, which could prevent our patent applications from issuing as patents or invalidate our patents following issuance. Additionally, the process of obtaining patent protection is expensive and time-consuming, and we may not be able to prosecute all necessary or desirable patent applications at a reasonable cost or in a timely manner. In addition, recent changes to the patent laws in the United States may bring into question the validity of certain categories of software patents. As a result, we may not be able to obtain adequate patent protection or effectively enforce any issued patents.

 

Despite our efforts to protect our proprietary rights, unauthorized parties may attempt to copy aspects of our products or obtain and use information that we regard as proprietary. We generally enter into confidentiality or license agreements with our employees, consultants, vendors, and customers, and generally limit access to and distribution of our proprietary information. However, we cannot assure you that we have entered into such agreements with all parties who may have or have had access to our confidential information or that the agreements we have entered into will not be breached. We cannot guarantee that any of the measures we have taken will prevent misappropriation of our technology. Because we may be an attractive target for computer hackers, we may have a greater risk of unauthorized access to, and misappropriation of, our proprietary information. In addition, the laws of some foreign countries do not protect our proprietary rights to as great an extent as the laws of the United States, and many foreign countries do not enforce these laws as diligently as government agencies and private parties in the United States. From time to time, we may need to take legal action to enforce our patents and other intellectual property rights, to protect our trade secrets, to determine the validity and scope of the proprietary rights of others or to defend against claims of infringement or invalidity. Such litigation could result in substantial costs and diversion of resources and could negatively affect our business, operating results, and financial condition. Attempts to enforce our rights against third parties could also provoke these third parties to assert their own intellectual property or other rights against us, or result in a holding that invalidates or narrows the scope of our rights, in whole or in part. If we are unable to protect our proprietary rights (including aspects of our software and products protected other than by patent rights), we may find ourselves at a competitive disadvantage to others who need not incur the additional expense, time, and effort required to create the innovative products that have enabled us to be successful to date. Any of these events would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and operating results.

 

Our products contain third-party open source software components, and failure to comply with the terms of the underlying open source software licenses could restrict our ability to sell our products.

 

Our products contain software modules licensed to us by third-party authors under “open source” licenses. Use and distribution of open source software may entail greater risks than use of third-party commercial software, as open source licensors generally do not provide warranties or other contractual protections regarding infringement claims or the quality of the code. Some open source licenses contain requirements that we make available source code for modifications or derivative works we create based upon the type of open source software we use. If we combine our proprietary software with open source software in a certain manner, we could, under certain open source licenses, be required to release the source code of our proprietary software to the public. This would allow our competitors to create similar products with lower development effort and time and ultimately could result in a loss of product sales for us.

 

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Although we monitor our use of open source software to avoid subjecting our products to conditions we do not intend, the terms of many open source licenses have not been interpreted by United States courts, and there is a risk that these licenses could be construed in a way that could impose unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our ability to commercialize our products. Moreover, we cannot assure you that our processes for controlling our use of open source software in our products will be effective. If we are held to have breached the terms of an open source software license, we could be required to seek licenses from third parties to continue offering our products on terms that are not economically feasible, to re-engineer our products, to discontinue the sale of our products if re-engineering could not be accomplished on a timely basis, or to make generally available, in source code form, our proprietary code, any of which could adversely affect our business, operating results, and financial condition.

 

Our failure to adequately protect personal information could have a material adverse effect on our business.

 

A wide variety of provincial, state, national, and international laws and regulations apply to the collection, use, retention, protection, disclosure, transfer, and other processing of personal data. These data protection and privacy-related laws and regulations are evolving and may result in ever-increasing regulatory and public scrutiny and escalating levels of enforcement and sanctions. Our failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations, or to protect such data, could result in enforcement action against us, including fines, imprisonment of company officials and public censure, claims for damages by end-customers and other affected individuals, damage to our reputation and loss of goodwill (both in relation to existing end-customers and prospective end-customers), any of which could have a material adverse effect on our operations, financial performance and business. Evolving and changing definitions of personal data and personal information, within the European Union, the United States, and elsewhere, especially relating to classification of IP addresses, machine identification, location data and other information, may limit or inhibit our ability to operate or expand our business, including limiting strategic partnerships that may involve the sharing of data. Even the perception of privacy concerns, whether or not valid, may harm our reputation and inhibit adoption of our products by current and future end-customers.

 

We license technology from third parties, and our inability to maintain those licenses could harm our business.

 

We incorporate technology that we license from third parties, including software, into our products. We cannot be certain that our licensors are not infringing the intellectual property rights of third parties or that our licensors have sufficient rights to the licensed intellectual property in all jurisdictions in which we may sell our products. Some of our agreements with our licensors may be terminated for convenience by them. If we are unable to continue to license any of this technology because of intellectual property infringement claims brought by third parties against our licensors or against the Company, or if we are unable to continue our license agreements or enter into new licenses on commercially reasonable terms, our ability to develop and sell products containing that technology would be severely limited, and our business could be harmed. Additionally if we are unable to license necessary technology from third parties, we may be forced to acquire or develop alternative technology of lower quality or performance standards. This would limit and delay our ability to offer new or competitive products and increase our costs of production. As a result, our margins, market share, and operating results could be significantly harmed.

 

Misuse of our products could harm our reputation and divert resources.

 

Our products may be misused by end-customers or third parties that obtain access to our products. For example, our products could be used to censor private access to certain information on the Internet. Such use of our products for censorship could result in negative press coverage and negatively affect our reputation.

 

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We are subject to governmental export and import controls that could subject us to liability or impair our ability to compete in international markets.

 

Because we incorporate encryption technology into our products, certain of our products are subject to U.S. export controls and may be exported outside the U.S. only with the required export license or through an export license exception. If we were to fail to comply with U.S. export licensing requirements, U.S. customs regulations, U.S. economic sanctions, or other laws, we could be subject to substantial civil and criminal penalties, including fines, incarceration for responsible employees and managers, and the possible loss of export or import privileges. Obtaining the necessary export license for a particular sale may be time-consuming and may result in the delay or loss of sales opportunities. Furthermore, U.S. export control laws and economic sanctions prohibit the shipment of certain products to U.S. embargoed or sanctioned countries, governments, and persons. Even though we take precautions to ensure that our channel partners comply with all relevant regulations, any failure by our channel partners to comply with such regulations could have negative consequences, including reputational harm, government investigations, and penalties.

 

In addition, various countries regulate the import of certain encryption technology, including through import permit and license requirements, and have enacted laws that could limit our ability to distribute our products or could limit our end-customers’ ability to implement our products in those countries. Changes in our products or changes in export and import regulations may create delays in the introduction of our products into international markets, prevent our end-customers with international operations from deploying our products globally or, in some cases, prevent the export or import of our products to certain countries, governments or persons altogether. Any change in export or import regulations, economic sanctions or related legislation, shift in the enforcement or scope of existing regulations, or change in the countries, governments, persons or technologies targeted by such regulations, could result in decreased use of our products by, or in our decreased ability to export or sell our products to, existing or potential end-customers with international operations. Any decreased use of our products or limitation on our ability to export or sell our products would likely adversely affect our business, financial condition, and operating results.

 

We may acquire other businesses which could require significant management attention, disrupt our business, dilute stockholder value, and adversely affect our operating results.

 

As part of our business strategy, we may make investments in complementary companies, products or technologies. However, we have not made any significant acquisitions to date, and as a result, our ability as an organization to acquire and integrate other companies, products or technologies in a successful manner is unproven. We may not be able to find suitable acquisition candidates, and we may not be able to complete such acquisitions on favorable terms, if at all. If we do complete acquisitions, we may not ultimately strengthen our competitive position or achieve our goals, and any acquisitions we complete could be viewed negatively by our end-customers, investors, and securities analysts. In addition, if we are unsuccessful at integrating such acquisitions, or the technologies associated with such acquisitions, into our company, the revenue and operating results of the combined company could be adversely affected. Any integration process may require significant time and resources, and we may not be able to manage the process successfully. We may not successfully evaluate or utilize the acquired technology or personnel, or accurately forecast the financial impact of an acquisition transaction, including accounting charges. We may have to pay cash, incur debt or issue equity securities to pay for any such acquisition, each of which could adversely affect our financial condition or the value of our common stock. The sale of equity or issuance of debt to finance any such acquisitions could result in dilution to our stockholders. The incurrence of indebtedness would result in increased fixed obligations and could also include covenants or other restrictions that would impede our ability to manage our operations.

 

Our failure to raise additional capital or generate the significant capital necessary to expand our operations and invest in new products could reduce our ability to compete and could harm our business.

 

We expect that our existing cash and cash equivalents, together with our net proceeds from this offering, will be sufficient to meet our anticipated cash needs for the foreseeable future. After that, we may need to raise

 

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additional funds, and we may not be able to obtain additional debt or equity financing on favorable terms, if at all. If we raise additional equity financing, our stockholders may experience significant dilution of their ownership interests and the per share value of our common stock could decline. Furthermore, if we engage in debt financing, the holders of debt would have priority over the holders of common stock, and we may be required to accept terms that restrict our ability to incur additional indebtedness. We may also be required to take other actions that would otherwise be in the interests of the debt holders and force us to maintain specified liquidity or other ratios, any of which could harm our business, operating results, and financial condition. If we need additional capital and cannot raise it on acceptable terms, we may not be able to, among other things:

 

   

develop or enhance our products and services;

 

   

continue to expand our sales and marketing and research and development organizations;

 

   

acquire complementary technologies, products or businesses;

 

   

expand operations, in the United States or internationally;

 

   

hire, train, and retain employees; or

 

   

respond to competitive pressures or unanticipated working capital requirements.

 

Our failure to do any of these things could seriously harm our business, financial condition, and operating results.

 

We may not be able to successfully manage the growth of our business if we are unable to improve our internal systems, processes and controls.

 

We need to continue to improve our internal systems, processes and controls to effectively manage our operations and growth. We may not be able to successfully implement improvements to these systems, processes and controls in an efficient or timely manner. We are currently in the process of implementing a new enterprise resource planning system, and we may not be able to successfully implement and scale improvements to our enterprise resource planning system or other systems and processes in a timely or efficient manner or in a manner that does not negatively affect our operating results. In addition, our systems and processes may not prevent or detect all errors, omissions or fraud. We have licensed technology from third parties to help us improve our internal systems, processes and controls. The support services available for such third-party technology may be negatively affected by mergers and consolidation in the software industry, and support services for such technology may not be available to us in the future. We may experience difficulties in managing improvements to our systems, processes and controls or in connection with third-party software, which could impair our ability to provide products or services to our customers in a timely manner, causing us to lose customers, limit us to smaller deployments of our products or increase our technical support costs.

 

Failure to comply with governmental laws and regulations could harm our business.

 

Our business is subject to regulation by various federal, state, local and foreign governmental agencies, including agencies responsible for monitoring and enforcing employment and labor laws, workplace safety, product safety, environmental laws, consumer protection laws, anti-bribery laws, import/export controls, federal securities laws, and tax laws and regulations. In certain jurisdictions, these regulatory requirements may be more stringent than those in the United States. Noncompliance with applicable regulations or requirements could subject us to investigations, sanctions, mandatory product recalls, enforcement actions, disgorgement of profits, fines, damages, civil and criminal penalties, or injunctions. If any governmental sanctions are imposed, or if we do not prevail in any possible civil or criminal litigation, our business, operating results, and financial condition could be materially adversely affected. In addition, responding to any action will likely result in a significant diversion of management’s attention and resources and an increase in professional fees. Enforcement actions and sanctions could harm our business, operating results and financial condition.

 

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We intend to implement a corporate structure more closely aligned with the international nature of our business activities, and if we do not achieve increased tax benefits as a result of our proposed corporate structure, our financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

 

We intend to reorganize our corporate structure and intercompany relationships to more closely align with the international nature of our business activities. This proposed corporate structure may allow us to reduce our overall effective tax rate through changes in how we use our intellectual property, international procurement, and sales operations. This proposed corporate structure may also allow us to obtain financial and operational efficiencies. These efforts will require us to incur expenses in the near term for which we may not realize related benefits. If the intended structure is not accepted by the applicable taxing authorities, changes in domestic and international tax laws negatively impact the proposed structure, including proposed legislation to reform U.S. taxation of international business activities, or we do not operate our business consistent with the proposed structure and applicable tax provisions, we may fail to achieve the financial and operational efficiencies that we anticipate as a result of the proposed structure and our future financial condition and results of operations may be negatively impacted.

 

If our estimates or judgments relating to our critical accounting policies are based on assumptions that change or prove to be incorrect, our operating results could fall below expectations of securities analysts and investors, resulting in a decline in our stock price.

 

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, as provided in the section entitled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets, liabilities, equity, revenue, and expenses that are not readily apparent from other sources. Our operating results may be adversely affected if our assumptions change or if actual circumstances differ from those in our assumptions, which could cause our operating results to fall below the expectations of securities analysts and investors, resulting in a decline in our stock price. Significant assumptions and estimates used in preparing our consolidated financial statements include those related to revenue recognition, share-based compensation, contract manufacturing liabilities, and income taxes.

 

We are exposed to the credit risk of some of our distributors and resellers and to credit exposure in weakened markets, which could result in material losses.

 

Most of our sales are on an open credit basis. Although we have programs in place that are designed to monitor and mitigate these risks, we cannot assure you these programs will be effective in reducing our credit risks, especially as we expand our business internationally. If we are unable to adequately control these risks, our business, operating results, and financial condition could be harmed.

 

If we fail to comply with environmental requirements, our business, financial condition, operating results, and reputation could be adversely affected.

 

We are subject to various environmental laws and regulations including laws governing the hazardous material content of our products and laws relating to the collection of and recycling of electrical and electronic equipment. Examples of these laws and regulations include the European Union, or EU, Restrictions of Hazardous Substances Directive, or RoHS, and the EU Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive, or WEEE, as well as the implementing legislation of the EU member states. Similar laws and regulations have been passed or are pending in China, South Korea, Norway and Japan and may be enacted in other regions, including in the United States, and we are, or may in the future be, subject to these laws and regulations.

 

The EU RoHS and the similar laws of other jurisdictions ban the use of certain hazardous materials such as lead, mercury and cadmium in the manufacture of electrical equipment, including our products. Currently, the

 

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manufacturer of our hardware appliances and major component part suppliers comply with the EU RoHS requirements. However, if there are changes to this or other laws (or their interpretation) or if new similar laws are passed in other jurisdictions, we may be required to reengineer our products to use components compatible with these regulations. This reengineering and component substitution could result in additional costs to us or disrupt our operations or logistics.

 

The WEEE Directive requires electronic goods producers to be responsible for the collection, recycling and treatment of such products. Changes in interpretation of the directive may cause us to incur costs or have additional regulatory requirements to meet in the future in order to comply with this directive, or with any similar laws adopted in other jurisdictions.

 

Our failure to comply with past, present, and future similar laws could result in reduced sales of our products, substantial product inventory write-offs, reputational damage, penalties, and other sanctions, any of which could harm our business and financial condition. We also expect that our products will be affected by new environmental laws and regulations on an ongoing basis. To date, our expenditures for environmental compliance have not had a material impact on our results of operations or cash flows, and although we cannot predict the future impact of such laws or regulations, they will likely result in additional costs and may increase penalties associated with violations or require us to change the content of our products or how they are manufactured, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, and financial condition.

 

We are exposed to fluctuations in currency exchange rates, which could negatively affect our financial condition and operating results.

 

Our sales contracts are primarily denominated in U.S. dollars, and therefore, substantially all of our revenue is not subject to foreign currency risk. However, a strengthening of the U.S. dollar could increase the real cost of our products to our end-customers outside of the United States, which could adversely affect our financial condition and operating results. In addition, an increasing portion of our operating expenses is incurred outside the United States, is denominated in foreign currencies, and is subject to fluctuations due to changes in foreign currency exchange rates. If we are not able to successfully hedge against the risks associated with currency fluctuations, our financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected.

 

Our business is subject to the risks of earthquakes, fire, power outages, floods, and other catastrophic events, and to interruption by man-made problems such as terrorism.

 

A significant natural disaster, such as an earthquake, fire, a flood, or significant power outage could have a material adverse impact on our business, operating results, and financial condition. Both our corporate headquarters and the location where our products are manufactured are located in the San Francisco Bay Area, a region known for seismic activity. In addition, natural disasters could affect our supply chain, manufacturing vendors, or logistics providers’ ability to provide materials and perform services such as manufacturing products or assisting with shipments on a timely basis. In the event our or our service providers’ information technology systems or manufacturing or logistics abilities are hindered by any of the events discussed above, shipments could be delayed, resulting in missed financial targets, such as revenue and shipment targets, for a particular quarter. In addition, acts of terrorism and other geo-political unrest could cause disruptions in our business or the business of our supply chain, manufacturers, logistics providers, partners, or end-customers or the economy as a whole. Any disruption in the business of our supply chain, manufacturers, logistics providers, partners or end-customers that impacts sales at the end of a fiscal quarter could have a significant adverse impact on our quarterly results. All of the aforementioned risks may be further increased if the disaster recovery plans for us and our suppliers prove to be inadequate. To the extent that any of the above should result in delays or cancellations of customer orders, or the delay in the manufacture, deployment or shipment of our products, our business, financial condition and operating results would be adversely affected.

 

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Risks Related to this Offering, the Securities Markets and Ownership of Our Common Stock

 

The price of our common stock may be volatile and the value of your investment could decline.

 

Technology stocks have historically experienced high levels of volatility. The trading price of our common stock following this offering may fluctuate substantially. Following the completion of this offering, the market price of our common stock may be higher or lower than the price you pay, depending on many factors, some of which are beyond our control and may not be related to our operating performance. These fluctuations could cause you to lose all or part of your investment in our common stock. Factors that could cause fluctuations in the trading price of our common stock include the following:

 

   

announcements of new products, services or technologies, commercial relationships, acquisitions or other events by us or our competitors;

 

   

price and volume fluctuations in the overall stock market from time to time;

 

   

significant volatility in the market price and trading volume of technology companies in general and of companies in our industry;

 

   

fluctuations in the trading volume of our shares or the size of our public float;

 

   

actual or anticipated changes in our operating results or fluctuations in our operating results;

 

   

whether our operating results meet the expectations of securities analysts or investors;

 

   

actual or anticipated changes in the expectations of investors or securities analysts;

 

   

litigation involving us, our industry, or both, including any developments with respect to our pending litigation, see “Business—Legal Proceedings”;

 

   

regulatory developments in the United States, foreign countries or both;

 

   

general economic conditions and trends, including continued economic uncertainty as a result of sovereign debt issues in Europe;

 

   

major catastrophic events;

 

   

sales of large blocks of our stock; or

 

   

departures of key personnel.

 

In addition, if the market for technology stocks or the stock market in general experiences loss of investor confidence, the trading price of our common stock could decline for reasons unrelated to our business, operating results or financial condition. The trading price of our common stock might also decline in reaction to events that affect other companies in our industry even if these events do not directly affect us. In the past, following periods of volatility in the market price of a company’s securities, securities class action litigation has often been brought against that company. If our stock price is volatile, we may become the target of securities litigation. Securities litigation could result in substantial costs and divert our management’s attention and resources from our business. This could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition.

 

Sales of substantial amounts of our common stock in the public markets, or the perception that they might occur, could reduce the price that our common stock might otherwise attain and may dilute your voting power and your ownership interest in us.

 

Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market after this offering, or the perception that these sales could occur, could adversely affect the market price of our common stock and may make it more difficult for you to sell your common stock at a time and price that you deem appropriate. Based on the total number of outstanding shares of our common stock as of April 30, 2012, upon completion of this

 

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offering, we will have 66,601,444 shares of common stock outstanding, assuming no exercise of our outstanding options.

 

All of the shares of common stock sold in this offering will be freely tradable without restrictions or further registration under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, except for any shares held by our affiliates as defined in Rule 144 under the Securities Act.

 

Subject to certain exceptions described under the caption “Underwriters,” we and all of our directors and officers and substantially all of our equity holders have agreed not to offer, sell or agree to sell, directly or indirectly, any shares of common stock without the permission of Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC and Goldman, Sachs & Co. for a period of 180 days from the date of this prospectus, subject to potential extension in the event we release earnings results or material news or a material event relating to us occurs near the end of the lock-up period. When the lock-up period expires, we and our locked-up security holders will be able to sell our shares in the public market. In addition, the underwriters may, in their sole discretion, release all or some portion of the shares subject to lock-up agreements prior to the expiration of the lock-up period. See “Shares Eligible for Future Sale” for more information. Sales of a substantial number of such shares upon expiration, or the perception that such sales may occur, or early release of the lock-up, could cause our share price to fall or make it more difficult for you to sell your common stock at a time and price that you deem appropriate.

 

Based on shares outstanding as of April 30, 2012, upon completion of this offering, holders of up to approximately 41,000,000 shares, or 62%, of our common stock will have rights, subject to some conditions, to require us to file registration statements covering the sale of their shares or to include their shares in registration statements that we may file for ourselves or other stockholders. We also intend to register the offer and sale of all shares of common stock that we may issue under our equity compensation plans.

 

We may issue our shares of common stock or securities convertible into our common stock from time to time in connection with a financing, acquisition, investments or otherwise. Any such issuance could result in substantial dilution to our existing stockholders and cause the trading price of our common stock to decline.

 

Insiders will continue to have substantial control over us after this offering, which could limit your ability to influence the outcome of key transactions, including a change of control.

 

Our directors, executive officers and each of our stockholders who own greater than 5% of our outstanding common stock and their affiliates, in the aggregate, will beneficially own approximately 61% of the outstanding shares of our common stock after this offering, based on the number of shares outstanding as of June 30, 2012 and after giving effect to the exercise of options and the sale of shares by the selling stockholders in connection with this offering. As a result, these stockholders, if acting together, will be able to influence or control matters requiring approval by our stockholders, including the election of directors and the approval of mergers, acquisitions or other extraordinary transactions. They may also have interests that differ from yours and may vote in a way with which you disagree and which may be adverse to your interests. This concentration of ownership may have the effect of delaying, preventing or deterring a change of control of our company, could deprive our stockholders of an opportunity to receive a premium for their common stock as part of a sale of our company and might ultimately affect the market price of our common stock.

 

We cannot assure you that a market will develop for our common stock or what the market price of our common stock will be.

 

Although our common stock has been approved for listing on the New York Stock Exchange, we cannot assure you that an active trading market for our common stock will develop on that exchange or elsewhere or, if developed, that any market will be sustained. We cannot predict the prices at which our common stock will trade. The initial public offering price of our common stock was determined by negotiations with the underwriters and may not bear any relationship to the market price at which our common stock will trade after this offering or to any other established criteria of the value of our business.

 

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We have broad discretion in the use of the net proceeds that we receive in this offering.

 

The principal purposes of this offering are to increase our capitalization and financial flexibility, create a public market for our stock and thereby enable access to the public equity markets by our employees and stockholders, obtain additional capital, facilitate an orderly distribution of shares for the selling stockholders, and increase our visibility in the marketplace. We have not yet determined the specific allocation of the net proceeds that we receive in this offering. Rather, we intend to use the net proceeds we receive from this offering for general corporate purposes, including working capital, sales and marketing activities, product development, general and administrative matters, and capital expenditures. We also may use a portion of the net proceeds to acquire complementary businesses, products, services, or technologies. Accordingly, our management will have broad discretion over the specific use of the net proceeds that we receive in this offering and might not be able to obtain a significant return, if any, on investment of these net proceeds. Investors in this offering will need to rely upon the judgment of our management with respect to the use of proceeds. If we do not use the net proceeds that we receive in this offering effectively, our business, operating results and financial condition could be harmed.

 

We do not intend to pay dividends for the foreseeable future.

 

We have never declared or paid any dividends on our common stock. We intend to retain any earnings to finance the operation and expansion of our business, and we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the future. As a result, you may only receive a return on your investment in our common stock if the market price of our common stock increases.

 

The requirements of being a public company may strain our resources, divert management’s attention and affect our ability to attract and retain qualified board members.

 

As a public company, we will be subject to the reporting requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, the listing requirements of the securities exchange on which our common stock will be traded and other applicable securities rules and regulations. Compliance with these rules and regulations will increase our legal and financial compliance costs, make some activities more difficult, time-consuming or costly, and increase demand on our systems and resources, particularly after we are no longer an “emerging growth company” as defined in the recently enacted Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, or the JOBS Act. Among other things, the Exchange Act requires that we file annual, quarterly and current reports with respect to our business and operating results and maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting. In order to maintain and, if required, improve our disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting to meet this standard, significant resources and management oversight may be required. As a result, management’s attention may be diverted from other business concerns, which could harm our business and operating results. Although we have already hired additional employees to comply with these requirements, we may need to hire even more employees in the future, which will increase our costs and expenses.

 

In addition, changing laws, regulations, and standards relating to corporate governance and public disclosure are creating uncertainty for public companies, increasing legal and financial compliance costs, and making some activities more time consuming. These laws, regulations, and standards are subject to varying interpretations, in many cases due to their lack of specificity, and, as a result, their application in practice may evolve over time as new guidance is provided by regulatory and governing bodies. This could result in continuing uncertainty regarding compliance matters and higher costs necessitated by ongoing revisions to disclosure and governance practices. We intend to invest resources to comply with evolving laws, regulations, and standards, and this investment may result in increased general and administrative expense and a diversion of management’s time and attention from revenue-generating activities to compliance activities. If our efforts to comply with new laws, regulations, and standards differ from the activities intended by regulatory or governing bodies, regulatory authorities may initiate legal proceedings against us and our business may be harmed.

 

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However, for so long as we remain an “emerging growth company” as defined in the JOBS Act, we may take advantage of certain exemptions from various requirements that are applicable to public companies that are not “emerging growth companies,” including not being required to comply with the independent auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements, and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. We may take advantage of these exemptions until we are no longer an “emerging growth company.”

 

We would cease to be an “emerging growth company” upon the earliest of: (i) the first fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of this offering, (ii) the first fiscal year after our annual gross revenues are $1 billion or more, (iii) the date on which we have, during the previous three-year period, issued more than $1 billion in non-convertible debt securities, or (iv) as of the end of any fiscal year in which the market value of our common stock held by non-affiliates exceeded $700 million as of the end of the second quarter of that fiscal year.

 

We also expect that being a public company and these new rules and regulations will make it more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance, and we may be required to accept reduced coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain coverage. These factors could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified members of our board of directors, particularly to serve on our Audit Committee and Compensation Committee, and qualified executive officers.

 

As a result of becoming a public company, we will be obligated to maintain proper and effective internal controls over financial reporting. We may not complete our analysis of our internal controls over financial reporting in a timely manner, or these internal controls may not be determined to be effective, which may adversely affect investor confidence in our company and, as a result, the value of our common stock.

 

We will be required, pursuant to the Exchange Act, to furnish a report by management on, among other things, the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting for the first fiscal year beginning after the effective date of this offering. This assessment will need to include disclosure of any material weaknesses identified by our management in our internal control over financial reporting, as well as a statement that our auditors have issued an attestation report on our management’s assessment of our internal controls.

 

We are currently evaluating our internal controls, identifying and remediating deficiencies in those internal controls and documenting the results of our evaluation, testing and remediation. We may not be able to complete our evaluation, testing and any required remediation in a timely fashion. During the evaluation and testing process, if we identify one or more material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting that we are unable to remediate before the end of the same fiscal year in which the material weakness is identified, we will be unable to assert that our internal controls are effective. If we are unable to assert that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, or if our auditors are unable to attest to management’s report on the effectiveness of our internal controls, we could lose investor confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports, which would cause the price of our common stock to decline.

 

We will be required to disclose material changes made in our internal control and procedures on a quarterly basis. However, our independent registered public accounting firm will not be required to formally attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act until the later of the year following our first annual report required to be filed with the SEC or the date we are no longer an “emerging growth company” as defined in the JOBS Act, if we take advantage of the exemptions contained in the JOBS Act. To comply with the requirements of being a public company, we may need to undertake various actions, such as implementing new internal controls and procedures and hiring accounting or internal audit staff.

 

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We are an “emerging growth company,” and we cannot be certain if the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies will make our common stock less attractive to investors.

 

We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the JOBS Act, and we may take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to public companies that are not “emerging growth companies,” including, but not limited to, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and shareholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. We cannot predict if investors will find our common stock less attractive because we may rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our common stock less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our common stock, and our stock price may be more volatile and may decline.

 

In addition, Section 107 of the JOBS Act also provides that an “emerging growth company” can take advantage of an extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards. However, we are choosing to “opt out” of such extended transition period, and as a result, we will comply with new or revised accounting standards on the relevant dates on which adoption of such standards is required for non-emerging growth companies. Our decision to opt out of the extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards is irrevocable.

 

Because the initial public offering price of our common stock will be substantially higher than the pro forma net tangible book value per share of our outstanding common stock following this offering, new investors will experience immediate and substantial dilution.

 

The initial public offering price will be substantially higher than the pro forma net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately following this offering based on the total value of our tangible assets less our total liabilities. Therefore, if you purchase shares of our common stock in this offering, you will experience immediate dilution of $36.35 per share, the difference between the price per share you pay for our common stock and its pro forma net tangible book value per share as of April 30, 2012, after giving effect to the issuance of shares of our common stock in this offering. See “Dilution” for more information.

 

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business, or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research reports about our business, our share price and trading volume could decline.

 

The trading market for our common stock will, to some extent, depend on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. We do not have any control over these analysts. If one or more of the analysts who cover us should downgrade our shares or change their opinion of our shares, our share price would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts should cease coverage of our company or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which could cause our share price or trading volume to decline.

 

Our charter documents and Delaware law could discourage takeover attempts and lead to management entrenchment.

 

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws that will be in effect upon completion of this offering contain provisions that could delay or prevent a change in control of our company. These provisions could also make it difficult for stockholders to elect directors that are not nominated by the current members of our board of directors or take other corporate actions, including effecting changes in our management. These provisions include:

 

   

a classified board of directors with three-year staggered terms, which could delay the ability of stockholders to change the membership of a majority of our board of directors;

 

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the ability of our board of directors to issue shares of preferred stock and to determine the price and other terms of those shares, including preferences and voting rights, without stockholder approval, which could be used to significantly dilute the ownership of a hostile acquiror;

 

   

the exclusive right of our board of directors to elect a director to fill a vacancy created by the expansion of our board of directors or the resignation, death or removal of a director, which prevents stockholders from being able to fill vacancies on our board of directors;

 

   

a prohibition on stockholder action by written consent, which forces stockholder action to be taken at an annual or special meeting of our stockholders;

 

   

the requirement that a special meeting of stockholders may be called only by the chairman of our board of directors, our president, our secretary, or a majority vote of our board of directors, which could delay the ability of our stockholders to force consideration of a proposal or to take action, including the removal of directors;

 

   

the requirement for the affirmative vote of holders of at least 66 2/3% of the voting power of all of the then outstanding shares of the voting stock, voting together as a single class, to amend the provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation relating to the issuance of preferred stock and management of our business or our amended and restated bylaws, which may inhibit the ability of an acquiror to effect such amendments to facilitate an unsolicited takeover attempt;

 

   

the ability of our board of directors, by majority vote, to amend the bylaws, which may allow our board of directors to take additional actions to prevent an unsolicited takeover and inhibit the ability of an acquiror to amend the bylaws to facilitate an unsolicited takeover attempt; and

 

   

advance notice procedures with which stockholders must comply to nominate candidates to our board of directors or to propose matters to be acted upon at a stockholders’ meeting, which may discourage or deter a potential acquiror from conducting a solicitation of proxies to elect the acquiror’s own slate of directors or otherwise attempting to obtain control of us.

 

In addition, as a Delaware corporation, we are subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law. These provisions may prohibit large stockholders, in particular those owning 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock, from merging or combining with us for a certain period of time.

 

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This prospectus, including the sections entitled “Prospectus Summary,” “Risk Factors,” “Use of Proceeds,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” “Business,” and “Compensation Discussion and Analysis” contains forward-looking statements. The words “believe,” “may,” “will,” “potentially,” “estimate,” “continue,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “could,” “would,” “project,” “plan” “expect,” and similar expressions that convey uncertainty of future events or outcomes are intended to identify forward-looking statements.

 

These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements concerning the following:

 

   

our ability to maintain an adequate rate of revenue growth;

 

   

our business plan and our ability to effectively manage our growth;

 

   

costs associated with defending intellectual property infringement and other claims, such as those claims discussed in “Business—Legal Proceedings”;

 

   

our ability to attract and retain end-customers;

 

   

our ability to increase sales to our existing customer base;

 

   

our ability to displace existing products in established markets;

 

   

our ability to extend our leadership position in next-generation network security;

 

   

our ability to timely and effectively scale and adapt our existing technology;

 

   

our ability to develop innovative products and bring them to market in a timely manner;

 

   

our ability to expand internationally;

 

   

the effects of increased competition in our market and our ability to compete effectively;

 

   

the effects of seasonal trends on our results of operations;

 

   

our expectations concerning relationships with third parties, including channel partners and logistics providers;

 

   

the attraction and retention of qualified employees and key personnel;

 

   

our ability to maintain, protect, and enhance our brand and intellectual property; and

 

   

future acquisitions of, or investments in, complementary companies, products, services, or technologies.

 

These forward-looking statements are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties, and assumptions, including those described in “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment, and new risks emerge from time to time. It is not possible for our management to predict all risks, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements we may make. In light of these risks, uncertainties, and assumptions, the forward-looking events and circumstances discussed in this prospectus may not occur and actual results could differ materially and adversely from those anticipated or implied in the forward-looking statements.

 

You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot guarantee that the future results, levels of activity, performance or events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements will be achieved or occur. Moreover, neither we nor any other person assumes responsibility for the accuracy and completeness of the forward-looking statements. We undertake no obligation to update publicly any forward-looking statements for any reason after the date of this prospectus to conform these statements to actual results or to changes in our expectations, except as required by law.

 

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You should read this prospectus and the documents that we reference in this prospectus and have filed with the SEC as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part with the understanding that our actual future results, levels of activity, performance, and events and circumstances may be materially different from what we expect.

 

MARKET AND INDUSTRY DATA

 

Unless otherwise indicated, information contained in this prospectus concerning our industry and the markets in which we operate, including our general expectations and market position, market opportunity, and market size, is based on information from various sources, including Gartner, Inc. (Gartner), International Data Corporation (IDC), and NSS Labs, Inc. (NSS Labs), on assumptions that we have made that are based on those data and other similar sources and on our knowledge of the markets for our products and services. This information involves a number of assumptions and limitations, and you are cautioned not to give undue weight to such estimates. In addition, projections, assumptions and estimates of our future performance and the future performance of the industry in which we operate is necessarily subject to a high degree of uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors, including those described in “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus. These and other factors could cause results to differ materially from those expressed in the estimates made by the independent parties and by us.

 

The Gartner Reports described herein, represent data, research opinion or viewpoints published, as part of a syndicated subscription service, by Gartner, and are not representations of fact. Each Gartner Report speaks as of its original publication date (and not as of the date of this prospectus) and the opinions expressed in the Gartner Reports are subject to change without notice. Gartner does not endorse any vendor, product or service depicted in its research publications, and does not advise technology users to select only those vendors with the highest ratings. Gartner research publications consist of the opinions of Gartner’s research organization and should not be construed as statements of fact. Gartner disclaims all warranties, expressed or implied, with respect to this research, including any warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose.

 

In certain instances the sources of the market and industry data contained in this prospectus are identified by superscript notations. The sources of these data are provided below:

 

  (1)   Gartner, Magic Quadrant for Enterprise Network Firewalls, December 14, 2011.

 

  (2)   IDC, Worldwide Network Security 2012–2016 Forecast and 2011 Vendor Shares, #235631, June 2012, and IDC, Worldwide Web Security 2011–2015 Forecast and 2010 Vendor Shares, #229725, November 2011.

 

  (3)   Gartner, Re-Imagine IT Using Insights from Symposium’s Analyst Keynote, December 2, 2011.

 

  (4)   Gartner, Top Security Trends and Takeaways for 2011-2012, December 1, 2011.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

 

We estimate that the net proceeds from our sale of 4,687,259 shares of common stock in this offering at an assumed initial public offering price of $39.00 per share, the midpoint of the price range reflected on the cover page of this prospectus, after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, will be approximately $166.1 million, or $199.8 million if the underwriters’ over-allotment option is exercised in full. A $1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed initial public offering price would increase (decrease) the net proceeds to us from this offering by $4.4 million, assuming the number of shares offered by us, as reflected on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same and after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of common stock by the selling stockholders.

 

The principal purposes of this offering are to increase our capitalization and financial flexibility, create a public market for our stock and thereby enable access to the public equity markets by our employees and stockholders, obtain additional capital, facilitate an orderly distribution of shares for the selling stockholders and increase our visibility in the marketplace. As of the date of this prospectus, we have no specific plans for the use of the net proceeds we receive from this offering. However, we currently intend to use the net proceeds we receive from this offering primarily for general corporate purposes, including working capital, sales and marketing activities, product development, general and administrative matters, and capital expenditures. We may also use a portion of the net proceeds for the acquisition of, or investment in, technologies, solutions or businesses that complement our business, although we have no present commitments or agreements to enter into any acquisitions or investments. We will have broad discretion over the uses of the net proceeds of this offering. Pending these uses, we intend to invest the net proceeds from this offering in short-term, investment-grade interest-bearing securities such as money market accounts, certificates of deposit, commercial paper, and guaranteed obligations of the U.S. government.

 

DIVIDEND POLICY

 

We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our common stock. We currently intend to retain all available funds and any future earnings for use in the operation of our business and do not anticipate paying any dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future. Any future determination to declare dividends will be made at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on our financial condition, operating results, capital requirements, general business conditions and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant.

 

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CAPITALIZATION

 

The following table sets forth our cash and cash equivalents and capitalization as of April 30, 2012 on:

 

   

an actual basis;

 

   

a pro forma basis, giving effect to the automatic conversion of all outstanding shares of our convertible preferred stock into 41,304,600 shares of common stock and the effectiveness of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation as of immediately prior to the completion of this offering, as if such conversion had occurred and our amended and restated certificate of incorporation had become effective on April 30, 2012; and

 

   

a pro forma as adjusted basis, giving effect to the pro forma adjustments and the sale of 4,687,259 shares of common stock by us in this offering, based on an assumed initial public offering price of $39.00 per share, the midpoint of the price range reflected on the cover page of this prospectus, after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

 

The pro forma as adjusted information set forth in the table below is illustrative only and will be adjusted based on the actual initial public offering price and other terms of this offering determined at pricing.

 

You should read this table together with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our audited and unaudited consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus.

 

     April 30, 2012  
     Actual     Pro  Forma(1)     Pro Forma
as  Adjusted(1)(2)
 
     (in thousands, except share and per share data)  

Cash and cash equivalents

   $ 90,283      $ 90,283      $
257,093
  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Current and long-term notes payable

                     

Redeemable convertible preferred stock, $0.0001 par value; 41,722,858 shares authorized, 41,304,600 issued and outstanding, actual; no shares authorized, issued and outstanding, pro forma and pro forma as adjusted

     67,517                 

Stockholders’ equity (deficit):

      

Preferred Stock, par value $0.0001; no shares authorized, issued and outstanding, actual; 100,000,000 shares authorized, no shares issued and outstanding, pro forma and pro forma as adjusted

                     

Common stock, $0.0001 par value; 75,000,000 authorized, 20,609,585 issued and outstanding, actual; 75,000,000 authorized, 61,914,185 issued and outstanding, pro forma; 1,000,000,000 shares authorized, 66,601,444 shares issued and outstanding, pro forma as adjusted

     2        6        7   

Additional paid-in capital

     18,813        86,808        252,914   

Accumulated deficit

     (75,429     (75,911     (75,911
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total stockholders’ equity (deficit)

     (56,614     10,903        177,010   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total capitalization

   $ 10,903      $ 10,903      $ 177,010   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

  (1)   As described in Notes 1 and 10 to our Consolidated Financial Statements, in January 2012 we granted restricted stock awards that vest based on a service condition and a liquidity condition. As a result, capitalization includes a $0.5 million increase to additional paid-in capital and an offsetting increase to accumulated deficit.

 

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  (2)   Each $1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed initial public offering price of $39.00 per share, the midpoint of the price range reflected on the cover page of this prospectus, would increase (decrease) our pro forma as adjusted cash and cash equivalents, additional paid-in capital, total stockholders’ equity (deficit), and total capitalization by approximately $4.4 million, assuming that the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same and after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

 

The number of shares of our common stock to be outstanding after this offering is based on 61,914,185 shares of our common stock outstanding as of April 30, 2012, and excludes:

 

   

12,900,814 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of options outstanding as of April 30, 2012, with a weighted-average exercise price of $7.16 per share;

 

   

1,559,000 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of options granted after April 30, 2012 with a weighted-average exercise price of $20.19 per share;

 

   

30,000 shares of common stock to be issued to a charitable foundation prior to the completion of this offering; and

 

   

13,185,001 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our stock-based compensation plans, consisting of 2,185,001 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2005 Equity Incentive Plan (including options to purchase 1,559,000 shares of common stock granted after April 30, 2012), which shares will be added to the shares to be reserved under our 2012 Equity Incentive Plan, which will become effective in connection with this offering, 10,000,000 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2012 Equity Incentive Plan, 1,000,000 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2012 Employee Stock Purchase Plan, which will become effective in connection with this offering, and shares that become available under our 2012 Equity Incentive Plan and 2012 Employee Stock Purchase Plan, pursuant to provisions thereof that automatically increase the share reserves under the plans each year, as more fully described in “Executive Compensation—Employee Benefit and Stock Plans.”

 

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DILUTION

 

If you invest in our common stock, your interest will be diluted to the extent of the difference between the amount per share paid by purchasers of shares of common stock in this initial public offering and the pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share of common stock immediately after this offering.

 

As of April 30, 2012, our pro forma net tangible book value was approximately $10.4 million, or $0.17 per share of common stock. Our pro forma net tangible book value per share represents the amount of our total tangible assets reduced by the amount of our total liabilities and divided by the total number of shares of our common stock outstanding as of April 30, 2012, assuming the conversion of all outstanding shares of our convertible preferred stock.

 

After giving effect to our sale in this offering of 4,687,259 shares of our common stock, at an assumed initial public offering price of $39.00 per share, the midpoint of the price range reflected on the cover page of this prospectus, after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, our pro forma net tangible book value as of April 30, 2012 would have been approximately $176.5 million, or $2.65 per share of our common stock. This represents an immediate increase in pro forma net tangible book value of $2.48 per share to our existing stockholders and an immediate dilution of $36.35 per share to investors purchasing shares in this offering.

 

The following table illustrates this dilution:

 

Assumed initial public offering price per share

      $ 39.00   

Pro forma net tangible book value per share as of April 30, 2012, before giving effect to this offering

   $ 0.17      

Increase per share attributable to this offering

     2.48      
  

 

 

    

Pro forma net tangible book value, as adjusted to give effect to this offering

        2.65   
     

 

 

 

Dilution in pro forma net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering

      $ 36.35   
     

 

 

 

 

A $1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed initial public offering price of $39.00 per share, the midpoint of the price range reflected on the cover page of this prospectus, would increase (decrease) our pro forma net tangible book value, as adjusted to give effect to this offering, by $0.07 per share, the increase (decrease) attributable to this offering by $0.07 per share, and the dilution in pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering by $0.93 per share, assuming the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated expenses payable by us.

 

If the underwriters exercise their over-allotment option in full, the pro forma net tangible book value per share of our common stock after giving effect to this offering would be $3.11 per share, and the dilution in net tangible book value per share to investors in this offering would be $35.89 per share.

 

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The following table summarizes, on a pro forma as adjusted basis as of April 30, 2012 after giving effect to (i) the automatic conversion of all of our convertible preferred stock into common stock and the effectiveness of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, and (ii) this offering on an assumed initial public offering price of $39.00 per share, the midpoint of the price range reflected on the cover page of this prospectus, the difference between existing stockholders and new investors with respect to the number of shares of common stock purchased from us, the total consideration paid to us, and the average price per share paid, before deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses:

 

     Shares Purchased     Total Consideration     Average Price
Per Share
 
     Number      Percent     Amount      Percent    

Existing stockholders

     61,914,185         93.0   $ 72,139         28.3   $ 1.17   

New public investors

     4,687,259         7.0     182,803         71.7     39.00   
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

Total

     66,601,444         100.0   $ 254,942         100.0  
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

A $1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed initial public offering price of $39.00 per share, the midpoint of the price range reflected on the cover page of this prospectus, would increase (decrease) total consideration paid by new investors and total consideration paid by all stockholders by approximately $4.4 million, assuming that the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same and after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

 

To the extent that any outstanding options are exercised, investors will experience further dilution.

 

Except as otherwise indicated, the above discussion and tables assume no exercise of the underwriters’ over-allotment option. If the underwriters exercise their over-allotment option in full, our existing stockholders would own 61,914,185 shares, or 91.7%, and our new investors would own 5,617,259 shares, or 8.3%, of the total number of shares of our common stock outstanding upon the completion of this offering.

 

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SELECTED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL DATA

 

The selected consolidated statement of operations data for the years ended July 31, 2009, 2010, and 2011 and the consolidated balance sheet data as of July 31, 2010 and 2011 are derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. The selected consolidated statement of operations data for the nine month periods ended April 30, 2011 and 2012 and the consolidated balance sheet data as of April 30, 2012 are derived from our unaudited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. The selected consolidated statement of operations data for fiscal 2008 and the consolidated balance sheet data as of July 31, 2008 and 2009 are derived from audited financial statements not included in this prospectus. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected in the future, and the results for the nine month period ended April 30, 2012 are not necessarily indicative of operating results to be expected for the full year ending July 31, 2012 or any other period. The unaudited consolidated financial statements have been prepared on the same basis as the audited consolidated financial statements and, in the opinion of management, reflect all adjustments, which consist only of normal recurring adjustments, necessary for the fair presentation of those unaudited consolidated financial statements. The selected consolidated financial data below should be read in conjunction with the section entitled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus.

 

     Year Ended July 31,     Nine Months Ended
April 30,
 
     2008     2009     2010     2011     2011     2012  
     (in thousands, except per share data)  

Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:

            

Revenue:

            

Product

   $ 2,605      $ 10,110      $ 36,789      $ 84,800      $ 55,716      $ 125,023   

Services

     517        3,242        11,993        33,797        22,655        54,473   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total revenue

     3,122        13,352        48,782        118,597        78,371        179,496   

Cost of revenue:

            

Product(1)

     1,476        3,952        10,822        21,766        14,003        32,082   

Services(1)

     1,377        2,324        4,812        10,507        6,917        16,904   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total cost of revenue

     2,853        6,276        15,634        32,273        20,920        48,986   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total gross profit

     269        7,076        33,148        86,324        57,451        130,510   

Operating expenses:

            

Research and development(1)

     7,460        8,208        12,788        21,366        14,437        26,824   

Sales and marketing(1)

     7,583        15,372        29,726        62,254        38,747        78,196   

General and administrative(1)

     1,725        2,536        11,291        13,108        9,290        17,355   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total operating expenses

     16,768        26,116        53,805        96,728        62,474        122,375   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating income (loss)

     (16,499     (19,040     (20,657     (10,404     (5,023     8,135   

Interest income

     358        52        4        3        3        7   

Other income (expense), net

     (42     (5     (424     (1,651     (1,195     (1,033
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Income (loss) before income taxes

     (16,183     (18,993     (21,077     (12,052     (6,215     7,109   

Provision for income taxes

     4        12        56        476        333        1,773   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net income (loss)

   $ (16,187   $ (19,005   $ (21,133   $ (12,528   $ (6,548   $ 5,336   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

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  (1)   Includes share-based compensation expense as follows:

 

     Year Ended July 31,      Nine Months Ended
April  30,
 
     2008      2009      2010      2011      2011      2012  
     (in thousands)  

Cost of product revenue

   $ 4       $ 6       $ 9       $ 27       $ 16       $ 68   

Cost of services revenue

     4         9         46         179         108         365   

Research and development

     72         126         318         1,020         703         2,217   

Sales and marketing

     84         186         364         1,133         739         2,049   

General and administrative

     111         47         132         2,374         2,244         2,674   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total share-based compensation

   $ 275       $ 374       $ 869       $ 4,733       $ 3,810       $ 7,373   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

     Year Ended July 31,     Nine Months Ended
April 30,
 
     2008     2009     2010     2011     2011     2012  
     (in thousands, except per share data)  

Net income (loss) attributable to common stockholders :

            

Basic

   $ (16,187   $ (19,005   $ (21,133   $ (12,528   $ (6,548   $ 40   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Diluted

     $ (19,005   $ (21,133   $ (12,528   $ (6,548   $ 49   
    

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net income (loss) per share attributable to common stockholders:

            

Basic

   $ (2.56   $ (2.01   $ (1.78   $ (0.88   $ (0.48   $ 0.00   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Diluted

     $ (2.01   $ (1.78   $ (0.88   $ (0.48   $ 0.00   
    

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Weighted-average shares used to compute net income (loss) per share attributable to common stockholders:

            

Basic

     6,322        9,435        11,901        14,201        13,559        17,238   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Diluted

       9,435        11,901        14,201        13,559        23,020   
    

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Pro forma net income (loss) per share attributable to common stockholders:

            

Basic

         $ (0.20     $ 0.10   
        

 

 

     

 

 

 

Diluted

         $ (0.20     $ 0.09   
        

 

 

     

 

 

 

Pro forma weighted-average shares outstanding used to compute net income (loss) per share attributable to common stockholders:

            

Basic

           55,285          58,421   
        

 

 

     

 

 

 

Diluted

           55,285          64,328   
        

 

 

     

 

 

 

 

 

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     July 31,     April 30,  
     2008     2009     2010     2011     2011     2012  
     (in thousands)  

Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:

            

Cash and cash equivalents

   $ 1,290      $ 21,366      $ 18,835      $ 40,517      $ 31,358      $ 90,283   

Working capital (deficiency)

     (1,470     18,246        7,000        9,739        6,645        36,047   

Total assets

     6,170        28,213        38,119        91,172        70,291        166,489   

Current and long-term notes payable

                                          

Preferred stock warrant liability

     75        68        491        2,068        1,631          

Redeemable convertible preferred stock

     28,025        64,491        64,491        64,491        64,491        67,517   

Common stock including additional paid-in capital

     562        1,200        2,589        9,311        7,135        18,815   

Total stockholders’ deficit

     (27,537     (45,904     (65,648     (71,454     (67,650     (56,614

 

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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION

AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations together with the consolidated financial statements and related notes that are included elsewhere in this prospectus. The last day of our fiscal year is July 31. Our fiscal quarters end on October 31, January 31, April 30, and July 31. Fiscal 2012, our current fiscal year, will end on July 31, 2012. This discussion contains forward-looking statements based upon current expectations that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including those set forth under “Risk Factors” or in other parts of this prospectus.

 

Overview

 

We have pioneered the next generation of network security with our innovative platform that allows enterprises, service providers, and government entities to secure their networks and safely enable the increasingly complex and rapidly growing number of applications running on their networks. The core of our platform is our Next-Generation Firewall, which delivers application, user, and content visibility and control integrated within the firewall through our proprietary hardware and software architecture. Our products and services can address a broad range of our end-customers’ network security requirements, from the data center to the network perimeter, as well as the distributed enterprise, which includes branch offices and a growing number of mobile devices.

 

We were founded in 2005 to address the limitations that exist in legacy approaches to network security and to restore the firewall as the most strategic point of network control. From 2005 to 2007, our activities were focused on research and development, which resulted in the commercial release of our first product, the PA-4000 Series, as well as our first subscription service, Threat Prevention, in 2007. Since then, we have continued to innovate and consistently introduce new products and services, including the PA-5000 Series and GlobalProtect subscription service in March 2011, and most recently the PA-200 and WildFire subscription service in November 2011.

 

We derive revenue from sales of our products and services, which together comprise our platform. Product revenue is primarily generated from sales of our Next-Generation Firewall. All of our products incorporate our proprietary PAN-OS operating system, which provides a consistent set of capabilities across our entire product line. Our products are designed for different performance requirements across an organization, from branch offices to large data centers. Our platform can be centrally managed across an organization with our Panorama product. Services revenue includes sales from subscriptions and support and maintenance. Our Threat Prevention, URL Filtering, and GlobalProtect subscriptions provide our end-customers with real-time access to the latest antivirus, intrusion prevention, web filtering, and modern malware protection capabilities across fixed and mobile devices. When end-customers purchase a product, they typically purchase one or more of our subscriptions for additional functionality, as well as support and maintenance in order to receive ongoing security updates, upgrades, bug fixes, and repairs. Sales of services increase our deferred revenue balance and contribute significantly to our positive cash flow provided by operating activities.

 

We maintain a field sales force that works closely with our channel partners in developing sales opportunities. We use a two-tier, indirect fulfillment model whereby we sell our products and services to our global distributor channel partners, who, in turn, sell our products and services to our reseller network, who then sell to our end-customers. Our channel partners purchase our products and services at a discount to our list prices and then resell them to our end-customers. Our channel partners receive an order from an end-customer prior to placing an order with us and generally do not stock appliances.

 

We had more than 7,750 end-customers in over 100 countries as of April 30, 2012. Our end-customers represent a broad range of industries including education, energy, financial services, healthcare, Internet and media, manufacturing, public sector, and telecommunications. During the nine month period ended April 30,

 

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2012, 62% of our revenue was generated from the Americas, 26% from Europe, the Middle East, and Africa (EMEA), and 12% from Asia Pacific and Japan (APAC). As of April 30, 2012, we had 692 employees.

 

We have experienced rapid growth in recent periods. For fiscal 2009, 2010, and 2011, our revenues were $13.4 million, $48.8 million, and $118.6 million, respectively, representing year-over-year growth of 265% for fiscal 2010 and 143% for fiscal 2011, and our net losses were $19.0 million, $21.1 million, and $12.5 million, respectively. For the nine month periods ended April 30, 2011 and 2012, our revenues were $78.4 million and $179.5 million, respectively, representing year-over-year growth of 129%. For the nine month period ended April 30, 2011, we recorded net loss of $6.5 million, and for the nine month period ended April 30, 2012, we recorded net income of $5.3 million. For the nine month period ended April 30, 2011 and 2012, we generated $22.0 million and $58.5 million, respectively, of cash flow provided by operating activities, and we have generated positive cash flow provided by operating activities for each of our last eight fiscal quarters.

 

We believe that the growth of our business and our short and long term success are dependent upon many factors, including our ability to extend our technology leadership, grow our base of end-customers, expand deployment of our platform within existing end-customers, and focus on end-customer satisfaction. While these areas present significant opportunities for us, they also pose challenges and risks that we must successfully address in order to sustain the growth of our business and improve our operating results.

 

We have experienced rapid growth and increased demand for our products over the last few years. To manage any future growth effectively, we must continue to improve and expand our information technology and financial infrastructure, our operating and administrative systems and controls, and our ability to manage headcount, capital, and processes in an efficient manner. Additionally, we face intense competition in our market, and to succeed, we need to innovate and offer products that are differentiated from existing infrastructure products, as well as effectively hire, retain, train, and motivate qualified personnel and senior management. If we are unable to successfully address these challenges, our business, operating results, and prospects could be adversely affected.

 

Key Financial Metrics

 

We monitor the key financial metrics set forth below to help us evaluate growth trends, establish budgets, measure the effectiveness of our sales and marketing efforts, and assess operational efficiencies. We discuss revenue, gross margin, and the components of operating income (loss) and margin below under “—Financial Overview” and “—Results of Operations.” Deferred revenue, cash flow provided by (used in) operating activities, and free cash flow are discussed immediately below the following table.

 

     Year Ended July 31,     Nine Months Ended
April 30,
 
     2009     2010     2011     2011     2012  
     (dollars in thousands)  

Total revenue

   $ 13,352      $ 48,782      $ 118,597      $ 78,371      $ 179,496   

Year-over-year percentage increase

     327.7     265.4     143.1     153.0     129.0

Gross margin percentage

     53.0     68.0     72.8     73.3     72.7

Operating income (loss)

   $ (19,040   $ (20,657   $ (10,404   $ (5,023   $ 8,135   

Operating margin percentage

     (142.6 )%      (42.3 )%      (8.8 )%      (6.4 )%      4.5

Total deferred revenue at period end

   $ 5,593      $ 24,121      $ 67,255      $ 47,125      $ 116,652   

Cash flow provided by (used in) operating activities

   $ (13,523   $ (2,683   $ 32,102      $ 21,961      $ 58,478   

Free cash flow (non-GAAP)

   $ (14,568   $ (4,368   $ 19,102      $ 11,059      $ 47,197   

 

   

Deferred Revenue. Our deferred revenue consists of amounts that have been invoiced but that have not yet been recognized as revenue as of the period end. The majority of our deferred revenue balance consists of subscription and support and maintenance revenue that is recognized ratably over the

 

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contractual service period. We monitor our deferred revenue balance because it represents a significant portion of revenue to be recognized in future periods.

 

   

Cash Flow Provided by (Used in) Operating Activities. We monitor cash flow provided by (used in) operating activities as a measure of our overall business performance. Our cash flow provided by (used in) operating activities is driven in large part by sales of our products and from up-front payments for both subscription and support and maintenance. Monitoring cash flow provided by (used in) operating activities enables us to analyze our financial performance without the non-cash effects of certain items such as depreciation, amortization, and share-based compensation costs, thereby allowing us to better understand and manage the cash needs of our business.

 

   

Free Cash Flow. We define free cash flow as cash provided by (used in) operating activities less purchases of property, equipment, and other assets. We consider free cash flow to be a liquidity measure that provides useful information to management and investors about the amount of cash generated by the business that, after the purchases of property, equipment, and other assets, can be used for strategic opportunities, including investing in our business, making strategic acquisitions, and strengthening the balance sheet. For fiscal 2011, our free cash flow was impacted by an increase in property, equipment, and other assets, of which $7.3 million was due to leasehold improvements for our new headquarters.

 

     Year Ended July 31,     Nine Months Ended
April 30,
 
     2009     2010     2011     2011     2012  
     (in thousands)  

Cash Flow:

          

Cash flow provided by (used in) operating activities

   $ (13,523   $ (2,683   $ 32,102      $ 21,961      $ 58,478   

Less: purchase of property, equipment, and other assets

     1,045        1,685        13,000        10,902        11,281   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Free cash flow (non-GAAP)

   $ (14,568   $ (4,368   $ 19,102      $ 11,059      $ 47,197   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net cash used in investing activities

   $ (1,045   $ (1,685   $ (13,000   $ (10,902   $ (11,281
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net cash provided by financing activities

   $ 34,644      $ 1,837      $ 2,580      $ 1,464      $ 2,569   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

Financial Overview

 

Revenue

 

We generate revenue from the sales of our products and services. As discussed further in “—Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates—Revenue Recognition” below, revenue is recognized when persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, delivery has occurred, the fee is fixed or determinable, and collectability is reasonably assured.

 

Our total revenue is comprised of the following:

 

   

Product Revenue. The substantial majority of our product revenue is generated from sales of our appliances. Product revenue also includes revenue derived from software licenses of Panorama and Virtual Systems Upgrades. We recognize product revenue at the time of shipment, provided that all other revenue recognition criteria have been met. As a percentage of total revenue, we expect our product revenue to vary from quarter-to-quarter based on seasonal and cyclical factors discussed under “—Quarterly Results of Operations.”

 

   

Services Revenue. Services revenue is generated primarily from Threat Prevention, URL Filtering, and GlobalProtect subscriptions and support and maintenance. Our subscriptions are priced as a percentage of the appliance’s list price. Our contractual subscription and support and maintenance terms are typically one year, and can be up to three years. We recognize revenue from subscriptions and support

 

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and maintenance over the contractual service period. As a percentage of total revenue, we expect our services revenue to remain at consistent levels or increase as we introduce new subscriptions, renew existing services contracts, and expand our end-customer base.

 

Cost of Revenue

 

Our total cost of revenue consists of cost of product revenue and cost of services revenue. Personnel costs associated with our operations and global customer support organizations consist of salaries, benefits, bonuses, and share-based compensation. Allocated costs consist of certain facilities, depreciation, benefits, recruiting, and information technology costs allocated based on headcount.

 

   

Cost of Product Revenue. Cost of product revenue primarily includes costs paid to our third-party contract manufacturer. Our cost of product revenue also includes product testing costs, allocated costs, warranty costs, shipping costs, and personnel costs associated with logistics and quality control. We expect our cost of product revenue to increase as our product revenue increases.

 

   

Cost of Services Revenue. Cost of services revenue includes personnel costs for our global customer support organization, allocated costs, and URL filtering database service fees. We expect our cost of services revenue to increase as our end-customer base grows.

 

Gross Margin

 

Gross margin, or gross profit as a percentage of revenue, has been and will continue to be affected by a variety of factors, including the average sales price of our products, manufacturing costs, the mix of products sold, and the mix of revenue between products and services. For sales of our products, our higher throughput firewall products generally have higher gross margins than our lower throughput firewall products within each product series. For sales of our services, our subscriptions typically have higher gross margins than our support and maintenance. We expect our gross margins to fluctuate over time depending on the factors described above.

 

Operating Expenses

 

Our operating expenses consist of research and development, sales and marketing, and general and administrative expense. Personnel costs are the most significant component of operating expenses and consist of salaries, benefits, bonuses, share-based compensation, and with regard to sales and marketing expense, sales commissions. We expect operating expenses to increase in absolute dollars, although they may fluctuate as a percentage of revenue from period to period, as we continue to grow in response to demand for our products and services. As of April 30, 2012, we expect to recognize approximately $34.2 million of share-based compensation expense over a weighted-average period of three years, excluding additional share-based compensation expense related to the grants of share-based awards that we made in May 2012 and June 2012 as described under “Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates – Share-Based Compensation” and any future grants of share-based awards. Share-based compensation expense, net of forfeitures, is recognized using a straight-line basis over the requisite service periods of the awards, which is generally four years.

 

   

Research and Development. Research and development expense consists primarily of personnel costs. Research and development expense also includes prototype related expenses and allocated facilities costs. We expect research and development expense to increase in absolute dollars as we continue to invest in our future products and services, although our research and development expense may fluctuate as a percentage of total revenue.

 

   

Sales and Marketing. Sales and marketing expense consists primarily of personnel costs including commission costs. We expense commission costs as incurred. Sales and marketing expense also includes costs for market development programs, promotional and other marketing costs, travel costs, office equipment and software, depreciation of capital equipment, professional services, and allocated facilities costs. In the last 12 months, we have nearly doubled the size of our sales force and have also substantially grown our local sales presence internationally. We expect sales and marketing expense to

 

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continue to increase in absolute dollars as we increase the size of our sales and marketing organizations to increase touch points with end-customers and to expand our international presence, although our sales and marketing expense may fluctuate as a percentage of total revenue.

 

   

General and Administrative. General and administrative expense consists of personnel costs as well as professional services. General and administrative personnel include our executive, finance, human resources, and legal organizations. Professional services consist primarily of legal, auditing, accounting, and other consulting costs. We expect general and administrative expense to increase in absolute dollars following the completion of this offering due to additional legal fees and costs associated with pending litigation, accounting, insurance, investor relations, and other costs associated with being a public company, although our general and administrative expense may fluctuate as a percentage of total revenue. Refer to the discussion under “Business—Legal Proceedings” for information related to pending litigation.

 

Interest Income

 

Interest income consists of income earned on our cash and cash equivalents. We have historically invested our cash in money-market funds. We expect interest income will vary each reporting period depending on our average investment balances during the period, types and mix of investments, and market interest rates.

 

Other Income (Expense), Net

 

Other income (expense), net consists primarily of the change in fair value of our preferred stock warrant liability. Convertible preferred stock warrants were classified as a liability on our consolidated balance sheets and remeasured to fair value at each balance sheet date with the corresponding change recorded as other expense. We expect other expense to decrease in the near term as a result of the exercise of the convertible preferred stock warrants during the three month period ended January 31, 2012 and to remain at a consistent level thereafter.

 

Provision for Income Taxes

 

Provision for income taxes consists primarily of federal and state income taxes in the United States and income taxes in foreign jurisdictions in which we conduct business. We have a full valuation allowance for domestic deferred tax assets including net operating loss carryforwards and research and development and other tax credits. We expect to maintain this full valuation allowance in the near-term. We also expect the provision for income taxes to increase in absolute dollars in future years.

 

We intend to reorganize our corporate structure and intercompany relationships to more closely align with the international nature of our business activities. This proposed corporate structure may allow us to reduce our overall effective tax rate through changes in how we use our intellectual property, international procurement, and sales operations. While we expect this corporate structure to result in a percentage of our pre-tax income being subject to foreign tax at relatively lower tax rates when compared to the U.S. federal statutory tax rate, we are only in the initial phases of putting this corporate structure in place, and any reduction in our overall effective tax rate that we may realize as a result of this proposed corporate structure would not have a material impact on our financial results in the near term. Moreover, we will incur expenses in the near term to establish this corporate structure, including expenses for establishing various international entities, adopting research and development cost-sharing arrangements, and entering into certain licenses and other contractual arrangements between us and our wholly owned foreign subsidiaries. However, we do not expect these expenses to have a material effect on our operating results.

 

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Results of Operations

 

The following tables summarize our results of operations for the periods presented and as a percentage of our total revenue for those periods. The period-to-period comparison of results is not necessarily indicative of results for future periods.

 

     Year Ended July 31,     Nine Months Ended
April 30,
 
     2009     2010     2011     2011     2012  
     (in thousands)  

Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:

          

Revenue:

          

Product

   $ 10,110      $ 36,789      $ 84,800      $ 55,716      $ 125,023   

Services

     3,242        11,993        33,797        22,655        54,473   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total revenue

     13,352        48,782        118,597        78,371        179,496   

Cost of revenue:

          

Product

     3,952        10,822        21,766        14,003        32,082   

Services

     2,324        4,812        10,507        6,917        16,904   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total cost of revenue

     6,276        15,634        32,273        20,920        48,986   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total gross profit

     7,076        33,148        86,324        57,451        130,510   

Operating expenses:

          

Research and development

     8,208        12,788        21,366        14,437        26,824   

Sales and marketing

     15,372        29,726        62,254        38,747        78,196   

General and administrative

     2,536        11,291        13,108        9,290        17,355   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total operating expenses

     26,116        53,805        96,728        62,474        122,375   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating income (loss)

     (19,040     (20,657     (10,404     (5,023     8,135   

Interest income

     52        4        3        3        7   

Other income (expense), net

     (5     (424     (1,651     (1,195     (1,033
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Income (loss) before income taxes

     (18,993     (21,077     (12,052     (6,215     7,109   

Provision for income taxes

     12        56        476        333        1,773   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net income (loss)

   $ (19,005   $ (21,133   $ (12,528   $ (6,548   $ 5,336   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

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     Year Ended July 31,     Nine Months Ended
April 30,
 
     2009     2010     2011     2011     2012  
     (as a percentage of revenue)  

Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:

          

Revenue:

          

Product

     75.7     75.4     71.5     71.1     69.7

Services

     24.3     24.6     28.5     28.9     30.3
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total revenue

     100.0     100.0     100.0     100.0     100.0

Cost of revenue:

          

Product

     29.6     22.2     18.4     17.9     17.9

Services

     17.4     9.8     8.8     8.8     9.4
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total cost of revenue

     47.0     32.0     27.2     26.7     27.3
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total gross profit

     53.0     68.0     72.8     73.3     72.7

Operating expenses:

          

Research and development

     61.5     26.2     18.0     18.4     14.9

Sales and marketing

     115.1     60.9     52.5     49.4     43.6

General and administrative

     19.0     23.2     11.1     11.9     9.7
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total operating expenses

     195.6     110.3     81.6     79.7     68.2
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating income (loss)

     (142.6 )%      (42.3 )%      (8.8 )%      (6.4 )%      4.5

Interest income

     0.4                

Other income (expense), net

         (0.9 )%      (1.4 )%      (1.5 )%      (0.6 )% 
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Income (loss) before income taxes

     (142.2 )%      (43.2 )%      (10.2 )%      (7.9 )%      3.9

Provision for income taxes

     0.1     0.1     0.4     0.4     1.0
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net income (loss)

     (142.3 )%      (43.3 )%      (10.6 )%      (8.3 )%      2.9
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

Comparison of the Nine Month Periods Ended April 30, 2011 and 2012

 

Revenue

 

     Nine Months Ended April 30,        
     2011     2012     Change  
     Amount      % of
Revenue
    Amount      % of
Revenue
    Amount      %  
     (dollars in thousands)  

Revenue:

               

Product

   $ 55,716         71.1   $ 125,023         69.7   $ 69,307         124.4

Services

     22,655         28.9     54,473         30.3     31,818         140.4
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

Total revenue

   $ 78,371         100.0   $ 179,496         100.0   $ 101,125         129.0
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

Revenue by geographic theater:

               

Americas

   $ 48,704         62.1   $ 111,883         62.3   $ 63,179         129.7

EMEA

     21,223         27.1     46,014         25.6     24,791         116.8

APAC

     8,444         10.8     21,599         12.1     13,155         155.8
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

Total revenue

   $ 78,371         100.0   $ 179,496         100.0   $ 101,125         129.0
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

Total revenue increased $101.1 million, or 129.0%, for the nine month period ended April 30, 2012 compared to the nine month period ended April 30, 2011. The revenue growth reflects the increasing demand for our recently introduced and existing product and service offerings. The increase in product revenue was primarily

 

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the result of an aggregate increase of more than 80% in product unit volume largely driven by sales of our lower throughput firewall products. Average selling prices of hardware on a per unit basis also increased for most of our products, particularly our PA-5000 Series. Of the 129 percentage point increase in total revenue for the nine months ended April 30, 2012 over the prior period, approximately 25 percentage points were due to this increase in average selling prices. The increase in services revenue was primarily driven by new end-customers and, to a lesser extent, additional sales of subscription services to our existing end-customer base. Our total number of end-customers increased to approximately 7,750 at April 30, 2012 from approximately 3,800 at April 30, 2011.

 

With respect to geographic theaters, the Americas contributed the largest portion of this revenue increase because of its larger and more established sales force compared to our other theaters. We also experienced a significant increase in U.S. government sales in the three months ended October 31, 2011, as a result of both our continued investment in our expanded U.S. government sales force and cyclical U.S. government spending at the end of its September 30 fiscal year. Revenue from both EMEA and APAC also increased during this period primarily due to our investment in increasing the size of our international sales force and the number of partners in these theaters.

 

Cost of Revenue and Gross Margin

 

     Nine Months Ended April 30,        
     2011     2012     Change  
     Amount      Gross
Margin
    Amount      Gross
Margin
    Amount      Gross
Margin
 
     (dollars in thousands)  

Cost of revenue:

               

Product

   $ 14,003         $ 32,082         $ 18,079      

Services

     6,917           16,904           9,987      
  

 

 

      

 

 

      

 

 

    

Total cost of revenue

   $ 20,920         $ 48,986         $ 28,066      
  

 

 

      

 

 

      

 

 

    

Gross profit:

               

Product

   $ 41,713         74.9   $ 92,941         74.3   $ 51,228         (0.6 )% 

Services

     15,738         69.5     37,569         69.0     21,831         (0.5 )% 
  

 

 

      

 

 

      

 

 

    

Total gross profit

   $ 57,451         73.3   $ 130,510         72.7   $ 73,059         (0.6 )% 
  

 

 

      

 

 

      

 

 

    

 

Gross margin decreased 0.6 percentage points for the nine month period ended April 30, 2012 compared to the nine month period ended April 30, 2011. The decrease of 0.6 percentage points in product margin was primarily due a decrease of 2.6 percentage points related to changes in our product mix, with sales of our lower throughput firewall products representing a larger proportion of the product volume sold during this period than our higher throughput firewall products. On average, margins for firewall products with higher throughput are greater than firewall products with lower throughput. The decrease related to product mix was partially offset by increases in our average selling prices of hardware on a per unit basis. The decrease of 0.5 percentage points in services margin was primarily due to a decrease in average margins on revenue from support and maintenance as a result of an increase in personnel and other costs to support our expanding end-customer base. This decrease was largely offset by higher margin subscription sales, while the mix in services revenue was largely unchanged on a period-over-period basis.

 

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Operating Expenses

 

     Nine Months Ended April 30,        
     2011     2012     Change  
     Amount      % of
Revenue
    Amount      % of
Revenue
    Amount      %  
     (dollars in thousands)  

Operating expenses:

               

Research and development

   $ 14,437         18.4   $ 26,824         14.9   $ 12,387         85.8

Sales and marketing

     38,747         49.4     78,196         43.6     39,449         101.8

General and administrative

     9,290         11.9     17,355         9.7     8,065         86.8
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

Total operating expenses

   $ 62,474         79.7   $ 122,375         68.2   $ 59,901         95.9
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

Includes share-based compensation of:

               

Research and development

   $ 703         $ 2,217         $ 1,514         215.4

Sales and marketing

     739           2,049           1,310         177.3

General and administrative

     2,244           2,674           430         19.2
  

 

 

      

 

 

      

 

 

    

Total

   $ 3,686         $ 6,940         $ 3,254         88.3
  

 

 

      

 

 

      

 

 

    

 

Research and development expense increased $12.4 million, or 85.8%, for the nine month period ended April 30, 2012 compared to the nine month period ended April 30, 2011 primarily due to an increase in personnel costs of $8.4 million due to an increase in headcount and headcount related costs to support continued investment in our future product and service offerings and a charge of $0.9 million for share-based compensation due to the modification of the terms of certain share-based awards for a former employee. The remaining increase was due to an increase in allocated costs of $2.2 million and an increase in development costs of $1.4 million.

 

Sales and marketing expense increased $39.4 million, or 101.8%, for the nine month period ended April 30, 2012 compared to the nine month period ended April 30, 2011 primarily due to an increase in personnel costs of $22.6 million due to an increase in headcount and commissions. Ending headcount nearly doubled from April 30, 2011 to April 30, 2012. Additionally, marketing activity increased $5.2 million primarily due to an increase in joint marketing development programs, travel costs increased $3.8 million, and allocated costs increased $3.2 million. The remaining increase was due to an increase in professional services costs, depreciation, and facilities costs.

 

General and administrative expense increased $8.1 million, or 86.8%, for the nine month period ended April 30, 2012 compared to the nine month period ended April 30, 2011 primarily due to an increase in professional services costs of $4.0 million and an increase in personnel costs of $2.8 million related to overall growth to support the business. The remaining increase was due to an increase in allocated costs.

 

Other Expense, Net

 

     Nine Months Ended
April 30,
        
     2011      2012      Change  
     Amount      Amount      Amount     %  
     (dollars in thousands)  

Other expense, net

   $ 1,195       $ 1,033       $ (162     (13.6 )% 

 

The change in other expense, net was due to the increase in fair value of preferred stock warrant liability during the nine month period ended April 30, 2012 compared to the nine month period ended April 30, 2011.

 

In December 2011 and January 2012, these preferred stock warrants were exercised by the holders. As a result, we issued 197,000 shares of Series A redeemable convertible preferred stock and 24,000 shares of

 

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Series B redeemable convertible preferred stock. The amount for the nine month period ended April 30, 2012 represents the change in fair value of the preferred stock warrant liability from the beginning of the period to the dates of exercise of the warrants. We do not expect to incur expenses related to these warrants in future periods.

 

Provision for Income Taxes

 

     Nine Months Ended
April 30,
       
     2011     2012     Change  
     Amount     Amount     Amount      %  
     (dollars in thousands)  

Provision for income taxes

   $ 333      $ 1,773      $ 1,440         432.4

Effective tax rate

     (5.4 )%      24.9     

 

The provision for income taxes for the nine month period ended April 30, 2011 reflected a negative effective tax rate primarily due to foreign income taxes on profits realized by our foreign subsidiaries, despite a consolidated loss before income taxes. The provision for income taxes for the nine month period ended April 30, 2012 reflected an effective tax rate of 24.9% primarily due to U.S. federal alternative minimum tax, state taxes, and foreign taxes on our consolidated income before income taxes.

 

Comparison of Fiscal 2010 and 2011

 

Revenue

 

     Year Ended July 31,        
     2010     2011     Change  
     Amount      % of
Revenue
    Amount      % of
Revenue
    Amount      %  
     (dollars in thousands)  

Revenue:

               

Product

   $ 36,789         75.4   $ 84,800         71.5   $ 48,011         130.5

Services

     11,993         24.6     33,797         28.5     21,804         181.8
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

Total revenue

   $ 48,782         100.0   $ 118,597         100.0   $ 69,815         143.1
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

Revenue by geographic theater:

               

Americas

   $ 30,632         62.8   $ 73,145         61.7   $ 42,513         138.8

EMEA

     11,805         24.2     32,504         27.4     20,699         175.3

APAC

     6,345         13.0     12,948         10.9     6,603         104.1
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

Total revenue

   $ 48,782         100.0   $ 118,597         100.0   $ 69,815         143.1
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

Total revenue increased $69.8 million, or 143.1%, for fiscal 2011 compared to fiscal 2010. The revenue growth reflects the increasing demand for our product and service offerings. The increase in product revenue was primarily driven by an aggregate increase of more than 90% in product unit volume and the introduction of our PA-5000 Series as opposed to increases in the average selling prices of our products. The increase in services revenue was primarily driven by new end-customers and, to a lesser extent, additional sales of subscription services from our existing end-customer base. Our total number of end-customers increased to approximately 4,700 at July 31, 2011 from approximately 1,800 at July 31, 2010.

 

With respect to geographic theaters, the Americas contributed the largest portion of this revenue increase because of its larger and more established sales force compared to our other theaters. Revenue from both EMEA and APAC increased during this period primarily due to our investment in increasing the size of our sales force and number of partners in these theaters. EMEA grew at the fastest rate due to our expanded sales force and number of partners in this theater relative to the other theaters.

 

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Cost of Revenue and Gross Margin

 

     Year Ended July 31,        
     2010     2011     Change  
     Amount      Gross
Margin
    Amount      Gross
Margin
    Amount      Gross
Margin
 
     (dollars in thousands)  

Cost of revenue:

               

Product

   $ 10,822         $ 21,766         $ 10,944      

Services

     4,812           10,507           5,695      
  

 

 

      

 

 

      

 

 

    

Total cost of revenue

   $ 15,634         $ 32,273         $ 16,639      
  

 

 

      

 

 

      

 

 

    

Gross profit:

               

Product

   $ 25,967         70.6   $ 63,034         74.3   $ 37,067         3.7

Services

     7,181         59.9     23,290         68.9     16,109         9.0
  

 

 

      

 

 

      

 

 

    

Total gross profit

   $ 33,148         68.0   $ 86,324         72.8   $ 53,176         4.8
  

 

 

      

 

 

      

 

 

    

 

Gross margin increased 4.8 percentage points for fiscal 2011 compared to fiscal 2010. The increase of 3.7 percentage points in product margin was primarily due to changes in our product mix, including the impact of introducing our PA-5000 Series, and lower manufacturing costs. The increase of 9.0 percentage points in services margin was primarily due to an increase in the volume of subscription sales, which have higher margins than our support and maintenance, partially offset by an increase in personnel and other costs to support our expanding end-customer base.

 

Operating Expenses

 

     Year Ended July 31,        
     2010     2011     Change  
     Amount      % of
Revenue
    Amount      % of
Revenue
    Amount      %  
     (dollars in thousands)  

Operating expenses:

               

Research and development

   $ 12,788         26.2   $ 21,366         18.0   $ 8,578         67.1

Sales and marketing

     29,726         60.9     62,254         52.5     32,528         109.4

General and administrative

     11,291         23.2     13,108         11.1     1,817         16.1
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

Total operating expenses

   $ 53,805         110.3   $ 96,728         81.6   $ 42,923         79.8
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

Includes share-based compensation of:

               

Research and development

   $ 318         $ 1,020         $ 702         220.8

Sales and marketing

     364           1,133           769         211.3

General and administrative

     132           2,374           2,242         1,698.5
  

 

 

      

 

 

      

 

 

    

Total

   $ 814         $ 4,527         $ 3,713         456.1
  

 

 

      

 

 

      

 

 

    

 

Research and development expense increased $8.6 million, or 67.1%, for fiscal 2011 compared to fiscal 2010 primarily due to an increase in personnel costs of $6.2 million as we increased our headcount to support continued investment in our future product and service offerings and an increase in allocated costs of $1.2 million.

 

Sales and marketing expense increased $32.5 million, or 109.4%, for fiscal 2011 compared to fiscal 2010 primarily due to an increase in personnel costs of $22.8 million due to an increase in headcount and commissions. Ending headcount more than doubled from July 31, 2010 to July 31, 2011. Additionally marketing

 

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activity increased $3.4 million related to trade shows and conventions and marketing development programs, travel costs increased $2.7 million, and allocated costs increased $1.6 million. The remaining increase was due to an increase in facilities costs.

 

General and administrative expense increased $1.8 million, or 16.1%, for fiscal 2011 compared to fiscal 2010 primarily due to an increase in personnel costs of $4.5 million related to overall growth to support the business, of which $1.6 million related to a charge for share-based compensation due to the modification of the terms of certain share-based awards for a former employee. There was an additional increase related to professional services of $2.2 million related to legal services for litigation and other services to support increased business activity. The remaining increase was due to an increase in facilities costs. These increases were partially offset by a $6.0 million reduction in legal settlement expenses related to a litigation settlement agreement recorded in fiscal 2010.

 

Other Expense, Net

 

     Year Ended July 31,         
     2010      2011      Change  
     Amount      Amount      Amount      %  
     (dollars in thousands)  

Other expense net

   $ 424       $ 1,651       $ 1,227         289.4

 

The change in other expense, net was due to the increase in fair value of preferred stock warrant liability during fiscal 2011 compared to fiscal 2010.

 

Provision for Income Taxes

 

     Year Ended July 31,        
     2010     2011     Change  
     Amount     Amount     Amount      %  
     (dollars in thousands)  

Provision for income taxes

   $ 56      $ 476      $ 420         750.0

Effective tax rate

     (0.3 )%      (3.9 )%      

 

We incurred tax expense despite having a consolidated loss before income taxes for fiscal 2010 and 2011 primarily due to foreign taxes and state income taxes. We have a full valuation allowance for our domestic deferred tax assets. The increase in the provision for fiscal 2011 compared to fiscal 2010 was primarily due to an increase in foreign income taxes on profits realized by our foreign subsidiaries due to our international expansion.

 

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Comparison of Fiscal 2009 and 2010

 

Revenue

 

     Year Ended July 31,        
     2009     2010     Change  
     Amount      % of
Revenue
    Amount      % of
Revenue
    Amount      %  
     (dollars in thousands)  

Revenue:

               

Product

   $ 10,110         75.7   $ 36,789         75.4   $ 26,679         263.9

Services

     3,242         24.3     11,993         24.6