10-K 1 ccrn20131231-10k.htm 10-K CCRN 2013.12.31-10K


 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
__________________
 
FORM 10-K
 
þ
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2013
 
or
 
o
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the transition period from __________ to __________
 
Commission file number 0-33169
Cross Country Healthcare, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
Delaware
13-4066229
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
 
6551 Park of Commerce Boulevard, N.W.
Boca Raton, Florida 33487
(Address of principal executive offices, zip code)

 
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (561) 998-2232
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
Title of each class
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per share
The NASDAQ Stock Market
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the act: None
 
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes o No þ
 
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes o No þ
 
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes þ No o
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes þ  No o
 
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§ 229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of Registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. o
 
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act: Large accelerated filer o Accelerated filer þ Non-accelerated filer o Smaller reporting company o
 
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined by Rule 12b-2 of the Act).  Yes o No þ
 
The aggregate market value of the voting stock held by non-affiliates of the Registrant, based on the closing price of Common Stock on June 28, 2013 of $5.16 as reported on the NASDAQ National Market, was $155,431,281. This calculation does not reflect a determination that persons are affiliated for any other purpose.
 
As of February 28, 2014, 31,085,289 shares of Common Stock, $0.0001 par value per share, were outstanding.
 
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
 
Portions of the Registrant’s definitive proxy statement, for the 2014 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, which statement will be filed pursuant to Regulation 14A not later than 120 days after the end of the fiscal year covered by this Report, are incorporated by reference into Part III hereof.
 






TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
 
Page
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules
 
 
 
 
All references to “we,” “us,” “our,” or “Cross Country” in this Report on Form 10-K means Cross Country Healthcare, Inc., its subsidiaries and affiliates.




Forward-Looking Statements
 
In addition to historical information, this Form 10-K contains statements relating to our future results (including certain projections and business trends) that are “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the Exchange Act), and are subject to the “safe harbor” created by those sections. Words such as “expects”, “anticipates”, “intends”, “plans”, “believes”, “estimates”, “suggests”, “appears”, “seeks”, “will” and variations of such words and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results and performance to be materially different from any future results or performance expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. Factors that might cause such differences include, but are not limited to, those discussed in the section entitled “Item 1A - Risk Factors.” Readers should also carefully review the “Risk Factors” section contained in other documents we file from time to time with the Securities and Exchange Commission, including the Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q to be filed by us in fiscal year 2014.
 
Although we believe that these statements are based upon reasonable assumptions, we cannot guarantee future results and readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which reflect management’s opinions only as of the date of this filing. There can be no assurance that (i) we have correctly measured or identified all of the factors affecting our business or the extent of these factors’ likely impact, (ii) the available information with respect to these factors on which such analysis is based is complete or accurate, (iii) such analysis is correct or (iv) our strategy, which is based in part on this analysis, will be successful. The Company undertakes no obligation to update or revise forward-looking statements.
 
PART I
 
Item 1.
Business.

Overview of Our Company
 
Cross Country Healthcare, Inc. (NASDAQ: “CCRN”) is a national leader in providing healthcare staffing and workforce solutions. Our traditional staffing includes temporary and permanent placement of travel nurses and allied professionals, branch based local nurses and allied staffing, and locum tenens physicians. We provide flexible workforce solutions to the healthcare market through diversified offerings meeting the special needs of each client. Our services include: managed service programs (MSP), workforce assessments, internal resource pool consulting and development, electronic medical record (EMR) transition staffing, recruitment process outsourcing services, and traditional staffing. Our clients include: public and private acute-care and non-acute care hospitals, government facilities, schools, outpatient clinics, ambulatory care facilities, physician practice groups, retailers, and many other healthcare providers. We also provide education and training programs to the healthcare industry and retained search services for physicians and healthcare executives. Our business currently consists of three business segments: (1) nurse and allied staffing, (2) physician staffing, and (3) other human capital management services.
 
Our healthcare clients use our diversified service offerings to manage their changing workforce needs due to fluctuations in patient census, normal attrition, leaves of absence, seasonality, EMR technology conversions, facility expansions, and the uncertainty of workforce needs created by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (“ACA”), among other things. By utilizing our diversified healthcare solutions, clients are able to flex their workforce up and down, streamline their purchasing needs, access specialties not available in their local area, and access quality healthcare personnel to provide continuity of care in order to improve patient outcomes.

Nurses, allied professionals and physicians work with us for a variety of reasons, such as the ability to explore different geographic areas of the country, work flexible shifts, gain clinical experience by working in prestigious healthcare facilities, and position themselves for permanent positions. Our fees are paid directly by our clients and in certain instances by vendor managers. As a result, we have no direct exposure to Medicare or Medicaid reimbursements.

In February 2013, we sold our clinical trial services business so that we could focus on our core business of providing flexible workforce solutions to the healthcare market. Accordingly, our former clinical trials business segment is reflected as discontinued operations on our consolidated financial statements contained in this Report. For additional information, see Footnote 3 - Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations to the consolidated financial statements contained elsewhere in this Report.


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In December 2013, we acquired the assets of On Assignment, Inc.’s Allied Healthcare Staffing division for $28.7 million. We believe this acquisition complements our current operations by: (1) adding new skillsets to our traditional staffing offerings, (2) expanding our local branch network, which will allow us to expand our local market presence and our MSP business, (3) diversifying our customer base into the local ambulatory care and retail market, which provides more balance between our large volume based customers and our small local customers, and (4) better positioning us to take additional market share at our MSP accounts. Certain transitional services, including, but not limited to, billing and payroll, are being provided post-acquisition by On Assignment, Inc. to our Allied Health Group until we completely transition that business to our systems. We anticipate having the transition substantially completed by the end of the second quarter of 2014. This business has been included in the presentation of our financial statements contained in this Report. For more information on this acquisition, see Footnote 5 - Acquisitions to the consolidated financial statements contained elsewhere in this report.
     
Our operations reflect a diversified revenue mix across healthcare customers. For the full year 2013, our revenue from continuing operations was $438 million. Our nurse and allied staffing business segment was 63% of revenue and is comprised of travel nurse, travel allied and branch based local nurse and allied staffing. Our physician staffing business segment was 28% of our revenue and consists of physician staffing services with placements across multiple specialties. Our other human capital management services business segment was 9% of our revenue and consists of education and training, as well as retained search services related primarily to physicians and healthcare executives. On a company-wide basis, we have more than 3,000 active contracts with healthcare clients, and we provide our staffing services and workforce solutions in all 50 states. In 2013, no client accounted for more than 10% of our revenue. For additional financial information concerning our business segments see Footnote 16 - Segment Information to the consolidated financial statements, contained elsewhere in this report.

Competition 
 
The principal competitive factors in attracting and retaining healthcare clients in our nurse, allied and physician staffing businesses include the ability to fill client needs on a timely basis, price, customer service, quality assurance and screening capabilities, having an understanding of the client’s work environment, risk management policies, insurance coverage, and general industry reputation.  The principal competitive factors in attracting qualified candidates for temporary employment include a large national pool of desirable assignments based on geographic location and clinical setting, pay and benefits, speed of placements, customer service, quality of accommodations, and overall industry reputation. We focus on retaining our nurse and allied professional employees by providing high-quality customer service, as well as providing long-term benefits, such as 401(k) plans and bonuses for field employees. We focus on attracting and retaining physician independent contractors by providing high-quality customer service, as well as occurrence based medical malpractice insurance.

The nurse and allied staffing segment is very fragmented with few national providers, but with many regional and local competitors. We believe we are one of the two largest providers of nurse and allied staffing services in the United States. We compete against many small to moderate size locum tenens physician staffing companies on a regional and local basis, but with only a few nationally. We believe we are one of the top four providers of locum tenens physician staffing services in the United States. We also believe we are one of the top five providers of retained physician and healthcare executive search services, as well as a leading provider of education and training programs in the healthcare marketplace. Some of our competitors in the healthcare staffing, workforce solutions, education and search businesses include: AMN Healthcare Services, Inc., CHG Healthcare Services, Medical Staffing Network Holdings, Inc., Maxim Healthcare, Jackson Healthcare, Team Health, Parallon, MedAssets, PESI Healthcare and Witt Kiefer.

We believe we benefit competitively from the following:

Brand Recognition. Our brands are well-recognized among leading hospitals and healthcare facilities, as well as by many
healthcare professionals. All of our business segments have been operating for more than twenty years.

Strong and Diverse Client Relationships. We provide healthcare staffing and workforce solutions to a diverse client base throughout the United States pursuant to more than 3,000 active contracts with hospitals and healthcare facilities, and other healthcare providers. As a result we have a diverse choice of assignments for our healthcare professionals to choose from.

Breadth of Services Offered and Workforce Solutions. Unlike many of our regional and local competitors, we are able to offer a wide range of workforce solutions to our healthcare clients given the breadth of our service offerings, the large number of healthcare professionals we have access to, and the expertise and best practices we have developed from working with a large variety of healthcare clients throughout the country for many years.


    

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Managed Service Provider Capabilities. By leveraging technology and our single-point of contact service model, Cross
Country Staffing™ (CCS) is able to provide managed service programs for its clients. We provide strategic and
operational advantages for our healthcare clients by streamlining processes. We efficiently manage candidate hiring,
simplify contracting and billing, provide consistent quality credential verification and candidate testing, and drive
improved usages through tracking and trending reports.

Recruiting and Placement of Healthcare Professionals. In 2013, more than 17,000 healthcare professionals applied with us through our differentiated nursing and allied healthcare recruitment brands. We believe our access to such a large and diverse group of healthcare professionals makes us more attractive to healthcare institutions and facilities seeking healthcare staffing and workforce solutions.

Certifications. The staffing businesses of our Cross Country Staffing, MedStaff and Allied Health Group brands are certified by The Joint Commission under its Health Care Staffing Services Certification Program. In addition, Credent Verification and Licensing Services, a subsidiary of Medical Doctor Associates, is NCQA certified -- one of only a handful of competitors to achieve such certification.

Demand and Supply Drivers

Drivers of Demand

Demographics. We believe the long-term macro drivers of our business are demographic in nature and consist of both a growing and aging U.S. population demanding more healthcare services. Between 2012 and 2060, the U.S. Census Bureau projects the American population will cross the 400 million mark in 2051, reaching 420.3 million in 2060 -- with the older population (age 65 and older) outnumbering the young (age 18 and under) by 2056. The number of people age 65 and older is projected to more than double from 43.1 million in 2012 to 92 million in 2060, while over this same period the number of people age 85 and older is projected to more than triple from 5.9 million to 18.2 million or 4.3 % of the total population (U.S. Census Bureau).

Utilization of healthcare services is significantly higher among older people. Based on the most recent data from a 2010 report by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, there were over 1 billion physician office, hospital outpatient and emergency department visits in the United States in 2010. People aged 65 and over averaged seven doctor visits per year while people aged 45-65 averaged less than four visits annually, and those aged 1 to 44 averaged two or three visits per year. This report also found that approximately one-third of people age 65 and older were admitted to acute care hospitals for treatment, which is about three times the comparable rate for people under age 65. The American Hospital Association (AHA) has also projected the share of hospital admissions for the over-65 age group to rise from 38% in 2004 to 56% in 2030.

Healthcare Reform. We believe the ACA will create a large demand for healthcare professionals in order to accommodate the significant number of new patients expected to begin using these health benefits. The Congressional Budget Office (CBO) estimated that by 2023 about 24 million people will gain health insurance coverage under the ACA. Meanwhile, the CBO also estimated the number of individuals expected to enroll in Medicaid and the Children’s Healthcare Insurance Program in 2023 will be 13 million (May 14, 2013 Report by U.S. Congressional Budget Office). In 2014, national health spending is expected to grow 6.1% as more Americans gain health insurance coverage through health insurance marketplaces or Medicaid. For 2015-2022, average annual healthcare spending is expected to grow at 6.2% largely as a result of the end of the sequester, the aging population, the continued implementation of the ACA and faster projected economic growth (Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Services, 2013). Similarly, the U.S. staffing market is expected to grow 7% in 2014, accelerating from 4% growth in 2013 (2014 Growth Assessment: Healthcare Staffing, Staffing Industry Analysts, December 2013). The Center for Medicaid and Medicare Services also estimates total health spending will be approximately 19.9% of the country’s gross domestic product (GDP) by 2022 (December 2013, Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Services).

Rise in Use of Temporary Workforce. The penetration of temporary workers is near an all-time peak of 2.03% (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics). In the first quarter of 2013, U.S. staffing companies employed an average of 2.9 million temporary and contract workers. This represents a 2.9% growth in the same period from 2012 (American Staffing Association). Within the healthcare sector, we believe the uncertainty about the ACA, decreased reimbursements by the Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Services and lingering concerns generally about the economy has exacerbated hospitals’ needs for more flexibility to match revenue and payroll. We believe hospitals will maintain a lower percentage of permanent staff over time and will supplement their staffing needs with temporary healthcare

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professionals to allow them to flex their workforce up and down in order to address both cost concerns and patient census needs.

Electronic Medical Records Implementations. Many hospitals and physician groups continue to undergo EMR implementations. We believe the demand for our staffing services will be positively impacted in the short term from new deadlines adopted by Center for Medicaid and Medicare Services (CMS) regarding EMR implementations, because hospitals often use temporary staff to fill in for permanent staff being trained on new technologies. Stage 2 compliance for EMR implementations has been extended through the end of 2016 for “meaningful use” for Medicare and Medicaid EMR Incentive Programs, and Stage 3 has been extended to the beginning of 2017 for those providers that have completed at least two years in Stage 2 (December 2013, Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Services).

Adoption of Strategic Outsourced Workforce Solutions. In June 2013, Staffing Industry Analysts reported MSPs and vendor management systems are assuming a more dominant role in managing contingent labor. As a result of the ACA and reductions in Medicaid reimbursements, healthcare buyers are expected to increase the use of outsourced workers and staffing agency workers in order to streamline workflows to garner more efficiency and improve patient outcomes. This environment should improve the demand for our MSP services.

Shortage of Healthcare Workers. The supply of healthcare professionals in the marketplace is dependent upon the number of healthcare professionals entering or already active in their respective professions, less the number of professionals leaving or retiring from the workforce.

Nursing Shortage from Aging Workforce and Aging Faculty. Overlaid on an expected increase in demand for healthcare services is a projected shortage of registered nurses (RNs) resulting from both an aging nurse workforce and a nurse education system constrained by both an aging faculty and a lack of accredited teaching facilities. By 2020, nearly half of all RNs will reach traditional retirement age. Currently, the average age of a nurse in the United States is 50. In addition, nursing schools are experiencing faculty shortages. Faculty age continues to increase, reducing the number of education years of current faculty and a flat enrollment in doctoral programs of nursing further hampers the number of qualified educators (American Association of the Colleges of Nursing, 2013).

Nursing Shortage From Economic Growth. During the past several years, hospital employment of RNs increased significantly due to several factors related to the economic downturn and the weak national labor market: full and part-time staff RNs increased the number of shifts working directly for hospital employers, many retired RNs returned to bedside care, older RNs contemplating retirement remained in the workforce longer to maintain household income, and there was an increase in younger RNs entering the workforce. In the last recession, hospital employment of RNs increased by an estimated 243,000 full-time equivalents -- the largest increase during any 2-year period in the prior four decades (Healthcare Traveler). These factors served to substantially ease the shortage of RNs working in hospitals. However, it is believed that many RNs who entered the workforce during the economic downturn are likely to leave their jobs once the economy fully recovers, making it likely that growth in demand for RNs over the next few years will exceed the projected growth in the workforce, leading to renewed shortages of RNs in the near-term (New England Journal of Medicine, April 2012).

Physician Shortage. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services estimates that the physician supply will increase by only 7% in the next 10 years, however, demand for physicians is projected to grow 29.7% between 2008 and 2025, from 706,500 to 916,000, according to the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) Center for Workforce Studies (June 2010). This demand is largely due to the projected aging of the population, the passage of ACA, and the lower number of expected graduates from medical school. The U.S. is expected to face a shortage of more than 90,000 primary care, surgical and medical specialty physicians by 2020 - a number that will grow to more than 130,000 by 2025, according to analysis by the AAMC (June 2010). The AAMC expects nearly one-third of all physicians will retire in the next decade. And, while the number of applicants to U.S. medical schools is increasing, it will not keep pace with expected future demand.

Ambulatory and Other Outpatient Care. In 2012, ambulatory services employed 42% of healthcare workers compared to 35% employed by hospitals. In addition, ambulatory services employment grew 15% from 2007 to 2012, but hospital employment only grew 6% during the same period. (2014 Growth Assessment: Healthcare Staffing, Staffing Industry Analysts, December 2013). Since staffing agencies have had a stronger penetration in hospital settings than in ambulatory settings, the ambulatory care market should provide a robust area of growth for staffing agencies with a strong local market presence, as well as agencies that are able to provide Advance Practitioners, such

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as Nurse Practitioners and Physicians Assistants, who frequently provide oversight in ambulatory settings (2014 Growth Assessment: Healthcare Staffing, Staffing Industry Analysts, December 30, 2013).

Physicians Seeking Full-Time Employment. Hospitals are seeking to gain market share by increasing their referral base and capturing admissions while physician practices are facing a combination of factors that include: stagnant or declining reimbursement rates, increased regulatory burden, rising costs, greater risk associated with operating a private practice, and an increased desire for a better work-life balance. Becoming hospital staff provides financial certainty and the ability to focus more on practicing medicine. Over the long term, we believe this shift in employment will increase demand for locum tenens physicians, because hospitals will need to fill open positions when these staff physicians take vacation time, leaves of absence, and attend continuing education seminars. Generally speaking, employed physicians are expected to offer fewer hours of service than their self-employed counterparts, which may further exacerbate the shortage of physicians. In addition, we believe this shift in employment will also create more demand for our physician search business as hospitals seek to fill more permanent positions.

Creation of New Health Care Jobs. The proportion of workers employed in private-sector health services has exceeded 11 % in recent years. Employment in healthcare has continued to grow, adding 559,000 jobs since the beginning of the recession in December 2007. Out of the approximately 2.4 million jobs created in 2013, 9.4% of those jobs were in healthcare. In addition, employment gains in the healthcare industry averaged 27,000 per month in 2012 and 17,000 in 2013 (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, January 10, 2014). The creation of additional jobs in the healthcare market should increase demand for our services as our temporary staff are typically hired to replace registered nurses and other healthcare workers taking vacation and leaves of absence.

Drivers of Supply

Networking. We rely heavily on word-of-mouth referrals for our healthcare professionals. Historically, more than half of our field employees have been referred to us by other healthcare professionals. Our most effective “sales force” is our network of healthcare professionals who have taken temporary or permanent assignments with us or who are currently working for us. Online social and professional networks have made it easier for us to connect with healthcare professionals and stay connected with them, thus enhancing our recruitment efforts.

Traditional Reasons. Nurses, allied professionals and locum tenens physicians work on temporary assignments to experience different geographic regions of the United States without moving permanently, work flexible schedules, gain professional development by working at prestigious healthcare facilities, earn top money and bonuses, travel with friends and family while enjoying quality accommodations, experience various clinical settings, look for a permanent position, and avoid workplace politics often associated with permanent staff positions.

Economic Growth. Many RNs who entered the workforce during the economic downturn are likely to leave their jobs once the economy fully recovers, making it likely that growth in demand for RNs over the next few years will exceed the projected growth in the workforce, leading to renewed shortages of RNs in the near-term (New England Journal of Medicine, April 2012). In connection with a statement by the Tri-Council of Nursing (July 2010), Dr. Peter Buerhaus, Associate Dean of Vanderbilt University’s School of Nursing, stated that once the jobs recovery begins and RNs’ spouses rejoin the labor market, many currently employed RNs could leave the workforce and their exit could be swift and deep. This includes many of the more than 100,000 RNs over the age of 50 that re-entered the workforce during 2007 and 2008, who are a part of the nearly 900,000 working RNs over the age of 50, of which Buerhaus expects large numbers of them to retire in the years ahead - independent of the pace and intensity of a jobs recovery. As these RNs leave permanent positions and transition to retirement, many may seek temporary of flexible assignments with travel or branch based local staffing agencies to supplement their retirement income.

Portability of Healthcare. We believe that employees have historically remained employed by their employers, in part for healthcare coverage. The portability of healthcare insurance provided by the ACA will provide more flexibility to employees, including healthcare professionals, which may result in a less committed relationship between employees and their employers. This should increase the supply of healthcare professionals willing to leave their permanent employment with hospitals and seeking assignments with staffing agencies.

Increase in Number of Younger RN Graduates. In 2011, Dr. Buerhaus noted a 62% increase in the number of 23-26 year olds who entered the RN workforce between 2002 and 2009 (Health Affairs, December 5, 2011). In addition, the number of RNs 30 years old and younger, as well as those 56 and older was substantially higher in 2011 than in 2004. This reflects an estimated 86% increase in the annual number of RN-BSN graduates, and a 67-percent increase in graduate degree awards, over just the past four years. (U.S. Nursing Workforce: Trends in Supply and Education, U.S.

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Department of Health and Human Services, April 2013). We believe the increased number of RNs over 56 years old also represents older RNs who have delayed retirement or returned to the workforce due to the economy. The primary supply of contract nurses are typically from the younger population, so this influx of younger RNs in the workforce should increase the supply of contract nurses for healthcare staffing companies and reduce the nursing shortage.

Temporary Physician Assignment. Locum tenens assignments offer physicians the ability to focus on practicing medicine and avoid the stress of running their own practices, the ability to avoid paying the high costs of malpractice insurance, the opportunity to pick up extra shifts and weekends and work during vacation time from full-time staff jobs in order to earn extra money and repay student loans, and to maintain their autonomy while practicing medicine. The supply of physicians available for our physician staffing services is variable and is influenced by several factors: the desire of physicians to work temporary assignments, the desire of older physicians to work fewer hours, work-lifestyle balance among younger physicians, and the trend toward more female physicians in the workforce who traditionally work fewer hours than their male counterparts.

Physicians Seeking Stability as Full-Time Staff. Physicians are increasingly becoming employees of hospitals or health systems due to business pressures and costs of operating private practices. Physician practices are facing a combination of factors that include: stagnant or declining reimbursement rates, increased regulatory burden, rising costs, greater risk associated with operating a private practice, and an increased desire for a better work-life balance. We believe physicians have been seeking employment with hospitals at higher rates in the past few years due to: the difficulty of transitioning private practices to EMR, traversing the maze of insurance company requirements, financial strains on private practices from repeated threatened pay cuts based on Medicare’s sustainable growth rate formulas, and the uncertain future of healthcare associated with the ACA. Becoming hospital staff provides financial certainty and the ability to focus more on practicing medicine. We believe this shift in employment will increase supply for our physician search business as physicians look for permanent employment with hospitals or health systems.

Retiring Physicians. The AAMC projects that the number of physicians will only increase 12.3% reflecting expectations that nearly one-third of all physicians will retire in the next decade and enrollments in medical schools will not be enough to meet demand just as more people will need health care. As these physicians leave permanent positions and transition to retirement, we believe many may seek temporary or flexible assignments to supplement their retirement income and maintain their skills which will increase the supply of physicians for locum tenens assignments.

Nurse Licensure Compact Promoting Mobility for RNs. As of May 2013, 24 states have implemented the Nurse Licensure Compact. The National Council of State Boards of Nursing created this mutual recognition plan to allow RNs and licensed practical nurses who reside in those 24 states to practice under the same license in states that have adopted this mutual recognition model. It eliminates the time and expense of obtaining a license in a new state and promotes a more streamlined and flexible licensure process, thereby enhancing the mobility of the nurse labor force.

Our Business Strategy

Our long-term business strategy is to expand our market share and profitability by executing the following five (5) key elements:

Strengthening and expanding current and new client relationships with hospitals and healthcare facilities by delivering innovative workforce solutions. We provide flexible workforce solutions to the healthcare market through diversified offerings that meet the individual needs of each client. We have the ability to customize the services we provide to our clients based on our suite of service offerings: MSP, workforce assessments, internal resource pool consulting and development, EMR transition staffing, recruitment process outsourcing services, and traditional staffing.

Using our recently expanded branch network to improve our fill rate at current MSP accounts and expand our MSP offerings in the outpatient market. We believe the acquisition of our branch based allied healthcare staffing business will allow us to (i) increase our market share at our current MSPs by improving our fill rate of per diem, local and allied healthcare staffing professionals, (ii) incorporate the sale of allied healthcare staffing services at our already existing local branches, and (iii) sell our MSP services to current clients of the branch based allied healthcare staffing business. Our branch based network serves as a platform to sell all MSP services.

Extend MSP services through cross-collaboration of all business segments. We have expanded our MSP offerings to all business segments to provide a more comprehensive suite of workforce solutions to our customers. Each of our business segments enjoy strong customer relationships that may serve as a platform to sell our MSP services. As a result, we are

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investing in sales and marketing to increase market share through cross-collaboration of business segments, including investments in contract relationship management technology.

Growing our network of healthcare professionals by investing in technology initiatives and delivering quality customer service. Recognizing that people communicate differently and have individual communication preferences, we are investing in technology initiatives to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of our interactions with our hospital customers and healthcare professionals. We continue to invest in mobile and online technologies to increase our ability to attract and retain healthcare professionals. We believe providing communication options for our customers and healthcare professionals will strengthen our relationships with them and further enhance our delivery of high quality customer service.

Making strategic and disciplined acquisitions in high growth, high margin businesses to strengthen and broaden our market presence. We believe the best acquisitions follow a structured and disciplined approach with clear strategic objectives, detailed implementation plans and a focus on creating and capturing value for our shareholders. Our management team has broad and varied experience in multiple types of transactions.

Business Overview

Services Provided

Nurse and Allied Staffing Segment

Our nurse and allied staffing segment provides traditional staffing, including temporary and permanent placement of travel nurses and allied professionals, and branch based local nurses and allied staffing. We provide flexible workforce solutions to the healthcare market through diversified offerings meeting the special needs of each client. Our services include: MSP, workforce assessment, internal resource pool consulting and development, EMR transition staffing, recruitment process outsourcing services, and traditional staffing. Our clients include: public and private acute-care and non-acute care hospitals, government facilities, schools, outpatient clinics, ambulatory care facilities, physician practice groups, retailers, and many other healthcare providers. Our nurse and allied staffing businesses are certified by The Joint Commission under its Health Care Staffing Services Certification Program. Our nurse and allied staffing segment revenue and operating income is set forth in “Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements - Note 16.”

The majority of our revenue is generated from staffing RNs on long-term contract assignments (typically 13-weeks in length) at hospitals and health systems using the following brands: Cross Country TravCorps,™ NovaPro Travel, Medstaff Travel, CRU48 Travel, and Assignment America.™ The CRU48 Travel™ brand is used to identify and staff travel professionals on assignment who are pre-qualified and ready to begin assignments within one to two weeks (as opposed to the typical lead time of four to five weeks for travel healthcare professionals) at a hospital client which has an urgent need. Additionally, we offer a short-term staffing solution of RNs, licensed practical nurses, and certified nurse assistants on per diem and short-term assignments through our national network of local branch offices. We also provide travel allied health professionals on long-term contract assignments to hospitals, schools and skilled nursing facilities under the Cross Country TravCorps™ brand, and we provide more than 100 specialties of allied professionals on local per diem and short-term assignments in a variety of clinical settings under our Allied Health Group brand.

Physician Staffing Segment

We provide physicians in many specialties, certified registered nurse anesthetists (CRNAs), nurse practitioners (NPs) and physician assistants (PAs) under our Medical Doctor Associates™ (MDA) brand as independent contractors on temporary assignments throughout the United States at various healthcare facilities, such as acute and non-acute care facilities, medical group practices, government facilities, and managed care organizations. We recruit these professionals nationally and place them on assignments varying in length from several days up to one year. The revenue and operating income of the Physician Staffing Segment is set forth in “Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements - Note 16.”
 
Other Human Capital Management Services
 
We provide education and training programs to the healthcare industry and we also provide retained search services for physicians and healthcare executives. The revenue and operating income of our Other Human Capital Management

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Services Segment is set forth in “Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements - Note 16.”
 
Our Cross Country Education™ (CCE) subsidiary, headquartered in Brentwood, Tennessee, offers “in person” one-day seminars, conferences and e-learning through various independent contractors who are experts in their field on topics pertaining to their profession. CCE is an approved provider of continuing education with more than 35 professional healthcare associations, and also works with national and state boards and associations. CCE is expanding its online presence and intends to continue to move toward a greater offering of blended learning opportunities for a professional that combines live seminar offerings with audio and e-learning products.

Our Cejka Search™ (Cejka) subsidiary is headquartered in Creve Coeur, Missouri. Cejka has been a leading physician, executive, advanced practice and allied health search firm for more than twenty years, recruiting top healthcare talent for organizations nationwide through a team of experienced professionals, advanced use of recruitment technology and commitment to service excellence. Serving clients nationwide, Cejka completes hundreds of search assignments annually for organizations spanning the continuum of healthcare, including physician group practices, hospitals and health systems, academic medical centers, accountable care organizations (ACOs), managed care and other healthcare organizations.

Our Business Model

We have developed and will continue to focus our business model on growing market share and achieving greater profitability through higher efficiencies, all while continuing to offer the highest possible quality services to our healthcare facilities and our healthcare workers and physicians.

Marketing and Recruiting Healthcare Professionals

We operate differentiated brands to recruit nurses and allied professionals. We believe our multi-brand recruiting model helps us reach a larger volume and a more diverse group of candidates to fill open positions at our clients throughout the United States in various clinical settings and in many different geographic areas. We believe nurses and allied professionals are attracted to us because we offer a wide range of diverse assignments in attractive locations, competitive compensation and benefit packages, scheduling options, as well as a high level of customer service. Our benefits may include professional liability insurance, 401(k) plan, health insurance, reimbursed travel, per diem allowances and housing. In 2013, more than 17,000 thousand nurse and allied healthcare professionals applied with us through our recruitment brands. Each of our nurse and allied healthcare professionals is employed by us under the terms of a written agreement, which typically provides for hourly wages and any other benefits they are entitled to receive during the assignment period.

Recruiters are an essential element of our nurse and allied staffing business, and are responsible for establishing and maintaining key relationships with candidates for the duration of their assignments with us. Recruiters match the supply of qualified candidates in our databases with the demand for open orders posted by our hospital clients. While we rely on word-of-mouth for referrals, we also market our brands on the Internet, including extensive utilization of social media, which has become an increasingly important component of our recruitment efforts. We maintain a number of websites to allow potential applicants to obtain information about our brands and assignment opportunities, as well as to apply online.

MDA recruits and contracts with physicians to provide medical services at MDA’s healthcare customers. Each physician is an independent contractor and enters into an agreement with MDA to provide medical services at a particular healthcare facility or physician practice group based on terms and conditions specified by that customer. Physicians are engaged to provide medical services for a healthcare customer ranging from a few days up to a year.  We believe our physicians are attracted to us because we offer a wide variety of assignments, competitive fees, occurrence-based medical malpractice insurance and excellent customer service. MDA is one of the largest multi-specialty physician staffing companies that has procured an occurrence-based professional liability policy that provides coverage in all 50 states from a national insurance company. We believe this is an important competitive advantage for MDA in the recruitment of physicians as it covers incidents occurring during the policy period regardless of when they are reported. MDA relies on word-of-mouth referrals, but also markets it brands on the Internet and through extensive social media.

Sales and Marketing to Hospitals and Healthcare Facilities

We market our nurse and allied staffing services to our hospital and healthcare facility clients using our Cross Country Staffing™ (CCS) and Allied Health Group brands. CCS typically contracts with our nurse and allied healthcare clients on behalf of itself and all of our other brands. Our traditional staffing includes temporary and permanent placement of travel nurses and allied professionals, branch based local nurses and allied staffing, and physicians. We provide healthcare

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staffing opportunities to our healthcare professionals, and staffing and workforce solutions to our healthcare clients in all 50 states. We provide flexible workforce solutions to the healthcare market through diversified offerings meeting the special needs of each client. Our services include: MSP, workforce assessment, internal resource pool consulting and development, EMR transition staffing, recruitment process outsourcing services, and traditional staffing. Our clients include: public and private acute-care and non-acute care hospitals, government facilities, schools, outpatient clinics, ambulatory care facilities, physician practice groups, retailers, and many other healthcare providers. Orders for open positions and other services are entered into our various databases and are available to recruiters. Account managers, who develop relationships with our clients to understand their specific clinical settings and culture, submit candidate profiles to clients, and confirm offers and placements with the healthcare facility. In 2012, the market for nurse and allied staffing was estimated to be approximately $7.3 billion, of which $1.7 billion was travel nursing, $2.7 billion was per diem staffing and $2.9 billion was allied healthcare staffing (2013 List of Largest U.S. Healthcare Staffing Firms and Market Share Analysis, July 2013).

MDA markets its physician staffing operations to hospitals and other healthcare facilities on a national basis. We believe we attract physicians based on our wide variety of open positions in various specialties at locations throughout the United States, as well as our excellent long-standing reputation. Our recruiters use our large database of physicians and their expertise in their given specialties to contact physicians to schedule short and long-term engagements at healthcare customers. MDA successfully operates a multi-site business model with employees at several locations. Each recruiter typically covers one specialty and one geographic region. Historically, our locum tenens business has operated as a single desk model, with recruiters responsible for recruiting physicians, sourcing open positions, and collecting amounts due from customers. In late 2013, however, MDA began to hire a dedicated sales team in order to increase revenue and realize more leverage from the business.

CCE primarily recruits independent contractor speakers for its in-person continuing education and training seminars through its website and trade journal advertisements. Seminar attendees are recruited through direct mail marking and CCE’s website. Based on responses to its marketing efforts, CCE identifies venues for its in-person seminars throughout the United States. Once venues are identified, CCE’s meeting planners rent space to hold the seminars and they schedule travel and hotels for the independent contractors to deliver the seminars. CCE receives revenue from attendees and pays the independent contractors a fee for each seminar based on attendance.

Cejka markets its retained search services to healthcare clients primarily through industry professional organizations, direct marketing, Cejka’s website and word of mouth. Cejka identifies candidates to fill retained search positions using social networking, client referrals, and various other marketing technologies. Utilizing their expertise, Cejka’s consultants review the specific skillsets necessary for a particular position and identify candidates who meet those particular needs. Cejka performs educational and reference checks, as well as other credentialing items specifically requested by healthcare clients as part of its placement services. Cejka bills healthcare clients a candidate acquisition fee and for Cejka’s marketing expenses.

Credentialing and Quality Management

We screen all of our candidates prior to placement through our credentialing departments. While screening requirements are typically negotiated with our clients, each of our businesses has adopted its own minimum standard screening requirements. We continue to monitor our nursing and allied professional employees after placement in an effort to ensure quality performance, to determine eligibility for future placements and to manage our malpractice risk profile. Our credentialing processes are designed to ensure that our professionals have the requisite skillset and aptitude to meet the day-to-day requirements and challenges they would typically encounter on assignments where they are placed. We ask each of our healthcare clients to evaluate healthcare employees who work at their facility at the end of each assignment in order to continually assess client satisfaction and so that we may assist our employees with further educational development, if and where necessary.

Client Billing
 
We bill our nursing and allied employees at an hourly rate and assume all employer costs, including payroll, withholding taxes, benefits, professional liability insurance and other requirements, as well as any travel and housing arrangements, where applicable. Hours worked by field employees are recorded by our operations system, which then transmits the data directly to Automatic Data Processing, Inc. for payroll processing. Client billings are typically generated using time and attendance data captured by our payroll system. Our payroll coordinators also provide customer support services for field employees.


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Hours worked by independent contractor physicians are reported to our MDA office in Berkeley Lake, Georgia. We bill our clients for hours worked by independent contractor physicians and for our recruitment fee. We negotiate payment for services with our clients based on market conditions and needs, and the amount we earn is not fixed. We keep a recruitment fee and pass on an agreed amount to the independent contractor physician on behalf of our clients.

Our educational seminars business collects the full amount of seminar fees from its customers and pays a negotiated percentage to its speakers, as well as other costs, such as hotel, travel, meals, and other related costs. For our retained search business, Cejka typically bills its clients a candidate acquisition fee and is reimbursed for certain marketing expenses.

Operations

Our nursing, allied and physician businesses are operated through a relatively centralized business model servicing all assignment needs of our healthcare professional employees, physicians and client healthcare facilities through operation centers located in Boca Raton, Florida; Malden, Massachusetts; Tampa, Florida; Newtown Square, Pennsylvania; and Berkeley Lake, Georgia. In addition to the key sales and recruitment activities, these centers also perform support activities such as coordinating housing, payroll processing, benefits administration, billing and collections, travel reimbursement processing, customer service and risk management. After completing the integration of our new allied health business, we expect to have 29 branches.

CCE conducts its operations at its offices in Brentwood, Tennessee; and Cejka Search operates its business from its headquarters located in Creve Coeur, Missouri. These businesses operate relatively independently, other than certain ancillary services that are provided from our Boca Raton, Florida headquarters, such as payroll for corporate employees, sales, legal, finance, and information systems support. Payroll of corporate personnel is provided on a centralized basis to both of these businesses from our Malden, Massachusetts office.
 
Information Systems
 
Our placement and support operations are enhanced by sophisticated information systems that facilitate interaction between our recruitment and support activities. Our proprietary information systems enable us to manage virtually all aspects of our operations. We believe these systems can accommodate significant future growth of our business. In addition, their scalable design allows further capacity to be added to the existing hardware platform. We have proprietary software that handles most facets of our business, including contract pricing and profitability, contract processing, job posting, housing management, billing/payroll and insurance. Our systems provide support to our facility clients, field employees and independent contractors, and enable us to efficiently fulfill and renew job assignments. Our systems also provide detailed information on the status and skillset of each candidate and independent contractor. In addition to our domestic information systems team, certain software development and information technology support is provided by our employees based in Pune, India.
 
Our financial, management reporting and human resources systems are managed on PeopleSoft, a leading enterprise resource planning software suite that provides modules used to manage our accounts receivable, accounts payable, general ledger, billing and human resources. This system is designed to accommodate future growth in our business.

Risk Management, Insurance and Benefits
 
We have developed a risk management program that requires prompt notification of incidents by clients, clinicians and independent contractors, educational training to our employees, loss analysis, and prompt reporting procedures to reduce our risk exposure. Each of our temporary employees receives instructions regarding the timely reporting of claims and this information is also available on our website. We continuously review facts and incidents associated with professional liability and workers’ compensation claims in order to identify trends and reduce our risk of loss in the future where possible. In addition, upon notification of an incident that may result in liability to us, we promptly gather all available documentation and review the actions of our employee and independent contractor to determine if he or she should remain on an assignment and whether he or she is eligible for another assignment with us. We consider assessments provided by our clients and we work with experts from our third party administrator on certain claims, as well as clinicians and experts from our insurance carriers, to determine employment eligibility and potential exposure. Prior to approving an employee or independent contractor for an assignment, we review records from applicable state professional associations, the national practitioners’ database and other such databases available to us.

We provide workers’ compensation insurance coverage, professional liability coverage and health care benefits for our eligible temporary professionals. We record our estimate of the ultimate cost of, and reserves for workers compensation and

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professional liability benefits based on actuarial models prepared or reviewed by an independent actuary using our loss history as well as industry statistics. In determining our reserves, we include reserves for estimated claims incurred but not reported. We also estimate on a quarterly basis the health care claims that have occurred but have not been reported based on our historical claim submission patterns. The ultimate cost of workers’ compensation, professional liability and health insurance claims will depend on actual amounts incurred to settle those claims and may differ from the amounts reserved by us for those claims.

The Company maintains a number of insurance policies including general liability, automobile liability and employers’ liability; each with excess liability coverage. We also maintain workers’ compensation, fidelity, fiduciary, directors and officers, and professional liability policies. These policies provide coverage subject to their terms, conditions, limits of liability, and deductibles, for certain liabilities that may arise from our operations. We also own a captive insurance company domiciled in the Cayman Islands that insures a portion of each medical malpractice claim brought against our physicians or MDA. There can be no assurance that any of the above policies will be adequate for our needs, or that we will maintain all such policies in the future.

Regulations
 
We provide services directly to our clients on a contract basis and receive payment directly from them. However, many of our clients are reimbursed under the federal Medicare program and state Medicaid programs for the services they provide. In recent years, federal and state governments have made significant changes in these programs that have reduced reimbursement rates. In addition, insurance companies and managed care organizations seek to control costs by requiring that healthcare providers, such as hospitals, discount their services in exchange for exclusive or preferred participation in their benefit plans. While not affecting us directly, future federal and state legislation or evolving commercial reimbursement trends may further reduce or change conditions for our clients’ reimbursement. Such limitations on reimbursement could reduce our clients’ cash flows, hampering the pricing we can charge clients and their ability to pay us. We continuously monitor changes in regulations and legislation for potential impacts on our business.
   
Our business is subject to regulation by numerous governmental authorities in the jurisdictions in which we operate. Complex federal and state laws and regulations govern, among other things, the licensure of professionals, the payment of our employees (e.g., wage and hour laws, employment taxes and income tax withholdings, etc.) and the operations of our business generally. We conduct business primarily in the U.S. and are subject to federal and state laws and regulations applicable to our business, which may be amended from time to time. Future federal and state legislation or interpretations thereof may require us to change our business practices. Compliance with all of these applicable rules and regulations require a significant amount of resources. We endeavor to be in compliance with all such rules and regulations.
 
Employees
 
As of December 31, 2013, we had approximately 1,100 corporate employees. During 2013, we maintained an average of 2,420 full-time equivalent field employees in our nurse and allied staffing segment. During 2013, we utilized approximately 1,500 independent contractor physicians and 140 independent contractors related to non-physician staffing. We are not subject to a collective bargaining agreement with any of our employees. We consider our relationship with employees to be good.
 
Additional Information
 
Financial reports and filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), including this Annual Report on Form 10-K, are available free of charge as soon as reasonably practicable after filing such material with, or furnishing it to, the SEC, on or through our corporate website at www.crosscountryhealthcare.com.  The information found on our website is not part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K or any other report we file with or furnish to the SEC. 
 

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Item 1A.
Risk Factors.
 
You should carefully consider the following risk factors, as well as the other information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
 
Decreases in demand by our clients may adversely affect the profitability of our business.
 
Among other things, changes in the economy which result in higher unemployment and low job growth, a decrease or stagnation in the general level of in-patient admissions at our clients’ facilities, uncertainty regarding federal healthcare law and the willingness of our hospital, healthcare facilities and physician group clients to develop their own temporary staffing pools and increase the productivity of their permanent staff may, individually or in the aggregate, significantly affect demand for our temporary healthcare staffing services and hamper our ability to attract, develop and retain clients. When a hospital’s admissions increase, temporary employees or other healthcare professionals are often added before full-time employees are hired. As admissions decrease, clients typically reduce their use of temporary employees or other healthcare professionals before undertaking layoffs of their permanent employees. In a down market, healthcare professionals may be less likely to leave a full-time position to work on temporary assignments and clients are also more likely to focus on internal solutions for their temporary staffing needs. In addition, we also may experience more competitive pricing pressure during periods when in-patient admissions are stagnant for periods of time or declining. In addition, if the trend towards providing healthcare in alternative settings, as opposed to acute care hospitals intensifies, it could result in a decline in in-patient admissions at our clients’ facilities. These events individually or in the aggregate may cause a reduction in admissions that could negatively affect the demand for our services. Decreases in demand for our services may affect our ability to provide attractive assignments to our healthcare professionals thereby reducing our profitability.
 
Our clients may terminate or not renew their contracts with us.
 
Our arrangements with hospitals, healthcare facilities and physician group clients are generally terminable upon 30 to 90 days’ notice. These arrangements may also require us to, among other things, guarantee a percentage of open positions that we will fill, and if we are unable to meet those obligations a client may terminate our contract which could have a negative impact on our profitability. We may have fixed costs, including housing costs, associated with terminated arrangements that we will be obligated to pay post-termination.
 
We may be unable to recruit enough healthcare professionals to meet our clients’ demands.
 
We rely significantly on our ability to attract, develop and retain healthcare professionals who possess the skills, experience and, as required, licensure necessary to meet the specified requirements of our healthcare clients. We compete for healthcare staffing personnel with other temporary healthcare staffing companies, as well as actual and potential clients such as healthcare facilities and physician groups, some of which seek to fill positions with either permanent or temporary employees. Currently, there is a shortage of certain qualified nurses and physicians in many areas of the United States and competition for these professionals remains intense. The current economic conditions may make these healthcare professionals less willing to travel to temporary assignments, thus further intensifying the competition with other temporary healthcare staffing companies to recruit these healthcare professionals. Although demand is below historically normal levels, at this time we still do not have enough nurses and physicians to meet all of our clients’ demands for these staffing services. This shortage of healthcare professionals generally and their willingness to leave stable full-time jobs to travel on temporary assignments in the current environment may limit our ability to increase the number of healthcare professionals that we successfully recruit, decreasing our ability to grow our business.

The costs of attracting and retaining healthcare professionals may rise more than we anticipate.
 
We compete with hospitals, healthcare facilities, physician groups and other healthcare staffing companies for qualified healthcare professionals. Because there is currently a shortage of certain qualified healthcare professionals, competition for them is intense. Our ability to recruit and retain healthcare professionals depends on our ability to, among other things, offer assignments that are attractive to healthcare professionals and offer them competitive wages and benefits or payments, as applicable. Our competitors might increase hourly wages or the value of benefits to induce healthcare professionals to take assignments with them. If we do not raise wages or increase the value of benefits in response to such increases by our competitors, we could face difficulties attracting and retaining qualified healthcare professionals. If we raise wages or increase benefits in response to our competitors’ increases and are unable to pass such cost increases on to our clients, our margins could decline.
 

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Our costs of providing housing for our healthcare professionals may be higher than we anticipate and, as a result, our margins could decline.
 
We provide housing for certain of our healthcare professionals when on an assignment with us. At any given time, we have over a thousand apartments on lease throughout the U.S. Typically, the length of an apartment lease is coterminous with the length of the assignment of a nurse or allied healthcare professional. If the costs of renting apartments and furniture for these healthcare professionals increase more than we anticipate and we are unable to pass such increases on to our clients, our margins may decline. To the extent the length of a nurse’s housing lease exceeds the term of the nurse’s staffing contract, we bear the risk that we will be obligated to pay rent for housing we do not use. To limit the costs of unutilized housing, we try to secure leases with term lengths that match the term lengths of our staffing contracts, typically 13 weeks. In some housing markets we have had, and believe we will continue to have, difficulty identifying short-term leases. If we cannot identify a sufficient number of appropriate short-term leases in regional markets, or, if for any reason, we are unable to efficiently utilize the apartments we do lease, we may be required to pay rent for unutilized housing, or, to avoid such risk, we may have to forego otherwise profitable opportunities.

We are dependent on the proper functioning of our information systems.
 
We are dependent on the proper functioning of our information systems in operating our business. Critical information systems used in daily operations identify and match staffing resources and client assignments and perform billing and accounts receivable functions. Additionally, we rely on our information systems in managing our accounting and financial reporting. If these systems are damaged or disrupted and unable to function properly in order to support our business operations or require significant costs to repair, maintain or further develop, our business and financial results could be materially adversely affected. Our information systems are protected through a secure hosting facility and additional backup remote processing capabilities also exist in the event our primary systems fail or are not accessible. However, the business is still vulnerable to fire, storm, flood, power loss, telecommunications failures, physical or software break-ins and similar events which may prevent personnel from gaining access to systems necessary to perform their tasks in an automated fashion. In the event that critical information systems fail or are otherwise unavailable, these functions would have to be accomplished manually, which could impact our ability to identify business opportunities quickly, to, among other things, maintain billing and clinical records reliably, to bill for services efficiently and to maintain our accounting and financial reporting accurately.
 
Losses caused by natural disasters, such as hurricanes could cause us to suffer material financial losses.
 
Catastrophes can be caused by various events, including, but not limited to, hurricanes and other severe weather. The incidence and severity of catastrophes are inherently unpredictable. The extent of losses from a catastrophe is a function of both the total amount of insured exposure and the severity of the event. We do not maintain business interruption insurance for these events. We could suffer material financial losses as a result of such catastrophes.
 
If applicable government regulations change, we may face increased costs that reduce our revenue and profitability.
 
The temporary healthcare staffing industry is regulated in many states. For example, in some states, firms such as our nurse staffing companies must be registered to establish and advertise as a nurse-staffing agency or must qualify for an exemption from registration in those states. If we were to lose any required state licenses, we could be required to cease operating in those states. The introduction of new regulatory provisions could substantially raise the costs associated with hiring temporary employees. For example, some states could impose sales taxes or increase sales tax rates on temporary healthcare staffing services. These increased costs may not be able to be passed on to clients without a decrease in demand for temporary employees. In addition, if government regulations were implemented that limited the amounts we could charge for our services, our profitability could be adversely affected.

If certain of our healthcare professionals are reclassified from independent contractors to employees our profitability could be materially adversely impacted.
 
Federal or state taxing authorities could re-classify our locum tenens physicians and certified registered nurse anesthetists as employees, despite both the general industry standard to treat them as independent contractors and many state laws prohibiting non-physician owned companies from employing physicians (e.g., the “corporate practice of medicine”). If they were re-classified as employees, we would be subject to, among other things, employment and payroll-related tax claims, as well as any applicable penalties and interest. Any such reclassification would have a material adverse impact on our business model for that business segment and would negatively impact our profitability.
 

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We are exposed to increased costs and risks associated with complying with increasing and new regulation of corporate governance and disclosure standards.
 
We spend significant time and resources to comply with changing laws, regulations and standards relating to corporate governance and public disclosures. Compliance requires management’s annual review and evaluation of our internal control systems and attestations of the effectiveness of these systems by our independent auditors. We may encounter problems or delays in completing the review and evaluation, the implementation of improvements and the receipt of a positive attestation by our independent auditors. If we are not able to timely comply with the requirements set forth in Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, we might be subject to sanctions or investigation by regulatory authorities. Any such action could adversely affect our business and financial results.

Our financial results could be adversely impacted by the loss of key management.
 
If members of our senior management team become unable or unwilling to continue their present positions, our business and financial results could be adversely affected.
 
Substantial changes in healthcare reform or reimbursement trends could hinder our clients’ ability to pay us.
 
While in most cases our fees are paid directly by our clients rather than by governmental or third-party payers, many of our clients are reimbursed under the federal Medicare program and state Medicaid programs for the services they provide. Changes made by federal and state governments could reduce reimbursement rates. In addition, insurance companies and managed care organizations seek to control costs by requiring that healthcare providers, such as hospitals, discount their services in exchange for participation in their benefit plans. Future federal and state legislation or evolving commercial reimbursement trends may further reduce, or change conditions for, our clients’ reimbursement. Limitations on reimbursement could reduce our clients’ cash flows, hampering their ability to pay us.
 
Competition for acquisition opportunities may restrict our future growth by limiting our ability to make acquisitions at reasonable valuations and lack of liquidity in the credit markets may restrict our ability to make certain acquisitions.
 
Our business strategy includes strategic acquisitions of companies that complement or enhance our business. We have historically faced competition for acquisitions. In the future, this could limit our ability to grow by acquisition or could raise the prices of acquisitions and make them less accretive to our earnings. In addition, even if we are able to negotiate acceptable terms at reasonable valuations, there can be no assurance that there will be sufficient liquidity available on terms favorable to us to complete acquisitions. If we are unable to secure necessary financing under our credit facility or otherwise, we may be unable to complete desirable acquisitions. Certain restrictive covenants in our credit facility may also limit our ability to complete acquisitions.
 
We may face difficulties integrating our acquisitions into our operations and our acquisitions may be unsuccessful, involve significant cash expenditures or expose us to unforeseen liabilities.
 
We continually evaluate opportunities to acquire companies that would complement or enhance our business and at times have preliminary acquisition discussions with some of these companies.

These acquisitions involve numerous risks, including:
 
Potential loss of key employees or clients of acquired companies;

Difficulties integrating acquired personnel and distinct cultures into our business;

Difficulties integrating acquired companies into our operating, financial planning and financial reporting systems;

Diversion of management attention from existing operations; and

Assumptions of liabilities and exposure to unforeseen liabilities of acquired companies, including liabilities for their failure to comply with healthcare and tax regulations.

These acquisitions may also involve significant cash expenditures, debt incurrence and integration expenses that could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. Any acquisition may ultimately have a negative impact on our business and financial condition.

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We operate our business in a regulated industry and modifications, inaccurate interpretations or violations of any applicable statutory or regulatory requirements may result in material costs or penalties to our Company as well as litigation and could reduce our revenue and earnings per share.
 
Our industry is subject to many complex federal, state, local and international laws and regulations related to, among other things, the licensure of professionals, the payment of our field employees (e.g., wage and hour laws, employment taxes and income tax withholdings, the HITECH Act, etc.) and the operations of our business generally (e.g., federal, state and local tax laws). If we do not comply with the laws and regulations that are applicable to our business (both domestic and foreign), we could incur civil and/or criminal penalties as well as litigation or be subject to equitable remedies.
 
Impairment in the value of our goodwill, trade names or other intangible assets could negatively impact our net income and earnings per share.
 
We are required to test goodwill and intangible assets with indefinite lives (such as trade names) annually, to determine if impairment has occurred. Long-lived assets and other identifiable intangible assets are also reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that amounts may not be recoverable. If the testing performed indicates that impairment has occurred, we are required to record a non-cash impairment charge for the difference between the carrying amount of the goodwill or other intangible assets and the implied fair value of the goodwill or the fair value of the indefinite-lived intangible asset in the period the determination is made. The testing of goodwill and other intangible assets for impairment requires us to make significant estimates about our future performance and cash flows, as well as other assumptions. These estimates can be affected by numerous factors, including changes in economic, industry or market conditions, changes in business operations, changes in competition or potential changes in our stock price and market capitalization. Changes in these factors, or changes in actual performance compared with estimates of our future performance, could affect the fair value of goodwill, trade names or other intangible assets, which may result in an impairment charge. We cannot accurately predict the amount and timing of any impairment of assets. Should the value of goodwill, trade names or other intangible assets become impaired, there could be an adverse effect on us. At December 31, 2013, goodwill, trade names and other identifiable intangible assets (net of amortization) represented 90.7% of our stockholders’ equity.
 
Significant legal actions could subject us to substantial uninsured liabilities.
 
In recent years, healthcare providers have become subject to an increasing number of legal actions alleging malpractice, vicarious liability, violation of certain consumer protection acts, negligent hiring, product liability or related legal theories. We may be subject to liability in such cases even if the contribution to the alleged injury was minimal. Many of these actions involve large claims and significant defense costs. In addition, we may be subject to claims related to torts or crimes committed by our corporate employees or healthcare professionals. In most instances, we are required to indemnify clients against some or all of these risks. A failure of any of our corporate employees or healthcare professionals to observe our policies and guidelines intended to reduce these risks, relevant client policies and guidelines or applicable federal, state or local laws, rules and regulations could result in negative publicity, payment of fines or other damages.
 
A key component of our business is the credentialing process. Ultimately, any hospital or other health care provider is responsible for its own internal credentialing process, and the provider typically makes the decision to allow a healthcare professional to provide services on its behalf. Nevertheless, in many situations, the provider will be relying upon the reputation and screening process of our Company. Errors in this process or failure to detect a poor or incorrect history could have a material effect on our reputation. In addition, we may not have access to all of the resources that are available to hospitals to check credentials.
 
To protect ourselves from the cost of these types of claims, we maintain professional malpractice liability insurance and general liability insurance coverage in amounts and with deductibles that we believe are appropriate for our operations. Our coverage is, in part, self-insured, and significant claims could adversely impact our profitability. In addition, our insurance coverage may not cover all claims against us or continue to be available to us at a reasonable cost. If we are unable to maintain adequate insurance coverage, we may be exposed to substantial liabilities.

If our insurance costs increase significantly, these incremental costs could negatively affect our financial results.
 
We purchase various insurance policies to limit or transfer certain risks inherent in our operations. The costs related to obtaining and maintaining professional and general liability insurance and health insurance for healthcare providers has generally been increasing. If the cost of carrying these insurance policies continues to increase significantly, we will recognize

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an associated increase in costs, which may negatively affect our margins. This could have an adverse impact on our financial condition.
 
If we become subject to material liabilities under our self-insurance programs, our financial results may be adversely affected.
 
We provide workers compensation coverage through a program that is partially self-insured. In addition, we provide medical coverage to our employees through a partially self-insured preferred provider organization. A portion of our medical malpractice coverage is also through a partially self-insured program. If we become subject to substantial uninsured workers compensation, medical coverage or medical malpractice liabilities, our financial results may be adversely affected.
 
We are subject to litigation, which could result in substantial judgment or settlement costs.
 
We are party to various litigation claims and legal proceedings. We evaluate these litigation claims and legal proceedings to assess the likelihood of unfavorable outcomes and to estimate, if possible, the amount of potential losses. Based on these assessments and estimates, if any, we establish reserves and/or disclose the relevant litigation claims or legal proceedings, as appropriate. These assessments and estimates are based on the information available to management at the time and involve a significant amount of management judgment. We may not have sufficient business insurance to cover these risks. Actual outcomes or losses may differ materially from those estimated by our current assessments which would impact our profitability. Adverse developments in existing litigation claims or legal proceedings involving our Company or new claims could require us to establish or increase litigation reserves or enter into unfavorable settlements or satisfy judgments for monetary damages for amounts in excess of current reserves, which could adversely affect our financial results for future periods.
 
If provisions in our corporate documents and Delaware law delay or prevent a change in control of our Company, we may be unable to consummate a transaction that our stockholders consider favorable.
 
Our certificate of incorporation and by-laws may discourage, delay or prevent a merger or acquisition involving us that our stockholders may consider favorable. For example, our certificate of incorporation authorizes our Board of Directors to issue up to 10,000,000 shares of “blank check” preferred stock. Without stockholder approval, the Board of Directors has the authority to attach special rights, including voting and dividend rights, to this preferred stock. With these rights, preferred stockholders could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire us. Delaware law may also discourage, delay or prevent someone from acquiring or merging with us.

Terrorist attacks or armed conflict could adversely affect our normal business activity and results of operations.
 
In the aftermath of the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, we experienced a temporary interruption of normal business activity. Similar events in the future or armed conflicts involving the United States could result in additional temporary or longer-term interruptions of our normal business activity and our results of operations. Future terrorist attacks could also result in reduced willingness of nurses to travel to staffing assignments by airplane or otherwise.
 
Market disruptions may adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.
 
Economic conditions and volatility in the financial markets may have an adverse impact on the availability of credit to us and to our customers and businesses generally. To the extent that disruption in the financial markets occurs, it has the potential to materially affect our and our customers’ ability to tap into debt and/or equity markets to continue ongoing operations, have access to cash and/or pay debts as they come due. These events could negatively impact our results of operations and financial conditions. Although we monitor our credit risks to specific clients that we believe may present credit concerns, default risk or lack of access to liquidity may result from events or circumstances that are difficult to detect or foresee. Conditions in the credit markets and the economy generally could adversely impact our business and frustrate or prohibit us from refinancing our credit facility on terms favorable to us when it comes due in January 2016.

Stock issuable under our stock option plans are presently in effect and sales of this stock could cause our stock price to decline.
 
We registered 4,398,001 shares of common stock for issuance under our 1999 stock option plans and 3,500,000 shares of common stock for issuance under our 2007 Stock Incentive Plan. Fully vested options to purchase 177,300 shares of common stock were issued and outstanding as of February 28, 2014. In addition, 1,298,149 stock appreciation rights were issued and outstanding as of February 28, 2014, 763,274 of which were vested. Shares of restricted stock outstanding as of February 28, 2014, were 554,981. Common stock issued upon exercise of stock options, stock appreciation rights and restricted stock, under

16



our benefit plans, is eligible for resale in the public market without restriction. We cannot predict what effect, if any, market sales of shares held by any stockholder or the availability of these shares for future sale will have on the market price of our common stock.

We could fail to generate sufficient cash to fund our liquidity needs and/or fail to satisfy the financial and other restrictive covenants to which we are subject under our existing indebtedness.
 
We currently have sufficient liquidity to operate our business in the normal course.  However, if we were to make an acquisition or enter into a similar type of transaction, our liquidity needs may exceed our current capacity. In addition, our existing credit facility currently contains financial covenants that require us: (1) under certain conditions, to operate above a minimum fixed charge coverage ratio, and (2) to maintain a certain level of accounts receivables in order to draw down funds on the loan. Further deterioration in our operating results could result in our inability to comply with these covenants which would result in a default under our credit facility.   If an event of default exists, our lenders could call the indebtedness and we may be unable to renegotiate or secure other financing.

If our healthcare facility clients increase the use of intermediaries it could impact our profitability.
 
We have seen an increase in the use of intermediaries by our clients, including both vendor management companies (who solely provide technology) and managed service providers (who provide staffing services). These intermediaries typically enter into contracts with our clients and then subcontract with us and other agencies to provide staffing services, thus interfering to some extent in our relationship with our clients. Each of these intermediaries charges an administrative fee. If managed service providers win business with our current customers, the number of professionals we have on assignment at those clients could decrease. If we are unable to negotiate hourly rates with intermediaries for the services we provide at these clients which are sufficient to cover administrative fees charged by those intermediaries, it could impact our profitability. If those intermediaries become insolvent or fail to pay us for our services, it could impact our bad debt expense and thus our overall profitability.
 
We also provide comprehensive managed service provider (MSP) solutions directly to certain of our clients. While such contracts typically improve our market share at these facilities, they could result in less diversification of our customer base, increased liability and reduced margins. The loss of one or more of our large MSP accounts could materially affect our profitability.
 
We are subject to business risks associated with international operations.
 
We have international operations in India where our Cross Country Infotech, Pvt Ltd. (Infotech) subsidiary is located. Infotech provides in-house information systems development and support services as well as some back-office processing services. We have limited experience in supporting our services outside of North America. Operations in certain markets are subject to risks inherent in international business activities, including: fluctuations in currency exchange rates; changes in regulations, varying economic and political conditions; overlapping or differing tax structures; and regulations concerning compensation and benefits, vacation and the termination of employment. Our inability to effectively manage our international operations could result in increased costs and adversely affect our results of operations.

The delay or cancellation of any EMR implementations could adversely impact our operational results.

On February 17, 2009, President Obama signed into law the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act of 2009, or the ARRA, representing the largest government-driven investment in electronic healthcare technologies. Within ARRA, the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act, or HITECH, provisioned more than $19 billion in incentives to healthcare organizations that modernize their medical records systems.  Physicians and hospitals that do not use certified products in a meaningful way by certain specified dates will be penalized under the current legislation.  Based on this legislation, we have seen an increase in the utilization of our nurse and allied healthcare staffing services as facilities train their staff on new electronic healthcare technologies being implemented (EMR Implementations).  If a healthcare facility contracts with us for staffing services while it is undergoing an EMR Implementation and then that facility delays or cancels those staffing services, it could have a significant adverse impact on our operational and financial results.   In addition, the revenue stream we derive by staffing hospitals undergoing EMR Implementations is not indefinite and based on current legislation is expected to lessen as we near 2017.
 
Cyber security risks and cyber incidents could adversely affect our business and disrupt operations.

Cyber incidents can result from deliberate attacks or unintentional events. These incidents can include, but are not limited to, gaining unauthorized access to digital systems for purposes of misappropriating assets or sensitive information, corrupting data,

17



or causing operational disruption. The result of these incidents could include, but are not limited to, disrupted operations, misstated financial data, liability for stolen assets or information, increased cyber security protection costs, litigation and reputational damage adversely affecting customer or investor confidence.  We do not have insurance to cover any of these potential incidents.

Changes to healthcare delivery in the United States may impact our business.
 
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act was signed into law on March 23, 2010 and later amended on March 30, 2010 (ACA).  It is a very complex law that regulates a wide range of components in our healthcare system. The sweeping healthcare reforms outlined in the ACA are scheduled to take effect on various dates through 2020.  Additional guidance on the ACA is expected to be forthcoming from the IRS, the Treasury Department, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the U.S. Department of Labor and the states.
 
The ACA reforms the way Americans buy health insurance and creates a number of issues for employers that sponsor group health plans.  The ACA could result in increased costs to us without the ability to increase our prices to customers to cover those costs.

Due to inherent limitations, there can be no assurance that our system of disclosure and internal controls and procedures will be successful in preventing all errors and fraud, or in making all material information known in a timely manner to management.

Our management, including our Chief Executive Officer (“CEO”) and Chief Financial Officer (“CFO”), does not expect that our disclosure controls and internal controls will prevent all errors and all fraud. A control system, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurance that the objectives of the control system are met. Because of the inherent limitations in all control systems, no evaluation of controls can provide absolute assurance that all control issues and instances of fraud, if any, within our company have been detected. These inherent limitations include the realities that judgments in decision-making can be faulty, and that breakdowns can occur because of a simple error or mistake. Additionally, controls can be circumvented by the individual acts of some persons, by collusion of two or more people, or by management override of the control.

The design of any system of controls also is based in part upon certain assumptions about the likelihood of future events, and there can be no assurance that any design will succeed in achieving its stated goals under all potential future conditions; over time, a control may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate. Because of the inherent limitations, misstatements due to error or fraud may occur and not be detected.

Item 1B.
Unresolved Staff Comments.

None.


18



Item 2.
Properties.
 
We do not own any real property. Our principal leases as of March 1, 2014 are listed below.
Location
 
Function
 
Square
Feet
 
Lease Expiration
Boca Raton, Florida
 
Headquarters and nurse and allied staffing administration
 
70,406
 
May 1, 2018
Berkeley Lake, Georgia
 
Temporary physician staffing and allied
    staffing offices
 
41,607
 
October 7, 2024
Newtown Square, Pennsylvania
 
Nurse and allied staffing administration and general office use
 
16,304
 
December 31, 2018
Creve Coeur, Missouri
 
Retained search headquarters
 
27,051
 
June 14, 2017
Malden, Massachusetts
 
Nurse and allied staffing administration and general office use
 
22,767
 
June 30, 2017
Pune, India
 
In-house information systems and
    development support
 
20,700
 
November 30, 2015
Brentwood, Tennessee
 
Education training headquarters
 
16,884
 
August 31, 2017
Tampa, Florida
 
Nurse and allied staffing administration and general office use
 
15,698
 
February 15, 2015
 
Item 3.
Legal Proceedings.

On December 4, 2012, the Company’s subsidiary, CC Staffing, Inc. (now known as Travel Staff, LLC) became the subject of a purported class action lawsuit (Alice Ogues, on behalf of herself and all others similarly situated, Plaintiffs, vs. CC Staffing, Inc., a Delaware corporation; and DOES 1-50, inclusive, Defendants) filed in the United States District Court, Northern District of California. Plaintiff alleges that traveling employees were denied meal periods and rest breaks, that they should have been paid overtime on reimbursement amounts, various other wage and hour claims, and that they are entitled to associated penalties.  The parties have agreed to settle this lawsuit for $750,000. The United States District Court, Northern District of California granted preliminary approval of the settlement on January 17, 2014, subject to the inclusion of language requiring a five-day cure period for deficient requests for exclusion from class members. On February 6, 2014, the parties amended the settlement agreement to include such language. A hearing for final approval of the settlement agreement is scheduled for May 16, 2014.
 
The Company is also subject to other legal proceedings and claims that arise in the ordinary course of its business. In the opinion of management, the outcome of these other matters will not have a significant effect on the Company’s consolidated financial position or results of operations.


19



PART II
 
Item 4.
Mine Safety Disclosures.

This item is not applicable to the Company.

Item 5.
Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.

Our common stock currently trades under the symbol “CCRN” on the NASDAQ Global Select Market (NASDAQ). Our common stock commenced trading on the NASDAQ National Market under the symbol “CCRN” on October 25, 2001. The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, the high and low sale prices per share of CCRN common stock. Such prices reflect inter-dealer prices, without retail mark-up, mark-down or commission and may not represent actual transactions.

 
Sale Prices
Calendar Period
High
 
Low
 
 
 
 
2013
 
 
 
Quarter Ended March 31, 2013
$
6.23

 
$
4.86

Quarter Ended June 30, 2013
$
5.60

 
$
4.59

Quarter Ended September 30, 2013
$
6.19

 
$
5.14

Quarter Ended December 31, 2013
$
10.53

 
$
5.55

 
 
 
 
2012
 
 
 
Quarter Ended March 31, 2012
$
6.73

 
$
4.40

Quarter Ended June 30, 2012
$
5.64

 
$
3.87

Quarter Ended September 30, 2012
$
5.12

 
$
3.90

Quarter Ended December 31, 2012
$
4.98

 
$
3.80


The graph below compares the Company to the cumulative 5-year total return of holders of the Company's common stock with the cumulative total returns of the NASDAQ Composite index and the Dow Jones US Business Training & Employment Agencies index. The graph assumes that the value of the investment in the company's common stock and in each of the indexes (including reinvestment of dividends) was $100 on 12/31/2008 and tracks it through 12/31/2013.

20



 

 
The stock price performance included in this graph is not necessarily indicative of future stock price performance.

As of March 3, 2014, there were 130 stockholders of record of our common stock. In addition, there are 3,156 beneficial owners of our common stock held by brokers or other institutions on behalf of stockholders.
 
We have never paid or declared cash dividends on our common stock. Covenants in our credit agreement limit our ability to repurchase our common stock and declare and pay cash dividends on our common stock. On February 28, 2008, our Board of Directors authorized our most recent stock repurchase program whereby we may purchase up to 1.5 million of our common shares, subject to the terms of our current credit agreement. The shares may be repurchased from time-to-time in the open market and the repurchase program may be discontinued at any time at our discretion. At December 31, 2013, we had 942,443 shares of common stock left remaining to repurchase under this authorization, subject to the limitations of the Company’s Credit Agreement.  Subject to certain conditions as described in its Loan Agreement entered into on January 9, 2013, the Company may repurchase up to an aggregate amount of $5,000,000 of its Equity Interests. See Note 8- Long-term Debt, to our Consolidated Financial Statements for further information. See also – Liquidity and Capital Resources in the Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations section of this report.

Item 6.
Selected Financial Data.

The selected consolidated financial data as of December 31, 2013 and 2012 and for the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012, and 2011 are derived from the audited consolidated financial statements of Cross Country Healthcare, Inc., included elsewhere in this Report. The selected consolidated financial data as of December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009 and for the years ended December 31, 2010 and 2009, are derived from the consolidated financial statements of Cross Country Healthcare, Inc., that have been audited but not included in this Report.
 
During the fourth quarter of 2012, we decided to divest our clinical trial services business. Accordingly, we classified clinical trial services segment as a disposal group held for sale as of December 31, 2012 and its results of operations as discontinued operations for the years ended December 31, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009 and 2008. We completed the sale of this segment on February 15, 2013.
 

21



The following selected financial data should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and related notes of Cross Country Healthcare, Inc., “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and other financial information included elsewhere in this Report.
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2013 (a)
 
2012
 
2011
 
2010
 
2009
 
(Dollars in thousands, except share and per share data)
Consolidated Statements of Operations Data
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenue from services
$
438,311

 
$
442,635

 
$
439,377

 
$
406,604

 
$
506,559

Operating expenses:
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Direct operating expenses
324,851

 
331,050

 
319,989

 
292,333

 
374,043

Selling, general and administrative
    expenses
106,117

 
109,417

 
104,544

 
97,379

 
106,875

Bad debt expense
1,078

 
786

 
574

 
248

 
107

Depreciation
3,886

 
4,905

 
5,965

 
7,122

 
7,713

Amortization
2,294

 
2,263

 
2,394

 
2,568

 
2,701

 Acquisition costs (a)
473

 

 

 

 

 Restructuring costs (b)
484

 

 

 

 

Impairment charges (c)
6,400

 
18,732

 

 
10,764

 

Legal settlement charge (d)
750

 

 

 

 
345

Total operating expenses
446,333

 
467,153

 
433,466

 
410,414

 
491,784

(Loss) income from operations
(8,022
)
 
(24,518
)
 
5,911

 
(3,810
)
 
14,775

Other (income) expenses:
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Foreign exchange (gain) loss
(132
)
 
(62
)
 
(264
)
 
68

 
61

Interest expense
849

 
2,341

 
2,856

 
4,244

 
6,243

Loss on early extinguishment and modification of debt
1,419

 
82

 

 

 

Other (income) expense, net
(119
)
 
16

 
(298
)
 
(172
)
 
(69
)
(Loss) income from continuing operations
   before income taxes
(10,039
)
 
(26,895
)
 
3,617

 
(7,950
)
 
8,540

Income tax expense (benefit)
44,211

 
(6,150
)
 
2,069

 
(2,693
)
 
3,598

(Loss) income from continuing operations
(54,250
)
 
(20,745
)
 
1,548

 
(5,257
)
 
4,942

Income (loss) from discontinued operations, net of tax
2,281

 
(21,476
)
 
2,550

 
2,482

 
1,752

Net (loss) income
$
(51,969
)
 
$
(42,221
)
 
$
4,098

 
$
(2,775
)
 
$
6,694

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net (loss) income per common share –
  basic:
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Continuing operations
$
(1.75
)
 
$
(0.67
)
 
$
0.05

 
$
(0.17
)
 
$
0.16

Discontinued operations
0.07

 
(0.70
)
 
0.08

 
0.08

 
0.06

Net (loss) income
$
(1.68
)
 
$
(1.37
)
 
$
0.13

 
$
(0.09
)
 
$
0.22

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net (loss) income per common share –
  diluted (e):
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Continuing operations
$
(1.75
)
 
$
(0.67
)
 
$
0.05

 
$
(0.17
)
 
$
0.16

Discontinued operations
0.07

 
(0.70
)
 
0.08

 
0.08

 
0.06

Net (loss) income
$
(1.68
)
 
$
(1.37
)
 
$
0.13

 
$
(0.09
)
 
$
0.22

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Weighted average common shares
  outstanding:
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Basic
31,009,218

 
30,842,723

 
31,146,165

 
31,060,426

 
30,824,660

Diluted (e)
31,009,218

 
30,842,723

 
31,192,016

 
31,060,426

 
30,999,446


22




 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
 
2010
 
2009
Other Operating Data
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Nurse and allied staffing statistical data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
FTEs (f)
2,420

 
2,446

 
2,472

 
2,185

 
2,735

Days worked (g)
883,300

 
895,236

 
902,280

 
797,525

 
998,275

Average revenue per FTE per day (h)
$
316

 
$
310

 
$
309

 
$
304

 
$
314

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Physician staffing statistical data (i):
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Days filled (j)
80,294

 
85,001

 
85,416

 
89,421

 
95,253

Revenue per day filled (k)
$
1,512

 
$
1,453

 
$
1,391

 
$
1,360

 
$
1,594

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash flow data ($000):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net cash provided by operating activities
$
8,659

 
$
10,146

 
$
18,296

 
$
31,522

 
$
72,400

Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities
$
15,205

 
$
175

 
$
(4,196
)
 
$
(16,199
)
 
$
(11,713
)
Net cash used in financing activities
$
(26,061
)
 
$
(10,583
)
 
$
(14,236
)
 
$
(11,191
)
 
$
(64,217
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Consolidated Balance Sheet Data ($000)
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Working capital (l)
$
39,030

 
$
66,205

 
$
50,348

 
$
59,145

 
$
64,505

Cash and cash equivalents
$
8,055

 
$
10,463

 
$
10,648

 
$
10,957

 
$
6,861

Total assets (l)
$
248,245

 
$
305,924

 
$
347,884

 
$
358,359

 
$
365,726

Total debt
$
8,576

 
$
33,859

 
$
42,046

 
$
53,513

 
$
62,514

Stockholders’ equity
$
160,667

 
$
209,123

 
$
249,300

 
$
246,009

 
$
246,071

 

(a)
On December 2, 2013, the Company acquired the operating assets of On Assignment, Inc.’s Allied Healthcare Staffing division. The acquisition has been accounted for in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 805-Business Combinations, using the purchase method of accounting. The results of On Assignment's operations have been included in the Company's consolidated statements of operations since December 2, 2013, the date of the acquisition. For further information about this acquisition, refer to the notes to the consolidated financial statements (Note 5 - Acquisitions).

(b)
Restructuring costs primarily related to senior management employee severance pay.

(c)
Impairment charges include goodwill and other intangible asset impairment charges pursuant to the Intangibles-Goodwill and Other Topic of the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) and the Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Assets subsection of the Property, Plant and Equipment Topic of the FASB ASC. In the fourth quarter of 2013, in conjunction with the annual testing of indefinite-lived intangible assets not subject to amortization, the Company recorded a pre-tax non-cash impairment charge of approximately $6.4 million of which $6.2 million related to the physician staffing segment and $0.2 million related to the nurse and allied staffing segment. In the year ended December 2012, the Company recorded noncash impairment charges of $18.7 million related to the impairment of goodwill in the Company's nurse and allied staffing reporting unit. In the fourth quarter of 2010, the Company recorded noncash pretax impairment charges of $10.8 million, related to the impairment of specific trade names in its physician and nurse and allied staffing business segments related to its acquisition of MDA. Refer to further discussion of some of these impairment charges in our notes to the consolidated financial statements (Note 4 – Goodwill, Trade Names and Other Identifiable Intangible Assets).

(d)
During the year ended December 31, 2013, the Company agreed to settle a wage and hour class action lawsuit in California for $0.75 million, subject to a final binding agreement and approval by the court. The courts granted preliminary approval of the settlement on January 17, 2014, subject to the inclusion of language requiring a five-day cure period for deficient requests for exclusion from class members. On February 6, 2014, the parties amended the settlement agreement to include such language. A hearing for final approval of the settlement

23



agreement is scheduled for May 16, 2014. See Note 11- Commitments and Contingencies to our consolidated financial statements. During the fourth quarter of 2009, the Company reached an agreement in principle to settle a class action lawsuit, Maureen Petray and Carina Higareda v. MedStaff, Inc., which the court granted preliminary approval in October 2010. In the fourth quarter of 2009, the Company accrued a pretax charge of $0.3 million ($0.2 million after taxes) related to this lawsuit.

(e)
For purposes of calculating diluted earnings per common share in 2013, 2012 and 2010 the Company excluded potentially dilutive shares from the calculation as their effect would have been anti-dilutive, due to the Company’s net loss from continuing operations in those years.

(f)
FTEs represent the average number of nurse and allied contract staffing personnel on a full-time equivalent basis.

(g)
Days worked is calculated by multiplying the FTEs by the number of days during the respective period.

(h)
Average nurse and allied staffing revenue per FTE per day is calculated by dividing the nurse and allied staffing revenue by the number of days worked in the respective periods. Nurse and allied staffing revenue includes revenue from permanent placement of nurses.

(i)
Beginning in the first quarter of 2011, the Company refined its statistical methodology related to its physician staffing days filled metrics. Accordingly, historical 2010 data for these metrics has been revised to conform to the 2011 presentation. Historical data for 2009 has not been reclassified due to excessive cost of applying the methodology, which, the Company believes outweighs the benefit of the additional information.

(j)
Days filled is calculated by dividing the total hours filled during the period by 8 hours.

(k)
Revenue per day filled is calculated by dividing the applicable revenue generated by the Company’s physician staffing segment by days filled for the period presented.

(l)
Working capital and total assets as of December 31, 2012 includes the net assets held for sale related to our discontinued clinical trial services staffing business.  See Note 3 – Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations. Total assets presented include estimated insurance recoveries for all periods presented.  See Note 7 – Accrued Compensation and Benefits. Working capital and total asset balance information has been reclassified to conform to the 2013 presentation of deferred taxes. See Note 12 - Income Taxes.

Item 7.
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
 
The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with Selected Financial Data, Risk Factors, Forward-Looking Statements and our Consolidated Financial Statements and the accompanying notes and other data, all of which appear elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Certain prior year information has been reclassified to the current year's presentation.
 
Overview
 
We are a national leader in providing healthcare staffing and workforce solutions. Our traditional staffing includes temporary and permanent placement of travel nurses and allied professionals, branch based local nurses and allied staffing, and locum tenens physicians. We provide flexible workforce solutions to the healthcare market through diversified offerings meeting the special needs of each client. Our services include: managed service programs (MSP), workforce assessments, internal resource pool consulting and development, electronic medical record (EMR) transition staffing, recruitment process outsourcing services, and traditional staffing. Our clients include: public and private acute-care and non-acute care hospitals, government facilities, schools, outpatient clinics, ambulatory care facilities, physician practice groups, retailers, and many other healthcare providers. We also provide education and training programs to the healthcare industry and retained search services for physicians and healthcare executives. We report three business segments: (1) nurse and allied staffing, (2) physician staffing, and (3) other human capital management services.
 
Our operations reflect a diversified revenue mix across healthcare customers. For the full year 2013, our revenue from continuing operations was $438.3 million. Our nurse and allied staffing business segment was 63% of revenue and is comprised of travel nurse, travel allied and branch based local nurse and allied staffing. Our locum tenens business segment

24



was 28% of our revenue and consists of physician staffing services with placements across multiple specialties. Our other human capital management services business segment was 9% of our revenue and consists of education and training, as well as retained search services related primarily to physicians and healthcare executives.
 
In February 2013, we sold our clinical trial services business so that we could focus on our core business of providing flexible workforce solutions to the healthcare market. Accordingly, our former clinical trials business segment is reflected as discontinued operations on our consolidated financial statements contained in this Report. For additional information, see Footnote 3 - Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations contained elsewhere in this report.

In December 2013, we acquired the assets of On Assignment, Inc.’s Allied Healthcare Staffing division for $28.7 million. We believe this acquisition complements our current operations by: (1) adding new skillsets to our traditional staffing offerings, (2) expanding our local branch network, which will allow us to expand our local market presence and our MSP business, (3) diversifying our customer base into the local ambulatory care and retail market, which provides more balance between our large volume based customers and our small local customers, and (4) better positioning us to take additional market share at our MSP accounts. Certain transitional services, including, but not limited to, billing and payroll, are being provided post-acquisition by On Assignment, Inc. to our Allied Health Group until we completely transition that business to our systems. We anticipate having the transition substantially completed by the end of the second quarter of 2014. This business has been included in the presentation of our financial statements contained in this Report. For more information on this acquisition, see Footnote 5 - Acquisitions to the consolidated financial statements contained elsewhere in this report.

For the year ended December 31, 2013, our revenue from continuing operations was $438.3 million, and we had a net loss from continuing operations of $54.3 million, or a $1.75 loss per diluted share. Our net loss from continuing operations in the year ended December 31, 2013 was entirely due to a deferred tax valuation allowance and a trade names impairment charge recorded in the fourth quarter of 2013. See Footnote 12 - Income Taxes, to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

During 2013, we generated $8.7 million in cash flow from operations and received net cash of $45.7 million from the sale of our clinical trial services business, which was used, in part, to reduce our total debt by $25.3 million and to invest in the acquisition of the assets of On Assignment's Allied Healthcare Staffing division. We ended the year with total debt of $8.6 million and $8.1 million of cash, resulting in a ratio of debt, net of cash, to total capitalization of 0.3%.

In general, we evaluate our financial condition and operating results by revenue, contribution income (see Segment Information), and net (loss) income. We also use measurement of our cash flow generation and operating and leverage ratios to help us assess our financial condition. In addition, we monitor several key volume and profitability indicators such as number of orders, contract bookings, number of FTEs, days filled and price.

Nurse and Allied Staffing
 
Our nurse and allied staffing segment provides traditional staffing, including temporary and permanent placement of travel nurses and allied professionals, and branch based local nurses and allied staffing. We provide flexible workforce solutions to the healthcare market through diversified offerings meeting the special needs of each client. Our services include: MSP, workforce assessment, internal resource pool consulting and development, EMR transition staffing, recruitment process outsourcing services, and traditional staffing. Our clients include: public and private acute-care and non-acute care hospitals, government facilities, schools, outpatient clinics, ambulatory care facilities, retailers, and many other healthcare providers.

The majority of our revenue is generated from staffing RNs on long-term contract assignments (typically 13-weeks in length) at hospitals and health systems using the following brands: Cross Country TravCorps,™ NovaPro Travel, Medstaff Travel, CRU48 Travel, and Assignment America.™ The CRU48 Travel™ brand is used to identify and staff travel professionals on assignment who are pre-qualified and ready to begin assignments within one to two weeks (as opposed to the typical lead time of four or five weeks for travel healthcare professionals) at a hospital client which has an urgent need. Additionally, we offer a short-term staffing solution of RNs, licensed practical nurses, and certified nurse assistants on per diem and short-term assignments through our national network of local branch offices. We also provide travel allied health professionals on long-term contract assignments to hospitals, schools and skilled nursing facilities under the Cross Country TravCorps™ brand, and we provide more than 100 specialties of allied professionals on local per diem and short-term assignments in a variety of clinical settings under our Allied Health Group brand.

Our nurse and allied staffing revenue and earnings are impacted by the relative supply of nurse and allied healthcare professionals and demand for our contract staffing services at healthcare facilities. Demand for our nurse and allied staffing services is primarily influenced by the strength or weakness of national acute care hospital admissions relative to expectations and the volume of patients at other medical facilities, as well as labor market dynamics that influence the number of hours

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worked by healthcare professionals. We believe demand for travel nurse staffing services will be favorably impacted in the long-term by an aging population, along with the anticipated increases in utilization of healthcare services resulting from the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), and an increasing shortage of nurses. We rely significantly on our ability to recruit and retain nurses and other healthcare professionals who possess the skills, experience and, as required, licensure necessary to meet the specified requirements of our clients. Shortages of qualified nurses and other healthcare professionals could limit our ability to fill open orders and grow our revenue and net income. In general, we believe nurses are more willing to seek travel assignments during relatively high levels of demand for contract employment, and conversely, are more reluctant to seek travel assignments during and immediately following periods of weak demand for contract employment.

Typically, as admissions increase for our hospital customers, temporary employees are often added before full-time employees are hired. As admissions decline, clients tend to reduce their use of temporary employees before undertaking layoffs of their staff employees.

In general, we evaluate the nurse and allied staffing business segment’s financial condition and operating results by revenue and contribution income (see Segment Information). In addition, we monitor several key volume and profitability indicators such as number of open orders, contract bookings, number of FTEs and bill rate per hour of service provided.

We market our nurse and allied staffing services primarily to acute care hospitals and health systems, and provide our clients with staffing solutions through our Cross Country Staffing (CCS) and Allied Health Group brands. Our clients provide health and medical services across a broad range of clinical settings in the for-profit and not-for-profit sectors throughout the U.S., including acute care hospitals, physician practice groups, skilled nursing facilities, nursing homes and sports medicine clinics, and, to a lesser degree, and non-clinical settings such as home care and schools.
 
CCS is our largest brand. The vast majority of our activities are designed to help a diverse customer base of hospitals and health system clients meet their ongoing staffing needs for temporary nurses and allied health professionals. During 2013, we worked with more than a thousand hospitals and health system clients. Additionally, as a part of its business strategy, CCS provides comprehensive Managed Service Programs (MSP) solutions to large hospitals and health systems throughout the U.S. to manage their temporary clinical staffing.  These MSP contracts are specifically tailored to each client based on their workforce goals and financial targets. Our MSP engagements typically incorporate one or more of our contract nurse, contract allied and/or per diem staffing solutions. These services are particularly beneficial to larger facilities and systems that require many healthcare professionals across a broad spectrum of medical disciplines and specialties. In addition to directly supplying a large majority of client needs under these MSP programs, CCS has relationships with hundreds of subcontractors throughout the U.S. to ensure that clients have access to a large pool of candidates to meet their staffing needs.
 
Another component of our business is contract staffing for hospitals and health systems undergoing electronic medical record (EMR) technology implementations. In these situations, we supply contract temporary healthcare professionals to provide patient care while hospital staff RNs are away in classroom settings undergoing training and to provide support to the staff RNs in utilizing the EMR technology upon their return to bedside care. Many hospitals and physician groups continue to undergo EMR implementations aided by grants available to healthcare facilities under the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Act (HITECH Act) - adopted as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. We believe the demand for our staffing services will be positively impacted in the short term from new deadlines adopted by CMS regarding EMR implementations, because hospitals often use temporary staff to fill in for permanent staff being trained on new technologies.
 
Overall, during 2013 demand for our nurse and allied staffing services was up slightly with sequential growth in the first quarter which we believe was partly due to a strong flu season resulting in higher hospital admissions and an increase in staffing assignments related to EMR technology implementations. We experienced softer demand in the second and third quarters partly due to delays in EMR technology implementations and lower hospital admissions. Towards the end of the third quarter and through our fourth quarter, demand increased as a result of new EMR projects and increased orders from our MSP customers. Contribution income margins in this business improved significantly in 2013 primarily due to lower field insurance and housing expenses. Our ratio of contract bookings as a percentage of working nurses was 102% in the fourth quarter of 2013 and is running at 104% in our first quarter of 2014. We expect that staffing related to EMR technology implementations as well as MSP programs will continue to be growth drivers in our nurse and allied staffing segment in 2014.

Physician Staffing

Our physician staffing business is headquartered in Berkeley Lake, Georgia and offers multi-specialty locum tenens (temporary physician staffing) services to the healthcare industry in all 50 states. We provide physicians as independent

26



contractors on temporary assignments at various healthcare facilities, such as acute and non-acute care facilities, medical group practices, government facilities, and managed care organizations.
 
Our physician staffing business revenue and earnings are impacted by the demand for temporary physician staffing services and the supply of qualified physicians. When there are not enough physicians to fill the number of vacancies at hospitals, practice groups or other healthcare facilities, demand increases for our services. In general, we believe that in periods when physicians are looking for more flexibility, have concerns with cost and availability of malpractice insurance, or want to avoid managing a practice, supply increases. In periods where the physicians are looking for more stability, supply decreases. Demand and supply constraints may vary based on the specialty of the physician. We monitor several key volume and profitability indicators for each specialty area of this business, such as physician staffing days filled and revenue per days filled. In addition, we monitor this segment’s revenue, contribution income and contribution income as a percentage of revenue.
 
During 2013, we experienced a decrease in demand which, we believe was in part due to, what we believe is an increase in the number of physicians willing to accept permanent opportunities. We believe physicians have been seeking employment with hospitals at higher rates in the past few years due to: the difficulty of transitioning private practices to EMR, traversing the maze of insurance company requirements, financial strains on private practices from repeated threatened pay cuts based on Medicare’s sustainable growth rate formulas, and the uncertain future of healthcare associated with ACA. Becoming hospital staff provides financial certainty and the ability to focus more on practicing medicine. We believe this shift in employment provides opportunity for the locum tenens industry, because hospitals will still need to fill open positions when these staff physicians take vacation time, take leaves of absence or sabbaticals, and attend continuing education seminars. While we expect this trend to continue in the short-term, we believe the future outlook for the physician staffing industry is positive as demand for physicians is projected to increase by 2025 due to the demographics of a growing and aging population along with healthcare reform that is expected to be directionally favorable to our business. The needs will be particularly strong in the primary care specialties due to recent decreases in medical school graduates entering the primary care field. Locum tenens should benefit from these shortage trends and demands particularly with an ever increasing aging population and the anticipated increase in utilization of healthcare services. We believe our physician staffing services business is well positioned to respond to the current and future needs of its healthcare customers.
 
Other Human Capital Management Services
 
Education and Training Services
 
Our Cross Country Education™ (CCE) subsidiary, headquartered in Brentwood, Tennessee, offers “in person” one-day seminars, conferences and e-learning through various independent contractors who are experts in their field on topics pertaining to their profession. CCE is an approved provider of continuing education with more than 35 professional healthcare associations, and also works with national and state boards and associations. CCE is expanding its online presence and intends to continue to move toward a greater offering of blended learning opportunities for a professional that combines live seminar offerings with audio and e-learning products. CCE trains professionals in the fields of physical and occupational therapy, behavioral health, nursing, long-term care, coding and billing, regulatory compliance, dentistry, health information and healthcare administration. In 2013, CCE held 4,679 seminars and conferences that were attended by more than 120,000 registrants in the U.S. We extend these educational services to our field employees on favorable terms as a recruitment and retention tool.
 
In 2013, CCE’s live seminar attendance decreased approximately 11% from the prior year due to what we believe are several factors. First, significant budget cuts to both non-Medicaid and Medicaid-based mental health services negatively impacted employment for public mental health programs.  We believe this reduced demand for our programs as these professionals may have obtained to a greater degree continuing education credits via e-learning offerings. Second, the education industry is increasingly offering live webcasting and rebroadcasting of seminars. To address this shift, CCE has significantly expanded its offerings in this area while continuing to provide thousands of live seminars each year. CCE is also expanding its online presence and will continue to move toward a greater offering of blended learning opportunities for professionals that combine live seminar offerings with audio and e-learning products. CCE is also focusing greater efforts on developing strategic partnerships with provider organizations that can extend our learning programs to their licensed employees.

Retained Search
 
Cejka has been a leading physician, executive, advanced practice and allied health search firm for more than thirty years, recruiting top healthcare talent for organizations nationwide through a team of experienced professionals, advanced use of recruitment technology and commitment to service excellence. Serving clients nationwide, Cejka completes hundreds of

27



search assignments annually for organizations spanning the continuum of healthcare, including physician group practices, hospitals and health systems, academic medical centers, accountable care organizations (ACOs), managed care and other healthcare organizations. We believe in 2013 that ongoing uncertainty about health care reform, Medicare reimbursement rules and the pace of economic recovery continued to limit or delay implementation of the industry’s medical staff and administrative leadership recruitment plans, which extended the challenging and competitive environment for retained search services.

We believe the intensifying shortage of physicians and mid level providers, and the critical need for effective healthcare executive leadership, in particular physician executive leaders, to meet the challenges of health care reform provides an opportunity for us to grow in 2014.
 
Revenue
 
Our travel and per diem nurse staffing revenue is received primarily from acute care hospitals. Revenue from allied staffing services is received from numerous sources, including providers of radiation, rehabilitation and respiratory services at hospitals, nursing homes, physician practice groups, sports medicine clinics and schools. Our physician staffing services revenue is primarily received from hospitals and group practices. Revenue from our retained search and our education and training services is received from numerous sources, including hospitals, physician group practices, insurance companies and individual healthcare professionals. Our fees are paid directly by our clients and, in certain instances, by vendor managers. As a result, we have no direct exposure to Medicare or Medicaid reimbursements.
 
Revenue is recognized when services are rendered. Accordingly, accounts receivable includes an accrual for employees’ and independent contractors’ estimated time worked but not yet invoiced. Similarly, accrued expenses include an accrual for employees’ and independent contractors’ time worked but not yet paid. Each of our field employees and independent contractors on travel assignment works for us under a contract. The contract period is typically 13 weeks for our nurse and allied staffing employees with a shorter duration for physician independent contractors. Our staffing employees are hourly employees whose contracts specify the hourly rate they will be paid, and any other benefits they are entitled to receive during the contract period. We typically bill clients at an hourly rate and assume all employer costs for our staffing employees, including payroll, withholding taxes, benefits, professional liability insurance and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements, as well as any travel and housing arrangements.
 
We record revenue on a gross basis as a principal or on a net basis as an agent depending on the arrangement, as follows:

We have also entered into certain contracts with acute care facilities to provide comprehensive managed service programs (MSP) solutions. Under these contract arrangements, we use our nurses primarily, along with those of third party subcontractors, to fulfill customer orders. If a subcontractor is used, we invoice our customer for these services, but revenue is recorded at the time of billing, net of any related subcontractor liability. The resulting net revenue represents the administrative fee charged by us for our MSP services.
Revenue from our physician staffing and education and training businesses is recognized on a gross basis as we believe we are the principal in the arrangements.

Disposition
 
On February 15, 2013, we completed the sale of our clinical trial services business to ICON Clinical Research, Inc. and ICON Clinical Research UK Limited (the “Buyer”) for an aggregate $52.0 million in cash, subject to certain adjustments. At closing, the total amount paid was reduced by $0.1 million for the amount the Targeted Net Working Capital exceeded the Estimated Net Working Capital. Subsequent to September 30, 2013, we paid an additional $0.2 million to the Buyer to finalize the Net Working Capital adjustment, pursuant to the agreement.

The agreement included a provision for an earn-out of up to $3.75 million related to certain performance-based milestones. The maximum earn-out amount of $3.75 million was deposited in escrow by Buyer as security for the earn-out payment, if any. The $3.75 million earn-out related to certain performance-based milestones, has been treated as contingent consideration and we assigned no value to this earn-out as of December 31, 2013 based on recent information available to us including a revised revenue forecast for the Arena Contract (as defined in the agreement). In addition, the FTE earn-out (as defined in the agreement) was not earned, and as a result $1.5 million of the original escrow was released to the Buyer in the second quarter of 2013, leaving a balance of $2.25 million as of December 31, 2013. (see Note 9 - Fair Value Measurements, to our consolidated financial statements for more information).


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Of the $52.0 million purchase price, paid at closing, $3.75 million was also placed in escrow for a period of 18 months following the closing to provide partial security to the Buyer in the event of any breach of the representations, warranties and covenants of the Company. We recorded the $3.75 million indemnity escrow funds as an escrow receivable, and will adjust the amount, each reporting period, based on any known information that may arise that would be reasonable and estimable.

We have provided certain transitional services to the Buyer since the sale date, which have ceased as of December 31, 2013.
 
The sale was a result of an extensive review of our business and the changing competitive landscape in the pharmaceutical outsourcing industry. This segment consisted of service offerings that include traditional contract staffing and functional outsourcing, as well as drug safety monitoring and regulatory services to pharmaceutical and biotechnology customers. As of December 31, 2013, our clinical trial services segment has been classified as discontinued operations for all periods presented.

Acquisition
 
In December 2013, we acquired the operating assets of On Assignment, Inc.’s Allied Healthcare Staffing division for an aggregate purchase price of $28.7 million, subject to certain post-closing adjustments. Excluded from the transaction were the accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued compensation of the business being acquired. The Company used $24.7 million in cash on hand and $4.5 million from borrowings under its current revolver facility with Bank of America, N.A. to pay the purchase price and approximately $0.5 million in transaction costs. Subsequent to December 31, 2013, an immaterial post-closing adjustment was made. We do not expect any further adjustment. However, the purchase price is subject to further adjustment downward contingent upon retention of certain contracts as defined in the agreement, which will be resolved by the end of the second quarter of 2014.

We believe this acquisition complements our current operations by: (1) adding new skillsets to our traditional staffing offerings, (2) expanding our local branch network, which will allow us to expand our local market presence and our MSP business, (3) diversifying our customer base into the local ambulatory care and retail market, which provides more balance between our large volume based customers and our small local customers, and (4) better positioning us to take additional market share at our MSP accounts. The allied healthcare business has 84 branch-based employees and makes placements in more than 125 specialties from 23 branch offices.

The acquisition has been accounted for in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 805-Business Combination, using the purchase method. The results of the acquisition's operations have been included in the consolidated statements of operations since December 2, 2013, the date of the acquisition. On Assignment's allied staffing services have been included with our nurse and allied staffing business segment. In 2013, the On Assignment allied staffing acquisition contributed $3.4 million of revenue and $0.3 million of contribution income to the nurse and allied staffing business segment.

Goodwill, Trade Names and Other Identifiable Intangible Assets
 
Goodwill, trade names and other intangible assets represented 90.7% of our stockholders’ equity as of December 31, 2013. Goodwill, trade names and other identifiable intangible assets from acquisitions were $77.3 million, $42.3 million and $26.2 million, respectively, net of accumulated amortization, at December 31, 2013. In accordance with the Intangibles-Goodwill and Other Topic of the FASB ASC, goodwill and certain intangible assets with indefinite lives (such as trade names) are not subject to amortization; instead, we review these assets for impairment annually, at December 31, and whenever circumstances occur indicating impairment, with any related losses recognized in earnings.

Other identifiable intangible assets, which are subject to amortization, are being amortized using the straight-line method over their estimated useful lives ranging from 5 to 16 years. The Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Asset subsection of the Property, Plant and Equipment Topic of the FASB ASC, requires us to test the recoverability of long-lived assets, including identifiable intangible assets with definite lives, whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. In testing for potential impairment, if the carrying value of the asset group exceeds the expected undiscounted cash flows, we must then determine the amount by which the fair value of those assets exceeds the carrying value and determine the amount of impairment, if any.
 
See Critical Accounting Principles and Estimates and our consolidated financial statements Note 4 – Goodwill and Other Identifiable Intangible Assets, for a detailed description of the results of our impairment reviews in 2013, 2012 and 2011 that resulted in total impairment charges for continuing operations of $6.4 million in the fourth quarter of 2013, $18.7 million in the second quarter of 2012 and total impairment charges for discontinued operations of $35.4 million in our third and fourth quarter of 2012.


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Results of Operations
 
The following table summarizes, for the periods indicated, selected consolidated statements of operations data expressed as a percentage of revenue. Our historical results of operations are not necessarily indicative of future operating results.
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
Revenue from services
100.0
 %
 
100.0%

 
100.0%

Direct operating expenses
74.1

 
74.8

 
72.8

Selling, general and administrative expenses
24.2

 
24.7

 
23.8

Bad debt expense
0.2

 
0.2

 
0.1

Depreciation and amortization
1.4

 
1.6

 
1.9

Acquisition costs
0.1

 

 

Restructuring costs
0.1

 

 

Legal settlement charge
0.2

 

 

Impairment charges
1.5

 
4.2

 

(Loss) income from operations
(1.8
)
 
(5.5
)
 
1.4

Foreign exchange (gain) loss

 

 

Interest expense
0.2

 
0.6

 
0.7

Loss on modification of debt
0.3

 

 

Other income, net

 

 
(0.1
)
(Loss) income from continuing operations before income
   taxes
(2.3
)
 
(6.1
)
 
0.8

Income (benefit) tax expense
10.1

 
(1.4
)
 
0.5

(Loss) income from continuing operations
(12.4
)
 
(4.7
)
 
0.3

Income (Loss) from discontinued operations, net of tax
0.5

 
(4.8
)
 
0.6

Net (loss) income
(11.9)%

 
(9.5
)%
 
0.9%


Segment Information
 
In accordance with the Segment Reporting Topic of the FASB ASC, we report three business segments – nurse and allied staffing, physician staffing, and other human capital management services, described below.  
 
Nurse and allied staffing - The nurse and allied staffing business segment provides travel nurse and allied staffing services and per diem nurse services primarily to acute care hospitals. Nurse and allied staffing services are marketed to public and private healthcare and for-profit and not-for-profit facilities throughout the U.S. We aggregate our Cross Country Staffing and Allied Health Group brands that we market to our customers in this business segment.
 
Physician staffing – The physician staffing business segment provides multi-specialty locum tenens services to the healthcare industry throughout the U.S.
 
Other human capital management services - The other human capital management services business segment includes the combined results of our education and training and retained search businesses that both have operations within the U.S.


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Information on operating segments and reconciliation to (loss) income from operations for the periods indicated are as follows:
 
 
Year ended December 31,
 
2013
 
2012 (c)
 
2011 (c)
 
(Amounts in thousands)
Revenue from services:
 
 
 
 
 
Nurse and allied staffing
$
278,973

 
$
277,754

 
$
278,793

Physician staffing
121,371

 
123,545

 
118,781

Other human capital management services
37,967

 
41,336

 
41,803

 
$
438,311

 
$
442,635

 
$
439,377

 
 
 
 
 
 
Contribution income (a):
 

 
 

 
 

Nurse and allied staffing
$
19,188

 
$
11,360

 
$
20,078

Physician staffing
8,617

 
10,652

 
11,320

Other human capital management services
746

 
1,944

 
3,172

 
28,551

 
23,956

 
34,570

 
 
 
 
 
 
Unallocated corporate overhead
22,286

 
22,574

 
20,300

Depreciation
3,886

 
4,905

 
5,965

Amortization
2,294

 
2,263

 
2,394

Acquisition costs
473

 

 

Restructuring costs
484

 

 

Legal settlement charge
750

 

 

Impairment charges (b)
6,400

 
18,732

 

(Loss) income from operations
$
(8,022
)
 
$
(24,518
)
 
$
5,911

_______________
(a)
We define contribution income as (loss) income from operations before depreciation, amortization, acquisition costs, restructuring costs, legal settlement charges, impairment charges, and other corporate expenses not specifically identified to a reporting segment. Contribution income is a measure used by management to assess operations and is provided in accordance with the Segment Reporting Topic of the FASB ASC.

(b)
In 2013, we refined our methodology for allocating certain corporate overhead expenses to its nurse and allied staffing segment expenses to more accurately reflect this segment’s profitability. Prior year information has been reclassified to conform to current year presentation.

(c)
During the year ended December 31, 2012, we recognized pretax impairment charges in our continuing operations of $18.7 million. Refer to discussion in Note 4-Goodwill, Trade Names and Other Identifiable Intangible Assets.

Comparison of Results for the Year Ended December 31, 2013 compared to the Year Ended December 31, 2012
 
Revenue from services
 
Revenue from services decreased $4.3 million, or 1.0%, to $438.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2013, as compared to $442.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2012. The decrease was due to lower revenue from our other human capital management services and physician staffing businesses, partially offset by an increase in revenue from our nurse and
allied staffing business segment.
 
Nurse and allied staffing
 
Revenue from our nurse and allied staffing business segment increased $1.2 million, or 0.4% to $279.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2013, from $277.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2012. Excluding the results of the acquisition, revenue in our nurse and allied staffing business segment decreased $2.2 million, primarily due to lower staffing volume, partially offset by higher average bill rates.

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The average number of nurse and allied staffing FTEs on contract during the year ended December 31, 2013, decreased 1.1% from the year ended December 31, 2012. Average nurse and allied staffing revenue per FTE increased approximately 1.9% in the year ended December 31, 2013 compared to the year ended December 31, 2012.
 
Physician staffing
 
Revenue from our physician staffing business decreased $2.2 million, or 1.8% to $121.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2013, compared to $123.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2012. The decrease in revenue reflects lower volume, partially offset by higher bill rates. Physician staffing days filled decreased 5.5% to 80,294 in the year ended December 31, 2013, compared to 85,001 in the year ended December 31, 2012. Revenue per day filled for the year ended December 31, 2013 was $1,512, a 4.1% increase from the year ended December 31, 2012, reflecting higher average prices.

Other human capital management services
 
Revenue from other human capital management services for the year ended December 31, 2013, decreased $3.4 million, or 8.2%, to $38.0 million from $41.3 million in the year ended December 31, 2012, reflecting less seminars and lower seminar attendance in our education and training business and lower revenue from our retained search business.
 
Direct operating expenses
 
Direct operating expenses are comprised primarily of field employee compensation and independent contractor expenses, housing expenses, travel expenses and field insurance expenses. Direct operating expenses decreased $6.2 million, or 1.9%, to $324.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2013, as compared to $331.1 million for year ended December 31, 2012.
 
As a percentage of total revenue, direct operating expenses represented 74.1% of revenue for the year ended December 31, 2013, and 74.8% for the year ended December 31, 2012. The decrease was primarily due to lower housing costs and field insurance expenses, partially offset by higher physician provider fees and expenses as a percentage of revenue.
 
Selling, general and administrative expenses
 
Selling, general and administrative expenses decreased $3.3 million, or 3.0%, to $106.1 million million for the year ended December 31, 2013, as compared to $109.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2012. As a percentage of total revenue, selling, general and administrative expenses were 24.2% and 24.7% for the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively. The decrease is primarily due to lower health insurance, direct mail expenses, rent expense and compensation expense, partially offset by an increase in legal expense. Selling, general and administrative expenses for the year ended December 31, 2012 included $1.0 million of estimated state non-income taxes ($0.3 million related to our estimates for the 2005-2011 tax years as discussed in Note 11 - Commitments and Contingencies to our consolidated financial statements) and $0.7 million expense for an immaterial correction in calculating deferred rent which primarily accumulated from 2002 to 2010.
 
Included in selling, general and administrative expenses is unallocated corporate overhead of $22.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2013, compared to $22.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2012.  Included in unallocated corporate overhead are $2.1 million and $2.6 million of share-based compensation expenses for the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively. As a percentage of consolidated revenue, unallocated corporate overhead was 5.1% for the year ended December 31, 2013, and 5.1% for the year ended December 31, 2012.
 
Bad debt expense
 
Bad debt expense as a percentage of total revenue was 0.2%, or $1.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2013. Bad debt expense as a percentage of total revenue was 0.2%, or $0.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2012. The calculation and methodology remain consistent.
 
Contribution income
 
Contribution income from our nurse and allied staffing segment for the year ended December 31, 2013, increased $7.8 million or 68.9%, to $19.2 million from $11.4 million in year ended December 31, 2012. As a percentage of nurse and allied staffing revenue, segment contribution income was 6.9% for the year ended December 31, 2013, and 4.1% for the year ended

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December 31, 2012. This increase was primarily due to a combination of lower insurance and housing costs for our field staff, and lower selling, general and administrative expenses.
 
Contribution income from our physician staffing segment for the year ended December 31, 2013, decreased $2.0 million or 19.1% to $8.6 million compared to $10.7 million in the year ended December 31, 2012. As a percentage of physician staffing revenue, contribution income was 7.1% for the year ended December 31, 2013 and 8.6% for the year ended December 31, 2012. The margin decline was due to higher physician provider fees as a percentage of revenue and an increase in the Company's estimated accrual for sales tax liabilities in the year ended December 31, 2013.

Contribution income from other human capital management services for the year ended December 31, 2013, decreased by $1.2 million, or 61.6%, to $0.7 million, from $1.9 million in the year ended December 31, 2012. Contribution income as a percentage of other human capital management services revenue was 2.0% for the year ended December 31, 2013 and 4.7% for the year ended December 31, 2012. The decrease in contribution income margin was primarily due to negative operating leverage in our retained search business partially offset by lower direct mail costs as a percentage of revenue in our education and training business. Our retained search business has the highest fixed cost structure of all of our businesses. Due to this high fixed cost structure, when revenue declines, the business suffers a disproportionate decline in contribution margin. Conversely, when revenue increases, it should produce a disproportionately strong margin improvement.
 
Depreciation and amortization expense
 
Depreciation and amortization expense in the year ended December 31, 2013, totaled $6.2 million as compared to $7.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2012. As a percentage of revenue, depreciation and amortization expense was 1.4% for the year ended December 31, 2013 and 1.6% for the year ended December 31, 2012.
 
Acquisition costs

Acquisition costs during the year ended December 31, 2013 consist primarily of advisory services and administrative expenses related to our acquisition of On Assignment's Allied Healthcare Staffing division. No similar expenses were recorded during the year ended December 31, 2012.

Restructuring costs

During the year ended December 31, 2013, we went through a restructuring process to reduce operating costs. and recorded restructuring charges of $0.5 million, pretax, primarily related to senior management severance pay. Severance costs are included as restructuring costs in the consolidated statements of operations. No similar charges were recorded during the year ended December 31, 2012.

Legal settlement charge

During the year ended December 31, 2013, we agreed to settle a wage and hour class action lawsuit in California for $0.75 million, subject to a final binding agreement and approval by the court. The amount was accrued in the second quarter of 2013. The courts granted preliminary approval of the settlement on January 17, 2014, subject to the inclusion of language requiring a five-day cure period for deficient requests for exclusion from class members. On February 6, 2014, the parties amended the settlement agreement to include such language. A hearing for final approval of the settlement agreement is scheduled for May 16, 2014. See Note 11- Commitments and Contingencies to our consolidated financial statements.

Impairment charges
 
In the year ended December 31, 2013, impairment charges of $6.4 million represent impairment of trade names of $6.2 million related to our physician staffing segment and $0.2 million related to our nurse and allied staffing segment. In the fourth quarter of 2013, pursuant to the he Intangibles - Goodwill and Other Topic of the FASB ASC, we conducted an assessment of the trade names related to our MDA acquisition. Based upon the recent performance of our physician staffing business, we reduced our revenue forecast for this business segment in the fourth quarter. We determined that based on our projected revenue stream, our estimated fair value was less than the carrying amount of the trade names.

Impairment charges of $18.7 million in the year ended December 31, 2012 represents impairment of goodwill related to the nurse and allied staffing segment due to the results of an interim impairment analysis pursuant to the Intangibles – Goodwill and Other Topic of the FASB ASC. We determined that the fair value of our nurse and allied staffing segment was lower than the respective carrying value. The decrease in value was due to slower than expected booking momentum and reduced

33



contribution income in our second quarter of 2012 which lowered the anticipated growth trend used for goodwill impairment testing. Pursuant to the second step of the interim impairment testing we were required to calculate an implied fair value of goodwill based on a hypothetical purchase price allocation. Based on these results, we determined a pre-tax goodwill impairment charge of $18.7 million. See Critical Accounting Principles and Estimates and Note 3 – Goodwill and Other Identifiable Intangible Assets to our consolidated financial statements.
 
Foreign exchange (gain) loss
 
Foreign exchange gains of $0.1 million were realized in both periods ended December 31, 2013, and 2012. Foreign currency gains and losses are realized upon the settlement of cash flows from transactions denominated in currencies other than U.S. dollars.
 
Interest expense
 
Interest expense totaled $0.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2013 and $2.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2012. Lower interest expense was due to lower average borrowings in the year ended December 31, 2013 due to the repayment of borrowings from proceeds of the sale of our clinical research trial services business in February 2013. The effective interest rate on our borrowings was 2.4% and 2.3% for the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively. Interest expense in the year ended December 31, 2012 included debt financing costs of $0.3 million that were not capitalized.
 
Loss on early extinguishment and modification of debt
 
Loss on early extinguishment and modification of debt was $1.4 million in the year ended December 31, 2013 and related to the write off of unamortized debt issuance costs related to our prior credit agreement.  See Note 8- Long-term Debt, to our consolidated financial statements for more information. During the year ended December 31, 2012, loss on early extinguishment or modification of debt was $0.1 million and related to a change in lenders' participations and modification of the then existing July 2012 Credit Agreement.

Other expense (income), net
 
Other expense (income), net includes interest income on our cash and cash equivalents and short and long-term cash investments, and other income and expense. During the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011, other expense (income), net is primarily interest income from our cash investments.
 
Income tax expense (benefit)
 
Income tax expense totaled $44.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2013, as compared to an income tax benefit of $6.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2012. The income tax expense in the year ended December 31, 2013 included a $48.6 million valuation allowance on the Company's deferred tax assets. See Note 12 - Income Taxes. Excluding the expense related to this valuation allowance, the effective tax rate was 43.3% in the year ended December 31, 2013, compared to 22.9% in the year ended December 31, 2012. The greater effective tax rate in the year ended December 31, 2013 was partly due to a benefit from the reversal of taxes accrued on our foreign earnings and effect of book tax differences on the tax benefit relating to our stock compensation plans. The lower effective tax rate in the year ended December 31, 2012 was partly due to an adjustment of $2.5 million to income tax expense in the fourth quarter of 2012 related to the reversal of the Company’s permanent reinvestment of foreign earnings position and the effect of losses due to impairment charges incurred in 2012. Excluding the adjustment relating to the foreign earning position, the effective tax rate was 32.2% in the year ended December 31, 2012. 

Income (loss) from discontinued operations, net of income taxes
 
Our clinical trial services business segment was reclassified as discontinued in our fourth quarter of 2012. Income from discontinued operations, net of tax of $2.3 million included a $4.0 million gain ($1.7 million net of taxes) on the sale of our clinical trial services business in the year ended December 31, 2013.

Loss from discontinued operations in the year ended December 31, 2012 includes total impairment charges of $35.4 million ($24.2 million, net of income taxes) related to goodwill and other intangible assets.  Excluding the impairment charges, the clinical trial service business had income from operations before income taxes of $4.5 million in the year ended December 31, 2012 compared to $4.6 million in the year ended December 31, 2011.  See Note 4 - Goodwill and Identifiable Intangible Asset and Note 3– Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations.

34





Comparison of Results for the Year Ended December 31, 2012 compared to the Year Ended December 31, 2011
 
Revenue from services
 
Revenue from services increased $3.3 million, or 0.7%, to $442.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2012, as compared to $439.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2011. The increase was due to higher revenue from our physician staffing segment offset by decreases in revenue from our nurse and allied staffing and other human capital management services business segments.
 
Nurse and allied staffing
 
Revenue from our nurse and allied staffing business segment decreased $1.0 million, or 0.4%, to $277.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2012, from $278.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2011, primarily due to lower staffing volume, partially offset by slightly higher average bill rates.
 
The average number of nurse and allied staffing FTEs on contract during the year ended December 31, 2012, decreased 1.1% from the year ended December 31, 2011. Average nurse and allied staffing revenue per FTE increased approximately 0.3% in the year ended December 31, 2012 compared to the year ended December 31, 2011, reflecting an increase in hours provided by our healthcare professionals.
 
Physician staffing
 
Revenue from our physician staffing business increased $4.8 million, or 4.0% to $123.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2012, compared to $118.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2011. The revenue increase reflects higher bill rates. Physician staffing days filled decreased 0.5% to 85,001 in the year ended December 31, 2012, compared to 85,416 in the year ended December 31, 2011. Revenue per day filled for the year ended December 31, 2012 was $1,453, a 4.5% increase from the year ended December 31, 2011, reflecting a favorable change in the mix of specialties.
  
Other human capital management services
 
Revenue from other human capital management services for the year ended December 31, 2012, decreased $0.5 million, or 1.1%, to $41.3 million from $41.8 million in the year ended December 31, 2011, due to a decrease in revenue from our education and training business, primarily as a result of lower average seminar attendance. Revenue from our retained search business increased reflecting an increase in demand that was more than offset by the decline in our education and training business.
 
Direct operating expenses
 
Direct operating expenses are comprised primarily of field employee compensation and independent contractor expenses, housing expenses, travel expenses and field insurance expenses. Direct operating expenses increased $11.1 million, or 3.5%, to $331.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2012, as compared to $320.0 million for year ended December 31, 2011.
 
As a percentage of total revenue, direct operating expenses represented 74.8% of revenue for the year ended December 31, 2012, and 72.8% for the year ended December 31, 2011. The increase was primarily due to higher field compensation and independent contractor expenses as a percentage of revenue combined with higher insurance expenses for our field staff.
 
Selling, general and administrative expenses
 
Selling, general and administrative expenses increased $4.9 million, or 4.7%, to $109.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2012, as compared to $104.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2011. As a percentage of total revenue, selling, general and administrative expenses were 24.7% and 23.8% for the years ended December 31, 2012 and 2011, respectively. The increase is primarily due to an increase in state non-income tax expenses, investments in our nurse and allied staffing selling capacity and higher unallocated corporate overhead. Selling, general and administrative expenses for the year ended December 31, 2012 included $1.0 million of estimated state non-income taxes ($0.3 million related to our estimates for the 2005-2011 tax years as discussed in Note 10 - Commitments and Contingencies to our consolidated financial statements) and $0.7 million expense for an immaterial correction in calculating deferred rent which primarily accumulated from 2002 to 2010.

35



 
Included in selling, general and administrative expenses is unallocated corporate overhead of $22.6 million for year ended December 31, 2012, compared to $20.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2011. This increase in unallocated corporate overhead was primarily due to an increase in consulting and accounting fees.  Included in unallocated corporate overhead are $2.6 million and $2.9 million of share-based compensation expenses for the years ended December 31, 2012 and 2011, respectively. As a percentage of consolidated revenue, unallocated corporate overhead was 5.1% for the year ended December 31, 2012, and 4.6% for the year ended December 31, 2011.
 
Bad debt expense
 
Bad debt expense as a percentage of total revenue was 0.2%, or $0.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2012. Bad debt expense as a percentage of total revenue was 0.1%, or $0.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2011. The calculation and methodology remain consistent.
 
Contribution income
 
Contribution income from our nurse and allied staffing segment for the year ended December 31, 2012, decreased $6.9 million or 34.2%, to $11.4 million from $20.1 million in year ended December 31, 2011. As a percentage of nurse and allied staffing revenue, segment contribution income was 4.1% for the year ended December 31, 2012, and 7.2% for the year ended December 31, 2011. This decrease was due to a combination of higher field insurance expenses, a decrease in our bill pay spread due to changes in geographic mix, and higher selling, general and administrative expenses. The higher selling, general and administrative expenses were primarily due to investments we made in 2011 to our infrastructure to support anticipated revenue growth, particularly from new MSP accounts, that was slower than expected throughout the second half of 2012.
 
Contribution income from our physician staffing segment for the year ended December 31, 2012, decreased $0.7 million or 5.9% to $10.7 million compared to $11.3 million in the year ended December 31, 2011. As a percentage of physician staffing revenue, contribution income was 8.6% for the year ended December 31, 2012 and 9.5% for the year ended December 31, 2011. The margin decline was due to higher physician provider fees and professional liability expenses, partially offset by favorable operating leverage.
  
Contribution income from other human capital management services for the year ended December 31, 2012, decreased by $1.2 million, or 38.7%, to $1.9 million, from $3.2 million in the year ended December 31, 2011 due to a decrease in contribution income from the education and training business, partially offset by an increase in contribution income from our retained search business. Contribution income as a percentage of other human capital management services revenue was 4.7% for the year ended December 31, 2012 and 7.6% for the year ended December 31, 2011. Lower seminar attendance and higher program costs in our education and training business were partially offset by revenue and operating improvements in our retained search business.
 
Depreciation and amortization expense
 
Depreciation and amortization expense in the year ended December 31, 2012, totaled $7.2 million as compared to $8.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2011. As a percentage of revenue, depreciation and amortization expense was 1.6% for the year ended December 31, 2012 and 1.9% for the year ended December 31, 2011.
 
Impairment charges
 
Impairment charges of $18.7 million in the year ended December 31, 2012 represents impairment of goodwill related to the nurse and allied staffing segment due to the results of an interim impairment analysis pursuant to the Intangibles - Goodwill and Other Topic of the FASB ASC. We determined that the fair value of our nurse and allied staffing segment was lower than the respective carrying value. The decrease in value was due to slower than expected booking momentum and reduced contribution income in our second quarter of 2012 which lowered the anticipated growth trend used for goodwill impairment testing. Pursuant to the second step of the interim impairment testing we were required to calculate an implied fair value of goodwill based on a hypothetical purchase price allocation. Based on these results, we determined a pre-tax goodwill impairment charge of $18.7 million. See Critical Accounting Principles and Estimates and Note 3 - Goodwill and Other Identifiable Intangible Assets to our consolidated financial statements.
 

36



Foreign exchange (gain) loss
 
Foreign exchange gains of $0.1 million were realized in the period ended December 31, 2012, compared to $0.3 million of losses realized in the year ended December 31, 2011. Foreign currency gains and losses are realized upon the settlement of cash flows from transactions denominated in different currencies.
 
Interest expense
 
Interest expense totaled $2.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2012 and $2.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2011. Interest expense in the year ended December 31, 2012 included debt financing costs of $0.3 million that were not capitalized. Lower interest expense was due to lower average borrowings in the year ended December 31, 2012. The effective interest rate on our borrowings was 2.3% for the years ended December 31, 2012 and 2011.
 
Other expense (income), net
 
Other expense (income), net includes interest income on our cash and cash equivalents and short and long-term cash investments, and other income and expense. During the year ended December 31, 2012 and 2011, other expense (income), net is primarily interest income.
 
Income tax (benefit) expense
 
Income tax benefit totaled $6.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2012, as compared to an income tax expense of $2.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2011.  The effective tax rate was 22.9% in the year ended December 31, 2012, compared to 57.2% in the year ended December 31, 2011.  The lower effective tax rate in the year ended December 31, 2012 was partly due to an adjustment of $2.5 million to income tax expense in the fourth quarter of 2012 related to the reversal of the Company’s permanent reinvestment of foreign earnings position and the effect of losses due to impairment charges incurred in 2012.  Excluding the adjustment relating to the foreign earning position, the effective tax rate was 32.2% in the year ended December 31, 2012.  The higher effective tax rate in the year ended December 31, 2011 was partly due to an adjustment of $0.3 million to income tax expense in the fourth quarter of 2011 related to an overstatement of deferred tax assets in prior periods.  Excluding this adjustment, the effective tax rate was 48.9% in the year ended December 31, 2011.

(Loss) income from discontinued operations, net of income taxes
 
(Loss) income from discontinued operations, net of income taxes includes the results from our clinical trial services business segment which was reclassified as discontinued in our fourth quarter of 2012.  The loss from discontinued operations in the year ended December 31, 2012 includes total impairment charges of $35.4 million ($24.2 million, net of income taxes) related to goodwill and other intangible assets.  Excluding the impairment charges, the clinical trial service business had income from operations before income taxes of $4.5 million in the year ended December 31, 2012 compared to $4.6 million in the year ended December 31, 2011.  See Note 4 - Goodwill, Trade Names and Identifiable Intangible Asset and Note 3 - Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations.
 
Transactions with Related Parties
 
We provide services to hospitals which are affiliated with certain Board of Director members. Revenue related to these transactions amounted to approximately $3.9 million, $3.8 million, and $2.1 million in aggregate for the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012, and 2011, respectively. Accounts receivable due from these hospitals at December 31, 2013 and 2012 were approximately $0.4 million and $0.6 million in aggregate, repsectively. Pricing for our services is consistent with our other hospital customers.
 
Liquidity and Capital Resources
 
As of December 31, 2013, we had a current ratio, defined as the amount of current assets divided by current liabilities, of 1.9 to 1.0. Working capital decreased by $27.2 million to $39.0 million as of December 31, 2012, compared to $66.2 million as of December 31, 2011, primarily due to the sale of its clinical trial services business segment classified as as assets held for sale as of December 31, 2012. Days’ sales outstanding decreased by 3 days to 51 days as of December 31, 2013, compared to 54 days at December 31, 2012 (when including the Company's discontinued operations), consistent with historical ranges.
 
Our operating cash flows constitute our primary source of liquidity, and historically, have been sufficient to fund our working capital, capital expenditures, internal business expansion and debt service including our commitments as described in the

37



Commitments table which follows. We believe that our capital resources are sufficient to meet our working capital needs for the next twelve months. We expect to meet our future needs for working capital, capital expenditures, internal business expansion and debt service from a combination of cash on hand, operating cash flows and funds available through the revolving loan portion of our current credit agreement. Our foreign cash balance of $8.6 million is available to us, and if we repatriated the total amount, we would incur $0.2 million of withholding tax, which has been accrued for as of December 31, 2013. We believe the absence of cash flow from discontinued operations will not impact our future liquidity and capital resources. We continue to evaluate acquisition opportunities that may require additional funding.

Credit Agreements
 
Loan Agreement

On January 9, 2013, we terminated our commitments under the July 2012 Credit Agreement (defined below) and entered into a Loan and Security Agreement, (Loan Agreement), by and among us and certain of our domestic subsidiaries, as borrowers, and Bank of America, N.A., as agent.

The Loan Agreement provides for: a three-year senior secured asset-based revolving credit facility in the aggregate principal amount of up to $65.0 million (as described below), which includes a subfacility for swingline loans up to an amount equal to 10% of the aggregate Revolver Commitments, and a $20.0 million subfacility for standby letters of credit.  Swingline loans and letters of credit issued under the Loan Agreement reduce available revolving credit commitments on a dollar-for-dollar basis.  Subject to certain conditions, we are permitted, at any time prior to the maturity date for the revolving credit facility, to increase the total revolving credit commitments in an aggregate principal amount of up to $20.0 million, with additional commitments from Lenders or new commitments from financial institutions, subject to certain conditions as described in the Loan Agreement. Pursuant to the Loan Agreement, the aggregate amount of advances under the Line of Credit (Borrowing Base) cannot exceed the lesser of (a) (i) $65.0 million, or (ii) 85% of eligible billed accounts receivable as defined in the Loan Agreement; plus (b) the lesser of (i) 85% of eligible unbilled accounts receivable and (ii) $12.0 million; minus (c)  reserves as defined by the Loan Agreement, which include one week’s worth of W-2 payroll and fees payable to independent contractors. We had $11.4 million letters of credit outstanding and $8.4 million drawn under our revolving credit, leaving $19.7 million available as of December 31, 2013. The letters of credit relate to our workers' compensation and professional liability policies. See Note 2 - Summary of Significant Accounting Policies.

The initial proceeds from the revolving credit facility were used to finance the repayment of existing indebtedness of the Company under our prior credit agreement and the payment of fees and expenses. The repayment of the term loan portion of our debt outstanding in the first quarter of 2013 was treated as extinguishment of debt, and, as a result, we recognized a loss on extinguishment in the first quarter of 2013, related to the write-off of unamortized net debt issuance costs of approximately $0.3 million. The repayment of the revolver portion of the our debt outstanding in the first quarter of 2013 was treated partially as extinguishment and partially as a modification. The fees related to the modified portion of approximately $0.1 million relate to the continuation of credit provided by Bank of America, N.A. under our Loan Agreement. We wrote-off the remaining unamortized net debt issuance costs of approximately $1.1 million in the first quarter of 2013.

The revolving credit facility will be used to provide ongoing working capital and for other general corporate purposes.  As of December 31, 2013, the interest rate spreads and fees under the Loan Agreement are based on LIBOR plus 1.5% or Base Rate plus 0.50%. The LIBOR and Base Rate margins are subject to performance pricing adjustments, pursuant to a pricing matrix based on the our excess availability under the revolving credit facility, and would increase by 200 basis points if an event of default exists. We are required to pay a monthly commitment fee on the average daily unused portion of the revolving loan facility, which, as of December 31, 2013, was 0.375%.

The Loan Agreement contains customary representations, warranties, and affirmative covenants. The Loan Agreement also contains customary negative covenants; including covenants with respect to, among other things, (i) indebtedness, (ii) liens, (iii) investments, (iv) significant corporate changes, including mergers and acquisitions, (v) dispositions, (vi) dividend, distributions and other restricted payments, (vii) transactions with affiliates and (viii) restrictive agreements.  In addition, if the Company’s excess availability under the revolving credit facility is less than the greater of (i) 12.5% of the Loan Cap, as defined, and (ii) $6,250,000, we are required to meet a minimum fixed charge coverage ratio of 1.0, as defined in the Loan Agreement.  The Loan Agreement also contains customary events of default, such as payment defaults, cross-defaults to other material indebtedness, bankruptcy and insolvency, the occurrence of a defined change in control and the failure to observe covenants or conditions under the credit facility documents.


38



Our obligations under the Loan Agreement are guaranteed by our domestic subsidiaries (Subsidiary Guarantors). As collateral security for their obligations under the Loan Agreement and guarantees thereof, we and the Subsidiary Guarantors have granted to Bank of America, N.A., a security interest in substantially all of our tangible and intangible assets.

July 2012 Credit Agreement
 
On July 10, 2012, we entered into a senior secured credit agreement (July 2012 Credit Agreement), by and among us, as borrower, a syndicate of lenders, Wells Fargo Bank, National Association, as administrative agent, swingline lender and issuing lender, Bank of America, N.A., as syndication agent, and U.S. Bank National Association, as documentation agent. The July 2012 Credit Agreement provided for: (i) a five-year senior secured term loan facility in the aggregate principal amount of $25.0 million, and (ii) a five-year senior secured revolving credit facility in the aggregate principal amount of up to $50.0 million, which includes a $10.0 million subfacility for swingline loans, and a $20.0 million subfacility for standby letters of credit.

Upon closing of the July 2012 Credit Agreement, we borrowed $25.0 million under the term loan and $11.0 million from the revolving credit facility. The proceeds were used to repay the indebtedness on our prior credit agreement and for the payment of fees and expenses. During 2012, $1.0 million of financing fees were deferred and included in debt issuance costs on the accompanying consolidated balance sheets. The deferred costs related to the revolving credit facility were being amortized on a straight-line basis, and the deferred costs related to the term loan facility were being amortized using the effective interest method, both over the life of the July 2012 Credit Agreement. In addition, $0.3 million of third party debt financing costs relating to the July 2012 Credit Agreement were expensed as incurred as required by the Debt Topic of the FASB ASC, and included in interest expense on the consolidated statements of operations.
 
The revolving credit facility was used to provide ongoing working capital and for other general corporate purposes of the Company and its subsidiaries. Through December 31, 2012, interest on the term loan and revolving credit portion of the July 2012 Credit Agreement was based on LIBOR plus a margin of 2.50% or Base Rate (as defined by the July 2012 Credit Agreement) plus a margin of 1.50%. In addition, we were required to pay a quarterly commitment fee on our average daily unused portion of the revolving loan facility of 0.50%.

Modification of July 2012 Credit Agreement

On September 28, 2012, we entered into a First Modification Agreement with the lenders of our July 2012 Credit Agreement, which, for the third quarter ending September 30, 2012, modified the maximum consolidated total leverage ratio to 2.75 to 1.00 and modified the minimum consolidated fixed charge coverage ratio to 1.25 to 1.00. In addition, the aggregate amount of new revolving credit loans and swingline loans made under the credit agreement could not exceed $3.0 million (above the $10.0 million outstanding) at any time, and new Letters of Credit issued on behalf of us couldn't exceed $1.0 million (above the $12.4 million outstanding), during the period commencing on September 28, 2012 and ending upon the delivery of the Officer’s Compliance Certificate to the administrative agent for the fiscal year ending December 31, 2012 (which would have occurred in March 2013). Further, during this modification period, we were also prohibited from making investments and purchasing, redeeming, retiring or otherwise acquiring any shares of its capital stock as otherwise permitted under the credit agreement. Due to our change in lenders’ participations as a result of the July 2012 Credit Agreement and subsequent modification agreement, the Company wrote off debt issuance costs of approximately $82,000 as loss on modification of debt on the accompanying consolidated statements of operations for the year ended December 31, 2012.

Stock Repurchase Programs
 
In February 2008, our Board of Directors authorized our most recent stock repurchase program whereby we may purchase up to 1.5 million shares of our common stock, subject to the terms of our credit agreement. The shares may be repurchased from time-to-time in the open market and the repurchase program may be discontinued at any time at our discretion.

During the year ended December 31, 2012, we repurchased under this program, 71,653 shares of our common stock at an average price of $5.22 per share. The cost of such purchases was approximately $0.4 million. All of the common stock was retired. During the year ended December 31, 2011, we repurchased under this program, 427,043 shares of our common stock at an average price of $5.23 per share. The cost of such purchases was approximately $2.2 million. All of the common stock was retired. During year ended December 31, 2010, we did not repurchase shares.
 
At December 31, 2013, we had 942,443 shares of common stock left remaining to repurchase under our February 2008 authorization, subject to the limitations of the Loan Agreement. Subject to certain conditions as described in its Loan

39



Agreement entered into on January 9, 2013, the Company may repurchase up to an aggregate amount of $5.0 million of its Equity Interests. See Note 8- Long-term Debt for further information. 
 
Cash Flow Comparisons
 
Year Ended December 31, 2013 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2012
 
Net cash provided by operating activities during the year ended December 31, 2013 was $8.7 million compared to $10.1 million during the year ended December 31, 2012. During the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012, net cash provided by operating activities included $0.4 million and $3.8 million, respectively, of cash provided by discontinued operations. The decrease in cash flow from operations is primarily due to timing of payments and receipts in the year ended December 31, 2013. Cash flow from operations in the year ended December 31, 2013 was reduced somewhat due to the acquisition in early December of On Assignment's Allied Healthcare Staffing division, as the Company did not buy their receivables.

Investing activities provided a net of $15.2 million in the year ended December 31, 2013 compared to $0.2 million used in the year ended December 31, 2012. During the year ended December 31, 2013, we sold the clinical trial service business for net proceeds of $45.7 million. In addition, we used $28.7 million during the year ended December 31, 2013 to acquire the Allied Health business of On Assignment. We used $1.8 million and $2.2 million, respectively for capital expenditures during the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012. In addition, other investing activities provided $2.7 million in year ended December 31, 2012 related to the liquidation of our foreign long-term and short-term cash investments.
 
Net cash used in financing activities during the year ended December 31, 2013, was $26.1 million, compared to $10.6 million during the year ended December 31, 2012. We repaid total debt, net of borrowings, in the amounts of $25.3 million and $8.7 million during the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively. During the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012, we paid $0.5 million and $1.4 million, respectively, for debt issuance costs related our refinancing. We used $0.3 million and $0.2 million to repurchase shares of common stock to cover withholding liabilities related to the vesting of restricted stock in 2013 and 2012, respectively.

Year Ended December 31, 2012 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2011
 
Net cash provided by operating activities during the year ended December 31, 2012 was $10.1 million compared to $18.3 million during the year ended December 31, 2011. Net cash flow provided by operating activities during the year ended December 31, 2012 and 2011 included $3.8 million, and $6.0 million, respectively, of cash provided by discontinued operations. The decrease in cash flow from operations is primarily due to lower profitability and timing of income tax payments and receipts in year ended December 31, 2012.  During the year ended December 31 2011, we received $4.8 million in income tax refunds, primarily due to the utilization of a net operating loss carryback.
 
Investing activities provided $0.2 million in the year ended December 31, 2012 compared to $4.2 million used in the year ended December 31, 2011. We used $2.2 million and $4.0 million, respectively for capital expenditures during the years ended December 31, 2012 and 2011. In addition, other investing activities provided $2.7 million in year ended December 31, 2012 related to the liquidation of our foreign long-term and short-term cash investments. Other investing activities used $0.2 million during the year ended December 31, 2011. Other investing activities reflect our investments in short and long term cash investments that are highly liquid with underlying maturities greater than 90 days, the balance of which was $0 as of December 31, 2012.
 
Net cash used in financing activities during the year ended December 31, 2012, was $10.6 million, compared to $14.2 million during the year ended December 31, 2011. We repaid total debt, net of borrowings, in the amounts of $8.7 million and $11.8 million during the years ended December 31, 2012 and 2011, respectively, primarily using cash flow from operations. We used $0.2 million to repurchase shares of common stock to cover withholding liabilities related to the vesting of restricted stock in 2012 and 2011. During the year ended December 31, 2012, we paid $1.4 million related to debt issuance costs related to debt refinancing.
 

40



Commitments and Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
 
We did not have any off-balance sheet arrangements.
 
The following table reflects our contractual obligations and other commitments as of December 31, 2013:
 
Commitments
Total
 
2014
 
2015
 
2016
 
2017
 
2018
 
Thereafter
 
(Unaudited, amounts in thousands)
Asset-based revolving credit facility (a)
$
8,400

 
$
8,400

 
$

 
$

 
$

 
$

 
$

Capital lease obligations
176

 
83

 
65

 
28

 

 

 

Operating leases obligations (b)
19,065

 
4,267

 
3,915

 
3,958

 
3,017

 
1,305

 
2,603

 
$
27,641

 
$
12,750

 
$
3,980

 
$
3,986

 
$
3,017

 
$
1,305

 
$
2,603

_______________
(a)
Under our credit facility, we are required to comply with certain financial covenants. Our inability to comply with the required covenants or other provisions could result in default under our credit facility. In the event of any such default and our inability to obtain a waiver of the default, all amounts outstanding under the credit facility could be declared immediately due and payable.
(b)
Represents future minimum lease payments associated with operating lease agreements with original terms of more than one year.

In addition to the above disclosed contractual obligations, we have accrued uncertain tax positions, pursuant to the Income Taxes Topic of the FASB ASC of $5.0 million at December 31, 2013. Based on the uncertainties associated with the settlement of these items, we are unable to make reasonably reliable estimates of the period of potential settlements, if any, with the taxing authorities.

Critical Accounting Principles and Estimates
 
We have identified the following critical accounting policies that affect the more significant judgments and estimates used in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements. The preparation of our consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect our reported amounts of assets and liabilities, revenues and expenses, and related disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities. We evaluate our estimates on an on-going basis, including those related to asset impairment, accruals for self-insurance, allowance for doubtful accounts, taxes and other contingencies and litigation. We state our accounting policies in the notes to the audited consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2013, contained herein. These estimates are based on information that is currently available to us and on various assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results could vary from those estimates under different assumptions or conditions.
 
We believe that the following critical accounting policies affect the more significant judgments and estimates used in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements:

1)
Our business acquisitions typically result in the recording of goodwill and other intangible assets, and the recorded values of those assets may become impaired in the future. The determination of the value of such intangible assets requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect our consolidated financial statements. For intangible assets purchased in a business combination, the estimated fair values of the assets received are used to establish their recorded values. In accordance with the Intangibles – Goodwill and Other Topic of the FASB ASC and the Property, Plant and Equipment/Impairment of Disposal of Long-Lived Assets Topic of the FASB ASC, we perform annual impairment analysis to assess the recoverability of the goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets.

We assess the impairment of goodwill of our reporting units and indefinite-lived intangible assets annually, or more often if events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable. We may first assess qualitative factors to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. If, after assessing the totality of events and circumstances, we determine that it is more likely than not that the fair value of the reporting unit is greater than its carrying amount, the quantitative impairment test is unnecessary. If the reporting unit does not pass the qualitative assessment, then the reporting unit’s carrying

41



value is compared to its fair value. The fair values of the reporting units are estimated using market and discounted cash flow approaches. Goodwill is considered impaired if the carrying value of the reporting unit exceeds its fair value. Application of the goodwill impairment test requires judgment, including the identification of reporting units, assignment of assets and liabilities to reporting units, assignment of goodwill to reporting units, and determination of the fair value of each reporting unit. Valuation techniques consistent with the market approach and income approach are used to measure the fair value of each reporting unit. Significant judgments are required to estimate the fair value of reporting units including estimating future cash flows, and determining appropriate discount rates, growth rates, company control premium and other assumptions. Changes in these estimates and assumptions could materially affect the determination of fair value for each reporting unit.

Second quarter 2012 goodwill interim impairment testing results

During the second quarter of 2012, our stock price continued to decline from December 31, 2011. In addition, slower than expected booking momentum and reduced contribution income in our nurse and allied staffing segment resulted in a downward revision to this segment’s forecast. Additionally, we were closely monitoring the performance of the clinical trial services and physician staffing businesses due to a small margin between the carrying amount and fair value of those respective reporting units as of the December 31, 2011 annual impairment testing and the small margin between the carrying amount and fair value of the nurse and allied staffing reporting unit as of the March 31, 2012 interim impairment testing. These factors warranted impairment testing in the second quarter of 2012.

As a result of the June 30, 2012 interim impairment testing, we determined that the fair value of the nurse and allied staffing segment was lower than the respective carrying value. The decrease in value was due to slower than expected booking momentum and reduced contribution income in the second quarter of 2012 which lowered the anticipated growth trend used for goodwill impairment testing.  Pursuant to the second step of the interim impairment testing we were required to calculate an implied fair value of goodwill based on a hypothetical purchase price allocation. Based on these results, we wrote off the remaining goodwill which resulted in a pre-tax goodwill impairment charge of $18.7 million as of June 30, 2012. 

Third quarter 2012 goodwill interim impairment testing results

During the third quarter of 2012, we continued to experience a sustained decrease in stock price compared to December 31, 2011. We continued to monitor the performance of the clinical trial services and physician staffing businesses due to the thin margin between the carrying amount and fair value as of the December 31, 2011 annual impairment testing and subsequent interim impairment tests.

Upon completion of the third quarter 2012 interim impairment testing, we determined that the estimated fair value of our reporting units, with the exception of clinical trial services (see Note 3 – Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations), exceeded their respective carrying values.

Fourth quarters 2013, 2012, and 2011 annual goodwill impairment testing results

During the fourth quarters of 2013, 2012, and 2011, the Company determined that no goodwill impairment charges were warranted.

There can be no assurance that the estimates and assumptions made for purposes of the annual goodwill impairment test will prove to be accurate predictions of the future. Although management believes the assumptions and estimates made are reasonable and appropriate, different assumptions and estimates could materially impact the reported financial results.

In addition, the Property, Plant and Equipment/Impairment of Disposal of Long-Lived Assets Topic of the FASB ASC, requires us to test the recoverability of long-lived assets, including identifiable intangible assets with definite lives, whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. In testing for potential impairment, if the carrying value of the asset group exceeds the expected undiscounted cash flows, we must then determine the amount by which the fair value of those assets exceeds the carrying value and determine the amount of impairment, if any.


42



Fourth quarter 2013 other indefinite lived intangibles
 
In the fourth quarter of 2013, in conjunction with our annual testing of indefinite-lived intangible assets not subject to amortization, we recorded a pre-tax non-cash impairment charge of approximately $6.4 million of which $6.2 million related to the physician staffing segment and $0.2 million related to the nurse and allied staffing segment. We reduced our long term revenue forecast in our fourth quarter for these businesses and as a result, our calculation of estimated fair value was less than the carrying amount of the trade names, resulting in an impairment charge.

As of December 31, 2013, other indefinite-lived intangible assets not subject to amortization on our consolidated balance sheets totaled $42.3 million.

Goodwill and other identifiable intangible assets related to discontinued operations

We used a consistent income approach and market approach to evaluate the potential impairment of goodwill related to the clinical trial services staffing reporting unit. Discounted cash flows served as the primary basis for the income approach. Pricing multiples derived from publicly-traded guideline companies that are comparable served as the basis for the market approach. Pursuant to the second step of our third quarter interim impairment testing, we were required to calculate an implied fair value of goodwill based on a hypothetical purchase price allocation. As of the date of its third quarter filing, we had not finalized its second step of impairment testing due to the limited time period from the first indication of potential impairment to the date of filing and the complexities involved in estimating the fair value. We recorded a pre-tax goodwill impairment charge of approximately $22.1 million as of September 30, 2012.  This impairment analysis was finalized in the fourth quarter and did not result in any adjustment.  In addition, in the fourth quarter of 2012, in conjunction with our evaluation of our assets held for sale, an additional impairment charge was recorded of approximately $11.9 million. The Company considered the sale price from the buyer as its best indication of fair value as of December 31, 2012 (See Note 3 - Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations).

Risk and uncertainties
 
The calculation of fair value used in these impairment assessments included a number of estimates and assumptions that required significant judgments, including projections of future income and cash flows, the identification of appropriate market multiples and the choice of an appropriate discount rate. Changes in these assumptions could materially affect the determination of fair value for each reporting unit. Specifically, further deterioration of demand for our services, further deterioration of labor market conditions, reduction of our stock price for an extended period, or other factors as described in Item 1.A. Risk Factors, may affect our determination of fair value of each reporting unit. This evaluation can also be triggered by various indicators of impairment which could cause the estimated discounted cash flows to be less than the carrying amount of net assets. If we are required to record an impairment charge in the future, it could have an adverse impact on our results of operations. Under the current credit agreement an impairment charge will not have an impact on our liquidity. As of December 31, 2013, we had total goodwill and intangible assets not subject to amortization of $119.6 million.

2)
We maintain accruals for our health, workers’ compensation and professional liability claims that are partially self-insured and are classified as accrued compensation and benefits on our consolidated balance sheets. We determine the adequacy of these accruals by periodically evaluating our historical experience and trends related to health, workers’ compensation and professional liability claims and payments, based on actuarial models, as well as industry experience and trends. If such models indicate that our accruals are overstated or understated, we will reduce or provide for additional accruals as appropriate. Healthcare insurance accruals have fluctuated with increases or decreases in the average number of temporary healthcare professionals on assignment as well as actual company experience and increases in national healthcare costs. As of December 31, 2013 and 2012, we had $1.4 million and $2.0 million accrued, respectively, for incurred but not reported health insurance claims. Corporate and field employees are covered through a partially self-insured health plan. Workers’ compensation insurance accruals can fluctuate over time due to the number of employees and inflation, as well as additional exposures arising from the current policy year. As of December 31, 2013, we had $2.8 million accrued for case reserves and for incurred but not reported workers’ compensation claims, net of insurance receivables, a decrease of $0.6 million over the amount accrued at December 31, 2012. The accrual for workers’ compensation is based on an actuarial model which is prepared or reviewed by an independent actuary. As of December 31, 2013, and 2012, we had $7.9 million and $8.9 million accrued, respectively, for case reserves and for incurred but not reported professional liability claims, net of insurance receivables. The accrual for professional liability is based on an actuarial models which are prepared or reviewed by an independent actuary annually.

43




3)
We maintain an allowance for doubtful accounts for estimated losses resulting from the inability of our customers to make required payments, which results in a provision for bad debt expense. We determine the adequacy of this allowance by continually evaluating individual customer receivables, considering the customer’s financial condition, credit history and current economic conditions. If the financial condition of our customers were to deteriorate, resulting in an impairment of their ability to make payments, additional allowances may be required. We write off specific accounts based on an ongoing review of collectability as well as our past experience with the customer. Historically, losses on uncollectible accounts have not exceeded our allowances. As of December 31, 2013, our allowance for doubtful accounts was $1.7 million.

4)
We are subject to various claims and legal actions in the ordinary course of our business. Some of these matters include professional liability and employee-related matters. Our healthcare facility clients may also become subject to claims, governmental inquiries and investigations and legal actions to which we may become a party relating to services provided by our professionals. From time to time, and depending upon the particular facts and circumstances, we may be subject to indemnification obligations under our contracts with our healthcare facility clients relating to these matters. Material pending legal proceedings brought against us, if any, other than ordinary routine litigation incidental to the business are described in Legal Proceedings.

5)
We account for income taxes in accordance with the Income Taxes Topic of the FASB ASC. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases and operating loss and other loss carryforwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. As of December 31, 2013, we have deferred tax assets related to certain federal, state and foreign net operating loss carryforwards of $32.3 million. The state carryforwards will expire between 2013 and 2032. The federal carryforwards expire between 2030 and 2032. The majority of the foreign carryforwards are in a jurisdiction with no expiration.

We determine the need for a valuation allowance under Income Taxes topic of the FASB ASC by assessing the probability of realizing deferred tax assets, taking into consideration all available positive and negative evidence, including historical operating results, expectations of future taxable income, carryforward periods available to us for tax reporting purposes, the evaluation of various income tax planning strategies and other relevant factors. We maintain a valuation allowance when it is more likely than not that all or a portion of a deferred tax asset will not be realized based on consideration of all available evidence. Adjustments to the deferred tax valuation allowances are made to earnings in the period when such assessments are made. Significant judgment is required in making this assessment and to the extent future expectations change, we would have to assess the recoverability of our deferred tax assets at that time. Our cumulative loss position was significant negative evidence in assessing the need for a valuation allowance. As of December 31, 2013, we determined that we could not sustain a conclusion that it was more likely than not that we would realize any of our deferred tax assets resulting from recent losses, because of the cumulative loss, the difficulty of forecasting future taxable income, and other factors. We intend to maintain a valuation allowance until sufficient positive evidence exists to support its reversal. As of December 31, 2013 and 2012, the Company recorded valuation allowances of $52.0 million and $4.0 million, respectively. The December 31, 2013 valuation allowance applied to all our deferred tax assets. The December 31, 2012 valuation allowance was based only upon the uncertainty of the realization of a particular subsidiary’s state portion of its deferred tax asset that arose from the goodwill impairment.

We are subject to income taxes in the United States and certain foreign jurisdictions. Significant judgment is required in determining our consolidated provision for income taxes and recording the related deferred tax assets and liabilities. In the ordinary course of our business, there are many transactions and calculations where the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. Accruals for unrecognized tax benefits are provided for in accordance with the Income Taxes Topic of the FASB ASC. An unrecognized tax benefit represents the difference between the recognition of benefits related to exposure items for income tax reporting purposes and financial reporting purposes. The current portion of the unrecognized tax benefit is classified as a component of other current liabilities, and the non-current portion is included within other long-term liabilities on the consolidated balance sheets. As of December 31, 2013, total unrecognized tax benefits recorded was $5.0 million. We have a reserve for interest and penalties on exposure items, if applicable, which is recorded as a component of the overall income tax provision. We are regularly under audit by tax authorities. Although the outcome of tax audits is always uncertain, we believe that we have appropriate support for the positions taken on our tax returns and that our annual tax provision includes amounts sufficient to pay any assessments. Nonetheless, the amounts ultimately paid, if any, upon resolution of the issues raised by the taxing authorities may differ materially from the amounts accrued for each year.

44




6)
Our sales and other non-income tax filings are subject to routine audits by authorities in the jurisdictions where we conduct business, which may result in assessments of additional taxes. As a result of a state administrative ruling, we determined that additional sales and non-income taxes were probable of being assessed for certain states. The total amount accrued is based on our best estimate of our probable liability and is based on current available information and interpretation of relevant tax regulations.
 
In the fourth quarter of 2011, we estimated an incremental sales and non-income tax liability, included in selling, general and administrative expenses, of approximately $0.5 million pretax. Approximately $0.4 million of the estimated liability relates to 2008-2010 tax years. Given the nature of our business, significant subjectivity exists as to both whether sales and other non-income tax can be assessed on the activity and how the sales tax will ultimately be measured by the relevant jurisdictions. We make a determination each reporting period whether the estimates for sales and other non-income taxes in certain states should be revised.
 
During the year ended December 31, 2012, based on revised estimates of probable settlement, an expected state non-income tax audit assessment, and additional estimates for current year activity, we accrued an additional pretax liability related to these non-income tax matters of approximately $1.0 million, of which $0.3 million related to the 2005-2011 tax years. During the year ended December 31, 2013, based on revised estimates and current year activity, we accrued an additional $0.8 million and paid $0.3 million to settle these matters.The expense is included in selling, general and administrative expenses on our consolidated statements of operations and the liability is reflected in other current liabilities on our consolidated balance sheets. We are working with professional tax advisors and state authorities to resolve these matters.
 
Recent Accounting Pronouncements

In July 2013, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update 2013-11, Income Taxes - Presentation of an Unrecognized Tax Benefit When a Net Operating Loss Carry forward, a Similar Tax Loss, or a Tax Credit Carry forwards Exists (ASU 2013-11). ASU 2013-11 requires entities to present the unrecognized tax benefits in the financial statements as a liability and not combine it with deferred tax assets to the extent a net operating loss carry-forward, a similar tax loss, or a tax credit carry-forward is not available at the reporting date under the tax law of the applicable jurisdiction to settle any additional income taxes that would result from the disallowance of a tax position or the tax law of the applicable jurisdiction does not require the entity to use, and the entity does not intend to use, the deferred tax asset for such purpose. The assessment of whether a deferred tax asset is available is based on the unrecognized tax benefit and deferred tax asset that exist at the reporting date and should be made presuming disallowance of the tax position at the reporting date. ASU 2013-11 is effective for annual and interim periods for fiscal years beginning on or after December 15, 2013. We do not currently net unrecognized tax benefits with deferred tax assets and therefore we do not expect this ASU to have any impact on the financial statements and disclosures.

Seasonality
 
The number of healthcare professionals on assignment with us is subject to moderate seasonal fluctuations which may impact our quarterly revenue and earnings. Hospital patient census and staffing needs of our hospital and healthcare facilities fluctuate which impact our number of orders for a particular period. Many of our hospital and healthcare facility clients are located in areas that experience seasonal fluctuations in population during the winter and summer months. These facilities adjust their staffing levels to accommodate the change in this seasonal demand and many of these facilities utilize temporary healthcare professionals to satisfy these seasonal staffing needs. Likewise, the number of nurse and allied professionals on assignment may fluctuate due to the seasonal preferences for destinations of our temporary nurse and allied professionals. In addition, we expect our physician staffing business to experience higher demand in the summer months as physicians take vacations. This historical seasonality of revenue and earnings may vary due to a variety of factors and the results of any one quarter are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for any other quarter or for any year. In addition, typically, our first quarter results are negatively impacted by the reset of payroll taxes.
 
Inflation
 
During the last several years, the rate of inflation in healthcare related services has exceeded that of the economy as a whole. Our direct costs are affected by fluctuations in housing costs and healthcare and workers’ compensation insurance. During 2013, our direct costs decreased as a result of lower housing costs. Depending on the demand environment, we may be able to recoup the negative impact of such fluctuations by increasing our billing rates. We may not be able to pass on increases in our direct operating costs to our customers which may adversely affect our profitability.

45



 
Item 7A.
Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk.
 
We have been exposed to interest rate risk associated with our debt instruments which have had interest based on floating rates. Our current and prior credit agreements charge us interest at a rate of, at our option, either: (i) LIBOR plus a leverage-based margin or (ii) Base Rate plus a leverage-based margin. Refer to Liquidity and Capital Resources – Credit Agreement included in Item 7. See Management’s Discussion and Analysis above for further discussion about our asset-based Loan Agreement and our prior credit agreements. A 1% change in interest rates on variable rate debt would have resulted in interest expense fluctuating approximately by an immaterial amount in the year ended December 31, 2013 and $0.4 million in the year ended December 31, 2012.
 
We are exposed to the impact of foreign currency fluctuations. Changes in foreign currency exchange rates impact translations of foreign denominated assets and liabilities into U.S. dollars and future earnings and cash flows from transactions denominated in different currencies. Approximately 2% of selling, general and administrative expenses are related to certain software development and information technology support provided by our employees in Pune, India. We have not entered into any foreign currency hedges.
 
Our international operations transact business in their functional currency. As a result, fluctuations in the value of foreign currencies against the U.S. dollar have an impact on reported results. Expenses denominated in foreign currencies are translated into U.S. dollars at monthly average exchange rates prevailing during the period. Consequently, as the value of the U.S. dollar changes relative to the currencies of our non-U.S. markets, our reported results vary.
 
Fluctuations in exchange rates also impact the U.S. dollar amount of stockholders’ equity. The assets and liabilities of our non-U.S. subsidiaries are translated into U.S. dollars at the exchange rate in effect at the end of a reporting period. The resulting translation adjustments are recorded in stockholders’ equity, as a component of accumulated other comprehensive loss, included in other stockholders’ equity on our consolidated balance sheet.

Item 8.
Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.
 
See Item 15 – Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules of Part IV of this Report.
 
Item 9.
Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure.
 
None.

Item 9A.
Controls and Procedures.
 
Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures

As of the end of the period covered by this report, we carried out an evaluation, under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including our Chief Executive Officer and our Chief Financial Officer, of the effectiveness of the design and operation of our disclosure controls and procedures, as such term is defined under Rule 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. Based on that evaluation, our management, including our Chief Executive Officer and our Chief Financial Officer, has identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting. As a result of this material weakness, management has concluded that, as of the end of the period covered by this Annual Report on Form 10-K, our internal control over financial reporting was not effective.

Changes in Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

The Company acquired On Assignment’s Allied Healthcare Staffing division on December 2, 2013. Due to the timing of the acquisition and as allowed under SEC guidance, management’s assessment of and conclusion regarding the design and effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting excluded the internal control over financial reporting of the acquired business, which is relevant to the Company’s 2013 consolidated financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2013.


46



Management’s Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting (as defined in Rule 13a-15(f) under the Exchange Act). Our internal control system is designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risks that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of the company’s annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. Management assessed the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2013. In making this assessment, management used the criteria set forth by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission, or COSO, in the Internal Control-Integrated Framework (1992 framework). As permitted, our management’s assessment of and conclusion on the effectiveness of our internal controls did not include the internal controls of On Assignment, Inc.’s Allied Healthcare Staffing division, because it was acquired by us during the fourth quarter of 2013. The assets of the acquisition constituted $27.6 million and $26.7 million of total and net assets, respectively, as of December 31, 2013 and $3.4 million and $0.1 million of revenue and net loss, respectively, for the year ended December 31, 2013 as a result of the closing of the acquisition on December 2, 2013. Based on our assessment and those criteria, management has identified the following material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting:

We have determined that there is a material weakness in our controls of non-routine accounting processes. This material weakness did not result in any misstatements of the Company’s annual or interim consolidated financial statements but did result in two auditor initiated adjustments during the 2013 annual audit. As part of the annual testing of goodwill and other intangible assets, the Company relied only on its internal forecast to calculate hypothetical royalty rates to value its trade names and failed to corroborate a change in royalty rate with current arms-length market transactions. Absent such market evidence, the Company reverted to its historical royalty rates for which market support existed and recorded a $6.4 million non-cash trade name impairment charge prior to its fourth quarter press release on earnings. Also during the year-end audit, the Company determined that a valuation allowance was required on its deferred tax assets but miscalculated the amount of the valuation allowance. When calculating the non-cash valuation allowance, the Company incorrectly netted deferred tax liabilities related to indefinite lived intangible assets (such as goodwill) against the deferred tax assets. This resulted in recording an incremental $17.4 million valuation allowance after the fourth quarter press release was issued but prior to filing of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

As a result of this material weakness, management has concluded that, as of the end of the period covered by this Annual Report on Form 10-K, our internal control over financial reporting was not effective. The effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2013, has been audited by Ernst & Young LLP, an independent registered certified public accounting firm, as stated in their attestation report included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Remediation of the Material Weakness in Internal Control over Financial Reporting

To remediate the material weakness, management with the oversight of our Audit Committee is going to design and implement controls around the following:

Increasing its reliance on third party experts for the review of non-routine accounting transactions.
Expanding the Company’s complement of qualified accounting staff and implementing process improvements that permit more effective and efficient management of the accounting and financial reporting processes, including those related to non-routine transactions.

Notwithstanding the identified material weakness, management believes that the consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K fairly represent, in all material respects, our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows at and for the periods presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP.

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
 
We have audited Cross Country Healthcare, Inc.’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2013, based on criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (1992 framework) (the COSO criteria). Cross Country Healthcare, Inc.’s management is responsible for

47



maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting, and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting included in the accompanying Management’s Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audit.

We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audit included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk, and performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.

A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

As indicated in the accompanying Management’s Annual Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting, management’s assessment of and conclusion on the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting did not include the internal controls of On Assignment, Inc.’s Allied Healthcare Staffing division, which is included in the 2013 consolidated financial statements of Cross Country Healthcare, Inc. and constituted $27.6 million and $26.7 million of total and net assets, respectively, as of December 31, 2013 and $3.4 million and $0.1 million of revenues and net loss, respectively, for the year then ended. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting of Cross Country Healthcare, Inc. also did not include an evaluation of the internal control over financial reporting of On Assignment, Inc.’s Allied Healthcare Staffing division.

A material weakness is a deficiency, or combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of the company’s annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. The following material weakness has been identified and included in management’s assessment. Management has identified a material weakness in controls related to the Company’s review of significant non-routine accounting matters as it relates to the fair value estimation of its indefinite-lived intangible assets and the valuation allowance on its deferred tax assets. We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), the consolidated balance sheets of the Company as of December 31, 2013 and 2012 and the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive (loss) income, stockholders’ equity and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2013. This material weakness was considered in determining the nature, timing and extent of audit tests applied in our audit of the 2013 financial statements, and this report does not affect our report dated March 17, 2014, which expressed an unqualified opinion on those financial statements.

In our opinion, because of the effect of the material weakness described above on the achievement of the objectives of the control criteria, the Company has not maintained effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2013, based on the COSO criteria.


 
/s/ Ernst & Young LLP
 
Certified Public Accountants
Boca Raton, Florida
 
March 17, 2014
 


48



Item 9B.
Other Information.
 
None.

PART III
 
Item 10.
Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance.
 
Information with respect to directors, executive officers and corporate governance is included in our Proxy Statement for the 2014 Annual Meeting of Stockholders (Proxy Statement) to be filed pursuant to Regulation 14A with the SEC and such information is incorporated herein by reference.
 
Item 11.
Executive Compensation.
 
Information with respect to executive compensation is included in our Proxy Statement to be filed with the SEC and such information is incorporated herein by reference.
 
Item 12.
Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholders Matters.
 
Information with respect to beneficial ownership of our common stock is included in our Proxy Statement to be filed with the SEC and such information is incorporated herein by reference.
 
With respect to equity compensation plans as of December 31, 2013, see table below:
 
Plan Category
Number of securities to
be issued upon exercise
of outstanding options,
warrants and rights (a)
 
Weighted-average
exercise price of
outstanding options,
warrants and
rights (b)
 
Number of securities
remaining available for
future issuance under
equity compensation
plans (excluding
securities reflected in
column (a)) (c)
Equity compensation plans approved by
   security holders
1,546,299

 
$
8.93

 
789,052

Equity compensation plans not approved by
  security holders
None

 
N/A

 
N/A

Total
1,546,299

 
$
8.93

 
789,052

 
Item 13.
Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence.
 
Information with respect to certain relationships and related transactions, and director independence is included in our Proxy Statement to be filed with the SEC and such information is incorporated herein by reference.
 
Item 14.
Principal Accountant Fees and Services.
 
Information with respect to the fees and services of our principal accountant is included in our Proxy Statement to be filed with the SEC and such information is incorporated herein by reference.


49



PART IV
 
Item 15.
Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules.
 
(a) Documents filed as part of the report.
 
 
(1
)
Consolidated Financial Statements
 

 
 

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
 

 
 

Consolidated Balance Sheets as of December 31, 2013 and 2012
 

 
 

Consolidated Statements of Operations for the Years Ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011
 

 
 

Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive (Loss) Income for the Years Ended December 31, 2013,
   2012 and 2011
 

 
 

Consolidated Statement of Stockholders’ Equity for the Years Ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and
   2011
 

 
 

Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the Years Ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011
 

 
 

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
 

 
(2
)
Financial Statements Schedule
 

 
 

Schedule II – Valuation and Qualifying Accounts for the Years Ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and
   2011
 

 
(3
)
Exhibits
 

 
 

See Exhibit Index immediately following signatures.


50



SIGNATURES
 
Pursuant to the requirements of Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the Registrant has duly caused this Report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized.
 
 
CROSS COUNTRY HEALTHCARE, INC.
 
 
 
 
By:
/s/ William J. Grubbs
 
 
Name: William J. Grubbs
 
 
Title: Chief Executive Officer and President
 
 
Date: March 17, 2014
 
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, this Report has been signed by the following persons in the capacities indicated and on the dates indicated:
 
Signature
 
Title
 
Date
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ William J. Grubbs
 
President, Chief Executive Officer,
 
March 17, 2014
William J. Grubbs
 
Director (Principal Executive Officer)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Emil Hensel
 
Chief Financial Officer
 
March 17, 2014
Emil Hensel
 
(Principal Financial Officer)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Nicholas Buscemi III
 
Chief Accounting Officer and Corporate Controller
 
March 17, 2014
Nicholas Buscemi III
 
(Principal Accounting Officer)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Thomas C. Dircks
 
Director
 
March 17, 2014
Thomas C. Dircks
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ W. Larry Cash
 
Director
 
March 17, 2014
W. Larry Cash
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Richard M. Mastaler
 
Director
 
March 17, 2014
Richard M. Mastaler
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Gale Fitzgerald
 
Director
 
March 17, 2014
Gale Fitzgerald
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Joseph A. Trunfio
 
Director
 
March 17, 2014
Joseph A. Trunfio
 
 
 
 

51



EXHIBIT INDEX
No.
 
Description
3.1
 
Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Registrant (1)
3.2
 
Amended and Restated By-laws of the Registrant 
4.1
 
Form of specimen common stock certificate (1)
4.2
 
Amended and Restated Stockholders Agreement, dated August 23, 2001, among the Registrant, a Delaware corporation, the CEP Investors and the Investors (1)
4.3
 
Registration Rights Agreement, dated as of October 29, 1999, among the Registrant, a Delaware corporation, and the CEP Investors and the MSDWCP Investors (1)
4.4
 
Amendment to the Registration Rights Agreement, dated as of August 23, 2001, among the Registrant, a Delaware corporation, and the CEP Investors and the MSDWCP Investors (1)
4.5
 
Shareholders Agreement, dated as of August 23, 2001, among the Registrant, Joseph Boshart and Emil Hensel and the Financial Investors (1)
10.1
 
Employment Agreement, dated as of June 24, 1999, between Joseph Boshart and the Registrant (1)(6)
10.2
 
Employment Agreement, dated as of June 24, 1999, between Emil Hensel and the Registrant (1)(6)
10.3
 
Employment Agreement, dated as of March 20, 2013, between William J. Grubbs and the Registrant (6)(19)
10.4
 
222 Building Standard Office Lease between Clayton Investors Associates, LLC and Cejka & Company (1)
10.5
 
Cross Country Healthcare, Inc. 2007 Stock Incentive Plan adopted April 5, 2007 (2)(8)
10.6
 
Cross Country, Inc. Deferred Compensation Plan (2)(6)
10.7
 
Restricted Stock Agreement between Company and Joseph A. Boshart (2)(6)
10.8
 
Restricted Stock Agreement between Company and Emil Hensel (2)(6)
10.9
 
Restricted Stock Agreement between Company and Vickie Anenberg (2)(6)
10.10
 
Restricted Stock Agreement between Company and Jonathan Ward (2)(6)
10.11
 
Form of Incentive Stock Option Agreement (3)(6)
10.12
 
First Amendment to Lease Agreement, dated February 24, 2005, between Blevens Family Storage, L.P., and Cross Country Seminars, Inc. (4)
10.13
 
Lease Agreement, dated February 15, 2006, between MedStaff, Inc. and Campus Investors D Building, L.P. (5)
10.14
 
Lease Guaranty Agreement by and between Cross Country Healthcare, Inc. and Campus Investors D Building, L.P. dated February 17, 2006. (5)
10.15
 
Lease Agreement between Cornerstone Opportunity Ventures, LLC and Cejka Search, Inc., dated February 2, 2007 (7)
10.16
 
Lease Agreement between Self Service Mini Storage, L.P. and Cross Country Education, LLC, dated February 2, 2007 (7)
10.17
 
Second Amendment to Lease Agreement by and between Meridian Commercial Properties Limited Partnership and Cross Country Healthcare, Inc., dated February 17, 2007 (7)
10.18
 
Lease Agreement dated as of September 21, 2004, by and between TGS American Realty Limited Partnership and Medical Doctor Associates, Inc. (10)
10.19
 
First Amendment to Lease Agreement dated as of September 1, 2007, by and between Cornerstone Opportunity Ventures, LLC and Cejka Search, Inc. (10)
10.20
 
Employment Agreement, dated as of September 9, 2008, by and between Jim Ginter and StoneCo H, Inc. (6)(12)
10.21
 
Employment Agreement, dated as of September 9, 2008, by and between Mike Pretiger and StoneCo H, Inc. (6)(12)
10.22
 
Employment Agreement, dated as of September 9, 2008, by and between Anne Anderson and StoneCo H, Inc. (6)(12)








52




EXHIBIT INDEX (CONTINUED)

No.
 
Description
10.23
 
Form of Restricted Stock Agreement under Cross Country Healthcare, Inc. 2007 Stock Incentive Plan (6)(11)(12)
10.24
 
Form of Stock Appreciation Rights Agreement under Cross Country Healthcare, Inc. 2007 Stock Incentive Plan (6)(9)(12)
10.25
 
Amended and Restated Executive Severance Policy of Cross Country Healthcare, Inc. dated as of January 1, 2008 (6)(12)
10.26
 
Lease Agreement, dated July 1, 2010, between Goldberg Brothers Real Estate LLC and MCVT, Inc. (13)
10.27
 
Leave and License Agreement dated October 15, 2010 between Cross Country InfoTech, Ltd. And ShriSubhashDattatrayaAngal (14)
10.28
 
Lease Agreement, dated July 18, 2013, between Peachtree II and III, LLC and MDA Holdings, Inc. (21)
10.29
 
Amended and Restated Executive Severance Plan of Cross Country Healthcare, Inc. (15)
10.30
 
First Amendment to Lease Agreement, dated April 22, 2011, between Self Service Mini Storage, L.P. and Cross Country Education, LLC, dated February 2, 2007 (16)
10.31
 
Loan and Security Agreement, dated January 9, 2013, by and among Cross Country Healthcare, Inc. and certain of its subsidiaries, as Borrowers, the Lenders referenced therein, and Bank of America, N.A., as Agent (17)
10.32
 
Stock Purchase Agreement, dated February 2, 2013, by and among ICON Clinical Research, Inc. and ICON Clinical Research UK Limited, as Buyers, and Cross Country Healthcare, Inc., Local Staff, LLC and Cross Country Healthcare UK Holdco Ltd., as Sellers (18)
10.33
 
Lease Agreement, dated March 1, 1999 by and between Medical Doctor Associates, Inc. and ADKS Realty Corporation (10)
10.34
 
Asset Purchase Agreement, dated December 2, 2013, between Local Staff, LLC, as Buyer, Cross Country Healthcare, Inc., as Parent and On Assignment Staffing Services, Inc., Assignment Ready, Inc., and On Assignment, Inc., collectively as Seller. (20)
10.35
 
Amended and restated Stock Incentive Plan of Cross Country Healthcare, Inc. (6)(22)
10.36
 
Registration Statement for registration of additional common stock of Cross Country Healthcare, Inc., dated May 10, 2013 (23)
10.37
 
Employment Agreement, dated March 3, 2014, between William Burns and Cross Country Healthcare (6)*
10.38
 
Transition Agreement, dated March 3, 2014, between Emil Hensel and Cross Country Healthcare (6)*
14.1
 
Code of Ethics (3)
*21.1
 
List of subsidiaries of the Registrant
*23.1
 
Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
*31.1
 
Certification Pursuant to Rule 13a-14(a)/15d-14(a) and pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 by William J. Grubbs, President and Chief Executive Officer
*31.2
 
Certification Pursuant to Rule 13a-14(a)/15d-14(a) and pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 by Emil Hensel, Chief Financial Officer
*32.1
 
Certification Pursuant to 18 U.S.C. Section 1350, as adopted pursuant to Section 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, by William J. Grubbs, Chief Executive Officer
*32.2
 
Certification Pursuant to 18 U.S.C. Section 1350, as adopted pursuant to Section 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, by Emil Hensel, Chief Financial Officer
 
**101.INS
 
XBRL Instance Document
**101.SCH
 
XBRL Taxonomy Extension Schema Document
**101.DEF
 
XBRL Taxonomy Extension Definition Linkbase Document
**101.LAB
 
XBRL Taxonomy Extension Label Linkbase Document
**101.CAL
 
XBRL Taxonomy Extension Calculation Linkbase Document
**101.PRE
 
PRE XBRL Taxonomy Extension Presentation Linkbase Document
________________
*           Filed herewith
**         Furnished herewith

53



 
(1)
Previously filed as an exhibit to the Company’s Registration Statement on Form S-1/A, Commission File No. 333-83450, and incorporated by reference herein.

(2)
Previously filed as exhibits in the Company’s Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2002 and incorporated by reference herein.

(3)
Previously filed as exhibits in the Company’s Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2004 and incorporated by reference herein.

(4)
Previously filed as an exhibit in the Company’s Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2005 and incorporated by reference herein.

(5)
Previously filed as exhibits in the Company’s Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2005 and incorporated by reference herein.

(6)
Management contract or compensatory plan or arrangement.

(7)
Previously filed as exhibits in the Company’s Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2006 and incorporated by reference herein.

(8)
Previously filed as exhibit in the Company’s Form 8-K dated May 15, 2007 and incorporated by reference herein.

(9)
Previously filed as exhibit in the Company’s Form 8-K dated October 15, 2007 and incorporated by reference herein.

(10)
Previously filed as an exhibit in the Company’s Form 10-Q for the quarter ended September 30, 2008 and incorporated by reference herein.

(11)
Previously filed as an exhibit in the Company’s S-8 dated August 15, 2007 and incorporated by reference herein.

(12)
Previously filed as exhibits in the Company’s Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2008 and incorporated by reference herein.

(13)
Previously filed as an exhibit in the Company’s Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2010 and incorporated by reference herein.

(14)
Previously filed as an exhibit in the Company’s Form 10-Q for the quarter ended September 30, 2010 and incorporated by reference herein.

(15)
Previously filed as an exhibit in the Company’s Form 8-K dated May 28, 2010 and incorporated by reference herein.

(16)
Previously filed as an exhibit in the Company’s Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2011 and incorporated by reference herein.

(17)
Previously filed as an exhibit in the Company’s Form 8-K dated January 11, 2013 and incorporated herein by reference.

(18)
Previously filed as an exhibit in the Company’s Form 8-K dated February 5 and incorporated herein by reference.

(19)
Previously filed as an exhibit in the Company’s Form 8-K dated March 22, 2013 and incorporated herein by reference.

(20)
Previously filed as an exhibit in the Company’s Form 8-K dated December 3, 2013 and incorporated herein by reference.

(21)
Previously filed as an exhibit in the Company’s Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2013 and incorporated herein by reference.

54




(22)
Previously filed in the Company’s Form DEF14A on March 22, 2013 and incorporated herein by reference.

(23)
Previously filed in the Company’s Form S-8 on May 10, 2013 and incorporated herein by reference.

55



 INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
 
Schedules not filed herewith are either not applicable, the information is not material or the information is set forth in the consolidated financial statements or notes thereto.


F- 1



REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
 
The Board of Directors and Stockholders of Cross Country Healthcare, Inc. and Subsidiaries
 
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Cross Country Healthcare, Inc. as of December 31, 2013 and 2012, and the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive (loss) income, stockholders’ equity and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2013. Our audits also included the financial statement schedule listed in the Index at Item 15(a). These financial statements and schedule are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these financial statements and schedule based on our audits.
 
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement. An audit includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. An audit also includes assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
 
In our opinion, the financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the consolidated financial position of Cross Country Healthcare, Inc. at December 31, 2013 and 2012, and the consolidated results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2013, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. Also, in our opinion, the related financial statement schedule, when considered in relation to the basic financial statements taken as a whole, presents fairly, in all material respects, the information set forth therein.
 
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), Cross Country Healthcare, Inc.’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2013, based on criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (1992 Framework) and our report dated March 17, 2014, expressed an adverse opinion thereon.


 
 
/s/ Ernst & Young LLP
 
Certified Public Accountants
Boca Raton, Florida
 
March 17, 2014
 



F- 2



CROSS COUNTRY HEALTHCARE, INC.
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
 
 
December 31,
 
2013
 
2012
Assets
 
 
 
Current assets:
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
8,054,613

 
$
10,462,692

Accounts receivable, less allowance for doubtful accounts
of $1,650,973 in 2013 and $1,841,136 in 2012
60,750,181

 
62,674,176

Deferred tax assets

 
5,983,483

Income taxes receivable
537,912

 
585,709

Prepaid expenses
6,162,730

 
5,580,473

Insurance recovery receivable
3,886,285

 
5,483,889

Indemnity escrow receivable
3,750,000

 

Assets held for sale

 
46,970,964

Other current assets
793,197

 
1,049,275

Total current assets
83,934,918

 
138,790,661

Property and equipment, net of accumulated depreciation of
$44,778,602 in 2013 and $41,917,771 in 2012
6,170,499

 
8,234,812

Trade Names, net
42,301,331

 
48,701,331

Goodwill
77,265,907

 
62,712,109

Other identifiable intangible assets, net
26,197,905

 
14,491,982

Debt issuance costs, net of accumulated amortization of $221,588 in 2013 and $3,594,511 in 2012
463,594

 
1,609,954

Non-current deferred tax assets

 
22,760,052

Non-current insurance recovery receivable
10,913,527

 
8,210,139

Non-current security deposits
996,885

 
412,515

Total assets
$
248,244,566

 
$
305,923,555

 
 
 
 
Liabilities and Stockholders' Equity
 

 
 

Current liabilities:
 

 
 

Accounts payable and accrued expenses
$
10,272,039

 
$
10,129,605

Accrued compensation and benefits
19,148,312

 
21,650,233

Current portion of long-term debt and capital lease obligations</