485APOS 1 d485apos.htm 485APOS 485APOS
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As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on November 1, 2010

Registration Nos. 333-89822; 811-21114

 

 

 

U.S. SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

Form N-1A

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

        THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933    x     

Pre-Effective Amendment No.

Post-Effective Amendment No. 28

and/or

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

        THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940    x     

Amendment No. 35

 

 

ProShares Trust

(Exact name of Registrant as Specified in Trust Instrument)

 

 

7501 Wisconsin Avenue,

Suite 1000 Bethesda, MD 20814

(Address of Principal Executive Office) (Zip Code)

(240) 497-6400

(Area Code and Telephone Number)

Michael L. Sapir, CEO

ProShare Advisors LLC

7501 Wisconsin Avenue, Suite 1000

Bethesda, MD 20814

(Name and Address of Agent for Service)

 

 

with copies to:

 

John Loder, Esq.

c/o Ropes & Gray LLP

One International Place

Boston, MA 02110

 

Amy R. Doberman

ProShare Advisors LLC

7501 Wisconsin Avenue, Suite 1000

Bethesda, MD 20814

 

 

Approximate date of Proposed Public Offering:

It is proposed that this filing will become effective:

  ¨ immediately upon filing pursuant to paragraph (b)
  ¨ 60 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(1)
  ¨ on pursuant to paragraph (a)(1)
  x 75 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(2)
  ¨ on (date) pursuant to paragraph (a)(2) of rule 485.

If appropriate, check the following:

  ¨ This post-effective amendment designates a new effective date for a previously filed post-effective amendment.

 

 

 


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EXPLANATORY NOTE

This post-effective amendment relates only to the following series of ProShares Trust: ProShares Hedge Replication ETF. No information relating to any other series or class of series of ProShares Trust is amended or superseded hereby.


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LOGO

  

Prospectus

 

[December]    , 2010

 

Alpha ProShares

[            ]

               ProShares Hedge Replication ETF

 

 

 

 

ProShares Trust

   Distributor: SEI Investments Distribution Co.

 

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.


Table of Contents

 

Table of Contents

 

  3     

Summary Section

  10     

Investment Objective, Principal Investment Strategies, Related Risks and Disclosure of Portfolio Holdings

  18     

Management of ProShares Trust

  19     

Determination of NAV

  20     

Distributions

  20     

Dividend Reinvestment Services

  20     

Taxes

 

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Summary Section

 

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Investment Objective

ProShares Hedge Replication ETF (the “Fund”) seeks investment results, before fees and expenses, that track the performance of the Merrill Lynch Factor Model — Exchange Series (the “Index”).

The Index, established by Merrill Lynch International, seeks to maintain a high correlation with hedge fund beta, as measured by the HFRI Fund Weighted Composite Index (the “HFRI”). The HFRI is designed to reflect hedge fund industry performance through construction of an equally weighted composite of over 2000 constituent funds. In seeking to maintain a high correlation with the HFRI, the Index utilizes a systematic model to establish, each month, weighted long or short (or, in certain cases, long or flat) positions in six underlying factors (“Factors”). The six Factors which comprise the Index are the (1) S&P 500 Total Return Index, (2) the ProShares UltraShort Euro ETF, (3) the MSCI EAFE US Dollar Net Total Return Index, (4) the MSCI Emerging Markets Free US Dollar Net Total Return Index (“MSCI Emerging Markets”), (5) the Russell 2000 Total Return Index (“Russell 2000”) and (6) one-month USD LIBOR. The Index is not comprised of, and the Fund does not invest in, any hedge fund or group of hedge funds.

The Index is published under the Bloomberg ticker symbol “[MLEIFCTRX].”

Fees and Expenses of the Fund

The table below describes the fees and expenses that you may pay if you buy or hold shares of the Fund (“Shares”).

Annual Fund Operating Expenses

(expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)

 

Investment Advisory Fees

     0.75

Other Expenses*

     [    ]
        

Total Annual Operating Expenses Before Fee Waivers and Expense Reimbursements

     [    ]

Fee Waiver/Reimbursement**

     [    ]
        

Total Annual Operating Expenses After Fee Waivers and Expense Reimbursements

     0.95
        

 

* “Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses” are expected to be less than 0.01% and are included in “Other Expenses”.
** ProShare Advisors LLC (“ProShare Advisors”) has contractually agreed to waive Investment Advisory and Management Services Fees and to reimburse Other Expenses to the extent Total Annual Operating Expenses Before Fee Waivers and Expense Reimbursements, as a percentage of average daily net assets, [exceed 0.95% through             , 2011]. After such date, the expense limitation may be terminated or revised. Amounts waived or reimbursed in a particular contractual period may be recouped by ProShare Advisors within five years of the end of that contractual period to the extent that recoupment will not cause the Fund’s expenses to exceed any expense limitation in place at that time. A waiver or reimbursement lowers the expense ratio and increases overall returns to investors. Additionally, to the extent the Fund invests in exchange-traded funds (ETFs) sponsored ProShares Advisors and /or common units of beneficial interest of one or more separate series of a trust sponsored by an affiliate of ProShares Advisors. ProShares Advisors has agreed to waive its Investment Advisory fees in an amount equal to the Investment Advisory fees and Management Services Fees applicable to Fund assets invested in such ETFs and/or trust securities.

Example: This example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in Shares with the cost of investing in other mutual funds.

 

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The example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated and then redeem all of your Shares at the end of each period. The example also assumes that your investment has a 5% return each year and that the Fund’s operating expenses, which exclude brokerage commissions, remain the same. Although your actual cost may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your approximate costs would be:

 

1 Year

   3 Years  

[$97]

   [$ 441

Investors may pay brokerage commissions on their purchases and sales of Shares, which are not reflected in the example or the table above.

Portfolio Turnover

The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in higher taxes when Shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in Annual Fund Operating Expenses or in the example, affect the Fund’s performance. The Fund’s portfolio turnover rate is calculated without regard to cash instruments or derivatives. If such instruments were included, the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate would be significantly higher.

Principal Investment Strategies

The Fund invests in a combination of equity securities and derivatives that ProShare Advisors believes should track the performance of the Index. Assets of the Fund not invested in securities or derivatives will typically be held in money market instruments.

 

   

Equity Securities — The Fund invests in common stock issued by public companies.

 

   

Exchange-Traded Securities — The Fund may invest in the exchange-traded securities of certain investment vehicles. These exchange-traded securities principally include:

 

   

Trust Securities — The Fund may invest in exchange-traded common units of beneficial interest of one or more separate series of exchange-traded trusts, including trusts sponsored by ProShares Capital Management, LLC, an affiliate of ProShares Advisors.

 

   

Investments in Other Investment Companies — The Fund may invest in exchange-traded funds (ETFs), including ETFs sponsored by ProShares Advisors, to the extent that such an investment would be consistent with the requirements of the 1940 Act or any exemptive order issued by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”).

 

   

Derivatives — The Fund invests in financial instruments whose value is derived from the value of an underlying asset, interest rate or index. The Fund invests in derivatives as a substitute for investing directly in or making short sales of the securities underlying the Index. Derivatives principally include:

 

   

Swap Agreements — Contracts entered into primarily with institutional investors for a specified period ranging from a day to more than one year. In a standard “swap” transaction, two parties agree to exchange the returns (or differentials in rates of return) earned or realized on particular predetermined investments or instruments. The gross returns to be exchanged or “swapped” between the parties are calculated with respect to a “notional amount,” e.g., the return on or change in value of a particular dollar amount invested in a “basket” of securities representing a particular index.

 

   

Forward Contracts — Forward contracts are two-party contracts entered into with dealers or financial institutions where the purchase or sale of a specific quantity of a commodity, security, foreign currency or other financial instrument is agreed upon at a set price, with delivery and settlement at a specified future date. Forward contracts may also be structured for cash settlement, rather than physical delivery.

 

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Money Market Instruments — The Fund invests in short-term cash instruments that have terms to maturity of less than 397 days and exhibit high quality credit profiles.

 

   

Depositary Receipts (“DRs”) — The Fund may invest in depositary receipts, which principally include:

 

   

American Depositary Receipts (ADRs), which represent the right to receive securities of foreign issuers deposited in a bank or trust company.

 

   

Global Depositary Receipts (GDRs), which are receipts for shares in a foreign-based corporation traded in capital markets around the world.

 

   

New York Shares (“NYSs”), which are shares of New York registry, representing equity ownership in a non-U.S. company, allowing for a part of the capital of the company to be outstanding in the U.S. and part in the home market.

ProShare Advisors uses a mathematical approach to investing. Using this approach, ProShare Advisors determines the type, quantity and mix of investment positions that the Fund should hold to approximate the performance of its benchmark. The Fund may gain exposure to only a representative sample of the securities in the underlying Index, which is intended to have aggregate characteristics similar to those of the underlying Index. ProShare Advisors does not invest the assets of the Fund in securities or derivatives based on ProShare Advisors’ view of the investment merit of a particular security, instrument, or company, nor does it conduct conventional stock research or analysis (other than in determining counterparty creditworthiness), or forecast stock market movement or trends, in managing the assets of the Fund. The Fund seeks to remain fully invested at all times in securities and/or derivatives that provide exposure to its underlying Index without regard to market conditions, trends or direction.

Please see Investment Objectives, Principal Investment Strategies, Related Risks and Disclosure of Portfolio Holdings in the Fund’s full prospectus for additional details.

 

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Principal Risks

You could lose money by investing in the Fund.

 

   

Index Performance Risk —There is no guarantee or assurance that the methodology used to create the Index will result in the Fund achieving high, or even positive, returns. The Index may underperform more traditional indices. In turn, the Fund could lose value while other indices or measures of market performance increase in value. In addition, the Index was formed in November 2010 and accordingly the Index has limited historical performance. The Index does not in any way represent a managed hedge fund or group of hedge funds, and there is no guarantee that it will achieve returns correlated with any hedge fund, group of hedge funds, or the HFRI. Neither ProShares Advisors nor Merrill Lynch International have any control over the composition or compilation of the HFRI, and there is no guarantee that the HFRI will continue to be produced.

 

   

Risk Associated with the Use of Derivatives — The Fund uses investment techniques and derivatives that may be considered aggressive. Because the Fund’s investment in derivatives may involve a small investment relative to the amount of investment exposure assumed, losses may exceed the amounts invested in those instruments. The use of derivatives may expose the Fund to potentially dramatic changes (losses or gains) in the value of the instruments. Using derivatives also may result in imperfect correlation between the value of the instruments and the referenced index, which may prevent the Fund from achieving its investment objective. The cost to use derivatives increases as interest rates increase, which will lower the Fund’s return.

 

   

Correlation Risk — A number of factors may affect the Fund’s ability to achieve a high degree of correlation with its benchmark, and there can be no guarantee that the Fund will achieve a high degree of correlation. Failure to achieve a high degree of correlation may prevent the Fund from achieving its investment objective. A number of factors may adversely affect the Fund’s correlation with the Index, including fees, expenses, transaction costs, costs associated with the use of derivatives, income items and accounting standards. The Fund may not have investment exposure to all securities in the Index and its weighting of investment exposure to such stocks or industries may be different from that of the Index. Activities surrounding Index reconstitutions may hinder the Fund’s ability to meet its investment objective on that day.

 

   

Counterparty Risk — The Fund will be subject to credit risk (that is, where changes in an issuer’s financial strength or the credit rating of a financial instrument it issues may affect an instrument’s value) with respect to the amount it expects to receive from counterparties to derivatives and repurchase agreements entered into by the Fund or held by special purpose or structured vehicles. If a counterparty becomes bankrupt or otherwise fails to perform its obligations due to financial difficulties, the value of your investment in the Fund may decline.

 

   

Early Close/Late Close/Trading Halt Risk — An exchange or market may close early, close late or issue trading halts on specific securities, or the ability to buy or sell certain securities or derivatives may be restricted, which may result in the Fund being unable to buy or sell certain securities or derivatives. In such circumstances, the Fund may be unable to rebalance its portfolio, may be unable to accurately price its investments and/or may incur substantial trading losses.

 

   

Equity and Market Risk — The equity markets are volatile, and the value of securities, swaps, futures, options contracts and other instruments correlated with the equity markets may fluctuate dramatically from day-to-day. Equity markets are subject to political, regulatory, market and economic developments, as well as developments that impact specific economic sectors, industries or segments of the market. Volatility in the markets and/or adverse market developments may cause the value of an investment in the Fund to decrease.

 

   

Exposure to Foreign Currency Risk — Investments denominated in foreign currencies are exposed to risk factors in addition to investments denominated in U.S. dollars. The value of an investment denominated in a foreign currency could change significantly as foreign currencies strengthen or weaken relative to the U.S. dollar. Risks related to foreign currencies also include those related to economic or political developments, market inefficiencies or a higher risk that essential investment information may be incomplete, unavailable, or inaccurate. A U.S. dollar investment in Depositary Receipts or ordinary shares of foreign issuers traded on U.S. exchanges are subject to foreign currency risk.

 

   

Exposure to Foreign Investments Risk — Exposure to securities of foreign issuers provide the Fund with increased risk. Various factors related to foreign investments may negatively impact the Index’s performance, such as: i) fluctuations in the value of local foreign currency; ii) differences in securities settlement practices; iii) uncertainty associated with evidence of ownership of investments in countries that lack centralized custodial services; iv) possible regulation of, or other limitations on, investments by U.S. investors in foreign investments; v) potentially higher brokerage commissions; vi) the possibility that

 

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a foreign government may withhold portions of interest and dividends at the source; vii) taxation of income earned in foreign countries or other foreign taxes imposed; viii) foreign exchange controls, which may include suspension of the ability to transfer currency from a foreign country; ix) less publicly available information about foreign issuers; and x) less certain legal systems in which the Fund might encounter difficulties or be unable to pursue legal remedies. Foreign investments also may be more susceptible to political, social, economic and regional factors than might be the case with U.S. securities.

Because the Fund’s foreign investments will be in developing or “emerging market” countries, all the aforementioned factors are heightened and foreign investments risk is higher.

 

   

Small- and Mid-Cap Company Investment Risk — The risk of equity investing may be particularly acute for securities of issuers with smaller market capitalizations. Small- and mid-cap company stocks may trade at greater spreads or lower trading volumes and may be less liquid than the stocks of larger companies. Small- and mid-cap companies may have limited product lines or resources, may be dependent upon a particular market niche and may have greater fluctuations in price than the stocks of larger companies. Further, stocks of small- and mid-sized companies could be more difficult to liquidate during market downturns compared to larger, more widely traded companies. In addition, small- and mid-cap companies may lack the financial and personnel resources to handle economic or industry-wide setbacks and, as a result, such setbacks could have a greater effect on small- and mid-cap security prices.

 

   

Liquidity Risk — In certain circumstances, such as the disruption of the orderly markets for the securities or derivatives in which the Fund invests, the Fund might not be able to dispose of certain holdings quickly or at prices that represent true market value in the judgment of ProShare Advisors. Such a situation may prevent the Fund from limiting losses, realizing gains or achieving a high correlation with its underlying index.

 

   

Market Price Variance Risk — Fund Shares will be listed for trading on the NYSE Arca (“Exchange”) and can be bought and sold in the secondary market at market prices. The market prices of Shares will fluctuate in response to changes in net asset value (“NAV”) and supply and demand for Shares. ProShare Advisors cannot predict whether Shares will trade above, below or at their NAV. Given the fact that Shares can be created and redeemed in Creation Units, ProShare Advisors believes that large discounts or premiums to the NAV of Shares should not be sustained. The Fund’s investment results are measured based upon the daily NAV of the Fund. Investors purchasing and selling Shares in the secondary market may not experience investment results consistent with those experienced by those creating and redeeming directly with the Fund.

 

   

Non-Diversification Risk — The Fund is classified as “non-diversified” under the Investment Company Act of 1940 (“1940 Act”), and has the ability to invest a relatively high percentage of its investments in the securities of a small number of issuers if there is a small number of issuers in the underlying Index or if ProShare Advisors determines that doing so is the most efficient means of meeting the Fund’s objective. This makes the performance of the Fund more susceptible to a single economic, political or regulatory event than a diversified fund might be. This risk may be particularly acute when the Fund’s underlying Index comprises a small number of stocks or other securities.

 

   

Portfolio Turnover Risk — Active market trading of Shares may cause more frequent creation or redemption activities that could, in certain circumstances, increase the number of portfolio transactions. High levels of transactions increase brokerage costs and may result in increased taxable capital gains.

 

   

Short Sale Exposure Risk — The Fund may seek short exposure through financial instruments such as swap agreements consistent with its investment objective, which may cause the Fund to be exposed to certain risks associated with selling securities short. These risks include, under certain market conditions, an increase in the volatility and decrease in the liquidity of securities underlying the short position, which may lower the Fund’s return or result in a loss. Selling securities short may be considered an aggressive investment technique.

Investment Results

Performance history will be available for the Fund after it has been in operation for a full calendar year.

 

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Management

The Fund is advised by ProShare Advisors and is managed by the following individuals:

 

Portfolio

Manager

 

Service to

the Fund

 

Title with

ProShare Advisors

Todd Johnson

  Since [December 2010]   Chief Investment Officer

Howard S. Rubin, CFA

  Since [December 2010]   Director of Portfolio Management

Ryan Dofflemeyer

  Since [December 2010]   Portfolio Manager

Purchase and Sale of Fund Shares

The Fund will issue and redeem Shares only to Authorized Participants (typically broker-dealers) in exchange for the deposit or delivery of a basket of assets (securities and/or cash) in large blocks, known as Creation Units, each of which is comprised of [50,000] Shares. Retail investors may only purchase and sell Shares on a national securities exchange through a broker-dealer. Because the Shares trade at market prices rather than net asset value, Shares may trade at a price greater than net asset value (premium) or less than net asset value (discount).

Tax Information

Income and capital gain distributions you receive from the Fund are subject to federal income taxes and may also be subject to state and local taxes. Distributions for this Fund may be significantly higher than those of most exchange-traded funds.

 

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Investment Objective, Principal Investment Strategies, Related Risks and Disclosure of Portfolio Holdings

 

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Investment Objective, Principal Investment Strategies, Related Risks and Disclosure of Portfolio Holdings

This section contains greater detail on ProShares Hedge Replication ETF (the “Fund”) principal investment strategies and the related risks you would face as a shareholder of the Fund as well as information about how to find out more about the Fund’s portfolio holdings disclosure policy.

Investment Objective

The Fund seeks investment results, before fees and expenses, that track the performance of the Merrill Lynch Factor Model — Exchange Series (the “Index”).

The Fund’s investment objective is non-fundamental, meaning it may be changed by the Board of Trustees (the “Board”) of ProShares Trust (the “Trust”), without the approval of Fund shareholders. The Fund reserves the right to substitute a different index or security for the Index underlying its benchmark.

Principal Investment Strategies

In seeking to achieve the Fund’s investment objective, ProShare Advisors uses a mathematical approach to investing. Using this approach, ProShare Advisors determines the type, quantity and mix of investment positions that the Fund should hold to approximate the performance of its benchmark. The Fund employs investment techniques that ProShare Advisors believes should simulate the movement of their respective benchmarks.

The Fund may gain exposure to only a representative sample of the securities in the underlying Index, which is intended to have aggregate characteristics similar to those of the underlying Index. This “sampling” process typically involves selecting a representative sample of securities in an index principally to enhance liquidity and reduce transaction costs while seeking to maintain high correlation with, and similar aggregate characteristics (e.g., market capitalization and industry weightings) to, the underlying Index. In addition, the Fund may obtain exposure to components not included in the underlying Index, invest in securities that are not included in the underlying Index or overweight or underweight certain components contained in the underlying Index.

ProShare Advisors does not invest the assets of the Fund in securities or financial instruments based on ProShare Advisors’ view of the investment merit of a particular security, instrument, or company, nor does it conduct conventional stock research or analysis, or forecast stock market movement or trends, in managing the assets of the Fund. The Fund seeks to remain fully invested at all times in securities and/or financial instruments that provide exposure to its underlying index without regard to market conditions, trends or direction. The Fund does not take temporary defensive positions.

Strategies Specific to the Fund

The Fund invests in equity securities and/or derivatives that ProShare Advisors believes, in combination, should have similar return characteristics as the return of the Index.

 

   

Equity Securities — The Fund invests in common stock issued by public companies.

 

   

Exchange-Traded Securities — The Fund may invest in the exchange-traded securities of certain investment vehicles. These exchange-traded securities principally include:

 

   

Trust Securities — The Fund may invest in exchange-traded common units of beneficial interest of one or more separate series of exchange-traded trusts, including trusts sponsored by ProShares Capital Management, LLC, an affiliate of ProShares Advisors.

 

   

Investments in Other Investment Companies — The Fund may invest in exchange-traded funds (ETFs), including ETFs sponsored by ProShares Advisors, to the extent that such an investment would be consistent with the requirements of the 1940 Act or any exemptive order issued by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). If the Fund invests in, and thus is a shareholder of, another investment company, the Fund’s shareholders will indirectly bear the Fund’s proportionate share of the fees and expenses paid by such other investment company, including advisory fees, in addition to both the management fees payable directly by the Fund to the Fund’s own investment adviser and the other expenses that the Fund bears directly in connection with the Fund’s own operations.

Because most exchange traded funds are investment companies, absent exemptive relief, investment in such funds generally would be limited under applicable federal statutory provisions. Those provisions restrict the Fund’s investment in the shares of another investment company to up to 5% of its assets (which may represent no more than 3% of the securities of such other investment company) and limit aggregate investments in all investment companies to 10% of assets. The Fund may invest in certain exchange traded funds in excess of the statutory limit in reliance on an exemptive order issued to those entities and pursuant to procedures approved by the Board provided that it complies with the conditions of the exemptive relief, as they may be amended from time to time, and any other applicable investment limitations.

 

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Derivatives — The Fund invests in financial instruments whose value is derived from the value of an underlying asset, interest rate or index. The Fund invests in derivatives as a substitute for investing directly in, or making short sales of, the securities underlying the Index. Derivatives include:

 

   

Swap Agreements — Contracts entered into primarily with institutional investors for a specified period ranging from a day to more than one year. In a standard “swap” transaction, two parties agree to exchange the returns (or differentials in rates of return) earned or realized on particular predetermined investments or instruments. The gross returns to be exchanged or “swapped” between the parties are calculated with respect to a “notional amount,” e.g., the return on or change in value of a particular dollar amount invested in a “basket” of securities representing a particular index.

 

   

Forward Contracts — Forward contracts are two-party contracts entered into with dealers or financial institutions where the purchase or sale of a specific quantity of a commodity, security, foreign currency or other financial instrument is agreed upon at a set price, with delivery and settlement at a specified future date. Forward contracts may also be structured for cash settlement, rather than physical delivery.

 

   

Futures Contracts — Contracts that pay a fixed price for an agreed-upon amount of securities on an agreed-upon date.

 

   

Depositary Receipts (“DRs”) — The Fund may invest in depositary receipts, which include American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”), Global Depositary Receipts (“GDRs”), and New York Shares (“NYSs”).

 

   

ADRs represent the right to receive securities of foreign issuers deposited in a bank or trust company. ADRs are an alternative to purchasing the underlying securities in their national markets and currencies. Investment in ADRs has certain advantages over direct investment in the underlying foreign securities because: (i) ADRs are U.S. dollar-denominated investments that are easily transferable and for which market quotations are readily available, and (ii) issuers whose securities are represented by ADRs are generally subject to auditing, accounting and financial reporting standards similar to those applied to domestic issuers.

 

   

GDRs are receipts for shares in a foreign-based corporation traded in capital markets around the world. While ADRs permit foreign corporations to offer shares to American citizens, GDRs allow companies in Europe, Asia, the United States and Latin America to offer shares in many markets around the world.

 

   

A NYS is a share of New York registry, representing equity ownership in a non-U.S. company, allowing for a part of the capital of the company to be outstanding in the U.S. and part in the home market. It is issued by a U.S. transfer agent and registrar on behalf of the company and created against the cancellation of the local share by the local registrar. One NYS is always equal to one ordinary share. NYS programs are typically managed by the same banks that manage ADRs, as the mechanics of the instrument are very similar. NYSs are used primarily by Dutch companies.

 

   

Short Sales — In seeking to achieve its investment objective and as part of their principal investment strategies, the Fund also may engage in short sale transactions (or enter into derivative transactions such as swap agreements which create exposure similar to a short sale transaction) with respect to equity securities (including shares of exchange-traded funds) to the extent permitted by the 1940 Act. A short sale is a transaction in which the Fund sells a security it does not own in anticipation that the market price of that security will decline. To complete such a transaction, the Fund must borrow the security to make delivery to the buyer. The Fund is then obligated to replace the security borrowed by borrowing the same security from another lender, purchasing it at the market price at the time of replacement or paying the lender an amount equal to the cost of purchasing the security. The price at such time may be more or less than the price at which the security was sold by the Fund. Until the security is replaced, the Fund is required to repay the lender any dividends it receives or interest which accrues on the security during the period of the loan. To borrow the security, the Fund also may be required to pay a premium, which would increase the cost of the security sold. The net proceeds of the short sale will be retained by the broker, to the extent necessary to meet the margin requirements, until the short position is closed out. The Fund also will incur costs in making short sales or entering into derivative transactions which provide short sale exposure for the Fund. The Fund also may make short sales “against the box,” i.e., when a security identical to or convertible or exchangeable into one owned by the Fund is borrowed and sold short.

 

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Other Principal Risks

In addition to the risks noted in the summary section, many other factors may also affect the value of an investment in the Fund. The Fund’s NAV will change daily based on the performance of the benchmark index, which in turn is affected by variations in market conditions, interest rates and other economic, political or financial developments. The impact of these developments on the Fund will depend upon the types of securities in which the Fund invests, the Fund’s level of investment in particular issuers and other factors, including the financial condition, industry, economic sector and location of such issuers. The factors most likely to have a significant impact on the Fund’s portfolio are called “principal risks.” The principal risks for the Fund are noted in the summary section and described below. The SAI contains additional information about the Fund, its investment strategies and related risks. The Fund may be subject to risks in addition to those identified as principal risks.

 

   

Risk Associated with the Use of Derivatives — The Fund uses investment techniques that may be considered aggressive, including the use of swap agreements, futures contracts, options on futures contracts, securities and indexes, forward contracts, and similar instruments. The use of aggressive investment techniques also exposes the Fund to risks different from, or possibly greater than, the risks associated with investing directly in securities contained in an index underlying the Fund’s benchmark, including: 1) the risk that there may be imperfect correlation between the price of financial instruments and movements in the prices of the underlying securities; 2) the risk that an instrument is mispriced; 3) credit or counterparty risk on the amount the Fund expects to receive from a counterparty; 4) the risk that securities prices, interest rates and currency markets will move adversely and the Fund will incur significant losses; 5) the risk that the cost of holding a financial instrument might exceed its total return; and 6) the possible absence of a liquid secondary market for any particular instrument and/or possible exchange-imposed price fluctuation limits, which may make it difficult or impossible to adjust the Fund’s position in a particular financial instrument when desired.

 

   

Counterparty Risk — The Fund will be subject to credit risk with respect to the amount it expects to receive from counterparties to financial instruments and repurchase agreements entered into by the Fund or held by special purpose or structured vehicles. If a counterparty becomes bankrupt or otherwise fails to perform its obligations due to financial difficulties, the value of your investment in the Fund may decline. The Fund may experience significant delays in obtaining any recovery in a bankruptcy or other reorganization proceeding and the Fund may obtain only limited recovery or may obtain no recovery in such circumstances. The Fund typically enter into transactions with counterparties whose credit rating, at the time of the transaction, is investment grade, as determined by a nationally recognized statistical rating organization, or, if unrated, judged by ProShare Advisors to be of comparable quality.

 

   

Market Price Variance Risk — Individual Shares of the Fund will be listed for trading on the Exchange and can be bought and sold in the secondary market at market prices. The market prices of Shares will fluctuate in response to changes in NAV and supply and demand for Shares. ProShare Advisors cannot predict whether Shares will trade above, below or at their NAV. Differences between secondary market prices and NAV for Shares may be due largely to supply and demand forces in the secondary market, which may not be the same forces as those influencing prices for securities or instruments held by the Fund at a particular time. Given the fact that Shares can be created and redeemed in Creation Units, ProShare Advisors believes that large discounts or premiums to the NAV of Shares should not be sustained. There may, however, be times when the market price and the NAV vary significantly and you may pay more than NAV when buying Shares on the secondary market, and you may receive less than NAV when you sell those Shares. The market price of Shares, like the price of any exchange-traded security, includes a “bid-ask spread” charged by the exchange specialist, market makers or other participants that trade the particular security. In times of severe market disruption, the bid-ask spread often increases significantly. This means that Shares may trade at a discount to NAV, and the discount is likely to be greatest when the price of Shares is falling fastest, which may be the time that you most want to sell your Shares. The Fund’s investment results are measured based upon the daily NAV of the Fund. Investors purchasing and selling Shares in the secondary market may not experience investment results consistent with those experienced by those creating and redeeming directly with the Fund.

 

   

Short Sale Risk — Selling short is a technique that may be employed by the Fund to achieve investment exposure consistent with its investment objective. Short selling involves borrowing a security and then selling it. If the Fund buys back the security at a price lower than the price at which it sold the security plus accrued interest, the Fund will earn a positive return (profit) on the difference. If the current market price is greater when the time comes to buy back the security plus accrued interest, the Fund will incur a negative return (loss) on the transaction. The use of short sales may involve additional transaction costs and other expenses. As a result, the cost of maintaining a short position may exceed the return on the position, which may cause the Fund to lose money. Under certain market conditions, short sales can increase the volatility and decrease the liquidity of certain securities or positions and may lower the Fund’s return or result in a loss. Entering into short positions through financial instruments such as futures, options and swap agreements may also cause the Fund to be exposed to short sale risk. Selling short may be considered an aggressive investment technique.

 

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Additional Securities, Instruments and Strategies

This section describes additional securities, instruments and strategies that may be utilized by the Fund which are not principal investment strategies of the Fund unless otherwise noted in the Fund’s description of principal strategies.

 

   

Money Market Instruments are short-term debt instruments that have terms-to-maturity of less than 397 days and exhibit high quality credit profiles. Money market instruments include U.S. government securities, securities issued by governments of other developed countries and repurchase agreements.

 

   

Repurchase Agreements are contracts in which a seller of securities, usually U.S. government securities or other money market instruments, agrees to buy them back at a specified time and price. Repurchase agreements are primarily used by the Fund as a short-term investment vehicle for cash positions.

 

   

Structured Notes are debt obligations that may include components such as swaps, forwards, options, caps or floors, which change their return patterns. Structured notes may be used to alter the risks to a portfolio, or alternatively may be used to indirectly expose a portfolio to asset classes or markets in which one does not desire to invest directly.

 

   

U.S. Government Securities are issued by the U.S. government or one of its agencies or instrumentalities. Some, but not all, U.S. government securities are backed by the full faith and credit of the federal government. Other U.S. government securities are backed by the issuer’s right to borrow from the U.S. Treasury and some are backed only by the credit of the issuing organization.

 

   

Options on Securities and Stock Indices and Investments Covering Such Positions — Option contracts grant one party a right, for a price, either to buy or sell a security or futures contract at a fixed price during a specified period or on a specified day. A call option gives one the right to buy a security or futures contract at an agreed-upon price on or before a certain date. A put option gives one the right to sell a security or futures contract at an agreed-upon price on or before a certain date.

Precautionary Notes

A Precautionary Note to Retail Investors — The Depository Trust Company (“DTC”), a limited trust company and securities depositary that serves as a national clearinghouse for the settlement of trades for its participating banks and broker-dealers, or its nominee will be the registered owner of all outstanding Shares of the Fund. Your ownership of Shares will be shown on the records of DTC and the DTC Participant broker through whom you hold the Shares. PROSHARES TRUST WILL NOT HAVE ANY RECORD OF YOUR OWNERSHIP. Your account information will be maintained by your broker, who will provide you with account statements, confirmations of your purchases and sales of Shares, and tax information. Your broker also will be responsible for ensuring that you receive shareholder reports and other communications from the Fund whose Shares you own. Typically, you will receive other services (e.g., average cost information) only if your broker offers these services.

A Precautionary Note to Purchasers of Creation Units — You should be aware of certain legal risks unique to investors purchasing Creation Units directly from the issuing Fund. Because new Shares may be issued on an ongoing basis, a “distribution” of Shares could be occurring at any time. As a dealer, certain activities on your part could, depending on the circumstances, result in your being deemed a participant in the distribution, in a manner that could render you a statutory underwriter and subject you to the prospectus delivery and liability provisions of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”). For example, you could be deemed a statutory underwriter if you purchase Creation Units from an issuing Fund, break them down into the constituent Shares, and sell those Shares directly to customers, or if you choose to couple the creation of a supply of new Shares with an active selling effort involving solicitation of secondary market demand for Shares. Whether a person is an underwriter depends upon all of the facts and circumstances pertaining to that person’s activities, and the examples mentioned here should not be considered a complete description of all the activities that could cause you to be deemed an underwriter. Dealers who are not “underwriters,” but are participating in a distribution (as opposed to engaging in ordinary secondary market transactions), and thus dealing with Shares as part of an “unsold allotment” within the meaning of Section 4(3)(C) of the Securities Act, will be unable to take advantage of the prospectus delivery exemption provided by Section 4(3) of the Securities Act.

A Precautionary Note to Investment Companies — For purposes of the 1940 Act, the Fund is a registered investment company, and the acquisition of Shares by other investment companies is subject to the restrictions of Section 12(d)(1) thereof.

 

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The Trust and the Fund have obtained an exemptive order from the SEC allowing a registered investment company to invest in the Fund beyond the limits of Section 12(d)(1) subject to certain conditions, including that a registered investment company enters into a Participation Agreement with ProShares Trust regarding the terms of the investment. Any investment company considering purchasing shares of the Fund in amounts that would cause it to exceed the restrictions of Section 12(d)(1) should contact the Trust.

A Precautionary Note Regarding Unusual Circumstances — ProShares Trust can postpone payment of redemption proceeds for any period during which (1) the New York Stock Exchange (the “NYSE”) or The NASDAQ Stock Market is closed other than customary weekend and holiday closings, (2) trading on the NYSE or The NASDAQ Stock Market is restricted, (3) any emergency circumstances exist, as determined by the SEC, and (4) the SEC by order permits for the protection of shareholders of the Fund and (5) for up to 14 calendar days for any of the Ultra International and Short International ProShares during a period of an international local holiday, as further described in the SAI.

A Precautionary Note Regarding Regulatory Initiatives — There is a possibility of future regulatory changes altering, perhaps to a material extent, the nature of an investment in the Fund or the ability of the Fund to continue to implement their investment strategies.

The futures markets are subject to comprehensive statutes, regulations, and margin requirements. In addition, the SEC, CFTC and the exchanges are authorized to take extraordinary actions in the event of a market emergency, including, for example, the retroactive implementation of speculative position limits or higher margin requirements, the establishment of daily price limits and the suspension of trading. The regulation of swaps and futures transactions in the United States is a rapidly changing area of law and is subject to modification by government and judicial action. The effect of any future regulatory change on the Fund is impossible to predict, but could be substantial and adverse.

In particular, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd-Frank Act”) was signed into law by President Obama on July 21, 2010. The Dodd-Frank Act will change the way in which the U.S. financial system is supervised and regulated. Title VII of the Dodd-Frank Act sets forth a new legislative framework for OTC derivatives, including Financial Instruments, such as swaps, in which the Fund may invest. Title VII of the Dodd-Frank Act makes broad changes to the OTC derivatives market, grants significant new authority to the SEC and the CFTC to regulate OTC derivatives and market participants, and will require clearing and exchange trading of many OTC derivatives transactions.

Provisions in the Dodd-Frank Act include new registration, recordkeeping, capital and margin requirements for “swap dealers” and “major swap participants” as determined by the Dodd-Frank Act and applicable regulations; and the forced use of clearinghouse mechanisms for many OTC derivative transactions. The CFTC, SEC and other federal regulators have been tasked with developing the rules and regulations enacting the provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act. Because there is a one-year period prescribed in which most of the mandated rulemaking and regulations will be implemented, it is not possible at this time to gauge the exact nature and scope of the impact of the Dodd-Frank Act on any of the Fund, but it is expected that swap dealers, major market participants and swap counterparties, including the Fund, will experience new and/or additional regulations, requirements, compliance burdens and associated costs. The new law and the rules to be promulgated may negatively impact the Fund’s ability to meet its investment objective either through limits or requirements imposed on it or upon its counterparties. In particular, new position limits imposed on the Fund or its counterparties may impact that Fund’s ability to invest in a manner that efficiently meets its investment objective, and new requirements, including capital and mandatory clearing, may increase the cost of the Fund’s investments and cost of doing business, which could adversely affect investors.

Description of the Underlying Index

The Fund will enter into a licensing agreement for the use of the Index.

The Fund seeks investment results, before fees and expenses, that track the Index, which is a model established by Merrill Lynch International. The Index seeks to maintain a high correlation with hedge fund beta, as measured by the HFRI Fund Weighted Composite Index (the “HFRI”). The HFRI is designed to reflect hedge fund industry performance through construction of an equally weighted composite of over 2000 constituent funds. In seeking to maintain a high correlation with the HFRI, the Index utilizes a systematic regression model to establish, each month, weighted long or short (or, in certain cases, long or flat) positions in six underlying factors (“Factors”). The Index does not in any way represent a managed hedge fund or group of hedge funds, and there is no guarantee that it will achieve returns correlated with any hedge fund, group of hedge funds, or the HFRI.

The six Factors which comprise the Index are the (1) S&P 500 Total Return Index, (2) the ProShares UltraShort Euro ETF, (3) the MSCI EAFE US Dollar Net Total Return Index, (4) the MSCI Emerging Markets Free US Dollar Net Total Return Index

 

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(“MSCI Emerging Markets”), (5) the Russell 2000 Total Return Index (“Russell 2000”) and (6) one-month USD LIBOR. Each of the Factors is weighted monthly from +100% to -100% (with the exception of the MSCI Emerging Markets and USD LIBOR, which are weighted between +100% and 0%, and the Russell 2000, which is weighted between +100% and -30%). For each monthly rebalancing, the systematic regression analysis seeks to determine which direction (i.e. long or short/flat) and weighting for each of the Factors over the previous 24 month period (ending on the month for which the most recent closing level of the HFRI is available) would have produced the highest correlation with the HFRI. The Factors are then weighted according to the results of the analysis. In no case will the sum of the factor weights (excluding USD LIBOR) be greater than 100% or less than -100%.

The Index is published under the Bloomberg ticker symbol “[MLEIFCTRX].”

Information About the Index Licensor

The Index was developed by Merrill Lynch International. Merrill Lynch International has developed and may continue to develop proprietary indexes.

The licensing agreement between the Trust and Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith Incorporated (“BofA Merrill Lynch”) is solely for their benefit and not for the benefit of the Fund’s shareholders or any other third parties.

The Shares are not sponsored, endorsed, sold or promoted by BofA Merrill Lynch. Neither BofA Merrill Lynch nor any of Standard & Poor’s, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., Standard & Poor’s Financial Services LLC, MSCI, Inc. or Frank Russell Company (the “Exchanges and Entities”) have passed on the legality or suitability of, or the accuracy or adequacy of descriptions and disclosures relating to, the Shares, nor do they make any representation or warranty, express or implied, to the owners of the Shares or any member of the public regarding the advisability of investing in securities generally or in the Shares particularly or the ability of the Index to track general hedge fund performance. BofA Merrill Lynch’s and the Exchanges and Entities’ only relationship to the Trust is the licensing of certain trademarks and trade names of BofA Merrill Lynch and the Exchanges and Entities and of the Index, which indices are determined, composed and calculated by BofA Merrill Lynch without regard to the Trust or the Shares. BofA Merrill Lynch and the Exchanges and Entities have no obligation to take the needs of the Trust or the owners of the Shares into consideration in determining, composing or calculating the Index. BofA Merrill Lynch and the Exchanges and Entities are not responsible for and have not participated in the determination of the timing of, prices at, or quantities of the Shares to be issued or in the determination or calculation of the equation by which the Shares are to be converted into or redeemed for cash or other assets. BofA Merrill Lynch and the Exchanges and Entities have no obligation or liability in connection with the administration, marketing or trading of the Shares.

BOFA MERRILL LYNCH AND THE EXCHANGES AND ENTITIES DO NOT GUARANTEE THE ACCURACY AND/OR THE COMPLETENESS OF THE INDEX OR ANY DATA INCLUDED THEREIN AND BOFA MERRILL LYNCH AND THE EXCHANGES AND ENTITIES SHALL HAVE NO LIABILITY FOR ANY ERRORS, OMISSIONS, OR INTERRUPTIONS THEREIN. BOFA MERRILL LYNCH AND THE EXCHANGES AND ENTITIES MAKE NO WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, AS TO RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED BY TRUST, OWNERS OF THE SHARES OR ANY OTHER PERSON OR ENTITY FROM THE USE OF THE INDEX OR ANY DATA INCLUDED THEREIN. BOFA MERRILL LYNCH AND THE EXCHANGES AND ENTITIES MAKE NO EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR USE WITH RESPECT TO THE INDEX OR ANY DATA INCLUDED THEREIN. WITHOUT LIMITING ANY OF THE FOREGOING, IN NO EVENT SHALL BOFA MERRILL LYNCH OR THE EXCHANGES AND ENTITIES HAVE ANY LIABILITY FOR ANY SPECIAL, PUNITIVE, INDIRECT, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING LOST PROFITS), EVEN IF NOTIFIED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.

The BofA Merrill Lynch Marks are trademarks of Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith Incorporated or its affiliates and have been licensed for use by Trust. S&P, MSCI and Russell, respectively, are trademarks of Standard & Poor’s, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. and Standard & Poor’s Financial Services LLC, MSCI, Inc. and Frank Russell Company and have been licensed for use by BofA Merrill Lynch.

 

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Portfolio Holdings Information

A description of the Trust’s policies and procedures with respect to the disclosure of the Fund’s portfolio holdings is available in the Fund’s SAI. The top ten holdings of the Fund are posted on a daily basis to the Trust’s website at proshares.com.

 

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Management of ProShares Trust

 

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Board of Trustees and Officers

The Board is responsible for the general supervision of the Fund. The officers of the Trust are responsible for the day-to-day operations of the Fund.

Investment Adviser

ProShare Advisors, located at 7501 Wisconsin Avenue, Suite 1000, Bethesda, Maryland 20814, serves as the investment adviser to the Fund and provides investment advice and management services to the Fund. ProShare Advisors oversees the investment and reinvestment of the assets in the Fund. For its investment advisory services, ProShare Advisors is entitled to receive fees equal to 0.75% of the average daily net assets of the Fund. [A discussion regarding the basis for the Board approving the investment advisory agreement for the Fund, if available, is in the Trust’s most recent semi-annual report to shareholders dated November 30, 2009, or in the Trust’s most recent annual report to shareholders dated May 31, 2010.]

ProShare Advisors is owned by Michael L. Sapir, Louis M. Mayberg and William E. Seale.

Michael L. Sapir, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of ProShare Advisors since inception and ProFund Advisors LLC (“ProFund Advisors”) since April 1997. Mr. Sapir formerly practiced law, primarily representing financial institutions for over 13 years, most recently as a partner in a Washington, D.C. based law firm. He holds degrees from Georgetown University Law Center (J.D.) and University of Miami (M.B.A. and B.A.)

Louis M. Mayberg, President of ProShare Advisors since inception and ProFund Advisors since April 1997, co-founded National Capital Companies, L.L.C., an investment bank specializing in financial service companies mergers and acquisitions and equity underwritings in 1986, and managed its financial services hedge fund. He holds a Bachelor of Business Administration degree with a major in Finance from The George Washington University.

William E. Seale, Ph.D., Chief Economist of ProFund Advisors since 2005, Chief Investment Officer from 2003-2004 and from October 2006-June 2008 and Director of Portfolio from 1997-2003. Dr. Seale has more than 30 years of experience in the financial markets. His background includes a five-year presidential appointment as a commissioner of the U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission and an appointment as Chairman of the Finance Department at The George Washington University. He earned his degrees at the University of Kentucky.

Portfolio Management

The Fund is managed by an individual overseen by Todd Johnson and Howard S. Rubin.

Todd Johnson, ProShare Advisors — Chief Investment Officer since December 2008. ProFund Advisors — Chief Investment Officer since December 2008. World Asset Management — Managing Director and Chief Investment Officer from 1994 through November 2008.

Howard S. Rubin, CFA, ProShare Advisors — Director of Portfolio Management since December 2009 and Senior Portfolio Manager from December 2007 through November 2009. ProFund Advisors — Director of Portfolio Management December 2009 and Senior Portfolio Manager from November 2004 through November 2009. Mr. Rubin earned a B.S. in Economics from the Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania and an M.S. in Finance from The George Washington University. Mr. Rubin holds the Chartered Financial Analyst (“CFA”) designation.

The following individual has responsibility for the day-to-day management of the Fund, as set forth in the summary section.

Ryan Dofflemeyer, ProShare Advisors — Portfolio Manager since December 2009 and Associate Portfolio Manager from May 2008 through November 2009. ProFund Advisors — Associate Portfolio Manager from May 2005 through April 2008.

Determination of NAV

The NAV per Share of the Fund is computed by dividing the value of the net assets of such Fund (i.e., the value of its total assets less total liabilities) by its total number of Shares outstanding. Expenses and fees are accrued daily and taken into account for purposes of determining NAV. The NAV of the Fund is calculated by J.P. Morgan Investor Services Co. and determined each business day at the close of regular trading of the NYSE (ordinarily 4:00 p.m. New York time).

Securities and other assets are generally valued at their market value using information provided by a pricing service or market quotations. Certain short-term securities are valued on the basis of amortized cost. When a market price is not readily available, securities and other assets are valued at fair value in good faith under procedures established by, and under the general supervision and responsibility of, the Board. The use of a fair valuation method may be appropriate if, for example: (i) market quotations do not accurately reflect fair value of an investment; (ii) an investment’s value has been materially affected by events occurring after the close of the exchange or market on which the investment is principally traded (for example, a foreign exchange or market); (iii) a trading halt closes an exchange or market early; or (iv) other events result in an exchange or market delaying its normal close. This procedure incurs the unavoidable risk that the valuation may be higher or lower than the securities might actually command if the Fund sold them. See the SAI for more details.

The NYSE is open every week, Monday through Friday, except when the following holidays are celebrated: New Year’s Day, Martin Luther King, Jr. Day (the third Monday in January), Presidents’ Day (the third Monday in February), Good Friday,

 

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Memorial Day (the last Monday in May), July 4th, Labor Day (the first Monday in September), Thanksgiving Day (the fourth Thursday in November) and Christmas Day. The NYSE may close early on the business day before each of these holidays and on the day after Thanksgiving Day. Exchange holiday schedules are subject to change without notice. If the exchange or market on which the Fund’s investments are primarily traded closes early, the net asset value may be calculated prior to its normal calculation time. Creation/redemption transaction order time cutoffs would also be accelerated.

Distributions

As a shareholder, you are entitled to your share of the Fund’s income from interest and dividends, and gains from the sale of investments. You may receive such earnings as either an income dividend or a capital gains distribution. Income dividends primarily come from the dividends that the Fund earns from its holdings and the interest it receives from its money market and bond investments. Capital gains may be realized when the fund sells securities. Capital gains may be either short-term or long-term, depending on whether the Fund held the securities for one year or less, or more than one year.

The Fund intends to declare and distribute to its shareholders at least annually virtually all of its net income (interest and dividends, less expenses), if any, as well as net capital gains, if any, realized from the sale of its holdings. Subject to Board approval, some or all of any net capital gains distribution may be declared payable in either additional Shares of the respective Fund or in cash. If such a distribution is declared payable in that fashion, holders of Shares will receive additional Shares of the respective Fund unless they elect to receive cash. Dividends may be declared and paid more frequently to comply with the distribution requirements of the Internal Revenue Code or for other reasons.

Dividend Reinvestment Services

As noted above under “Distributions”, the Fund may declare a net capital gain distribution to be payable in additional Shares or cash. Even if the Fund does not declare a dividend to be payable in Shares, brokers may make available to their customers who own Shares the DTC book-entry dividend reinvestment service. If this service is available and used, dividend distributions of both income and capital gains will automatically be reinvested in additional whole Shares of the same Fund. Without this service, investors would have to take their distributions in cash. To determine whether the dividend reinvestment service is available and whether there is a commission or other charge for using this service, please consult your broker.

Frequent Purchases and Redemption of Shares

The Trust’s Board of Trustees has not adopted a policy of monitoring for frequent purchases and redemptions of Shares (“frequent trading”) that appear to attempt to take advantage of potential arbitrage opportunities presented by a lag between a change in the value of the Fund’s portfolio securities after the close of the primary markets for the Fund’s portfolio securities and the reflection of that change in the Fund’s NAV (“market timing”). The Trust believes this is appropriate because an ETF, such as the Fund, is intended to be attractive to arbitrageurs, as trading activity is critical to ensuring that the market price of Shares remains at or close to NAV. Since the Fund issues and redeems Creation Units at NAV plus applicable transaction fees, and the Fund’s shares may be purchased and sold on either NYSE Arca or the NASDAQ Stock Market at prevailing market prices, the risks of frequent trading are limited.

Taxes

The following is certain general information about taxation of the Fund:

 

   

The Fund intends to qualify for treatment as a “regulated investment company” for U.S. federal income tax purposes. In order to so qualify, the Fund must meet certain tests with respect to the sources and types of its income, the nature and diversification of its assets, and the timing and amount of its distributions.

 

   

If the Fund qualifies for treatment as a regulated investment company, it is not subject to federal income tax on net investment income and capital gains that the Fund timely distributes to its shareholders.

 

   

Investments by the Fund in options, futures, forward contracts, swaps and other derivative financial instruments are subject to numerous special and complex tax rules. These rules could affect the amount, timing or character of the income distributed to shareholders by the Fund. In addition, because the application of these rules may be uncertain under current law, an adverse determination or future Internal Revenue Service guidance with respect to these rules may affect whether the Fund has made sufficient distributions, and otherwise satisfied the relevant requirements, to maintain its qualification as a regulated investment company and avoid the Fund-level tax.

Taxable investors should be aware of the following basic tax points:

 

   

Distributions are taxable to you for federal income tax purposes whether or not you reinvest these amounts in additional Shares.

 

   

Distributions declared in December — if paid to you by the end of January — are taxable for federal income tax purposes as if received in December.

 

   

Any dividends and short-term capital gain distributions that you receive are taxable to you as ordinary income for federal income tax purposes. Currently, ordinary income dividends you receive that are designated as “qualified dividend income” may be taxed at the same rates as long term capital gains. However, income received in the form of ordinary income

 

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dividends will not be considered long-term capital gains for other Federal income tax purposes, including the calculation of net capital losses. It is currently unclear whether the special tax treatment of qualified dividend income will be extended to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2011. Short-term capital gain distributions will continue to be taxed at ordinary income rates.

 

   

Any distributions of net long-term capital gains are taxable to you as long-term capital gains for federal income tax purposes, no matter how long you have owned your Shares.

 

   

Capital gains distributions may vary considerably from year to year as a result of the Fund’s normal investment activities and cash flows.

 

   

A sale or exchange of Shares is a taxable event. This means that you may have a capital gain to report as income, or a capital loss to report as a deduction, when you complete your federal income tax return.

 

   

Dividend and capital gains distributions that you receive, as well as your gains or losses from any sale or exchange of Shares, may be subject to state and local income taxes.

 

   

If you are not a citizen or a permanent resident of the United States, or if you are a foreign entity, any dividends and short term capital gains that you receive will generally be subject to a 30% U.S. withholding tax, unless a lower treaty rate applies.

 

   

Dividends and interest received by the Fund from sources outside the U.S. may give rise to withholding and other taxes imposed by foreign countries, which would reduce returns from an investment in Shares. Tax conventions between certain countries and the United States may reduce or eliminate such taxes.

 

   

By law, the Fund must withhold a percentage of your distributions and proceeds if you have not provided a taxpayer identification number or social security number. The backup withholding rate is currently 28% for amounts paid through December 31, 2010. Under current law, the backup withholding rate will increase to 31% for amounts paid after December 31, 2010.

In addition, taxable investors who purchase or redeem Creation Units should be aware of the following additional basic tax points:

 

   

A person who exchanges securities for Creation Units generally will recognize a gain or loss equal to the difference between the market value of the Creation Units at the time and the exchanger’s aggregate basis in the securities surrendered and any cash amount paid.

 

   

A person who exchanges Creation Units for securities generally will recognize a gain or loss equal to the difference between the exchanger’s basis in the Creation Units and the aggregate market value of the securities received and any cash received. However, all or a portion of any loss a person realizes upon an exchange of Creation Units for securities will be disallowed by the Internal Revenue Service if such person purchases other substantially identical Shares of the Fund within 30 days before or after the exchange. In such case, the basis of the newly purchased Shares will be adjusted to reflect the disallowed loss.

Note: This Prospectus provides general U.S. federal tax information only. Your investment in the Fund may have other tax implications. If you are investing through a tax-deferred retirement account, such as an IRA, special tax rules apply. Please consult your tax advisor for detailed information about the Fund’s tax consequences for you. See “Taxation” in the SAI for more information.

Premium/Discount Information

The Trust’s website has information about the premiums and discounts for each of the Fund. Premiums or discounts are the differences between the NAV and market price of the Fund on a given day, generally at the time NAV is calculated. A premium is the amount that the Fund is trading above the NAV. A discount is the amount that the Fund is trading below the NAV.

Distribution (12b-1) Plan

Under a Rule 12b-1 Distribution Plan (the “Plan”) adopted by the Board, the Fund may pay the Fund’s distributor and financial intermediaries, such as broker-dealers and investment advisors, up to 0.25% on an annualized basis of the average daily net assets of the Fund as reimbursement or compensation for distribution related activities with respect to the Fund. Because these fees are paid out of the Fund’s assets on an on-going basis, over time these fees will increase the cost of your investment and may cost you more than paying other types of sales charges. For the prior fiscal year, no payments were made by any Fund under the Plan.

 

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LOGO      Investment Company Act file number 811-21114   

ProShares

ProShares Trust

7501 Wisconsin Avenue, Suite 1000 Bethesda, MD 20814

866.PRO.5125    866.776.5125

proshares.com

You can find additional information about the Fund in its current Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”), dated [December x, 2010], which has been filed electronically with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) and is incorporated by reference into, and is legally a part of, this Prospectus. A copy of the Statement of Additional Information is available, free of charge, online at proshares.com. You may also receive a free copy of the SAI or make inquiries to ProShares by writing us at the address set forth above or calling us toll-free at the telephone number set forth above.

You can find other information about ProShares on the SEC’s website (www.sec.gov) or you can get copies of this information after payment of a duplicating fee by electronic request at publicinfo@sec.gov or by writing to the Public Reference Section of the SEC, Washington, D.C. 20549-0102. Information about ProShares, including their SAI, can be reviewed and copied at the SEC’s Public Reference Room in Washington, D.C. For information on the Public Reference Room, call the SEC at (202) 551-8090.

 

© 2010 ProShare Advisors LLC. All rights reserved.      [DEC ]10 


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STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

January [    ], 2011

ProShares Trust

7501 WISCONSIN AVENUE, SUITE 1000 — EAST TOWER

BETHESDA, MD 20814

866.PRO.5125    866.776.5125

 

Ultra ProShares    Short ProShares      
Ultra MarketCap    Short MarketCap    Short International

QLD

   Ultra QQQ®    PSQ    Short QQQ®    EFZ    Short MSCI EAFE

DDM

   Ultra Dow30SM    DOG    Short Dow30SM    EUM    Short MSCI Emerging Markets

SSO

   Ultra S&P500®    SH    Short S&P500®    YXI    Short FTSE/Xinhua China 25

UWC

   Ultra Russell3000    MYY    Short MidCap400    EFU    UltraShort MSCI EAFE

MVV

   Ultra MidCap400    SBB    Short SmallCap600    EEV    UltraShort MSCI Emerging Markets

SAA

   Ultra SmallCap600    RWM    Short Russell2000    EPV    UltraShort MSCI Europe

UWM

   Ultra Russell2000    QID    UltraShort QQQ®    JPX    UltraShort MSCI Pacific ex-Japan

TQQQ

   UltraPro QQQ®    DXD    UltraShort Dow30SM    BZQ    UltraShort MSCI Brazil

UDOW

   UltraPro Dow30 SM    SDS    UltraShort S&P500®    FXP    UltraShort FTSE/Xinhua China 25

UPRO

   UltraPro S&P500®    TWQ    UltraShort Russell3000    EWV    UltraShort MSCI Japan

UMDD

   UltraPro MidCap400    MZZ    UltraShort MidCap400    SMK    UltraShort MSCI Mexico

URTY

   UltraPro Russell2000    SDD    UltraShort SmallCap600       Investable Market
      TWM    UltraShort Russell2000      
Ultra Style    SQQQ    UltraPro Short QQQ®    Short Fixed-Income

UVG

   Ultra Russell1000 Value    SDOW    UltraPro Short Dow30SM    TBF    Short 20+ Year Treasury

UKF

   Ultra Russell1000 Growth    SPXU    UltraPro Short S&P500®    PST    UltraShort 7-10 Year Treasury

UVU

   Ultra Russell MidCap Value    SMDD    UltraPro Short MidCap400    TBT    UltraShort 20+ Year Treasury

UKW

   Ultra Russell MidCap Growth    SRTY    UltraPro Short Russell2000      

UVT

   Ultra Russell2000 Value          Alpha ProShares

UKK

   Ultra Russell2000 Growth    Short Style    CSM    Credit Suisse 130/30
      SJF    UltraShort Russell1000 Value    [    ]    RAFI® US Equity Long/Short
Ultra Sector    SFK    UltraShort Russell1000 Growth    [    ]    Hedge Replication ETF

UYM

   Ultra Basic Materials    SJL    UltraShort Russell MidCap Value      
BIB    Ultra Nasdaq Biotechnology    SDK    UltraShort Russell MidCap Growth   

UGE

   Ultra Consumer Goods    SJH    UltraShort Russell2000 Value      

UCC

   Ultra Consumer Services    SKK    UltraShort Russell2000 Growth      

UYG

   Ultra Financials            

RXL

   Ultra Health Care    Short Sector      

UXI

   Ultra Industrials    SBM    Short Basic Materials   

DIG

   Ultra Oil & Gas    SEF    Short Financials      

URE

   Ultra Real Estate    DDG    Short Oil & Gas      
KRU    Ultra KBW Regional Banking    REK    Short Real Estate      

USD

   Ultra Semiconductors    KRS    Short KBW Regional Banking      

ROM

   Ultra Technology    SMN    UltraShort Basic Materials      

LTL

   Ultra Telecommunications    BIS    UltraShort Nasdaq Biotechnology      

UPW

   Ultra Utilities    SZK    UltraShort Consumer Goods      
      SCC    UltraShort Consumer Services      
Ultra International    SKF    UltraShort Financials      

EFO

   Ultra MSCI EAFE    RXD    UltraShort Health Care      

EET

   Ultra MSCI Emerging Markets    SIJ    UltraShort Industrials      

UPV

   Ultra MSCI Europe    DUG    UltraShort Oil & Gas      

UXJ

   Ultra MSCI Pacific ex-Japan    SRS    UltraShort Real Estate      

UBR

   Ultra MSCI Brazil    SSG    UltraShort Semiconductors      

XPP

   Ultra FTSE/Xinhua China 25    REW    UltraShort Technology      

EZJ

   Ultra MSCI Japan    TLL    UltraShort Telecommunications      

UMX

   Ultra MSCI Mexico Investable Market    SDP    UltraShort Utilities      
Ultra Fixed-Income            
UST    Ultra 7-10 Year Treasury            

UBT

   Ultra 20+ Year Treasury            

This Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”) is not a prospectus. It should be read in conjunction with the Prospectus of ProShares Trust dated October 1, 2010 (the “Prospectus”), which incorporates this SAI by reference. A copy of the Prospectus and a copy of the Annual Report to shareholders for the Funds that have completed a fiscal year are available, without charge, upon request to the address on the previous page, by telephone at the number on the previous page, or on the Trust’s website at www.proshares.com. The Financial Statements and Notes contained in the Annual Report to Shareholders for the fiscal year ended May 31, 2010 are incorporated by reference into and are deemed part of this SAI. The principal U.S. national stock exchange on which all Funds (except those noted below) identified in this SAI are listed is NYSE Arca. ProShares Ultra Nasdaq Biotechnology, ProShares UltraShort Nasdaq Biotechnology, ProShares UltraProQQQ and ProShares UltraPro Short QQQ are listed on The NASDAQ Stock Market.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

     [Page]  

PROSHARES TRUST

  

INVESTMENT POLICIES, TECHNIQUES AND RELATED RISKS

     2   

SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS

     11   

INVESTMENT RESTRICTIONS

     18   

PORTFOLIO TRANSACTIONS AND BROKERAGE

     18   

MANAGEMENT OF PROSHARES TRUST

     23   

INVESTMENT ADVISOR

     27   

DISCLOSURE OF PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS POLICY

     34   

OTHER SERVICE PROVIDERS

     35   

COSTS AND EXPENSES

     48   

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION CONCERNING SHARES

     48   

PROXY VOTING POLICY AND PROCEDURES

     50   

PURCHASE AND REDEMPTION OF SHARES

     51   

TAXATION

     56   

OTHER INFORMATION

     65   

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

     72   

APPENDIX A

  


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GLOSSARY OF TERMS

For ease of use, certain terms or names that are used in this SAI have been shortened or abbreviated. A list of these terms and their corresponding full names or definitions can be found below. An investor may find it helpful to review the terms and names before reading the SAI.

 

Term

  

Definition

1933 Act    Securities Act of 1933, as amended
1934 Act    Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended
1940 Act    Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended
The Advisor or ProShare Advisors    ProShare Advisors LLC
Board of Trustees or Board    Board of Trustees of ProShares Trust
CFTC    Commodity Futures Trading Commission
Code or Internal Revenue Code    Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended
Distributor or SEI    SEI Investments Distribution Co.

Exchange

Fund(s)

  

NYSE Arca or The NASDAQ Stock Market

One or more of the series of the Trust identified on the front cover of this SAI

Independent Trustee(s)    Trustees who are not “Interested Persons” as defined under Section 2(a)(19) of the 1940 Act
SAI    The Trust’s Statement of Additional Information dated October 1, 2010
SEC    U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission
Shares    The shares of the Funds
Trust    ProShares Trust
Trustee(s)    One or more of the trustees of the Trust

PROSHARES TRUST

The Trust is a Delaware statutory trust and is registered with the SEC as an open-end management investment company under the 1940 Act. The Trust was organized on May 29, 2002 and consists of multiple series, including the one hundered and one Funds listed on the front cover of this SAI.

Other funds may be added in the future. Each of the Funds is registered as a non-diversified management investment company.

The Funds are exchange-traded funds (“ETFs”) and the Shares are listed on an Exchange. The Shares trade on the relevant Exchange at market prices that may differ to some degree from the Shares’ net asset values (“NAV”). Each Fund issues and redeems Shares on a continuous basis at NAV in large, specified numbers of Shares called “Creation Units.” Creation Units of the Ultra ProShares are issued and redeemed in-kind for securities included in the relevant underlying index and an amount of cash or entirely in cash. Creation Units of the Short ProShares are purchased and redeemed in cash. Except when aggregated in Creation Units, Shares are not redeemable securities of the Funds. Retail investors, therefore, generally will not be able to purchase the Shares directly. Rather, most retail investors will purchase Shares in the secondary market with the assistance of a broker.

Reference is made to the Prospectus for a discussion of the investment objectives and policies of each of the Funds. The discussion below supplements, and should be read in conjunction with, the applicable Prospectus. Portfolio management is provided to the Funds by ProShare Advisors, a Maryland limited liability company with offices at 7501 Wisconsin Avenue, Suite 1000, Bethesda, Maryland 20814.

The investment restrictions of the Funds specifically identified as fundamental policies may not be changed without the affirmative vote of at least a majority of the outstanding voting securities of that Fund, as defined in the 1940 Act. The investment objectives and all other investment policies of the Funds not specified as fundamental (including the benchmarks of the Funds) may be changed by the Trustees without the approval of shareholders.

The investment techniques and strategies discussed below may be used by a Fund if, in the opinion of the Advisor, the techniques or strategies may be advantageous to the Fund. A Fund is free to reduce or eliminate its use of any of these techniques or strategies without changing the Fund’s fundamental policies. There is no assurance that any of the techniques or strategies listed below, or any of the other methods of investment available to a Fund, will result in the achievement of the Fund’s objectives. Also, there can be no assurance that any Fund will grow to, or maintain, an economically viable size, in which case management may determine to liquidate the Fund at a time that may not be opportune for shareholders.


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The use of the term “favorable market conditions” throughout this SAI is intended to convey rising markets for the Ultra ProShares and Alpha ProShares and falling markets for the Short ProShares. The use of the term “adverse market conditions” is intended to convey falling markets for the Alpha ProShares and the Ultra ProShares, and rising markets for the Short ProShares.

Exchange Listing and Trading

There can be no assurance that the requirements of the Exchange necessary to maintain the listing of Shares of any Fund will continue to be met. The Exchange may remove a Fund from listing under certain circumstances.

As in the case of all equities traded on the Exchange, the brokers’ commission on transactions in the Funds will be based on negotiated commission rates at customary levels for retail customers.

In order to provide current Share pricing information, The Exchange disseminates an updated Indicative Optimized Portfolio Value (“IOPV”) for each Fund. The Trust is not involved in or responsible for any aspect of the calculation or dissemination of the IOPVs and makes no warranty as to the accuracy of the IOPVs. IOPVs are expected to be disseminated on a per Fund basis every 15 seconds during regular trading hours of the Exchange.

INVESTMENT POLICIES, TECHNIQUES AND RELATED RISKS

General

A Fund may consider changing its benchmark or the index underlying its benchmark at any time, including if, for example, the current index becomes unavailable; the Board of Trustees believes that the current index no longer serves the investment needs of a majority of shareholders or that another index may better serve their needs; or if the financial or economic environment makes it difficult for the Fund’s investment results to correspond sufficiently to its current benchmark or underlying index. If believed appropriate, a Fund may specify a benchmark index for itself that is “leveraged” or proprietary. Of course, there can be no assurance that a Fund will achieve its objective.

Fundamental securities analysis is not used by ProShare Advisors in seeking to correlate a Fund’s investment returns with its benchmark. Rather, ProShare Advisors primarily uses a mathematical approach to determine the investments a Fund makes and techniques it employs. While ProShare Advisors attempts to minimize any “tracking error,” certain factors tend to cause a Fund’s investment results to vary from a perfect correlation to its benchmark. See “Special Considerations.”

For purposes of this SAI, the word “invest” refers to a Fund directly and indirectly investing in securities or other instruments. Similarly, when used in this SAI, the word “investment” refers to a Fund’s direct and indirect investments in securities and other instruments. For example, the Funds typically invest indirectly in securities or instruments by using financial instruments with economic exposure similar to those securities or instruments.

Additional information concerning the Funds, their investments policies and techniques, and the securities and financial instruments in which they may invest is set forth below.

Name Policies

The Funds have adopted non-fundamental investment policies obligating them to commit, under normal market conditions, at least 80% of their assets to investments that, in combination, have economic characteristics similar to equity securities contained in the underlying index (for Ultra ProShares and Alpha ProShares, except Hedge Replication ETF) and/or financial instruments with similar economic characteristics. For purposes of each such investment policy, “assets” includes a Fund’s net assets, as well as amounts borrowed for investment purposes, if any. In addition, for purposes of such an investment policy, “assets” includes not only the amount of a Fund’s net assets attributable to investments directly providing investment exposure to the type of investments suggested by its name (e.g., the value of stocks, or the value of derivative instruments such as futures, options or options on futures), but also the amount of the Fund’s net assets that are segregated on the Fund’s books and records, as required by applicable regulatory guidance, or otherwise used to cover such investment exposure. The Board has adopted a policy to provide investors with at least 60 days’ notice prior to changes in a Fund’s name policy.

 

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Equity Securities

The market price of securities owned by a Fund may go up or down, sometimes rapidly or unpredictably. Securities may decline in value due to factors affecting securities markets generally or particular industries represented in the securities markets. The value of a security may decline due to general market conditions not specifically related to a particular company, such as real or perceived adverse economic conditions, changes in the general outlook for corporate earnings, changes in interest or currency rates, or adverse investor sentiment generally. They may also decline due to factors that affect a particular industry or industries, such as labor shortages or increased production costs and competitive conditions within an industry. The value of a security may also decline for a number of reasons that directly relate to the issuer, such as management performance, financial leverage and reduced demand for the issuer’s goods or services. Equity securities generally have greater price volatility than fixed income securities, and the Funds are particularly sensitive to these market risks.

Foreign Securities

Certain of the Funds may invest in securities principally traded outside of the U.S. or in foreign issuers. Foreign securities may involve special risks due to foreign economic, political and legal developments, including unfavorable changes in currency exchange rates, exchange control regulation (including currency blockage), expropriation or nationalization of assets, confiscatory taxation, taxation of income earned in foreign nations, withholding of portions of interest and dividends in certain countries and the possible difficulty of obtaining and enforcing judgments against foreign entities. Default in foreign government securities, political or social instability or diplomatic developments could affect investments in securities of issuers in foreign nations. In addition, in many countries there is less publicly available information about issuers than is available in reports about companies in the United States. Foreign companies are not generally subject to uniform accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards, and auditing practices and requirements may differ from those applicable to U.S. companies. The growing interconnectivity of global economies and financial markets has increased the possibilities that conditions in any one country or region could have an adverse impact on issuers of securities in a different country or region.

In addition, the securities of some foreign governments, companies and securities markets are less liquid, and may be more volatile, than comparable domestic issuers. Some foreign investments may be subject to brokerage commissions and fees that are higher than those applicable to U.S. investments. A Fund also may be affected by different settlement practices or delayed settlements in some foreign markets. Furthermore, some foreign jurisdictions regulate and limit U.S. investments in the securities of certain issuers.

A Fund’s foreign investments that are related to developing (or “emerging market”) countries may be particularly volatile due to the aforementioned factors.

A Fund may value its financial instruments based upon foreign securities by using market prices of domestically-traded financial instruments with comparable foreign securities market exposure.

Exposure to Securities or Issuers in Specific Foreign Countries or Regions

Some Funds focus their investments in particular geographical regions or countries. In addition to the risks of investing in foreign securities discussed above, the investments of such Funds may be exposed to special risks that are specific to the country or region in which the investments are focused. Furthermore, Funds with such a focus may be subject to additional risks associated with events in nearby countries or regions or those of a country’s principal trading partners. Additionally, some Funds have an investment focus in a country or region that is an emerging market and, therefore, are subject to heightened risks relative to Funds that focus their investments in more developed countries or regions.

Futures Contracts and Related Options

The Funds may purchase or sell stock index futures contracts and options thereon as a substitute for a comparable market position in the underlying securities or to satisfy regulatory requirements. A commodity futures contract generally obligates the seller to deliver (and the purchaser to take delivery of) the specified commodity on the expiration date of the contract. A stock index futures contract obligates the seller to deliver (and the purchaser to take) an amount of cash equal to a specific dollar amount (the contract multiplier) multiplied by the difference between the final settlement price of a specific stock index futures contract and the price at which the agreement is made. No physical delivery of the underlying stocks in the index is made.

The Funds generally choose to engage in closing or offsetting transactions before final settlement wherein a second identical futures contract is sold to offset a long position (or bought to offset a short position). In such cases the obligation is to deliver (or take delivery of) cash equal to a specific dollar amount (the contract multiplier) multiplied by the difference between the price of the offsetting transaction and the price at which the original contract was entered into. If the original position entered into is a long position (futures contract purchased) there will be a gain (loss) if the offsetting sell transaction is done at a higher (lower) price, inclusive of commissions. If the original position entered into is a short position (futures contract sold) there will be a gain (loss) if the offsetting buy transaction is done at a lower (higher) price, inclusive of commissions.

 

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Whether a Fund realizes a gain or loss from futures activities depends generally upon movements in the underlying security. The extent of the Fund’s loss from an unhedged short position in futures contracts is potentially unlimited. The Funds may engage in related closing transactions with respect to options on futures contracts. The Funds intend to engage in transactions in futures contracts that are traded on a U.S. exchange or board of trade or that have been approved for sale in the United States by the CFTC.

When a Fund purchases or sells a stock index futures contract, or buys or sells an option thereon, the Fund “covers” its position. To cover its position, a Fund may enter into an offsetting position or segregate with its custodian bank or on the books and records of the Fund (and mark-to-market on a daily basis) cash or liquid instruments that, when added to any amounts deposited with a futures commission merchant as margin, are equal to the market value of the futures contract or otherwise “cover” its position.

The CFTC has eliminated limitations on futures trading by certain regulated entities, including registered investment companies, and consequently registered investment companies may engage in unlimited futures transactions and options thereon provided that the investment advisor to the company claims an exclusion from regulation as a commodity pool operator. In connection with its management of the Trust, the Advisor has claimed such an exclusion from registration as a commodity pool trading adviser under the Commodity Exchange Act (the “CEA”). The Trust has claimed an exclusion from registration as a commodity pool operator under the CEA. Therefore, neither the Trust nor the Advisor is subject to the registration and regulatory requirements of the CEA. There are no limitations on the extent to which each Fund may engage in transactions involving futures and options thereon, except as set forth in the Funds’ Prospectus and this SAI.

Upon entering into a futures contract, each Fund will be required to deposit with the broker an amount of cash or cash equivalents in the range of approximately 5% to 7% of the contract amount (this amount is subject to change by the exchange on which the contract is traded). This amount, known as “initial margin,” is in the nature of a performance bond or good faith deposit on the contract and is returned to the Fund upon termination of the futures contract, assuming all contractual obligations have been satisfied. Subsequent payments, known as “variation margin,” to and from the broker will be made daily as the price of the index underlying the futures contract fluctuates, making the long and short positions in the futures contract more or less valuable, a process known as “marking-to-market.” At any time prior to expiration of a futures contract, a Fund may elect to close its position by taking an opposite position, which will operate to terminate the Fund’s existing position in the contract.

A Fund may cover its long position in a futures contract by taking a short position in the instruments underlying the futures contract, or by taking positions in instruments the prices of which are expected to move relatively consistently inversely with the futures contract. A Fund may cover its short position in a futures contract by taking a long position in the instruments underlying the futures contract, or by taking positions in instruments, the prices of which are expected to move relatively consistently to the futures contract. A Fund may “cover” its short position in a futures contract by purchasing a call option on the same futures contract with a strike price (i.e., an exercise price) as low or lower than the price of the futures contract, or, if the strike price of the call is greater than the price of the futures contract, the Fund will earmark or segregate cash or liquid instruments equal in value to the difference between the strike price of the call and the price of the future. A Fund may cover its long or short positions in futures by earmarking or segregating with its custodian bank or on the books and records of the Funds (and mark-to-market on a daily basis) cash or liquid instruments that, when added to any amounts deposited with a futures commission merchant as margin, are equal to the market value of the futures contract or otherwise “cover” its position.

A Fund may cover its sale of a call option on a futures contract by taking a long position in the underlying futures contract at a price less than or equal to the strike price of the call option, or, if the long position in the underlying futures contract is established at a price greater than the strike price of the written (sold) call, the Fund will earmark or maintain in a segregated account liquid instruments equal in value to the difference between the strike price of the call and the price of the future. A Fund may also cover its sale of a call option by taking positions in instruments, the prices of which are expected to move relatively consistently with the call option. A Fund may cover its sale of a put option on a futures contract by taking a short position in the underlying futures contract at a price greater than or equal to the strike price of the put option, or, if the short position in the underlying futures contract is established at a price less than the strike price of the written put, the Fund will segregate cash or liquid instruments equal in value to the difference between the strike price of the put and the price of the future. A Fund may also cover its sale of a put option by taking positions in instruments the prices of which are expected to move relatively consistently with the put option.

Although the Funds intend to sell futures contracts only if there is an active market for such contracts, no assurance can be given that a liquid market will exist for any particular contract at any particular time. Many futures exchanges and boards of trade limit the amount of fluctuation permitted in futures contract prices during a single trading day. Once the daily limit has been reached in a particular contract, no trades may be made that day at a price beyond that limit or trading may be suspended for specified periods during the day. Futures contract prices could move to the limit for several consecutive trading days with little or no trading, thereby preventing prompt liquidation of futures positions and potentially subjecting a Fund to substantial losses. If trading is not possible, or if a Fund determines not to close a futures position in anticipation of adverse price movements, the Fund will be required to make daily cash payments of variation margin. The risk that the Fund will be unable to close out a futures position will be minimized by entering into such transactions on a national securities exchange with an active and liquid secondary market.

 

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Forward Contracts

A principal investment strategy of the Funds is to invest in financial instruments whose value is derived from the value of an underlying asset, interest rate or index, which may include forward contracts, and for the Short ProShares, may be the primary or sole investment strategy of the Funds. The Funds may enter into equity, equity index or interest rate forward contracts for purposes of attempting to gain exposure to an index or group of securities without actually purchasing these securities, or to hedge a position. Forward contracts are two-party contracts pursuant to which one party agrees to pay the counterparty a fixed price for an agreed-upon amount of commodities, securities or the cash value of the commodities, securities or the securities index, at an agreed-upon date. When required by law, a Fund will segregate liquid assets in an amount equal to the value of the Fund’s total assets committed to the consummation of such forward contracts. Obligations under forward contracts so covered will not be considered senior securities for purposes of a Fund’s investment restriction concerning senior securities. A Fund will not enter into a forward contract unless the Advisor believes that the other party to the transaction is creditworthy. A Fund bears the risk of loss of the amount expected to be received under a forward contract in the event of the default or bankruptcy of a counterparty. If such a default occurs, a Fund will have contractual remedies pursuant to the forward contract, but such remedies may be subject to bankruptcy and insolvency laws, which could affect the Fund’s rights as a creditor.

Index Options

The Funds may purchase and write options on stock indexes to create investment exposure consistent with their investment objectives, to hedge or limit the exposure of their positions, or to create synthetic money market positions.

A stock index fluctuates with changes in the market values of the stocks included in the index. Options on stock indexes give the holder the right to receive an amount of cash upon exercise of the option. Receipt of this cash amount will depend upon the closing level of the stock index upon which the option is based being greater than (in the case of a call) or less than (in the case of a put) the exercise price of the option. The amount of cash received, if any, will be the difference between the closing price of the index and the exercise price of the option, multiplied by a specified dollar multiple. The writer (seller) of the option is obligated, in return for the premiums received from the purchaser of the option, to make delivery of this amount to the purchaser. All settlements of index options transactions are in cash.

Index options are subject to substantial risks, including the risk of imperfect correlation between the option price and the value of the underlying securities composing the stock index selected and the risk that there might not be a liquid secondary market for the option. Because the value of an index option depends upon movements in the level of the index rather than the price of a particular stock, whether a Fund will realize a gain or loss from the purchase or writing (sale) of options on an index depends upon movements in the level of stock prices in the stock market generally or, in the case of certain indexes, in an industry or market segment, rather than upon movements in the price of a particular stock. This requires different skills and techniques than are required for predicting changes in the price of individual stocks. A Fund will not enter into an option position that exposes the Fund to an obligation to another party, unless the Fund either (i) owns an offsetting position in securities or other options and/or (ii) earmarks or segregates with the Fund’s custodian bank cash or liquid instruments that, when added to the premiums deposited with respect to the option, are equal to the market value of the underlying stock index not otherwise covered.

The Funds may engage in transactions in stock index options listed on national securities exchanges or traded in the over-the-counter (“OTC”) market as an investment vehicle for the purpose of realizing the Fund’s investment objective. Options on indexes are settled in cash, not by delivery of securities. The exercising holder of an index option receives, instead of a security, cash equal to the difference between the closing price of the securities index and the exercise price of the option.

Some stock index options are based on a broad market index such as the S&P 500®, the New York Stock Exchange, Inc. (“NYSE”) Composite Index or on a narrower index such as the Philadelphia Stock Exchange Over-the-Counter Index. Options currently are traded on the Chicago Board Options Exchange (the “CBOE”) and other exchanges (“Options Exchanges”). Purchased OTC options and the cover for written OTC options will be subject to the relevant Fund’s 15% limitation on investment in illiquid securities. See “Illiquid Securities.”

Each of the Options Exchanges has established limitations governing the maximum number of call or put options on the same index which may be bought or written (sold) by a single investor, whether acting alone or in concert with others (regardless of whether such options are written on the same or different Options Exchanges or are held or written on one or more accounts or through one or more brokers). Under these limitations, option positions of all investment companies advised by the same investment advisor are combined for purposes of these limits. Pursuant to these limitations, an Options Exchange may order the liquidation of positions and may impose other sanctions or restrictions. These position limits may restrict the number of listed options which a Fund may buy or sell. The Advisor intends to comply with all limitations.

 

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Options on Securities

The Funds may buy and write (sell) options on securities for the purpose of realizing their investment objective. By buying a call option, a Fund has the right, in return for a premium paid during the term of the option, to buy the securities underlying the option at the exercise price. By writing a call option on securities, a Fund becomes obligated during the term of the option to sell the securities underlying the option at the exercise price if the option is exercised. By buying a put option, a Fund has the right, in return for a premium paid during the term of the option, to sell the securities underlying the option at the exercise price. By writing a put option, a Fund becomes obligated during the term of the option to purchase the securities underlying the option at the exercise price if the option is exercised. During the term of the option, the writer may be assigned an exercise notice by the broker-dealer through whom the option was sold. The exercise notice would require the writer to deliver, in the case of a call, or take delivery of, in the case of a put, the underlying security against payment of the exercise price. This obligation terminates upon expiration of the option, or at such earlier time that the writer effects a closing purchase transaction by purchasing an option covering the same underlying security and having the same exercise price and expiration date as the one previously sold. Once an option has been exercised, the writer may not execute a closing purchase transaction. To secure the obligation to deliver the underlying security in the case of a call option, the writer of a call option is required to deposit in escrow the underlying security or other assets in accordance with the rules of the Options Clearing Corporation (the “OCC”), an institution created to interpose itself between buyers and sellers of options. The OCC assumes the other side of every purchase and sale transaction on an exchange and, by doing so, gives its guarantee to the transaction. When writing call options on securities, a Fund may cover its position by owning the underlying security on which the option is written. Alternatively, the Fund may cover its position by owning a call option on the underlying security, on a share-for-share basis, which is deliverable under the option contract at a price no higher than the exercise price of the call option written by the Fund or, if higher, by owning such call option and depositing and segregating cash or liquid instruments equal in value to the difference between the two exercise prices. In addition, a Fund may cover its position by segregating cash or liquid instruments equal in value to the exercise price of the call option written by the Fund. When a Fund writes a put option, the Fund will segregate with its custodian bank cash or liquid instruments having a value equal to the exercise value of the option. The principal reason for a Fund to write call options on stocks held by the Fund is to attempt to realize, through the receipt of premiums, a greater return than would be realized on the underlying securities alone.

If a Fund that writes an option wishes to terminate the Fund’s obligation, the Fund may effect a “closing purchase transaction.” The Fund accomplishes this by buying an option of the same series as the option previously written by the Fund. The effect of the purchase is that the writer’s position will be canceled by the OCC. However, a writer may not effect a closing purchase transaction after the writer has been notified of the exercise of an option. Likewise, a Fund which is the holder of an option may liquidate its position by effecting a “closing sale transaction.” The Fund accomplishes this by selling an option of the same series as the option previously purchased by the Fund. There is no guarantee that either a closing purchase or a closing sale transaction can be effected. If any call or put option is not exercised or sold, the option will become worthless on its expiration date. A Fund will realize a gain (or a loss) on a closing purchase transaction with respect to a call or a put option previously written by the Fund if the premium, plus commission costs, paid by the Fund to purchase the call or put option to close the transaction is less (or greater) than the premium, less commission costs, received by the Fund on the sale of the call or the put option. The Fund also will realize a gain if a call or put option which the Fund has written lapses unexercised, because the Fund would retain the premium.

Although certain securities exchanges attempt to provide continuously liquid markets in which holders and writers of options can close out their positions at any time prior to the expiration of the option, no assurance can be given that a market will exist at all times for all outstanding options purchased or sold by a Fund. If an options market were to become unavailable, the Fund would be unable to realize its profits or limit its losses until the Fund could exercise options it holds, and the Fund would remain obligated until options it wrote were exercised or expired. Reasons for the absence of liquid secondary market on an exchange include the following: (i) there may be insufficient trading interest in certain options; (ii) restrictions may be imposed by an exchange on opening or closing transactions or both; (iii) trading halts, suspensions or other restrictions may be imposed with respect to particular classes or series of options; (iv) unusual or unforeseen circumstances may interrupt normal operations on an exchange; (v) the facilities of an exchange or the OCC may not at all times be adequate to handle current trading volume; or (vi) one or more exchanges could, for economic or other reasons, decide or be compelled at some future date to discontinue the trading of options (or a particular class or series of options) and those options would cease to exist, although outstanding options on that exchange that had been issued by the OCC as a result of trades on that exchange would continue to be exercisable in accordance with their terms.

Swap Agreements

A principal investment strategy of the Funds is to invest in financial instruments whose value is derived from the value of an underlying asset, interest rate or index, which may include swap agreements, and, for the Short ProShares, which may be the primary or sole investment strategy (along with selling securities short). The Funds may enter into equity, equity index or interest rate swap agreements for purposes of attempting to gain exposure to an index or group of securities without actually purchasing those securities, or to hedge a position. Swap agreements are two-party contracts entered into primarily by institutional investors for periods ranging from a day to more than one year. In a standard “swap” transaction, two parties agree to exchange the returns (or differentials in rates of return) earned or realized on particular predetermined investments or instruments. The gross returns to be exchanged or “swapped”

 

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between the parties are calculated with respect to a “notional amount,” i.e., the return on or increase in value of a particular dollar amount invested in a “basket” of securities representing a particular index or group of securities. Forms of swap agreements include interest rate caps, under which, in return for a premium, one party agrees to make payments to the other to the extent that interest rates exceed a specified rate, or “cap”; interest rate floors, under which, in return for a premium, one party agrees to make payments to the other to the extent that interest rates fall below a specified level, or “floor”; and interest rate collars, under which a party sells a cap and purchases a floor or vice versa in an attempt to protect itself against interest rate movements exceeding given minimum or maximum levels.

Most swap agreements entered into by the Funds calculate the obligations of the parties to the agreement on a “net basis.” Consequently, a Fund’s current obligations (or rights) under a swap agreement will generally be equal only to the net amount to be paid or received under the agreement based on the relative values of the positions held by each party to the agreement (the “net amount”).

A Fund’s current obligations under a swap agreement will be accrued daily (offset against any amounts owed to the Fund) and any accrued but unpaid net amounts owed to a swap counterparty will be covered by segregating or earmarking assets determined to be liquid. Obligations under swap agreements so covered will not be construed to be senior securities for purposes of a Fund’s investment restriction concerning senior securities. A Fund will not enter into any swap agreement unless the Advisor believes that the other party to the transaction is creditworthy. A Fund bears the risk of loss of the amount expected to be received under a swap agreement in the event of the default or bankruptcy of a swap agreement counterparty. If such a default occurs, a Fund will have contractual remedies pursuant to the swap agreements, but such remedies may be subject to bankruptcy and insolvency laws which could affect the Fund’s right as a creditor.

Each Fund may enter into swap agreements to invest in a market without owning or taking physical custody of securities in circumstances in which direct investment is restricted for legal reasons or is otherwise impracticable. The counterparty to any swap agreement will typically be a bank, investment banking firm or broker-dealer. On a long swap, the counterparty will generally agree to pay the Fund the amount, if any, by which the notional amount of the swap agreement would have increased in value had it been invested in the particular stocks, plus the dividends that would have been received on those stocks. The Fund will agree to pay to the counterparty a floating rate of interest on the notional amount of the swap agreement plus the amount, if any, by which the notional amount would have decreased in value had it been invested in such stocks. Therefore, the return to the Fund on any swap agreement should be the gain or loss on the notional amount plus dividends on the stocks less the interest paid by the Fund on the notional amount. As a trading technique, the Advisor may substitute physical securities with a swap agreement having risk characteristics substantially similar to the underlying securities.

Swap agreements typically are settled on a net basis, which means that the two payment streams are netted out, with the Fund receiving or paying, as the case may be, only the net amount of the two payments. Payments may be made at the conclusion of a swap agreement or periodically during its term. Swap agreements do not involve the delivery of securities or other underlying assets. Accordingly, the risk of loss with respect to swap agreements is limited to the net amount of payments that a Fund is contractually obligated to make. If the other party to a swap agreement defaults, a Fund’s risk of loss consists of the net amount of payments that such Fund is contractually entitled to receive, if any. The net amount of the excess, if any, of a Fund’s obligations over its entitlements with respect to each equity swap will be accrued on a daily basis and an amount of cash or liquid assets, having an aggregate NAV at least equal to such accrued excess will be earmarked or segregated by a Fund’s custodian. Inasmuch as these transactions are entered into for hedging purposes or are offset by earmarked or segregated cash or liquid assets, as permitted by applicable law, the Funds and their Advisor believe that these transactions do not constitute senior securities within the meaning of the 1940 Act, and, accordingly, will not treat them as being subject to a Fund’s borrowing restrictions.

The swap market has grown substantially in recent years with a large number of banks and investment banking firms acting both as principals and as agents utilizing standardized swap documentation. As a result, the swap market has become relatively liquid in comparison with the markets for other similar instruments which are traded in the OTC market. The Advisor, under the supervision of the Board of Trustees, is responsible for determining and monitoring the liquidity of the Funds’ transactions in swap agreements.

The use of swaps is a highly specialized activity which involves investment techniques and risks different from those associated with ordinary portfolio securities transactions.

 

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Short Sales

The Funds may engage in short sales transactions. A short sale is a transaction in which a Fund sells a security it does not own in anticipation that the market price of that security will decline. To complete such a transaction, a Fund must borrow the security to make delivery to the buyer. The Fund is then obligated to replace the security borrowed by borrowing the same security from another lender, purchasing it at the market price at the time of replacement or paying the lender an amount equal to the cost of purchasing the security. The price at such time may be more or less than the price at which the security was sold by the Fund. Until the security is replaced, the Fund is required to repay the lender any dividends it receives, or interest which accrues, during the period of the loan. To borrow the security, the Fund also may be required to pay a premium, which would increase the cost of the security sold. The net proceeds of the short sale will be retained by the broker, to the extent necessary to meet the margin requirements, until the short position is closed out. A Fund also will incur transaction costs in effecting short sales.

The Funds may make short sales “against the box,” i.e., when a security identical to or convertible or exchangeable into one owned by a Fund is borrowed and sold short. Whenever a Fund engages in short sales, it earmarks or segregates liquid securities or cash in an amount that, when combined with the amount of collateral deposited with the broker in connection with the short sale, equals the current market value of the security sold short. The earmarked or segregated assets are marked-to-market daily.

A Fund will incur a loss as a result of a short sale if the price of the security increases between the date of the short sale and the date on which the Fund replaces the borrowed security. A Fund will realize a gain if the price of the security declines in price between those dates. The amount of any gain will be decreased, and the amount of any loss increased, by the amount of the premium, dividends or interest a Fund may be required to pay, if any, in connection with a short sale.

The Funds will not sell short the equity securities of issuers contained in the NASDAQ-100 Index.

Depositary Receipts

Some Funds may invest in American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”). For many foreign securities, U.S. dollar-denominated ADRs, which are traded in the United States on exchanges or OTC, are issued by domestic banks. ADRs represent the right to receive securities of foreign issuers deposited in a domestic bank or a correspondent bank. ADRs do not eliminate all the risk inherent in investing in the securities of foreign issuers. However, by investing in ADRs rather than directly in foreign issuers’ stock, the Funds can avoid currency risks during the settlement period for either purchase or sales.

In general, there is a large, liquid market in the United States for many ADRs. The information available for ADRs is subject to the accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards of the domestic market or exchange on which they are traded, which standards are more uniform and more exacting than those to which many foreign issuers may be subject. Certain ADRs, typically those denominated as unsponsored, require the holders thereof to bear most of the costs of such facilities, while issuers of sponsored facilities normally pay more of the costs thereof. The depository of an unsponsored facility frequently is under no obligation to distribute shareholder communications received from the issuer of the deposited securities or to pass through the voting rights to facility holders with respect to the deposited securities, whereas the depository of a sponsored facility typically distributes shareholder communications and passes through the voting rights.

The Funds may invest in both sponsored and unsponsored ADRs. Unsponsored ADR programs are organized independently and without the cooperation of the issuer of the underlying securities. As a result, available information concerning the issuers may not be as current for sponsored ADRs, and the prices of unsponsored depository receipts may be more volatile than if such instruments were sponsored by the issuer.

A Fund may also invest in Global Depositary Receipts (“GDRs”). GDRs are receipts for shares in a foreign-based corporation traded in capital markets around the world. While ADRs permit foreign corporations to offer shares to American citizens, GDRs allow companies in Europe, Asia, the United States and Latin American to offer shares in many markets around the world.

A Fund may also invest in New York Shares (“NYSs”), which are shares of New York registry, representing equity ownership in a non-U.S. company, allowing for a part of the capital of the company to be outstanding in the U.S. and part in the home market.

U.S. Government Securities

The Funds also may invest in U.S. government securities in pursuit of their investment objectives, as “cover” for the investment techniques these Funds employ, or for liquidity purposes.

U.S. government securities include U.S. Treasury securities, which are backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Treasury and which differ only in their interest rates, maturities, and times of issuance. U.S. Treasury bills have initial maturities of one year or less; U.S. Treasury notes have initial maturities of one to ten years; and U.S. Treasury bonds generally have initial maturities of greater than ten years. Certain U.S. government securities are issued or guaranteed by agencies or instrumentalities of the U.S.

 

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government including, but not limited to, obligations of U.S. government agencies or instrumentalities, such as the Federal National Mortgage Association, the Government National Mortgage Association, the Small Business Administration, the Federal Farm Credit Administration, the Federal Home Loan Banks, Banks for Cooperatives (including the Central Bank for Cooperatives), the Federal Land Banks, the Federal Intermediate Credit Banks, the Tennessee Valley Authority, the Export-Import Bank of the United States, the Commodity Credit Corporation, the Federal Financing Bank, the Student Loan Marketing Association, and the National Credit Union Administration. Some obligations issued or guaranteed by U.S. government agencies and instrumentalities, including, for example, Government National Mortgage Association pass-through certificates, are supported by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Treasury. On September 7, 2008, FNMA and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“Freddie Mac” or “FHLMC”), a similar U.S. government instrumentality, were placed into conservatorship by their new regulator, the Federal Housing Finance Agency. Simultaneously, the U.S. Treasury made a commitment of indefinite duration to maintain the positive net worth of both entities. No assurance can be given that the initiatives discussed above with respect to the debt and mortgage-backed securities issued by FNMA and FHLMC will be successful. Other obligations issued by or guaranteed by federal agencies, such as those securities issued by the Federal National Mortgage Association, are supported by the discretionary authority of the U.S. government to purchase certain obligations of the federal agency but are not backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government, while other obligations issued by or guaranteed by federal agencies, such as those of the Federal Home Loan Banks, are supported by the right of the issuer to borrow from the U.S. Treasury. While the U.S. government provides financial support to such U.S. government-sponsored federal agencies, no assurance can be given that the U.S. government will always do so, since the U.S. government is not so obligated by law. U.S. Treasury notes and bonds typically pay coupon interest semi-annually and repay the principal at maturity.

Yields on U.S. government securities are dependent on a variety of factors, including the general conditions of the money and bond markets, the size of a particular offering, and the maturity of the obligation. Debt securities with longer maturities tend to produce higher yields and are generally subject to potentially greater capital appreciation and depreciation than obligations with shorter maturities and lower yields. The market value of U.S. government securities generally varies inversely with changes in market interest rates. An increase in interest rates, therefore, would generally reduce the market value of a Fund’s portfolio investments in U.S. government securities, while a decline in interest rates would generally increase the market value of a Fund’s portfolio investments in these securities.

Repurchase Agreements

Each of the Funds may enter into repurchase agreements with financial institutions in pursuit of its investment objectives, as “cover” for the investment techniques it employs, or for liquidity purposes. Under a repurchase agreement, a Fund purchases a debt security and simultaneously agrees to sell the security back to the seller at a mutually agreed-upon future price and date, normally one day or a few days later. The resale price is greater than the purchase price, reflecting an agreed-upon market interest rate during the purchaser’s holding period. While the maturities of the underlying securities in repurchase transactions may be more than one year, the term of each repurchase agreement will always be less than one year. The Funds follow certain procedures designed to minimize the risks inherent in such agreements. These procedures include effecting repurchase transactions only with large, well-capitalized and well-established financial institutions whose condition will be continually monitored by ProShare Advisors. In addition, the value of the collateral underlying the repurchase agreement will always be at least equal to the repurchase price, including any accrued interest earned on the repurchase agreement. In the event of a default or bankruptcy by a selling financial institution, a Fund will seek to liquidate such collateral which could involve certain costs or delays and, to the extent that proceeds from any sale upon a default of the obligation to repurchase were less than the repurchase price, the Fund could suffer a loss. A Fund also may experience difficulties and incur certain costs in exercising its rights to the collateral and may lose the interest the Fund expected to receive under the repurchase agreement. Repurchase agreements usually are for short periods, such as one week or less, but may be longer. It is the current policy of the Funds not to invest in repurchase agreements that do not mature within seven days if any such investment, together with any other illiquid assets held by the Fund, amounts to more than 15% of the Fund’s total net assets. The investments of each of the Funds in repurchase agreements at times may be substantial when, in the view of ProShare Advisors, liquidity, investment, regulatory, or other considerations so warrant.

Money Market Instruments

To seek its investment objective, as a cash reserve, for liquidity purposes, or as “cover” for positions it has taken, a Fund may invest all or part of its assets in cash or cash equivalents, which include, but are not limited to, short-term money market instruments, U.S. government securities, certificates of deposit, bankers acceptances or repurchase agreements secured by U.S. government securities.

Borrowing

The Funds may borrow money for cash management purposes or investment purposes. Borrowing for investment is known as leveraging. Leveraging investments, by purchasing securities with borrowed money, is a speculative technique which increases investment risk, but also increases investment opportunity. Since substantially all of a Fund’s assets will fluctuate in value, whereas the interest obligations on borrowings may be fixed, the NAV per Share of the Fund will fluctuate more when the Fund is leveraging

 

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its investments than would otherwise be the case. Moreover, interest costs on borrowings may fluctuate with changing market rates of interest and may partially offset or exceed the returns on the borrowed funds. Under adverse market conditions, a Fund might have to sell portfolio securities to meet interest or principal payments at a time when investment considerations would not favor such sales.

As required by the 1940 Act, a Fund must maintain continuous asset coverage (total assets, including assets acquired with borrowed funds, less liabilities exclusive of borrowings) of 300% of all amounts borrowed. If at any time the value of a Fund’s assets should fail to meet this 300% coverage test, the Fund, within three days (not including weekends and holidays), will reduce the amount of the Fund’s borrowings to the extent necessary to meet this 300% coverage requirement. Maintenance of this percentage limitation may result in the sale of portfolio securities at a time when investment considerations would not favor such sale. In addition to the foregoing, the Funds are authorized to borrow money as a temporary measure for extraordinary or emergency purposes in amounts not in excess of 5% of the value of each Fund’s total assets. This borrowing is not subject to the foregoing 300% asset coverage requirement. The Funds are authorized to pledge portfolio securities as ProShare Advisors deems appropriate in connection with any borrowings.

Each Fund may also enter into reverse repurchase agreements, which may be viewed as a form of borrowing, with financial institutions. However, to the extent a Fund “covers” its repurchase obligations: such agreement will not be considered to be a senior security and, therefore, will not be subject to the 300% asset coverage requirement otherwise applicable to borrowings by that Fund.

When-Issued and Delayed-Delivery Securities

Each Fund, from time to time, in the ordinary course of business, may purchase securities on a when-issued or delayed-delivery basis (i.e., delivery and payment can take place between a month and 120 days after the date of the transaction). These securities are subject to market fluctuations and no interest accrues to the purchaser during this period. At the time a Fund makes the commitment to purchase securities on a when-issued or delayed-delivery basis, the Fund will record the transaction and thereafter reflect the value of the securities, each day, in determining the Fund’s NAV. Each Fund will not purchase securities on a when-issued or delayed-delivery basis if, as a result, more than 15% of the Fund’s net assets would be so invested. At the time of delivery of the securities, the value of the securities may be more or less than the purchase price.

The Trust will earmark or segregate cash or liquid instruments equal to or greater in value than the Fund’s purchase commitments for such when-issued or delayed-delivery securities.

Investments in Other Investment Companies

The Funds may invest in the securities of other investment companies to the extent that such an investment would be consistent with the requirements of the 1940 Act or any exemptive order issued by the SEC. If a Fund invests in, and, thus, is a shareholder of, another investment company, the Fund’s shareholders will indirectly bear the Fund’s proportionate share of the fees and expenses paid by such other investment company, including advisory fees, in addition to both the management fees payable directly by the Fund to the Fund’s own investment advisor and the other expenses that the Fund bears directly in connection with the Fund’s own operations. Addtionally, ProShares Hedge Replication ETF may invest in ETFs sponsored by ProShares Advisors. See “Investments in Other Investment Companies” in the Prospectus for more information.

Investments in Exchange-Traded Trust Securities

ProShares Hedge Replication ETF may invest in exchange-traded vehicles, including exchange-traded common units of beneficial interest of one or more separate series of a trust sponsored by ProShares Capital Management, LLC, an affiliate of ProShares Advisors.

Real Estate Investment Trusts

Each Fund may invest in real estate investment trusts (“REITs”). Equity REITs invest primarily in real property while mortgage REITs make construction, development and long term mortgage loans. Their value may be affected by changes in the value of the underlying property of the REIT, the creditworthiness of the issuer, property taxes, interest rates, and tax and regulatory requirements, such as those relating to the environment. REITs are dependent upon management skill, are not diversified and are subject to heavy cash flow dependency, default by borrowers, self-liquidation and the possibility of failing to qualify for tax-free income status under the Code and failing to maintain exempt status under the 1940 Act.

Illiquid Securities

Each Fund may purchase illiquid securities, including securities that are not readily marketable and securities that are not registered (“restricted securities”) under the 1933 Act, but which can be sold to qualified institutional buyers under Rule 144A under the 1933 Act. A Fund will not invest more than 15% of the Fund’s net assets in illiquid securities. The term “illiquid securities” for this purpose means securities that cannot be disposed of within seven days in the ordinary course of business at approximately the

 

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amount at which the Fund has valued the securities. Under the current guidelines of the staff of the SEC, illiquid securities also are considered to include, among other securities, purchased OTC options, certain cover for OTC options, repurchase agreements with maturities in excess of seven days, and certain securities whose disposition is restricted under the federal securities laws. The Fund may not be able to sell illiquid securities when ProShare Advisors considers it desirable to do so or may have to sell such securities at a price that is lower than the price that could be obtained if the securities were more liquid. In addition, the sale of illiquid securities also may require more time and may result in higher dealer discounts and other selling expenses than does the sale of securities that are not illiquid. Illiquid securities also may be more difficult to value due to the unavailability of reliable market quotations for such securities, and investments in illiquid securities may have an adverse impact on NAV.

Institutional markets for restricted securities have developed as a result of the promulgation of Rule 144A under the 1933 Act, which provides a safe harbor from 1933 Act registration requirements for qualifying sales to institutional investors. When Rule 144A securities present an attractive investment opportunity and otherwise meet selection criteria, a Fund may make such investments. Whether or not such securities are illiquid depends on the market that exists for the particular security. The staff of the SEC has taken the position that the liquidity of Rule 144A restricted securities is a question of fact for a board of trustees to determine, such determination to be based on a consideration of the readily-available trading markets and the review of any contractual restrictions. The staff also has acknowledged that, while a board of trustees retains ultimate responsibility, trustees may delegate this function to an investment advisor. The Board of Trustees has delegated this responsibility for determining the liquidity of Rule 144A restricted securities which may be invested in by a Fund to ProShare Advisors. It is not possible to predict with assurance exactly how the market for Rule 144A restricted securities or any other security will develop. A security which when purchased enjoyed a fair degree of marketability may subsequently become illiquid and, accordingly, a security which was deemed to be liquid at the time of acquisition may subsequently become illiquid. In such event, appropriate remedies will be considered to minimize the effect on the Fund’s liquidity.

Portfolio Turnover

A Fund’s portfolio turnover may vary from year to year, as well as within a year. The overall reasonableness of brokerage commissions is evaluated by ProShare Advisors based upon its knowledge of available information as to the general level of commissions paid by other institutional investors for comparable services. In addition, a Fund’s portfolio turnover level may adversely affect the ability of the Fund to achieve its investment objective. “Portfolio Turnover Rate” is defined under the rules of the SEC as the lesser of the value of the securities purchased or securities sold, excluding all securities whose maturities at time of acquisition were one year or less, divided by the average monthly value of such securities owned during the year. Based on this definition, instruments with remaining maturities of less than one year are excluded from the calculation of the Portfolio Turnover Rate. Instruments excluded from the calculation of portfolio turnover generally would include future contracts, swap agreements and option contracts in which the Funds invest since such contracts generally have a remaining maturity of less than one year. ETFs, such as the Funds, may incur very low levels of portfolio turnover (or none at all in accordance with the SEC methodology described above) because of the way in which they operate and the way shares are created in creation units. However, a low or zero Portfolio Turnover Rate should not be assumed to be indicative of the amount of gains that a Fund may or may not distribute to shareholders, as the instruments excluded from the calculation described above may have generated taxable gains upon their sale or maturity. For those Funds that commenced operations prior to May 31, 2010, each such Fund’s turnover rate for the fiscal year ended May 31, 2010 is set forth in the Annual Report to shareholders. Annual Portfolio turnover rates are also shown in each Fund’s summary prospectus.

SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS

As discussed above and in the Prospectus, the Funds present certain risks, some of which are further described below.

Tracking and Correlation

While the Funds do not expect that their daily returns will deviate significantly from their respective daily investment objectives, several factors may affect their ability to achieve this correlation. Among these factors are: (1) a Fund’s expenses, including brokerage (which may be increased by high portfolio turnover) and the cost of the investment techniques employed by that Fund; (2) less than all of the securities in the benchmark index being held by a Fund and securities not included in the benchmark index being held by a Fund; (3) an imperfect correlation between the performance of instruments held by a Fund, such as futures contracts, and the performance of the underlying securities in the cash market; (4) bid-ask spreads (the effect of which may be increased by portfolio turnover); (5) holding instruments traded in a market that has become illiquid or disrupted; (6) a Fund’s Share prices being rounded to the nearest cent; (7) changes to the benchmark index that are not disseminated in advance; (8) the need to conform a Fund’s portfolio holdings to comply with investment restrictions or policies or regulatory or tax law requirements; and (9) early and unanticipated closings of the markets on which the holdings of a Fund trade, resulting in the inability of the Fund to execute intended portfolio transactions. While close tracking of any Fund to its benchmark may be achieved on any single trading day, over time the cumulative percentage increase or decrease in the NAV of the Shares of a Fund may diverge significantly from the cumulative percentage decrease or increase in the benchmark due to a compounding effect.

 

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Leverage

Each Fund, except Alpha ProShares, intends to use, on a regular basis, leveraged investment techniques in pursuing its investment objectives. Utilization of leverage involves special risks and should be considered to be speculative. Leverage exists when a Fund achieves the right to a return on a capital base that exceeds the amount the Fund has invested. Leverage creates the potential for greater gains to Fund shareholders during favorable market conditions and the risk of magnified losses during adverse market conditions. Leverage is likely to cause higher volatility of the NAVs of these Funds’ Shares. Leverage may involve the creation of a liability that does not entail any interest costs or the creation of a liability that requires the Fund to pay interest which would decrease the Fund’s total return to shareholders. If these Funds achieve their investment objectives, during adverse market conditions, shareholders should experience a loss greater than they would have incurred had these Funds not been leveraged.

Special Note Regarding the Correlation Risks of Leveraged Funds. As discussed in the Prospectus, some of the Funds are “leveraged” funds in the sense that they have investment objectives to match a multiple of the performance of an index on a given day. These Funds are subject to all of the correlation risks described in the Prospectus. In addition, there is a special form of correlation risk that derives from these Funds’ use of leverage, which is that for periods greater than one day, the use of leverage tends to cause the performance of a Fund to be either greater than, or less than, the index performance times the stated multiple in the Fund’s investment objective.

A leveraged fund’s return for periods longer than one day is primarily a function of the following:

 

  a) index performance;

 

  b) index volatility;

 

  c) period of time.

 

  d) financing rates associated with leverage;

 

  e) other Fund expenses;

 

  f) dividends paid by companies in the index; and

The fund performance for a leveraged Fund can be estimated given any set of assumptions for the factors described above. The tables on the next five pages illustrate the impact of two factors, index volatility and index performance, on a leveraged fund. Index volatility is a statistical measure of the magnitude of fluctuations in the returns of an index and is calculated as the standard deviation of the natural logarithms of one plus the index return (calculated daily), multiplied by the square root of the number of trading days per year (assumed to be 252). The tables show estimated Fund returns for a number of combinations of index performance and index volatility over a one-year period. Assumptions used in the tables include: (a) no dividends paid by the companies included in the index, or, with respect to Ultra Fixed Income ProShares and Short Fixed Income ProShares, no interest paid on securities in the index; (b) no fund expenses; and (c) borrowing/lending rates (to obtain leverage) of zero percent. If Fund expenses were included, the Fund’s performance would be lower than shown.

 

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The first table below shows a performance example of an Ultra Fund (which has an investment objective to correspond to twice (200%) the daily performance of the S&P500. The Ultra Fund could be expected to achieve a 20% return on a yearly basis if the index performance was 10%, absent any costs or the correlation risk or other factors described above and in the Prospectus under “Correlation Risk” and “Compounding Risk.” However, as the table shows, with an index volatility of 20%, such a Fund would return 16.3%, again absent any costs or other factors described above and in the Prospectus under “Correlation Risk” and “Compounding Risk.” In the charts below, areas shaded lighter represent those scenarios where a leveraged Fund with the investment objective described will return the same as or outperform (i.e., return more than) the index performance times the stated multiple in the Fund’s investment objective; conversely, areas shaded darker represent those scenarios where the Fund will underperform (i.e., return less than) the index performance times the stated multiple in the Fund’s investment objective.

Estimated Fund Return Over One Year When the Fund Objective is to Seek Daily Investment Results, Before Fund Fees and Expenses and Leverage Costs, that Correspond to Twice (200%) the Daily Performance of an Index.

 

One Year  Index

Performance

  200%

One Year Index

Performance

    Index Volatility   
      0%        5%        10%        15%        20%        25%        30%        35%        40%        45%        50%        55%        60%   
-60%   -120%     -84.0%        -84.0%        -84.2%        -84.4%        -84.6%        -85.0%        -85.4%        -85.8%        -86.4%        -86.9%        -87.5%        -88.2%        -88.8%   
-55%   -110%     -79.8%        -79.8%        -80.0%        -80.2%        -80.5%        -81.0%        -81.5%        -82.1%        -82.7%        -83.5%        -84.2%        -85.0%        -85.9%   
-50%   -100%     -75.0%        -75.1%        -75.2%        -75.6%        -76.0%        -76.5%        -77.2%        -77.9%        -78.7%        -79.6%        -80.5%        -81.5%        -82.6%   
-45%   -90%     -69.8%        -69.8%        -70.1%        -70.4%        -70.9%        -71.6%        -72.4%        -73.2%        -74.2%        -75.3%        -76.4%        -77.6%        -78.9%   
-40%   -80%     -64.0%        -64.1%        -64.4%        -64.8%        -65.4%        -66.2%        -67.1%        -68.2%        -69.3%        -70.6%        -72.0%        -73.4%        -74.9%   
-35%   -70%     -57.8%        -57.9%        -58.2%        -58.7%        -59.4%        -60.3%        -61.4%        -62.6%        -64.0%        -65.5%        -67.1%        -68.8%        -70.5%   
-30%   -60%     -51.0%        -51.1%        -51.5%        -52.1%        -52.9%        -54.0%        -55.2%        -56.6%        -58.2%        -60.0%        -61.8%        -63.8%        -65.8%   
-25%   -50%     -43.8%        -43.9%        -44.3%        -45.0%        -46.0%        -47.2%        -48.6%        -50.2%        -52.1%        -54.1%        -56.2%        -58.4%        -60.8%   
-20%   -40%     -36.0%        -36.2%        -36.6%        -37.4%        -38.5%        -39.9%        -41.5%        -43.4%        -45.5%        -47.7%        -50.2%        -52.7%        -55.3%   
-15%   -30%     -27.8%        -27.9%        -28.5%        -29.4%        -30.6%        -32.1%        -34.0%        -36.1%        -38.4%        -41.0%        -43.7%        -46.6%        -49.6%   
-10%   -20%     -19.0%        -19.2%        -19.8%        -20.8%        -22.2%        -23.9%        -26.0%        -28.3%        -31.0%        -33.8%        -36.9%        -40.1%        -43.5%   
-5%   -10%     -9.8%        -10.0%        -10.6%        -11.8%        -13.3%        -15.2%        -17.5%        -20.2%        -23.1%        -26.3%        -29.7%        -33.3%        -37.0%   
0%   0%     0.0%        -0.2%        -1.0%        -2.2%        -3.9%        -6.1%        -8.6%        -11.5%        -14.8%        -18.3%        -22.1%        -26.1%        -30.2%   
5%   10%     10.3%        10.0%        9.2%        7.8%        5.9%        3.6%        0.8%        -2.5%        -6.1%        -10.0%        -14.1%        -18.5%        -23.1%   
10%   20%     21.0%        20.7%        19.8%        18.3%        16.3%        13.7%        10.6%        7.0%        3.1%        -1.2%        -5.8%        -10.6%        -15.6%   
15%   30%     32.3%        31.9%        30.9%        29.3%        27.1%        24.2%        20.9%        17.0%        12.7%        8.0%        3.0%        -2.3%        -7.7%   
20%   40%     44.0%        43.6%        42.6%        40.8%        38.4%        35.3%        31.6%        27.4%        22.7%        17.6%        12.1%        6.4%        0.5%   
25%   50%     56.3%        55.9%        54.7%        52.8%        50.1%        46.8%        42.8%        38.2%        33.1%        27.6%        21.7%        15.5%        9.0%   
30%   60%     69.0%        68.6%        67.3%        65.2%        62.4%        58.8%        54.5%        49.5%        44.0%        38.0%        31.6%        24.9%        17.9%   
35%   70%     82.3%        81.8%        80.4%        78.2%        75.1%        71.2%        66.6%        61.2%        55.3%        48.8%        41.9%        34.7%        27.2%   
40%   80%     96.0%        95.5%        94.0%        91.6%        88.3%        84.1%        79.1%        73.4%        67.0%        60.1%        52.6%        44.8%        36.7%   
45%   90%     110.3%        109.7%        108.2%        105.6%        102.0%        97.5%        92.2%        86.0%        79.2%        71.7%        63.7%        55.4%        46.7%   
50%   100%     125.0%        124.4%        122.8%        120.0%        116.2%        111.4%        105.6%        99.1%        91.7%        83.8%        75.2%        66.3%        57.0%   
55%   110%     140.3%        139.7%        137.9%        134.9%        130.8%        125.7%        119.6%        112.6%        104.7%        96.2%        87.1%        77.5%        67.6%   
60%   120%     156.0%        155.4%        153.5%        150.3%        146.0%        140.5%        134.0%        126.5%        118.1%        109.1%        99.4%        89.2%        78.6%   

 

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Table of Contents

 

The table below shows a performance example of a Short ProShares (which has an investment objective to correspond to the inverse (opposite) of the daily performance of the S&P 500). In the chart below, areas shaded lighter represent those scenarios where a Short ProShares will outperform (i.e., return more than) the index performance; conversely areas shaded darker represent those scenarios where a Short ProShares will underperform (i.e., return less than) the index performance.

Estimated Fund Return Over One Year When the Fund Objective is to Seek Daily Investment Results, Before Fees and Expenses, that Correspond to the Inverse of the Daily Performance of an Index.

 

One Year  Index

Performance

  Inverse of

One Year Index

Performance

    Index Volatility   
    0%     5%     10%     15%     20%     25%     30%     35%     40%     45%     50%     55%     60%  
-60%   60%     150.0%        149.4%        147.5%        144.4%        140.2%        134.9%        128.5%        121.2%        113.0%        104.2%        94.7%        84.7%        74.4%   
-55%   55%     122.2%        121.7%        120.0%        117.3%        113.5%        108.8%        103.1%        96.6%        89.4%        81.5%        73.1%        64.2%        55.0%   
-50%   50%     100.0%        99.5%        98.0%        95.6%        92.2%        87.9%        82.8%        76.9%        70.4%        63.3%        55.8%        47.8%        39.5%   
-45%   45%     81.8%        81.4%        80.0%        77.8%        74.7%        70.8%        66.2%        60.9%        54.9%        48.5%        41.6%        34.4%        26.9%   
-40%   40%     66.7%        66.3%        65.0%        63.0%        60.1%        56.6%        52.3%        47.5%        42.0%        36.1%        29.8%        23.2%        16.3%   
-35%   35%     53.8%        53.5%        52.3%        50.4%        47.8%        44.5%        40.6%        36.1%        31.1%        25.6%        19.8%        13.7%        7.3%   
-30%   30%     42.9%        42.5%        41.4%        39.7%        37.3%        34.2%        30.6%        26.4%        21.7%        16.7%        11.3%        5.6%        -0.3%   
-25%   25%     33.3%        33.0%        32.0%        30.4%        28.1%        25.3%        21.9%        18.0%        13.6%        8.9%        3.8%        -1.5%        -7.0%   
-20%   20%     25.0%        24.7%        23.8%        22.2%        20.1%        17.4%        14.2%        10.6%        6.5%        2.1%        -2.6%        -7.6%        -12.8%   
-15%   15%     17.6%        17.4%        16.5%        15.0%        13.0%        10.5%        7.5%        4.1%        0.3%        -3.9%        -8.4%        -13.1%        -17.9%   
-10%   10%     11.1%        10.8%        10.0%        8.6%        6.8%        4.4%        1.5%        -1.7%        -5.3%        -9.3%        -13.5%        -17.9%        -22.5%   
-5%   5%     5.3%        5.0%        4.2%        2.9%        1.1%        -1.1%        -3.8%        -6.9%        -10.3%        -14.0%        -18.0%        -22.2%        -26.6%   
0%   0%     0.0%        -0.2%        -1.0%        -2.2%        -3.9%        -6.1%        -8.6%        -11.5%        -14.8%        -18.3%        -22.1%        -26.1%        -30.2%   
5%   -5%     -4.8%        -5.0%        -5.7%        -6.9%        -8.5%        -10.5%        -13.0%        -15.7%        -18.8%        -22.2%        -25.8%        -29.6%        -33.6%   
10%   -10%     -9.1%        -9.3%        -10.0%        -11.1%        -12.7%        -14.6%        -16.9%        -19.6%        -22.5%        -25.8%        -29.2%        -32.8%        -36.6%   
15%   -15%     -13.0%        -13.3%        -13.9%        -15.0%        -16.5%        -18.3%        -20.5%        -23.1%        -25.9%        -29.0%        -32.3%        -35.7%        -39.3%   
20%   -20%     -16.7%        -16.9%        -17.5%        -18.5%        -19.9%        -21.7%        -23.8%        -26.3%        -29.0%        -31.9%        -35.1%        -38.4%        -41.9%   
25%   -25%     -20.0%        -20.2%        -20.8%        -21.8%        -23.1%        -24.8%        -26.9%        -29.2%        -31.8%        -34.7%        -37.7%        -40.9%        -44.2%   
30%   -30%     -23.1%        -23.3%        -23.8%        -24.8%        -26.1%        -27.7%        -29.7%        -31.9%        -34.5%        -37.2%        -40.1%        -43.2%        -46.3%   
35%   -35%     -25.9%        -26.1%        -26.7%        -27.6%        -28.8%        -30.4%        -32.3%        -34.5%        -36.9%        -39.5%        -42.3%        -45.3%        -48.3%   
40%   -40%     -28.6%        -28.7%        -29.3%        -30.2%        -31.4%        -32.9%        -34.7%        -36.8%        -39.1%        -41.7%        -44.4%        -47.2%        -50.2%   
45%   -45%     -31.0%        -31.2%        -31.7%        -32.6%        -33.7%        -35.2%        -37.0%        -39.0%        -41.2%        -43.7%        -46.3%        -49.0%        -51.9%   
50%   -50%     -33.3%        -33.5%        -34.0%        -34.8%        -35.9%        -37.4%        -39.1%        -41.0%        -43.2%        -45.6%        -48.1%        -50.7%        -53.5%   
55%   -55%     -35.5%        -35.6%        -36.1%        -36.9%        -38.0%        -39.4%        -41.0%        -42.9%        -45.0%        -47.3%        -49.8%        -52.3%        -55.0%   
60%   -60%     -37.5%        -37.7%        -38.1%        -38.9%        -40.0%        -41.3%        -42.9%        -44.7%        -46.7%        -49.0%        -51.3%        -53.8%        -56.4%   

 

14


Table of Contents

 

The table below shows a performance example of an UltraShort ProShares (which has an investment objective to correspond to twice (200%) the inverse (opposite) of the daily performance of the S&P 500). In the chart below, areas shaded lighter represent those scenarios where an UltraShort ProShares will outperform (i.e., return more than) the index performance; conversely areas shaded darker represent those scenarios where an UltraShort ProShares will underperform (i.e., return less than) the index performance.

Estimated Fund Return Over One Year When the Fund Objective is to Seek Daily Investment Results, Before Fees and Expenses, that Correspond to Twice (200%) the Inverse of the Daily Performance of an Index.

 

One Year  Index
Performance
  200%
Inverse of

One Year Index
Performance

    Index Volatility   
    0%     5%     10%     15%     20%     25%     30%     35%     40%     45%     50%     55%     60%  
-60%   120%     525.0%        520.3%        506.5%        484.2%        454.3%        418.1%        377.1%        332.8%        286.7%        240.4%        195.2%        152.2%        112.2%   
-55%   110%     393.8%        390.1%        379.2%        361.6%        338.0%        309.4%        277.0%        242.0%        205.6%        169.0%        133.3%        99.3%        67.7%   
-50%   100%     300.0%        297.0%        288.2%        273.9%        254.8%        231.6%        205.4%        177.0%        147.5%        117.9%        88.9%        61.4%        35.8%   
-45%   90%     230.6%        228.1%        220.8%        209.0%        193.2%        174.1%        152.4%        128.9%        104.6%        80.1%        56.2%        33.4%        12.3%   
-40%   80%     177.8%        175.7%        169.6%        159.6%        146.4%        130.3%        112.0%        92.4%        71.9%        51.3%        31.2%        12.1%        -5.7%   
-35%   70%     136.7%        134.9%        129.7%        121.2%        109.9%        96.2%        80.7%        63.9%        46.5%        28.9%        11.8%        -4.5%        -19.6%   
-30%   60%     104.1%        102.6%        98.1%        90.8%        81.0%        69.2%        55.8%        41.3%        26.3%        11.2%        -3.6%        -17.6%        -30.7%   
-25%   50%     77.8%        76.4%        72.5%        66.2%        57.7%        47.4%        35.7%        23.1%        10.0%        -3.2%        -16.0%        -28.3%        -39.6%   
-20%   40%     56.3%        55.1%        51.6%        46.1%        38.6%        29.5%        19.3%        8.2%        -3.3%        -14.9%        -26.2%        -36.9%        -46.9%   
-15%   30%     38.4%        37.4%        34.3%        29.4%        22.8%        14.7%        5.7%        -4.2%        -14.4%        -24.6%        -34.6%        -44.1%        -53.0%   
-10%   20%     23.5%        22.5%        19.8%        15.4%        9.5%        2.3%        -5.8%        -14.5%        -23.6%        -32.8%        -41.7%        -50.2%        -58.1%   
-5%   10%     10.8%        10.0%        7.5%        3.6%        -1.7%        -8.1%        -15.4%        -23.3%        -31.4%        -39.6%        -47.7%        -55.3%        -62.4%   
0%   0%     0.0%        -0.7%        -3.0%        -6.5%        -11.3%        -17.1%        -23.7%        -30.8%        -38.1%        -45.5%        -52.8%        -59.6%        -66.0%   
5%   -10%     -9.3%        -10.0%        -12.0%        -15.2%        -19.6%        -24.8%        -30.8%        -37.2%        -43.9%        -50.6%        -57.2%        -63.4%        -69.2%   
10%   -20%     -17.4%        -18.0%        -19.8%        -22.7%        -26.7%        -31.5%        -36.9%        -42.8%        -48.9%        -55.0%        -61.0%        -66.7%        -71.9%   
15%   -30%     -24.4%        -25.0%        -26.6%        -29.3%        -32.9%        -37.3%        -42.3%        -47.6%        -53.2%        -58.8%        -64.3%        -69.5%        -74.3%   
20%   -40%     -30.6%        -31.1%        -32.6%        -35.1%        -38.4%        -42.4%        -47.0%        -51.9%        -57.0%        -62.2%        -67.2%        -72.0%        -76.4%   
25%   -50%     -36.0%        -36.5%        -37.9%        -40.2%        -43.2%        -46.9%        -51.1%        -55.7%        -60.4%        -65.1%        -69.8%        -74.2%        -78.3%   
30%   -60%     -40.8%        -41.3%        -42.6%        -44.7%        -47.5%        -50.9%        -54.8%        -59.0%        -63.4%        -67.8%        -72.0%        -76.1%        -79.9%   
35%   -70%     -45.1%        -45.5%        -46.8%        -48.7%        -51.3%        -54.5%        -58.1%        -62.0%        -66.0%        -70.1%        -74.1%        -77.9%        -81.4%   
40%   -80%     -49.0%        -49.4%        -50.5%        -52.3%        -54.7%        -57.7%        -61.1%        -64.7%        -68.4%        -72.2%        -75.9%        -79.4%        -82.7%   
45%   -90%     -52.4%        -52.8%        -53.8%        -55.5%        -57.8%        -60.6%        -63.7%        -67.1%        -70.6%        -74.1%        -77.5%        -80.8%        -83.8%   
50%   -100%     -55.6%        -55.9%        -56.9%        -58.5%        -60.6%        -63.2%        -66.1%        -69.2%        -72.5%        -75.8%        -79.0%        -82.1%        -84.9%   
55%   -110%     -58.4%        -58.7%        -59.6%        -61.1%        -63.1%        -65.5%        -68.2%        -71.2%        -74.2%        -77.3%        -80.3%        -83.2%        -85.9%   
60%   -120%     -60.9%        -61.2%        -62.1%        -63.5%        -65.4%        -67.6%        -70.2%        -73.0%        -75.8%        -78.7%        -81.5%        -84.2%        -86.7%   

 

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The tables below show performance examples of an UltraPro and UltraPro Short Fund (which have investment objectives to correspond to three times (300%) and three times the inverse of (-300%), respectively, the daily performance of the S&P 500 Index. In the charts below, areas shaded lighter represent those scenarios where a Fund will return the same as or outperform (i.e., return more than) the index performance times the stated multiple in the Fund’s investment objective; conversely, areas shaded darker represent those scenarios where the Fund will underperform (i.e., return less than) the index performance times the stated multiple in the Fund’s investment objective.

Estimated Fund Return Over One Year When the Fund Objective is to Seek Daily Investment Results, Before Fund Fees and Expenses and Leverage Costs, that Correspond to Three Times (300%) the Daily Performance of an Index.

 

One Year  Index

Performance

  300%

One Year Index

Performance

    Index Volatility   
    0%     5%     10%     15%     20%     25%     30%     35%     40%     45%     50%     55%     60%  
-60%   -180%     -93.6%        -93.6%        -93.8%        -94.0%        -94.3%        -94.7%        -95.1%        -95.6%        -96.0%        -96.5%        -97.0%        -97.4%        -97.8%   
-55%   -165%     -90.9%        -91.0%        -91.2%        -91.5%        -91.9%        -92.4%        -93.0%        -93.7%        -94.4%        -95.0%        -95.7%        -96.3%        -96.9%   
-50%   -150%     -87.5%        -87.6%        -87.9%        -88.3%        -88.9%        -89.6%        -90.5%        -91.3%        -92.3%        -93.2%        -94.1%        -95.0%        -95.8%   
-45%   -135%     -83.4%        -83.5%        -83.9%        -84.4%        -85.2%        -86.2%        -87.3%        -88.5%        -89.7%        -90.9%        -92.1%        -93.3%        -94.3%   
-40%   -120%     -78.4%        -78.6%        -79.0%        -79.8%        -80.8%        -82.1%        -83.5%        -85.0%        -86.6%        -88.2%        -89.8%        -91.3%        -92.7%   
-35%   -105%     -72.5%        -72.7%        -73.3%        -74.3%        -75.6%        -77.2%        -79.0%        -81.0%        -83.0%        -85.0%        -87.0%        -88.9%        -90.7%   
-30%   -90%     -65.7%        -66.0%        -66.7%        -67.9%        -69.6%        -71.6%        -73.8%        -76.2%        -78.8%        -81.3%        -83.8%        -86.2%        -88.4%   
-25%   -75%     -57.8%        -58.1%        -59.1%        -60.6%        -62.6%        -65.0%        -67.8%        -70.8%        -73.9%        -77.0%        -80.1%        -83.0%        -85.7%   
-20%   -60%     -48.8%        -49.2%        -50.3%        -52.1%        -54.6%        -57.6%        -60.9%        -64.5%        -68.3%        -72.1%        -75.8%        -79.3%        -82.6%   
-15%   -45%     -38.6%        -39.0%        -40.4%        -42.6%        -45.5%        -49.1%        -53.1%        -57.5%        -62.0%        -66.5%        -71.0%        -75.2%        -79.1%   
-10%   -30%     -27.1%        -27.6%        -29.3%        -31.9%        -35.3%        -39.6%        -44.3%        -49.5%        -54.9%        -60.3%        -65.6%        -70.6%        -75.2%   
-5%   -15%     -14.3%        -14.9%        -16.8%        -19.9%        -24.0%        -28.9%        -34.5%        -40.6%        -46.9%        -53.3%        -59.5%        -65.4%        -70.9%   
0%   0%     0.0%        -0.7%        -3.0%        -6.5%        -11.3%        -17.1%        -23.7%        -30.8%        -38.1%        -45.5%        -52.8%        -59.6%        -66.0%   
5%   15%     15.8%        14.9%        12.3%        8.2%        2.7%        -4.0%        -11.6%        -19.8%        -28.4%        -36.9%        -45.3%        -53.3%        -60.7%   
10%   30%     33.1%        32.1%        29.2%        24.4%        18.0%        10.3%        1.6%        -7.8%        -17.6%        -27.5%        -37.1%        -46.3%        -54.8%   
15%   45%     52.1%        51.0%        47.6%        42.2%        34.9%        26.1%        16.1%        5.3%        -5.9%        -17.2%        -28.2%        -38.6%        -48.4%   
20%   60%     72.8%        71.5%        67.7%        61.5%        53.3%        43.3%        31.9%        19.7%        6.9%        -5.9%        -18.4%        -30.3%        -41.3%   
25%   75%     95.3%        93.9%        89.5%        82.6%        73.2%        61.9%        49.1%        35.2%        20.9%        6.4%        -7.7%        -21.2%        -33.7%   
30%   90%     119.7%        118.1%        113.2%        105.4%        94.9%        82.1%        67.7%        52.1%        35.9%        19.7%        3.8%        -11.3%        -25.4%   
35%   105%     146.0%        144.2%        138.8%        130.0%        118.2%        104.0%        87.8%        70.4%        52.2%        34.0%        16.2%        -0.7%        -16.4%   
40%   120%     174.4%        172.3%        166.3%        156.5%        143.4%        127.5%        109.5%        90.0%        69.8%        49.5%        29.6%        10.7%        -6.8%   
45%   135%     204.9%        202.6%        195.9%        185.0%        170.4%        152.7%        132.7%        111.1%        88.6%        66.1%        44.0%        23.0%        3.5%   
50%   150%     237.5%        235.0%        227.5%        215.5%        199.3%        179.8%        157.6%        133.7%        108.8%        83.8%        59.4%        36.2%        14.6%   
55%   165%     272.4%        269.6%        261.4%        248.1%        230.3%        208.7%        184.3%        157.9%        130.4%        102.8%        75.9%        50.3%        26.5%   
60%   180%     309.6%        306.5%        297.5%        282.9%        263.3%        239.6%        212.7%        183.6%        153.5%        123.1%        93.5%        65.3%        39.1%   

 

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Estimated Fund Return Over One Year When the Fund Objective is to Seek Daily Investment Results, Before Fees and Expenses, that Correspond to Three Times (300%) the Inverse of the Daily Performance of an Index.

 

One Year Index

Performance

 

300%

Inverse of

One Year Index

Performance

    Index Volatility   
    0%     5%     10%     15%     20%     25%     30%     35%     40%     45%     50%     55%     60%  
-60%   180%     462.5%        439.2%        371.5%        265.2%        129.1%        973.9%        810.5%        649.2%        498.3%        363.6%        248.6%        154.4%        80.2%   
-55%   165%     997.4%        981.1%        933.5%        858.8%        763.2%        654.2%        539.5%        426.2%        320.2%        225.6%        144.9%        78.7%        26.6%   
-50%   150%     700.0%        688.1%        653.4%        599.0%        529.3%        449.8%        366.2%        283.6%        206.3%        137.4%        78.5%        30.3%        -7.7%   
-45%   135%     501.1%        492.1%        466.0%        425.1%        372.8%        313.1%        250.3%        188.2%        130.1%        78.3%        34.1%        -2.1%        -30.7%   
-40%   120%     363.0%        356.1%        336.0%        304.5%        264.2%        218.2%        169.8%        122.0%        77.3%        37.4%        3.3%        -24.6%        -46.6%   
-35%   105%     264.1%        258.7%        242.9%        218.1%        186.4%        150.3%        112.2%        74.6%        39.4%        8.0%        -18.8%        -40.7%        -58.0%   
-30%   90%     191.5%        187.2%        174.6%        154.7%        129.3%        100.4%        69.9%        39.8%        11.6%        -13.5%        -34.9%        -52.5%        -66.4%   
-25%   75%     137.0%        133.5%        123.2%        107.1%        86.5%        62.9%        38.1%        13.7%        -9.2%        -29.7%        -47.1%        -61.4%        -72.7%   
-20%   60%     95.3%        92.4%        83.9%        70.6%        53.6%        34.2%        13.8%        -6.3%        -25.2%        -42.0%        -56.4%        -68.2%        -77.5%   
-15%   45%     62.8%        60.4%        53.4%        42.3%        28.1%        11.9%        -5.1%        -21.9%        -37.7%        -51.7%        -63.7%        -73.5%        -81.2%   
-10%   30%     37.2%        35.1%        29.2%        19.9%        7.9%        -5.7%        -20.1%        -34.2%        -47.5%        -59.3%        -69.4%        -77.7%        -84.2%   
-5%   15%     16.6%        14.9%        9.8%        1.9%        -8.3%        -19.8%        -32.0%        -44.1%        -55.3%        -65.4%        -74.0%        -81.0%        -86.5%   
0%   0%     0.0%        -1.5%        -5.8%        -12.6%        -21.3%        -31.3%        -41.7%        -52.0%        -61.7%        -70.3%        -77.7%        -83.7%        -88.5%   
5%   -15%     -13.6%        -14.9%        -18.6%        -24.5%        -32.0%        -40.6%        -49.7%        -58.6%