10-K 1 wmgi-12312013x10k.htm 10-K WMGI-12.31.2013-10K
 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, DC 20549
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
þ
 
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2013
OR
o
 
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                      to                     
Commission file number: 001-35823
WRIGHT MEDICAL GROUP, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
 
13-4088127
(State or other jurisdiction
of incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
1023 Cherry Road, Memphis, Tennessee
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
38117
(Zip code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (901) 867-9971
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share
 
NASDAQ Global Select Market
Contingent Value Rights
 
NASDAQ Stock Market LLC
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
þ Yes o No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
o Yes þ No
Note —  Checking the box above will not relieve any registrant required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act from their obligations under those Sections.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.             
þ Yes o No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Website, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).
þ Yes o No
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.
þ
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
(Check one):
Large accelerated filer þ
 
Accelerated filer o
 
Non-accelerated filer o
 
Smaller reporting company o
 
 
 
 
(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
 
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). o Yes þ No
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates computed by reference to the price at which the common equity was last sold, or the average bid and asked price of such common equity, as of the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter was $1,055,285,164.
As of February 17, 2014, there were 49,547,524 shares of common stock outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
The information required by Part III is incorporated by reference from portions of the definitive proxy statement to be filed within 120 days after December 31, 2013, pursuant to Regulation 14A under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 in connection with the annual meeting of stockholders to be held on May 13, 2014.
 


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WRIGHT MEDICAL GROUP, INC.
ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
Table of Contents
 
Page
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 EX-10.8
 
 EX 10.94
 
 EX-12
 EX-21
 EX-23
 EX-31.1
 EX-31.2
 EX-32
 EX-101 INSTANCE DOCUMENT
 EX-101 SCHEMA DOCUMENT
 EX-101 CALCULATION LINKBASE DOCUMENT
 EX-101 LABELS LINKBASE DOCUMENT
 EX-101 PRESENTATION LINKBASE DOCUMENT
 EX-101 DEFINITION LINKBASE DOCUMENT


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SAFE-HARBOR STATEMENT

This Annual Report may contain “forward-looking statements” as defined under U.S. federal securities laws. These statements reflect management's current knowledge, assumptions, beliefs, estimates, and expectations and express management's current view of future performance, results, and trends. Forward looking statements may be identified by their use of terms such as anticipate, believe, could, estimate, expect, intend, may, plan, predict, project, will, and other similar terms. Forward-looking statements are subject to a number of risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to materially differ from those described in the forward-looking statements. The reader should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements. Such statements are made as of the date of this Annual Report, and we undertake no obligation to update such statements after this date. Risks and uncertainties that could cause our actual results to materially differ from those described in forward-looking statements are discussed in our filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (including those described in Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K). By way of example and without implied limitation, such risks and uncertainties include:

future actions of the SEC, the United States Attorney's office, the FDA, the Department of Health and Human Services or other U.S. or foreign government authorities, including those resulting from increased scrutiny under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and similar laws, that could delay, limit or suspend our development, manufacturing, commercialization and sale of products, or result in seizures, injunctions, monetary sanctions or criminal or civil liabilities;
continued liability for product liability claims on OrthoRecon products sold prior to divestiture of our OrthoRecon business or for post-market regulatory obligations on such products;
disruptions resulting from loss of personnel, systems and infrastructure changes and transition services arrangements in connection with our OrthoRecon divestiture;
failure to realize the anticipated benefits from our acquisitions or from divestiture of our OrthoRecon business;
adverse outcomes in existing product liability litigation;
new product liability claims;
inadequate insurance coverage;
copycat claims against our modular hip systems resulting from a competitor's recall of its modular hip product;
failure or delay in obtaining FDA approval of Augment® Bone Graft for commercial sale in the United States;
challenges to our intellectual property rights or inability to defend our products against the intellectual property rights of others;
loss of a key suppliers;
failures of, interruptions to, or unauthorized tampering with our information technology systems;
failure or delay in obtaining FDA or other regulatory approvals for our products;
any actual or alleged breach of the Corporate Integrity Agreement to which we are subject through September 2015, which could expose us to significant liability, including exclusion from Medicare, Medicaid and other federal healthcare programs, potential criminal prosecution, and civil and criminal fines or penalties;
the potentially negative effect of our ongoing compliance enhancements on our relationships with customers and on our ability to deliver timely and effective medical education, clinical studies, and new products;
the possibility of private securities litigation or shareholder derivative suits;
insufficient demand for and market acceptance of our new and existing products;
recently enacted healthcare laws and changes in product reimbursements which could generate downward pressure on our product pricing;
potentially burdensome tax measures;
lack of suitable business development opportunities;
inability to capitalize on business development opportunities;
product quality or patient safety issues;
geographic and product mix impact on our sales;
inability to retain key sales representatives, independent distributors and other personnel or to attract new talent;
inventory reductions or fluctuations in buying patterns by wholesalers or distributors; and
the negative impact of the commercial and credit environment on us, our customers and our suppliers.



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PART I

Item 1. Business.
Overview
Wright Medical Group, Inc., through Wright Medical Technology, Inc. (WMT) and other operating subsidiaries (Wright or we), is a global specialty orthopaedic company, that provides extremity and biologic solutions that enable clinicians to alleviate pain and restore their patients’ lifestyles. The company is the recognized leader of surgical solutions for the foot and ankle market, one of the fastest growing segments in medical technology, and markets its products in over 60 countries worldwide. 
Our business includes products that are used in foot and ankle repair, upper extremity products, and biologics products, which are used to replace damaged or diseased bone, to stimulate bone growth and to provide other biological solutions for surgeons and their patients. Extremity hardware includes implants and other devices to replace or reconstruct injured or diseased joints and bones of the foot, ankle, hand, wrist, fingers, toes, elbow and shoulder, which we generally refer to as either foot and ankle or upper extremity products. Our extensive foot and ankle product portfolio, our approximately 200 specialized foot and ankle sales representatives, and our increasing level of training of foot and ankle surgeons has resulted in us being a recognized leader in the foot and ankle market.
Our corporate headquarters and U.S. operations are located in Memphis, Tennessee, where we conduct research and development, sales and marketing administration, and administrative activities. Our manufacturing and warehousing operations are located in Arlington, Tennessee. Outside the U.S., we have distribution and administrative facilities in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, and sales and distribution offices in Canada, Australia, and throughout Europe.
For the year ended December 31, 2013, we had net sales of $242 million and net loss of $280 million on a continuing operation basis. As of December 31, 2013, we had total assets of $1.0 billion. Detailed information on our net sales by product line and our net sales, operating income and long-lived assets by geographic region can be found in Note 20 to the consolidated financial statements contained in “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.”
On March 1, 2013, we completed our acquisition of BioMimetic Therapeutics, Inc. (BioMimetic). We previously announced plans on November 19, 2012 to acquire BioMimetic for an upfront purchase price of approximately $190 million in cash and stock plus additional milestone payments of up to approximately $190 million in cash, which are payable upon receipt of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of Augment® Bone Graft and upon achieving certain revenue milestones.
In conjunction with the closing of the transaction, we paid $30.8 million in cash, net of cash acquired, and approximately 7.0 million shares of Wright common stock and contingent value rights (CVRs) with a value of $70.1 million were issued. See Note 3 to our consolidated financial statements contained in “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” for further information regarding this acquisition.
The transaction is intended to combine BioMimetic's biologics platform and pipeline with our established sales force and product portfolio, to further accelerate growth opportunities in our Extremities business. During the third quarter of 2013, we received a not approvable letter from the FDA in response to our Pre-Market Approval application for Augment® Bone Graft. We filed an appeal with the FDA regarding its decision, and the FDA notified us it has elected to convene a Dispute Resolution Panel in May 2014 to consider the scientific issues in dispute before making a decision on our appeal.
On November 15, 2013, we completed our acquisition of Biotech International (Biotech). The transaction will significantly expand our direct sales channel in France and our international distribution network, and add Biotech's complementary extremity product portfolio to further accelerate global growth opportunities in our Extremities business. We previously announced plans on October 16, 2013 to acquire Biotech for an upfront purchase price of approximately $75 million in cash and stock, plus additional milestone payments of up to approximately $5 million in cash, which are payable upon the achievement of certain revenue milestones in 2014 and 2015.
In June 2013, we entered into a definitive agreement with MicroPort Scientific Corporation (MicroPort) under which MicroPort Medical B.V., a subsidiary of MicroPort, would acquire our hip/knee (OrthoRecon) business. On January 9, 2014, we completed the divestiture of our OrthoRecon business and received cash payment from MicroPort of approximately $287.1 million.
Our OrthoRecon business consisted of hip and knee implant products and generated global revenue of approximately $232 million in 2013. The OrthoRecon business has established hip and knee franchise brands including DYNASTY® and CONSERVE® hips, PROFEMUR® modular stems, SUPERPATH® minimally invasive hip surgical instrumentation, and ADVANCE® and EVOLUTION medial-pivot knee implants. We determined that the sale of the OrthoRecon business meets the criteria for classification as discontinued operations. As such, the financial results of our OrthoRecon business have been reflected within discontinued operations for all periods presented and the discussion below is on a continuing operations basis.

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Orthopaedic Industry
The total worldwide orthopaedic industry is estimated at approximately $29 billion in 2012. Six multinational companies currently dominate the orthopaedic industry, each with approximately $2 billion or more in annual sales. The size of these companies often allows them to concentrate their marketing and research and development efforts on products they believe will have a relatively high minimum threshold level of sales. As a result, there is an opportunity for a mid-sized orthopaedic company, such as Wright, to focus on less contested, higher-growth sectors of the orthopaedic market.
In recent years, we focused our efforts into growing our position in the higher-growth extremities market, and we believe this market will continue to grow by approximately 8-10% annually. We currently estimate the market for all surgical products used by extremity-focused surgeons to be over $3 billion in the U.S.
Orthopaedic devices are commonly divided into several primary sectors corresponding to the major product categories within the orthopaedic field: reconstruction; trauma; arthroscopy; spine; and biologics. We specialize in those products used by extremity focused surgeon specialists, which include products from the reconstruction, trauma and arthroscopy markets and biologic products.
Extremity Hardware. Extremity hardware includes implants and other devices to replace or reconstruct injured or diseased joints and bones of the foot, ankle, hand, wrist, fingers, toes, elbow and shoulder. Extremities hardware is one of the fastest growing market segments within orthopaedics with annual growth rates of 7-10%. Major trends in extremity hardware include procedure-specific and anatomy-specific devices, locking plates and an increase in total ankle arthroplasty procedures.
Foot and Ankle Hardware
Foot and ankle reconstruction includes implants and other devices to replace or reconstruct injured or diseased joints and bones in the foot and ankle. A large segment of the foot and ankle hardware market is comprised of plating and screw systems for reconstructing and fusing joints or repairing bones after traumatic injury. Major trends in foot and ankle hardware include the use of external fixation devices in diabetic patients, total ankle arthroplasty, and advanced tissue fixation devices and biologics. According to various customer and market surveys, we are deemed the market leader in foot and ankle surgical products. New technologies have been introduced into the foot and ankle hardware market in recent years including next generation total ankle replacements. Many of these technologies currently have low levels of market penetration. We believe that adoption of these technologies, total ankle replacement in particular, could result in significant future growth in the foot and ankle hardware market. In 2012, we expanded our INBONE® Ankle system to offer the first-to-market PROPHECY® Pre-Operative Navigation Technology for total ankle replacement to complement our INBONE® II Total Ankle system that offers multiple implant options with different articular geometry. In 2012, we launched our CLAW® II Polyaxial Compression and the ORTHOLOC® Plating Systems utilizing our 3Di polyaxial locking technology further expanding our market leading Foot and Ankle portfolio.
Upper Extremity Reconstruction
Upper extremity reconstruction involves implanting devices to replace, reconstruct, or fixate injured or diseased joints and bones in the hand, wrist, elbow and shoulder. It is estimated that approximately 60% of the upper extremity hardware market is in total shoulder replacement implants. Major trends in upper extremity hardware include minimally invasive fracture repair devices and next generation joint arthroplasty systems. We are the market leader in several segments of the upper extremity market including finger joints, radial head replacement, ulnar shortening systems and intramedullary wrist fracture repair devices with our EVOLVE® Elbow Plating System and the market-leading EVOLVE® Modular Radial Head Prosthesis, and the new comprehensive EVOLVE® TRIAD Fixation System designed as one system to manage complex “terrible triad” injuries to the elbow.
Biologics Market. Biologic products use both biological tissue-based and synthetic materials to allow the body to regenerate damaged or diseased bone and to repair damaged or diseased soft tissue. These products aid the body's natural regenerative capabilities to heal itself, minimizing or delaying the need for invasive implant surgery.
Our biologic products are primarily used in extremity-related procedures as well as in trauma-induced voids of the long bones and some spine procedures. Biologic products provide a lower morbidity solution to “autografting,” a procedure that involves harvesting a patient's own bone or soft tissue and transplanting it to a different site. Following an autografting procedure, the patient typically has pain, and at times, complications result at the harvest site after surgery.
Currently, there are three main types of biological bone grafting products: osteoconductive; osteoinductive; and osteogenic. Each category refers to the way in which the materials affect bone growth. Osteoconductive materials serve as a scaffold that supports the formation of bone but do not “induce” or trigger new bone growth, whereas osteoinductive materials induce bone growth. Osteogenic materials combine the osteoinductive materials with a cell-based component. Our flagship, PRO-DENSE® injectable regenerative graft is an osteoconductive bone graft that provides the benefits of injectability, hardness to support bone and predictable bone regeneration. Our PRO-STIM® osteoinductive bone graft substitute is a graft that is injected through a small needle, hardens, and will be replaced by the patient's new bone over time. Products such as our GRAFTJACKET® regenerative tissue matrix, offer a market-leading material for soft-tissue reinforcement for orthopaedic and podiatric soft-tissue reconstructive procedures.

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In March 2013, we acquired BioMimetic Therapeutics, Inc. to further accelerate our biologic growth opportunities in our extremities business. Specifically, BioMimetic's Augment® product line, if approved by the FDA, will provide us with a unique solution for hindfoot and ankle fusions. Augment® is based on recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor (rhPDGF-BB), a synthetic copy of one of the body's principal healing agents. During the third quarter of 2013, we received a not approvable letter from the FDA in response to our Pre-Market Approval application for Augment® Bone Graft for use as an alternative to autograft in hindfoot and ankle fusion procedures. We have filed an appeal with the FDA regarding its decision. On October 31, 2013, the FDA notified us it has elected to convene a Dispute Resolution Panel to consider the scientific issues in dispute before making a decision on our appeal. The Dispute Resolution Panel is scheduled for May 2014.
Government Regulation
United States
Our products are strictly regulated by the FDA under the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FDC Act). Some of our products are also regulated by state agencies. FDA regulations and the requirements of the FDC Act affect the pre-clinical and clinical testing, design, manufacture, safety, efficacy, labeling, storage, recordkeeping, advertising and promotion of our medical device products. Our tissue-based products are subject to FDA regulations, the National Organ Transplant Act (NOTA) and various state agency regulations. We are an accredited member of the American Association of Tissue Banks (AATB) and an FDA registered tissue establishment, which includes the packaging, processing, storage, labeling and distribution of tissue products regulated as medical devices and the storage and distribution of tissue products regulated solely as human cell and tissue products. In addition, we maintain tissue bank licenses in Florida, Maryland, New York, California and Oregon.
Generally, before we can market a new medical device, marketing clearance from the FDA must be obtained through either a premarket notification under Section 510(k) of the FDC Act or the approval of a premarket approval (PMA) application. The FDA typically grants a 510(k) clearance if the applicant can establish that the device is substantially equivalent to a predicate device. It usually takes about three months from the date of a 510(k) submission to obtain clearance, but it may take longer, particularly if a clinical trial is required. The FDA may find that a 510(k) is not appropriate or that substantial equivalence has not been shown and, as a result, require a PMA application.
PMA applications must be supported by valid scientific evidence to demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of the device, typically including the results of human clinical trials, bench tests and laboratory and animal studies. The PMA application must also contain a complete description of the device and its components, and a detailed description of the methods, facilities and controls used to manufacture the device. In addition, the submission must include the proposed labeling and any training materials. The PMA application process can be expensive and generally takes significantly longer than the 510(k) process. Additionally, the FDA may never approve the PMA application. As part of the PMA application review process, the FDA generally will conduct an inspection of the manufacturer's facilities to ensure compliance with applicable quality system regulatory requirements, which include quality control testing, documentation control and other quality assurance procedures.
If human clinical trials of a medical device are required and the device presents a significant risk, the sponsor of the trial must file an investigational device exemption (IDE) application prior to commencing human clinical trials. The IDE application must be supported by data, typically including the results of animal and/or laboratory testing. If the IDE application is approved by the FDA and one or more institutional review boards (IRBs), human clinical trials may begin at a specific number of institutional investigational sites with the specific number of patients approved by the FDA. If the device presents a non-significant risk to the patient, a sponsor may begin the clinical trial after obtaining approval for the trial by one or more IRBs without separate approval from the FDA. Submission of an IDE does not give assurance that the FDA will approve the IDE. If it is approved, there can be no assurance the FDA will determine that the data derived from the trials support the safety and effectiveness of the device or warrant the continuation of clinical trials. An IDE supplement must be submitted to and approved by the FDA before a sponsor or investigator may make a change to the investigational plan in such a way that may affect its scientific soundness, study indication or the rights, safety or welfare of human subjects. The trial must also comply with the FDA's IDE regulations, and informed consent must be obtained from each subject.
The FDA has statutory authority to regulate allograft-based products, processing and materials. The FDA and other international regulatory agencies have been working to establish more comprehensive regulatory frameworks for allograft-based tissue-containing products, which are principally derived from human cadaveric tissue. The framework developed by the FDA establishes risk-based criteria for determining whether a particular human tissue-based product will be classified as human tissue, a medical device or a biologic drug requiring premarket clearance or approval. All tissue-based products are subject to extensive FDA regulation, including establishment registration requirements, product listing requirements, good tissue practice requirements for manufacturing and screening requirements that ensure that diseases are not transmitted to tissue recipients. The FDA has also proposed extensive additional requirements that address sub-contracted tissue services, tracking to the recipient/patient and donor records review. If a tissue-based product is considered human tissue, the FDA requirements focus on preventing the introduction, transmission and spread of communicable diseases to recipients. Neither clinical data nor review of safety and efficacy is required

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before the tissue can be marketed. However, if the tissue is considered a medical device or a biologic drug, then FDA clearance or approval is required.
The FDA and international regulatory authorities periodically inspect us for compliance with regulatory requirements that apply to our operations. These requirements include labeling regulations, manufacturing regulations, quality system regulations, regulations governing unapproved or off-label uses and medical device regulations. Medical device regulations require a manufacturer to report to the FDA serious adverse events or certain types of malfunctions involving its products.
Most of our products are FDA cleared through the 510(k) premarket notification process. We have conducted clinical trials to support some of our regulatory approvals. Regulations regarding the manufacture and sale of our products are subject to change. We cannot predict the effect, if any, that these changes might have on our business, financial condition and results of operations. If the FDA believes that we are not in compliance with the FDC Act, it can institute proceedings to detain or seize products, issue a market withdrawal, enjoin future violations and/or seek civil and criminal penalties against us and our officers and employees. If we fail to comply with these regulatory requirements, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be harmed.
In 2010, WMT entered into a 12-month Deferred Prosecution Agreement (DPA) with the United States Attorney's Office for the District of New Jersey (USAO). This DPA was extended for another 12 months in 2011. WMT also entered into a five-year Corporate Integrity Agreement (CIA) with the Office of the Inspector General of the United States Department of Health and Human Services (OIG-HHS). We are continuing to enhance our Corporate Compliance Program and are applying these enhancements on a global basis. We monitor our practices on an ongoing basis to ensure that we have proper controls in place to comply with applicable laws in the jurisdictions in which we do business. Our failure to maintain compliance with United States healthcare regulatory laws could expose us to significant liability including, but not limited to, exclusion from federal healthcare program participation, including Medicaid and Medicare, civil and criminal fines or penalties and additional litigation cost and expense.
Further, we are subject to various federal and state laws concerning healthcare fraud and abuse, including false claims laws, anti-kickback laws and physician self-referral laws. Violations of these laws can result in criminal and/or civil punishment, including fines, imprisonment and, in the United States, exclusion from participation in government healthcare reimbursement programs. If a governmental authority were to determine that we do not comply with these laws and regulations, then we and our officers and employees could be subject to criminal and civil penalties.
In March 2010, comprehensive health care reform legislation in the form of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act (the Affordable Care Act) was enacted. Among other provisions, these bills impose a 2.3% excise tax on U.S. sales of medical devices following December 31, 2012. In 2013, we recognized approximately $2.6 million of costs for the medical device excise tax. The Affordable Care Act also includes numerous provisions to limit Medicare spending through reductions in various fee schedule payments and by instituting more sweeping payment reforms, such as bundled payments for episodes of care and the establishment of “accountable care organizations” under which hospitals and physicians will be able to share savings that result from cost control efforts. Many of these provisions will be implemented through the regulatory process, and policy details have not yet been finalized.
International
All of our products sold internationally are subject to certain foreign regulatory approvals. We must comply with extensive regulations governing product safety, quality, manufacturing and reimbursement processes in order to market our products in all major foreign markets. These regulations vary significantly from country to country and with respect to the nature of the particular medical device. The time required to obtain foreign approvals to market our products may be longer or shorter than the time required in the United States, and requirements for such approvals may differ from FDA requirements.
To market our product devices in the member countries of the European Union (EU), we are required to comply with the European Medical Device Directives and to obtain CE mark certification. CE mark certification is the European symbol of adherence to quality assurance standards and compliance with applicable European Medical Device Directives. Under the European Medical Device Directives, all medical devices including active implants must qualify for CE marking. We also are required to comply with other foreign regulations, such as obtaining Ministry of Health Labor and Welfare (MHLW) approval in Japan, Health Protection Branch (HPB) approval in Canada and Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) approval in Australia.
General initiatives sponsored by government agencies, legislative bodies and the private sector to limit the growth of healthcare expenses generally and hospital costs in particular, including price regulation and competitive pricing, are ongoing. It is not possible to predict the impact of such cost containment measures on our future business.
Products
We operate our continuing operations as one reportable segment and offer products in the following market sectors: extremity reconstruction and biologics. Our business includes products that are used primarily in foot and ankle repair, upper extremity products, and biologics products, which are used to replace damaged or diseased bone, to stimulate bone growth and to provide

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other biological solutions for surgeons and their patients. Sales in each of these markets represent greater than 10% of our consolidated revenues from continuing operations. Detailed information on our net sales by product line can be found in Note 20 to the consolidated financial statements contained in “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.” Our discontinued operations, the OrthoRecon business, includes products that are used primarily to replace or repair knee and hip that have deteriorated or have been damaged through disease or injury.
Extremity Hardware
We offer extremity products for the foot and ankle and upper extremities in a number of markets worldwide. Some of our extremity implants have over 40 years of successful clinical history. We are a recognized leader in the United States and German markets for foot and ankle surgical products. Additionally, we hold significant positions in several segments of the upper extremity market such as radial head repair, finger joint replacements and intramedullary wrist fracture implants.
Foot and Ankle Hardware
Our CHARLOTTE® foot and ankle system is an extensive offering of fixation products for foot and ankle surgery and includes products that feature advanced design elements for simplicity, versatility and high performance. The CHARLOTTE® portfolio includes the CLAW® Compression plate, the first ever locking compression plate designed for corrective foot surgeries. Originally introduced by Wright in 2007, the CLAW® Compression Plate system combined locked plating fixation with the stability of mechanical compression typical of compression staples.
In February 2012, we introduced the CLAW® II Compression Plating System. The third-generation system expanded our plate and screw offering by introducing anatomic plates specifically designed for fusions of the midfoot. The new CLAW® II Polyaxial Compression Plating system incorporates variable-angle locking screw technology.
The DARCO® foot and ankle plating systems were designed to address the specific needs of reconstructive foot and ankle surgery. The DARCO® MFS and MRS plates were the first implants to incorporate fixed angle, locking screw technology into a comprehensive fixation set for foot surgery. Surgeons believe that surgical repairs are more stable with locking screw technology.
Our INBONE® II total ankle system represents the third generation in ankle replacement implants, utilizing a patented intramedullary alignment mechanism for more accurate placement of the implant. The unique modular nature of the implant allows the surgeon to tailor the fixation stems for the tibial and talar components in order to maximize stability of the implant. Accuracy of placement and implant stability have been shown to be key factors impacting longevity of the implant. We believe the INBONE® system represents key advances in these critical arenas. Additionally, the INBONE® II implant system is the only ankle replacement that offers surgeons multiple implant options with different articular geometry. These highly anatomic implants are intended to permit the surgeon to tailor the amount of implant constraint or motion based upon the patient's unique anatomical demands.
In June 2012, we introduced the PROPHECY® INBONE® Pre-Operative Navigation Alignment Guides. Initially developed by Wright Medical for total knee replacement, the PROPHECY® Pre-Operative Navigation Alignment Technology utilizes computed tomography (CT) scans to create patient-specific ankle alignment guides that facilitate the surgeon's ability to precisely size, place and align the INBONE® Total Ankle Replacement components during surgery. Wright is the first, and currently the only, company to offer pre-operative navigation for total ankle replacement.
Our ORTHOLOC® 3Di plating system provides foot and ankle surgeons a comprehensive line of plates and screws to address most deformities of the foot and ankle. This next generation system provides multiple screw options and includes Wright's ORTHOLOC® 3Di polyaxial locking technology, which enables the surgeon to adjust the screw trajectory to meet the anatomic requirements of the patient while providing a strong locking construct to promote bone fixation. In January 2012, we introduced the ORTHOLOC® 3Di Ankle Fracture system, which is a comprehensive single-tray ankle fracture solution designed to address a wide range of fracture types. This system provides the surgeon with multiple anatomically-contoured plates and a comprehensive set of instrumentation. This technology coupled with the single tray design, decreases logistical complications in the operating room and enables the surgeon to match the appropriate implant construct with the patient and fracture type.
In July 2012, we introduced the ORTHOLOC® 3Di Reconstruction Plating System. The system includes a number of anatomical plates, screws and specialized surgical instrumentation used for fracture fixation, osteotomies, and fusions of the foot. The new ORTHOLOC® 3Di Reconstruction System offers surgeons a wide range of plate designs to address some of the most common procedures performed by foot and ankle surgeons, including bunion reconstruction and fusions of the first toe.
In November 2012, we expanded the ORTHOLOC® 3Di Reconstruction Plating System with the introduction of the ORTHOLOC® 3Di Midfoot Plating System. This new system provides surgeons with anatomic plates and instrumentation designed specifically for fusions of the midfoot.
The PRO-TOE® VO Hammertoe Fixation system is designed to offer a simple and efficient means to surgically repair the lesser toes following correction of a hammertoe deformity. While a sizeable proportion of these surgeries are treated conventionally with pins, the PRO-TOE® VO Hammertoe implant provides a stable and efficient alternative surgical solution for the deformity. The

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system arrives in the operating room as a single, sterile-packed unit, which can increase the efficiency of the procedure while removing costly cleaning and processing of a standard reusable instrument set. Additionally, the implant is fabricated from stainless steel, which simplifies the procedure by eliminating the freezer storage and special instruments required for other implant alternatives.
In October 2012, we expanded our PRO-TOE® VO System by introducing six new implant sizes and refined instrumentation. These new product offerings, when coupled with the original implant sizes, provide surgeons with an array of implants to address the individual anatomic variations from patient to patient.
The BIOFOAM® Wedge System is designed for corrective osteotomies of the foot. The BIOFOAM® Cancellous Titanium material mimics the strength and flexibility of human bone, while providing an ideal environment for rapid bone in-growth and sustained rigid fixation. BIOFOAM® wedges are sized specifically for bone corrective procedures popular for treating patients with flatfoot deformity. The sterile BIOFOAM® wedges eliminate the risk of adverse immune response associated with traditional allografts or the patient morbidity associated with autograft harvest - the current standard of care for these procedures. Additionally, with pre-configured implants and sizing trials, BIOFOAM® wedges eliminate the timely process of shaping traditional grafts for proper fit.
The VALOR® TTC fusion nail provides surgeons with a solution for fusing the calcaneal, talar and tibial bones required in patients suffering from severe ankle arthritis. In addition to the INBONE® total ankle replacement system, the VALOR® fusion nail provides foot and ankle surgeons with what we believe to be the most compelling portfolio for treating patients with varying degrees of ankle arthritis.
Our SIDEKICK® line of external fixators is designed to facilitate compression or distraction of bones in the foot from “the outside in” and in a minimally invasive manner. In many cases, surgeons will opt for the minimally invasive nature of “external fixation” versus more invasive plate and screw “internal fixation.” One growing application of our SIDEKICK® is where small incisions are preferred due to wound healing issues present with these patients.
Other products in our foot and ankle portfolio include our BIOARCH® subtalar arthroereisis implant, our line of AM Surgical foot and ankle endoscopic tissue release products, and our line of Swanson toe joints.
Upper Extremity Hardware
Our EVOLVE® modular radial head replacement prosthesis addresses the need for modularity in the anatomically highly-variable joint of the elbow and is the market leading radial head prosthesis. The EVOLVE® modular radial head device provides different combinations of heads and stems allowing the surgeon to choose implant heads and stems to accommodate the unpredictable anatomy of each patient. The smooth stem design allows for rotational motion at the implant and bone interface and for radiocapitellar articulation. In March 2012, we released EVOLVE® TRIADradial head plating system for surgeons who wish to repair rather than replace the damaged radial head. The EVOLVE® TRIAD system includes anatomically contoured radial head and radial neck plates featuring the ORTHOLOC® Polyaxial Locking Technology to enable optimal screw placement. With prostheses and plating, we have a comprehensive product offering for repair of radial head fractures.
In February 2011, we announced the commercial release of our EVOLVE® Elbow Plating System (EPS) to address fractures of the distal humerus and proximal ulna. Composed of polished stainless steel, the system was designed to accurately match the patient anatomy to reduce the need for intra-operative bending while providing a low profile design to minimize post-operative irritation. All plates incorporate our advanced ORTHOLOC® Polyaxial Locking Technology, which allows the surgeon to place screws in the best possible trajectory and then to solidly lock the screws to the plate providing greater stability.
Our line of Swanson finger joints is used in finger joint replacement for patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis of the hand. With nearly 40 years of clinical success, Swanson digit implants are a foundation in our upper extremity business and are used by a loyal base of hand surgeons worldwide.
Our MICRONAIL® II intramedullary wrist fracture repair system is a next-generation minimally invasive treatment for distal radius fractures that provides immediate fracture stabilization with minimal soft tissue disruption. Also, as the nail is implanted within the bone, it has no external profile on top of the bone, thereby reducing the potential for tendon irritation or rupture, which is an appreciable problem with conventional plates designed to lie on top of the bone.
Our RAYHACK® system is comprised of a series of precision cutting guides and procedure-specific plates for ulnar and radial shortening procedures and the surgical treatment of radial malunions and Keinbock’s Disease.
Biologics
We offer a broad line of biologic products that are used to support treatment of damaged or diseased bone, tendons and soft tissues and other biological solutions for surgeons and their patients. These products focus on supporting biological musculoskeletal repair

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by utilizing synthetic and human tissue-based materials. Internationally, we offer a bone graft product incorporating antibiotic delivery.
GRAFTJACKET® matrix is a human-derived soft tissue graft designed for augmentation of tendon and ligament repairs such as those of the rotator cuff in the shoulder and achilles tendon in the ankle. By augmenting the strength of the tendon repair and the body incorporating it biologically, GRAFTJACKET® regenerative tissue matrix may increase surgeons’ confidence in the surgical outcome. GRAFTJACKET® Maxforce Extreme is our thickest GRAFTJACKET® matrix, which provides excellent suture holding power for augmenting challenging tendon and ligament repairs. We procure our GRAFTJACKET® product through an exclusive distribution agreement that expires December 31, 2018.
We sell our PRO-DENSE® injectable graft in the United States and select international markets. PRO-DENSE® injectable graft is a composite graft of surgical grade calcium sulfate and calcium phosphate. In animal studies, this unique graft composite has demonstrated excellent bone regenerative characteristics, forming new bone that is over three times stronger than the natural surrounding bone at the 13-week time point. Beyond 13 weeks, the regenerated bone gradually remodels to natural bone strength. PRO-STIM® injectable inductive graft is built on the PRO-DENSE® material platform, but adds demineralized bone matrix (DBM) for osteoinductive potential. PRO-STIM® graft has demonstrated accelerated healing compared to autograft in pre-clinical testing. Since the mechanism of action is different from PRO-DENSE® graft, PRO-STIM® graft will allow us to expand the applicable procedures for the material platform to more challenging bone defects.
In April 2011, we announced the commercial release of our FUSIONFLEX Demineralized Moldable Scaffold. FUSIONFLEX scaffold is a novel form of allograft demineralized bone and is designed for use in conjunction with hardware in foot and ankle fusion procedures as well as other orthopaedic bone grafting applications. Our FUSIONFLEX product is available through a supply and distribution agreement with Allosource®.
Our OSTEOSET® bone graft substitute is a synthetic bone graft substitute made of surgical grade calcium sulfate. As a pure synthetic, OSTEOSET® pellets are cleared for use in infected sites, an advantage over tissue-based material. The human body resorbs the OSTEOSET® material at a rate close to the rate that new bone grows. We offer surgeons the option of custom-molding their own beads in the operating room using the OSTEOSET® resorbable bead kit, which is available in mixable powder form. OSTEOSET® 2 DBM graft is a unique bone graft substitute incorporating DBM into OSTEOSET® surgical-grade calcium sulfate pellets. These two bone graft materials, each with a long clinical history, provide an ideal combination of osteoinduction via osteoinductive DBM in OSTEOSET® DBM and osteoconduction for guided bone regeneration. Our surgical grade calcium sulfate is manufactured using proprietary processes that consistently produce a high quality product. Our OSTEOSET® T medicated pellets, which contain tobramycin, are currently one of the few resorbable bone void fillers used by physicians in international markets for the prevention and treatment of osteomyelitis, an acute or chronic infection of the bone.
ALLOMATRIX® injectable putty combines a high content of DBM with our proprietary surgical grade calcium sulfate carrier. The combination provides an injectable putty with the osteoinductive properties of DBM, as well as exceptional handling qualities. Another combination we offer is ALLOMATRIX® C bone graft putty, which includes the addition of cancellous bone granules. The addition of the bone granules increases the stiffness of the material and thereby improves handling characteristics, increases osteoconductivity scaffold and provides more structural support. Our ALLOMATRIX® custom bone graft putty allows surgeons to customize the amount of bone granules to add to the putty based on its surgical application. ALLOMATRIX® DR graft, which is ALLOMATRIX® putty that has been optimized for application in smaller fractures due to the smaller particle size of its cancellous bone granules and the application-specific volume in which it is marketed.
We have a supply agreement with RTI Biologics, Inc. to develop advanced implants for use in foot and ankle surgeries. Under this agreement, we offer our CANCELLO-PURE® bone wedge line as well as the ALLOPURE® allograft bone wedges, which offer surgeons off-the-shelf, sterile grafts with appropriate handling characteristics. The ease of use and time savings in the operating room have made this product line an attractive option to foot and ankle surgeons and expand our offering in this key surgical area of need.
The Augment® product line is based on recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor (rhPDGF-BB), a synthetic copy of one of the body’s principal healing agents. The product is currently available for sale as an alternative to autograft in Canada for foot and ankle fusion indications and in Australia and New Zealand for hindfoot and ankle fusion indications.
Product Development
Our research and development staff focuses on developing new products in the extremity hardware and biologics markets and on expanding our current product offerings and the markets in which they are offered. In addition, we maintain close working relationships with physicians and medical personnel in hospitals and universities who assist in product research and development. Realizing that new product offerings are a key to future success, we are committed to a strong research and development program. In addition, we have clinical and regulatory departments devoted to verifying the safety and efficacy of our products according to regulatory standards enforced by the FDA and other international regulatory bodies. Our research and development expenses totaled $20.3 million, $13.9 million and $15.4 million in 2013, 2012 and 2011, respectively. The increase in 2013 is primarily

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attributable to increased spending associated with the acquired BioMimetic activities, primarily related to the FDA approval of Augment® Bone Graft and ongoing clinical studies to support the safety and efficacy of Augment® Bone Graft.
In the extremity hardware areas, our research and development activities focus on building upon our already comprehensive portfolios of surgical solutions for extremity focused surgeons, including procedure and anatomy specific products. With the ultimate goal of addressing unmet clinical needs, we often pursue multiple product solutions for a particular application in order to offer surgeons the ability either to use their preferred procedural technique or to provide options and flexibility in the surgical setting with the understanding that one solution does not work for every case.
In the biologics area, we have research and development projects underway that are designed to provide differentiation of our advanced materials in the marketplace. We are particularly focused on the integration of our biologic product platforms into extremity procedures. In 2013, we launched the extremity and biologic product ALLOPURE® Plus Allograft Bone Wedges.
Manufacturing, Facilities and Quality
We operate a state of the art manufacturing facility in Arlington, Tennessee. We lease the manufacturing facility from the Industrial Development Board of the Town of Arlington. At this facility, we primarily produce orthopaedic implants and some related surgical instrumentation while utilizing lean manufacturing philosophies. The majority of our surgical instrumentation is produced to our specifications by qualified subcontractors who serve medical device companies. We recently began construction of an expansion of our manufacturing facility, which will be completed during the second quarter of 2014. Our present manufacturing facility is adequate for our projected needs until completion of this expansion, which will then provide capacity for our production and distribution needs in the upcoming years.
We maintain a comprehensive quality system that is certified to the European standards ISO 9001 and ISO 13485 and to the Canadian Medical Devices Conformity Assessment System (CMDCAS). We are accredited by the AATB and have registrations with the FDA as a medical device establishment and as a tissue establishment. These certifications and registrations require periodic audits and inspections by various regulatory entities to determine if we have systems in place to ensure our product is safe and effective for its intended use and that we are compliant with applicable regulatory requirements. The quality system exists so that management has the proper oversight, designs are evaluated and tested, production processes are established and maintained and monitoring activities are in place to ensure products are safe, effective and manufactured according to our specifications. Consequently, our quality system provides the way for us to ensure we design and build quality into our products while meeting global requirements. We are committed to meet or exceed customer needs as we improve patient outcomes.
Supply
We rely on a limited number of suppliers for the components used in our products. We rely on one supplier for the silicone elastomer used in certain of our extremity products. We are aware of only two suppliers of silicone elastomer to the medical device industry for permanent implant usage. For certain biologic products, we depend on one supplier of demineralized bone matrix (DBM), and cancellous bone matrix (CBM). We rely on one supplier for our GRAFTJACKET® family of soft tissue repair and graft containment products and one supplier for our xenograft bone wedge product. We maintain adequate stock from these suppliers to meet market demand. We currently rely on one supplier for a key component of our Augment® Bone Graft. In December 2013, this supplier notified us of their intent to terminate the supply agreement at the end of the current term, which is December 2015. They are contractually required to meet our supply requirements until the termination date, and to use commercially reasonable efforts to assist us in identifying a new supplier and support the transfer of technology and supporting documentation to produce this component. See Item 1A, Risk Factors, for further information on our suppliers.
Sales, Marketing, and Medical Education
Our sales and marketing efforts are focused primarily on orthopaedic, trauma, and podiatric surgeons. Orthopaedic surgeons focused on the extremities in many instances have completed foot and ankle or upper extremity fellowship programs. Due to the nature of specialized training surrounding podiatric and orthopaedic surgeons focused on extremities, our target market is well defined. Historically, the surgeon is the primary decision-maker in orthopaedic device purchases.
We offer clinical symposia and seminars, and publish advertisements and the results of clinical studies in industry publications. We also offer surgeon-to-surgeon education on our products using our surgeon advisors in an instructional capacity. We have contractual relationships with surgeon educators, who help us train other surgeons in the safe and effective use of our products and help other surgeons perfect new surgical techniques. Additionally, approximately 16,000 practicing orthopaedic surgeons in the U.S. receive information on our latest products through our distribution network, our website and brochure mailings.
We sell our products in the U.S. through a sales force of approximately 350 people. This sales force primarily consists of direct, commission-based sales representatives and distributors/sales agents engaged principally in the business of supplying orthopaedic products to hospitals in their geographic areas. Approximately 48% of our sales force is directly employed by us through a group of corporate sales representatives in select locations throughout the U.S. Our U.S. field sales force is supported by our Tennessee-based sales and marketing organization. We also have working relationships with healthcare dealers including group purchasing

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organizations, healthcare organizations, and integrated distribution networks.
During 2012, as a result of our effort to convert several independent distributor territories to direct sales representation, we increased our foot & ankle direct sales representatives to 80%, or 160 direct employees. As of December 31, 2013, we have approximately 200 focused foot and ankle sales representatives, consisting of 160 direct and 40 indirect. Our independent distributors, independent sales representatives and direct sales representatives are provided opportunities for product training throughout the year.
We believe our success in every market sector is dependent upon having a robust and compelling product offering, and equally as important, a dedicated, highly trained, focused sales organization to service the customer. In 2013, we trained over 2,100 surgeons on our foot & ankle products, as well as over 130 upper extremity surgeons.
Our products are marketed internationally through a combination of direct sales offices (subsidiaries) in certain key international markets and distributors in other markets. We have subsidiaries in the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, Canada and Australia that employ direct sales employees and in some cases use independent sales representatives to sell our products in their respective markets. Our products are sold in other countries in Europe, Asia, Africa and Latin America using stocking distribution partners. Stocking distributors purchase products directly from us for resale to their local customers, with product ownership generally passing to the distributor upon shipment.
Seasonal Nature of Business
We traditionally experience lower sales volumes in the third quarter than throughout the rest of the year as many of our reconstructive products are used in elective procedures, which generally decline during the summer months, typically resulting in selling, general and administrative expenses and research and development expenses as a percentage of sales that are higher during this period than throughout the rest of the year. In addition, our first quarter selling, general and administrative expenses include additional expenses that we incur in connection with the annual meeting held by the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons (ACFAS). During this three-day event, we display our most recent and innovative products in the foot and ankle market.
Competition
Competition in the orthopaedic device industry is intense and is characterized by extensive research efforts and rapid technological progress. Competitors include major companies in the orthopaedic and biologics industries, as well as academic institutions and other public and private research organizations that continue to conduct research, seek patent protection and establish arrangements for commercializing products that will compete with our products.
The primary competitive factors facing us include price, quality, innovative design and technical capability, clinical results, breadth of product line, scale of operations and distribution capabilities. Our ability to compete is affected by our ability to accomplish the following:
Develop new products and innovative technologies;
Obtain and maintain regulatory clearance and reimbursement for our products;
Manufacture and sell our products cost-effectively;
Meet all relevant quality standards for our products and their markets;
Respond to competitive pressures specific to each of our geographic markets, including our ability to enforce non-compete agreements;
Protect the proprietary technology of our products and manufacturing processes;
Market and promote our products;
Continue to maintain a high level of medical education for our surgeons on our products;
Attract and retain skilled employees and focused sales representatives; and
Support our technology and with clinically relevant studies.
Intellectual Property
We currently own or have licenses to use more than 350 patents and pending patent applications throughout the world. We seek to aggressively protect technology, inventions and improvements that we consider important through the use of patents and trade secrets in the United States and significant foreign markets. We manufacture and market products under both patents and license agreements with other parties. These patents and license agreements have a defined life and expire from time to time.
Our knowledge and experience, creative product development, marketing staff and trade secret information, with respect to manufacturing processes, materials and product design, are as important as our patents in maintaining our proprietary product lines. As a condition of employment, we require all employees to execute a confidentiality agreement with us relating to proprietary information and patent rights.
There can be no assurances that our patents will provide competitive advantages for our products or that competitors will not challenge or circumvent these rights. In addition, there can be no assurances that the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) will issue any of our pending patent applications. The USPTO may deny or require a significant narrowing of the claims

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in our pending patent applications and the patents issuing from such applications. Any patents issuing from the pending patent applications may not provide us with significant commercial protection. We could incur substantial costs in proceedings before the USPTO. These proceedings could result in adverse decisions as to the priority of our inventions and the narrowing or invalidation of claims in issued patents. Additionally, the laws of some of the countries in which our products are or may be sold may not protect our intellectual property to the same extent as the laws in the United States or at all.
While we do not believe that any of our products infringe any valid claims of patents or other proprietary rights held by others, there can be no assurances that we do not infringe any patents or other proprietary rights held by them. If our products were found to infringe any proprietary right of another party, we could be required to pay significant damages or license fees to such party and/or cease production, marketing and distribution of those products. Litigation may also be necessary to defend infringement claims of third parties or to enforce patent rights we hold or to protect trade secrets or techniques we own.
We also rely on trade secrets and other unpatented proprietary technology. There can be no assurances that we can meaningfully protect our rights in our unpatented proprietary technology or that others will not independently develop substantially equivalent proprietary products or processes or otherwise gain access to our proprietary technology. We seek to protect our trade secrets and proprietary know-how, in part, with confidentiality agreements with employees and consultants. There can be no assurances, however, that the agreements will not be breached, adequate remedies for any breach would be available, or competitors will not discover or independently develop our trade secrets.
Third-Party Reimbursement
Reimbursement is an important factor in the success of any medical device. Reimbursement in the United States depends, in part, upon our ability to obtain FDA clearances and approvals to market our products as well as obtain coverage and payment for our products. The FDA may announce changes to the regulatory review process, which in turn may slow the clearance and approval process and thereby delay the ability of medical device companies to bring new devices to market. In the United States, as well as in foreign countries, government-funded or private insurance programs, commonly known as third-party payors, pay a significant portion of the cost of a patient’s medical expenses. Health care reform initiatives, which may be implemented over the next several years, have the potential to impact the growth of sales in medical devices as third-party payors look to control spending on health care. A uniform policy of coverage does not exist among all of these payors relative to payment of claims for all products. Therefore, reimbursement and coverage can be quite different from payor to payor, from one region of the country to another, and from country to country. Coverage also depends on our ability to demonstrate the short-term and long-term clinical effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of our products. These supportive data are obtained from surgeon clinical experience, clinical trials, and literature reviews. We pursue and present these results at major scientific and medical meetings and publish them in respected, peer-reviewed medical journals because data and evidence that can support coverage and reimbursement are important to the successful commercialization and market access of our products.
All United States and foreign third-party payors continually develop increasingly sophisticated methods of controlling healthcare costs through healthcare reform measures including, government-managed healthcare systems, health technology assessments, coverage with evidence development processes, quality initiatives, pay-for-performance, comparative effectiveness research and capitation programs, group purchasing, redesign of benefit offerings, encouragement of healthier lifestyles and exploration of more cost-effective methods of delivering care. All of these types of programs can potentially impact market access for, and pricing structures of our products, which in turn can impact future revenues.
Employees
As of December 31, 2013, we employed approximately 898 people in continuing operations in the following areas: 158 in manufacturing, 547 in sales and marketing, 114 in administration and 79 in research and development. We believe that we have a good relationship with our employees.
Environmental
Our operations and properties are subject to extensive federal, state, local and foreign environmental protection and health and safety laws and regulations. These laws and regulations govern, among other things, the generation, storage, handling, use and transportation of hazardous materials and the handling and disposal of hazardous waste generated at our facilities. Under such laws and regulations, we are required to obtain permits from governmental authorities for some of our operations. If we violate or fail to comply with these laws, regulations or permits, we could be fined or otherwise sanctioned by regulators. Under some environmental laws and regulations, we could also be held responsible for all of the costs relating to any contamination at our past or present facilities and at third-party waste disposal sites.
We believe our costs of complying with current and future environmental laws, regulations and permits and our liabilities arising from past or future releases of, or exposure to, hazardous substances will not materially adversely affect our business, results of operations or financial condition, although there can be no assurances of this.

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Available Information
Our website is located at www.wmt.com. Reference to our website does not constitute incorporation by reference of the information contained on the site and should not be considered part of this document. We make available, free of charge through this website, our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed with or furnished to the SEC pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed with or furnished to the SEC.



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Item 1A. Risk Factors.
Our business and its future performance may be affected by various factors, the most significant of which are discussed below.

We are subject to substantial government regulation that could have a material adverse effect on our business.
The production and marketing of our products and its ongoing research and development, pre-clinical testing and clinical trial activities are subject to extensive regulation and review by numerous governmental authorities both in the U.S. and abroad. U.S. and foreign regulations govern the testing, marketing and registration of new medical devices, in addition to regulating manufacturing practices, reporting, labeling, relationships with healthcare professionals and recordkeeping procedures. The regulatory process requires significant time, effort and expenditures to bring our products to market, and we cannot be assured that any of our products will be approved. Our failure to comply with applicable regulatory requirements could result in these governmental authorities:  
imposing fines and penalties on us;
preventing us from manufacturing or selling our products;
bringing civil or criminal charges against us;
delaying the introduction of our new products into the market;
recalling or seizing our products; or
withdrawing or denying approvals or clearances for our products.
Even if regulatory approval or clearance of a product is granted, this could result in limitations on the uses for which the product may be labeled and promoted. Further, for a marketed product, its manufacturer, said manufacturer's suppliers, and manufacturing facilities are subject to periodic review and inspection. Subsequent discovery of problems with a product, manufacturer or facility may result in restrictions on the product, manufacturer or facility, including withdrawal of the product from the market or other enforcement actions. Our products can only be marketed in accordance with their approved labeling. If we were to promote the use of our products in an “off-label” manner, we would be subject to civil and criminal sanctions.
We are subject to various U.S. federal and state and foreign laws concerning healthcare fraud and abuse, including false claims laws, anti-kickback laws and physician self-referral laws. Violations of these laws can result in criminal and/or civil punishment, including fines, imprisonment and, in the U.S., exclusion from participation in government healthcare programs. Greater scrutiny of marketing practices in its industry has resulted in numerous government investigations by various government authorities and this industry-wide enforcement activity is expected to continue. If a governmental authority were to determine that we do not comply with these laws and regulations, then we and our directors, officers and employees could be subject to criminal and civil penalties, including exclusion from participation in federal healthcare reimbursement programs.
In order to market our devices in the member countries of the European Union, we are required to comply with the European Medical Devices Directive and obtain CE mark certification. CE mark certification is the European symbol of adherence to quality assurance standards and compliance with applicable European Medical Device Directives. Under the European Medical Devices Directive, all medical devices including active implants must qualify for CE marking.

Although we divested our hip/knee (OrthoRecon) business, we remain responsible for liability claims on OrthoRecon products sold prior to closing, and might still be sued on products sold after closing.

Although OrthoRecon product liability expenses are accounted for under discontinued operations, our agreement with MicroPort requires we retain responsibility for product liability claims on OrthoRecon products sold prior to closing, and for any resulting settlements, judgments or other costs. Moreover, even though MicroPort is responsible for liability claims on post-closing sales, there can be no assurance we will not be named as a defendant in a lawsuit relating to such post-closing sales, or that MicroPort will have adequate resources to exonerate us from any resulting expenses or liabilities.

Although we divested our OrthoRecon business, we may continue to have post-market regulatory obligations on OrthoRecon products sold prior to closing.
In general, medical device manufacturers, pursuant to both U.S. and international law, have responsibility for monitoring their products, investigating complaints, reporting adverse events and, if applicable, issuing safety alerts and conducting field actions. Some medical devices are subject to additional post-market requirements, which can be burdensome and expensive. Examples of this include the post-market requirements FDA has imposed on manufacturers of metal on metal hip replacement systems.

In 2009, the FDA issued an order requiring manufacturers of approximately 25 Class III devices to submit a summary of information known or otherwise available concerning the safety and efficacy of the products. The metal-on-metal hip products sold prior to divesting our OrthoRecon business are included in this order.

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In 2011, the FDA issued Section 522 Orders requiring post-market surveillance of metal on metal hip products. These orders required manufacturers to submit post-market surveillance plans to the FDA for approval. We submitted our summary protocol to the FDA in late May 2011 and in November 2012 came to final agreement on a post-market clinical study protocol for our metal-on-metal hip products.  While we believe we have data that supports the efficacy and safety of our metal-on-metal hip products, we cannot predict the outcome of an industry-wide post-market surveillance.
In light of the divestiture of our OrthoRecon business, we expect to eliminate our continuing regulatory responsibilities for OrthoRecon products. However, there can be no assurance we will be successful in doing so. If we are not successful, we may be required to devote significant resources toward complying with post-market regulatory requirements on products we no longer sell, and from which we no longer realize revenue.

Divestiture of our OrthoRecon business entailed significant personnel, systems and infrastructure changes that could cause operational disruptions.
The sale of our OrthoRecon business required us to divide a single administrative infrastructure that had supported one company into separate support organizations for two companies. As part of this process, many long term employees with valuable institutional knowledge were transitioned to MicroPort, key systems were replicated across both companies, and our financial controls environment was physically moved to a new location. In some instances, existing processes could not be fully replicated, requiring that we enter into short term transition service arrangements with MicroPort, and vice versa, under which the parties perform certain services for each other pending establishment of new systems and processes. Although these transitions were painstakingly planned, it is highly possible in a transaction of this complexity that disruptions could occur. If disruptions to our financial controls, IT, administrative support, manufacturing or regulatory processes occur, and if such disruptions prove to be more severe than our planning anticipated, this could have a material adverse effect on our business.

We may never realize the expected benefits from divestiture of our OrthoRecon business.
Divestiture of our OrthoRecon business is part of a strategy to transform ourselves into a profitable, high growth, pure play medical technology company, and command the market valuation typically accorded such companies. If we are unable to achieve our growth and profitability objectives due to competition, lack of acceptance of our products, failure to gain regulatory approvals, or other risks as described in this section, or due to other events, we will not be successful in transforming our business and will not be accorded the market valuation we seek. Moreover, our OrthoRecon business generated substantial revenue and cash flow, which we have not replaced. While over time we expect to replace our OrthoRecon revenue and cash flow by accelerating higher margin revenue streams from extremities and biologic products, there is a risk we will be unable to replace the revenue and cash flow that our OrthoRecon business generated, or that the cost of such will be higher than expected. If we are unable to achieve our profit and growth objectives, such failure will be exacerbated by the loss of revenue and cash flow generated by our OrthoRecon business, and could result in a decline in our stock price.

We may never realize the expected benefits of our acquisitions.
In addition to developing new products and growing our business internally, we have sought to grow through acquisition of complementary businesses. Examples include our acquisition of BioMimetic in early 2013, as well as the more recent acquisitions of Biotech International in November 2013, Solana Surgical, LLC in January 2014, and OrthoPro, L.L.C. in February 2014. Acquiring new businesses involves a myriad of risks. Whenever a new business is acquired, there is a risk we may fail to realize some or all of the anticipated benefits of the transaction. This can occur if integration of the acquired business proves to be more complicated than planned, resulting in failure to realize operational synergies and/or failure to mitigate operational dis-synergies, diversion of management attention, and loss of key personnel. It can also occur if the acquired business fails to meet our revenue projections, exposes us to unexpected liabilities, or if our pre-acquisition due diligence fails to uncover issues that negatively affect the value or cost structure of the acquired enterprise. Although we carefully plan our acquisitions, there can be no assurance these and other risks won’t prevent us from realizing the expected benefits of our acquisitions.

Product liability lawsuits could harm our business.
The manufacture and sale of medical devices exposes us to significant risk of product liability claims, and we remain responsible for claims associated with products sold before divesting our OrthoRecon business to MicroPort.
We have received more than 700 claims for personal injury associated with metal-on-metal hip replacement systems. The number of claims continues to increase, we believe due to the negative publicity in the industry regarding these devices. We believe we have data that supports the efficacy and safety of our metal-on-metal hip replacement systems, and have been vigorously defending these cases. While continuing to dispute liability, we recently agreed to participate in court supervised mediation in the multi-district federal court litigation presently pending in the Northern District of Georgia.

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Claims for personal injury have also been made against us associated with fractures of our PROFEMUR® long titanium modular neck product. We believe that the overall fracture rate for the product is low and the fractures appear, at least in part, to relate to patient demographics, and have been vigorously defending these matters. While continuing to dispute liability, we have been open to settling these claims in circumstances where we believe the settlement amount is reasonable relative to the risk and expense of litigation.
Legal defenses are costly, regardless of the outcome. We may experience increased legal expenses as we defend our self in these matters, and we could incur liabilities associated with adverse outcomes that exceed our products liability insurance coverage.
In the future, we may be subject to additional product liability claims. Additionally, we could experience a material design or manufacturing failure in our products, a quality system failure, other safety issues, or heightened regulatory scrutiny that would warrant a recall of some of our products. Product liability lawsuits and claims, safety alerts and product recalls, regardless of their ultimate outcome, could have a material adverse effect on our business and reputation and on our ability to attract and retain customers.

Our existing product liability insurance coverage may be inadequate to protect us from any liabilities we might incur.
If the product liability claims brought against us involve uninsured liabilities or result in liabilities that exceed our insurance coverage, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. Further, such product liability matters may negatively impact our ability to obtain insurance coverage or cost-effective insurance coverage in future periods.

A competitor's recall of its modular hip systems, and the liability claims and adverse publicity which ensued, could generate copycat claims against modular hip systems we sold.
On July 6, 2012, Stryker announced the voluntary recall of its Rejuvenate Modular and ABG II modular neck hip stems citing risks including the potential for fretting and/or corrosion at or about the modular neck junction. Although Stryker's recalled modular neck hip stems differ in design and material from the PROFEMUR® modular neck systems we sold before we divested our OrthoRecon business, we have previously noted the risk that Stryker's recall and the resultant publicity could negatively impact sales of modular neck systems of other manufacturers, including the PROFEMUR® system, and that Stryker's action has increased industry focus on the safety of cobalt chrome modular neck products. We have carefully monitored the clinical performance of the PROFEMUR® modular neck hip system, which combine a cobalt chrome modular neck and a titanium stem. With over 33,000 units sold since this version was introduced in 2009, and an extremely low complaint rate, we remain confident in the safety and efficacy of this product. Nevertheless, in light of Stryker's recall, the resulting product liability claims to which it has been subject, and the general negative publicity surrounding “metal-on-metal” articulating surfaces (which do not involve modular hip stems), there remains a risk that, even in the absence of clinical evidence, claims for personal injury relating to sales of these products before divestiture of our OrthoRecon business could increase.

We must obtain regulatory approval from the FDA before we can market Augment® Bone Graft in the United States.
Augment® Bone Graft is a product candidate that is regulated by the FDA. Augment® Bone Graft will require approval of a PMA application before it can be marketed in the United States.
In June 2010, the FDA accepted for review a three-part modular PMA application seeking approval of Augment® Bone Graft for use in hind foot and ankle fusions in the U.S. The FDA's Medical Devices Advisory Committee conducted a meeting of its Orthopedic and Rehabilitation Devices Panel (the panel) in May 2011 during which the panel reviewed Augment® Bone Graft. The panel voted narrowly in support of the safety and efficacy of Augment® Bone Graft for use as an alternative to autograph in hind foot and ankle fusion procedures, and narrowly in support of the finding that Augment® Bone Graft demonstrates a reasonable benefit to risk profile for the same indication.
Despite panel approval in January 2012, the FDA issued a not approvable letter for Augment® Bone Graft, stating that, notwithstanding the panel’s recommendation, the PMA, without additional information, must be considered not approvable and that to place the PMA in approvable form, the application must be amended. The letter listed the information that would need to be submitted for the PMA application to be approvable. The FDA's key requests included a re-reading of all 24-week CT scans, further analysis of all study adverse events, re-categorization of secondary surgeries as failures, and stratification of results by various subgroups.
In July 2012, a PMA amendment was submitted to the FDA that provided the requested information. In August 2013, the FDA issued a second not approvable letter for Augment® Bone Graft, stating, among other things, that a new clinical trial would be required in order to gain approval. A new clinical trial would take many years to complete, be burdensome and expensive, and would offer no assurance that FDA would ultimately approve Augment® Bone Graft for commercial sale in the U.S.


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If the FDA does not approve Augment® Bone Graft, delays approval, requires us to perform additional clinical trials prior to approval or imposes significant labeling restrictions that reduce Augment® Bone Graft's market potential, we may never achieve the expected benefits of the merger with BioMimetic.

On March 1, 2013, we completed our acquisition of BioMimetic, paying approximately $190 million upon closing in a combination of cash and our stock, with no assurance the FDA would approve Augment® Bone Graft, BioMimetic’s flagship product. In August 2013, the FDA issued a not approvable letter for Augment® Bone Graft, stating, among other things, that a new clinical trial would be required in order to gain approval. A new clinical trial would take many years to complete, be burdensome and expensive, and would offer no assurance that FDA would ultimately approve Augment® Bone Graft for commercial sale in the U.S. Our stock price declined when the FDA’s not approvable letter was announced. We disagreed with the FDA’s not approvable determination, and appealed the decision under applicable regulations. As a result, the FDA has convened a Dispute Resolution Panel (DRP) to make recommendations as to the scientific issues in dispute. However, there can be no assurance the DRP will resolve the disputed issues in our favor. Moreover, even if the DRP does resolve the disputed issues in our favor, its determinations are not binding on the FDA. If the FDA does not withdraw or amend its not approvable determination for Augment® Bone Graft, or if it does so in a way that leaves or creates significant obstacles to approval, or if the FDA delays its decision, or imposes labeling restrictions that reduce Augment® Bone Graft's market potential, we may not realize any benefits from our acquisition of BioMimetic, despite the substantial sums invested. In such event, our reputation and business would be harmed and our stock price could decline further.

A substantial portion of our business is conducted outside of the United States, which could subject us to increased scrutiny under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act.
Our international operations expose us to legal and regulatory risks. These risks include the risk that our international distributors could engage in conduct violative of U.S. or local law, including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA). Recent investigations of companies in our industry by the SEC and the U.S. Department of Justice have focused on potential FCPA violations in connection with the sale of medical devices in foreign countries. We believe we have compliance systems, which enable us to prevent these behaviors. However, if despite our efforts we are not successful in mitigating these risks, we could become the target of enforcement actions by U.S. or local authorities, and this could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and cash flows.

A significant portion of our product sales are made through independent distributors and sales agents who we do not control.
A significant portion of our product sales are made through independent sales representatives and distributors. Because the independent distributor often controls the customer relationships within its territory (and, in certain countries outside the U.S., the regulatory relationship), there is a risk that if our relationship with the distributor ends, our relationship with the customer will be lost (and, in certain countries outside the U.S., that we could experience delays in amending or transferring our product registrations). Also, because we do not control a distributor's field sales agents, there is a risk we will be unable to ensure that our sales processes, compliance and other priorities will be consistently communicated and executed by the distributor. If we fail to maintain relationships with our key distributors, or fail to ensure that our distributors adhere to our sales processes, compliance and other priorities, this could have an adverse effect on our operations. In the past, we have experienced turnover within our independent distributor organization. This did adversely affect short term financial results as we transitioned to direct sales employees or new independent representatives. While we believe these transitions were managed effectively, there is a risk that future transitions could have a greater adverse effect on our operations than we have previously experienced.

Allegations of wrongdoing by the United States Department of Justice and OIG-HHS and related publicity could lead to further governmental investigations or actions by other third parties.
As a result of the allegations of wrongdoing made by the USAO and the publicity surrounding our recent settlement with the United States Department of Justice (DOJ) and OIG-HHS, and amendments to the DPA and CIA, other governmental agencies, including state authorities, could conduct investigations or institute proceedings that are not precluded by the terms of settlements reflected in the DPA and the CIA. In August 2012, we received a subpoena from the United States Attorney's Office for the Western District of Tennessee requesting records and documentation relating to our PROFEMUR® series of hip replacement devices for the period from January 1, 2000 to August 2, 2012. These interactions with the authorities could increase our exposure to lawsuits by potential whistleblowers, including under the federal false claims acts, based on new theories or allegations arising from the allegations made by the USAO. The costs of defending or resolving any such investigations or proceedings could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.


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If we lose any existing or future intellectual property lawsuits, a court could require us to pay significant damages or prevent us from selling our products.
The medical device industry is litigious with respect to patents and other intellectual property rights. Companies in the medical device industry have used intellectual property litigation to gain a competitive advantage.
We are party to lawsuits involving patents or other intellectual property. A legal proceeding, regardless of the outcome, could drain our financial resources and divert the time and effort of our management. If we lose one of these proceedings, a court, or a similar foreign governing body, could require us to pay significant damages to third parties, indemnify third parties from loss, require us to seek licenses from third parties, pay ongoing royalties, redesign our products, or prevent us from manufacturing, using or selling our products. In addition to being costly, protracted litigation to defend or prosecute our intellectual property rights could result in our customers or potential customers deferring or limiting their purchase or use of the affected products until resolution of the litigation.

If our patents and other intellectual property rights do not adequately protect our products, we may lose market share to our competitors and be unable to operate our business profitably.
We rely on patents, trade secrets, copyrights, know-how, trademarks, license agreements and contractual provisions to establish our intellectual property rights and protect our products. These legal means, however, afford only limited protection and may not completely protect our rights. In addition, we cannot be assured that any of our pending patent applications will issue. The USPTO may deny or require a significant narrowing of the claims in its pending patent applications and the patents issuing from such applications. Any patents issuing from the pending patent applications may not provide us with significant commercial protection. We could incur substantial costs in proceedings before the USPTO. These proceedings could result in adverse decisions as to the priority of our inventions and the narrowing or invalidation of claims in issued patents. In addition, the laws of some of the countries in which our products are or may be sold may not protect our intellectual property to the same extent as U.S. laws or at all. We also may be unable to protect our rights in trade secrets and unpatented proprietary technology in these countries.
In addition, we hold licenses from third parties that are necessary to utilize certain technologies used in the design and manufacturing of some of our products. The loss of such licenses would prevent us from manufacturing, marketing and selling these products, which could harm our business.
We seek to protect our trade secrets, know-how and other unpatented proprietary technology, in part, with confidentiality agreements with our employees, independent distributors and consultants. We cannot be assured, however, that the agreements will not be breached, adequate remedies for any breach would be available or our trade secrets, know-how, and other unpatented proprietary technology will not otherwise become known to or independently developed by our competitors.

If we lose one of our key suppliers, we may be unable to meet customer orders for our products in a timely manner or within our budget.
We have relied on a limited number of suppliers for the components used in our products. Our reconstructive joint devices are produced from various surgical grades of titanium, cobalt chrome, stainless steel, various grades of high-density polyethylenes and ceramics. We have relied on one source to supply us with a certain grade of cobalt chrome alloy, one supplier for the silicone elastomer used in some of our extremity products, and one supplier to provide a key ingredient of Augment® Bone Graft. The manufacture of our products is highly exacting and complex, and our business could suffer if a sole source supply arrangement is unexpectedly terminated or interrupted, and we are unable to obtain an acceptable new source of supply in a timely fashion.
In December 2013, we received written notice from Novartis of its intent to terminate, effective December 1, 2015, the exclusive supply agreement under which we purchase from Novartis purified bulk recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor (rhPDGF-BB), which is a key component of Augment® Bone Graft. Under the agreement, Novartis is obligated to cooperate with us in identifying a new supplier and in facilitating a technology transfer. We believe our existing inventory of rhPDGF-BB, together with our final purchases from Novartis, will leave us with an adequate supply of this product until a new supplier is brought on line. However, if we are not successful in identifying, qualifying, training and provisioning a new supplier before our available supply is exhausted, there is a risk our ability to supply Augment® Bone Graft could be interrupted.
Our biologic product line includes a single sourced supplier for our GRAFTJACKET® family of soft tissue repair and graft containment products. In addition, certain biologic products depend upon a single supplier as our source for DBM and CBM, and any failure to obtain DBM and CBM from this source in a timely manner will deplete levels of on-hand raw materials inventory and could interfere with our ability to process and distribute allograft products. During 2013, we are expecting a single not-for-profit tissue bank to meet all of our DBM and CBM order requirements, a key component in the allograft products we currently produce, market and distribute. In addition, we rely on a single supplier of soft tissue graft for BIOTAPE® XM.
We cannot be sure that our supply of DBM, CBM and soft tissue graft for BIOTAPE® XM will continue to be available at current levels or will be sufficient to meet our needs, or that future suppliers of DBM, CBM and soft tissue graft for BIOTAPE®

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XM will be free from FDA regulatory action impacting their sale of DBM, CBM and soft tissue graft for BIOTAPE® XM. As there are a small number of suppliers, if we cannot continue to obtain DBM, CBM and soft tissue graft for BIOTAPE® XM from our current sources in volumes sufficient to meet our needs, we may not be able to locate replacement sources of DBM, CBM and soft tissue graft for BIOTAPE® XM on commercially reasonable terms, if at all. This could interrupt our business, which could adversely affect our sales.
Suppliers of raw materials and components may decide, or be required, for reasons beyond our control to cease supplying raw materials and components to us. FDA regulations may require additional testing of any raw materials or components from new suppliers prior to our use of these materials or components and in the case of a device with a PMA application, we may be required to obtain prior FDA permission, either of which could delay or prevent our access to or use of such raw materials or components.

We are dependent on various information technology systems, and failures of, interruptions to, or unauthorized tampering of those systems could have a material adverse effect on our business.
We rely extensively on information technology systems to conduct business. These systems include, but are not limited to, ordering and managing materials from suppliers, converting materials to finished products, shipping products to customers, processing transactions, summarizing and reporting results of operations, complying with regulatory, legal or tax requirements, providing data security and other processes necessary to manage our business. If our systems are damaged or cease to function properly due to any number of causes, ranging from catastrophic events to power outages to security breaches, and our business continuity plans do not effectively compensate timely, we may suffer interruptions in our ability to manage operations.

Fluctuations in insurance cost and availability could adversely affect our profitability or our risk management profile.
We hold a number of insurance policies, including product liability insurance, directors' and officers' liability insurance, property insurance and workers' compensation insurance. If the costs of maintaining adequate insurance coverage should increase significantly in the future, our operating results could be materially adversely impacted. Likewise, if the availability of any of our current insurance coverage should become unavailable to us or become economically impractical, we would be required to operate our business without indemnity from commercial insurance providers.

Modifications to our marketed devices may require FDA regulatory clearances or approvals or require us to cease marketing or recall the modified devices until such additional clearances or approvals are obtained.
The FDA requires device manufacturers to make a determination of whether or not a modification to a cleared and commercialized medical device requires a new approval or clearance. However, the FDA can review a manufacturer's decision not to submit for additional approvals or clearances. Any modification to an FDA approved or cleared device that would significantly affect its safety or efficacy or that would constitute a major change in its intended use would require a new premarket approval or 510(k) clearance and could be considered misbranded if the modified device is commercialized and such additional approval or clearance was not obtained. We cannot assure you that the FDA will agree with our decisions not to seek approvals or clearances for particular device modifications or that we will be successful in obtaining additional approvals or 510(k) clearances for modifications.
We obtained 510(k) premarket clearance for certain devices we market or marketed in the United States. We have subsequently modified some of those devices or device labeling since obtaining 510(k) clearance under the view that these modifications did not significantly affect the safety or efficacy of the device, and did not require new approvals or clearances. If the FDA disagrees with our decisions and requires us to obtain additional premarket approvals or 510(k) clearances for any modifications to our products and we fail to obtain such approvals or clearances or fails to secure approvals or clearances in a timely manner, we may be required to cease manufacturing and marketing the modified device or to recall such modified device until we obtain FDA approval or clearance and we may be subject to significant regulatory fines or penalties.

If we fail to comply with the terms of the Corporate Integrity Agreement, we may be subject to criminal prosecution and/or exclusion from federal healthcare programs.
As previously reported, on September 29, 2010, our wholly-owned subsidiary, Wright Medical Technologies, Inc. (WMT) entered into a 12-month Deferred Prosecution Agreement (DPA) with the United States Attorney's Office for the District of New Jersey, referred to as the USAO. WMT also entered into a five-year Corporate Integrity Agreement (CIA) with the Inspector General of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, referred to as OIG-HHS. On September 15, 2011, WMT reached an agreement with the USAO and the OIG-HHS under which WMT voluntarily agreed to extend the term of its DPA for 12 months. On October 4, 2012, the USAO issued a press release announcing that the amended DPA expired on September 29, 2012, that the USAO had moved to dismiss the criminal complaint against WMT because WMT had fully complied with the terms of the DPA, and that the court had ordered dismissal of the complaint on October 4, 2012. WMT's obligations under the CIA expire as of September 29, 2015. The DPA imposed, and the CIA continues to impose, certain obligations on WMT to maintain compliance

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with U.S. healthcare laws. Our failure to do so could expose us to significant liability, including, but not limited to, exclusion from federal healthcare program participation, including Medicaid and Medicare, which would have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows, potential prosecution, civil and criminal fines or penalties, and additional litigation cost and expense.
The CIA acknowledges the existence of our Corporate Compliance Program and provides for certain other compliance-related activities during the five-year term of the agreement. If we breach the CIA, the OIG-HHS may take further action against us, up to and including exclusion from participation in federal healthcare programs, which exclusion would have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Efforts to enhance our Corporate Compliance Program require the cooperation of many individuals and may divert resources from our other business activities and require substantial investment.
We are committed to the continued enhancement of our Corporate Compliance Program. This requires additional financial and human resources. Successful implementation of our enhanced Corporate Compliance Program requires the full and sustained cooperation of our employees, distributors and sales agents, as well as the healthcare professionals with whom we interact. These efforts may require increased expenses and additional investments. We may also encounter inefficiencies in the implementation of our new compliance enhancements, including delays in medical education, research and development projects, and clinical studies, which may unfavorably impact our business and our relationships with customers.

The European Union and many of its world markets rely on the CE-Mark as the path to market our products.
The European Medical Device Directive requires that many of our products that bear the CE-Mark be supported by post market clinical data. We are in the process of implementing systems and procedures to control this activity in order to comply with these requirements, including establishing contractual relationships with the HCP clinical study sites in accordance with our internal compliance requirements. We intend to obtain the needed clinical data to support our marketed products, but there can be no assurance that European regulators will accept the results. This could potentially impact business performance. In addition, changes to the certification and oversight responsibilities of notified bodies presently under consideration by the European Commission, if implemented, could result in more stringent notified body oversight requirements, require additional resources to maintain compliance, and increase the risk of negative audit observations.

Our biologics business is subject to emerging governmental regulations that can significantly impact our business.
The FDA has statutory authority to regulate allograft-based products, processing and materials. The FDA, European Union and Health Canada have been working to establish more comprehensive regulatory frameworks for allograft-based, tissue-containing products, which are principally derived from cadaveric tissue. The framework developed by the FDA establishes risk-based criteria for determining whether a particular human tissue-based product will be classified as human tissue, a medical device or biologic drug requiring 510(k) clearance or PMA approval. All tissue-based products are subject to extensive FDA regulation, including establishment of registration requirements, product listing requirements, good tissue practice requirements for manufacturing and screening requirements that ensure that diseases are not transmitted to tissue recipients. The FDA has also proposed extensive additional requirements addressing sub-contracted tissue services, traceability to the recipient/patient and donor records review. If a tissue-based product is considered human tissue, FDA requirements focus on preventing the introduction, transmission and spread of communicable diseases to recipients. Clinical data or review of safety and efficacy is not required before the tissue can be marketed. However, if tissue is considered a medical device or biologic drug, then FDA clearance or approval is required.
Additionally, our biologics business involves the procurement and transplantation of allograft tissue, which is subject to federal regulation under the National Organ Transplant Act (NOTA). NOTA prohibits the sale of human organs, including bone and other human tissue, for valuable consideration within the meaning of NOTA. NOTA permits the payment of reasonable expenses associated with the transportation, processing, preservation, quality control and storage of human tissue. We currently charge our customers for these expenses. In the future, if NOTA is amended or reinterpreted, we may not be able to charge these expenses to our customers, and, as a result, our business could be adversely affected.
Our principal allograft-based biologics offerings include ALLOMATRIX®, GRAFTJACKET® and IGNITE® products.

If we fail to compete successfully in the future against our existing or potential competitors, our sales and operating results may be negatively affected, and we may not achieve future growth.
The markets for our products are highly competitive. We may not be able to meet the prices offered by our competitors or to offer products similar to or more desirable than those offered by our competitors.


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We operate in international markets that are subject to political, economic and social instability.
We operate in in international markets. Our international sales operations expose us and our representatives, agents and distributors to risks inherent in operating in foreign jurisdictions.
These risks include:  
the imposition of additional foreign governmental controls or regulations on orthopaedic implants and biologic products;
new export license requirements, particularly related to our biologic products;
economic instability, including currency risk between the U.S. dollar and foreign currencies, in our target markets;
a shortage of high-quality international salespeople and distributors;
loss of any key personnel who possess proprietary knowledge or are otherwise important to our success in international markets;
changes in third-party reimbursement policy that may require some of the patients who receive our implant products to directly absorb medical costs or that may necessitate our reducing selling prices for our products;
changes in tariffs and other trade restrictions, particularly related to the exportation of our biologic products;
work stoppages or strikes in the healthcare industry, such as those that have affected our operations in France, Canada, Korea and Finland in the past;
a shortage of nurses in some of our target markets; and
exposure to different legal and political standards due to our conducting business in approximately 60 countries.
As a U.S.-based company doing business in foreign jurisdictions, not only are we subject to the laws of other jurisdictions, we are also subject to U.S. laws governing our activities in foreign countries, such as the FCPA, as well as various import-export laws, regulations, and embargoes. If our business activities were determined to violate these laws, regulations or rules, we could suffer serious consequences.
Healthcare regulation and reimbursement for medical devices vary significantly from country to country. This changing environment could adversely affect our ability to sell our products in some jurisdictions.

We have a significant amount of indebtedness. We may not be able to generate enough cash flow from our operations to service our indebtedness, and we may incur additional indebtedness in the future, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We have a significant amount of indebtedness, including $300 million in aggregate principal with additional accrued interest under our 2.00% Convertible Senior Notes due 2017. Our ability to make payments on, and to refinance, our indebtedness, including these notes, and to fund planned capital expenditures, research and development efforts, working capital, acquisitions and other general corporate purposes depends on our ability to generate cash in the future. This, to a certain extent, is subject to general economic, financial, competitive, legislative, regulatory and other factors, some of which are beyond our control. If we do not generate sufficient cash flow from operations or if future borrowings are not available to us in an amount sufficient to pay our indebtedness, including payments of principal upon conversion of outstanding convertible notes or on their maturity or in connection with a transaction involving us that constitutes a fundamental change under the indenture governing the convertible notes, or to fund our liquidity needs, we may be forced to refinance all or a portion of our indebtedness, including the convertible notes, on or before the maturity thereof, sell assets, reduce or delay capital expenditures, seek to raise additional capital or take other similar actions. We may not be able to execute any of these actions on commercially reasonable terms or at all. Our ability to refinance our indebtedness will depend on our financial condition at the time, the restrictions in the instruments governing our indebtedness and other factors, including market conditions. In addition, in the event of a default under the convertible notes, the holders and/or the trustee under the indentures governing the convertible notes may accelerate its payment obligations under the convertible notes, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Our inability to generate sufficient cash flow to satisfy our debt service obligations, or to refinance or restructure our obligations on commercially reasonable terms or at all, would likely have an adverse effect, which could be material, on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition, our significant indebtedness, combined with our other financial obligations and contractual commitments, could have other important consequences. For example, it could:  
make us more vulnerable to adverse changes in general U.S. and worldwide economic, industry and competitive conditions and adverse changes in government regulation;
limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and our industry;
place us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors who have less debt; and
limit our ability to borrow additional amounts for working capital, capital expenditures, research and development efforts, acquisitions, debt service requirements, execution of our business strategy or other purposes.

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Any of these factors could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, if we incur additional indebtedness, the risks related to our business and our ability to service our indebtedness would increase.
In addition, under our 2.00% Convertible Senior Notes due 2017, we are required to offer to repurchase the convertible notes upon the occurrence of a fundamental change, which could include, among other things, any acquisition of ours for consideration other than publicly traded securities. The repurchase price must be paid in cash, and this obligation may have the effect of discouraging, delaying or preventing an acquisition of ours that would otherwise be beneficial to our security holders.

Hedge and warrant transactions entered into in connection with the issuance of our convertible notes may affect the value of our common stock.
In connection with the issuance of our 2.00% Convertible Senior Notes due 2017, we entered into hedge transactions with various financial institutions with the objective of reducing the potential dilutive effect of issuing our common stock upon conversion of the convertible notes and the potential cash outlay from the cash conversion of the convertible notes. We also entered into separate warrant transactions with the same financial institutions. In connection with our hedge and warrant transactions associated with the convertible notes, these financial institutions purchased our common stock in secondary market transactions and entered into various over-the-counter derivative transactions with respect to our common stock. These entities or their affiliates are likely to modify their hedge positions from time to time prior to conversion or maturity of the convertible notes by purchasing and selling shares of our common stock, other of our securities or other instruments they may wish to use in connection with such hedging. Any of these transactions and activities could adversely affect the value of our common stock and, as a result, the number of shares and the value of the common stock holders will receive upon conversion of the convertible notes. In addition, subject to movement in the price of our common stock, if the hedge transactions settle in our favor, we could be exposed to credit risk related to the other party with respect to the payment we are owed from such other party. If any of the participants in the hedge transactions is unwilling or unable to perform its obligations for any reason, we would not be able to receive the benefit of such transaction. We cannot provide any assurances as to the financial stability or viability of any of the participants in the hedge transactions.

Rating agencies may provide unsolicited ratings on our convertible notes that could reduce the market value or liquidity of our common stock.
We have not requested a rating of our convertible notes from any rating agency and we do not anticipate that the convertible notes will be rated. However, if one or more rating agencies independently elects to rate the convertible notes and assigns the convertible notes a rating lower than the rating expected by investors, or reduces such rating in the future, the market price or liquidity of our convertible notes and our common stock could be harmed. Should a decline in the market price of our convertible notes, as compared to the price of our common stock occur, this may trigger the right of the holders of our convertible notes to convert such notes into cash and shares of our common stock, as applicable.

Turmoil in the credit markets and the financial services industry may negatively impact our business.
The credit markets and the financial services industry have been experiencing a period of unprecedented turmoil and upheaval characterized by the bankruptcy, failure, collapse or sale of various financial institutions and an unprecedented level of intervention from the U.S. and foreign governments. While the ultimate outcome of these events cannot be predicted, they may have an adverse effect on our customers' ability to borrow money from their existing lenders or to obtain credit from other sources to purchase our products. In addition, the economic crisis could also adversely impact our suppliers' ability to provide us with materials and components, either of which may negatively impact our business.

The collectability of our accounts receivable may be affected by general economic conditions.
Our liquidity is dependent on, among other things, the collection of our accounts receivable. Collections of our receivables may be affected by general economic conditions. Although current economic conditions have not had a material adverse effect on our ability to collect such receivables, we can make no assurances regarding future economic conditions or their effect on our ability to collect our receivables, particularly from our international stocking distributors.

If we are unable to continue to develop and market new products and technologies, we may experience a decrease in demand for our products, or our products could become obsolete, and our business would suffer.
We are continually engaged in product development and improvement programs, and new products represent a significant component of our growth rate. We may be unable to compete effectively with our competitors unless we can keep up with existing or new products and technologies in the orthopaedic market. If we do not continue to introduce new products and technologies, or if those products and technologies are not accepted, we may not be successful. Additionally, our competitors' new products and technologies may beat our products to market, may be more effective or less expensive than our products or may render our products obsolete.

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Our inability to maintain contractual relationships with healthcare professionals could have a negative impact on our research and development and medical education programs.
We maintain contractual relationships with respected physicians and medical personnel in hospitals and universities who assist in product research and development and in the training of surgeons on the safe and effective use of our products. We continue to place emphasis on the development of proprietary products and product improvements to complement and expand our existing product lines as well as providing high quality training on those products. If we are unable to maintain these relationships, our ability to develop and market new and improved products and train on the use of those products could decrease, and future operating results could be unfavorably affected.

Our business could suffer if the medical community does not continue to accept allograft technology.
New allograft products, technologies and enhancements may never achieve broad market acceptance due to numerous factors, including:  
lack of clinical acceptance of allograft products and related technologies;
the introduction of competitive tissue repair treatment options that render allograft products and technologies too expensive and obsolete;
lack of available third-party reimbursement;
the inability to train surgeons in the use of allograft products and technologies;
the risk of disease transmission; and
ethical concerns about the commercial aspects of harvesting cadaveric tissue.
Market acceptance will also depend on the ability to demonstrate that existing and new allograft products and technologies are attractive alternatives to existing tissue repair treatment options. To demonstrate this, we rely upon surgeon evaluations of the clinical safety, efficacy, ease of use, reliability and cost effectiveness of our tissue repair options and technologies. Recommendations and endorsements by influential surgeons are important to the commercial success of allograft products and technologies. In addition, several countries, notably Japan, prohibit the use of allografts. If allograft products and technologies are not broadly accepted in the marketplace, we may not achieve a competitive position in the market.

If adequate levels of reimbursement from third-party payors for our products are not obtained, surgeons and patients may be reluctant to use our products and our sales may decline.
In the United States, healthcare providers who purchase our products generally rely on third-party payors, principally federally-funded Medicare, state-funded Medicaid and private health insurance plans, to pay for all or a portion of the cost of joint reconstructive procedures and products utilized in those procedures. We may be unable to sell our products on a profitable basis if third-party payors deny coverage or reduce their current levels of reimbursement. Our sales depend largely on governmental healthcare programs and private health insurers reimbursing patients' medical expenses. Surgeons, hospitals and other healthcare providers may not purchase our products if they do not receive appropriate reimbursement from third-party payors for procedures using our products. In light of healthcare reform measures and the continued downturn in our economy, payors continue to review their coverage policies for existing and new therapies and may deny coverage for treatments that include the use of our products.
In addition, some healthcare providers in the U.S. have adopted or are considering bundled payment methodologies and/or managed care systems in which the providers contract to provide comprehensive healthcare for a fixed cost per person. Healthcare providers may attempt to control costs by authorizing fewer elective surgical procedures, including joint reconstructive surgeries, or by requiring the use of the least expensive implant available. Changes in reimbursement policies or healthcare cost containment initiatives that limit or restrict reimbursement for our products may cause our revenues to decline.
If adequate levels of reimbursement from third-party payors outside of the U.S. are not obtained, international sales of our products may decline. Outside of the U.S., reimbursement systems vary significantly by country. Many foreign markets have government-managed healthcare systems that govern reimbursement for medical devices and procedures. Canada, and some European and Asian countries, in particular France, Japan, Taiwan and Korea, have tightened reimbursement rates. Additionally, Brazil, China, Russia and the United Kingdom have recently begun landmark reforms that will significantly alter their healthcare systems. Finally, some foreign reimbursement systems provide for limited payments in a given period and therefore result in extended payment periods.

Our business could be significantly and adversely impacted by recently enacted healthcare reforms.
In March 2010, comprehensive health care reform legislation in the form of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act (the Affordable Care Act) was enacted. Among other provisions, these bills impose a 2.3% excise tax on U.S. sales of medical devices following December 31, 2012. In 2013, we recognized approximately $2.6 million of costs for the medical device excise tax. The Affordable Care Act also includes numerous provisions to limit Medicare

21


spending through reductions in various fee schedule payments and by instituting more sweeping payment reforms, such as bundled payments for episodes of care and the establishment of “accountable care organizations” under which hospitals and physicians will be able to share savings that result from cost control efforts. Many of these provisions will be implemented through the regulatory process, and policy details have not yet been finalized. Various healthcare reform proposals have also emerged at the state level. We cannot predict with certainty the impact that these federal and state health reforms will have on us. However, an expansion in government's role in the U.S. healthcare industry may lower reimbursements for its products, reduce medical procedure volumes, and adversely affect our business and results of operations, possibly materially.
There is an increasing trend for more criminal prosecutions and compliance enforcement activities for noncompliance with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) as well as for data breaches involving protected health information (PHI). In the ordinary course of our business, we may receive PHI. If we are unable to comply with HIPAA or experiences a data breach involving PHI, Wright could be subject to criminal and civil sanctions.

If we cannot retain our key personnel, we will not be able to manage and operate successfully, and we may not be able to meet our strategic objectives.
Our continued success depends, in part, upon key managerial, scientific, sales and technical personnel, as well as our ability to continue to attract and retain additional highly qualified personnel. We compete for such personnel with other companies, academic institutions, governmental entities and other organizations. There can be no assurance that we will be successful in retaining our current personnel or in hiring or retaining qualified personnel in the future. Loss of key personnel or the inability to hire or retain qualified personnel in the future could have a material adverse effect on our ability to operate successfully. Further, any inability on our part to enforce non-compete arrangements related to key personnel who have left the business could have a material adverse effect on our business.

If a natural or man-made disaster strikes our manufacturing facility, we could be unable to manufacture our products for a substantial amount of time, and our sales could be disrupted.
We rely on a single manufacturing facility in Arlington, Tennessee, which is located near the New Madrid fault line. The Arlington facility and the manufacturing equipment we use to produce our products would be difficult to replace and could require substantial lead-time to repair or replace. Our facility may be affected by natural or man-made disasters. In the event our facility is affected by a disaster, we would be forced to rely on third-party manufacturers. Although we believe we have adequate disaster recovery plans in place and we possess adequate insurance for damage to its property and the disruption of our business from casualties, such plans and insurance may not cover such disasters and all of our potential losses and may not continue to be available to us on acceptable terms or at all.

Our business plan relies on certain assumptions about the market for our products, which, if incorrect, may adversely affect our profitability.
We believe that the aging of the general population and increasingly active lifestyles will continue and that these trends will increase the need for our products. The projected demand for our products could materially differ from actual demand if our assumptions regarding these trends and acceptance of our products by the medical community prove to be incorrect or do not materialize, or if non-surgical treatments gain more widespread acceptance as a viable alternative to orthopaedic implants.

Fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates could result in declines in our reported sales and earnings.
Because a majority of our international sales are denominated in local currencies and not in U.S. dollars, our reported sales and earnings are subject to fluctuations in foreign exchange rates. Approximately 19%, 18% and 16% of its total net sales were denominated in foreign currencies during the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011, respectively, and we expect that foreign currencies will continue to represent a similarly significant percentage of our net sales in the future. Our international net sales were unfavorably impacted by foreign currency fluctuations of approximately $1.2 million in 2013, compared to the unfavorable impact of $1.1 million in 2012 and favorable impact of $5.8 million in 2011. Operating costs related to these sales are largely denominated in the same respective currencies, thereby partially limiting our transaction risk exposure. However, cost of sales related to these sales are primarily denominated in U.S. dollars; therefore, as the U.S. dollar strengthens, the gross margin associated with our sales denominated in foreign currencies experience declines.
We currently employ a derivative program using 30-day foreign currency forward contracts to mitigate the risk of currency fluctuations on our intercompany receivable and payable balances that are denominated in foreign currencies. These forward contracts are expected to offset the transactional gains and losses on the related intercompany balances. These forward contracts are not designated as hedging instruments under Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) Accounting Standard Codification (ASC) Section 815, Derivatives and Hedging Activities. Accordingly, the changes in the fair value and the settlement of the contracts are recognized in the period incurred. We have not historically entered into hedging activities to mitigate the risk of foreign currency fluctuations in our statement of operations.

22



Our quarterly operating results are subject to substantial fluctuations, and you should not rely on them as an indication of our future results.
Our quarterly operating results may vary significantly due to a combination of factors, many of which are beyond our control. These factors include:  
demand for products, which historically has been lowest in the third quarter;
our ability to meet the demand for our products;
increased competition;
the number, timing and significance of new products and product introductions and enhancements by us and our competitors;
our ability to develop, introduce and market new and enhanced versions of our products on a timely basis;
changes in pricing policies by us and our competitors;
changes in the treatment practices of orthopaedic surgeons;
changes in distributor relationships and sales force size and composition;
the timing of material expense- or income-generating events and the related recognition of their associated financial impact;
prevailing interest rates on our excess cash investments;
fluctuations in foreign currency rates;
the timing of significant orders and shipments;
ability to obtain reimbursement for our products;
availability of raw materials;
work stoppages or strikes in the healthcare industry;
changes in FDA and foreign governmental regulatory policies, requirements and enforcement practices;
changes in accounting policies, estimates and treatments;
restructuring charges, costs associated with our U.S. governmental inquiries and other charges;
variations in cost of sales due to the amount and timing of excess and obsolete inventory charges, commodity prices and manufacturing variances;
income tax fluctuations; and
general economic factors.
We believe our quarterly sales and operating results may vary significantly in the future and period-to-period comparisons of our results of operations are not necessarily meaningful and should not be relied upon as indications of future performance. We cannot assure you that our sales will increase or be sustained in future periods or that we will be profitable in any future period. Any shortfalls in sales or earnings from levels expected by securities or orthopaedic industry analysts could have an immediate and significant adverse effect on the trading price of our common stock in any given period.

Potential stockholder litigation may result in financial losses or harm our reputation and may divert management resources.
It is possible that litigation could be brought by our stockholders, including private securities litigation and stockholder derivative suits, that if initiated, could divert management's attention, harm our business and/or reputation, and result in significant liabilities.


23



Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments.

None.

Item 2. Properties.
Our corporate headquarters are located in Memphis, TN.  We lease 92,000 square feet of office space with research and development facilities under a lease agreement that is renewable through 2034.  Our U.S operations consist of a state of the art manufacturing facility in Arlington, Tennessee. We lease the manufacturing facility from the Industrial Development Board of the Town of Arlington. At this facility, we primarily produce orthopaedic implants and some related surgical instrumentation while utilizing lean manufacturing philosophies. The majority of our surgical instrumentation is produced to our specifications by qualified subcontractors who serve medical device companies. We have started construction of an expansion to the facility, which will be completed during the second quarter of 2014 and will then provide capacity for our production and distribution needs in the upcoming years. 

Our international operations include warehouse, sales, and administrative facilities located in several countries. Our primary international warehouse is located in a leased facility in the United Kingdom. We have an international research and development facility in Costa Rica and sales office in the Netherlands. Our sales offices in Italy, the United Kingdom, Germany, Australia and Canada also include warehouse and administrative space.

Item 3. Legal Proceedings.
From time to time, we are subject to lawsuits and claims that arise out of our operations in the normal course of business. We are the plaintiff or defendant in various litigation matters in the ordinary course of business, some of which involve claims for damages that are substantial in amount.
Governmental Inquiries
On September 29, 2010, we entered into a five year Corporate Integrity Agreement (CIA) with the Office of the Inspector General of the United States Department of Health and Human Services (OIG-HHS). The CIA was filed as Exhibit 10.2 to our current report on Form 8-K filed on September 30, 2010. The CIA will expire on September 29, 2015.
The CIA imposes on us certain obligations to maintain compliance with U.S. healthcare laws, regulations and other requirements. Our failure to do so could expose us to significant liability including, but not limited to, exclusion from federal healthcare program participation, including Medicaid and Medicare, potential prosecution, civil and criminal fines or penalties, as well as additional litigation cost and expense.
Both we and MicroPort, which completed the purchase of our OrthoRecon business in January 2014, will continue to be subject to the CIA.
In addition to the USAO and OIG-HHS, other governmental agencies, including state authorities, could conduct investigations or institute proceedings that are not precluded by the CIA. In addition, the matters which gave rise to the CIA could increase our exposure to lawsuits by potential whistleblowers, including under the federal false claims acts, based on new theories or allegations arising from these matters.
On August 3, 2012, we received a subpoena from the U.S. Attorney's Office for the Western District of Tennessee requesting records and documentation relating to our PROFEMUR® series of hip replacement devices. The subpoena covers the period from January 1, 2000 to August 2, 2012. We continue to respond to the subpoena.
Patent Litigation
In 2011, Howmedica Osteonics Corp. (Howmedica) and Stryker Ireland, Ltd. (collectively, Stryker), each a subsidiary of Stryker Corporation, filed a lawsuit against WMT in the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey (District Court) alleging that we infringed Stryker's U.S. Patent No. 6,475,243 related to our LINEAGE® Acetabular Cup System and DYNASTY® Acetabular Cup System. The lawsuit seeks an order of infringement, injunctive relief, unspecified damages, and various other costs and relief. On July 9, 2013, the district court issued a claim construction ruling. Under the court's claim construction ruling, we do not believe these hip products infringe the asserted patents. In filings with the court, Stryker has conceded that under the court’s claim construction rulings it can no longer pursue its infringement claims. Stryker has asked the court to dismiss the case so it may pursue an appeal.
In 2012, Bonutti Skeletal Innovations, LLC (Bonutti) filed a patent infringement lawsuit against us in the United States Court for the District of Delaware. Bonutti originally alleged that the Link Sled Prosthesis infringes U.S. Patent 6,702,821. The Link Sled Prosthesis is a product we distributed under a distribution agreement with LinkBio Corp which expired on December 31, 2013. In January 2013, Bonutti amended its complaint, alleging that the ADVANCE® knee system, including ODYSSEY®

24


instrumentation, infringes U.S. Patent 8,133,229, and that the ADVANCE® knee system, including ODYSSEY® instrumentation and PROPHECY® guides, infringes U.S. Patent 7,806,896, which was issued on October 5, 2010. All of the claims of the asserted patents are directed to surgical methods for minimally invasive surgery.
In June 2013, Orthophoenix filed a patent lawsuit against us in the United States District Court for the District of Delaware alleging that surgical methods using the X-REAM® product infringe two patents.
In June 2013, Anglefix filed suit in the United States District Court for the Western District of Tennessee, alleging that our ORTHOLOC® products infringe Anglefix’s asserted patent.
In September 2013, ConforMIS, Inc. filed suit against us in the United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts, alleging that our PROPHECY® knee and ankle systems infringe four ConforMIS’ patents. On February 19, 2014, ConforMIS filed an amended complaint asserting four additional patents against us relating to alleged infringement by our PROPHECY® knee and ankle systems and naming MicroPort Orthopedics as an additional defendant.
Subject to the provisions of the asset purchase agreement with MicroPort for the sale of our OrthoRecon business, we will continue to be responsible for defense of existing patent infringement cases relating to our OrthoRecon business, and for resulting liabilities, if any.
Product Liability
Wright Medical Technology, Inc. has been named as a defendant, in some cases with multiple other defendants, in lawsuits in which it is alleged that as yet unspecified defects in the design, manufacture or labeling of certain metal-on-metal hip replacement products rendered the products defective. The lawsuits generally employ similar allegations that use of the products resulted in excessive metal ions and particulate in the patients into whom the devices were implanted, in most cases resulting in revision surgery. We anticipate that additional lawsuits relating to metal on metal hip replacement products may be brought. 
Because of the similar nature of the allegations made by several plaintiffs whose cases were pending in federal courts, upon motion of one plaintiff, Danny L. James, Sr., the United States Judicial Panel on Multidistrict Litigation in February 2012 transferred certain actions pending in the federal court system related to metal on metal hip replacement products to the United States District Court for the Northern District of Georgia, for consolidated pre-trial management of the cases before a single United States District Court Judge (the MDL). The consolidated matter is known as In re: Wright Medical Technology, Inc. Conserve Hip Implant Products Liability Litigation.   
Certain plaintiffs have elected to file their lawsuits in state courts in California. In doing so, most of those plaintiffs have named a surgeon involved in the design of the allegedly defective products as a defendant in the actions, along with his personal corporation. Pursuant to contractual obligations, Wright Medical has agreed to indemnify and defend the surgeon in those actions. Similar to the MDL proceeding in federal court, because the lawsuits generally employ similar allegations, certain of those pending lawsuits in California were consolidated for pretrial handling on May 14, 2012 pursuant to procedures of California state Judicial Counsel Coordinated Proceedings. The consolidated matter is known as In re: Wright Hip Systems Cases, Judicial Counsel Coordination Proceeding No. 4710.
There are other individual lawsuits related to metal on metal hip products pending in various state courts.
Additionally, as of February 21, 2014, we are a defendant in 25 lawsuits in various state and federal courts involving claims for damages for personal injury associated with fractures of our PROFEMUR® long titanium modular neck product.
Employment Litigation
In 2012, two former employees, Frank Bono and Alicia Napoli, each filed separate lawsuits against WMT in the Chancery Court of Shelby County, Tennessee, which asserted claims for retaliatory discharge and breach of contract based upon his or her respective separation pay agreement. In addition, Mr. Bono and Ms. Napoli each asserted a claim for defamation related to the press release issued at the time of their terminations and a wrongful discharge claim alleging violation of the Tennessee Public Protection Act. Mr. Bono and Ms. Napoli each claimed that he or she was entitled to attorney fees in addition to other unspecified damages. On October 23, 2013, Ms. Napoli moved to voluntary dismiss her lawsuit, without prejudice.
Securities Litigation
On July 6, 2011, a purported federal securities class action lawsuit was filed in the United States District Court for the Middle District of Tennessee against BioMimetic Therapeutics, Inc. and certain of its officers and directors, alleging BioMimetic was unduly positive in its public statements about the prospects for FDA approval of Augment® Bone Graft. We acquired BioMimetic in March 2013. In January 2013, the Court granted BioMimetic's, and the other named defendants', motion to dismiss the lawsuit, known as Paula Kuyat, et. al. versus BioMimetic Therapeutics, Inc. et. al., without leave to amend the complaint. The plaintiffs filed a Motion to Alter Judgment or Amend Order and Judgment of Dismissal with Prejudice, seeking reconsideration of the Court's

25


dismissal decision. This motion was denied. Subsequently, the plaintiffs appealed the Court’s dismissal of the case to the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit. The Court of Appeals heard oral argument on December 4, 2013. The Court of Appeals has not yet issued its decision on the plaintiff’s appeal. 

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures.

Not applicable.

26


PART II

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.
Market Information
Our common stock is traded on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “WMGI.” The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, the high and low sales prices per share of our common stock as reported on the Nasdaq Global Select Market.
 
High
 
Low
Fiscal Year 2012
 
 
 
First Quarter
$
19.87

 
$
15.70

Second Quarter
$
21.50

 
$
17.88

Third Quarter
$
22.59

 
$
18.11

Fourth Quarter
$
22.42

 
$
18.89

Fiscal Year 2013
 
 
 
First Quarter
$
24.58

 
$
20.69

Second Quarter
$
27.47

 
$
22.34

Third Quarter
$
28.41

 
$
23.70

Fourth Quarter
$
30.87

 
$
26.06

Holders
As of February 12, 2014, there were 481 stockholders of record. As of February 11, 2014, there were an estimated 30,905 beneficial owners of our common stock.
Dividend Policy
We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our common stock. We currently intend to retain all future earnings for the operation and expansion of our business. We do not anticipate declaring or paying cash dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future. Any payment of cash dividends on our common stock will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend upon our results of operations, earnings, capital requirements, contractual restrictions and other factors deemed relevant by our board of directors. In addition, our current credit facility prohibits us from paying any cash dividends without the lenders’ consent.
Equity Compensation Plan Information
The table below sets forth information regarding the number of securities to be issued upon the exercise of the outstanding stock options granted under our equity compensation plans and the shares of common stock remaining available for future issuance under our equity compensation plans as of December 31, 2013 (in thousands):
Plan Category
 
Number of securities to be issued upon exercise of outstanding options
(in thousands)
 
Weighted-average exercise price of
outstanding options
 
Number of securities
remaining available for
future issuance under
equity compensation
plans
(in thousands)
Equity compensation plans approved by security holders
 
4,516

 
$
22.61

 
3,791

Equity compensation plans not approved by security holders1
 
940

 
17.21

 

Total
 
5,456

 
$
21.68

 
3,791

_________________________________
1 
This amount represents options to purchase 940,000 shares of our common stock granted to Robert Palmisano, Julie Tracy and James Lightman during 2011 and Daniel Garen and Pascal E. R. Girin during 2012 to induce these executives to commence employment with us. Mr. Palmisano's options will vest and become exercisable in three equal annual installments beginning on the first anniversary of the date of grant, September 17, 2011. Ms. Tracy's, Mr. Lightman's, Mr. Garen's and Mr. Girin's options will vest and become exercisable in four equal annual installments beginning on the first anniversary of the date of grant, October 17, 2011, December 29, 2011, January 30, 2012, and November 26, 2012, respectively.

27


Comparison of Total Stockholder Returns
The graph below compares the cumulative total stockholder returns for the period from December 31, 2008 to December 31, 2013, for our common stock, an index composed of U.S. companies whose stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market (the Nasdaq U.S. Companies Index), and an index consisting of Nasdaq-listed companies in the surgical, medical, and dental instruments and supplies industry (the Nasdaq Medical Equipment Companies Index). The graph assumes that $100.00 was invested on December 31, 2008, in our common stock, the Nasdaq U.S. Companies Index, and the Nasdaq Medical Equipment Companies Index, and that all dividends were reinvested. Total returns for the two Nasdaq indices are weighted based on the market capitalization of the companies included therein. Historic stock price performance is not indicative of future stock price performance. We do not make or endorse any prediction as to future stock price performance.

Cumulative Total Stockholder Returns
Based on Reinvestment of $100.00 Beginning on December 31, 2008

 
12/31/2008

 
12/31/2009

 
12/31/2010

 
12/31/2011

 
12/31/2012

 
12/31/2013

Wright Medical Group, Inc.
$
100.00

 
$
92.71

 
$
76.02

 
$
80.76

 
$
102.74

 
$
150.32

Nasdaq U.S. Companies Index
100.00

 
143.74

 
170.17

 
171.08

 
202.39

 
281.91

Nasdaq Medical Equipment Companies Index
100.00

 
145.84

 
155.52

 
178.67

 
198.90

 
233.09

SIC Code 384 - Surgical, Medical, and Dental Instruments and Supplies
100.00

 
131.06

 
134.53

 
131.90

 
154.63

 
207.13


Copyright 2014 CRSP Center for Research in Security Prices, University of Chicago, Graduate School of Business. Zacks Investment Research, Inc. Used with permission. All rights reserved.


28


Item 6. Selected Financial Data.

The following tables set forth certain of our selected consolidated financial data as of the dates and for the years indicated. Historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for any future period. These tables are presented in thousands, except per share data.

 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
 
2010
 
2009
Statement of Operations:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net sales
$
242,330

 
$
214,105

 
$
210,753

 
$
208,489

 
$
191,729

Cost of sales (1)
59,721

 
48,239

 
56,762

 
55,928

 
50,809

Cost of sales — restructuring (2)

 

 
667

 

 

Gross profit
182,609

 
165,866

 
153,324

 
152,561

 
140,920

Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Selling, general and administrative (1) (6)
230,785

 
150,296

 
131,611

 
124,704

 
108,439

Research and development (1)
20,305

 
13,905

 
15,422

 
17,008

 
12,436

  Amortization of intangible assets
7,476

 
4,417

 
2,412

 
2,397

 
2,242

BioMimetic impairment charges
206,249

 

 

 

 

Gain on sale of intellectual property (3)

 
(15,000
)
 

 

 

Restructuring charges (2)

 
431

 
4,613

 
60

 
208

Total operating expenses
464,815

 
154,049

 
154,058

 
144,169

 
123,325

Operating (loss) income (5)
(282,206
)
 
11,817

 
(734
)
 
8,392

 
17,595

Interest expense, net
16,040

 
10,113

 
6,381

 
6,090

 
5,392

Other (income) expense, net (6)
(67,843
)
 
5,089

 
4,241

 
119

 
226

(Loss) Income before income taxes
(230,403
)
 
(3,385
)
 
(11,356
)
 
2,183

 
11,977

Provision (benefits) for income taxes(7)
49,765

 
2

 
(3,961
)
 
624

 
4,607

Net (loss) income from continuing operations
$
(280,168
)
 
$
(3,387
)
 
$
(7,395
)
 
$
1,559

 
$
7,370

Income from discontinued operations, net of tax
$
6,223

 
$
8,671

 
$
2,252

 
$
16,282

 
$
4,761

Net (loss) income
$
(273,945
)
 
$
5,284

 
$
(5,143
)
 
$
17,841

 
$
12,131

Net income (loss) from continuing operations per share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
$
(6.19
)
 
$
(0.09
)
 
$
(0.19
)
 
$
0.04

 
$
0.20

Diluted
$
(6.19
)
 
$
(0.09
)
 
$
(0.19
)
 
$
0.04

 
$
0.20

Weighted-average number of common shares outstanding — basic
45,265

 
38,769

 
38,279

 
37,802

 
37,366

Weighted-average number of common shares outstanding — diluted
45,265

 
39,086

 
38,279

 
37,961

 
37,443


29


 
As of December 31,
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
 
2010
 
2009
Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
168,534

 
$
320,360

 
$
153,642

 
$
153,261

 
$
84,409

Marketable securities
14,548

 
12,646

 
18,099

 
36,345

 
86,819

Working capital
385,890

 
575,713

 
424,543

 
426,286

 
421,647

Total assets
1,007,451

 
953,453

 
754,580

 
755,239

 
714,284

Long-term liabilities
428,312

 
353,580

 
210,126

 
212,963

 
204,919

Stockholders’ equity
459,714

 
523,441

 
468,464

 
470,972

 
440,408


 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
 
2010
 
2009
Other Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash flow provided by (used in) operating activities
$
(36,601
)
 
$
68,822

 
$
61,441

 
$
73,194

 
$
71,751

Cash flow used in investing activities
(121,317
)
 
(1,048
)
 
(30,560
)
 
(4,173
)
 
(74,956
)
Cash flow provided by (used in) financing activities
6,257

 
98,721

 
(30,050
)
 
(198
)
 
532

Depreciation
26,296

 
38,275

 
40,227

 
35,559

 
32,717

Stock-based compensation expense
15,368

 
10,974

 
9,108

 
13,177

 
13,191

Capital expenditures(4)
37,530

 
19,323

 
46,957

 
49,038

 
37,190


______________________________________
(1)
These line items include the following amounts of non-cash, stock-based compensation expense for the periods indicated:

 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
 
2010
 
2009
Cost of sales
$
503

 
$
704

 
$
735

 
$
705

 
$
820

Selling, general and administrative
10,675

 
6,767

 
4,875

 
7,808

 
8,300

Research and development
780

 
368

 
320

 
1,631

 
1,606

Discontinued operations
3,410

 
3,135

 
3,178

 
3,034

 
2,464


(2)
During the years ended December 31, 2012 and 2011, we recorded pre-tax charges associated with the cost improvement restructuring efforts totaling $0.4 million and $5.3 million. During the years ended December 31, 2010 and 2009, we recorded pre-tax charges associated with the restructuring of our facilities in Toulon and Creteil, France, totaling $0.1 million and $0.2 million, respectively.
(3)
During the year ended December 31, 2012, we recorded income of $15 million related to a sale and license back transaction for intellectual property.
(4)
During the years ended December 31, 2010 and 2009, our capital expenditures included approximately $6.0 million and $5.9 million, respectively, related to the expansion of our Arlington, Tennessee facilities.
(5)
During the year ended December 31, 2013, we recognized $3.7 million in costs associated with distributor conversions and non-competes. In addition, we recognized $12.9 million in costs for due diligence and transaction costs related to the BioMimetic & Biotech acquisitions. We recognized $21.6 million for transaction costs for the OrthoRecon divestiture. Additionally, we recorded charges of $206.2 million for BioMimetic impairment charges.
(6)
During the year ended December 31, 2013, we recognized a gain of approximately $7.8 million for the gain on the previously held investment in BioMimetic. During the year ended December 31, 2012, we recognized approximately $2.7 million for the write-off of unamortized deferred financing fees associated with the termination of our Senior Credit facility and the redemption of approximately $25 million of our 2014 Convertible Notes. Additionally, we recognized approximately $1.1 million of charges for the mark to market adjustment of our derivative instruments. During the year ended December 31, 2011, we recognized approximately $4.1 million for the write off of pro-rata unamortized deferred financing fees and transaction costs associated with the tender offer for our convertible notes completed during the first quarter of 2011.
(7)
During the year ended December 31, 2013, we recognized a $119.6 million tax valuation allowance recorded against deferred tax assets in our U.S. jurisdiction due to recent operating losses.


30


Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
The following management's discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations describes the principal factors affecting the results of our operations, financial condition and changes in financial condition, as well as our critical accounting estimates.

On January 9, 2014, we completed the sale of our OrthoRecon business to MicroPort Scientific Corporation (MicroPort). We determined that this transaction meets the criteria for classification as discontinued operations. As such, the financial results of our OrthoRecon business have been reflected within discontinued operations for all periods presented and, unless otherwise noted, the discussion below is on a continuing operations basis.

Executive Overview
Company Description. We are a global, specialty orthopaedic medical device company that provides solutions that enable clinicians to alleviate pain and restore their patients' lifestyles. We are a recognized leader of surgical solutions for the foot and ankle market and sell our products in over 60 countries worldwide.
Our business includes products that are used in foot and ankle repair, upper extremity products, and biologics products, which are used to replace damaged or diseased bone, to stimulate bone growth and to provide other biological solutions for surgeons and their patients. Extremity hardware includes implants and other devices to replace or reconstruct injured or diseased joints and bones of the foot, ankle, hand, wrist, fingers, toes, elbow and shoulder, which we generally refer to as either foot and ankle or upper extremity products. We are a leading provider of surgical solutions for the foot and ankle market. Our extensive foot and ankle product portfolio, our approximately 200 specialized foot and ankle sales representatives, and our increasing level of training of foot and ankle surgeons has resulted in our being a recognized leader in the foot and ankle market. Biologics are used to repair or replace damaged or diseased bone, to stimulate bone growth and to provide other biological solutions for surgeons and their patients.
We have been in business for over 60 years and have built a well-known and respected brand name.
Following the sale of our hip/knee (OrthoRecon) business on January 9, 2014, we moved our corporate headquarters and U.S. operations from Arlington, Tennessee to Memphis, Tennessee, where we conduct research and development, sales and marketing administration and administrative activities. Our manufacturing and warehousing activities continue to be located in Arlington, Tennessee. Our U.S. sales accounted for 73% of total revenue in 2013. Our products are sold primarily through a network of employee sales representatives and independent sales representatives in the U.S. and by a combination of employee sales representatives, independent sales representatives and stocking distributors outside the U.S. We promote our products in approximately 60 countries with principal markets in the U.S., Europe, Asia, Canada, Australia, and Latin America.
Principal Products. We specialize in extremity and biologic products used by extremity focused surgeon specialists for the reconstruction, trauma and arthroscopy markets. Our biologics sales encompass a broad portfolio of products designed to stimulate and augment the natural regenerative capabilities of the human body. We also sell orthopaedic products not considered to be part of our extremity or biologic product lines.
Our extremities product line includes products for both the foot and ankle and the upper extremity markets. Our principal foot and ankle portfolio includes the INBONE® total ankle system, the CLAW® II Polyaxial Compression Plating System, the ORTHOLOC® 3Di Reconstruction Plating System, the PRO-TOE® VO Hammertoe System, the DARCO® family of locked plating systems, the VALOR® ankle fusion nail system, and the Swanson line of toe joint replacement products. Our upper extremity portfolio includes the MICRONAIL® intramedullary wrist fracture repair system, the EVOLVE® radial head prosthesis for elbow fractures, the RAYHACK® osteotomy system, and the EVOLVE® Elbow Plating System.
Our biologic products focus on biological musculoskeletal repair and include synthetic and human tissue-based materials. Our principal biologic products include the GRAFTJACKET® line of soft tissue repair and containment membranes, the ALLOMATRIX® line of injectable tissue-based bone graft substitutes, the PRO-DENSE® injectable regenerative graft, the OSTEOSET® synthetic bone graft substitute, and the PRO-STIM® injectable inductive graft.
Significant Business Developments. On January 9, 2014, we completed the sale of the OrthoRecon business to MicroPort Scientific Corporation (MicroPort). With the divestiture of our OrthoRecon business, our transition to a high-growth global Extremities and Biologics company is complete.
On January 7, 2013, we completed the acquisition of WG Healthcare Limited, a United Kingdom extremities company (WG Healthcare), for approximately $7.6 million, plus additional contingent consideration with an estimated fair value of $2.2 million to be paid over the next five years subject to the achievement of certain revenue milestones. We acquired the facility, inventory, infrastructure and all other assets and liabilities associated with WG Healthcare's business.

31


On March 1, 2013, we completed our acquisition of BioMimetic Therapeutics, Inc. (BioMimetic). The transaction combined BioMimetic's biologics platform and pipeline with our established sales force and product portfolio, to further accelerate growth opportunities in our business. The transaction included an upfront purchase price of approximately $190 million in cash and stock plus additional milestone payments of up to approximately $190 million in cash, which are payable upon receipt of FDA approval of Augment® Bone Graft and upon achieving certain revenue milestones.
In conjunction with the closing of the transaction, we paid $30.8 million in cash, net of cash acquired, and issued approximately 7.0 million shares of Wright common stock valued at $165.9 million and contingent value rights (CVRs) valued at $70.1 million. See Note 3 to our consolidated financial statements for additional information on consideration for this acquisition.
On August 7, 2013, we received a not approvable letter from the Food & Drug Administration (FDA) in response to our Pre-Market Approval (PMA) application for Augment® Bone Graft for use as an alternative to autograft in hindfoot and ankle fusion procedures.  We filed an appeal with the FDA regarding its decision, and on October 31, 2013, the FDA notified us it has elected to convene a Dispute Resolution Panel to consider the scientific issues in dispute before making a decision on our appeal. While we believe our appeal has strong merits, we were required to evaluate assets associated with the BioMimetic acquisition for impairment. As a result, we recorded charges totaling $208.5 million of impairment and other charges related to assets acquired from BioMimetic, including $2.3 million of charges recorded within Cost of Sales to write down inventory to its estimated net realizable value in the third quarter of 2013. In addition, due to the significant decline in market value of the CVRs issued as contingent consideration for the acquired business, we recognized an unrealized gain of $66.1 million from the decreased value of the CVRs that are recorded as a liability. See Note 2, Note 9 and Note 12 to our consolidated financial statements for further discussion of these charges.
On November 15, 2013, we completed our acquisition of Biotech International (Biotech), a leading privately held French orthopaedic extremities company. The transaction significantly expands our direct sales channel in France and international distribution network, and adds Biotech's complementary extremity product portfolio to further accelerate global growth opportunities in our Extremities business. We acquired 100% of Biotech's outstanding equity on a fully diluted basis at a total offer price of up to $80 million, comprised of upfront payments of approximately $55 million in cash, subject to certain adjustments set forth in the definitive agreement, and the issuance of common stock having a value of approximately $21 million, and contingent consideration with a fair value of $4.3 million, which is based upon the achievement of certain revenue milestones in 2014 and 2015.
On January 30, 2014, we completed our acquisition of Solana Surgical, LLC (Solana), and on February 5, 2014, we completed our acquisition of OrthoPro, L.L.C. (OrthoPro), both privately held, high growth extremities companies. These acquisitions add complementary extremity product portfolios to further accelerate growth opportunities in our global Extremities business.
Under the terms of the agreement with Solana, we acquired 100% of Solana's outstanding equity for total consideration, net of cash acquired, of $90 million, consisting of approximately $47.6 million in cash, subject to certain adjustments set forth in the definitive agreement, and approximately $42.4 million of Wright common stock. Under the terms of the agreement with OrthoPro, we acquired 100% of OrthoPro's outstanding equity for a total purchase price of up to $36 million in cash, consisting of $32.5 million paid at closing, subject to certain adjustments set forth in the definitive agreement, and up to an additional $3.5 million in cash contingent upon achievement of certain revenue-based milestones.
In 2013, net sales increased 13%, totaling $242.3 million, compared to $214.1 million in 2012, driven by growth in our foot and ankle business.
Our 2013 domestic sales increased 7% as compared to 2012, as a 16% increase in our U.S. foot and ankle sales more than offset a 10% decline in our biologics business. Our international sales increased 35% during 2013 as compared to 2012 primarily due to the acquisition of a foot & ankle business in the UK, sales of Augment® Bone Graft in Australia and growth in our Asian markets.
In 2013, our net loss from continuing operations totaled $280.2 million, compared to a net loss from continuing operations of $3.4 million in 2012. Items unfavorably impacting net loss from continuing operations in 2013 as compared to 2012 included:
$208.5 million ($172.3 million net of taxes) of impairment (see Note 12 to our consolidated financial statements for discussion of these charges) and other charges related to assets acquired from BioMimetic, including $2.3 million of charges recorded within Cost of Sales to write down inventory to its net realizable value, partially offset by an unrealized gain of $61.1 million ($61.1 million net of taxes) associated with the mark-to-market adjustment on the contingent value rights payable as contingent consideration for the BioMimetic acquisition;
$21.6 million ($13.2 million net of taxes) of transition costs associated with the sale of our OrthoRecon business;
$15.0 million ($9.6 million net of taxes) gain on the sale of certain internally-developed intellectual property recognized during 2012;
$11.1 million ($8.4 million net of taxes) increase in due diligence, transition and transaction costs associated with our acquisitions of BioMimetic and Biotech;

32


$5.9 million ($3.5 million net of taxes) increase in non-cash interest expense associated with our 2017 Convertible Notes;
$119.6 million tax valuation allowance recorded against deferred tax assets in our U.S. jurisdiction due to recent operating losses; and
decreased profitability, primarily driven by investments in our U.S. field operations (including investments in our direct sales force) and operating losses associated with the acquired BioMimetic business.
These were partially offset by a $7.8 million ($7.8 million net of taxes) gain on our previously held investment in BioMimetic, and a $4.5 million ($2.7 million net of taxes) decrease in charges related to the write-off of deferred financing costs associated with the termination of our Senior Credit Facility and 2014 Convertible Notes and the termination of an associated interest rate swap that were incurred in 2012.
Opportunities and Challenges. Following the closing of the sales of our OrthoRecon business on January 9, 2014, we are well positioned and committed to accelerating growth in our foot and ankle business and increasing U.S. foot and ankle sales productivity. We have made changes to attempt to realize these opportunities, including aggressively converting a portion of our U.S. independent distributor foot and ankle territories to direct employee sales representation, substantially increasing our investment in foot and ankle medical education to drive market adoption of new products and technologies, and expanding our international direct sales channel and distribution network.
Business continuity and a seamless customer experience are top priorities, and we are highly focused on ensuring that no business momentum is lost during the transition period following the sale of our OrthoRecon business. As such, we will have inefficiencies immediately post the transaction but will have an excellent opportunity to improve efficiency and leverage fixed costs in the business going forward. Additionally, there will be expense dis-synergies as a result of the transaction, and we do expect some short-term revenue dis-synergies as we work through the separation of some of the remaining full-line distribution both in the U.S. and outside the U.S.
Following sale of the OrthoRecon business, we are a high growth business. However, we do anticipate having operating losses until we are able to grow our revenue to a sufficient level to support our current cost structure.
Significant Industry Factors. Our industry is affected by numerous competitive, regulatory, and other significant factors. The growth of our business relies on our ability to continue to develop new products and innovative technologies, obtain regulatory clearance and compliance for our products, protect the proprietary technology of our products and our manufacturing processes, manufacture our products cost-effectively, respond to competitive pressures specific to each of our geographic markets, including our ability to enforce non-compete agreements, and successfully market and distribute our products in a profitable manner. We, and the entire industry, are subject to extensive governmental regulation, primarily by the FDA. Failure to comply with regulatory requirements could have a material adverse effect on our business. Additionally, our industry is highly competitive and has recently experienced increased pricing pressures, specifically in the areas of reconstructive joint devices.


33


Results of Operations

Comparison of the year ended December 31, 2013 to the year ended December 31, 2012
The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, our results of operations expressed as dollar amounts (in thousands) and as percentages of net sales:
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2013
 
2012
 
Amount
% of Sales
 
Amount
% of Sales
Net sales
$
242,330

100.0
 %
 
$
214,105

100.0
 %
Cost of sales1
59,721

24.6
 %
 
48,239

22.5
 %
Gross profit
182,609

75.4
 %
 
165,866

77.5
 %
Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
Selling, general and administrative1
230,785

95.2
 %
 
150,296

70.2
 %
Research and development1
20,305

8.4
 %
 
13,905

6.5
 %
Amortization of intangible assets
7,476

3.1
 %
 
4,417

2.1
 %
BioMimetic impairment charges
206,249

85.1
 %
 

 %
Gain on sale of intellectual property

 %
 
(15,000
)
(7.0
)%
Restructuring charges

 %
 
431

0.2
 %
Total operating expenses
464,815

191.8
 %
 
154,049

72.0
 %
Operating (loss) income
(282,206
)
(116.5
)%
 
11,817

5.5
 %
Interest expense, net
16,040

6.6
 %
 
10,113

4.7
 %
Other (income) expense, net
(67,843
)
(28.0
)%
 
5,089

2.4
 %
Loss from continuing operations before income taxes
(230,403
)
(95.1
)%
 
(3,385
)
(1.6
)%
Provision (benefit) for income taxes
49,765

20.5
 %
 
2

0.0
 %
Net loss from continuing operations
$
(280,168
)
(115.6
)%
 
$
(3,387
)
(1.6
)%
Income from discontinued operations, net of tax 1
6,223

 
 
8,671

 
Net (loss) income
$
(273,945
)
 
 
$
5,284

 
___________________________
1
These line items include the following amounts of non-cash, stock-based compensation expense for the periods indicated:
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2013
% of Sales
 
2012
% of Sales
Cost of sales
$
503

0.2
%
 
$
704

0.3
%
Selling, general and administrative
10,675

4.4
%
 
6,767

3.2
%
Research and development
780

0.3
%
 
368

0.2
%
Income from discontinued operations, net of tax
3,410

n/a

 
3,135

n/a


The following table sets forth our net sales by product line for the periods indicated (in thousands) and the percentage of year-over-year change:
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2013
 
2012
 
% Change
Foot and Ankle
150,662

 
122,897

 
22.6
 %
Upper Extremity
24,663

 
24,977

 
(1.3
)%
Biologics
59,792

 
60,495

 
(1.2
)%
Other
7,213

 
5,736

 
25.7
 %
Total Sales
242,330

 
214,105

 
13.2
 %


34


The following table presents net sales by geographic area (in thousands) and the percentage of year-over-year change:
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2013
 
2012
 
% Change
 
 
 
 
 
 
Domestic
$
177,648

 
$
166,111

 
6.9
%
International
64,682

 
47,994

 
34.8
%
Total Sales
$
242,330


$
214,105

 
13.2
%

Net sales
Net sales totaled $242.3 million in 2013, compared to $214.1 million in 2012, representing a 13% increase. U.S. net sales totaled $177.6 million in 2013, a 7% increase from $166.1 million in 2012, representing approximately 73% of total net sales in 2013 and 78% of total net sales in 2012. Our international net sales totaled $64.7 million in 2013, a 35% increase as compared to net sales of $48.0 million in 2012, primarily due to a 40% increase in Europe as the result of the WG Healthcare acquisition in the first quarter of 2013 and the acquisition of Biotech during the fourth quarter of 2013, a 90% increase in Asia due to the addition of a new distribution partner in China during the quarter ended June 30, 2013, and an 80% increase in Australia driven by sales of Augment® Bone Graft. Our 2013 international net sales included a favorable foreign currency impact of approximately $1.2 million when compared to 2012 net sales.
Our foot and ankle sales increased 23% to $150.7 million in 2013 from $122.9 million in 2012, driven by the success of our ORTHOLOC® 3Di Reconstruction Plating System, as well as continued growth of our INBONE® Total Ankle Arthroplasty products. International foot and ankle sales grew 49%, driven by growth in our European markets due to the acquisition of WG Healthcare and Biotech, and growth in our Asian markets due to the addition of a new distribution partner during 2013.
Upper extremity net sales decreased to $24.7 million in 2013, representing a 1% decline from 2012, driven by a $0.4 million of unfavorable foreign currency impact.
Net sales of our biologics products decreased 1% to $59.8 million in 2013, compared to $60.5 million in 2012. A 10% decrease in our U.S. sales as a result of lower sales volumes, was partially offset by a 32% increase in our international sales, driven by a $2.8 million increase in sales in Australia, primarily related to sales of Augment® Bone Graft.
Cost of sales
Our cost of sales as a percentage of net sales increased in 2013 compared to 2012 from 22.5% to 24.6%. For 2013, cost of sales included $2.3 million (1.0% of net sales) of charges associated with the write down of inventory acquired from BioMimetic to net realizable value. The remaining increase in cost of sales as a percentage of sales is primarily driven by increased provisions for excess, obsolete and lost inventory and amortization of acquired inventory step-up to fair value, partially offset by favorable manufacturing expenses.
Our cost of sales and corresponding gross profit percentages can be expected to fluctuate in future periods depending upon changes in our product sales mix and prices, distribution channels and geographies, manufacturing yields, period expenses, levels of production volume and currency exchange rates.
Selling, general and administrative
Our selling, general and administrative expenses as a percentage of net sales totaled 95.2% and 70.2% in 2013 and 2012, respectively. For 2013, selling, general and administrative expense included $21.6 million (8.9% of net sales) of transition costs associated with the sale of our OrthoRecon business, $12.9 million (5.3% of net sales) in due diligence, transition and transactions costs associated with our acquisitions in 2013, and $0.9 million (0.4% of net sales) of costs associated with U.S. distributor conversions. Selling, general and administrative expense for 2012 included $1.8 million (0.8% of net sales) of due diligence and transition costs associated with our acquisition of BioMimetic, and $1.0 million (0.5% of net sales) of costs associated with U.S. distributor conversions. The remaining increase in selling, general and administrative expense was driven by $7.7 million of expenses associated with the ongoing operations of the acquired BioMimetic business and legal and other spending associated with our appeal of the not approvable letter from the FDA (3.2% of net sales), $2.8 million of taxes related to the enacted 2.3% excise tax on U.S. sales of medical devices (1.2% of net sales), increased sales and marketing costs as a result of our initiative to convert a substantial portion of our U.S. foot and ankle sales force to direct employees, and increased spending on international growth initiatives.
We anticipate that our selling, general and administrative expenses in continuing operations will increase after the sale of our OrthoRecon business is complete due to additional expenses associated with business acquisitions in November 2013 and January 2014, as well as anticipated dis-synergies in certain corporate and international expenses that have been recorded in discontinued operations in our consolidated financial statement. Theses dis-synergies include expenses associated with our information

35


technology support, a new corporate headquarters, and international employees and facilities. These increases will be offset by anticipated decreased spending on transition costs associated with the sale of the OrthoRecon business.
Research and development
Our investment in research and development activities represented 8.4% and 6.5% of net sales in 2013 and 2012, respectively. The increase in research and development costs as a percentage of sales is attributable to spending associated with the acquired BioMimetic business.
Amortization of intangible assets
Charges associated with amortization of intangible assets totaled $7.5 million in 2013, as compared to $4.4 million in 2012. During 2013, we recorded $2.8 million of amortization expense associated with distributor non-compete agreements compared to $1.9 million in 2012. In addition, during 2013 we recognized approximately $1.0 million of impairment charges associated with certain intangible assets acquired in prior periods (see Note 12 to our consolidated financial statements). The remaining increase is driven by intangible assets acquired during 2013 (see Note 3 to our consolidated financial statements).
Based on the intangible assets held at December 31, 2013, we expect to amortize $6.9 million in 2014, $4.6 million in 2015, $3.5 million in 2016, $3.1 million in 2017 and $2.4 million in 2018. This does not include amortization associated with any intangible assets acquired in 2014 (see Note 22 to our consolidated financial statements).
BioMimetic Impairment Charges
During 2013, we recorded charges of approximately $206.2 million associated with the BioMimetic business acquired in the first quarter of 2013. On August 7, 2013, we received a not approvable letter from the FDA in response to our Pre-PMA application for Augment® Bone Graft for use as an alternative to autograft in hindfoot and ankle fusion procedures.  We have filed an appeal with the FDA regarding its decision. On October 31, 2013, the FDA notified us it has elected to convene a Dispute Resolution Panel to consider the scientific issues in dispute before making a decision on our appeal. While we believe our appeal has strong merits, we were required to evaluate assets associated with the BioMimetic acquisition for impairment. As a result of this evaluation, we recorded an intangible impairment charge of approximately $88.1 million and a goodwill impairment charge of $115.0 million, as well as the recognition of a $3.2 million charge for non-cancelable minimum inventory purchase commitments for the raw materials used in the manufacture of Augment® Bone Graft, which we have estimated will expire unused. See Note 12 to our consolidated financial statements for further discussion of the impairment charges.
Gain on Sale of Intellectual Property
During 2012, we recognized a gain of $15.0 million related to the sale of certain intellectual property associated with biomaterial used in products marketed and sold by us as bone graft substitutes. In connection with the sale, we entered into a license agreement with the purchaser pursuant to which we obtained an exclusive, worldwide, fully paid license to use the transferred intellectual property in our fields of use.
Interest expense, net
Interest expense, net, consists of interest expense of $16.5 million in 2013 and $10.6 million in 2012, consisting primarily of:
non-cash expense related to the amortization of the discount on our 2017 Convertible Senior Notes of $8.7 million and $2.8 million in 2013 and 2012, respectively;
non-cash expense related to the amortization of deferred financing costs of $1.6 million and $0.5 million in 2013 and 2012, respectively; and
cash interest expense related to our 2017 Convertible Senior Notes of $6.0 million and $2.0 million in 2013 and 2012, respectively.
The increase in interest expense amounts during 2013 is due to the issuance of the 2017 Convertible Senior Notes in the second half of 2012. The remaining interest expense in 2012 relates to cash interest expense associated with 2014 Notes and cash interest on our borrowings under our Senior Credit Facility, which was repaid during the second half of 2012. Interest income of $0.4 million was recognized during 2013 and 2012, generated by our invested cash balances and investments in marketable securities. The amounts of interest income we realize in 2014 and beyond are subject to variability, dependent upon both the rate of invested returns we realize and the amount of excess cash balances on hand.
Other expense, net
For 2013, other expense, net includes an unrealized gain of $61.1 million on CVRs issued in connection with our acquisition of BioMimetic, a $7.8 million gain on our previously held investment in BioMimetic, offset by a $1.0 million unrealized loss for mark-to-market adjustments on our derivative assets and derivative liabilities. For 2012, other expense, net includes a $1.8 million loss on the early termination of an interest rate swap, $2.7 million related to the write off of deferred financing costs associated

36


with our terminated Senior Credit Facility and the portion of our 2014 Notes that were repurchased, and a net unrealized loss of $1.1 million for mark-to-market adjustments on our derivative assets and derivative liabilities.
Provision (benefit) for income taxes
We recorded tax expense of $49.8 million in 2013 and a negligible amount of tax expense in 2012. Our effective tax rate for 2013 and 2012 was (21.6)% and (0.1)%, respectively. Our 2013 tax expense included a $119.6 million provision to record a valuation allowance against our deferred tax assets primarily associated with net operating losses in the U.S. as a result of recent cumulative operating losses in the U.S. tax jurisdiction, which had an unfavorable 51.9 percentage point impact on our 2013 effective tax rate. Our 2012 tax expense was unfavorably impacted by non-deductible expenses associated with acquisitions announced in 2013, which had an unfavorable 21.2 percentage point impact on the 2012 effective tax rate due to the relatively small loss before income taxes.
Income from Discontinued Operations, Net of Tax
Income from discontinued operations, net of tax, consists of our OrthoRecon business, which was sold to MicroPort effective January 9, 2014. Costs associated with corporate employees and infrastructure being transferred as a part of the sale have been included in discontinued operations.
Net sales of our OrthoRecon business decreased 14% to $231.9 million in 2013 compared to $269.7 million in 2012, driven by a 16.5% decline in hip sales and a 10.4% decline in knee sales.
Income from discontinued operations, net of tax, was $6.2 million in 2013, as compared to $8.7 million in 2012. The decrease in net income was primarily driven by the decrease in sales year over year, the after tax impact of $10.9 million of legal and professional fees associated with the MicroPort transaction, and $1.7 million of taxes related to the enacted 2.3% excise tax on U.S. sales of medical devices, partially offset by the after tax impact of a $3.7 million decrease in expenses associated with the deferred prosecution agreement and U.S. governmental inquiries, and the after tax impact of a $10 million decrease in depreciation and amortization expense on long lived assets that were classified as held for sale in June 2013.
Costs associated with legal defense, income associated with product liability insurance recoveries, and changes to any contingent liabilities associated our OrthoRecon business have been reflected within results of discontinued operations, and we will continue to reflect these within results of discontinued operations in future periods.


37


Comparison of the year ended December 31, 2012 to the year ended December 31, 2011
The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, our results of operations expressed as dollar amounts (in thousands) and as percentages of net sales:
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2012
 
2011
 
Amount
% of Sales
 
Amount
% of Sales
Net sales
$
214,105

100.0
 %
 
$
210,753

100.0
 %
Cost of sales1
48,239

22.5
 %
 
$
56,762

26.9
 %
Cost of sales - restructuring

 %
 
$
667

0.3
 %
Gross profit
165,866

77.5
 %
 
153,324

72.8
 %
Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
Selling, general and administrative1
150,296

70.2
 %
 
131,611

62.4
 %
Research and development1
13,905

6.5
 %
 
15,422

7.3
 %
Amortization of intangible assets
4,417

2.1
 %
 
2,412

1.1
 %
Gain on sale of intellectual property
(15,000
)
(7.0
)%
 

 %
Restructuring charges
431

0.2
 %
 
4,613

2.2
 %
Total operating expenses
154,049

72.0
 %
 
154,058

73.1
 %
Operating income
11,817

5.5
 %
 
(734
)
(0.3
)%
Interest expense, net
10,113

4.7
 %
 
6,381

3.0
 %
Other expense, net
5,089

2.4
 %
 
4,241

2.0
 %
(Loss) income from continuing operations before income taxes
(3,385
)
(1.6
)%
 
(11,356
)
(5.4
)%
(Benefit) provision for income taxes
2

0.0
 %
 
(3,961
)
(1.9
)%
Net income from continuing operations
$
(3,387
)
(1.6
)%
 
$
(7,395
)
(3.5
)%
Income from discontinued operations, net of tax 1
8,671

 
 
2,252

 
Net income (loss)
$
5,284

 
 
$
(5,143
)
 
___________________________
1
These line items include the following amounts of non-cash, stock-based compensation expense for the periods indicated:
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2012
% of Sales
 
2011
% of Sales
Cost of sales
$
704

0.3
%
 
$
735

0.3
%
Selling, general and administrative
6,767

3.2
%
 
4,875

2.3
%
Research and development
368

0.2
%
 
320

0.2
%
Loss from discontinued operations, net of tax
3,135

n/a

 
3,178

n/a


The following table sets forth our net sales by product line for the periods indicated (in thousands) and the percentage of year-over-year change:
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2012
 
2011
 
% Change
Foot and Ankle
122,897

 
107,734

 
14.1
 %
Upper Extremity
24,977

 
27,742

 
(10.0
)%
Biologics
60,495

 
69,409

 
(12.8
)%
Other
5,736

 
5,868

 
(2.2
)%
Total Sales
214,105

 
210,753

 
1.6
 %


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The following table presents net sales by geographic area (in thousands) and the percentage of year-over-year change:
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2012
 
2011
 
% Change
 
 
 
 
 
 
Domestic
$
166,111

 
166,456

 
(0.2
)%
International
47,994

 
44,297

 
8.3
 %
Total Sales
$
214,105

 
$
210,753

 
1.6
 %

Net sales
Our sales increased 2%, driven by 14% growth in our foot and ankle sales, partially offset by a 10% decline in upper extremity sales and a 13% decline in biologics sales. Our U.S. net sales totaled $166.1 million in 2012 and $166.5 million in 2011, representing approximately 78% of total net sales in 2012, 79% of total net sales in 2011. Our international net sales totaled $48.0 million in 2012, an 8% increase as compared to net sales of $44.3 million in 2011. Our 2012 international net sales included an unfavorable foreign currency impact of approximately $1.1 million when compared to 2011 net sales. However, this unfavorable currency impact was more than offset by growth in foot and ankle sales.
Our foot and ankle sales increased 14%, driven by the success of our CLAW® II Polyaxial Compression Plating System and our ORTHOLOC® 3Di Reconstruction Plating System, both launched in the first half of 2012, as well as the successful conversion of the majority of our foot & ankle sales force to direct representation. International foot and ankle sales grew 26%, as growth across all geographies was partially offset by $0.8 million of unfavorable currency exchange rates.
Upper extremity net sales decreased to $25.0 million in 2012, representing a 10% decline from 2011, driven by a 13% decline in the U.S.
Net sales of our biologic products totaled $60.5 million in 2012, which declined by 13%, as compared to 2011. Our U.S. biologics sales decreased 16% compared to 2011, primarily due to the license agreement entered into with KCI during the first quarter of 2011, which precluded us from marketing our GRAFTJACKET® products in the wound care field.
Cost of sales
Our cost of sales as a percentage of net sales decreased to 22.5% in 2012 from 26.9% in 2011 primarily due to lower provisions for excess and obsolete inventory.
Cost of sales - restructuring
In 2011, we recorded charges of $0.7 million for excess and obsolete inventory provisions associated with product optimization as we reduced the size of our international product portfolio. No such provisions were recorded in 2012.
Selling, general and administrative
Our selling, general and administrative expenses as a percentage of net sales totaled 70.2% and 62.4% in 2012 and 2011, respectively. For 2012, selling, general and administrative expense included $6.8 million (3.2% of net sales) of non-cash stock-based compensation expense, $1.8 million (0.8% of net sales) of due diligence and transaction costs associated with our acquisition of BioMimetic, and $1.0 million (0.5% of net sales) of costs associated with U.S. distributor conversions. Selling, general and administrative expense for 2011 included $4.9 million (2.3% of net sales) of non-cash stock based compensation expense. The remaining increase in selling, general and administrative expense was driven by increased sales and marketing costs as a result of our initiative to convert a substantial portion of our U.S. foot and ankle sales force to direct employees, and costs associated with increased levels of medical education. Additionally, we recognized increased cash incentive compensation as compared to 2011, when we incurred lower expense associated with cash incentive compensation, as we failed to meet most incentive compensation targets.
Research and development
Our investment in research and development activities represented 6.5% and 7.3% of net sales in 2012 and 2011, respectively. The decrease in research and development expense as a percentage of sales is primarily attributable to cost reductions resulting from our cost improvement restructuring plan initiated in the third quarter of 2011 and lower costs associated with clinical studies.
Amortization of intangible assets
Charges associated with amortization of intangible assets were $4.4 million or 2.1% of sales in 2012, as compared to $2.4 million or 1.1% of sales in 2011. During 2012, we recorded $1.9 million of amortization expense associated with distributor non-compete agreements entered into during the year.

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Gain on Sale of Intellectual Property
During 2012, we recognized a gain of $15.0 million related to the sale of certain intellectual property associated with biomaterial used in products marketed and sold by us as bone graft substitutes. In connection with the sale, we entered into a license agreement with the purchaser pursuant to which we obtained an exclusive, worldwide, fully paid license to use the transferred intellectual property in our fields of use.
Restructuring Charges
During 2011, we recognized $4.6 million of restructuring charges within operating expenses, primarily for severance obligations and the impairment of long-lived assets. During 2012, we completed our cost restructuring recognizing $0.4 million of charges.
Interest expense, net
Interest expense, net, consists of interest expense of $10.6 million in 2012, primarily from borrowings under our 2017 Convertible Senior Notes, borrowings under the Term Loan and non-cash interest expense associated with the amortization of the discount on our 2017 Convertible Senior Notes. Interest expense, net, consists of interest expense of $7.0 million in 2011, primarily from borrowings under the Term Loan. Interest income of $0.4 million was recognized during 2012 and 2011, generated by our invested cash balances and investments in marketable securities.
Other expense, net
For 2012, other expense, net includes a $1.8 million loss on the early termination of an interest rate swap, $2.7 million related to the write off of deferred financing costs associated with our terminated Senior Credit Facility and the portion of our 2014 Notes that were repurchased, and a net unrealized loss of $1.1 million for mark-to-market adjustments on our derivative assets and derivative liabilities. For 2011, other expense, net includes approximately $4.1 million of expenses in 2011 for the write-off of pro-rata unamortized deferred financing fees and for bank and legal fees associated with the purchase of $170.9 million aggregate principal amount of the 2014 Notes validly tendered in the 2011 tender offer.
Provision (Benefit) for income taxes
We recorded a negligible tax provision in 2012 and a tax benefit of $4.0 million in 2011. Our effective tax rate for 2012 and 2011 was (0.1)% and 34.9% respectively. Our 2012 tax expense was unfavorably impacted by non-deductible transaction expenses associated with acquisitions announced in 2013, which had an unfavorable 21.2 percentage point impact on the 2012 effective tax rate due to the relatively small loss before income taxes.
Income from Discontinued Operations, Net of Tax
Net sales of our OrthoRecon business decreased 10.8% to $269.7 million in 2012 compared to $302.2 million in 2011, driven by a 13.1% decline in hip sales and a 7.3% decline in knee sales.
Income from discontinued operations, net of tax, was $8.7 million in 2012, as compared $2.3 million in 2011. The increase in net income was primarily driven by the after tax impact of a $13.2 million charge in 2011 for management's estimate for product liability provisions, and the after tax impact of a $6.3 million decrease in expenses associated with the deferred prosecution agreement and U.S. governmental inquiries. These decreased costs were partially offset by decreased profitability resulting from the sales decline.
Seasonal Nature of Business
We traditionally experience lower sales volumes in the third quarter than throughout the rest of the year as many of our reconstructive products are used in elective procedures, which generally decline during the summer months, typically resulting in selling, general and administrative expenses and research and development expenses as a percentage of sales that are higher during this period than throughout the rest of the year. In addition, our first quarter selling, general and administrative expenses include additional expenses that we incur in connection with the annual meeting held by the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. During this three-day event, we display our most recent and innovative products in the foot and ankle market.
Restructuring
On September 15, 2011, we announced plans to implement a cost restructuring plan to foster growth, enhance profitability and cash flow, and build stockholder value. We implemented numerous initiatives to reduce spending, including streamlining select aspects of our international selling and distribution operations, reducing the size of our product portfolio, adjusting plant operations to align with our volume and mix expectations and rationalizing our research and development projects. We concluded our cost improvement restructuring efforts during the second quarter of 2012. We have realized the benefits from this restructuring within selling, general and administrative expenses beginning in the fourth quarter of 2011. This favorability is being partially offset by unfavorable income tax consequences, and incremental expenses associated with senior management changes. In total, we estimate net income includes approximately $1 million favorable impact beginning in 2012 on an annual basis. However, the favorable impact from our cost improvement restructuring plan was more than offset by the additional investments we made in 2012 and

40


2013 for the transformational changes to our business, including aggressively converting a portion of our U.S. independent distributor foot and ankle territories to direct sales representation and substantially increasing our investment in foot and ankle medical education to drive market adoption of new products and technologies.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, certain liquidity measures (in thousands):
 
As of December 31,
 
2013
 
2012
Cash and cash equivalents
$
168,534

 
$
320,360

Short-term marketable securities
6,898

 
12,646

Long-term marketable securities
7,650

 

Working capital
385,890

 
575,713


Operating Activities. Cash (used in) provided by operating activities totaled ($36.6 million), $68.8 million, and $61.4 million in 2013, 2012 and 2011 respectively. The decrease in cash provided by operating activities in 2013 as compared to 2012 was driven by decreased cash profitability, primarily due to costs associated with the sale of our OrthoRecon business, costs associated with the acquisitions of BioMimetic and Biotech, and operating expenses associated with the acquired BioMimetic business.
In 2012 compared to 2011, the increase in cash from operating activities was primarily due to increased cash profitability and inventory reductions, partially offset by payment of approximately $10 million to buy out certain royalty agreements with health care professionals.
Investing Activities. Our capital expenditures totaled $37.5 million in 2013, $19.3 million in 2012, and $47.0 million in 2011. The increase in 2013 compared to 2012 is primarily attributable to spending on our new corporate headquarters due to the sale of our existing headquarters as part of the sale of our OrthoRecon business. The decrease in capital expenditures in 2012 compared to 2011 is attributable to decreased spending on surgical instrumentation as a result of our inventory and instrumentation optimization efforts, and the 2011 spending on instrumentation related to the launch of our EVOLUTION Medial-Pivot Knee System. In addition, 2011 included spending related to the upgrade of our enterprise resource planning system. Historically, our capital expenditures have consisted principally of purchased manufacturing equipment, research and testing equipment, computer systems, office furniture and equipment and surgical instruments. We expect to incur capital expenditures in 2014 of approximately $50 million for routine capital expenditures, the expansion of our manufacturing facility in Arlington, Tennessee, and the completion of our corporate headquarters.
During 2013, we paid $95.4 million cash, net of cash acquired for the WG Healthcare, BioMimetic and Biotech acquisitions. Refer to Note 3 of our consolidated financial statements contained in “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” for additional information regarding these acquisitions.
Financing Activities. During 2013, cash provided by financing activities totaled $6.3 million, compared to $98.7 million in 2012 and cash used in financing activities of $30.1 million in 2011. During 2013, we received $6.3 million of cash in connection with the issuance of shares in connection with our stock-based compensation plan.
During 2012, cash provided by financing activities consisted primarily of $300.0 million of proceeds from the issuance of our 2017 Convertible Senior Notes, offset by payments on our Term Loan of $144.4 million and $56.2 million of cash used to purchase hedge options on our 2017 Convertible Senior Notes. During 2011, cash used in financing activities consisted of the purchase of $170.9 million of our 2014 Notes tendered in the tender offer, mostly offset by the cash proceeds from a $150 million borrowing under the Term Loan.
On August 22, 2012, we issued $300 million of the 2017 Convertible Senior Notes, which generated net proceeds of $290.8 million. In connection with the offering of the 2017 Convertible Senior Notes, we entered into convertible note hedging transactions with three counterparties (the Option Counterparties). We also entered into warrant transactions in which we sold warrants for an aggregate of 11,794,200 shares of our common stock to the Option Counterparties. As of December 31, 2013, $300.0 million aggregate principal amount of the 2017 Convertible Senior Notes remain outstanding.
In November 2007, we issued $200 million of 2.625% Convertible Senior Notes maturing on December 1, 2014. On February 10, 2011, we announced the commencement of a tender offer to purchase for cash any and all of our outstanding 2014 Notes. Upon expiration on March 11, 2011, we purchased $170.9 million aggregate principal amount of the 2014 Notes. On August 22, 2012, we purchased $25.3 million aggregate principal amount of the 2014 Notes. As of December 31, 2013, $3.8 million aggregate principal amount of the 2014 Notes remain outstanding.
See Note 9 to our consolidated financial statements contained in “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” for further discussion of these financing activities.

41


In 2014, we will make payments of $4.2 million for the current portion of our long-term obligations, consisting of $3.8 million related to our 2014 Notes, and payments under our long-term capital leases, including interest, of $0.4 million.
As of December 31, 2013, we had an immaterial amount of cash and cash equivalents held in jurisdictions outside of the U.S., which are expected to be indefinitely reinvested for continued use in foreign operations. Repatriation of these assets to the U.S. would have negative tax consequences. We do not intend to repatriate these funds.
Discontinued Operations. Cash flows from discontinued operations are combined with cash flows from continuing operations in the Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows. During 2013, cash inflows from discontinued operations was approximately $29 million, compared to approximately $44 million in 2012. We do not expect that the absence of cash flows from discontinued operations will have an impact on our ability to meet contractual cash obligations, fund our working capital requirements, operations, and anticipated capital expenditures.
Contractual Cash Obligations. At December 31, 2013, we had contractual cash obligations and commercial commitments as follows (in thousands):
 
Payments Due by Periods
 
Total
 
2014
 
2015-2016
 
2017-2018
 
After 2018
Amounts reflected in consolidated balance sheet:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Capital lease obligations(1)
$
10,292

 
$
419

 
$
1,863

 
$
1,998

 
$
6,012

2017 Convertible Senior Notes(2)
300,000

 

 

 
300,000

 

2014 Convertible Senior Notes(3)
3,768

 
3,768

 

 

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Amounts not reflected in consolidated balance sheet:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating leases
16,171

 
6,087

 
6,867

 
2,449

 
768

Minimum supply obligations
2,073

 

 
2,073

 

 

Interest on 2017 Convertible Senior Notes(4)
22,000

 
6,000

 
12,000

 
4,000

 

Interest on 2014 Convertible Senior Notes(5)
91

 
91

 

 

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total contractual cash obligations
$
354,395

 
$
16,365

 
$
22,803

 
$
308,447

 
$
6,780

_______________________________
(1)
Payments include amounts representing interest.
(2)
Represents long-term debt payment provided to holders of the 2017 Convertible Senior Notes do not exercise the option to convert each $1,000 note into 39.3140 shares of our common stock. Our 2017 Convertible Senior Notes are discussed further in Note 9 to our consolidated financial statements contained in “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.”
(3)
Represents long-term debt payment provided holders of the 2014 Convertible Senior Notes do not exercise the option to convert each $1,000 note into 30.6279 shares of our common stock. Our 2014 Convertible Senior Notes are discussed further in Note 9 to our consolidated financial statements contained in “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.”
(4)
Represents interest on the 2017 Convertible Senior Notes payable semiannually with an annual interest rate of 2.000%.
(5)
Represents interest on the 2014 Convertible Senior Notes payable semiannually with an annual interest rate of 2.625%.
Portions of these payments are denominated in foreign currencies and were translated in the table above based on their respective U.S. dollar exchange rates at December 31, 2013. These future payments are subject to foreign currency exchange rate risk.
The amounts reflected in the table above for capital lease obligations represent future minimum lease payments under our capital lease agreements, which are primarily for certain property and equipment. The present value of the minimum lease payments are recorded in our balance sheet at December 31, 2013. The minimum lease payments related to these leases are discussed further in Note 9 to our consolidated financial statements contained in “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.”
The amounts reflected in the table above for operating leases represent future minimum lease payments under non-cancelable operating leases primarily for certain equipment and office space. Our purchase obligations and royalty and consulting agreements are disclosed in Note 19 to our consolidated financial statements contained in “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.”
In accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, our operating leases are not recognized in our consolidated balance sheet; however, the minimum lease payments related to these agreements are disclosed in Note 19 to our consolidated financial statements contained in “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.”
Contingent consideration of up to $400,000 may be paid related to the acquisition of certain assets associated with the EZ Concept Surgical Device Corporation (EZ Frame). The potential additional cash payments are based on the future financial performance

42


of the acquired assets. Additionally, in accordance with the October 2011 CCI acquisition, we will pay royalties based on sales of the acquired product. Contingent consideration of up to $182.2 million may be paid upon receipt of FDA approval of Augment® Bone Graft and upon achieving certain revenue milestones associated with the BioMimetic acquisition. Additionally, payments of $3.9 million and $5.0 million may be paid upon achieving revenue milestones related to the acquisitions of WG Healthcare and Biotech, respectively.
In addition to the contractual cash obligations discussed above, all of our U.S. sales and a portion of our international sales are subject to commissions based on net sales. A substantial portion of our global sales are subject to royalties earned based on product sales.
Additionally, as of December 31, 2013, we had $4.7 million of unrecognized tax benefits recorded within “Other liabilities” in our consolidated balance sheet. This represents the tax benefits associated with various tax positions taken, or expected to be taken, on U.S. and international tax returns that have not been recognized in our financial statements due to uncertainty regarding their resolution. We are unable to make a reliable estimate of the eventual cash flows by period that may be required to settle these matters. Certain of these matters may not require cash settlement due to the existence of net operating loss carryforwards. Therefore, our unrecognized tax benefits are not included in the table above. See Note 14 to our consolidated financial statements contained in “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.”
During 2013, we received a not approvable letter from the FDA in response to our PMA application for Augment® Bone Graft for use as an alternative to autograft in hindfoot and ankle fusion procedures. We have filed an appeal with the FDA regarding its decision. On October 31, 2013, the FDA notified us it has elected to convene a Dispute Resolution Panel to consider the scientific issues in dispute before making a decision on our appeal. While we believe our appeal has strong merits, we were required to evaluate assets associated with the BioMimetic acquisition for impairment based upon the information we had as of September 30, 2013 (see Note 9 to our consolidated financial statements contained in “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” for further discussion of our impairment analysis). Due to the results of that analysis, we estimated that approximately $3.2 million of the non-cancelable inventory commitments for the raw materials used in the manufacture of Augment® Bone Graft will expire unused. As such, we recorded a $3.2 million loss on this contractual obligation, which was recognized within “BioMimetic impairment charges” on our consolidated statement of operations for the year ended December 31, 2013.

In process research and development. In connection with our BioMimetic acquisition, we acquired in-process research and development (IPRD) technology related to projects that had not yet reached technological feasibility as of the acquisition date, which included Augment® Bone Graft, which was undergoing the FDA approval process, and Augment® Injectable Bone Graft. The acquisition date fair values of the IPRD technology was $61.2 million for Augment® Bone Graft and $27.1 million for Augment® Injectable Bone Graft. The fair value of the research and development projects was determined using the income approach, which discounts expected future cash flows from the acquired in-process technology to present value. The discount rate applied to the expected future cash flows included a premium to the base required rate of return, in consideration of the risks associated with the FDA approval process.

The IPRD projects acquired are as follows:
Augment® Bone Graft (Augment) is based on our platform regenerative technology, which combines an engineered version of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor BB (rhPDGF-BB), one of the principal wound healing and tissue repair stimulators in the body, with tissue specific matrices, when appropriate. This product is intended to offer physicians advanced biological solutions to actively stimulate the body’s natural tissue regenerative process. Augment is targeted to be used in the open (surgical) treatment of fusions. Additionally, Augment may be useful in the future to be used in open fractures. We have evaluated Augment in several open clinical applications, including foot and ankle fusions and distal radius fractures. We believe we have demonstrated that our technology is safe and effective in stimulating bone regeneration with the Canadian regulatory approval of Augment in 2009 and the Australian and New Zealand regulatory clearance of Augment in 2011. A PMA application for the use of Augment in the U.S. as an alternative to autograft in hindfoot and ankle fusion procedures was submitted to the FDA prior to this acquisition. We’ve incurred expenses of approximately $5.8 million for Augment since the date of acquisition. Future costs related to Augment depends on the ultimate decision by the FDA on the PMA.

Augment® Injectable Bone Graft (Augment Injectable) combines rhPDGF-BB with an injectable bone matrix, and is targeted to be used in either open (surgical) treatment of fusions and fractures or closed (non-surgical) or minimally invasive treatment of fractures. Augment Injectable can be injected into a fusion or fracture site during an open surgical procedure, or it can be injected through the skin into a fracture site, in either case locally delivering rhPDGF-BB to promote fusion or fracture repair. Our initial clinical development program for Augment Injectable has focused on securing regulatory approval for open indications in the United States and in several markets outside the U.S. Recently, we have focused our efforts on securing FDA approval of Augment. The amount of time and cost to complete the Augment Injectable project depends upon the nature of the approval we ultimately receive for Augment, but we currently estimate

43


it could take one to three years. We’ve incurred expenses of approximately $1.8 million for Augment Injectable since the date of acquisition. Future costs related to Augment depends on the ultimate decision by the FDA on the PMA for Augment.

Subsequently, during the third quarter of 2013, we received a not approvable letter from the FDA in response to our PMA application for Augment® Bone Graft for use as an alternative to autograft in hindfoot and ankle fusion procedures. Following our announcement regarding the receipt of this letter, the market value of the CVRs issued in connection with the BioMimetic decreased significantly. Holders of CVRs are entitled to be paid the contingent consideration from the BioMimetic acquisition, specifically upon FDA approval of Augment® Bone Graft, and subsequently upon the achievement of certain revenue milestones. The value of the CVRs therefore implies the market’s assessment of probability of FDA approval. Because the probability of such FDA approval is a significant input in the valuation of the BioMimetic reporting unit and related intangible assets, management determined that our goodwill and intangible assets acquired in the BioMimetic acquisition were more likely than not impaired, and therefore required a quantitative impairment test.
We have filed an appeal with the FDA regarding its decision. On October 31, 2013, the FDA notified us it has elected to convene a Dispute Resolution Panel to consider the scientific issues in dispute before making a decision on our appeal. While we believe our appeal has strong merits, we were required to evaluate assets associated with the BioMimetic acquisition for impairment based upon the information we had as of September 30, 2013.

FASB ASC 350-30-35-18 requires companies to evaluate for impairment intangible assets not subject to amortization, such as our IPRD assets, if events or changes in circumstances indicate than an asset might be impaired.

We updated our discounted cash flow valuation model for the BioMimetic acquisition based on probability weighted estimates of revenues and expenses, related cash flows and the discount rate used in the model. The probabilities used in the model were based on the fair value of the CVRs as of September 30, 2013.  The fair value of the IPRD was less than the carrying values. Therefore, we recognized impairment charge of approximately $56.9 million for Augment® and $27.1 million for Augment® Injectable for the year ended December 31, 2013, for the amount by which the carrying value of these assets exceeded the fair value.
Other Liquidity Information. We have funded our cash needs since 2000 through various equity and debt issuances and through cash flow from operations. Although it is difficult for us to predict our future liquidity requirements, we believe that our current cash balance of approximately $168.5 million and our marketable securities balance of $14.5 million will be sufficient for the foreseeable future to fund our working capital requirements and operations, fund the acquisitions announced in January 2014 with total cash purchase price of approximately $80 million, permit anticipated capital expenditures in 2014 of approximately $50 million, and meet our contractual cash obligations in 2014. Furthermore, cash received as a result of the sale of our OrthoRecon business will allow us to continue to make investments to accelerate growth in our foot and ankle business.
Critical Accounting Estimates
All of our significant accounting policies and estimates are described in Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements contained in “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.” Certain of our more critical accounting estimates require the application of significant judgment by management in selecting the appropriate assumptions in determining the estimate. By their nature, these judgments are subject to an inherent degree of uncertainty. We develop these judgments based on our historical experience, terms of existing contracts, our observance of trends in the industry, information provided by our customers and information available from other outside sources, as appropriate. Different, reasonable estimates could have been used in the current period. Additionally, changes in accounting estimates are reasonably likely to occur from period to period. Both of these factors could have a material impact on the presentation of our financial condition, changes in financial condition or results of operations.
We believe that the following financial estimates are both important to the portrayal of our financial condition and results of operations and require subjective or complex judgments. Further, we believe that the items discussed below are properly recorded in the financial statements for all periods presented. Our management has discussed the development, selection and disclosure of our most critical financial estimates with the audit committee of our board of directors and with our independent auditors. The judgments about those financial estimates are based on information available as of the date of the financial statements. Those financial estimates include:
Discontinued Operations. On January 9, 2014, we competed the sale of our OrthoRecon business, which consists of hip and knee product implants, to MicroPort. We determined that this transaction meets the criteria for classification as discontinued operations under the provisions of FASB ASC 205-20. As such, all historical operating results for our OrthoRecon business are reflected within discontinued operations in the consolidated statements of operations. In addition, costs associated with corporate employees and infrastructure being transferred as a part of the sale have been included in discontinued operations. Further, all assets and associated liabilities to be transferred to MicroPort have been classified as assets and liabilities held for sale on our consolidated balance sheet, in accordance with FASB ASC 360.

44


Revenue recognition. Our revenues are primarily generated through two types of customers, hospitals and surgery centers and stocking distributors, with the majority of our revenue derived from sales to hospitals and surgery centers. Our products are sold through a network of employee and independent sales representatives in the U.S. and by a combination of employee sales representatives, independent sales representatives and stocking distributors outside the U.S. We record revenues from sales to hospitals and surgery centers when they take title to the product, which is generally when the product is surgically implanted in a patient.
We record revenues from sales to our stocking distributors at the time the product is shipped to the distributor. Our stocking distributors, who sell the products to their customers, take title to the products and assume all risks of ownership. Our distributors are obligated to pay us within specified terms regardless of when, if ever, they sell the products. In general, our distributors do not have any rights of return or exchange; however, in limited situations, we have repurchase agreements with certain stocking distributors. Those certain agreements require us to repurchase a specified percentage of the inventory purchased by the distributor within a specified period of time prior to the expiration of the contract. During those specified periods, we defer the applicable percentage of the sales. An insignificant amount of sales related to these types of agreements were deferred and not yet recognized as revenue as of December 31, 2013 and 2012.
We must make estimates of potential future product returns related to current period product revenue. To do so, we analyze our historical experience related to product returns when evaluating the adequacy of the allowance for sales returns. Judgment must be used and estimates made in connection with establishing the allowance for product returns in any accounting period. Our allowances for product returns of approximately $0.3 million are included as a reduction of accounts receivable at December 31, 2013 and 2012. Should actual future returns vary significantly from our historical averages, our operating results could be affected.
In 2011, we entered into a trademark license agreement (License Agreement) with KCI Medical Resources, a subsidiary of Kinetic Concepts, Inc. (KCI). In exchange for $8.5 million, of which $5.5 million was received immediately and $3 million was received in January 2012, the License Agreement provides KCI with a non-transferable license to use our trademarks associated with our GRAFTJACKET® line of products in connection with the marketing and distribution of KCI's soft tissue graft containment products used in the wound care field, subject to certain exceptions. License revenue is being recognized over 12 years on a straight line basis.
Allowances for doubtful accounts. We experience credit losses on our accounts receivable and accordingly, we must make estimates related to the ultimate collection of our accounts receivable. Specifically, we analyze our accounts receivable, historical bad debt experience, customer concentrations, customer creditworthiness and current economic trends when evaluating the adequacy of our allowance for doubtful accounts.
The majority of our accounts receivable are from hospitals, many of which are government funded. Accordingly, our collection history with this class of customer has been favorable. Historically, we have experienced minimal bad debts from our hospital customers and more significant bad debts from certain international stocking distributors, typically as a result of specific financial difficulty or geo-political factors. We write off accounts receivable when we determine that the accounts receivable are uncollectible, typically upon customer bankruptcy or the customer’s non-response to repeated collection efforts.
We believe that the amount included in our allowance for doubtful accounts has been a historically appropriate estimate of the amount of accounts receivable that are ultimately not collected. While we believe that our allowance for doubtful accounts is adequate, the financial condition of our customers and the geo-political factors that impact reimbursement under individual countries’ healthcare systems can change rapidly, which would necessitate additional allowances in future periods. Our allowances for doubtful accounts were $0.3 million and $0.3 million, at December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively, for those customer account balances that were retained following the sale of our OrthoRecon business to MicroPort.
Excess and obsolete inventories. We value our inventory at the lower of the actual cost to purchase and/or manufacture the inventory on a first-in, first-out (FIFO) basis or its net realizable value. We regularly review inventory quantities on hand for excess and obsolete inventory and, when circumstances indicate, we incur charges to write down inventories to their net realizable value. Our review of inventory for excess and obsolete quantities is based primarily on our forecast of product demand and production requirements for the next 24 months. A significant decrease in demand could result in an increase in the amount of excess inventory quantities on hand. Additionally, our industry is characterized by regular new product development that could result in an increase in the amount of obsolete inventory quantities on hand due to cannibalization of existing products. Also, our estimates of future product demand may prove to be inaccurate in which case we may be required to incur charges for excess and obsolete inventory. In the future, if additional inventory write-downs are required, we would recognize additional cost of goods sold at the time of such determination. Regardless of changes in our estimates of future product demand, we do not increase the value of our inventory above its adjusted cost basis. Therefore, although we make every effort to ensure the accuracy of our forecasts of future product demand, significant unanticipated decreases in demand or technological developments could have a significant impact on the value of our inventory and our reported operating results.
Charges recognized for excess and obsolete inventory within our results of continuing operations were $4.7 million, $3.2 million and $11.6 million for the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011, respectively.

45


Goodwill and long-lived assets. As of December 31, 2013, we have approximately $118.3 million of goodwill recorded as a result of the acquisition of businesses. Goodwill is tested for impairment annually, or more frequently if changes in circumstances or the occurrence of events suggest that impairment exists. The annual evaluation of goodwill impairment may require the use of estimates and assumptions to determine the fair value of our reporting units using projections of future cash flows. Unless circumstances otherwise dictate, the annual impairment test is performed in the fourth quarter.
During 2013, we completed our purchase price allocation associated with our acquisition of BioMimetic, and recognized $138.2 million of goodwill. The BioMimetic business is considered a separate reporting unit for purposes of goodwill impairment evaluation. Subsequent to the completion of the BioMimetic purchase price allocation, we recognized a significant impairment of intangible assets acquired from the BioMimetic acquisition and determined that an evaluation of the goodwill associated with the BioMimetic reporting unit was required. We updated our discounted cash flow valuation model for the BioMimetic acquisition based on probability weighted estimates of revenues and expenses, related cash flows and the discount rate used in the model. The probabilities used in the model were based on the fair value of the CVRs as of September 30, 2013.  Based on this discounted cash flow valuation model, we determined that the fair value of the BioMimetic reporting unit as of September 30, 2013 was less than its carrying value as of such date. Therefore, we recognized a goodwill impairment charge of $115.0 million for the amount by which the carrying value of these assets exceeded the fair value as of September 30, 2013. These charges are included within “BioMimetic impairment charges” on our consolidated statement of operations.
During the fourth quarter of 2013, we performed a qualitative assessment of goodwill for impairment and determined that it is more likely than not that the fair value of our reporting units exceeded their respective carrying values, indicating that goodwill was not impaired. We have determined that we have three reporting units for purposes of evaluating goodwill for impairment: 1) BioMimetic business; 2) Continuing Operations business, excluding the BioMimetic business; and 3) Discontinued Operations (OrthoRecon) business.
Our business is capital intensive, particularly as it relates to surgical instrumentation. We depreciate our property, plant and equipment and amortize our intangible assets based upon our estimate of the respective asset’s useful life. Our estimate of the useful life of an asset requires us to make judgments about future events, such as product life cycles, new product development, product cannibalization and technological obsolescence, as well as other competitive factors beyond our control. We account for the impairment of finite, long-lived assets in accordance with the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) Section 360, Property, Plant and Equipment (FASB ASC 360). Accordingly, we evaluate impairments of our property, plant and equipment based upon an analysis of estimated undiscounted future cash flows. If we determine that a change is required in the useful life of an asset, future depreciation and amortization is adjusted accordingly. Alternatively, if we determine that an asset has been impaired, an adjustment would be charged to income based on the asset’s fair market value, or discounted cash flows if the fair market value is not readily determinable, reducing income in that period.

Valuation of In-Process Research and Development. The estimated fair value attributed to IPRD represents an estimate of the fair value of purchased in-process technology for research programs that have not reached technological feasibility and have no alternative future use. Only those research programs that had advanced to a stage of development where management believed reasonable net future cash flow forecasts could be prepared and a reasonable possibility of technical success existed were included in the estimated fair value.
IPRD is recorded as an indefinite-lived intangible asset until completion or abandonment of the associated research and development projects. Accordingly, no amortization expense is reflected in the results of operations. If a project is completed, the carrying value of the related intangible asset will be amortized over the remaining estimated life of the asset beginning with the period in which the project is completed. If a project becomes impaired or is abandoned, the carrying value of the related intangible asset will be written down to its fair value and an impairment charge will be taken in the period the impairment occurs. These intangible assets are tested for impairment on an annual basis, or earlier if impairment indicators are present.
During 2013, we received a not approvable letter from the FDA in response to our PMA application for Augment® Bone Graft for use as an alternative to autograft in hindfoot and ankle fusion procedures. Following our announcement regarding the receipt of this letter, the market value of the CVRs issued in connection with the BioMimetic acquisition decreased significantly. Holders of CVRs are entitled to be paid the contingent consideration from the BioMimetic acquisition, specifically upon FDA approval of Augment® Bone Graft, and subsequently upon the achievement of certain revenue milestones. The value of the CVRs therefore implies the market’s probability of FDA approval. Because the probability of such FDA approval is a significant input in the valuation of the BioMimetic reporting unit and related intangible assets, management determined that our goodwill and intangible assets acquired in the BioMimetic acquisition were more likely than not impaired, and therefore required a quantitative impairment test.
We filed an appeal with the FDA regarding its decision and on October 31, 2013, the FDA notified us it has elected to convene a Dispute Resolution Panel to consider the scientific issues in dispute before making a decision on our appeal. While we believe our appeal has strong merits, we were required to evaluate assets associated with the BioMimetic acquisition for impairment.

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We updated our discounted cash flow valuation model for the BioMimetic acquisition based on probability weighted estimates of revenues and expenses, related cash flows and the discount rate used in the model. The probabilities used in the model were based on the fair value of the CVRs as of September 30, 2013.  Based on this discounted cash flow valuation model, we determined that the fair value of the IPRD assets as of September 30, 2013 were less than their respective carrying values as of such date. Therefore, we recognized an intangible impairment charge of approximately $84.0 million for the amount by which the carrying value of these assets exceeded the fair value. These charges are included within “BioMimetic impairment charges” on our consolidated statement of operations.
Due to the uncertainty associated with research and development projects, there is risk that actual results will differ materially from the cash flow projections and that the research and development project will result in a successful commercial product. If we are successful in our appeal of the not approvable letter from the FDA, and our Augment® Bone Graft is ultimately approved for sale in the United States, the fair value of this technology will be significantly greater than the amount recognized in our financial statements, and the future amortization expense associated with the intangible asset will be significantly less than originally estimated. The risks associated with achieving commercialization include, but are not limited to, delay or failure to obtain regulatory approvals to conduct clinical trials, delay or failure to obtain required market clearances, delays or issues with patent issuance, or validity and litigation.
Product liability claims, product liability insurance recoveries and other litigation. Periodically, claims arise involving the use of our products. We make provisions for claims specifically identified for which we believe the likelihood of an unfavorable outcome is probable and an estimate of the amount of loss has been developed. As additional information becomes available, we reassess the estimated liability related to our pending claims and make revisions as necessary.
Product liability claims associated with hip and knee products we sold prior to the sale of our OrthoRecon business will not be assumed by MicroPort. Estimated liabilities, if any, for such claims, and accrued legal defense costs for fees that have been incurred to date, are excluded from liabilities held for sale. Concomitant receivables associated with product liability insurance recoveries are excluded from assets held for sale. MicroPort will be responsible for product liability claims associated with products it sells after the closing.
In the third quarter of 2011, as a result of an increase in the number and monetary amount of claims associated with fractures of our long PROFEMUR® titanium modular necks (PROFEMUR® Claims), management recorded a provision for current and future claims associated with fractures of this product. See Note 19 to our consolidated financial statements for further description of this provision. Future revisions in our estimates of the liability could materially impact our results of operation and financial position. We maintain insurance coverage that limits the severity of any single claim as well as total amounts incurred per policy year, and we believe our insurance coverage is adequate. We use the best information available to us in determining the level of accrued product liabilities, and we believe our accruals are adequate. Our accrual for PROFEMUR® Claims was $16.8 million and $23.3 million as of December 31, 2013 and December 31, 2012, respectively.
We have maintained product liability insurance coverage on a claims-made basis. As of December 31, 2012, our insurance receivable related to PROFEMUR® Claims totaled $11.4 million, reflecting management's estimate of the probable insurance recovery of previous and future settlements and current spending on legal defense. During 2013, we received a customary reservation of rights from our primary product liability insurance carrier asserting that present and future claims related to fractures of our PROFEMUR® titanium modular neck hip products and which allege certain types of injury (Modular Neck Claims) would be covered as a single occurrence under the policy year the first such claim was asserted. The effect of this coverage position would be to place Modular Neck Claims into a single prior policy year in which applicable claims-made coverage was available, subject to the overall policy limits then in effect. During 2013, we received payment from the primary insurance carrier and the next insurance carrier in the tower, totaling $15 million. As of December 31, 2013, our insurance receivable related to Modular Neck Claims totaled $25 million, which consists of $12 million probable recovery for cash spending associated with defense and settlement costs and $13 million associated with the probable recovery of our recorded liability for current and future Modular Neck Claims outstanding, reflecting in total the remaining amount of insurance in this policy year. See Note 19 to our consolidated financial statements contained in “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” for further description of our insurance coverage.
Our accrual for other product liability claims was $0.7 million and $0.6 million at December 31, 2013 and December 31, 2012, respectively.
Claims for personal injury have been made against us associated with our metal-on-metal hip products (primarily our CONSERVE® product line). The pre-trial management of certain of these claims has been consolidated in the federal court system under multi-district litigation, and certain other claims in state courts in California, collectively the “Consolidated Metal-on-Metal Claims,” as further discussed in Part I Item 3 of this Annual Report. The number of these lawsuits, presently in excess of 700, continues to increase, we believe due to the increasing negative publicity in the industry regarding metal-on-metal hip products. We believe we have data that supports the efficacy and safety of our metal-on-metal hip products. While continuing to dispute liability, we recently agreed to participate in court supervised non-binding mediation in the multi-district federal court litigation (MDL) presently pending in the Northern District of Georgia.

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Every metal-on-metal hip case involves fundamental issues of science and medicine that often are uncertain, that continue to evolve, and which present contested facts and issues that can differ significantly from case to case. Such contested facts and issues include medical causation, individual patient characteristics, surgery specific factors, and the existence of actual, provable injury. Given these complexities, we are unable to reasonably estimate a possible loss or range of possible losses for the Consolidated Metal-on-Metal Claims until we know, at a minimum, (i) what claims, if any, will survive dispositive motion practice, (ii) the extent of the claims, including the size of any potential pool of potential claimants, particularly when damages are not specified or are indeterminate, (iii) how the discovery process will affect the litigation, (iv) the settlement posture of the other parties to the litigation and (iv) any other factors that may have a material effect on the litigation or on a party’s litigation strategy. By way of example and without limitation, although we believe a significant number of claimants have not required hip revision surgery, we do not yet know how many of such cases exist within our claimant pool.
We have maintained product liability insurance coverage on a claims-made basis. During the quarter ended September 30, 2012, we received a customary reservation of rights from our primary product liability insurance carrier asserting that certain present and future claims which allege certain types of injury related to our CONSERVE® metal-on-metal hip products (CONSERVE® Claims) would be covered as a single occurrence under the policy year the first such claim was asserted. The effect of this coverage position would be to place CONSERVE® Claims into a single prior policy year in which applicable claims-made coverage was available, subject to the overall policy limits then in effect. Management agrees that there is insurance coverage for the CONSERVE® Claims, but has notified the carrier that at this time it disputes the carrier's selection of available policy years and its characterization of the CONSERVE® Claims as a single occurrence.
Management has recorded an insurance receivable for the probable recovery of spending in excess of our retention for a single occurrence. As of December 31, 2013 and 2012, this receivable totaled $8.1 million and $5.8 million, respectively, and is solely related to defense costs incurred through December 31, 2013. However, the amount we ultimately receive may differ depending on the final conclusion of the insurance policy year or years and the number of occurrences. We believe our contracts with the insurance carriers are enforceable for these claims and, therefore, we believe it is probable that we will receive recoveries from our insurance carriers. However, our insurance carriers could still ultimately deny coverage for some or all of our insurance claims. Based on the information we have available at this time, we do not believe our liabilities, if any, in connection with these matters will exceed our available insurance. As circumstances continue to develop, our belief that we will be able to resolve the Consolidated Metal-on-Metal Claims within our available insurance coverage could change, which could materially impact our results of operations and financial position.
In February 2014, Biomet, Inc., (Biomet) announced it had reached a settlement in the multi-district litigation involving its own metal-on-metal hip products. The terms announced by Biomet include: (i) an expected base settlement amount of $200,000, (ii) an expected minimum settlement amount of $20,000 (iii) no payments to plaintiffs who did not undergo a revision surgery and (iv) a total settlement amount expected to be within Biomet’s aggregate insurance coverage. We believe our situation involves facts and circumstances which differ significantly from the Biomet cases. We therefore do not consider the Biomet situation sufficiently analogous to provide a reasonable basis for estimate, and deem it unlikely that any settlement of our cases will occur at an base settlement level as high as Biomet’s expected average settlement amount.
In addition to the Consolidated Metal-on-Metal Claims discussed above, there are currently certain other pending claims related to our metal-on-metal hip products for which we are accounting in accordance with our standard product liability accrual methodology on a case by case basis.
We are also involved in legal proceedings involving contract, patent protection and other matters. We make provisions for claims specifically identified for which we believe the likelihood of an unfavorable outcome is probable and an estimate of the amount of loss can be developed.
Accounting for income taxes. Our effective tax rate is based on income by tax jurisdiction, statutory rates and tax saving initiatives available to us in the various jurisdictions in which we operate. Significant judgment is required in determining our effective tax rate and evaluating our tax positions. This process includes assessing temporary differences resulting from differing recognition of items for income tax and accounting purposes. These differences result in deferred tax assets and liabilities, which are included within our consolidated balance sheet. Realization of deferred tax assets in each taxable jurisdiction is dependent on our ability to generate future taxable income sufficient to realize the benefits. Management evaluates deferred tax assets on an ongoing basis and provides valuation allowances to reduce net deferred tax assets to the amount that is more likely than not to be realized.
Our valuation allowance balances totaled $134.3 million and $14.2 million as of December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively, due to uncertainties related to our ability to realize, before expiration, certain of our deferred tax assets for both U.S. and foreign income tax purposes. During 2013, we recognized a $119.6 million valuation allowance against our U.S. deferred tax assets due to recent operating losses in the U.S. tax jurisdiction, which resulted in the determination that our U.S. deferred tax assets were not more likely than not to be utilized in the foreseeable future. These deferred tax assets primarily consist of the carryforward of certain tax basis net operating losses and general business tax credits. See Note 14 to our consolidated financial statements for further discussion of our deferred tax assets and the associated valuation allowance.
In July 2006, the FASB issued FASB Interpretation No. 48, Accounting for Uncertainty in Income Taxes (FIN 48), effective January 1, 2007, which requires the tax effects of an income tax position to be recognized only if they are “more-likely-than-not” to be sustained based solely on the technical merits as of the reporting date. Effective July 1, 2009, this standard was incorporated into FASB ASC Section 740, Income Taxes. As a multinational corporation, we are subject to taxation in many jurisdictions and the calculation of our tax liabilities involves dealing with uncertainties in the application of complex tax laws and regulations in various taxing jurisdictions. If we ultimately determine that the payment of these liabilities will be unnecessary, we will reverse

48


the liability and recognize a tax benefit in the period in which we determine the liability no longer applies. Conversely, we record additional tax charges in a period in which we determine that a recorded tax liability is less than we expect the ultimate assessment to be. Our liability for unrecognized tax benefits totaled $4.7 million and $5.1 million as of December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively. See Note 14 to our consolidated financial statements contained in “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” for further discussion of our unrecognized tax benefits.
We operate within numerous taxing jurisdictions. We are subject to regulatory review or audit in virtually all of those jurisdictions, and those reviews and audits may require extended periods of time to resolve. Management makes use of all available information and makes reasoned judgments regarding matters requiring interpretation in establishing tax expense, liabilities and reserves. We believe adequate provisions exist for income taxes for all periods and jurisdictions subject to review or audit.
Stock-based compensation. We calculate the grant date fair value of non-vested shares as the closing sales price on the trading day immediately prior to the grant date. We use the Black-Scholes option pricing model to determine the fair value of stock options and employee stock purchase plan shares. The determination of the fair value of these stock-based payment awards on the date of grant using an option-pricing model is affected by our stock price as well as assumptions regarding a number of complex and subjective variables, which include the expected life of the award, the expected stock price volatility over the expected life of the awards, expected dividend yield and risk-free interest rate.
We estimate the expected life of options evaluating the historical activity as required by FASB ASC Topic 718, Compensation — Stock Compensation. We estimate the expected stock price volatility based upon historical volatility of our common stock. The risk-free interest rate is determined using U.S. Treasury rates where the term is consistent with the expected life of the stock options. Expected dividend yield is not considered as we have never paid dividends and have no plans of doing so in the future.
The Black-Scholes option-pricing model was developed for use in estimating the fair value of traded options that have no vesting restrictions and are fully transferable, characteristics not present in our option grants and employee stock purchase plan shares. Existing valuation models, including the Black-Scholes and lattice binomial models, may not provide reliable measures of the fair values of our stock-based compensation. Consequently, there is a risk that our estimates of the fair values of our stock-based compensation awards on the grant dates may bear little resemblance to the actual values realized upon the exercise, expiration, early termination or forfeiture of those stock-based payments in the future. Certain stock-based payments, such as employee stock options, may expire worthless or otherwise result in zero intrinsic value as compared to the fair values originally estimated on the grant date and reported in our financial statements. Alternatively, value may be realized from these instruments that is significantly higher than the fair values originally estimated on the grant date and reported in our financial statements. There is not currently a market-based mechanism or other practical application to verify the reliability and accuracy of the estimates stemming from these valuation models.
We are required to estimate forfeitures at the time of grant and revise those estimates in subsequent periods if actual forfeitures differ from those estimates. We use historical data to estimate pre-vesting forfeitures and record stock-based compensation expense only for those awards that are expected to vest. All stock-based awards are amortized on a straight-line basis over their respective requisite service periods, which are generally the vesting periods.
If factors change and we employ different assumptions for estimating stock-based compensation expense in future periods, such stock-based compensation expense in future periods may differ significantly from what we have recorded in the current period and could materially affect our operating income, net income and net income per share. A change in assumptions may also result in a lack of comparability with other companies that use different models, methods and assumptions.
See Note 17 to our consolidated financial statements contained in “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” for further information regarding our stock-based compensation disclosures.
Acquisition method accounting. In accordance with FASB ASC Section 805, Business Combinations (FASB ASC 805), an acquiring entity is required to recognize all assets acquired and liabilities assumed at the acquisition date fair value. Legal fees and other transaction-related costs are expensed as incurred and are no longer included in goodwill as a cost of acquiring the business. FASB ASC 805 also requires acquirers, among other things, to estimate the acquisition-date fair value of any contingent consideration and to recognize any subsequent changes in the fair value of contingent consideration in earnings. In addition, restructuring costs the acquirer expects, but is not obligated to incur, will be recognized separately from the business acquisition.
Restructuring charges. We evaluate impairment issues for long-lived assets under the provisions of FASB ASC 360. We record severance-related expenses once they are both probable and estimable in accordance with the provisions of FASB ASC Section 712, Compensation-Nonretirement Postemployment Benefits, for severance provided under an ongoing benefit arrangement. One-time termination benefit arrangements and other costs associated with exit activities are accounted for under the provisions of FASB ASC Section 420, Exit or Disposal Cost Obligations. We estimated the expense for our restructuring initiatives by accumulating detailed estimates of costs, including the estimated costs of employee severance and related termination benefits, impairment of property, plant and equipment, contract termination payments for leases and any other qualifying exit costs. Such costs represented management’s best estimates, which were evaluated periodically to determine if an adjustment was required.

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Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.
Interest Rate Risk
Our exposure to interest rate risk arises principally from the interest rates associated with our invested cash balances. On December 31, 2013, we have invested short term cash and cash equivalents and marketable securities of approximately $77.6 million. We believe that a 10 basis point change in interest rates is reasonably possible in the near term. Based on our current level of investment, an increase or decrease of 10 basis points in interest rates would have an annual impact of approximately $77,000 to our interest income.
Equity Price Risk
Our 2017 Notes includes conversion and settlement provisions that are based on the price of our common stock at conversion or at maturity of the notes. In addition, the hedges and warrants associated with these convertible notes also include settlement provisions that are based on the price of our common stock. The amount of cash we may be required to pay, or the number of shares we may be required to provide to note holders at conversion or maturity of these notes, is determined by the price of our common stock. The amount of cash that we may receive from hedge counterparties in connection with the related hedges and the number of shares that we may be required to provide warrant counterparties in connection with the related warrants are also determined by the price of our common stock.
Upon the expiration of our warrants, we will issue shares of common stock to the purchasers of the warrants to the extent our stock price exceeds the warrant strike price of $29.925 at that time. The following table shows the number of shares that we would issue to warrant counterparties at expiration of the warrants assuming various closing stock prices on the date of warrant expiration:
Stock Price
 
Shares (in thousands)
$32.92
(10% greater than strike price)
1,072
$35.91
(20% greater than strike price)
1,966
$38.90
(30% greater than strike price)
2,722
$41.90
(40% greater than strike price)
3,370
$44.89
(50% greater than strike price)
3,931

The fair value of our 2017 Notes Conversion Derivative and our 2017 Notes Hedge is directly impacted by the price of our common stock. We entered into the 2017 Notes Hedges in connection with the issuance of our 2017 Notes with the Option Counterparties. The 2017 Notes Hedges, which are cash-settled, are intended to reduce our exposure to potential cash payments that we are required to make upon conversion of our 2017 Notes in excess of the principal amount of converted notes if our common stock price exceeds the conversion price. The following table presents the fair values of our 2017 Notes Conversion Derivative and 2017 Notes Hedge as a result of a hypothetical 10% increase and decrease in the price of our common stock. We believe that a 10% change in the stock price is reasonably possible in the near term:
(in thousands)
 
 
 
 
Fair Value of Security Given a 10% decrease in stock price
Fair Value of Security as of December 31, 2013
Fair Value of Security Given a 10% increase in stock price
2017 Notes Hedges (Asset)
92,000
118,000
145,000
2017 Notes Conversion Derivative (Liability)
87,000
112,000
139,000
Foreign Currency Exchange Rate Fluctuations
Fluctuations in the rate of exchange between the U.S. dollar and foreign currencies could adversely affect our financial results. Approximately 19% and 18% of our net sales from our continuing operations were denominated in foreign currencies during the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively, and we expect that foreign currencies will continue to represent a similarly significant percentage of our net sales in the future. Cost of sales related to these sales are primarily denominated in U.S. dollars; however, operating costs related to these sales are largely denominated in the same respective currencies, thereby partially limiting our transaction risk exposure. For sales not denominated in U.S. dollars, an increase in the rate at which a foreign currency is exchanged for U.S. dollars will require more of the foreign currency to equal a specified amount of U.S. dollars than before the rate increase. In such cases, if we price our products in the foreign currency, we will receive less in U.S. dollars than we did before the rate increase went into effect. If we price our products in U.S. dollars and our competitors price their products in local currency, an increase in the relative strength of the U.S. dollar could result in our prices not being competitive in a market where business is transacted in the local currency.

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A substantial majority of our net sales from continuing operations denominated in foreign currencies are derived from European Union countries, which are denominated in the euro; from the United Kingdom, which are denominated in the British pound; and from Canada, which are denominated in the Canadian dollar. Additionally, we have significant intercompany receivables from our foreign subsidiaries that are denominated in foreign currencies, principally the euro, the yen, the British pound, and the Canadian dollar. Our principal exchange rate risk, therefore, exists between the U.S. dollar and the euro, the U.S. dollar and the British pound, and the U.S. dollar and the Canadian dollar. Fluctuations from the beginning to the end of any given reporting period result in the revaluation of our foreign currency-denominated intercompany receivables and payables, generating currency translation gains or losses that impact our non-operating income and expense levels in the respective period.
As discussed in Note 11 to the consolidated financial statements contained in “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data,” we enter into certain short-term derivative financial instruments in the form of foreign currency forward contracts. These forward contracts are designed to mitigate our exposure to currency fluctuations in our intercompany balances denominated currently in euros, British pounds and Canadian dollars. Any change in the fair value of these forward contracts as a result of a fluctuation in a currency exchange rate is expected to be offset by a change in the value of the intercompany balance. These contracts are effectively closed at the end of each reporting period.
A uniform 10% strengthening in the value of the U. S. dollar relative to the currencies in which our transactions are denominated would have resulted in a decrease in operating income of approximately $1.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2013. This hypothetical calculation assumes that each exchange rate would change in the same direction relative to the U.S. dollar. This sensitivity analysis of the effects of changes in foreign currency exchange rates does not factor in a potential change in sales levels or local currency prices, which can be also be affected by the change in exchange rates.
Other
As of December 31, 2013, we have outstanding $300 million principal amount of our 2017 Notes. We carry this instrument at face value less unamortized discount on our consolidated balance sheets. Since this instruments bears interest at a fixed rate, we have no financial statement risk associated with changes in interest rates. However, the fair value of these instruments fluctuates when interest rates change, and in the case of our 2017 Notes, when the market price of our stock fluctuates. We do not carry the 2017 Notes at fair value, but present the fair value of the principal amount of our 2017 Notes for disclosure purposes.



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Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.



52


Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
The Board of Directors and Stockholders

Wright Medical Group, Inc.:

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Wright Medical Group, Inc. and subsidiaries (the Company) as of December 31, 2013 and 2012, and the related consolidated statements of operations, changes in stockholders’ equity, comprehensive income, and cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2013. These consolidated financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these
consolidated financial statements based on our audits.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement. An audit includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. An audit also includes assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2013 and 2012, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2013, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.

We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2013, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (1992) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO), and our report dated February 26, 2014 expressed an unqualified opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.
(signed) KPMG LLP
Memphis, Tennessee
February 26, 2014


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Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
The Board of Directors and Stockholders

Wright Medical Group, Inc.:

We have audited the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting of Wright Medical Group, Inc. and subsidiaries(the Company) as of December 31, 2013, based on criteria established in Internal Control—Integrated Framework (1992) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO). The Company’s management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the accompanying Management’s Annual Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audit.

We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audit included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audit also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.

A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that: (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

In our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2013, based on criteria established in Internal Control–Integrated Framework (1992) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO).

We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), the consolidated balance sheets of the Company as of December 31, 2013 and 2012, and the related consolidated statements of operations, changes in stockholders’ equity, comprehensive income, and cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2013, and our report dated February 26, 2014 expressed an unqualified opinion on those consolidated financial
statements.

(signed) KPMG LLP
Memphis, Tennessee
February 26, 2014


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Wright Medical Group, Inc.
Consolidated Balance Sheets
(In thousands, except share data)

 
December 31, 2013
 
December 31, 2012
Assets:
 
 
 
Current assets:
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
168,534

 
$
320,360

Marketable securities
6,898

 
12,646

Accounts receivable, net
45,817

 
31,202

Inventories
72,443

 
57,458

Prepaid expenses
6,508

 
4,814

Deferred income taxes
10,749

 
30,145

Current assets held for sale
142,015

 
166,484

Other current assets
52,351

 
29,036

Total current assets
505,315

 
652,145

 
 
 
 
Property, plant and equipment, net
70,515

 
41,482

Goodwill
118,263

 
32,414

Intangible assets, net
39,420

 
18,684

Marketable securities
7,650

 

Deferred income taxes
1,632

 
1,251

Other assets held for sale
132,443

 
129,730

Other assets
132,213

 
77,747