10-K 1 d254702d10k.htm FORM 10-K Form 10-K
Table of Contents

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM 10-K

 

 

(Mark one)

 

x ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2011

or

 

¨ TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

for the transition period from              to             .

Commission File Number: 001-15713

 

 

ASIAINFO-LINKAGE, INC.

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

 

Delaware   752506390

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

  (I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)

4th Floor, Zhongdian Information Tower

6 Zhongguancun South Street, Haidian District

Beijing 100086, China

(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code +8610 8216 6688

 

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Common Stock, $0.01 Par Value   The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC
(Title of Each Class)   (Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

 

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  x    No  ¨

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes  ¨    No  x

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  x    No  ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Website, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes  x    No  ¨

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of the registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.    ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

 

Large accelerated filer  x

 

Accelerated filer  ¨

Non-accelerated filer  (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)  ¨

 

Smaller reporting company  ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).    Yes  ¨    No  x

Based on the closing sale price of the common stock on the NASDAQ Global Market on June 30, 2011, the aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant was $836,971,115.04.

The number of shares outstanding of the registrant’s common stock, $0.01 par value, was 72,497,518 at February 20, 2012.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Certain information is incorporated by reference to the Proxy Statement for the registrant’s 2012 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Regulation 14A not later than 120 days after the end of the fiscal year covered by this Form 10-K.

 

 

 


Table of Contents

ASIAINFO-LINKAGE, INC.

FORM 10-K

FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2011

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

     PART I       

ITEM 1.

   Business      1   

ITEM 1A.

   Risk Factors      21   

ITEM 1B.

   Unresolved Staff Comments      36   

ITEM 2.

   Properties      36   

ITEM 3.

   Legal Proceedings      37   

ITEM 4.

   Mine Safety Disclosures      38   
   PART II   

ITEM 5.

   Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities      39   

ITEM 6.

   Selected Financial Data      41   

ITEM 7.

   Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations      42   

ITEM 7A.

   Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk      59   

ITEM 8.

   Financial Statements and Supplementary Data      60   

ITEM 9.

   Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure      60   

ITEM 9A.

   Controls and Procedures      60   
   Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm      61   

ITEM 9B.

   Other Information      62   
   PART III   

ITEM 10.

   Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance      63   

ITEM 11.

   Executive Compensation      63   

ITEM 12.

   Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters      63   

ITEM 13.

   Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence      63   

ITEM 14.

   Principal Accounting Fees and Services      63   
   PART IV   

ITEM 15.

   Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules      64   

SIGNATURES

     71   


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Cautionary Statement

Except for historical information, the statements contained in this report are forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. The Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, or the Reform Act, contains safe harbors regarding forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements include management’s expectations, intentions and beliefs with respect to our growth, our future operating results, the nature of the industry in which we are engaged, our business strategies and plans for future operations, our needs for capital expenditures, capital resources and liquidity, and similar expressions concerning matters that are not historical facts. Such forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties that could cause our actual results to differ materially and adversely from those expressed in the statements. All forward-looking statements included in this report are based on information available to us on the date hereof, and we assume no obligation to update any such forward-looking statements. These cautionary statements are being made pursuant to the provisions of the Reform Act with the intention of obtaining the benefits of the safe harbor provisions of the Reform Act. Factors that could cause actual results to differ materially include, but are not limited to, those factors discussed below under Item 1A, “Risk Factors” and in other documents we file from time to time with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC.

In this report, the “Company,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer to AsiaInfo-Linkage, Inc. and its subsidiaries and consolidated variable interest entities, or VIEs, “Linkage” refers to Linkage Technologies International Holdings Limited and “AsiaInfo” refers to the Company prior to its combination with Linkage.

PART I

 

ITEM 1. Business

Overview

We are the leading provider of high-quality telecommunications software solutions and information technology, or IT, related services in China. Our software and services enable our customers to build, maintain, operate, manage and improve their communications infrastructure. Our largest customers are the major telecommunications carriers in China and their provincial subsidiaries, including China Mobile Communications Corporation, or China Mobile, China United Telecommunications Corporation, or China Unicom, and China Telecommunications Corporation, or China Telecom.

We provide software solutions to telecommunications carriers and cable television, or TV, operators in China as well as telecommunications operators in other countries, including:

 

   

business operation support systems, including billing, customer relationship management and partnership relationship management applications;

 

   

business intelligence systems, including data warehousing platforms, online analytical applications and data mining applications;

 

   

OSS package, including protocol adaptor, service fulfilment, process management, inventory management and service activation;

 

   

service and data applications, such as mail centers, mobile device management and mobile e-commerce platforms; and

 

   

network infrastructure services, including network design and implementation, integrated network management and professional maintenance and support.

We also provide variety of services including business operational consulting service, IT architecture planning service, system integration services based on our own products and other third party software and hardware, change of request implementation, maintenance on customer premise and management services.

 

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Recent Developments

On January 30, 2011, we announced the authorization of a new stock repurchase program under which we could purchase up to $60.0 million in aggregate value of our common stock within a period of twelve months. As of June 30, 2011, we had repurchased 3,166,500 shares of our common stock at a total cost of approximately $60.0 million pursuant to this repurchase program.

On February 14, 2011, we announced that we signed Next Generation, or NG, Business Operation Support System, or BOSS, 3.0 version upgrade contracts with Shanghai Mobile, Zhejiang Mobile, Henan Mobile, Liaoning Mobile and Guizhou Mobile, each of which is a subsidiary of China Mobile.

On April 5, 2011, we announced that we signed an agreement to provide Customer Relationship Management, or CRM, and Business Intelligence, or BI, systems to U Mobile Sdn Bhd, or U Mobile, in Malaysia.

On April 28, 2011, we announced that we signed five NG-BOSS 3.0 version upgrade contracts with Gansu Mobile, Inner Mongolia Mobile, Qinghai Mobile, Tianjin Mobile and Xinjiang Mobile and two NG Business Analysis Support System, or BASS, 3.0 version upgrade contracts with Qinghai Mobile and Zhejiang Mobile, each of which is a provincial subsidiary of China Mobile.

On July 29, 2011, we announced that we had signed a contract with Beijing Gehua CATV Network Co., Ltd., or Gehua Cable, to deliver a BOSS. Gehua Cable is the only certified cable network operator in Beijing.

On August 1, 2011, our board of directors and management team determined that, following the merger of AsiaInfo and Linkage, the integration of the two combined companies had been completed. The main areas of focus during the integration included customer facing sales and service organizations, human resource policies, product and solution platforms as well as IT system, project management, accounting and financial reporting practices.

On October 31, 2011, we announced the signing of Business Support System (“BSS”) Convergent software supervision contracts for five China Unicom subsidiaries in Beijing, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Liaoning and Shandong provinces. China Unicom’s BSS Convergent software contract for the remaining province, Henan, was signed in the fourth quarter.

On December 14, 2011, we announced that we signed a NG BOSS 3.5 version upgrade contract and an NG- BASS 3.5 version upgrade contract with Shanghai Mobile, a provincial subsidiary of China Mobile.

On December 15, 2011, we announced that Mr. Yadong Jin, vice president and general manager of marketing, was appointed as executive vice president and chief technology officer, or CTO. Through this new position, Mr. Jin leads our strategy for product standardization. He also continues regular communication with our customers.

On January 4, 2012, we announced that we signed an agreement to provide a convergent billing solution to Nepal Doorsanchar Company Limited, or Nepal Telecom, in Nepal on December 21, 2011.

On January 20, 2012, we announced the receipt of a non-binding proposal letter from Power Joy (Cayman) Limited, or Power Joy, a wholly owned subsidiary of CITIC Capital China Partners II, L.P., pursuant to which Power Joy proposed to acquire all of our outstanding shares of common stock in cash at a price that represents a premium over the current stock price. A special committee of the board of directors, or the Special Committee, was formed to consider the proposal and any potential alternative transactions. The Special Committee retained Shearman & Sterling LLP as its legal counsel and Goldman Sachs (Asia) L.L.C. as its financial advisor to assist it in consideration of such matters. There can be no assurance that any definitive offer will be made, that any agreement will be executed or that this or any other transaction will be approved of or consummated.

 

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Our Corporate Structure

We commenced our operations in the United States in 1993 and moved our major operations from the United States to China in 1995. Although we are organized as a Delaware corporation, our business is conducted through a number of operating subsidiaries, most of which are organized under the laws of the People’s Republic of China, or the PRC, and are directly or indirectly wholly-owned by us. In addition to our wholly-owned subsidiaries, we operate certain businesses through domestic Chinese companies in which we hold no equity interests, but which we control through a series of contractual arrangements with those companies and their respective equity holders. Under the laws and regulations of the PRC, foreign persons and foreign companies are restricted from investing directly in certain businesses within the PRC, including value-added telecommunications services businesses. Through our VIEs, we provide outbound call services on behalf of telecommunications operators in the PRC and may provide other value-added telecommunications services. Accounting principles generally accepted in the United States, or GAAP, require us to consolidate VIEs in our financial statements because our contractual arrangements related to those entities provide us with the risks and rewards associated with equity ownership.

For more information on regulations in the PRC restricting foreign ownership in certain businesses, please see the discussion below under the heading “Government Regulation—Regulation of the Telecommunication Industry.” For more information on certain regulatory and other risks associated with our contractual arrangements related to Beijing Star VATS Technologies, Inc., or Star VATS, and Beijing Zhongxinjia Sci-Tech Development Co., Ltd., or ZXJ, please see the discussion in Item 1A of this report, “Risk Factors.”

 

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The following diagram illustrates the current organizational structure of our company and our operating subsidiaries and affiliates. This diagram excludes legal entities in which we hold a minority interest that are not consolidated in our financial statements.

 

LOGO

 

(1) AsiaInfo-Linkage, Inc. holds 70% of the share capital of AsiaInfo International Pte. Ltd., or AsiaInfo Singapore, a Singapore registered company, and the remaining 30% is held by Alpha Growth International Pte. Ltd.
(2) AsiaInfo-Linkage Technologies (China), Inc., which was previously held directly by AsiaInfo-Linkage, Inc., is now held indirectly through AsiaInfo-Linkage (H.K.) Systems Co., Ltd. We reorganized this aspect of our corporate structure in 2011 primarily for tax reasons.
(3) AsiaInfo-Linkage Technologies (China), Inc. holds 90% of the share capital of Shanghai Xinjia Information and Technology Co., Ltd., a domestic Chinese company, and the remaining 10% is held by Ms. Yao Yuan.
(4) Beijing Star VATS Technologies, Inc., or Star VATS, is a domestic Chinese company owned by certain of our employees but controlled by our subsidiary AsiaInfo-Linkage Technologies (China), Inc. through a series of contractual arrangements. While organized to conduct value-added technology services business, Star VATS is not currently licensed to conduct such business.
(5) Chengdu Yalian Zhixing Technology Ltd. is a domestic Chinese company with 60% of its shares held by Star VATS and 40% held by Shanghai Yuzhi Communication Technology, Ltd.
(6) Zhongbo Software Technology Co., Ltd is a domestic Chinese company with 80% of its shares held by AsiaInfo-Linkage Technologies (Chengdu), Inc. and 20% held by certain of our employees.
(7) Asiainfo-Linkage (Thailand) Ltd. is a Thai company with 48.995% and 0.005% of its shares held by AsiaInfo Singapore and AsiaInfo-Linkage (H.K.) Systems Co., Ltd. respectively. The remaining 51% of Asiainfo-Linkage (Thailand) Ltd. is held by one of our employees, but is controlled by our subsidiary AsiaInfo Singapore through a series of contractual arrangements.
(8) Bonson Information Technology Ltd. holds 60% of the share capital of SmartCall Holding Ltd., or SmartCall Cayman, a Cayman Islands registered company, and the remaining 40% is held by Call Center International Limited.

 

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(9) Beijing Zhongxinjia Sci-Tech Development Co., Ltd., a domestic Chinese company, is owned by two of our employees but controlled by our subsidiary Beijing Shangxin Yitong Information and Technology Co., Ltd. through a series of contractual arrangements.

Industry Background and Market Opportunities

Our largest customers are the three major telecommunications operators in China and their provincial subsidiaries. The recent restructuring of China’s telecommunications industry opened the fixed-line, mobile and broadband segments to all existing telecommunications operators in China, and the ensuing competition in these segments prompted each telecommunications operator to increase its IT spending on infrastructure upgrades and 3G and other next-generation technologies. Operators put heavy investment in 3G, WIFI, LTE, fiber network and M2M infrastructure to provide pervasive internet access, and it will be a mandatory requirement for them to increase the customer experience and monetize the bandwidth to secure the return of investment.

We believe that increasing competition among the three operators will drive demand for telecommunications-related software and IT solutions in the long-run. We believe we are well positioned to continue capitalizing on the competition between carriers, increasing the number of mobile subscribers, new technologies as well as other trends in the telecommunications industry through our market leadership, comprehensive solutions, long-standing relationships with the three PRC telecommunications operators, customer focus, and highly qualified personnel. We also plan to expand our telecommunication software and service offerings to telecommunication providers in Southeast Asia, where 3G upgrades, software convergence and analytical tools such as Business Intelligence are in high demand as the operators in the region look to upgrade and expand their own systems going forward.

According to the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of China, or MIIT, in November 2011, the number of China’s mobile phone subscribers increased to 975 million while the number of China’s fixed-line phone subscribers decreased to 286 million. Additionally, the number of broadband access subscribers in China increased to 155 million through the end of November 2011, and the number of Internet users in China increased to 513 million by the end of 2011. In China’s twelfth Five-Year-Plan (2011—2015), the government announced its support and commitment toward the continued development of telecommunication software and the IT services industry.

The following table sets forth certain information relating to the telecommunications industry in China as of the dates indicated:

 

     Year Ended December 31,  
     2008     2009     2010     2011  

Fixed-line Telephone

        

Subscribers (in millions)

     341        314        294        286

Penetration rate

     26     23     20     19

Mobile Telephone

        

Subscribers (in millions)

     641        747        859        975

Penetration rate

     48     56     59     67

Internet

        

Users (in millions)

     298        384        457        513   

Penetration rate

     22     29     31     35

Broadband

        

Users (in millions)

     83        103        126        155

 

Source: National Statistical Bureau of China, MIIT, CINIC
* As of the date of this report, data only available through November 30, 2011.

Our Competitive Strengths

We believe the following strengths differentiate us from our competitors and enable us to maintain a leadership position in the telecommunications software products and services industry in China. Over the last

 

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decade, we have gained experience and knowledge in China’s telecommunications industry, including experience meeting the demand driven by new technologies as well as changes in business models impacted by both consumer demand and competition amongst the carriers. We believe we have the experience and the capabilities to anticipate the changes in the demands from the carriers and provide more sophisticated and personalized services to domestic and international customers.

Leading provider of telecommunications BSS/OSS solutions. We are a leading provider of business and operation support systems, or BSS/OSS, to Chinese telecommunications carriers and their provincial subsidiaries. We have deployed our industry-leading BSS/OSS solutions for 18 of China Mobile’s 31 provincial subsidiaries, and our operating analysis and decision support system platform for China Mobile’s headquarters and 18 of its provincial subsidiaries. We have constructed over 58% of China Mobile’s billing and customer relationship management, or CRM, systems and approximately 56% of its BI systems and have developed one of the largest telecommunications billing and CRM systems in the world for China Mobile’s Zhejiang Mobile provincial subsidiary, supporting over 45 million mobile subscribers. For China Unicom, we have deployed our BSS/OSS solution for 19 of its provincial subsidiaries and our operating analysis and decision support system platform for 5 of its provincial subsidiaries. For China Telecom, we have deployed our BSS/OSS solution for 15 of its provincial subsidiaries, and our operating analysis and decision support system solution for 12 of its provincial subsidiaries.

Comprehensive, scalable solutions. We offer a comprehensive suite of solutions and services that cover all major telecommunications systems, including business operation support systems, service application solutions and network infrastructure solutions. Over the years, we have continued to invest in our research and development of products and services and have created a high entry to barrier for competitors. Our proprietary software allows telecommunications carriers to monitor user activity and analyze service usage data in real time, which enables service providers to increase billing accuracy, accelerate the time-to-market for new services and improve the effectiveness of marketing and targeting efforts. Most of our software products are scalable to accommodate millions of users, which allow telecommunications carriers to develop their networks incrementally as their level of business grows without the need for architecture re-engineering or large-scale system replacements. Our software products are also designed with fully documented, open architecture that allows our customers, third party systems integrators and software developers to integrate our software with existing applications and services with minimal effort and programming overhead.

Customer-centric and cost-effective project management capability. Our project delivery time with key customers usually lasts between three to six months, and at times may last over a year. We believe customer satisfaction is essential to preserving customer loyalty. We emphasize the importance of remaining in close contact with our customers in order to meet their needs and demands during the course of our projects. We have developed a unique project management system to achieve maximum customer satisfaction in a cost-effective manner. We believe our effective project management system distinguishes us from our competitors in China. Moreover, our strong customer service and research and development teams based in China allow us to respond quickly and efficiently to the needs of our customers.

Highly qualified personnel. In view of the specific needs of China’s market, our recruitment efforts target Chinese citizens who have information technology and professional competence and international exposure. We believe that we have been able to attract and retain qualified personnel by offering attractive compensation packages, a challenging and rewarding work environment, and the opportunity to work for a leading information technology company in China. Our ability to recruit and train high quality employees will enable us to continue offering the high quality of services to our customers.

 

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Our Strategy

Our vision is to be the leading solution provider in the global telecommunications industry, to enable the connected digital life style, and to help our customers to build, maintain, operate, manage and improve their communications infrastructure. The key aspects of our strategy include:

Capitalizing on growth opportunities in China’s telecommunications market. We believe that increased competition among the telecommunications operators will continue to drive demand for nationwide BSS/OSS upgrades and new system deployments throughout China. We also expect the introduction of new technologies and change of consumer habits will intensify competition among mobile operators and drive up overall telecommunications software and IT service spending. With our market leadership in China and strong commitment to customer relationships, we believe we are well positioned to continue capitalizing on the competition and other trends in the telecommunications industry both domestically and abroad. We also intend to continue to leverage our industry knowledge and research and development capabilities to offer new solutions, including upgrades and add-ons, and provide more consulting and other value-added services in China.

Global market opportunities. We began providing our software solutions to telecommunications carriers outside of China in 2009, and we have entered into a number of agreements to provide our solutions in the Southeast Asia region. Although a small percentage of our business today, we believe this region will present additional opportunities in the future, as we grow our international business. We plan to leverage our core competency in China’s telecom space as we target international opportunities. Starting in 2011, we accelerated our product integration and standardization initiatives through the development of new products and features for our strategic projects both in China and Southeast Asia. We will continue to reinvest in strategic areas of our business to drive long-term, sustainable growth.

Strengthening relationships with key customers. Our customers include all three major telecommunications carriers in China and their provincial subsidiaries. We expect our customers’ software and IT service needs to evolve as they address an increasingly competitive market, continue their modernization process and offer their customers progressively more sophisticated and innovative solutions and services. We intend to address the software and IT needs of these large telecommunications carriers and increase the sales of our products and services by, among others things:

 

   

Maintaining a high level of customer satisfaction. We aim to maintain a high level of customer satisfaction by continuing to exceed our customers’ expectations in the projects we undertake and provide quality services on an ongoing basis.

 

   

Foreseeing customer needs. We plan to leverage our industry know-how and long-term customer relationships to understand our customers’ development and spending initiatives, allowing us to better coordinate our research and development and marketing efforts.

 

   

Actively identifying cross-selling opportunities. Our solutions and services cover all major telecommunications systems and we believe there are substantial opportunities for us to cross-sell our wide range of products and services to our existing customer base. We will continue to leverage existing customer relationships and our ongoing projects to actively identify opportunities to market additional solutions and services to our customers.

Pursuing strategic acquisitions and alliances that fit within our core competencies and growth strategy. We hold a leading position in the market for BSS/OSS solutions in China, which we believe is important for the future development of the country’s telecommunications carriers. In recent years, we further strengthened our leading position in the telecommunications software solutions market through strategic transactions, most notably the business combination with Linkage on July 1, 2010. As the market for telecommunications software solutions in China continues to expand, we intend to selectively pursue additional acquisitions to access new sectors or new clients, expand our product and service offerings and strengthen our market leadership position. We also plan to continue forging strategic alliances with complementary businesses and technologies.

 

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Enhancing our brand. We plan to continue building awareness of AsiaInfo-Linkage as a leading provider of high quality telecommunications software products and services in China. Our goal is to make the AsiaInfo-Linkage brand synonymous with superior technology, high quality customer service, trusted advice and definitive business value both in China and abroad.

Leveraging our operational excellence. We have over the years been able to gain valuable knowledge and expertise in the telecommunication industry and will continue to leverage our operational excellence in order to provide the best-in-class service and offerings to provide customer satisfaction and improved productivity especially after the combination with Linkage.

Products and Services

We leverage our core strengths in software to offer product and service solutions for leading telecommunications service providers, as well as other major enterprises, in China. We offer a specialized suite of products and services for the telecommunications industry. We have developed core competencies in various advanced technologies that are used in our products and solutions. By utilizing technologies such as multi-tier architecture, object-oriented techniques, data mining and open application program interfaces, we are able to provide our customers with the flexibility and scalability required in a highly competitive, dynamic environment. We also closely monitor world-wide technological developments in our service and product areas.

Our business model is to be a customer centric total solution provider, we focus on the customer wants and needs, we provide business operational consulting services to work together with customers to understand the situation and problem, help customers to increase the revenue, improve the operational efficiency and reduce the cost with our in-depth know-now by the combination of both business and technology, we also provide the IT architecture service to help customer to do the rolling plan to continuously improve their IT systems to address the market challenge, our professional service organization will implement the IT projects based on our core products listed in the following sections and provide the configuration, change of request and ongoing support services to smooth the routine system operation, our R&D organization will keep harvesting the business requirements and leverage the de facto industry standard to evolve our core products.

Besides the foundation business support system we have provided to the operators across China to enable the daily operation, we are also deploying the new solutions to help customers to address the business challenge in digital lifestyle era, for example, we help China Unicom to build the largest online service centre and electronic shopping mall (http://www.10010.com), we help China Telecom to build the convergent policy control facilities to tune the QoS according to customer profile across the wireless, broadband and WIFI connections, we help China Mobile to evolve the multiple electronic contact channel to support more than 70% of sales and customer service volume so that the operational cost of China Mobile can be reduced dramatically.

Using this customer centric service approach, we are able to keep our product portfolio sitting in the front of industry evolution.

Software and Solutions for the Telecommunications Market

We provide high quality software and solutions to China’s telecommunications carriers. Our suite of innovative solutions includes business and operation support systems, network infrastructure solutions, and service application solutions. The products and services we offer to the telecommunications industry include various software product suites, most of which are designed with open architecture to facilitate further development and customization for specific purposes. We typically integrate a combination of these products, together with our services, into customized solutions to address individual customer needs.

 

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Business and Operation Support Systems (BSS/OSS)

We are a leading provider of BSS/OSS to China’s telecommunications operators. Our core BSS/OSS offerings primarily include convergent billing solutions, CRM and BI systems. We also provide software enhancement and maintenance services for the systems we develop, as well as system integration and other value-added IT consulting and planning services.

Our BSS/OSS product suites include the following:

 

   

OpenBilling Product Suite. OpenBilling is a flexible, expandable, convergent billing solution for telecommunications operators. OpenBilling supports the business of mobile operators by providing a full line of integrated solutions, including mediation, rating, billing, account balance management, as well as system monitoring and disaster recovery management. OpenBilling is designed with a multi-tier architecture, and is capable of being developed into full-service business operation support systems based on its core convergent billing function. OpenBilling is adaptable to various compatible commercial middleware, and consists of dynamic component modules that can be modified separately when a new product is introduced and updated without any system down time. It also has a unified rating engine that provides flexible pricing mechanisms, a memory database technology that supports complex rating and billing activities, and a real time accounting system that can support sophisticated business requirements.

 

   

OpenCRM Product Suite. OpenCRM is a leading CRM solution suite for telecommunications operators. OpenCRM helps operators improve customer service quality, enhance customer satisfaction and build strong customer relationships. It uses a hierarchical structure that provides flexibility for transverse development, an open architecture to permit enterprise application integration capability, and security technologies such as back-up, monitoring, auditing and emergency reporting.

 

   

OpenBOSS Product Suite. OpenBOSS is a carrier-class business operation support system solution that provides comprehensive revenue, customer, and product and service management capabilities. With a modularized design, OpenBOSS mainly consists of OpenBilling and OpenCRM solutions that can be deployed independently.

 

   

OpenBI Product Suite. OpenBI is a carrier-class operating analysis and decision support system platform and the core of our BI solution. With embedded technology such as data warehousing, online analytical process and data mining, OpenBI enables service providers to make management decisions based on analysis of customer behavior, competitive environment, business profitability and other parameters. The system is able to proactively generate business operation reports, which serve as a basis for critical management decisions.

 

   

OpenPRM Product Suite. OpenPRM is a system that calculates, manages and reconciles payment for intercarrier network access, including settlement of roaming charges between mobile operators, as well as management of agreements and settlements between operators and their business partners. The OpenPRM solution also provides support to telecommunications operators in their services to large enterprise and individual customers, as well as their relationship management with third-party sales channels. Our OpenPRM software comprises an access layer, a service layer, and a data layer. This multi-layer design provides flexibility to integrate with other systems, scalability, and high performance. OpenPRM includes a Workflow Management System, or WFMS, that monitors work activities according to defined tasks, roles, rules and processes. The WFMS is designed to improve efficiency by helping carriers reconfigure their business processes to improve service quality and flexibility. OpenPRM also includes a business-oriented architecture and communications crossing application system, which allows centralized and integrated connection among various modules.

OSS Package

Our OSS Package is a highly comprehensive and intelligent service fulfilment framework based on OSS fulfilment domain definition in eTOM model and OSS specifications of telecom operators and taking into

 

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account the process analysis methodology (process reviewing and definition) and project implementation methodology (rapid and phased implementation). It enables rapid building of reliable and highly efficient service fulfilment system and ensures the actual needs and future requirements of telecom operators for system functionality and performance are met.

In OSS Package, process analysis methodology and project implementation methodology enables a rapid implementation of telecom service fulfilment system. It provides process analysis methodology, project implementation methodology, inventory data model, interface integration framework and built-in inventory management templates. The OSS package-based service fulfilment system is characterized by rapid process deployment, intelligent self-learning, implementation monitoring, high extensibility and easy integration. It provides comprehensive support for customers’ complicated service fulfilment process and accelerates implementation of new service fulfilment support process through accumulation function of module library.

The key features to our OSS Package include:

 

   

Differentiating strategic values, high operational performance

 

   

Timely to market for technology agnostic services

 

   

Network technology adapters for rapid interface creation

 

   

Sophisticated order decomposition and orchestration engine

 

   

End-to-end order management to facilitate rapid launch on new products and services

 

   

Extremely low latency for e-service provisioning and activation

 

   

Real-time monitoring of the end-to-end provisioning process

Network Management Solutions

Our network management solutions include network access and backbone infrastructure planning, design and implementation for telecommunications and Internet service providers. These services include technical training for our customers, as well as professional maintenance and support services. Together with these professional services, we offer comprehensive Internet Protocol, or IP, and business operation network management solutions through our NetXpert and OpenXpert product suites.

 

   

AsiaInfo NetXpert Solution. Our NetXpert is a carrier-class data and IP network management solution. NetXpert covers network elements, such as core, aggregation and access layers of the carriers’ data and IP network, and provides comprehensive network management functions, including fault, performance, topology and resource management. NetXpert also provides traffic analysis, quality of service monitoring and routing monitoring. NetXpert is designed to help carriers reduce their costs and improve maintenance efficiency by supporting multi-vendor environments and real-time optimization.

 

   

AsiaInfo OpenXpert Product Suite. Our OpenXpert is an integrated telecommunications network management system. OpenXpert generates a spectrum of network managerial data that enhances overall network management and business operation management. OpenXpert also monitors the application software systems implemented on a network, such as billing, business operation, account processing, settlement, operational CRM and analytical CRM applications. OpenXpert includes a high function internal formula engine that detects the root cause of network failures and predicts which business and applications are likely to be affected. It also incorporates an integrated classification and authentication technology to control different access and user authority for network management personnel at different levels.

Service Application Solutions

We design and provide a series of service applications that enable telecommunications operators and service providers to offer value-added services, such as Short Message Service, or SMS, mobile email, mobile entertainment

 

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and mobile e-commerce. These applications often involve licensed third-party software that we customize or integrate with our proprietary software to provide individualized solutions. Our service applications products include:

 

   

Mail Center Product. Our Mail Center product is our flagship online messaging software. Mail Center is a carrier-class messaging software product that supports electronic mail systems for all types of email service providers, from small Internet service providers to large-scale mail hosting providers with millions of mailboxes and thousands of domains. Its flexible design allows service providers to offer Web-based free email, basic email service and premium business secure email to end-users. The ability to scale both horizontally and vertically allows rapid expansion when more capacity is needed. The system is built to accommodate clustering technology and is highly fault tolerant. The wireless application protocol and SMS functions allow end-users to access emails at any time with a mobile connection.

 

   

Spam Patrol. Our Spam Patrol is software that offers real time anti-spam control, with advanced technology for real time recovery, intelligent upgrade capability and content filtering.

 

   

Net Disk. Net Disk is a network hard disk product that facilitates Internet-based file transfer, sharing and management. It provides access authentication that restricts access to authorized persons. Net Disk is an independent software that does not rely on other software but can be linked to standard database programs. In addition, Net Disk supports other value-added functions like data processing of short message folders and synchronization of mobile devices.

 

   

Internet Short Messaging Gateway. Our Internet Short Messaging Gateway is a business support platform for value-added short messaging services. It is the only one-layer short messaging gateway used by China Mobile to achieve single-point access and provincial roaming within China. It supports multiple protocols to transport short messages between different carriers and different mobile networks, including digital mobile, otherwise known as global system for mobile communications, or GSM, code division multiple access, or CDMA, personal handy-phone system, and 3G networks. Our Internet Short Messaging Gateway uses mainstream development tools based on the UNIX platform. It features multi-task and multi-thread concurrent processing, full parameter tuning systems, expansion capability through a modularized and distributed architecture, and a high level of system stability facilitated by disk array and system redundancy.

 

   

Device Management Platform. Our Device Management Platform enables mobile operators to manage many kinds of mobile devices using over-the-air technology and perform remote mobile device management, such as remote diagnosis and parameter setup. It can also help operators promote new services through firmware downloading and gather dynamic mobile usage information in support of marketing decision-making.

Research and Development

We are committed to researching, designing and developing information technology solutions and software products that will meet the future needs of our customers. In 2011, we started the integration of our software and services as well as the standardization of our products and services in order to better service our telecommunication customers both in China and abroad. We upgrade our existing software products to enhance scalability and performance and to provide added features and functions. We had over three thousand employees in our research and development department as of December 31, 2011. Our core product development teams for telecommunications software are located in Beijing, Nanjing, Hangzhou and Guangzhou.

During the fiscal years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009, we had research and product development expenses of $58.9 million, $36.2 million and $30.4 million, respectively. In 2011, our research and development team made several achievements in the development of NG BOSS, BI systems, and cloud computing, in addition to developing international versions of our NG BOSS and BI systems and developing new CRM versions for China Mobile Zhejiang, Beijing and Shanghai.

 

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Achievements in NG BOSS development

In 2011, our next generation business and operating support system was upgraded with improvements in billing and CRM functionality. Improvements were also made in prepaid tracking capabilities as well as in carriers’ corporate accounts. Billing capabilities combined with eight flexible payment methods provide customers with convenient and simple payment methods. Our CRM functionality includes a uniform platform development with uniform functionality and design for improved management of systems requirements and e-commerce websites. There were also improvements in support of value-added services and prepaid service upgrades. We are currently evaluating the potential requirements for the next phase of NG BOSS upgrades.

Achievements in BI development

In 2011, our business intelligence products saw improvements in search technology capabilities and personal portal technology capabilities. The development of an individual customer tag database and multi-functional tagging functionality allows analysis of customer behavior. With the results from the analytical data, the carrier is able to provide specific targeting strategies. In 2011, we also further strengthened our development marketing administration platform, optimized our multi-marketing-channel system, and enhanced our rates management system, which includes rates analysis, rates pre-performance, rates mapping, and rates recommendation. We believe these developments will allow telecommunications operators in China to be more competitive and present us with additional opportunities to expand our market share.

Achievements in Cloud Computing

In 2011, we continued to conduct targeted research designs and evaluated several key technologies regarding cloud computing, such as software and data access in virtualized infrastructure facilities and resources (host, network, storage) and cloud computing management platforms. Based on the concepts of platform-as-a-service and software-as-a-service, we are accelerating our research and development efforts in the development of platforms and services that provide multiple users the access to multiple applications.

Customers

Our customers consist primarily of Chinese telecommunications service providers and their provincial subsidiaries, including China Mobile, China Unicom, and China Telecom. For the year ended December 31, 2011, revenue from China Mobile and its provincial subsidiaries accounted for $252.7 million, revenues from China Unicom and its provincial subsidiaries were $130.1 million and revenues from China Telecom and its provincial subsidiaries were $89.9 million, or approximately 52.5%, 27.1% and 18.7% of our total revenues, respectively. In the international telecommunications market of Southeast Asia, our current customers consist of U Mobile Sdn Bhd, or U Mobile, Mfone TV Co., Ltd. or Mfone, and Nepal Telecom. Outside of the telecommunications industry, we also have customers in China’s cable TV industry, such as, Jiangsu Cable, Chongqing Cable, China DB Star and Gehua Cable.

Telecommunications Customers

China Mobile. China Mobile was established in July 1999 to operate mobile telecommunications networks nationwide that had previously been operated by China Telecom. China Mobile is the largest telephone service provider in China, with over 650 million wireless voice service subscribers as of November 30, 2011, and provincial subsidiaries responsible for local networks throughout China. China Mobile’s GSM network covers all of China’s cities and most of its rural areas.

China Unicom. China Unicom was established in 1994 and is China’s second largest mobile operator. China Unicom also provides a wide array of services, including long distance telephone services, local telephone

 

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services, Internet and data communications services, paging services, communications value-added services and other communications services. China Unicom merged with China Netcom and became a full-service telecommunications provider in October 2008. As of November 30, 2011, China Unicom had 200 million mobile (GSM+WCDMA) subscribers and 93 million local access subscribers and 56 million broadband subscribers.

China Telecom. China Telecom is China’s largest wireline telecommunications and broadband services provider, providing telecommunications and information services covering voice, data, image and multimedia. In September 2008, China Telecom bought China Unicom’s CDMA business and became a full-service telecommunications provider. As of November 30, 2011, China Telecom had 126 million CDMA subscribers, 170 million local access subscribers and 77 million broadband subscribers.

International Telecommunications Customers

We provide both CRM and BI systems to U Mobile, a leading provider of telecommunications services in Malaysia, and we also provide a BI system for Mfone, a leading provider of fixed and mobile telecommunications services in Cambodia. In addition, we provide convergent real time billing and CRM systems to Nepal Telecom.

Cable TV Industry

China’s current cable TV industry is fragmented with over two thousand small cable TV operators. The Chinese government has initiated a consolidation of the cable TV industry into 31 provincial level entities and to be the led by one national operator, China Cable. Our strategy is to provide billing and CRM services to the cable providers that are the consolidators in the cable TV industry. Our customers in China’s cable TV industry are the largest cable operators in their respective markets, such as Jiangsu Cable, Chongqing Cable, China DB Star and Gehua Cable.

Sales and Marketing

Sales

As part of our sales strategy, we classify our market sectors and target opportunities on national and regional levels in China. This classification helps us determine our primary sales targets and prepare monthly and quarterly sales forecasts. Sales quotas are assigned to all sales personnel according to annual sales plans. We approve target projects, develop detailed sales promotion strategies and prepare reports on order forecast, technical evaluation, sales budgeting expense, schedules and competition analysis. After a report has been approved, a sales team is appointed consisting of sales personnel, system design engineers and a senior system architect.

We rely on our own sales force to market and sell our products and services in China and globally. Our sales organizations are structured into five strategic customer accounts, namely China Mobile, China Unicom, China Telecom, Cable TV market and international market. These accounts sell our solutions and services to the respective customers and manage our long-term relationships with them. We also have direct sales personnel in regional offices in Beijing, Shanghai, Chengdu, Fuzhou, Shenyang, Hangzhou, Nanjing, Guangzhou and Singapore.

Marketing

Our marketing and consulting departments focus on strategic planning, strategic alliance development, market analysis, software product development planning, solution consulting and business operation consulting. In addition, we have a market communications department, which engages in a number of activities aimed at increasing public awareness of our products and services. Our marketing activities include:

 

   

managing and maintaining our website;

 

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producing corporate and product brochures and monthly customer newsletters;

 

   

conducting seminars and media conferences;

 

   

conducting ongoing public relations programs; and

 

   

creating and placing advertisements.

Competition

The telecommunications software market is a highly competitive environment. Our competitors within China include local companies such as Digital China, Huawei, Neusoft and ZTE. We believe that we have competitive advantages in our product and service sectors due to our leading BSS/OSS solutions, comprehensive and scalable product and service offerings, customer-centric and cost effective project management capability, and established customer relationships. However, our competitors in China, many of whom have greater financial, technical and human resources than we have, may be able to respond more quickly to new and emerging technologies and changes in customer requirements or devote greater resources to the development, promotion and sale of new products or services. It is possible that competition in the form of new competitors or alliances, joint ventures or consolidation among existing competitors may decrease our market share. Increased competition could result in lower personnel utilization rates, billing rate reductions, fewer customer engagements, reduced gross margins and loss of market share, any one of which could materially and adversely affect our profits and overall financial condition.

The global telecommunications software market is highly competitive. Our competitors include Amdocs, Convergys, Comverse, Huawei, and ZTE along with other international players. We believe our core competencies will be able to lead us in our expansion into the international telecommunications software and services market. However, our global competitors may have greater financial, technical, and human resources than us, have entered into their respective markets earlier than us, and may be able to respond more quickly to new and emerging technologies and changes in customer requirements or devote greater resources to the development, promotion and sale of new products or services. It is possible that our limited exposure in the global telecommunication software market might impede our further expansion.

China’s cable TV industry is currently fragmented with over two thousand cable TV operators and many more software and service providers with whom we compete. Our Hangzhou Zhongbo subsidiary is able to provide high quality software and services to China’s cable TV operators. As the cable TV industry is being consolidated at a national headquarters level with 31 provincial level subsidiaries, we plan to gain customers as an industry consolidator.

Government Regulation

This section sets forth a summary of the most significant PRC regulations and requirements that affect our business activities in China.

Regulation of the Software Industry

Software Copyright

The State Council of the PRC, or the State Council, promulgated the Regulations on the Protection of Computer Software, or the Software Protection Regulations, in December 2001, which became effective in January 2002. The Software Protection Regulations were promulgated, among other things, to protect the copyright of computer software in China. According to the Software Protection Regulations, computer software that is independently developed and exists in a physical form or is attached to physical goods will be protected. However, such protection does not apply to any ideas, mathematical concepts, processing and operation methods used in the development of software solutions.

 

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Under the Software Protection Regulations, PRC citizens, legal persons and organizations enjoy copyright protection over computer software they have developed, regardless of whether the software has been published. Other developers may enjoy copyright protection over computer software they have developed, if such computer software was first distributed in China, or in accordance with a bilateral agreement between China and the developer’s country citizenship or residence, or in accordance with an international treaty to which China is a party.

Under the Software Protection Regulations, owners of software copyright protection enjoy rights of publication, authorship, modification, duplication, issuance, lease, transmission on the information network, translation, licensing and transfer. Software copyright protection takes effect on the day of completion of the software’s development.

For software developed by legal persons and other organizations, software protection extends until the thirty-first day of December of the fiftieth year from the date the software solution was first published. However, the Software Protection Regulations will not protect the software unless it is published within 50 years of the completion of its development. Licensing agreements may allow others to exploit the software copyright, but exclusive licenses must be in writing. A written contract is also required to transfer any software copyright.

Civil remedies available under the Software Protection Regulations against infringements of copyright include cessation of the infringement and elimination of its effects, an apology and compensation for losses. The administrative department of copyright may order the infringer of a software copyright to stop all infringing acts, confiscate illegal gains, confiscate and destroy infringing copies, and impose a fine on the infringer under certain circumstances. Disputes regarding infringements of software copyright may be settled through mediation, arbitration, or the PRC courts directly.

Software Copyright Registration

In February 2002, the State Copyright Administration of the PRC promulgated the Measures Concerning Registration of Computer Software Copyright Procedures, or the Registration Procedures, to implement the Software Protection Regulations and to promote the development of China’s software industry. The Registration Procedures apply to the registration of software copyrights, software copyright exclusive licensing contracts and assignment contracts. The registrant of a software copyright will either be the copyright owner or another person (whether a natural person, legal person or an organization) in whom the software copyright becomes vested through succession, assignment or inheritance.

Pursuant to the Registration Procedures, the software to be registered must (i) have been independently developed or (ii) significantly improve in its function or performance after modification from the original software with the permission of the original copyright owner. If the software being registered is developed by more than one person, the copyright owners may nominate one person to handle the copyright registration process on behalf of the other copyright owners. If the copyright owners fail to reach an agreement with respect to the registration, any of the copyright owners may apply for registration but the names of the other copyright owners must be recorded on the application.

The registrant of a software copyright and the parties to a software copyright assignment contract or exclusive licensing contract may apply to the Copyright Protection Center of the PRC for registration of such software copyright and contracts. The Copyright Protection Center of the PRC will complete its examination of an accepted application within 60 days of the date of acceptance. If an application complies with the requirements of the Software Protection Regulations and the Registration Procedures, a registration will be granted, a corresponding registration certificate will be issued and the registration will be publicly announced.

Software Products Administration

In October 2000, the MIIT issued the Measures Concerning Software Products Administration, or the Measures, to regulate software products and promote the development of the software industry in China. The

 

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Measures set forth requirements regarding who may produce software products in China, how software products may be sold, and local and imported software registration. The MIIT and other relevant departments may supervise and inspect the development, production, operation and import/export activities of software products in China.

In March 2009, the MIIT promulgated new Measures Concerning Software Products Administration, or the New Measures, which became effective in April 2009. Under the New Measures, software products operated or sold in China are not required to be registered or recorded with governmental authorities, and software products developed in China (including those developed in China on the basis of imported software) can enjoy certain favorable policies when they have been registered and recorded. The New Measures eliminated certain other requirements set forth in the original Measures.

Policies to Encourage the Development of Software and Integrated Circuit Industries

In China’s twelfth Five-Year-Plan (2011—2015), the government reiterated the importance of developing and strengthening the IT and telecommunications industry in China. The PRC government’s encouragement of more sophisticated and integrated systems with enhanced security could prove favorable to the growth of our business. Moreover, the PRC government has stated its desire for convergence of telecom, Internet and cable and the improvement in the application of the Internet of Things, two trends that we recognize as having possible positive impacts on our business operations.

In June 2000, the State Council issued Certain Policies to Encourage the Development of Software and Integrated Circuit Industries, or the Policies, to encourage the development of the software and integrated circuit industries in China and to enhance the competitiveness of the PRC information technology industry in the international market. The Policies encourage the development of the software and integrated circuit industries in China through various methods, including by:

 

   

Encouraging venture capital investment in the software industry and assisting software enterprises in raising capital overseas;

 

   

Providing tax incentives, including an immediate tax rebate for taxpayers who sell self-developed software products, before 2010, of the amount of the statutory value-added tax that exceeds 3% and a number of exemptions and reduced enterprise income tax rates;

 

   

Providing government support, such as government funding in the development of software technology;

 

   

Providing preferential treatment, such as credit facilities with low interest rates to enterprises that export software products;

 

   

Taking steps to ensure that the software industry has sufficient expertise; and

 

   

Implementing measures to enhance intellectual property protection in China.

To qualify for preferential treatment, an enterprise must be recognized as a software enterprise by governmental authorities. A software enterprise is subject to annual inspection, failure of which in a given year results in loss of the relevant benefits. Certain of our subsidiaries in China have obtained the software certifications that provide tax benefits, which are discussed below in Item 7, Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operation, under the heading “Taxes.”

In January 2011, the State Council issued a new circular providing an exemption from business taxes for eligible software companies on software development and testing, system integration, consulting and maintenance services. The circular also retains various policies granted by its previous circular as outlined above, including the value-added tax rebate on sales of software. The implementation guidance of this new circular has not been issued as of the date of this report, although the implementation guidance for value-added tax rebates on sales of software was issued in October 2011.

 

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Regulation of the Telecommunications Industry

The Chinese telecommunications industry, in which our largest customers operate, is subject to extensive government regulation and control. Currently, all the major telecommunications and Internet service providers in China are primarily state owned or state controlled and their business decisions and strategies are affected by the government’s budgeting and spending plans. In addition, they are required to comply with regulations and rules promulgated from time to time by the MIIT and other ministries and government departments.

In September 2000, China published the Regulations of the People’s Republic of China on Telecommunications, or the Telecommunications Regulations. The Telecommunications Regulations were the first comprehensive set of regulations governing the conduct of telecommunications businesses in China. In particular, the Telecommunications Regulations set out in clear terms the framework for operational licensing, network interconnection, the setting of telecommunications charges and standards of telecommunications services in China. In the same month, China’s State Council approved the Administrative Measures on Internet Information Services, which provide for control and censoring of information on the Internet.

In December 2001, the Ministry of Information Industry, or MII, which was reorganized as the MIIT in June 2008, promulgated the Administrative Measures for Telecommunications Business Operating Licenses, as amended. This regulation provides for two types of telecommunications operating licenses for carriers in the PRC, namely licenses for basic services and licenses for value-added services. In February 2003, the MII issued a new classification of basic and value-added telecommunications services. The revised classification maintains the general distinction between basic telecommunications services, or BTS, and value-added telecommunications services, or VATS, and attempts to define the scope of each service. In particular, the 2003 classification delineated the differences between “Type 1” and “Type 2” value-added services. Type 1 includes online data and transaction processing, domestic multi-party communications services, domestic Internet VPN services and Internet data center services. Type 2 covers storage and retransmission (email, voice mail, facsimile), call centers, Internet access and information services.

Under regulations introduced in December of 2001, qualified foreign investors are permitted to invest in certain sectors of China’s telecommunications industry through Sino-foreign joint ventures, including Type 2 VATS providers, although there have been few reported investments of this nature to date. These regulations, known as the Provisions on the Administration of Foreign-Invested Telecommunications Enterprises, or the Provisions, were the result of China’s accession to the World Trade Organization. Under these provisions, certain qualifying foreign investors are permitted to own up to 49% of basic telecommunications businesses in China, and up to 50% of value-added telecommunications services businesses (which include Internet service providers and Internet content providers) and wireless paging businesses.

Despite the introduction of the provisions in 2001, PRC regulations still restrict most direct foreign ownership of VATS businesses in the PRC. We and our PRC operating subsidiaries are considered foreign persons or foreign-invested enterprises under PRC laws, and are therefore subject to foreign ownership restrictions in connection with our limited VATS Type 2 business activities. In order to comply with these restrictions, we entered into a series of contractual arrangements with certain individuals to facilitate our domestic companies, principally ZXJ in conducting value-added telecommunications services business in the PRC. Historically, our VIE Star VATS obtained a License for Operating Value-Added Telecommunications Services (Type 2), which expired in November 2009. ZXJ obtained a License for Operating Value-Added Telecommunications Services (Type 2), issued by the MIIT initially with a validity period from September 2010 to September 2015. While our VATS services offerings are limited to date, we anticipate offering customers various Type 2 VATS in the future.

We offer VATS services through our VIEs, principally ZXJ, since the expiration of Star VATS’ license. Our VIEs receive any revenue we generate in the VATS business, we do not have any equity interest in ZXJ, but instead have the right to enjoy economic benefits similar to equity ownership through our contractual arrangements with

 

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our VIEs and their respective shareholders. For more information on the regulatory and other risks associated with our contractual arrangements related to our VIEs, please see the discussion below in Item 1A, “Risk Factors.”

In addition, in anticipation of China’s developing 3G telecommunications systems, in May 2008, MIIT, the Ministry of Finance, and the National Development and Reform Commission, or NDRC, jointly issued a notice, known as “The Announcement on Deepening the Reform of the Structure of the Telecommunications Sector,” which mandates further reforms to China’s telecommunications system. The regulatory authorities indicated that additional policies and measures to encourage innovation and to strengthen supervision of the telecommunications industry would be promulgated.

Regulations Affecting Acquisitions of PRC Companies by Foreign Entities

In October 2005, the PRC State Administration of Foreign Exchange, or SAFE, issued a notice, known as “Circular 75,” which requires PRC residents to register with the competent local SAFE branch before establishing or controlling any company outside of China for the purpose of capital financing with assets or equities of PRC companies, referred to in Circular 75 as “offshore special purpose company.” Such PRC residents must also amend the registration form if there is a material event affecting the offshore company, such as, among other things, a change in share capital, a transfer of shares, or if such company is involved in a merger, an acquisition or a spin-off transaction or uses its assets in China to guarantee offshore obligations. In May 2011, SAFE issued the Circular 75 Operation Instruction, which stipulates the application documents should be submitted to local SAFE branch and the approval principle adopted by local SAFE branch. In the past, we have acquired a number of assets from, or equity interests in, PRC companies. However, there is substantial uncertainty as to whether we would be considered an “offshore special purpose company” for purposes of Circular 75 and, at present, it is unclear whether Circular 75 requires a company such as ours to register. We have in any event requested our stockholders who are PRC residents to make the necessary applications, filings and amendments as required under Circular 75 and other related regulations, including without limitation any and all implementation rules of Circular 75. We will attempt to comply, and attempt to ensure that all of our stockholders subject to these rules comply, with the relevant requirements. However, all of our PRC resident stockholders may not comply with such requirements. Any failure to comply with the relevant requirements could subject us to fines or sanctions imposed by the PRC government, including restrictions on certain of our subsidiaries’ ability to pay dividends to us and our ability to increase our investment in those subsidiaries.

We cannot predict how Circular 75 and other related regulations will affect our future acquisition strategies and business operations. For example, if we decide to acquire additional PRC companies, we or the owners of such companies may not be able to complete the filings and registrations, if any, required by Circular 75, its implementation rules and related regulations. Under Circular 75, failure to comply with the registration procedures set forth thereunder may result in the imposition of restrictions on the foreign exchange activities of the relevant onshore company, including the payment of dividends and other distributions to its offshore parent or affiliate and the capital inflow from the offshore entity, and may also subject relevant PRC residents to penalties under PRC foreign exchange administration regulations. Any such restrictions or penalties may restrict our ability to implement an acquisition strategy and could adversely affect our business and prospects.

In August 2006, six PRC regulatory authorities, including the PRC Ministry of Commerce, or MOFCOM and the China Securities Regulatory Commission, or CSRC, jointly promulgated the M&A Rules, which became effective in September 2006 and were subsequently amended in June 2009 by MOFCOM. The M&A Rules established additional procedures and requirements that make merger and acquisition activities by foreign investors more time-consuming and complex, including, in some circumstances, advance notice to MOFCOM of any change-of-control transaction in which a foreign investor takes control of a PRC domestic enterprise. Compliance with the M&A Rules, and any related approval processes, including obtaining approval from MOFCOM, may delay or inhibit our ability to complete acquisitions of domestic PRC companies, which could affect our ability to expand our business or maintain our market share.

 

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Furthermore, in August 2008, SAFE issued a notice, known as “Circular 142,” regulating the conversion by a foreign-invested company of foreign currency into RMB by restricting the uses for the converted RMB. Circular 142 requires that the registered capital of a foreign-invested company denominated in RMB but converted from a foreign currency may only be used pursuant to the purposes set forth in the foreign-invested company’s business scope as approved by the applicable governmental authority. Such registered capital may not be used for equity investments within the PRC. In addition, SAFE strengthened its oversight of the flow and use of the registered capital of a foreign-invested company that was denominated in RMB but converted from foreign currency. Violations of Circular 142 may result in severe penalties, including significant fines. As a result, Circular 142 may significantly limit our ability to invest in or acquire other PRC companies using the RMB-denominated capital of our PRC subsidiaries.

Certifications and Qualifications

Our products, facilities and activities must satisfy a range of criteria and conditions set by various industry bodies and governmental authorities in China in order for us to be eligible to supply our products and services. In addition, some certificates we hold are not mandatory for our business but may provide us with certain tax benefits or marketing advantages.

As of February 20, 2012, our subsidiaries or VIEs held the following certifications or qualifications, among others, that enable us to engage in certain industry or business activities:

 

   

Computer Information System Integration Qualification Certificate (Level 2) issued by the MIIT (holder: AsiaInfo-Linkage Technologies (China), Inc.);

 

   

Computer Information System Integration Qualification Certificate (Level 1) issued by the MIIT (holder: Linkage-AsiaInfo Technologies (Nanjing), Inc.); and

 

   

The People’s Republic of China License for Operating Value-Added Telecommunications Services issued by the MIIT (holder: Beijing Zhongxinjia Sci-Tech Development Co., Ltd.).

As of February 20, 2012, our subsidiaries or VIEs held the following certifications or qualifications, among others, that provide us with tax benefits:

 

   

Hi-tech Enterprise Approval Certificate issued by the Beijing Municipal Science & Technology Commission, the Beijing Municipal Finance Bureau, the Beijing Municipal National Taxation Bureau and the Beijing Municipal Local Taxation Bureau (holder: AsiaInfo-Linkage Technologies (China), Inc.);

 

   

Hi-tech Enterprise Approval Certificate issued by the Jiangsu Provincial Science & Technology Department, the Jiangsu Provincial Finance Department, the Jiangsu Provincial National Taxation Bureau and the Jiangsu Municipal Local Taxation Bureau (holder: Linkage-AsiaInfo Technologies (Nanjing), Inc.);

 

   

Hi-tech Enterprise Approval Certificate issued by the Sichuan Provincial Science & Technology Department, the Sichuan Provincial Finance Department, the Sichuan Provincial National Taxation Bureau and the Sichuan Provincial Municipal Local Taxation Bureau (holder: AsiaInfo-Linkage Technologies (Chengdu), Inc.);

 

   

Software Enterprise Certificate issued by the Beijing Municipal Commission of Economy and Information Technology (holder: AsiaInfo-Linkage Technologies (China), Inc.);

 

   

Software Enterprise Certificate issued by the Sichuan Information Industry Department (holder: AsiaInfo-Linkage Technologies (Chengdu), Inc.);

 

   

Software Enterprise Certificate issued by the Jiangsu Economic and Information Technology Commission (holder: Linkage-AsiaInfo Technologies (Nanjing), Inc.); and

 

   

Hi-tech Product Approval Certificate (Linkage New Generation Management Analysis System Software) issued by the Jiangsu Provincial Science & Technology Department (holder: Linkage-AsiaInfo Technologies (Nanjing), Inc.).

 

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As of February 20, 2012, our subsidiaries or VIEs held the following certifications or qualifications, among others, that we believe provide us with marketing advantages:

 

   

CMMI (Capability Maturity Model Integration) LEVEL 3 Certificate issued by Carnegie Mellon University (holders: AsiaInfo-Linkage Technologies (China), Inc. and AsiaInfo-Linkage Technologies (Chengdu), Inc.);

 

   

Quality Management System Certificate (GB/T 19001-2008 idt ISO 9001:2008 Standard) issued by the Guangzhou Saibao Certification Co., Ltd. (holder: Linkage-AsiaInfo Technologies (Nanjing), Inc.);

 

   

Information Technology Security Service Certification (Security Engineering Level 1) issued by the China Information Technology Security Evaluation Center (holder: AsiaInfo-Linkage Technologies (China), Inc.); and

 

   

Membership of TM Forum Certification (Level B2) issued by the President and Chairman of TM Forum (holder: AsiaInfo-Linkage).

Intellectual Property

Our success and ability to compete depend substantially upon our intellectual property, which we protect through a combination of confidentiality arrangements and copyright, trademark and patent registrations. We have filed thirteen trademark applications with the United States Patent and Trademark Office, five of which have been registered and eight of which are newly filed AsiaInfo-Linkage’s new logo and design. Our trademark application covering AsiaInfo’s logo and design has been granted by the Trademark Bureau of the State Administration of Industry and Commerce in China. We have also filed sixteen applications to protect AsiaInfo-Linkage’s new logo and design soon after the combination to the Trademark Bureau of the State Administration of Industry and Commerce in China, six of which have been registered. In addition, we have filed nine trademark applications with the Hong Kong Trade Marks Registry, three of which have been passed to registration and six pending newly filed AsiaInfo-Linkage’s new logo and design. We have filed twelve trademark applications in Thailand, and filed six trademark applications in Malaysia, Singapore, Australia and Japan, respectively. We have been granted fifteen patents and currently have four pending patent applications with the China State Intellectual Property Office for hardware and software products used or developed in our business. In addition, we have been granted one patent by the United States Patent and Trademark Office. More than 300 versions of our software products have been registered with the State Copyright Bureau in China, although we have not applied for copyright protection elsewhere, including in the U.S.

We enter into confidentiality agreements with most of our employees and consultants, and control access to and distribution of our documentation and other licensed information. Despite these precautions, it may be possible for a third party to copy or otherwise obtain and use our technology without authorization, or to develop similar technology independently. Since the Chinese legal system in general, and the intellectual property regime in particular, is relatively weak, it is often difficult to enforce intellectual property rights in China. In addition, there are other countries where effective copyright, patent, trademark and trade secret protection may be unavailable or limited. Policing unauthorized use of our technology is difficult and the steps we take may not prevent misappropriation or infringement of our proprietary technology. In addition, litigation may be necessary in the future to enforce our intellectual property rights, to protect our trade secrets or to determine the validity and scope of the proprietary rights of others, which could result in substantial costs and diversion of our resources and could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

A portion of our business involves the development and customization of software applications for customers. We generally retain significant ownership or rights to use and market such software for other customer projects, where possible. However, our customers sometimes retain co-ownership and rights to use the applications, processes, and intellectual property so developed. In some cases, we may have no right or only limited rights to reuse or provide these developments to projects involving other customers. To the extent that we are unable to negotiate contracts which permit us to reuse source-codes and methodologies, or to the extent that we have conflicts with our customers regarding our ability to do so, we may be unable to provide similar solutions to our other customers.

 

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Employees

As of December 31, 2011, we had 10,541 employees. We devote significant resources to recruiting professionals with relevant industry experience. Most of our senior management and technical employees are Chinese professionals with substantial expertise in IT systems integration and application software development. We believe that our success in attracting and retaining highly skilled technical employees and sales and marketing personnel is largely a product of our commitment to providing a motivating and interactive work environment that features continuous and extensive professional development opportunities, as well as frequent and open communication at all levels of the organization.

Financial Information about Segments

Please refer to Note 27 of the notes to consolidated financial statements included in this report for detailed information regarding our segment reporting.

SEC Reports Available on Website

Our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Sections 13(a) and 15(d) of the Exchange Act, become available on our website at www.AsiaInfo-Linkage.com, as soon as such reports become available on the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, website at www.sec.gov. The contents of our website are not incorporated by reference into this report or any of our other Exchange Act reports.

 

ITEM 1A. Risk Factors

Certain Risks That May Affect Our Operating Results and Our Common Stock

In addition to the other information in this report, the following factors should be considered in evaluating our business and our future prospects:

We depend on a few customers for a significant portion of our revenues and this dependence is likely to continue. If we fail to obtain business from these key existing customers, our revenues will decline.

We have derived, and believe that we will continue to derive, a significant portion of our revenues from a limited number of large customers in the telecommunications industry in China, such as China Mobile, China Telecom and China Unicom (and their respective provincial subsidiaries). In the aggregate, China Mobile, China Telecom and China Unicom accounted for 99%, 98% and 98% of our total revenues in 2009, 2010 and 2011 respectively. The loss, cancellation or deferral of any large contract would have a material adverse effect on our revenues, and consequently our profits.

We market our software and services to, and sign contracts with, individual provincial subsidiaries of these three telecommunications carriers as well as their headquarters. We believe that our future success will depend to a significant extent on our ability to develop and maintain long-term relationships with these telecommunications carriers at the headquarter and provincial levels. We have dedicated significant resources over the past few years to maintaining our relationships with these telecommunications carriers at both the provincial and the headquarter levels. However, IT spending authority may become more centralized. For instance, China Unicom adopted the practice of requiring contracts to be entered into with the headquarters for solutions provided to its provincial subsidiaries, although the provincial subsidiaries will remain as the main decision-makers regarding the purchases. If telecommunications carriers begin to centralize purchasing decisions or otherwise change the level within the telecom operator at which the purchase decision is made or replace a key decision-maker at any decision-making level, our customer relationship may be disrupted and we may be unable to effectively and timely restore these relationships. Any failure to maintain close relationships with customers, due to unsuccessful sales and marketing efforts, lack of suitable products and solutions, unsatisfactory customer support and services

 

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or any other reason, could result in our losing customers and their businesses. If we lose a key customer, if a key customer significantly reduces its purchasing levels or delays a major purchase or if we fail to attract additional major customers, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

Political and economic policies of the Chinese government could affect our industry in general and our competitive position in particular.

Since the establishment of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, the Communist Party has been the governing political party in China. The highest bodies of leadership are the Politburo of the Communist Party, the Central Committee and the National People’s Congress. The State Council, which is the highest institution of government administration, reports to the National People’s Congress and has under its supervision various commissions, agencies and ministries, including the MIIT, the telecommunications regulatory body of the Chinese government. Since the late 1970s, the Chinese government has been reforming the Chinese economic system. Although we believe that economic reform and the macroeconomic measures adopted by the Chinese government has had and will continue to have a positive effect on economic development in China, the economic reform strategy may from time to time be modified or revised. Such modifications or revisions, if any, could have a material adverse effect on the overall economic growth of China. Such developments could reduce, perhaps significantly, the demand for our products and services. Furthermore, changes in political, economic and social conditions in China, adjustments in policies of the Chinese government or changes in laws and regulations could adversely affect our industry in general and our competitive position in particular.

The growth of our business is dependent on government telecommunications infrastructure and budgetary policies, particularly the allocation of funds to sustain the growth of the telecommunications industry in China.

Our telecommunications customers are directly or indirectly owned or controlled by the government of China. Accordingly, our business is also heavily dependent on these government policies. Insufficient future funding allocated to China’s telecommunications industry by the government could directly reduce the demand for our software and services. Government initiatives directed at the market could also significantly affect the market conditions for our customers and influence the level of spending on IT solutions and services. While some of these initiatives, such as the convergence of mobile and fixed-line markets in the telecommunications industry, may increase market competition and generate more demand for our software and services, the anticipated increase in demand may not materialize. Some of our customers may not adapt well to the market conditions under the new regulatory environment and may reduce their demand for our software and services as a result. The telecommunications industry may also become less competitive over time, either as a result of market propelled consolidations or as a result of government efforts to curtail competition. A less competitive market may create fewer incentives for IT spending on innovations and upgrades, which may directly affect our revenues and business prospects.

The restructuring of China’s telecommunications sector may have an adverse impact on our business prospects and results of operations.

Historically, China’s telecommunications sector has been subject to a number of state-mandated restructurings. For example, in 2002 China Telecom was split geographically into a northern division (comprising 10 provinces) and a southern division (comprising 21 provinces). As a result of the restructuring, new orders for telecommunications infrastructure expansion and improvement projects decreased, which adversely affected our revenue. Any similar restructurings of this nature could cause our operating results to vary unexpectedly from quarter to quarter in the future. It is also possible that software becomes centralized at the headquarters level of PRC telecommunications carriers or that China Mobile may establish two large data centers for the operation of its software structure, which may materially and adversely affect our operations.

 

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In May 2008, China restructured its telecommunications carriers, creating three major carriers that have mobile, fixed-line and data services. As China’s telecommunications industry grows larger in size and smaller in the number of telecommunications carriers, more IT solutions providers will be competing for projects and telecommunications carriers may be able to exact lower prices for our solutions and services. If we cannot effectively compete with our competitors, we may lose business and our results of operations may be materially and adversely affected. Furthermore, telecommunications carriers may also find it more cost-effective to set up their own IT divisions to meet their IT needs, instead of outsourcing to third-party providers. If the current trend favoring the outsourcing of such services is reduced or reversed, our financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

The long and variable sales cycles for our software and services can cause our revenues and operating results to vary significantly from period to period and may adversely affect the trading price of our common stock.

Our revenues and operating results will vary significantly from quarter to quarter due to a number of factors, many of which are outside of our control and any of which may cause our stock price to fluctuate. A customer’s decision to purchase our software and services involves a significant commitment of its resources and extended evaluation. As a result, our sales cycles tend to be lengthy. We spend considerable time and expense educating and providing information to prospective customers about features and applications of our software and services. Because our major customers often operate large and complex networks, they usually expand their networks in large increments on a periodic basis. The combination of these factors can cause our revenues and results of operations to vary significantly and unexpectedly from quarter to quarter.

A large part of the contract amount of our projects sometimes relates to hardware procurement. Since we recognize most of the revenues relating to hardware, at the time of hardware delivery, the timing of hardware delivery can cause our quarterly gross revenues to fluctuate significantly. Due to the foregoing factors, we believe that quarter to quarter comparisons of our results of operations may not be a good indication of our future performance and should not be overly relied upon. It is likely that our results of operations in some periods may be below the expectations of public market analysts and investors. In this event, the price of our common stock will probably decline, perhaps significantly more in percentage terms than any corresponding decline in our operating results.

Our working capital requirements may increase significantly.

We typically purchase hardware for our customers as part of our turn-key total solutions services. Other than the IBM Type Arrangements as described in the section entitled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” we generally require our customers to pay 80% to 90% of the invoice value of the hardware upon delivery. We typically place orders for hardware against back-to-back orders from customers and seek favorable payment terms from hardware vendors. This policy has historically minimized our working capital requirements. However, for certain large and strategically important projects, such as projects in Southeast Asia, we have agreed to payment of less than 80% to 90% of the invoice value of the hardware upon delivery in order to maintain competitiveness. Wider adoption of less favorable payment terms or delays in hardware deliveries could cause our working capital needs to increase significantly.

We may be exposed to the credit risk of customers that have been adversely affected by weakened global economy.

We typically sell our software and services as part of long-term projects. During the life of a project, a customer’s budgeting constraints can impact the scope of a project and the customer’s ability to make required payments. In addition, adverse general business conditions may degrade the creditworthiness of our customers over time, and we may be adversely affected by discontinued operations or other business failures.

 

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Our high level of fixed costs, as well as increased competition in the software market, could result in reduced operating margins.

We maintain a relatively stable work force of software and network engineers engaged in all phases of planning and executing projects on behalf of our customers. As a result, our operating costs are relatively fixed from quarter to quarter, regardless of fluctuations in our revenues. Future fluctuations in our revenues could result in decreases in our operating margins. In addition, enhanced competition in the software market and other markets in which we operate could result in reduced prices, which, together with our relatively fixed operating costs, could also result in reduced operating margins. Moreover, our operating margins may decline as a result of the strong bargaining power of our customers, general economic conditions or the restructuring of the telecommunications sector in China.

Substantial uncertainties exist with respect to our contractual arrangements with our affiliates engaged in businesses that PRC laws currently prohibit foreign-invested companies from engaging in.

Certain of our affiliates are engaged in businesses that PRC laws and regulations currently prohibit foreign-invested companies from engaging in, including those involving value-added telecommunications services, which we refer to “restricted businesses.” AsiaInfo-Linkage and its PRC operating subsidiaries in China are considered foreign persons or foreign-invested enterprises under the laws of China and cannot therefore engage in restricted businesses.

Many aspects of the telecommunications services industry, such as VATS, are also restricted from foreign ownership in most circumstances. In order to comply with these restrictions, we have entered into a series of contractual agreements with certain individuals to facilitate our domestic companies, principally ZXJ, in conducting value-added telecommunications services business in the PRC. Through our VIEs we provide outbound call services on behalf of telecommunications operators in the PRC and may provide other value-added telecommunications services. Our VIEs make use of the licenses and approvals that are essential to conducting VATS business in the PRC. However, these licenses and approvals expire and we may be unable to renew them. For instance, Star VATS, our VIE, had obtained a License for Operating Value-Added Telecommunications Services (Type 2), which expired in November 2009, and which has not been renewed, and ZXJ’s License for Operating Value-Added Telecommunications Services (Type 2) expires in September 2015. If these licenses and approvals expire and we are unable to renew them, our continuing VATS services may not be in compliance with PRC law and we may be forced to suspend VATS activities.

In addition, as part of the contractual arrangements, the shareholders of our VIEs agreed to pledge their respective shares in our VIEs to certain of our subsidiaries. Pursuant to a regulation in China known as the Provisions for Changes of Investors’ Equity in Foreign Invested Enterprises, a pledge of the equity interests of a foreign-invested enterprise will only be effective after obtaining approval from and registering with the relevant governmental authorities. Furthermore, under the PRC Property Rights Law, effective in October 2007, a pledge is created only after registration with the local branch of the Administration for Industry and Commerce in China. The pledges of the equity interests in our VIEs have been registered with the relevant governmental authorities in China.

There are, however, substantial uncertainties regarding the interpretation and application of current and future PRC laws and regulations, including regulations governing the validity and enforcement of such contractual arrangements. Accordingly, China government authorities may ultimately conclude that our contractual arrangements do not comply with PRC laws.

If we or any of our contractual arrangements are found to be in violation of any existing or future PRC laws or regulations concerning the VATS businesses, the relevant PRC regulatory authorities would have broad discretion in dealing with such violations, including:

 

   

revoking the business licenses of our subsidiaries in China;

 

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discontinuing or restricting our PRC subsidiaries’ operations;

 

   

imposing conditions or requirements with which we or our PRC subsidiaries may not be able to comply; or

 

   

requiring us or our PRC subsidiaries to restructure the relevant ownership structure or operations.

The imposition of any of these penalties could have a material adverse effect on our ability to conduct our business.

The principal shareholders and directors of our VIEs may have potential conflicts of interest with us, which may adversely affect our business.

We offer our value-added telecommunications services in China through our VIEs, primarily through ZXJ, which are partially owned by certain of our employees. Conflicts of interests between their duties to us and to the VIE may arise. When conflicts of interest arise, these persons may not act in the best interests of our company or resolve such conflicts in our favor. In addition, these persons or their heirs or other successors may breach or cause our VIEs to breach or refuse to renew the existing contractual arrangements that allow us to effectively control our VIEs and to receive economic benefits from them. Other than relying on the duties of loyalty owed to us by the shareholders of our VIEs who are also our officers, and the contractual arrangements with the shareholders of our VIEs, we currently do not have any measure or policy to address these potential conflicts of interest. In the event of any disputes regarding the contractual arrangements, we would have to rely on legal remedies under PRC law. These remedies may not always be effective, particularly in light of uncertainties in the PRC legal system. If we cannot resolve any conflicts of interest or disputes between us and the shareholders of our VIEs, we would have to rely on legal proceedings, the outcome of which may be uncertain and which could be disruptive to our business.

Our contractual arrangements with our VIEs may not be as effective in providing operational control as direct ownership of these affiliated entities and may be difficult to enforce.

We rely on contractual arrangements with our VIEs to operate our value-added telecommunications services businesses. These contractual arrangements, which require our VIEs to pay service and licensing fees to our subsidiaries in China, are currently the means by which we could receive economic benefits from these affiliated companies. In the future, we expect to continue to obtain economic benefits from our VIEs through these contractual arrangements. These contractual arrangements may not be as effective as direct ownership of these affiliated entities. For example, these affiliated entities and their respective shareholders could fail to perform or make payments as required under such contractual arrangements. In such event, we would have to rely on the PRC legal system to enforce these agreements. Any legal proceedings would be uncertain as to outcome and could result in the disruption of our business, damage to our reputation, diversion of our resources and the incurrence of substantial costs.

In addition, in the event we are unable to so extend our contractual arrangements, we may fail to obtain the requisite license to conduct certain our VATS businesses in China and may be required to temporarily suspend related business activities.

Contractual arrangements we have entered into between our subsidiaries and VIEs may be subject to scrutiny by China tax authorities, and a finding that we or VIEs owe additional taxes or are ineligible for our preferential tax treatment, or both, could substantially increase our taxes owed, or could materially reduce our profits and the value of your investment.

Under PRC law, arrangements and transactions among related parties may be audited or challenged by the tax authorities in PRC. If any of the transactions between our subsidiaries and VIEs are found to not have been entered into on an arm’s-length basis, or to result in an unreasonable reduction in tax under PRC law, the tax

 

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authorities in China have the authority to disallow our tax savings, adjust the profits and losses of our respective Chinese entities and assess late payment interest and penalties. A finding by the tax authorities in China that we are ineligible for certain tax savings, or that any of our subsidiaries or VIEs is ineligible for their preferential tax treatment, could increase our taxes owed and reduce our profits and the value of your investment.

Regulations relating to acquisitions of Chinese companies by foreign entities may limit our ability to acquire Chinese companies and adversely affect the implementation of our acquisition strategy and any failure by our stockholders who are Chinese residents to make or obtain any required registrations pursuant to such regulations may subject us to legal sanctions.

In October 2005, the PRC State Administration of Foreign Exchange, or SAFE, issued a notice, known as “Circular 75,” which sets forth a regulatory framework for acquisitions of PRC businesses involving offshore companies owned by PRC residents or passport holders, known as “round-trip” investments or acquisitions. Among other things, Circular 75 provides that if a round-trip investment in a PRC company by an offshore company controlled by PRC residents occurred prior to the issuance of Circular 75, certain PRC residents were required to submit a registration form to the local SAFE branch to register their ownership interests in the offshore company prior to March 31, 2006. Circular 75 also provides that, prior to establishing or assuming control of an offshore company for the purpose of obtaining financing for that offshore company using the assets or equity interests in an onshore enterprise in the PRC, each PRC resident or passport holder who is an ultimate controller of such offshore company, whether an individual or a legal entity, must complete the overseas investment foreign exchange registration procedures with the relevant local SAFE branch. Such PRC residents must also amend the registration form if there is a material event affecting the offshore company, such as, among other things, a change in share capital, a transfer of shares, or if such company is involved in a merger, acquisition or spin-off transaction or uses its assets in China to guarantee offshore obligations. In May 2007, SAFE issued guidance to its local branches with respect to the operational process for SAFE registration, known as “Circular 106,” which standardized registration under Circular 75. In the past, we have acquired a number of assets from, or equity interests in, PRC companies. However, there is substantial uncertainty as to whether we would be considered an “offshore company” for purposes of Circular 75, and, at present, it is unclear whether Circular 75 requires a company such as ours to register. We have in any event requested our stockholders who are PRC residents to make the necessary applications, filings and amendments as required under Circular 75 and other related regulations. We will attempt to comply, and attempt to ensure that all of our stockholders subject to these rules comply, with the relevant requirements. However, all of our PRC-resident stockholders may not comply with such requirements. Any failure to comply with the relevant requirements could subject us to fines or sanctions imposed by the PRC government, including restrictions on certain of our subsidiaries’ ability to pay dividends to us and our ability to increase our investment in those subsidiaries.

Circular 75, Circular 106 and related regulations are relatively new and it is uncertain how these regulations will be interpreted, implemented or enforced. We cannot predict how these regulations will affect our future acquisition strategies and business operations. For example, if we decide to acquire additional PRC companies, we or the owners of such companies may not be able to complete the filings and registrations, if any, required by Circular 75, Circular 106 and related regulations. Under Circular 75, failure to comply with the registration procedures set forth thereunder may result in the imposition of restrictions on the foreign exchange activities of the relevant onshore company, including the payment of dividends and other distributions to its offshore parent or affiliate and the capital inflow from the offshore entity, and may also subject relevant PRC residents to penalties under PRC foreign exchange administration regulations. Any such restrictions or penalties may restrict our ability to implement an acquisition strategy and could adversely affect our business and prospects.

In August 2006, six PRC regulatory authorities, including MOFCOM and the CSRC, jointly promulgated the Regulations on Mergers and Acquisitions of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors, or the M&A Rules, which became effective in September 2006 and were subsequently amended in June 2009 by MOFCOM. The M&A Rules established additional procedures and requirements that make merger and acquisition activities by foreign investors more time-consuming and complex, including, in some circumstances, advance notice to

 

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MOFCOM of any change-of-control transaction in which a foreign investor takes control of a PRC domestic enterprise. Compliance with the M&A Rules, and any related approval processes, including obtaining approval from MOFCOM, may delay or inhibit our ability to complete acquisitions of domestic PRC companies, which could affect our ability to expand our business or maintain our market share.

Furthermore, in August 2008, SAFE issued a notice, known as “Circular 142,” regulating the conversion by a foreign-invested company of foreign currency into RMB by restricting the uses for the converted RMB. Circular 142 requires that the registered capital of a foreign-invested company denominated in RMB but converted from a foreign currency may only be used pursuant to the purposes set forth in the foreign-invested company’s business scope as approved by the applicable governmental authority. Such registered capital may not be used for equity investments within the PRC. In addition, SAFE strengthened its oversight of the flow and use of the registered capital of a foreign-invested company that was denominated in RMB but converted from foreign currency. The use of such registered capital may not be changed without SAFE’s approval, and may not in any case be used to repay RMB loans if the proceeds of such loans have not been used. Violations of Circular 142 may result in severe penalties, including significant fines. As a result, Circular 142 may significantly limit our ability to invest in or acquire other PRC companies using the RMB-denominated capital of our PRC subsidiaries.

In 2011, we recorded $1.1 million in aggregate non-cash impairment charges to net income, and we may be required to record additional significant charges to earnings from the declines in fair value of our marketable securities if such declines become other than temporary.

Our short-term investment policy and strategy attempt primarily to preserve capital and meet our liquidity requirements. Our marketable securities are classified as available-for-sale securities in short-term investments and are reported at fair value with net unrealized losses recognized as accumulated other comprehensive income in stockholders’ equity, unless there is a decline in fair value below cost that we consider to be other than temporary, in which case the amount of the decline would be recognized as a loss and reflected in our statements of operations. As of December 31, 2011, we recognized a $0.1 million non-cash impairment charge to net income related to our short-term investments in certain stock funds. We review our short-term investments to determine whether any differences between cost and fair value are other-than-temporary impairment in accordance with authoritative accounting guidance.

As of December 31, 2011, we recognized a $1.0 million impairment on long-term investments, representing the decline in fair value of our 9.5% equity stake in Santen Corporation, a Cayman Islands company, which, through its subsidiaries in China, provides a form of value-added telecommunication services to telecommunications carriers in China. We review long-term investments for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of such investments may no longer be recoverable.

The losses incurred on these short-term and long-term investments primarily related to changes in general global market conditions. If factors arise that would require us to account for additional declines as other than temporary or if we are unable to hold investments until the carrying value of such investments is recovered, we may need to recognize such declines as additional realized losses with a charge to income, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and operating results.

We may be subject to fines and legal sanctions if we or our employees who are PRC citizens fail to comply with recent PRC regulations relating to employee stock options granted by overseas listed companies to PRC citizens.

In March 2007, SAFE issued the Application Procedure for Foreign Exchange Administration for Domestic Individuals Participating in Employee Stock Holding Plans or Stock Option Plans of Overseas Listed Companies, also known as “Circular 78.” Under Circular 78, PRC individuals who participate in an employee stock option holding plan or a stock option plan of an overseas listed company are required, through a PRC domestic agent or PRC subsidiary of the overseas listed company, to register with SAFE and complete certain other procedures. We and our Chinese employees who have been granted restricted stock or stock options pursuant to our stock

 

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incentive plans are subject to Circular 78 because we are an overseas listed company. However, in practice, significant uncertainties exist with respect to the interpretation and implementation of Circular 78. We intend to submit the application for registration of our employee stock incentive plan as soon as possible. We or our Chinese employees may not be able to comply with, qualify under, or obtain any registration required by Circular 78. If we or our Chinese employees fail to comply with the provisions of Circular 78, we or they may be subject to fines and legal sanctions imposed by SAFE or other PRC governmental authorities, which could result in a material and adverse effect to our business operations and employee stock incentive plans.

We are highly dependent on our executive officers.

Each of our executive officers is responsible for an important sector of our operations. Although we believe that we have significant depth at all levels of management, the loss of any of our executive officers’ services could be detrimental to our operations. We do not have, and do not plan to obtain, “key man” life insurance on any of our officers.

Our business could suffer if our executives and directors compete against us and our non-competition agreements with them cannot be enforced.

If any of our management or key personnel joins a competitor or forms a competing company, we may lose customers, suppliers, know-how and key professionals and staff members. Each of our executive officers has entered into employment agreements and confidentiality and non-competition agreements with us. However, if any dispute arises between our officers and us, the non-competition provisions contained in their confidentiality and non-competition agreements may not be enforceable, especially in China, where most of these executive officers and key employees reside, on the ground that we have not provided adequate compensation to these executive officers for their non-competition obligations, which is required under the relevant PRC regulations.

We may be unable to effectively execute projects, maintain, expand or renew existing customer engagements and acquire new customers if we fail to attract, train, motivate and retain quality employees who can effectively perform the services offered by us.

We depend on highly skilled employees, such as engineers, to effectively develop and deliver our solutions and services. The growth of our business could be limited by our ability to attract, train, motivate and retain these individuals. The market for qualified and experienced engineers throughout China is highly competitive, particularly in the areas of software programming and system engineering. We may be unable to retain our current workforce or hire additional personnel as planned. The quality of research and development and our services requires that our engineers not only be conversant in software but also that they possess extensive industry knowledge and expertise. If we cannot hire a sufficient number of quality employees, or fail to provide appropriate training, career opportunities and otherwise motivate and retain our employees, or if our employees fail to acquire the appropriate industry knowledge and expertise or adapt quickly to changing industry and technological trends, we may not be able to execute our strategies and our business and prospects could suffer.

Increases in wages for software design, engineering, sales and marketing and management personnel will increase our net cash outflow and our gross margin and profit margin may decline.

Historically, wages for comparably skilled technical and management personnel in the telecommunications software solutions industry in China have been lower than in developed countries, such as in the U.S. or Europe. In recent years, wages in China’s software industry have increased and may continue to increase at faster rates. Wage increases will increase our cost of our products and services of the same quality and increase our cost of operations. As a result, our gross margin and profit margin may decline. In the long term, unless offset by increases in efficiency and productivity of our work force, wage increases may also result in increased prices for our solutions and services, making us potentially less competitive. Increases in wages, including an increase in the cash component of our compensation expenses, will increase our net cash outflow and our gross margin and profit margin may decline.

 

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We extend warranties to our customers that expose us to potential liabilities.

We customarily provide our customers with one to three year warranties, which cover third-party hardware and software products. Although we seek to arrange back-to-back warranties with hardware and software vendors, we have the primary responsibility with respect to their warranties. Our contracts often lack disclaimers or limitations on liability for special, consequential and incidental damages, nor do we typically cap the amounts our customers can recover for damages. In addition, we do not currently purchase any insurance policy with respect to our exposure to warranty claims. The failure of our installed projects to operate properly could give rise to substantial liability for special, consequential or incidental damages, which in turn could materially and adversely affect us.

We sell our services on a fixed-price, fixed-time basis, which exposes us to risks associated with cost overruns and delays.

We sell most of our services on a fixed-price, fixed-time basis. In contracts with our customers, we typically agree to pay late completion fines of up to 5% of the total contract value. In large scale telecommunications infrastructure projects, there are many factors beyond our control which could cause delays or cost overruns. In this event, we would be exposed to cost overruns and liability for late completion fines.

We may become less competitive if we are unable to develop or acquire new products, or enhancements to our existing products, that are marketable on a timely and cost-effective basis.

Our future operating results will depend, to a significant extent, upon our ability to enhance our existing products and services and to introduce new products and services to meet the requirements of our customers in a rapidly developing and evolving market. If we do not enhance our existing products and services or introduce new successful products and services in a timely manner, our products and services may become obsolete, and our revenues and operating results may suffer. Moreover, unexpected technical, operational, distribution or other problems could delay or prevent the introduction of any products or services that we may plan to introduce in the future. We cannot be sure that any of these products or services will achieve widespread market acceptance or generate incremental revenues.

Our proprietary rights may be inadequately protected and there is a risk of poor enforcement of intellectual property rights in China.

Our success and ability to compete depend substantially upon our intellectual property, which we protect through a combination of confidentiality arrangements and copyright, trademark, and patent registrations. We have registered several marks and filed many other trademark applications in the U.S., China, Hong Kong, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Australia and Japan. We have also registered copyrights in China with respect to certain of our software products, although we have not applied for copyright protection elsewhere, including in the U.S. We have been granted numerous patents and have filed many other patent applications in China for hardware and software products used or developed in our business. We have been granted one patent in the U.S., and have not applied for patent protection elsewhere. We enter into confidentiality agreements with most of our employees and consultants, and control access to, and distribution of, our documentation and other licensed information. Despite these precautions, it may be possible for a third party to copy or otherwise obtain and use our technology without authorization, or to develop similar technology independently. Since the Chinese legal system in general and the intellectual property regime in particular, are relatively weak, it is often difficult to enforce intellectual property rights in China. In addition, there are other countries where effective copyright, trademark and trade secret protection may be unavailable or limited.

Policing unauthorized use of our licensed technology is difficult and the steps we take may not prevent misappropriation or infringement of our proprietary technology. In addition, litigation may be necessary to enforce our intellectual property rights, to protect our trade secrets or to determine the validity and scope of the proprietary rights of others, which could result in substantial costs and diversion of our resources.

 

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A portion of our business involves the development and customization of software applications for customers. We generally retain significant ownership or rights to use and market such software for other customer projects, where possible. However, our customers sometimes retain co-ownership and rights to use the applications, processes, and intellectual property so developed. In some cases, we may have no right or only limited rights to reuse or provide these developments to projects involving other customers. To the extent that we are unable to negotiate contracts which permit us to reuse source-codes and methodologies, or to the extent that we have conflicts with our customers regarding our ability to do so, we may be unable to provide similar solutions to our other customers.

We are exposed to certain business and litigation risks with respect to technology rights held by third parties.

We currently license technology from third parties and intend to do so increasingly in the future as we introduce services that require new technology. These technology licenses may not be available to us on commercially reasonable terms, if at all. Our inability to obtain any of these licenses could delay or compromise our ability to introduce new services. In addition, we may or may allegedly breach the technology rights of others and incur legal expenses and damages, which could be substantial.

Our computer networks may be vulnerable to security risks that could disrupt our services and adversely affect our results of operations.

Our computer networks may be vulnerable to unauthorized access, computer hackers, computer viruses and other security problems caused by unauthorized access to, or improper use of, systems by third parties or employees. A hacker who circumvents security measures could misappropriate proprietary information or cause interruptions or malfunctions in operations. Computer attacks or disruptions may jeopardize the security of information stored in and transmitted through computer systems of our customers. Actual or perceived concerns that our systems may be vulnerable to such attacks or disruptions may deter telecommunications carriers and consumers from using our solutions or services. As a result, we may be required to expend significant resources to protect against the threat of these security breaches or to alleviate problems caused by these breaches, which could adversely affect our results of operations.

Investors may not be able to enforce judgments entered by United States courts against certain of our officers and directors.

We are incorporated in the State of Delaware. However, a majority of our directors and executive officers, and certain of our principal stockholders, live outside of the U.S., principally in China and Hong Kong. As a result, you may not be able to:

 

   

effect service of process upon those persons within the U.S.; or

 

   

enforce against those persons judgments obtained in United States courts, including judgments relating to the federal securities laws of the U.S.

The fact that our business is conducted in U.S. dollars and RMB, and we expect will be conducted in certain Southeast Asian currencies, may subject us to currency exchange rate risk due to fluctuations in the exchange rate between such currencies.

In July 2005, the PRC government changed its decade-old policy of pegging the value of the RMB to the U.S. dollar. Under the new policy, the RMB is permitted to fluctuate within a narrow and managed band against a basket of certain foreign currencies, including the U.S. dollar. The PRC government may decide to adopt an even more flexible currency policy in the future, which could result in further and more significant appreciation of the RMB against the U.S. dollar.

 

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A majority of our revenues and expenses relating to hardware, software and service components of our business are denominated in RMB. The value of our shares will be affected by the foreign exchange rate between U.S. dollars and RMB because the value of our business is effectively denominated in RMB, while our shares are traded in U.S. dollars. Furthermore, an increase in the value of the RMB may require us to exchange more U.S. dollars into RMB in order to meet the working capital requirements of our subsidiaries in China. In addition, as we pursue our global strategy, we have entered into agreements denominated in various currencies of Southeast Asian countries and expect to continue to do so in future, which may create similar foreign exchange risk associated with the currencies of these jurisdictions. Depreciation of the value of the U.S. dollar will also reduce the value of the cash we hold in U.S. dollars, which we may use for purposes of future acquisitions or other business expansion.

We use U.S. dollars as our reporting and functional currency. The financial records of our Chinese subsidiaries and VIEs are maintained in RMB, their functional currency, and our subsidiaries and VIEs in Southeast Asia maintain their financial records in the currencies of their local jurisdiction. Their assets and liabilities are translated into U.S. dollars based on the rates of exchange existing on the balance sheet date. Their statements of operations are translated using a weighted average rate for the period. Foreign currency translation adjustments are reflected as accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) in stockholders’ equity. Fluctuation in exchange rates might result in significant foreign currency translation adjustments. We reported foreign currency translation adjustments of $17.3 million, $9.2 million and $0.1 million in other comprehensive income in 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively.

The markets in which we sell our services and products are competitive and we may not be able to compete effectively.

The telecommunications software market is a highly competitive environment. Our competitors within China include local companies such as Digital China, Huawei, Neusoft and ZTE. We believe that we have competitive advantages in our product and service sectors due to our leading BSS/OSS solutions, comprehensive and scalable product and service offerings, customer-centric and cost effective project management capability, and established customer relationships. However, our competitors, many of whom have greater financial, technical and human resources than we have, may be able to respond more quickly to new and emerging technologies and changes in customer requirements or devote greater resources to the development, promotion and sale of new products or services. It is possible that competition in the form of new competitors or alliances, joint ventures or consolidation among existing competitors may decrease our market share. Increased competition could result in lower personnel utilization rates, billing rate reductions, fewer customer engagements, reduced gross margins and loss of market share, any one of which could materially and adversely affect our profits and overall financial condition.

The global telecommunications software market is highly competitive. Our competitors include Amdocs, Convergys, Comverse, Huawei, and ZTE along with other international players. We believe our core competency will be able to lead us in our expansion in the international telecommunications software and services. Our global competitors may have greater financial, technical, human resources and have entered into the respective markets much earlier than us, and may be able to respond more quickly to new and emerging technologies and changes in customer requirements or devote greater resources to the development, promotion and sale of new products or services. It is possible that our limited exposure in the global telecommunication software market might impede our further expansion.

China’s cable TV industry is currently fragmented with over two thousand cable TV operators and many more software and service providers whom we compete with. Our Hangzhou Zhongbo subsidiary is able to provide high quality software and services to China’s cable TV operators. As the industry is being consolidated into a headquarter level and 31 provincial level entities, we will seek to gain customers as an industry consolidator.

 

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High technology and emerging market shares have historically experienced extreme volatility and may subject you to losses.

The trading price of our shares may be subject to significant market volatility due to investor perceptions of investments relating to China and Asia, as well as developments in the telecommunications industry. In addition, the high technology sector of the stock market frequently experiences extreme price and volume fluctuations, which have particularly affected the market prices of many software companies and which have often been unrelated to the operating performance of those companies.

We may become subject to securities litigation, which is expensive and could result in a diversion of resources.

In the past, periods of volatility in the market price of a particular company’s securities have often been followed by the institution of securities class action litigation against that company. Many companies in our industry have been subject to this type of litigation in the past. We were involved in securities class action litigation as a result of allegedly improper allocation procedures relating to the sale of our common stock in connection with our initial public offering in March 2000, which was settled in January 2012. Moreover, we are currently involved in a litigation alleging short-swing trading by the underwriters of our initial public offering. Although we do not expect these actions to have a material effect on our consolidated financial condition, results of operations or cash flows, litigation is often expensive, diverts management’s attention and resources, and could materially and adversely affect our business.

A significant number of shares of our common stock are or will be eligible for sale in the open market, which could drive down the market price for our common stock and make it difficult for us to raise capital.

As of December 31, 2011, 72,430,221 shares of our common stock were outstanding, and there were approximately 7,018,182 shares of our common stock issuable upon exercise of outstanding stock options and vesting of outstanding restricted stock units. Sales of a large number of shares by our stockholders could materially decrease the market price of our common stock and make it more difficult for us to raise additional capital through the sale of equity or equity-related securities in the future at a time and price that we deem appropriate.

Our stockholders may experience substantial dilution if we raise additional funds through the sale of equity securities. The issuance of a large number of additional shares of our common stock upon the exercise of outstanding options or in an equity financing transaction could cause a decline in the market price of our common stock due to the sale of a large number of shares of our common stock in the market, or the perception that these sales could occur.

The risk of dilution and the resulting downward pressure on our stock price could also encourage investors to engage in short sales of our common stock. By increasing the number of shares offered for sale, material amounts of short selling could further contribute to progressive price declines in our common stock.

We are subject to anti-takeover provisions that could prevent a change of control and prevent our stockholders from realizing a premium on their common stock.

Our board of directors has the authority to issue up to 10,000,000 shares of our preferred stock. Without any further vote or action on the part of our stockholders, our board of directors has the authority to determine the price, rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions of the preferred stock. This preferred stock, if it is ever issued, may have preference over and harm the rights of the holders of our common stock. Although the issuance of this preferred stock will provide us with flexibility in connection with possible acquisitions and other corporate purposes, such an issuance may make it more difficult for a third party to acquire a majority of our outstanding voting stock.

 

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We currently have authorized the size of our board of directors to be not less than three or more than ten directors. The terms of the office of our current board of directors have been divided into three classes: Class I, whose term will expire at the annual meeting of the stockholders to be held in 2012; Class II will expire at the annual meeting of the stockholders to be held in 2013 and Class III, whose term will expire at the annual meeting of stockholders to be held in 2014. This classification of the board of directors may have the effect of delaying or preventing changes in our control or management.

We are subject to the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law. In general, the statute prohibits a publicly-held Delaware corporation from engaging in a “business combination” with an “interested stockholder” for a period of three years after the date when the person became an interested stockholder unless, subject to certain exceptions, the business combination or the transaction in which the person became an interested stockholder is approved in a prescribed manner. Generally, a “business combination” includes a merger, asset or stock sale, or other transaction resulting in a financial benefit to the stockholder; and an “interested stockholder” includes any person that owns 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock or that is our affiliate or associate.

Our change-of-control severance agreements with executive officers may discourage a change of control.

We have entered into change-of-control severance agreements with most of our executive officers. These agreements provide, among other things, that the executive officers would be entitled to various benefits upon the occurrence of a covered termination which occurs within one year after a change of control, including payment of all accrued and unpaid salary, bonus, reimbursable expenses, vacation and employee benefits, immediate vesting of 50%, or 100% in the case of Steve Zhang, our President and Chief Executive Officer, of any outstanding unvested stock options held by the executive officer and the provision of medical benefits and housing allowance. If a change of control occurs, and regardless of whether a covered termination takes place, the executive officers may be entitled to accelerated vesting of 50% of any outstanding unvested stock options held by the executive officer. The potential obligations to pay executive officers such severance amounts may discourage a potential acquirer from effecting a change of control.

Failure to comply with the United States Foreign Corrupt Practices Act could subject us to penalties and other adverse consequences.

We are subject to the United States Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, which generally prohibits U.S. companies from engaging in bribery or other prohibited payments to foreign officials for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. Corruption, extortion, bribery, pay-offs, theft and other fraudulent practices may occur in China. Our employees or other agents may engage in such conduct for which we might be held responsible. If our employees or other agents are found to have engaged in such practices, we could suffer severe penalties and other consequences, including adverse publicity and damage to our reputation that may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We are subject to potential liabilities and anticipate recurring costs in complying with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.

We are subject to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or the Act. Among other things, the Act imposes corporate governance, reporting, and disclosure requirements; introduces stricter independence and financial expertise standards for audit committees; and sets stiff penalties for securities fraud. The Act and the related rules and regulations have increased the scope, complexity and costs of our corporate governance, reporting, and disclosure practices, and may increase the risk of personal liability for our directors, chief executive officer, and chief financial officer. Any such liabilities may adversely affect our reputation, our business, or our ability to meet listing criteria.

Section 404 of the Act requires our management and our independent registered public accounting firm to assess our internal controls over financial reporting on an annual basis. During the course of this evaluation,

 

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documentation and attestation, we may identify deficiencies that we may not be able to remedy. If we fail to maintain the adequacy of our internal controls, we may not be able to conclude that we have effective internal controls, on an ongoing basis, over financial reporting in accordance with the Act. Moreover, effective internal controls over financial reporting, particularly those related to revenue recognition, are necessary for us to produce reliable financial reports and are important to help prevent or detect fraud. Any failure to maintain effective internal controls over financial reporting could result in the loss of investor confidence in the reliability of our financial statements, which in turn could harm our business and negatively impact the trading price of our common stock.

We are exposed to certain tax risks in China under the new Enterprise Income Tax Law of the PRC.

The Enterprise Income Tax Law of the PRC, or the EIT Law, which took effect on January 1, 2008, has applied a uniform 25% enterprise income tax rate to all “resident enterprises” in China, including foreign invested enterprises, or FIEs. Moreover, the EIT Law applies to enterprises established outside of China with “de facto management bodies” located in China. Under the implementation regulations to the EIT Law issued by the PRC State Council, “de facto management body” is defined as a body that has material and overall management and control over the manufacturing and business operations, personnel and human resources, finances and treasury, and acquisition and disposition of properties and other assets of an enterprise. While we do not believe we are a “resident enterprise,” because ambiguities exist with the interpretation and application of the EIT Law and the implementation regulations, we may be considered a PRC resident enterprise and therefore may be subject to the China enterprise income tax at the rate of 25% on certain of our income.

Certain of our subsidiaries in China are likely to continue to enjoy preferential tax rates, as they have been qualified as High-and-New-Technology Enterprises, or HNTEs, or have previously been qualified as Key Software Enterprises under the EIT Law. The qualification of our subsidiaries as Key Software Enterprises may not be renewed and the qualification of our subsidiaries as HNTEs may be challenged, revoked or rejected by tax authority in the future, which would result in the loss of the preferential tax rate enjoyed as a result of such qualifications and would have a material adverse effect on our future financial condition and results of operations.

Dividends payable by us to our non-PRC stockholders, and gains on the sales of our common stock, may be subject to withholding taxes under PRC tax laws, which may negatively impact the value of your investment.

The prevailing PRC tax law and regulations provide that a 10% withholding tax will normally be applicable on dividends payable to non-PRC stockholders which are derived from sources within the PRC, unless otherwise exempted or reduced by tax treaties or similar arrangements. Any gains realized on the transfer of shares by such stockholders may also be subject to a 10% withholding tax if such gains are regarded as income derived from sources within the PRC. The dividends we pay with respect to our common stock, or the gain our non-PRC stockholders may realize from the transfer of our common stock, may be treated as PRC-sourced income and may therefore be subject to a 10% PRC withholding tax. However, ambiguities exist in the prevailing PRC tax legislations with respect to the interpretation and identification of PRC-sourced income, as well as how to tax the gain realized from the transfer of common stock on a foreign stock exchange. If we are required under the prevailing PRC tax law and regulations to withhold PRC income tax on dividends payable to our non-PRC stockholders, or if non-PRC stockholders are required to pay PRC income tax on gains on the transfer of their shares of common stock, the value of their investments may be negatively affected.

We may undertake foreign or domestic acquisitions, investments, joint ventures or other strategic alliances, which could have a material adverse effect on our ability to manage our business. In addition, such undertakings may not be successful.

Our strategy includes plans to grow both organically and through acquisitions, participation in joint ventures or other strategic alliances. Such growth may include expansion outside of China and into cable and other

 

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markets besides our traditional telecommunication market. For instance, as of January 31, 2012, we entered into agreements to provide our telecommunications solutions in Malaysia, Cambodia, and Nepal, and we also have customers in China’s cable TV industry, such as, Jiangsu Cable, Chongqing Cable, China DB Star and Gehua Cable. Joint ventures and strategic alliances may expose us to new operational, regulatory and market risks, as well as risks associated with additional capital requirements. These risks can be particularly pronounced when entering into new geographic or vertical markets in which we have less experience. In addition, we may not be able to identify suitable future acquisition candidates or joint venture or alliance partners. Even if we identify suitable candidates or partners, we may be unable to complete an acquisition, joint venture or alliance on terms commercially acceptable to us. If we fail to identify appropriate candidates or partners, or complete desired acquisitions, we may not be able to implement our strategies effectively or efficiently.

In addition, our ability to successfully integrate acquired companies and their operations may be adversely affected by a number of factors. These factors include:

 

   

diversion of management’s attention;

 

   

difficulties in retaining customers of the acquired companies;

 

   

difficulties in retaining personnel of the acquired companies;

 

   

entry into unfamiliar markets, such as international markets or vertical markets in which we have not previously operated;

 

   

unanticipated problems or legal liabilities; and

 

   

tax and accounting issues.

If we fail to integrate acquired companies efficiently, our earnings, revenues growth and business could be negatively affected. Furthermore, the acquired companies may not perform to our expectations for various reasons, including legislative or regulatory changes that affect the products or services in which the acquired companies specialize, and the loss of key customers and personnel. If we are not able to realize the benefits envisioned for such acquisitions, joint ventures or other strategic alliances, our overall profitability and growth plans may be adversely affected.

Our international expansion efforts, particularly in Southeast Asia, may face political, economic, legal, social, management and customer risks that could harm our business.

An important part of our business strategy is to pursue global market opportunities. Although a small percentage of our business today, we have entered into a number of agreements to provide our software solutions in the Southeast Asia region and believe this region will present additional opportunities in future. However, expanding into this region presents a number of risks. Many countries in Southeast Asia are emerging markets and are subject to greater political, economic, legal, and social risks than more developed markets, including risks relating to:

 

   

political and governmental instability, including domestic political conflicts and inability to maintain consensus;

 

   

economic instability, including weak banking systems, inflation and currency risk, lack of capital, and changing or inconsistent economic policy;

 

   

weaknesses in legal systems, including inconsistent or uncertain national and local regimes, unavailability of judicial or administrative guidance, and inexperience;

 

   

tax uncertainty, including tax law changes, limited tax guidance, and difficulty determining tax liability or planning tax-efficient structures;

 

   

unreliability of official government statistics or reports;

 

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import/export, foreign exchange, and other trade-related matters;

 

   

organized crime, political corruption, money laundering and other crime; and

 

   

cultural and language differences.

In addition, there are numerous operational risks associated with our doing business outside of China, particularly in Southeast Asia. In many countries in Southeast Asia, it is difficult to recruit, employ and retain qualified personnel to manage and oversee our local operations, sales and other activities. It may also be difficult for our executive officers who reside in the PRC to effectively oversee the day-to-day management of our operations in these countries. Furthermore, there may be many established incumbent players in these markets who already enjoy a significant presence, and it may be difficult for us to win market share from them or to overcome local barriers of entry for foreign competitors. Moreover, we have less experience dealing with customers in emerging Southeast Asian markets, including assessing customer creditworthiness and managing collections and accounts receivable, which together with the economic instability in the region may result in increased allowances for doubtful accounts. Any of these risks may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Asset impairment reviews may result in future write-downs.

Our accounting policies require us, among other things, to conduct annual reviews of goodwill, and to test intangible assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that their carrying amount may not be recoverable. In connection with our business acquisitions, we make assumptions regarding estimated future cash flows and other factors to determine the fair value of goodwill and intangible assets. In assessing the related useful lives of those assets, we have to make assumptions regarding their fair value, our recoverability of those assets and our ability to successfully develop and ultimately commercialize acquired technology. If those assumptions change in the future when we conduct our periodic reviews in accordance with applicable accounting standards, we may be required to record impairment charges. It is possible that future reviews will result in further write-downs of goodwill and other intangible assets. In addition, our stock price has significantly declined in recent years, which might increase the possibility of goodwill impairment.

 

ITEM 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

We did not receive any material comments from the SEC staff more than 180 days before the end of 2011 regarding our periodic or current reports that remained unresolved at the date hereof.

 

ITEM 2. Properties

Our principal development facilities and administrative offices are currently located in Beijing and Nanjing and occupy, in the aggregate, approximately 27,778 square meters. Each of our subsidiaries and VIEs generally enter into separate leases. The current leases for our Beijing facilities mostly expire in December 2012, and for our Nanjing facilities the central three leases expire in April 2012, November 2012 and February 2013. We also have regional branches in various cities in China, including Shanghai, Guangzhou, Chengdu, Hangzhou, Nanjing, Shenyang, Haikou, Changsha, Jinan, Haerbin, Tianjin, Wuhan, Fuzhou, Beijing and Macao as well as regional offices in Singapore, Thailand, Malaysia and Santa Clara, California.

In China, all land is owned by the government of China, its agencies and its collectives, which grant land use right for periods ranging from 50 to 70 years that are typically renewable. To obtain land use right, various steps may be involved to develop the land or obtain related government approvals. We completed the process to obtain land use rights for 11,332 square meters of land in Beijing, on which we plan to construct a building of approximately 20,964 square meters over ground for use as our new corporate headquarters. In October 2009, we entered into an agreement with Zhongguancun Software Park Development Co., Ltd., or ZSPD, pursuant to which ZSPD agreed to develop the land in preparation for construction of the building, for an aggregate

 

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consideration of approximately $10.8 million, all of which had been paid to ZSPD as of December 31, 2011. In connection with the agreement, we became eligible to enter into a land transfer agreement with relevant PRC government authorities in order to obtain land use right with respect to such land. In May 2011, we entered into a land use right transfer agreement with the Beijing Municipal Bureau of Land and Resources pursuant to which we would acquire land use right with a 50-year term, for a consideration of approximately $2.9 million, plus related local levy of $0.1 million, paid in June and August 2011, respectively. As of December 31, 2011, we obtained the National Land Use Right Certificate, the Land Use Planning Permit and the Construction Project Plan Permit.

 

ITEM 3. Legal Proceedings

In December 2001, a securities class action case was filed in New York City against us, certain of our officers and directors and the underwriters of our initial public offering, or our IPO. The lawsuit alleged violations of the U.S. federal securities laws and was docketed in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York as Hassan v. AsiaInfo Holdings, Inc., et al. The lawsuit alleged, among other things, that the underwriters of our IPO improperly required their customers to pay the underwriters excessive commissions and to agree to buy additional shares of our common stock in the aftermarket as conditions of their purchasing shares in our IPO. The lawsuit further claimed that the alleged practices of the underwriters should have been disclosed in our IPO prospectus and registration statement. Plaintiffs sought rescission of their alleged purchases of our common stock as well as unspecified damages. In addition to the case against us, various other plaintiffs have filed approximately 1,000 other, substantially similar class action cases, or the IPO Allocation Cases, against approximately 300 other publicly traded companies and their IPO underwriters in New York City, which along with the case against us have all been transferred to a single federal district judge for purposes of case management.

In April 2009, we and most of the other issuer defendants in the IPO Allocation Cases reached a definitive agreement with the plaintiffs and the underwriter defendants to settle the IPO Allocation Cases. Several appeals were filed and, in January 2012, the last appellant in the IPO Allocation Cases agreed to withdraw and dismiss his objection to the settlement with prejudice. With the IPO Allocation Cases over, settlement distributions begin. We expect any damages payable to the plaintiffs to be fully funded by our directors’ and officers’ liability insurance policies, and we believe that the underwriters may have an obligation to indemnify us for the legal fees and other costs of defending this suit and that our directors’ and officers’ liability insurance policies would also cover the defense and potential exposure in the suit.

In addition, in June 2007 we received a letter from a putative stockholder demanding that we investigate and prosecute a claim for alleged short-swing trading in violation of Section 16(b) of the Exchange Act by the underwriters of our IPO and certain of our unidentified directors, officers and stockholders. In October 2007, the putative stockholder commenced a civil lawsuit in the U.S. District Court for the Western District of Washington against Morgan Stanley and Deutsche Bank, two of the lead underwriters of our IPO, alleging violations of Section 16(b) of the Exchange Act. The complaint alleges that the combined number of shares of our common stock beneficially owned by the lead underwriters and certain unnamed officers, directors and principal stockholders exceeded ten percent of our outstanding common stock from the date of our IPO in March 2000, for at least one year. It further alleges that those entities and individuals were thus subject to the reporting requirements of Section 16(a) and the short-swing trading prohibition of Section 16(b), and failed to comply with those provisions. The complaint seeks to recover from the lead underwriters any “short-swing profits” obtained by them in violation of Section 16(b). None of our directors, officers or stockholders is named as defendants in this action, although we are named as a nominal defendant. In July 2008, we, together with several other issuers who are also named as nominal defendants in the action, filed a joint motion to dismiss the action. In March 2009, the court granted our motion, dismissing the complaint without prejudice on the ground that the plaintiff failed to make an adequate demand to us prior to filing the complaint. The plaintiff subsequently appealed the judgment to the Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, and the underwriter defendants have filed certain cross-appeals. Oral arguments with respect to these appeals occurred in early October 2010.

 

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In December 2010, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals affirmed the District Court’s decision to dismiss our case on the grounds that plaintiff’s demand letters were insufficient to put the issuers on notice of the claims asserted against them and further ordered that the dismissals be made with prejudice. The Ninth Circuit, however, reversed and remanded the District Court’s decision on the underwriter’ motion to dismiss as to the claims arising from the non-moving issuers’ IPOs, finding plaintiff’s claims were not time-barred under the applicable statute of limitations. In remanding, the Ninth Circuit advised the non-moving issuers and underwriters to file in the District Court the same challenges to plaintiff’s demand letters that moving issuers had filed. In January 2011, the Ninth Circuit denied certain petitions for rehearing and ordered that no further petitions for rehearing may be filed. In January 2011, the underwriters and another appellant filed motions to stay the issuance of the Ninth Circuit’s mandate, which the Ninth Circuit granted, staying the mandate for ninety days pending the filing of a petition for writ of certiorari in the United States Supreme Court. In April 2011, the plaintiff requested review with the U.S. Supreme Court, seeking reversal of the Ninth Circuit’s decision, and the underwriter defendants requested review with the U.S. Supreme Court regarding a statute of limitations issue. In June 2011, the U.S. Supreme Court denied plaintiff’s request for review and granted the underwriter defendants’ request for review. The underwriter defendants and plaintiff have submitted briefing to the U.S. Supreme Court, which has scheduled oral argument for November 2011. On November 29, 2011, the Supreme Court heard oral argument regarding the underwriter defendants’ petition relating to the statute of limitations issue.

We intend to continue to defend vigorously the remaining litigation matter described above. While we cannot guarantee the outcome of these proceedings, we believe that the final results of these lawsuits will have no material effect on our consolidated financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.

During the fiscal quarter ended December 31, 2011, we did not have any other material legal proceedings brought against us. No further material developments occurred in connection with any previously reported legal proceedings against us during the last fiscal quarter.

 

ITEM 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.

 

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PART II

 

ITEM 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Market Information and Dividends

Our common stock has been quoted on The Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “ASIA” since our initial public offering in March 2000. The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, the high and low sales price per share of our common stock as reported on The Nasdaq Global Market.

 

     High $      Low $  

2011:

     

Fourth Quarter

     11.70         6.21   

Third Quarter

     17.65         7.10   

Second Quarter

     22.91         13.49   

First Quarter

     21.92         17.00   

2010:

     

Fourth Quarter

     24.50         15.80   

Third Quarter

     27.05         15.76   

Second Quarter

     32.60         19.01   

First Quarter

     32.45         22.44   

As of February 17, 2012, we had approximately 710 holders of record of our common stock.

We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our common stock and do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future. We anticipate that we will retain all of our available funds for use in the operation and expansion of our business. Any future determination as to the payment of cash dividends will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on our financial condition, operating results, current and anticipated cash needs, plans for expansion and other factors that our board of directors considers to be relevant.

Equity Compensation Plan Information

The following table provides information as of December 31, 2011 with respect to the common stock that may be issued under our existing equity compensation plans. Further information concerning our existing equity compensation plans is available in the section entitled “Executive Compensation—Compensation Discussion and Analysis” contained in our definitive proxy statement with respect to our 2012 annual meeting of stockholders to be filed with the SEC.

 

Plan category

   Number of securities to be
issued upon exercise of
outstanding options or
vesting of outstanding
units
    Weighted average
exercise price of
outstanding
options
    Number of securities
remaining available for
future issuance under
equity compensation plans
 

Equity compensation plans approved by security holders

     7,018,182 (1)    $ 8.52 (2)      3,691,700 (3) 

Equity compensation plans not approved by security holders

     0        0        0   

Total

     7,018,182 (1)    $ 8.52 (2)      3,691,700 (3) 

 

(1) Includes 6,800,623 shares issuable upon exercise of outstanding stock options; 217,559 shares issuable upon vesting of outstanding restricted stock units; and 0 shares issuable under outstanding performance stock units.

 

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(2) The weighted-average exercise price does not take into account the shares issuable upon vesting of outstanding restricted stock units or the shares issuable under outstanding performance stock units, both of which have no exercise price.
(3) Options and other awards that are outstanding under our existing stock option plans will become available for re-grant under our 2011 Stock Incentive Plan if those awards are forfeited or cancelled prior to vesting, exercise or expiration.

Performance Graph

The following graph shows a comparison of cumulative 5-year total stockholder returns for our common stock, the Standard & Poor’s 500 Information Technology Sector Index, or the S&P 500 Information Technology, and the Nasdaq Stock Market Index for U.S. and foreign companies, or the Nasdaq U.S. & Foreign Index. The graph assumes the investment of $100 on December 31, 2006 in our common stock, the S&P 500 Information Technology and the Nasdaq U.S. & Foreign Index, and assumes reinvestment of dividends, if any. The graph assumes the initial value of our common stock on December 31, 2006 was the closing sales price of $7.68 per share.

The comparisons shown in the graph below are based on historical data. We caution that the stock price performance shown in the graph below is not necessarily indicative of, nor is it intended to forecast, the potential future performance of our common stock.

This performance graph shall not be deemed “filed” for purposes of Section 18 of the Exchange Act or otherwise subject to liability under that Section and shall not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any filing we make under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act.

 

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     December
2006 ($)
     December
2007 ($)
     December
2008 ($)
     December
2009 ($)
     December
2010 ($)
     December
2011 ($)
 

AsiaInfo-Linkage, Inc.

     100.00         143.23         154.17         396.48         215.76         100.91   

Nasdaq U.S. & Foreign Index

     100.00         110.26         65.65         95.19         112.10         110.81   

S&P 500 Information Technology

     100.00         116.31         66.13         106.95         117.85         120.69   

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

On January 30, 2011, we announced the authorization of a new stock repurchase program under which we could purchase up to $60.0 million in aggregate value of our common stock within a period of twelve months. As of June 30, 2011, we had repurchased 3,166,500 shares of our common stock at a total cost of approximately $60.0 million pursuant to this repurchase program.

 

ITEM 6. Selected Financial Data

The following table sets forth our selected consolidated financial data. You should read this information together with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes to those statements included in this report, and “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operation” of this report. The selected consolidated balance sheet data and statements of operations data in the table below have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements. Historical results are not necessarily indicative of results to be expected in the future. Please refer to Notes 4 and 25 of the notes to consolidated financial statements for detailed information regarding discontinued operations and noncontrolling interest, respectively.

 

    Year Ended December 31,  
    2011     2010     2009     2008     2007(1)  
    (Amounts in thousands of U.S. dollars, except per share data)  

Selected Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:

         

Total revenues

  $ 481,043      $ 343,383      $ 213,756      $ 146,881      $ 113,940   

Total cost of revenues

    273,111        173,801        100,450        74,659        61,968   

Gross profit

    207,932        169,582        113,306        72,222        51,972   

Total operating expenses

    152,168        109,475        78,523        54,667        42,741   

Income from continuing operations

    72,986        53,743        33,457        16,505        17,114   

Income from discontinued operations, net of taxes

    0        1,058        1,973        2,270        6,513   

Net income

    72,986        54,801        35,430        18,775        23,627   

Less: net loss attributable to noncontrolling interest

    (1,573     (1,410     (429     (15     0   

Net income attributable to AsiaInfo-Linkage, Inc.

    74,559        56,211        35,859        18,790        23,627   

Earnings per share:

         

Net income from continuing operations attributable to AsiaInfo-Linkage, Inc. common stockholders:

         

Basic

  $ 1.02      $ 0.90      $ 0.75      $ 0.37      $ 0.39   

Diluted

  $ 1.01      $ 0.89      $ 0.73      $ 0.35      $ 0.38   

Net income from discontinued operations attributable to AsiaInfo-Linkage, Inc. common stockholders:

         

Basic

  $ 0.00      $ 0.02      $ 0.04      $ 0.05      $ 0.15   

Diluted

  $ 0.00      $ 0.02      $ 0.04      $ 0.05      $ 0.14   

Net income attributable to AsiaInfo-Linkage, Inc. common stockholders:

         

Basic

  $ 1.02      $ 0.92      $ 0.79      $ 0.42      $ 0.54   

Diluted

  $ 1.01      $ 0.91      $ 0.77      $ 0.40      $ 0.52   

 

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     As of December 31,  
     2011      2010      2009      2008      2007  
     (Amounts in thousands of U.S. dollars)  

Selected Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:

              

Cash and cash equivalents

   $ 272,438       $ 237,844       $ 238,553       $ 172,119       $ 148,834   

Total assets

     1,270,161         1,253,206         481,777         323,154         308,469   

Total equity

     976,913         938,378         276,669         208,460         207,788   

 

(1) We adopted authoritative guidance regarding accounting for uncertainty in income taxes on January 1, 2007, prospectively.

 

ITEM 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

Overview

We are the leading provider of high-quality telecommunications software solutions and information technology products and services in China. Our software and services enable our customers to build, maintain, operate, manage and improve their communications infrastructure. Our largest customers are the major telecommunications carriers in China and their provincial subsidiaries. In addition to providing customized software solutions to China’s telecommunications carriers.

After we penetrate into China’s cable business supporting system market through our Hangzhou Zhongbo subsidiary, a provider of IT solutions to broadcasting operators in China, we have won several critical contracts to provide modernized business support system for consolidated provincial level cable operational entities, such as Jiangsu province, Zhejiang province as well as Chongqing and Beijing. The successful implementation of these project and business value brought the out-of-box business processes will setup a good showcase for the future cable industry consolidation between multiple regional operators, which is expected to be accelerated in the coming years. We believe we are well positioned to gain market share in China’s cable TV industry.

We are also expanding our footprint in the international telecommunications software and services market by leveraging the valuable experience gained from our Chinese telecommunications carriers, in 2011, received recognition from our customers in Southeast Asia after an arduous vendor selection process against other industry leading vendors, which is a significant achievement given the long selling cycle of business support software. We expect additional revenue contribution from the markets out of China over the next few years.

We commenced our operations in the U.S. in 1993 and moved our major operations from the U.S. to China in 1995. We began generating significant network solutions revenues in 1996 and significant software revenues in 1998. We conduct the bulk of our business through our operating subsidiaries, most of which are Chinese companies. On July 1, 2010, we completed the combination with Linkage and, in connection with the closing, changed our corporate name to “AsiaInfo-Linkage, Inc.”

We have derived, and believe that we will continue to derive, a significant portion of our revenues from a limited number of large telecommunications customers and their provincial subsidiaries, such as China Mobile, China Unicom and China Telecom. The following table shows our revenues and percentage of total revenues derived from such customers in recent periods.

 

     Year Ended December 31,  
     2011     2010     2009  
     Revenues
(in thousands)
     Percentage
of Total
Revenues
    Revenues
(in thousands)
     Percentage
of Total
Revenues
    Revenues
(in thousands)
     Percentage
of Total
Revenues
 

China Mobile

   $ 252,693         52.5   $ 210,396         61.3   $ 149,032         69.7

China Telecom

     89,916         18.7        51,088         14.9        19,565         9.2   

China Unicom

     130,131         27.1        76,334         22.2        44,543         20.8   
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

   $ 472,740         98.3   $ 337,818         98.4   $ 213,140         99.7
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

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As a result of our reliance on our key customers in the telecommunications industry, our operating results are influenced by governmental spending policies in that sector. Historically, there have been a number of state-mandated restructurings in China’s telecommunications sector. Some of these restructurings have led to cancellation or delays in telecommunications-related capital expenditures that have negatively impacted our operating results in certain periods. Other restructurings have caused our revenues to increase as carriers have increased spending on software and IT infrastructure designed to increase their competitiveness. Any future restructurings affecting our major telecommunications customers could have an adverse impact on our business.

For financial reporting purposes, we present our revenues as follows:

 

   

software products and solutions;

 

   

services; and

 

   

third party hardware.

In December 2010 we disposed of our IT security services business.

Revenues

In accordance with authoritative accounting guidance, we recognize revenue when persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, delivery has occurred, the fee is fixed or determinable, and collectability is probable, and other applicable revenue recognition guidance and interpretations.

We allocate revenue to each deliverable based on the deliverable’s fair value as determined by vendor-specific objective evidence, or VSOE, which is the price charged when that element is sold separately, or third party evidence, or TPE, of selling prices. When VSOE and TPE are unavailable, fair value is based on management’s best estimate of selling price. When management’s estimate is used to determine fair value, management makes its estimates using reasonable and objective evidence to determine the price. For elements not yet sold separately, the fair value is equal to the price established by our management if it is probable that the price will not change before the element is sold separately. As we have concluded we are unable to establish fair values for deliverables within a multiple-element arrangement using VSOE or TPE, we use our best estimate of the selling price for that unit of accounting, being the price at which the vendor would transact if the unit of accounting were sold by the vendor regularly on a standalone basis.

For sales that involve the delivery of multiple elements including a combination of various software related and non-software related products and services offerings. In such arrangements, we evaluate if a tangible product includes software. If a tangible hardware product includes software and if both hardware and software components work together to deliver the product’s essential functionality then we will treat the entire product as non-software element. Next, we allocate the total arrangement consideration between the software group of elements as a whole and the non-software elements based on their relative selling prices. We then further allocate consideration within the software group to the respective elements within that group following the guidance in Accounting Standards Codification, or ASC, 985-605 and our policies described above. After the arrangement consideration has been allocated to the elements, we account for each respective element in the arrangement separately.

We report our revenues on the basis of the three principal types of revenues derived from our business: software products and solutions revenue, service revenue and third party hardware revenue. Please refer to Note 27 of the notes to consolidated financial statements included in this report for detailed information regarding our segment reporting.

Software products and solutions revenue. We typically sell our software as part of a total solution package for our customers, which includes proprietary software licenses, professional services related to the design and implementation of the solution (such as consulting, training, technical support and maintenance) and, in cases where the customer requests a turn-key solution, related hardware. Software products and solutions revenue

 

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consists of fees received from customers for using our software products or third party software products, including software license and customizations. In most cases where a customer has additional requirements, we enter into an extension agreement with the customer to expand and upgrade the customer’s system. These extension contracts will usually include a license for the additional users, updated versions of our software and, if required, additional services and hardware for the customer’s network. Our software products and solutions revenue also includes the benefit of value-added tax rebates on software license sales, which reflect the Chinese government’s policy of encouraging China’s software industry. We also record reductions from revenue for our estimates of expected software sales returns from distributors based on current sales and historical sales returns.

Service revenue. Service revenue consists of revenue from professional services, including IT services, management consulting, and revenues for network planning, design, systems integration and training services.

In addition, we generate service revenues by acting as a sales agent for International Business Machines Corporation, or IBM, or its distributors, and a few other hardware vendors, for certain products sold to our customers, which we refer to as our IBM-Type Arrangements. The service fee under the IBM-Type Arrangements is determined as a percentage of the gross contract amount. We have evaluated the criteria outlined in guidance issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board, or the FASB, regarding reporting revenue gross as principal versus net as an agent, in determining whether to record as revenues the gross amount billed to our customers and related costs or the net amount earned after deducting hardware costs paid to the vendor, even though we bear inventory risks after the vendor ships the products to us and we bill gross amounts to our customers. We record the net amount earned after deducting hardware costs as agency service revenue because (1) the vendor is the primary obligor in these transactions, (2) we have no latitude in establishing the prices, (3) we are not involved in the determination of the product specifications, and (4) we do not have the right to select suppliers.

Third party hardware revenue. Other than the IBM-Type Arrangement, we sometimes procure for, and sell hardware to, our customers as part of certain turn-key solutions. We typically minimize our exposure to hardware inventory risks by sourcing equipment from hardware vendors against letters of credit from our customers. For these hardware transactions, we have also evaluated the criteria outlined in FASB guidance. As a result of the evaluation, we record the gross amounts billed to our customers as revenues because (1) we are the primary obligor in these transactions, (2) we bear the inventory risk, (3) we have latitude in establishing prices, (4) we are involved in the determination of the product specifications, (5) we bear credit risk, and (6) we have the right to select suppliers. As the telecommunications-related IT services market in China develops, our customers are increasingly purchasing hardware directly from hardware vendors and retaining us for our software and professional services.

Net revenue. Although we report our revenue on a gross basis, inclusive of hardware acquisition costs, we manage our business internally based on revenues net of hardware costs, or net revenues, a non-GAAP measure. We believe this approach is consistent with our strategy of providing our customers with high value IT professional services and, where efficient, outsourcing lower-end services such as hardware acquisition and installation. This strategy may result in lower growth rates for total revenue as against prior periods, but will not adversely impact revenue net of hardware costs. The following table shows our revenue breakdown on this basis and reconciles our net revenues to total revenues:

 

     Year Ended December 31,  
     2011      2010      2009  

Revenues net of hardware costs:

        

Software products and solutions revenue

   $  431,355       $  301,970       $  179,177   

Service revenue

     31,572         26,596         21,704   

Third party hardware revenue net of hardware costs

     905         743         644   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total revenues net of hardware costs

     463,832         329,309         201,525   

Total hardware costs

     17,211         14,074         12,231   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total revenues

   $ 481,043       $ 343,383       $ 213,756   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

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We believe total revenues net of hardware costs more accurately reflects our core business, which is the provision of software solutions and services, and provides transparency to our investors. We believe this measure provides transparency to our investors because it is the measure used by our management to evaluate the competitiveness and performance of our business. In addition, third-party hardware revenue tends to fluctuate from period to period depending on the requirements of our customers. As a result, a presentation that excludes hardware costs allows investors to better evaluate the performance of our core business.

Cost of Revenues

Software products and solutions costs. Software products and solutions costs consist primarily of three components:

 

   

packaging and written manual expenses for our proprietary software products and solutions;

 

   

compensation and travel expenses for the professionals involved in modifying, customizing or installing our software products and solutions and in providing consultation, training and support services; and

 

   

software license fees paid to third-party software providers for the right to sublicense their products to our customers as part of our solutions offerings.

The costs associated with designing and modifying our proprietary software are classified as research and development expenses as incurred.

Service costs. Service costs consist primarily of compensation and travel expenses for the professionals involved in designing and implementing IT services, management consulting and network solutions projects.

Third party hardware costs. We recognize hardware costs in full upon delivery of the hardware to our customers. In order to minimize our working capital requirements, we generally obtain from our hardware vendors payment terms that are timed to permit us to receive payment from our customers for the hardware before our payments to hardware vendors are due. However, in large projects we sometimes obtain less favorable payment terms from our customers, thereby increasing our working capital requirements.

Amortization of intangible assets, depreciation of properties and equipments, and rental expenses are also included in cost of revenue.

Operating Expenses (Income)

Operating expenses (income) are comprised of sales and marketing expenses, research and development expenses, general and administrative expenses, and government subsidy. Amortization of acquired intangible assets expenses consistently comprise a significant portion of our total operating expenses (income).

Sales and marketing expenses include compensation expenses for employees in our sales and marketing departments, third party advertising expenses, sales commissions and sales consulting fees, as well as the depreciation and amortization expenses allocated to our sales and marketing departments.

Research and development expenses relate to the development of new software and the modification of existing software. We expense such costs as they are incurred.

General and administrative expenses include compensation expenses for employees in our general and administrative departments, consulting fees, as well as the depreciation expenses allocated to our general and administrative departments.

Government subsidy represents rewards from government for the high-tech software innovation.

 

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Taxes

Except for certain hardware procurement and resale transactions, we conduct substantially all of our business through our Chinese subsidiaries and VIEs. To a smaller degree, our operations in Southeast Asia are conducted through our joint venture in Singapore and its subsidiaries. Prior to the enactment of the EIT Law, which became effective on January 1, 2008, FIEs were generally subject to a 30% state enterprise income tax plus a 3% local income tax. However, most of our operating subsidiaries in China, as FIEs, were entitled to tax holidays or certain preferential tax treatments, which thus reduced their effective rate of income tax to 15% or lower in some cases. Since the EIT Law became effective, all resident enterprises are subject to a flat 25% income tax rate, unless they are otherwise eligible for certain preferential tax treatments under the new rules.

Pursuant to the implementation rules to the EIT Law issued in December 2007, and the several subsequent transition rules, certain of our subsidiaries in China can continue to enjoy preferential tax rates, as long as they are qualified as HNTEs. Some of our subsidiaries and VIEs in China became subject to a normal 25% income tax rate, while certain of our subsidiaries and VIEs in China remain eligible for the lower rates under the transition rules. The HNTE status allows qualifying entities to be eligible for a 15% tax rate for three years. At the conclusion of the three year period, the qualifying enterprise has the option to renew its HNTE status for an additional three years through a simplified application process if such enterprise’s business operations continue to qualify for HNTE status. After the first six years, the enterprise would have to go through a new application process in order to renew its HNTE status. As of December 2008, we had received certification of HNTE status for AsiaInfo-Linkage Technologies (China), Inc., or AIBJ, AsiaInfo-Linkage Technologies (Chengdu), Inc., or AICD, and Linkage-AsiaInfo Technologies (Nanjing), Inc., or Linkage Nanjing, which allows those companies to compute tax at a reduced 15% tax rate starting January 1, 2008. AIBJ, AICD and Linkage Nanjing filed renewal applications in the year of 2011. As of the date of this report, AIBJ, AICD and Linkage Nanjing have obtained the HNTE certificates issued by the government authorities. As such, we computed tax at a reduced 15% tax rate for AIBJ, AICD and Linkage Nanjing. AIBJ and Linkage Nanjing were approved as a Key Software Enterprise, and were eligible for a further reduction in their tax rate to 10% for 2008, 2009 and 2010. As of the date of this report, government authorities in charge of the approval of Key Software Enterprise status have not released the guidance and application requirements regarding how to apply for Key Software Enterprise status for 2011. AIBJ and Linkage Nanjing plan to apply for Key Software Enterprises status for 2011 upon the release of such guidance and application requirements.

Sales of hardware procured in China are subject to a 17% value-added tax, or VAT. Most of our sales of hardware procured outside of China are made through our U.S. parent company, AsiaInfo-Linkage, Inc., or one of its subsidiaries, Hong Kong AsiaInfo-Linkage Technologies Ltd., and thus are not subject to the value-added tax. We effectively pass value-added tax on hardware sales through to our customers and do not include them in revenues reported in our financial statements. Companies that develop their own software and register the software with the relevant authorities in China are generally entitled to a value-added tax refund. If the net amount of the value-added tax payable exceeds 3% of software sales and software-related services, the excess portion of the value-added tax is refundable immediately. The policy was extended by a new tax circular issued in January 2011. The benefit of the rebate of value-added tax is included in software revenue. Historically, the value-added tax refund is not taxable for income tax purpose as long as the refund is used for research and development activities. However, according to a new tax circular which was issued by the PRC State Administration of Taxation in January 2009, although the value-added tax refund would remain non-taxable when the refund is used for purchase of or expenses associated with fixed assets, the expenses and depreciation associated with such fixed assets are not tax deductible for income tax purposes. This circular also stipulates that any VAT refund not spent within the five-year period following its receipt must be added back to taxable income in the sixth year. It is unclear how this new rule will be implemented and in the absence of specific guidance we are treating the value-added tax refund received as a non-taxable item for income tax purposes till the five-year period ends.

Our PRC subsidiaries and VIEs are subject to business tax at the rate of 3% or 5%, respectively, on certain types of service revenues, which are presented in our statement of operations net of business tax incurred.

 

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Effective from December 1, 2010, our PRC subsidiaries are also subject to Urban Maintenance and Construction Tax as well as Education Fee Surcharge at the rate of 7% and 3% of value-added tax and business tax paid, respectively.

In January 2011, the State Council issued a new circular providing an exemption from business taxes for eligible software companies on software development and testing, system integration, consulting and maintenance services. The circular also retains various policies granted by previous circulars, including the value-added tax rebate on sales of software. The implementation guidance of this new circular has not been issued as of the date of this report, although implementation guidance for value-added tax rebates on sales of software was issued in October 2011.

We are also subject to U.S. income taxes on revenues generated in the U.S., including revenues from our limited hardware procurement activities through our US parent company, AsiaInfo-Linkage, Inc., and interest income earned in the U.S.

Foreign Exchange

A majority of our revenues and expenses relating to hardware sales and the software and service components of our business are denominated in RMB. The value of our shares will be affected by the foreign exchange rate between U.S. dollars and RMB because the value of our business is effectively denominated in RMB, while our shares are traded in U.S. dollars. In addition, as we pursue our global strategy, we have entered into agreements denominated in various currencies of Southeast Asian countries, expect to continue to do so in future, and expect that such activities may create similar foreign exchange risk associated with the currencies of these jurisdictions. Depreciation of the value of the U.S. dollar will also reduce the value of the cash we hold in U.S. dollars, which we may use for purposes of future acquisitions or other business expansion. We actively monitor our exposure to these risks and adjust our cash position in the RMB and the U.S. dollar when we believe such adjustments will reduce our foreign exchange risks. For example, in February 2004 we exchanged approximately $28.0 million cash from U.S. dollars to RMB in anticipation of increases in value of the RMB. In 2011, AsiaInfo-Linkage Technologies (China), Inc. made a $5 million dividend payment to AsiaInfo-Linkage, Inc., and we exchanged an equivalent amount cash from RMB to U.S. dollars to fulfil the dividend payment requirement.

Pursuant to the rate of exchange quoted by People’s Bank of China, as of December 31, 2011 the exchange rate between the RMB and the U.S. dollar decreased 4.9% to U.S.$1.00 = RMB6.3009, compared to the rate of U.S.$1.00 = RMB6.6227 as of December 31, 2010.

Critical Accounting Policies

We prepare our consolidated financial statements in accordance with GAAP. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, as well as the reported amount of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. On an ongoing basis, we evaluate our estimates and judgments, including those related to revenues and cost of revenues under customer contracts, warranty obligations, bad debts, inventories, short-term investments, long-term investments, long-lived assets, income taxes, goodwill and other intangible assets, stock options, and litigation. We base our estimates and judgments on historical experience and on various other factors that we believe are reasonable. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions. We believe the following critical accounting policies reflect the more significant judgments and estimates used in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements.

Revenue recognition. Our revenue is derived from three primary sources: (i) software license and related services, including assistance in implementation, customization and integration, post-contract customer support,

 

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or PCS, training and consulting; (ii) professional services for systems design, planning, consulting, and system integration; and (iii) the procurement of hardware on behalf of our customers. Revenues from customer orders requiring significant production, modifications, or customization of the software are recognized over the service period based on the percentage of completion method measured based on the relationship of costs already incurred to the total estimated costs to be incurred. We consider total project costs (labor costs and other related costs) in calculating the percentage of completion and recognize cost of sales on an actual basis with no deferral of project costs, including pre-contract costs. Software arrangements with significant production, modifications, or customization are sold with bundled third-party hardware and PCS services. We generally bifurcate the third-party hardware from our development services and recognize the hardware revenue upon customer acceptance. Because PCS services have never been sold separately in these arrangements, they do not have stand-alone fair value or vendor specific objective evidence of fair value. The percentage of completion method of revenue recognition is therefore applied to the period from the start of the significant production, modifications, or customization through the last element delivered, which is typically the end of the bundled PCS services period. Revisions in estimated contract costs are made in the period in which the circumstances requiring the revision become known. Provisions, if any, are made currently for anticipated losses on uncompleted contracts.

Consulting and other professional services revenues are recognized when the services are performed. Sales of third-party hardware, if not bundled with other arrangements, are recognized when delivered if all other revenue recognition criteria are met. Costs associated with revenues are recognized when incurred.

We generated service revenues by acting as a sales agent for International Business Machines Corporation, or IBM, or its distributors, and for a few other hardware companies for certain products sold to our customers. We refer to each such arrangement as an “IBM-Type Arrangement.” The service fee under our IBM-Type Arrangements is determined as a percentage of the gross contract amount. We have evaluated the criteria outlined in guidance issued by FASB regarding reporting revenue gross as principal versus net as agent, when determining whether we would record as revenues the gross amount billed to our customers and related costs or the net amount earned after deducting hardware costs paid to the vendor, even though we bear inventory risks after the vendor ships the products to us and we bill gross amounts to our customers. We record the net amount earned after deducting hardware costs as agency service revenue because (1) the vendor is the primary obligor in these transactions, (2) we have no latitude in establishing the prices, (3) we are not involved in the determination of the product specifications, (4) we do not bear credit risk because we are contractually obligated to pay the vendor only when the customer, pays us, and (5) we do not have the right to select suppliers.

Revenue recognized in excess of billings is recorded as unbilled receivables and is included in trade accounts receivable. Amounts billed but not yet collected are recorded as billed receivables and are included in trade accounts receivable. All billed and unbilled amounts are expected to be collected within one year. Billings for installation and customization services are rendered based on agreed upon milestones specified in customer contracts. Billings in excess of revenues recognized are recorded as deferred revenue.

Revenue recognition policies for discontinued IT security business. The information security products sold by our former Lenovo-AsiaInfo division have been accounted for under GAAP accounting guidance regarding software revenue recognition for products with multiple deliverables. The related software contained in our information security products is considered to be more than incidental and is essential to the functionality of the related equipment. These information security products are sold bundled with PCS services over a term of one, two or three years.

For contracts entered into before December 31, 2008, we recognized the total arrangement fees for the information security products as revenue upon delivery assuming all other revenue recognition criteria were met regardless of whether the PCS services terms were one, two or three years because (a) PCS services primarily included telephone and online support, (b) PCS services were substantially provided within the first year of the arrangement term, (c) the costs of providing PCS services had historically been insignificant and were expected to be insignificant in the future, and (d) PCS services did not include upgrades or enhancements. PCS services

 

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provided beyond the first year of the service term had historically been negligible. We accrued the estimated costs of providing PCS services upon delivery of the Lenovo-AsiaInfo information security software products.

For contracts entered into after January 1, 2009, we extended PCS services terms to include unspecified upgrades. In addition, we have established vendor-specific objective evidence of fair value of the PCS services. Therefore, the security products revenue is now recognized upon delivery and the PCS services revenue is deferred and recognized ratably over the PCS services period.

Income taxes. Deferred income taxes are provided using the asset and liability method. Under this method, deferred income taxes are recognized for tax credits and net operating losses available for carry-forwards and significant temporary differences. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are classified as current or non-current based upon the classification of the related asset or liability in the financial statements or the expected timing of their reversal if they do not relate to a specific asset or liability.

The impact of an uncertain income tax position on the income tax return must be recognized at the largest amount that is more-likely-than not to be sustained upon audit by the relevant tax authority. An uncertain income tax position will not be recognized if it has less than a 50% likelihood of being sustained. Interest and penalties on income taxes will be classified as a component of the provisions for income taxes.

The HNTE certificates of AIBJ, AICD and Linkage Nanjing were subject to renewal in 2011 and such three companies filed renewal applications in 2011. As of the date of this report, AIBJ, AICD and Linkage Nanjing obtained the HNTE certificates. We had previously used the 25% statutory rate as the applicable rate to calculate the deferred tax balance of Linkage Nanjing after the expiration of its current HNTE certificate. In the second quarter of 2011, Linkage Nanjing received a preliminary confirmation of its HNTE status. We then believed that Linkage Nanjing would obtain its HNTE certificate and renew the status going forward and, accordingly, re-calculated the balances of deferred tax relating to acquired intangible assets amortization and social welfare accrual by applying a 15% rate instead of a 25% rate. Such change resulted in a reduction of deferred tax balance and a net income tax credit to our consolidated statements of operations.

AIBJ and Linkage Nanjing were approved as a Key Software Enterprise, and were eligible for a further reduction in their tax rate to 10% for 2008, 2009 and 2010. As of the date of this report, government authorities in charge of the approval of Key Software Enterprise status have not released the application requirements for 2011. AIBJ and Linkage Nanjing plan to apply for Key Software Enterprises status for 2011 upon the release of the application requirements but there is uncertainty as to whether we will receive such status until we know and understand all the new requirements.

Under the EIT Law, a “resident enterprise” which may include an enterprise established outside of the PRC with management located in the PRC, will be subject to PRC income tax. We believe we and our subsidiaries registered outside the PRC are not resident enterprises under the EIT law.

We record a valuation allowance to reduce our deferred tax assets to the amount that we believe is more likely than not to be realized. In the event we were to determine that we would be able to realize our deferred tax assets in the future in excess of their recorded amount, an adjustment to the deferred tax asset would increase income in the period such determination was made. Likewise, should we determine that we would not be able to realize all or part of our net deferred tax assets in the future, an adjustment to the valuation allowance would be charged to income in the period such change occurred.

Interest and penalties on income taxes will be classified as a component of the provisions for income taxes.

Intangible Assets and Goodwill. Intangible assets consist of certain identifiable intangible assets resulting from business acquisitions and primarily comprise customer relationships, trade name, core technologies and existing technology. We amortize these intangible assets over their respective estimated useful lives, which range

 

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from 0.5 to 19 years. Intangible assets are reviewed for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate that their carrying amounts may not be recoverable based upon the estimated undiscounted cash flows.

The excess of the purchase price over the fair value of net assets acquired is recorded on the consolidated balance sheets as goodwill. Goodwill is not amortized but is tested for impairment annually or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate that it might be impaired.

Goodwill is tested for impairment at the reporting unit level (operating segment or one level below an operating segment) on an annual basis (October 1 for us) and between annual tests if an event occurs or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of a reporting unit below its carrying value. These events or circumstances could include a significant change in the stock prices, business climate, legal factors, operating performance indicators, competition, or sale or disposition of a significant portion of a reporting unit.

Application of the goodwill impairment test requires judgment, including the identification of reporting units, assignment of assets and liabilities to reporting units, assignment of goodwill to reporting units, and determination of the fair value of each reporting unit. The fair value of each reporting unit is estimated using a discounted cash flow, or DCF,) methodology. This analysis requires significant judgments, including estimation of future cash flows, which is dependent on internal forecasts, estimation of the long-term rate of growth for our business, estimation of the useful life over which cash flows will occur, and determination of our weighted average cost of capital. The estimates used to calculate the fair value of a reporting unit change from year to year based on operating results and market conditions. Changes in these estimates and assumptions could materially affect the determination of fair value and goodwill impairment for the reporting unit.

Goodwill is tested following a two-step process. The first step compares the fair value of each reporting unit to its carrying amount, including goodwill. If the fair value of each reporting unit exceeds its carrying amount, goodwill is not considered to be impaired and the second step will not be required. If the carrying amount of a reporting unit exceeds its fair value, the second step compares the implied fair value of goodwill to the carrying value of a reporting unit’s goodwill. The implied fair value of goodwill is determined in a manner similar to accounting for a business combination with the allocation of the assessed fair value determined in the first step to the assets and liabilities of the reporting unit. The excess of the fair value of the reporting unit over the amounts assigned to the assets and liabilities is the implied fair value of goodwill. An impairment loss is recognized for any excess in the carrying value of goodwill over the implied fair value of goodwill.

We had one reporting unit as of December 31, 2011 and 2010, our telecommunications reporting unit. The goodwill allocated to the reporting unit was $433.5 million and $433.1 million as of December 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively.

For the third quarter of 2011, we conducted our quarterly review of impairment indicators, during which we noted that due to the significant decline in our stock price for a sustained period, there was an impairment indicator related to goodwill as of September 30, 2011. In response, we performed an assessment of the carrying value of goodwill. Based on that assessment, we concluded that no impairment loss needed to be recognized as of September 30, 2011.

As our annual goodwill impairment testing date is October 1, 2011, we evaluated the situation as of October 1, 2011 by referencing to the assessment performed with respect to September 30, 2011, and concluded that there was no goodwill impairment as of October 1, 2011.

For the fourth quarter of 2011, we conducted our quarterly review of impairment indicators, during which we noted that due to the significant decline in our stock price for a sustained period, there was an impairment indicator related to goodwill as of December 31, 2011. In response, we qualitatively assessed whether it is more likely than not that the fair values of the reporting unit was less than the carrying amount, by taking into

 

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consideration all the events and circumstances listed in FASB Accounting Standards Codification, or ASC, 350, Intangibles—Goodwill and Other and other entity specific factors and determined to perform the quantitative goodwill impairment test for the reporting unit.

In the goodwill impairment test, we used the income approach, which we believed to be more reliable than the market approach in determining the fair value of our reporting unit. Accordingly, we adopted the DCF method under the income approach, which considers a number of factors that include expected future cash flows, growth rates, discount rates, and comparable multiples from publicly traded companies in our industry and requires us to make certain assumptions and estimates regarding industry economic factors and the future profitability of our business. The assumptions are inherently uncertain and subjective.

When applying the DCF method for the reporting unit, we incorporated the use of projected financial information and a discount rate developed using market participant based assumptions. The cash flow projections were based on five-year financial forecasts developed by management that included revenue projections, capital spending trends, and investments in working capital to support anticipated revenue growth. The discount rate selected was 15.5% with the considerations of the risk and nature of the reporting unit’s cash flows and the rates of return market participants would require to invest their capital in our reporting unit.

In addition, we have performed a sensitivity analysis of the results. If the discount rate increased by 1% or the revenue growth rate of future projection decreased by 1%, the fair value would remain higher than the carrying value of the reporting unit. We also applied a hypothetical 10% decrease to the fair value of the reporting unit, which on December 31, 2011 would not have triggered additional impairment testing and analysis.

Our revenue growth rate assumption is indirectly dependent on government budgetary policy for the telecommunications and internet industries in China. The laws and regulations applicable to the telecommunications and internet industry in China remain unsettled and could have a material adverse effect on our business and may lead to a decrease of growth rate. Our customer base is concentrated and the loss of one or more customers would have a significant effect on our estimated growth rate. Please see “Risk Factors” for a discussion of other risks and uncertainties that may adversely affect our growth.

We also reconciled the fair value of the reporting unit to the market capitalization from the perspectives of control synergies, asymmetric data, excessive short position against stocks, thin trading volume, and other factors.

Based on that assessment, we concluded that no impairment loss needed to be recognized as of December 31, 2011.

We recognized no impairment loss on goodwill in 2011, 2010 and 2009.

Impairment of long-term and short-term investments. We review our long-term and short-term investments for other-than-temporary impairment in accordance with relevant accounting literature, based on the specific identification method. We consider available quantitative and qualitative evidence in evaluating potential impairment of our investments. If the cost of an investment exceeds the investment’s fair value, we consider, among other factors, general market conditions, government economic plans, the duration and the extent to which the fair value of the investment is less than the cost, and our intent and ability to hold the investment. In view of the declines of fair value below the carrying cost of certain short-term and long-term investments, we performed an evaluation to determine whether any of them were other-than-temporary in accordance with ASC 320 and SEC Staff Accounting Bulletin Topic 5M. We determined that the decline in fair value of the long-term investment in Santen and of the short-term investments in available-for-sale securities were other-than-temporary and, accordingly, provided for impairment losses in 2011. We recognized $950 and $nil in impairment losses on long-term investments in the year of 2011 and 2010, respectively. We recognized $144 and $281 in impairment losses on short-term investments in the year of 2011 and 2010, respectively.

 

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Consolidated Results of Operations

Year Ended December 31, 2011 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2010

Revenues. Total revenues increased 40.1% to $481.0 million in 2011, from $343.4 million in 2010. Our revenues for full year 2010 included only six months of consolidated operating results after the closing of the merger of AsiaInfo and Linkage. Full year 2011 and 2010 statements of operations are not comparable. Revenue from software products and solutions was $431.4 million, representing a 42.8% increase from $302.0 million in 2010. Service revenue was $31.6 million, representing an 18.7% increase from $26.6 million in 2010. Revenue from third party hardware was $18.0 million, representing an increase of 22.3% from $14.8 million in 2010.

Cost of revenues. Our total cost of revenues was $273.1 million in 2011, representing a 57.1% increase from $173.8 million in 2010, primarily due to increased implementation headcount and employee compensation, resulting in an increase in overall labor costs, and the addition of new customers such as China Unicom’s northern six provinces and international customers, projects which required significant upfront investment. In addition, amortization of acquired intangible assets related to the Linkage merger was $20.1 million in 2011 and $10.0 million in the second half of 2010.

Gross profit. Our gross profit increased 22.6% in 2011 to $207.9 million, from $169.6 million in 2010.

Operating expenses. Total operating expenses increased 39.0% to $ 152.2 million in 2011, from $109.5 million in 2010. Other than the additional operating expenses following the Linkage merger, the increase was primarily driven by increased headcount and product development for international expansion. In addition, amortization of acquired intangible assets related to the Linkage acquisition was $25.1 million in 2011, and 11.0 in the second half of 2010.

Sales and marketing expenses increased 49.9% to $75.0 million in 2011, from $50.0 million in 2010. Other than the additional sales and marketing expenses following the Linkage merger, the increase was mainly due to amortization of acquired intangible assets related to the Linkage merger of $25.1 million and higher sales commission expenses incurred upon signing new contracts with our three major telecom customers.

General and administrative expenses decreased 12.3%, to $20.4 million in 2011, from $23.3 million in 2010. The decrease was largely attributable to non-recurring expenses of $4.2 million related to the Linkage merger in 2010, offset by the effect of additional general and administrative expenses following the Linkage merger.

Research and development expenses increased 62.8% to $58.9 million in 2011, as compared to $36.2 million in 2010. Other than the additional research and development expenses following the Linkage merger, the year-over-year increase was primarily driven by the addition of research and development engineers, investment in product development and product standardization for current and anticipated overseas expansion.

In the second quarter of 2011, we received and recorded a government subsidy of $2.1 million as a reward for high-tech software innovation.

Income from operations. Income from operations decreased to $55.8 million in 2011 from $60.1 million in 2010, reflecting our increased headcount and product standardization and development for international expansion. Operating margin was 11.6% in 2011, as compared to 17.5% in 2010.

Income tax (benefit) expense. In 2011 we had an income tax benefit of $12.0 million as compared to income tax expense of $9.6 million in 2010. Our effective tax rate was (20)% for 2011 as compared to 15% for 2010. The decrease in effective tax rate was mainly caused by a one-time adjustment to deferred taxes due to a change in the statutory tax rate of Linkage Nanjing for 2011 from 25% to 15% where certain acquired deferred tax liabilities were tax effected at 25% but adjusted to a lower amount due to the tax rate reduction, as Linkage Nanjing was notified that its HNTE status was approved in 2011. Without such one time adjustment, the effective

 

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tax rate for 2011 would have been 10%. The decrease in our effective tax rate from 2010 to 2011 also reflected the 10% preferential tax rate granted to AIBJ and Linkage Nanjing for their Key Software Enterprise certificate which was obtained upon filing of final 2010 annual taxes in the first quarter of 2011.

Income from continuing operations. Net income from continuing operations was $73.0 million or $1.02 per basic share in 2011, as compared to $53.7 million or $0.90 per basic share in 2010.

Income from discontinued operations. In line with our strategy of focusing on our core telecommunications software solutions, we discontinued certain non-core businesses during the past several years. In December 2010, we sold our IT security business for approximately $15.0 million in cash. The IT security business has been reclassified to discontinued operations for the year ended December 31, 2010. There was no income from discontinued operations in 2011.

Net income attributable to AsiaInfo-Linkage, Inc. In 2011, we recorded net income attributable to AsiaInfo-Linkage, Inc. of $74.6 million, compared to $56.2 million in 2010.

Year Ended December 31, 2010 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2009

Revenues. Total revenues increased 60.6% to $343.4 million in 2010, from $213.8 million in 2009, primarily driven by continued demand for our best-of-class IT solutions and services. The increase was also due to the effects of the Linkage merger. Revenue from software products and solutions was $302.0 million, representing a 68.5% increase from $179.2 million in 2009. Service revenue was $26.6 million, representing a 22.5% increase from $21.7 million in 2009. Revenue from third party hardware was $14.8 million, representing an increase of 15.1% from $12.9 million in 2009.

Cost of revenues. Our total cost of revenues was $173.8 million in 2010, representing a 73.0% increase from $100.5 million in 2009, primarily due to the Linkage merger, as we integrated additional research and development employees into client service increasing our cost of revenue. In addition, amortization of acquired intangible assets related to the Linkage merger was $10.0 million in the second half of 2010.

Gross profit. Our gross profit increased 49.7% in 2010 to $169.6 million, from $113.3 million in 2009.

Operating expenses. Total operating expenses increased 39.4% to $109.5 million in 2010, from $78.5 million in 2009. Other than the additional operating expenses following the Linkage merger, the increase was primarily driven by our efforts to expand our customer base and open new market opportunities in domestic and overseas markets. In addition, amortization of acquired intangible assets related to the Linkage merger was $11.0 million in the second half of 2010.

Sales and marketing expenses increased 52.2% to $50.0 million in 2010, from $32.9 million in 2009. Other than the additional sales and marketing expenses following the Linkage merger, the increase was mainly due to amortization of acquired intangible assets related to the Linkage merger of $11.0 million and higher sales commission expenses incurred upon signing new contracts with our three major telecom customers.

General and administrative expenses increased 40.4%, to $23.3 million in 2010, from $16.6 million in 2009. Other than the additional general and administrative expenses following the Linkage merger, the increase was largely attributable to non-recurring expenses of $4.2 million related to the Linkage merger. Linkage merger-related expenses were $2.1 million in 2009.

Research and development expenses increased 18.9% to $36.2 million in 2010, as compared to $30.4 million in 2009, mainly reflecting an investment in product development for upcoming opportunities, consistent with our target to develop best-of-class products and solutions for our customers, as well as increased research and development expenses following the Linkage merger.

 

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Income from operations. Income from operations increased to $60.1 million in 2010 from $34.8 million in 2009, reflecting our increased sales and our continued efforts to improve operating efficiency. The increase was also due to the Linkage merger. Operating margin was 17.5% in 2010, as compared to 16.3% in 2009.

Income tax expense. Income tax expense in 2010 was $9.6 million as compared to $4.9 million in 2009. Our effective tax rate was 15% for 2010 as compared to 13% for 2009. The increase in effective tax rate was primarily because one of our major operating subsidiaries enjoyed a 10% preferred tax rate in 2009 as a Key Software Enterprise, which reduced rate we did not use for our 2010 financial reporting as the Chinese authorities had not issued the list of qualified Key Software Enterprises for 2010 as of December 31, 2010.

Income from continuing operations. Net income from continuing operations was $53.7 million or $0.90 per basic share in 2010, as compared to $33.5 million or $0.75 per basic share in 2009.

Income from discontinued operations. In line with our strategy of focusing on our core telecommunications software solutions, we discontinued certain non-core businesses during the past several years. In December 2010, we sold our IT security business for approximately $15.0 million in cash. The IT security business has been reclassified to discontinued operations for the year ended December 31, 2010, and the comparative figures for the years ended December 31, 2008 and 2009 have been retrospectively reclassified to discontinued operations. Income from discontinued operations decreased 46.4% to $1.1 million in 2010, from $2.0 million in 2009. The decrease was mainly due to only 11-months of operating results of our IT security business in 2010 and the seasonality of such business.

Net income attributable to AsiaInfo-Linkage, Inc. In 2010, we recorded net income attributable to AsiaInfo-Linkage, Inc. of $56.2 million, compared to $35.9 million in 2009.

 

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Selected Unaudited Quarterly Combined Results of Operations

The following table sets forth unaudited quarterly statements of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2010. We believe this unaudited information has been prepared substantially on the same basis as the annual audited combined financial statements appearing elsewhere in this report and includes all necessary adjustments, consisting only of normal recurring adjustments, necessary for a fair presentation. You should read the quarterly data together with the consolidated financial statements and the notes to those statements appearing elsewhere in this report. The consolidated results of operations for any quarter are not necessarily indicative of the operating results for any future period. We expect that our quarterly revenues may fluctuate significantly.

 

    Three Months Ended  
    December 31,
2011
    September 30,
2011
    June 30,
2011
    March 31,
2011
    December 31,
2010
    September 30,
2010
    June 30,
2010
    March 31,
2010
 
    (Amounts in thousands of U.S. dollars, except per share data)  

Selected quarterly operations data

               

Total revenues

  $ 131,091      $ 119,285      $ 116,186      $ 114,481      $ 114,380      $ 110,462      $ 59,298      $ 59,243   

Total cost of revenues

    76,830        66,945        67,101        62,235        62,596        63,220        24,858        23,127   

Gross profit

    54,261        52,340        49,085        52,246        51,784        47,242        34,440        36,116   

Total operating expenses

    43,307        37,066        34,557        37,238        35,700        29,784        20,142        23,849   

Income from continuing operations

    10,537        12,689        32,251        17,509        14,722        14,862        13,282        10,877   

Income (loss) on discontinued operations, net of taxes

    0        0        0        0        557        1,267        189        (955

Net income

    10,537        12,689        32,251        17,509        15,279        16,129        13,471        9,922   

Less: net loss (income) attributable to noncontrolling interest

    56        (600     (698     (331     (226     (326     (435     (423

Net income attributable to AsiaInfo-Linkage, Inc.

    10,481        13,289        32,949        17,840        15,505        16,455        13,906        10,345   

Earnings per share:

               

Net income from continuing operations attributable to AsiaInfo-Linkage, Inc. common stockholders:

               

Basic

  $ 0.15      $ 0.18      $ 0.45      $ 0.24      $ 0.20      $ 0.20      $ 0.29      $ 0.24   

Diluted

  $ 0.14      $ 0.18      $ 0.45      $ 0.24      $ 0.20      $ 0.20      $ 0.29      $ 0.23   

Net income (loss) from discontinued operations attributable to AsiaInfo-Linkage, Inc. common stockholders:

               

Basic

  $ 0.00      $ 0.00      $ 0.00      $ 0.00      $ 0.01      $ 0.02      $ 0.00      $ (0.02

Diluted

  $ 0.00      $ 0.00      $ 0.00      $ 0.00      $ 0.01      $ 0.02      $ 0.00      $ (0.02

Net income attributable to AsiaInfo-Linkage, Inc. common stockholders:

               

Basic

  $ 0.15      $ 0.18      $ 0.45      $ 0.24      $ 0.21      $ 0.22      $ 0.29      $ 0.22   

Diluted

  $ 0.14      $ 0.18      $ 0.45      $ 0.24      $ 0.21      $ 0.22      $ 0.29      $ 0.21   

 

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Liquidity and Capital Resources

Our liquidity and capital resources are provided mainly from cash collection from customers resulting from our core operating activities. Our capital requirements are primarily working capital requirements related to hardware sales and costs associated with the expansion of our business, such as research and development and sales and marketing expenses. We recognize hardware costs in full upon delivery of the hardware to our customers. In order to minimize our working capital requirements, we generally obtain from our hardware vendors payment terms that are timed to permit us to receive payment from our customers for the hardware before our payments to hardware vendors are due. With respect to our billing cycle, we generally require our customers to pay 80% to 90% of the invoice value of the hardware upon delivery. We typically place orders for hardware against back-to-back orders from customers and seek favorable payment terms from hardware vendors. However, we sometimes obtain less favorable payment terms from our customers, thereby increasing our working capital requirements. In addition to this careful management of our billing cycle, we have also historically financed working capital and other financing requirements through private placements of equity securities, our initial public offering in 2000 and, to a limited extent, bank loans.

On December 4, 2009, we executed the Combination Agreement to combine our business with the business of Linkage through our acquisition of 100% of the outstanding share capital of Linkage Technologies, and we completed the combination with Linkage on July 1, 2010.

Our full year net cash provided by operating activities in 2011 was $76.5 million, primarily driven by operating profit from our telecommunications business. We had cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash and short-term investment totalling $321.6 million as of December 31, 2011 as compared to $294.0 million as of December 31, 2010. The increase was mainly a result of our positive operating cash flow. Part of the increase from positive operating cash flow was offset by the increase of accounts receivable, which amounted to $23.2 million.

Our days sales outstanding as of December 31, 2011 was 147 days, as compared to 137 days at the end of the year 2010. The increase in days of sales outstanding from December 31, 2010 to December 31, 2011 was primarily attributable to our efforts to expansion and win new customers and business in China. On the other hand, we have enhanced our receivables collection in 2011.

Our full year net cash provided by investing activities was $2.6 million in 2011. This was primarily due to our purchase of $12.6 million in short-term investments, a $7.3 million increase in restricted cash and our purchase of $5.2 million in property and equipment, which was partially offset by the proceeds from sales of short-term investments for $27.5 million.

Our full year net cash used in financing activities was $59.1 million. This was primarily due to our repurchase of shares of our common stock pursuant to our share repurchase program.

As of December 31, 2011, we had total short-term credit facilities for working capital purposes totalling $99.8 million, expiring in September 2013. The credit facilities were secured by bank deposits of $13.1 million as of December 31, 2011. Credit facilities of $28.0 million were utilized for security for issuing letters of credit and accounts payable to hardware suppliers and customers. As of December 31, 2011, unused short-term credit facilities were $71.8 million. In addition, we had standby letters of credit and bank acceptance drafts as of December 31, 2011, which were collateralized by bank deposits of $8.1 million. Total bank deposits pledged as security for these credit facilities, standby letters of credit, and bank acceptance drafts totalled $21.2 million as of December 31, 2011 and were presented as restricted cash in our consolidated balance sheets. During the year ended December 31, 2011, the largest aggregate amount that we had used of our short-term credit facilities was $28.0 million.

We anticipate that our available funds and cash flows provided by operations will be sufficient to meet our anticipated needs for working capital, capital expenditures for the building construction and business expansion

 

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considering overseas projects purchase through 2012. We may need to raise additional funds in the future, however, in order to fund acquisitions, develop new or enhanced services or products, respond to competitive pressures to compete successfully for larger projects involving higher levels of hardware purchases, or if our business otherwise grows more rapidly than we currently predict. We anticipate that we would raise additional funds, if necessary, through new issuances of equity or debt securities, or through credit facilities extended by lending institutions.

In the event that we decide to pay dividends to our stockholders, our ability to pay dividends will depend in part on our ability to receive dividends from our operating subsidiaries in China. Foreign exchange and other regulations in China may restrict our ability to distribute retained earnings from our operating subsidiaries in China or convert those payments from RMB into foreign currencies.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

We have not entered into any transactions, agreements or other contractual arrangements to which an entity unconsolidated with us is a party and under which we have (i) any obligation under a guarantee, (ii) any retained or contingent interest in assets transferred to an unconsolidated entity that serves as credit, liquidity or market risk support to such entity, (iii) any obligation under derivative instruments that are indexed to our shares and classified as stockholders’ equity in our consolidated balance sheets, or (iv) any obligation arising out of a variable interest in any unconsolidated entity that provides financing, liquidity, market risk or credit support to us or engages in leasing, hedging or research and development services with us.

As of December 31, 2011, we had short-term credit facilities for working capital purposes totalling $99.8 million, expiring in September 2013, of which $28.0 million had been used for issuing standby letters of credit and bank acceptance drafts to hardware suppliers and customers. Unused short-term credit facilities were $71.8 million.

Tabular Disclosure of Contractual Obligations

The following table presents a breakdown of our outstanding contractual obligations by maturity as of December 31, 2011:

 

     Payment due by period
(amounts in thousands of US$)
 
     Total      Less than
1 year
     1-3 years      3-5 years      More than
5 years
 

Contractual Obligations

              

Operating lease obligations

     11,396         7,275         4,107         14         0   

Software purchase obligations

     3,174         1,587         1,587         0         0   

In May 2011, we entered into a land use right transfer agreement with the Beijing Municipal Bureau of Land and Resources, under which we acquired land use right for a 50-year term. Pursuant to the agreement, we have committed a minimum of $32,795 for capital expenditures to the building construction project, to commence construction by April 30, 2012, and to complete construction by April 30, 2014.

Other long-term liabilities, such as unrecognized tax benefits, have been excluded from the table due to the uncertainty of the timing of payments combined with the absence of historic trends to be used as a predictor for such payments.

 

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Accounting Pronouncements

Recent accounting pronouncements not yet adopted

In May 2011, the FASB issued an authoritative pronouncement on fair value measurement. The guidance is the result of joint efforts by the FASB and International Accounting Standards Board to develop a single, converged fair value framework. The guidance is largely consistent with existing fair value measurement principles in GAAP. The guidance expands the existing disclosure requirements for fair value measurements and makes other amendments, mainly including:

 

   

Highest-and-best-use and valuation-premise concepts for nonfinancial assets—the guidance indicates that the highest-and-best-use and valuation-premise concepts only apply to measuring the fair value of nonfinancial assets.

 

   

Application to financial assets and financial liabilities with offsetting positions in market risks or counterparty credit risk—the guidance permits an exception to fair value measurement principles for financial assets and financial liabilities (and derivatives) with offsetting positions in market risks or counterparty credit risk when several criteria are met. When the criteria are met, an entity can measure the fair value of the net risk position.

 

   

Premiums or discounts in fair value measure—the guidance provides that premiums or discounts that reflect size as a characteristic of the reporting entity’s holding (specifically, a blockage factor that adjusts the quoted price of an asset or a liability because the market’s normal daily trading volume is not sufficient to absorb the quantity held by the entity) rather than as a characteristic of the asset or liability (for example, a control premium when measuring the fair value of a controlling interest) are not permitted in a fair value measurement.

 

   

Fair value of an instrument classified in a reporting entity’s stockholders’ equity—the guidance prescribes a model for measuring the fair value of an instrument classified in stockholders’ equity; this model is consistent with the guidance on measuring the fair value of liabilities.

 

   

Disclosures about fair value measurements—the guidance expands disclosure requirements, particularly for Level 3 inputs. Required disclosures include:

 

  (i) For fair value measurements categorized in Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy: (1) a quantitative disclosure of the unobservable inputs and assumptions used in the measurement, (2) a description of the valuation process in place (e.g., how the entity decides its valuation policies and procedures, as well as changes in its analyses of fair value measurements, from period to period), and (3) a narrative description of the sensitivity of the fair value to changes in unobservable inputs and interrelationships between those inputs.

 

  (ii) The level in the fair value hierarchy of items that are not measured at fair value in the statement of financial position but whose fair value must be disclosed.

The guidance is to be applied prospectively and is effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2011, for public entities. Early application by public entities is not permitted. We do not expect the adoption of this guidance to have a significant effect on our consolidated financial statements.

In June 2011, the FASB issued an authoritative pronouncement to require an entity to present the total of comprehensive income, the components of net income, and the components of other comprehensive income either in a single continuous statement of comprehensive income or in two separate but consecutive statements. In both choices, an entity is required to present each component of net income along with total net income, each component of other comprehensive income along with a total for other comprehensive income, and a total amount for comprehensive income. The guidance eliminates the option to present the components of other comprehensive income as part of the statement of changes in stockholders’ equity. The guidance does not change the items that must be reported in other comprehensive income or when an item of other comprehensive income

 

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must be reclassified to net income. The guidance should be applied retrospectively. For public entities, the guidance is effective for fiscal years and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2011. Early adoption is permitted. In December 2011, the FASB issued an authoritative pronouncement related to deferral of the effective date for amendments to the presentation of reclassifications of items out of accumulated other comprehensive income. This guidance allows the FASB to redeliberate whether to present on the face of the financial statements the effects of reclassifications out of accumulated other comprehensive income on the components of net income and other comprehensive income for all periods presented. While the FASB is considering the operational concerns about the presentation requirements for reclassification adjustments and the needs of financial statement users for additional information about reclassification adjustments, entities should continue to report reclassifications out of accumulated other comprehensive income consistent with the presentation requirements in effect before update the pronouncement issued in June 2011. We do not expect the adoption of this guidance to have a significant effect on our consolidated financial statements.

In September 2011, the FASB issued an authoritative pronouncement related to testing goodwill for impairment. The guidance is intended to simplify how entities, both public and nonpublic, test goodwill for impairment. The guidance permits an entity to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether it is “more likely than not” that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount as a basis for determining whether it is necessary to perform the two-step goodwill impairment test. The guidance is effective for annual and interim goodwill impairment tests performed for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2011. Early adoption is permitted, including for annual and interim goodwill impairment tests performed as of a date before September 15, 2011, if a public entity’s financial statements for the most recent annual or interim period have not yet been issued. We do not expect the adoption of this pronouncement to have a significant effect on our consolidated financial statements.

In December 2011, the FASB has issued an authoritative pronouncement related to Disclosures about Offsetting Assets and Liabilities. The guidance requires an entity to disclose information about offsetting and related arrangements to enable users of its financial statements to understand the effect of those arrangements on its financial position. An entity is required to apply the amendments for annual reporting periods beginning on or after January 1, 2013, and interim periods within those annual periods. An entity should provide the disclosures required by those amendments retrospectively for all comparative periods presented. We are in the process of evaluating the effect of adoption of this guidance on our consolidated financial statements.

 

ITEM 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

We are exposed to interest rate risk primarily associated with our cash and short-term investments. To date, we have not entered into any types of derivatives to hedge against interest-rate changes. There have been no significant changes in our exposure to changes in interest rates for the year ended December 31, 2011. Our exposure to interest rate changes is limited as we do not have any material borrowings.

We are exposed to exchange rate risk in connection with the relative value of the U.S. dollar and the RMB. A majority of our revenues and expenses relating to hardware sales and the service and software components of our business are denominated in RMB. As of December 31, 2011, approximately 91.9%, or $270.0 million, of our cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash were RMB-denominated, approximately 7.9%, or $23.2 million, were U.S. dollar-denominated and approximately 0.1%, or $0.3 million, were Hong Kong dollar-denominated. As of that date, the rate of exchange quoted by the People’s Bank of China was US$1.00 = RMB6.3009. If the exchange rate were to increase by 10% to US$1.00 = RMB6.9310, our net assets would potentially decrease by $43.5 million. If the exchange rate were to decrease by 10% to US$1.00 = RMB5.6708, our net assets would potentially increase by $53.2 million.

The value of our shares may be affected by the foreign exchange rate between U.S. dollars and RMB because the value of our business is effectively denominated in RMB, while our shares are traded in U.S. dollars. Depreciation of the value of the U.S. dollar will also reduce the value of the cash we hold in U.S. dollars, which

 

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we may use for purposes of future acquisitions or other business expansion. We actively monitor our exposure to these risks and adjust our cash position in the RMB and the U.S. dollar when we believe such adjustments will reduce our foreign exchange risk. For example, in February 2004 we exchanged approximately $28 million cash in U.S. dollars into RMB in anticipation of increases in the value of the RMB. We did not engage in any significant foreign exchange transactions during the fiscal year 2011.

As in any other business, we are subject to the risk of macroeconomic changes such as recessions and inflation.

 

ITEM 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

Our independent registered public accounting firm’s report and our consolidated financial statements on page F-1.

 

ITEM 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

None.

 

ITEM 9A. Controls and Procedures

Disclosure Controls and Procedures

Our disclosure controls and procedures include our controls and other procedures that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed in the reports that we file or submit under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and forms. Disclosure controls and procedures include, without limitation, controls and procedures designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by us in such reports is accumulated and communicated to our management, including our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure.

Prior to the filing date of this report, we carried out an evaluation, under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, of the effectiveness of the design and operation of our disclosure controls and procedures pursuant to Rule 13a-15(b) under the Exchange Act. Based on that evaluation, our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer have concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures were effective as of December 31, 2011.

Management’s Annual Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting as defined in Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) under the Exchange Act. Our internal control over financial reporting is designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with GAAP. Our internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that:

 

   

pertain to maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of our assets;

 

   

provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with GAAP, and that our receipts and expenditures are being made only in accordance with authorizations of our management and directors; and

 

   

provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use or disposition of our assets that could have a material effect on our financial statements.

A material weakness is a deficiency (within the meaning of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board Auditing Standard No. 5, An Audit of Internal Control Over Financial Reporting Performed in

 

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Conjunction with An Audit of Financial Statements, or PCAOB Auditing Standard No. 5), or combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of the company’s annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis.

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

Our management assessed the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2011. In making this assessment, our management used the criteria set forth by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission in Internal Control-Integrated Framework. Based on our assessment, management believes that, as of December 31, 2011, our internal control over financial reporting was effective based on those criteria.

Our independent registered public accounting firm has issued an attestation report on our internal control over financial reporting. That attestation report appears below.

Changes in Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

There have not been any changes in our internal control over financial reporting (as such term is defined in Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) under the Exchange Act) during the most recent fiscal quarter that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

To the Board of Directors and Stockholders of AsiaInfo-Linkage, Inc.

We have audited the internal control over financial reporting of AsiaInfo-Linkage, Inc., its subsidiaries and its variable interest entities (collectively, the “Company”) as of December 31, 2011, based on the criteria established in Internal Control—Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission. The Company’s management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the accompanying Management’s Annual Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audit.

We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audit included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk, and performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.

A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed by, or under the supervision of, the company’s principal executive and principal financial officers, or persons performing similar functions, and effected by the company’s board of directors, management and other personnel to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail,

 

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accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

Because of the inherent limitations of internal control over financial reporting, including the possibility of collusion or improper management override of controls, material misstatements due to error or fraud may not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. Also, projections of any evaluation of the effectiveness of the internal control over financial reporting to future periods are subject to the risk that the controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

In our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2011, based on the criteria established in Internal Control—Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission.

We have also audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), the consolidated financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2011 of the Company and our report dated February 28, 2012 expressed an unqualified opinion on those financial statements.

/s/    Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu CPA Ltd.

Beijing, the People’s Republic of China

February 28, 2012

 

ITEM 9B. Other Information

None.

 

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PART III

 

ITEM 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

Information concerning our directors and executive officers is incorporated by reference to the sections entitled “Proposal No. 1: Election of Directors—Nominees for Class I Directors,” “Corporate Governance—Committees and Meetings Attendance,” “Management—Board of Directors and Executive Officers” and “Section 16(a) Beneficial Ownership Reporting Compliance” contained in our definitive proxy statement with respect to our 2012 annual meeting of stockholders to be filed with the SEC not later than 120 days after the end of the fiscal year covered by this Form 10-K, or our Proxy Statement. Information concerning compliance with Section 16(a) of the Exchange Act is incorporated by reference to the section entitled “Section 16(a) Beneficial Ownership Reporting Compliance” contained in our Proxy Statement.

In 1999 we adopted a code of ethics, or the Code, which applies to all of our employees. In 2003, we conducted a thorough review and update of the Code in connection with the implementation of rules relating to codes of ethics under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. A copy of the Code and a brief description of any amendments to or waivers from the Code relating to any of our principal executive officers or senior financial officers is posted in the Investor Relations section of our website, which can be accessed at www.asiainfo-linkage.com. The contents of our website are not incorporated by reference into this report.

 

ITEM 11. Executive Compensation

Information concerning executive compensation is incorporated by reference to the sections entitled “Executive Compensation,” “Corporate Governance—Compensation Committee Interlocks and Insider Participation” and “Compensation Committee Report” contained in our Proxy Statement.

 

ITEM 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

Information concerning the security ownership of certain beneficial owners and management is incorporated by reference to the section entitled “Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management” contained in our Proxy Statement. In addition, for information concerning our equity compensation plans, see the section entitled “Equity Compensation Plan Information” under Item 5 of this report.

 

ITEM 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

Information concerning certain relationships and related transactions is incorporated by reference to the section entitled “Certain Relationships and Related Transactions” and “Corporate Governance—Director Independence” contained in our Proxy Statement.

 

ITEM 14. Principal Accounting Fees and Services

Information concerning principal accounting fees and services is incorporated by reference to the sections entitled “Proposal No. 2: Ratification of Appointment of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm” and “Audit Committee Report” contained in our Proxy Statement.

 

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PART IV

 

ITEM 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

Financial Statements and Financial Statement Schedules

The financial statements as set forth under Item 8 of this report are incorporated herein by reference.

 

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Exhibits

The following exhibits are filed as a part of this report.

 

               Incorporated by Reference  

Exhibit No

  

Exhibit Title

   Filed
Herewith
   Form      Exhibit
No.
     File No.      Filing Date  
  2.1    Business Combination Agreement, by and among AsiaInfo Holdings, Inc., Linkage Technologies International Holdings Limited, certain shareholders of Linkage Technologies International Holdings Limited and Libin Sun as Shareholders’ Agent, dated December 4, 2009         8-K         2.1           001-15713         12/9/2009   
  3.1    Certificate of Incorporation of AsiaInfo Holdings, Inc., dated June 8, 1998         S-1         3.1           333-93199         12/21/1999   
  3.2    Certificate of Amendment to Certificate of Incorporation of AsiaInfo Holdings, Inc., dated August 27, 1999         S-1         3.3           333-93199         12/21/1999   
  3.3    Certificate of Amendment to Certificate of Incorporation of AsiaInfo Holdings, Inc., dated November 15, 2000         10-K         3.3           001-15713         3/16/2001   
  3.4    Certificate of Correction to Certificate of Amendment to Certificate of Incorporation of AsiaInfo Holdings, Inc., dated January 18, 2001         10-K         3.4           001-15713         3/16/2001   
  3.5    Amended and Restated By-Laws of AsiaInfo Holdings, Inc., dated April 24, 2007         8-K         3.1           001-15713         4/25/2007   
  3.6    Certificate of Amendment to Certificate of Incorporation, dated July 1, 2010         8-K         3.1           001-15713         7/6/2010   
  3.7    Amended and Restated By-Laws of the AsiaInfo-Linkage, Inc. (formerly known as AsiaInfo Holdings, Inc.), dated July 1, 2010         8-K         3.1           001-15713         7/1/2010   
  4.1    Specimen Share Certificate representing AsiaInfo Holdings, Inc. shares of common stock         S-1/A         4.1           333-93199         2/3/2000   
10.1    Lease of AsiaInfo’s headquarters at 6 Zhongguancun South Street, Beijing, China, dated December 1, 2008 (English Translation)         10-K         10.1           001-15713         3/5/2009   
10.2*    AsiaInfo Holdings, Inc. 2005 Stock Incentive Plan, as amended through April 8, 2005         8-K         10.1           001-15713         4/8/2005   
10.3*    Master Executive Employment Agreement by and between AsiaInfo Holdings, Inc. and Steve Zhang dated April 1, 2004         10-K         10.7           001-15713         3/16/2005   

 

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                 Incorporated by Reference  

Exhibit No

  

Exhibit Title

   Filed
Herewith
     Form      Exhibit
No.
     File No.      Filing Date  
10.4*    Change-of-Control Severance Agreement by and between AsiaInfo Holdings, Inc. and Steve Zhang dated April 1, 2004         10-K         10.8           001-15713         3/16/2005   
10.5*    Employment Contract between AsiaInfo Technologies (China), Inc. and Steve Zhang, dated December 9, 2009 (English Translation)         10-K         10.31         001-15713         3/16/2010   
10.6*    Confidentiality and Non-Competition Agreement by and between AsiaInfo Technologies (China), Inc. and Steve Zhang, dated December 9, 2009 (English Translation)         10-K         10.32         001-15713         3/16/2010   
10.7*    Executive Employment Agreement by and between AsiaInfo-Linkage, Inc. (formerly known as AsiaInfo Holdings, Inc.) and Steve Zhang, dated July 1, 2010         8-K         10.29         001-15713         7/6/2010   
10.8*    Employment Contract by and between AsiaInfo Technologies (China), Inc. and Steve Zhang, dated July 1, 2010         8-K         10.30         001-15713         7/6/2010   
10.9*    Confidentiality and Non-Competition Agreement by and between AsiaInfo Technologies (China), Inc. and Steve Zhang, dated July 1, 2010         8-K         10.31         001-15713         7/6/2010   
10.10*    Employment Contract by and between AsiaInfo Technologies (China), Inc. and Feng Liu, dated January 1, 2008 (English Translation)         10-K/A         10.41         001-15713         1/30/2009   
10.11*    Confidentiality and Non-Competition Agreement by and between AsiaInfo Technologies (China), Inc. and Feng Liu, dated January 1, 2008 (English Translation)         10-K/A         10.42         001-15713         1/30/2009   
10.12*    Employment Contract between AsiaInfo Technologies (China), Inc and Yadong Jin, dated November 12, 2008 (English Translation)         10-K/A         10.56         001-15713         4/30/2010   
10.13*    Confidentiality and Non-Competition Agreement between AsiaInfo Technologies (China), Inc and Yadong Jin, dated November 12, 2008 (English Translation)         10-K/A         10.57         001-15713         4/30/2010   
10.14*    Employment Contract between AsiaInfo-Linkage Technologies (China), Inc. and Yadong Jin, dated November 12, 2011 (English Translation)      X               

 

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                 Incorporated by Reference  

Exhibit No

  

Exhibit Title

   Filed
Herewith
     Form      Exhibit
No.
     File No.      Filing Date  
10.15*    Confidentiality and Non-Competition Agreement between AsiaInfo-Linkage Technologies (China), Inc. and Yadong Jin, dated November 12, 2011 (English Translation)      X               
10.16   

[Reserved.]

              
10.17   

[Reserved.]

              
10.18   

[Reserved.]

              
10.19   

[Reserved.]

              
10.20*    Offer Letter with Jun Wu dated August 1, 2010 (English Translation)         10-Q         10.9           001-15713         11/09/2010   
10.21*    Employment Contract by and between AsiaInfo-Linkage Technologies (China), Inc. and Jun Wu, dated August 16, 2010 (English Translation)         10-Q         10.10         001-15713         11/09/2010   
10.22*    Confidentiality and Non-Competition Agreement by and between AsiaInfo-Linkage Technologies (China), Inc. and Jun Wu, dated August 16, 2010 (English Translation)         10-Q         10.11         001-15713         11/09/2010   
10.23*    Master Executive Employment Agreement by and between AsiaInfo-Linkage, Inc. and Jun Wu dated August 16, 2010         10-Q         10.12         001-15713         11/09/2010   
10.24*    Change-of-Control Severance Agreement by and between AsiaInfo-Linkage, Inc. and Jun Wu, dated as of August 16, 2010         10-Q         10.13         001-15713         11/09/2010   
10.25*    Consulting Agreement between AsiaInfo Holdings, Inc. and Thomas J. Manning, dated January 1, 2009         10-Q         10.1           001-15713         11/09/2009   
10.26*    Consulting Agreement between AsiaInfo Holdings, Inc. and Thomas J. Manning, dated February 1, 2009         10-Q         10.2           001-15713         11/09/2009   
10.27*    AsiaInfo Holdings, Inc. 2008 Stock Incentive Plan, as amended through April 10, 2008         8-K         10.1           001-15713         4/10/2008   
10.28*    Form of AsiaInfo Holdings, Inc. Performance Stock Unit Award Agreement         8-K         10              001-15713         11/28/2006   
10.29*    Form of AsiaInfo Holdings, Inc. Performance Stock Unit Award Agreement         8-K         10.1           001-15713         3/16/2009   
10.30    Form of Lock-Up Agreement         8-K         10.1           001-15713         12/9/2009   

 

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               Incorporated by Reference  

Exhibit No

  

Exhibit Title

   Filed
Herewith
   Form      Exhibit
No.
     File No.      Filing Date  
10.31    Voting Agreement by and among Linkage Technologies International Holdings Limited and Messrs. Edward Tian and James Ding dated December 4, 2009         8-K         10.2         001-15713         12/9/2009   
10.32    Stockholders’ Agreement, by and among AsiaInfo Holdings, Inc., Mr. Edward Tian, Mr. Libin Sun and Linkage Technologies International Holdings Limited dated December 4, 2009         8-K         10.3         001-15713         12/9/2009   
10.33*    Master Executive Employment Agreement (And Supplementary Agreements) by and between AsiaInfo-Linkage, Inc. and Libin Sun, effective July 1, 2010         8-K         10.3         001-15713         6/7/2010   
10.34*    Master Executive Employment Agreement (And Supplementary Agreements) by and between AsiaInfo-Linkage, Inc. and Xiwei Huang, effective July 1, 2010         8-K         10.4         001-15713         6/7/2010   
10.35*    Master Executive Employment Agreement (And Supplementary Agreements) by and between AsiaInfo-Linkage, Inc. and Guoxiang Liu, effective July 1, 2010         8-K         10.5         001-15713         6/7/2010   
10.36    Registration Rights Agreement, by and between the Company and LT International Limited, dated July 1, 2010         8-K         10.1         001-15713         7/1/2010   
10.37    Escrow Agreement by and between the Company and Linkage Technologies International Holdings Limited, dated July 1, 2010         8-K         10.2         001-15713         7/1/2010   
10.38    First Amendment to Stockholders’ Agreement, dated January 27, 2011         8-K         10.1         001-15713         2/2/2011   
10.39*    AsiaInfo-Linkage, Inc. 2011 Stock Incentive Plan        
 
DEF
14A
  
  
        001-15713         2/28/2011   
10.40*    AsiaInfo-Linkage, Inc. Restricted Stock Unit Award Agreement (For Residents of People’s Republic of China)         S-8         99.1         333-175993         8/3/2011   
10.41*    AsiaInfo-Linkage, Inc. Restricted Stock Unit Award Agreement (For U.S. Participants)         S-8         99.1         333-175993         8/3/2011   
10.42*    AsiaInfo-Linkage, Inc. Restricted Stock Unit Award Agreement (For Residents of Canada and Hong Kong)         S-8         99.1         333-175993         8/3/2011   
10.43*    Nonqualified Stock Option Agreement (For U.S. Participants)         8-K         99.1         001-15713         12/13/2011   

 

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                 Incorporated by Reference  

Exhibit No

  

Exhibit Title

   Filed
Herewith
     Form      Exhibit
No.
     File No.      Filing Date  
10.44*    Stock Option Agreement (For Residents of People’s Republic of China)         8-K         99.2         001-15713         12/13/2011   
10.45    Framework Agreement for Termination of Lenovo Security Control Structure with Messr. Jian Qi and Mr. Kequan Liu         10-K         10.44         001-15713         2/28/2011   
10.46    Engagement letter with Davin A. Mackenzie dated December 29, 2009         10-K         10.45         001-15713         2/28/2011   
10.47    Car Lease Agreement between Linkage-AsiaInfo Technologies (Nanjing), Inc. and Linkage Technology Group Co., Ltd. effective as of January 1, 2011      X               
11.1    Statement regarding computation of per share earnings (included in Note 17 to the consolidated financial statements in this report)      X               
21.1    Subsidiaries of AsiaInfo-Linkage, Inc.      X               
23.1    Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm of Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu CPA Ltd., dated February 28, 2012      X               
24.1    Power of Attorney (included on signature page to this report)      X               
31.1    Certification of Principal Executive Officer required by Rules 13a-14(a) and 15d-14(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as adopted pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, dated February 28, 2012      X               
31.2    Certification of Principal Financial Officer required by Rules 13a-14(a) and 15d-14(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as adopted pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, dated February 28, 2012      X               
32.1    Certification of Chief Executive Officer pursuant to 18 U.S.C. 1350, as adopted pursuant to Section 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, dated February 28, 2012      X               
32.2    Certification of Chief Financial Officer pursuant to 18 U.S.C. 1350, as adopted pursuant to Section 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, dated February 28, 2012      X               

 

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                 Incorporated by Reference

Exhibit No

  

Exhibit Title

   Filed
Herewith
     Form    Exhibit
No.
   File No.    Filing Date
101    Interactive data files pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T: (i) Consolidated Balance Sheets as of December 31, 2011 and 2010; (ii) Consolidated Statements of Operations for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009; (iii) Consolidated Statements of Changes in Equity and Comprehensive Income for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009; (iv) Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the three years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009; and (v) Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009**      X               

 

* Management contract, or compensatory plan or arrangement.
** The interactive data files in Exhibit No. 101 hereto are deemed not filed or part of a registration statement or prospectus for purposes of Sections 11 or 12 of the Securities Act and not filed for purposes of Section 18 of the Exchange Act, and otherwise are not subject to liability under those sections.

 

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SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, AsiaInfo-Linkage, Inc. has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, on February 28, 2012.

 

ASIAINFO-LINKAGE, INC.
By:  

/S/    JUN WU        

Name:   Jun Wu
Title:   Chief Financial Officer (duly authorized officer and principal financial officer)

POWER OF ATTORNEY

KNOW BY ALL MEN BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below constitutes and appoints Jian (James) Ding his true and lawful attorney-in-fact and agent, with full power of substitution and resubstitution, for him and in his name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, to sign any and all Amendments hereto, and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto, and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorney-in-fact and agent full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite and necessary to be done in and about the premises, as fully to all intents and purposes as he might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorney-in-fact and agent, or his substitute or substitutes, may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue thereof.

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, this report has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.

 

Signature

  

Title

 

Date

/S/    JIAN (JAMES) DING        

Jian (James) Ding

   Board Member and Co-Chairman of the Board   February 28, 2012

/S/    LIBIN SUN

Libin Sun

   Board Member and Executive Co-Chairman of the Board   February 28, 2012

/S/    STEVE ZHANG        

Steve Zhang

   Board Member, President and Chief Executive Officer (principal executive officer)   February 28, 2012

/S/    JUN WU        

Jun Wu

   Vice President and Chief Financial Officer (principal financial officer and principal accounting officer)   February 28, 2012

/S/    YUNGANG LU        

Yungang Lu

   Board Member   February 28, 2012

/S/    DAVIN A. MACKENZIE        

Davin A. Mackenzie

   Board Member   February 28, 2012

/S/    SEAN SHAO        

Sean Shao

   Board Member   February 28, 2012

/S/    THOMAS J. MANNING        

Thomas J. Manning

   Board Member   February 28, 2012

/S/    SUNING (EDWARD) TIAN        

Suning (Edward) Tian

   Board Member   February 28, 2012

/S/    XIWEI HUANG        

Xiwei Huang

   Board Member   February 28, 2012

 

71


Table of Contents

INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

Report of independent registered public accounting firm

     F-2   

Consolidated balance sheets as of December 31, 2011 and 2010

     F-3   

Consolidated statements of operations for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009

     F-4   

Consolidated statements of changes in equity and comprehensive income for the years ended December  31, 2011, 2010 and 2009

     F-5   

Consolidated statements of cash flows for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009

     F-7   

Notes to consolidated financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009

     F-8   

 

F-1


Table of Contents

REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

To the Board of Directors and Stockholders of AsiaInfo-Linkage, Inc.

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of AsiaInfo-Linkage, Inc., its subsidiaries, and its variable interest entities (collectively, the “Company”) as of December 31, 2011 and 2010, and the related consolidated statements of operations, changes in equity and comprehensive income, and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2011. These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these financial statements based on our audits.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement. An audit includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. An audit also includes assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

In our opinion, such consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of AsiaInfo-Linkage, Inc., its subsidiaries, and its variable interest entities as of December 31, 2011 and 2010, and the results of their operations and their cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2011, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

We have also audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2011, based on the criteria established in Internal Control—Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission and our report dated February 28, 2012 expressed an unqualified opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.

 

/s/    Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu CPA Ltd.
Beijing, the People’s Republic of China
February 28, 2012

 

F-2


Table of Contents

ASIAINFO-LINKAGE, INC.

CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS

(In thousands, except share and per share amounts)

 

     As of
December 31,
 
     2011     2010  

ASSETS

    

Current Assets:

    

Cash and cash equivalents

   $ 272,438      $ 237,844   

Restricted cash

     21,226        13,943   

Short-term investments—available for sale securities

     27,909        31,682   

Short-term investments—held to maturity securities

     0        10,570   

Accounts receivable (net of allowances of $2,905 and $2,514 as of December 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively)

     281,564        258,338   

Inventories, net

     15,309        9,902   

Other receivables

     4,480        5,934   

Deferred income tax assets—current

     14,294        13,781   

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

     6,453        4,774   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total current assets

     643,673        586,768   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Long-term investments

     4,863        5,646   

Property and equipment, net

     8,778        5,961   

Other acquired intangible assets, net

     163,028        209,626   

Deferred income tax assets—non-current

     1,751        2,066   

Goodwill

     433,525        433,139   

Land use right

     14,543        10,000   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total Assets

   $ 1,270,161      $ 1,253,206   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 
LIABILITIES, REDEEMABLE NONCONTROLLING INTEREST AND EQUITY     

Current Liabilities:

    

Accounts payable

   $ 91,094      $ 89,867   

Accrued expenses

     22,905        25,391   

Deferred revenue

     32,378        27,963   

Accrued employee benefits

     78,972        72,309   

Other payables

     5,582        6,608   

Income taxes payable

     12,602        18,457   

Other taxes payable

     11,864        11,678   

Deferred income tax liabilities—current

     9,091        3,657   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total current liabilities

     264,488        255,930   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Unrecognized tax benefits

     3,344        4,870   

Deferred income tax liabilities—non-current

     24,458        51,836   

Other long term liabilities

     573        274   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total liabilities

     292,863        312,910   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Redeemable noncontrolling interest

     385        1,918   

Equity:

    

AsiaInfo-Linkage, Inc. stockholders’ equity:

    

Common stock (100,000,000 shares authorized; $0.01 par value, 78,596,721 and 77,933,404 shares issued as of December 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively; 72,430,221 and 74,933,404 shares outstanding as of December 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively)

     786        779   

Additional paid-in capital

     847,879        840,328   

Treasury stock, at cost (6,166,500 and 3,000,000 shares as of December 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively)

     (87,746     (27,749

Retained earnings

     146,527        72,076   

Statutory reserve

     21,748        21,640   

Accumulated other comprehensive income

     47,124        30,794   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total AsiaInfo-Linkage, Inc. stockholders’ equity

     976,318        937,868   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Noncontrolling interest

     595        510   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total equity

     976,913        938,378   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total liabilities, redeemable noncontrolling interest and equity

   $ 1,270,161      $ 1,253,206   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

See the accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.

 

F-3


Table of Contents

ASIAINFO-LINKAGE, INC.

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS

(In thousands, except share and per share amounts)

 

     Year Ended December 31,  
     2011     2010     2009  

Revenues:

      

Software products and solutions

   $ 431,355      $ 301,970      $ 179,177   

Service

     31,572        26,596        21,704   

Third party hardware

     18,116        14,817        12,875   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total revenues

     481,043        343,383        213,756   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Cost of revenues:

      

Software products and solutions

     238,609        147,386        78,780   

Service

     17,291        12,341        9,439   

Third party hardware

     17,211        14,074        12,231   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total cost of revenues

     273,111        173,801        100,450   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Gross profit

     207,932        169,582        113,306   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating expenses (income):

      

Sales and marketing

     74,963        50,019        32,868   

General and administrative

     20,425        23,284        16,582   

Research and development

     58,905        36,172        30,415   

Government subsidy

     (2,125     0        (1,342
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total operating expenses

     152,168        109,475        78,523   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Income from operations

     55,764        60,107        34,783   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Other income (expenses), net:

      

Interest income

     5,657        2,851        2,215   

Dividend income

     180        507        178   

Gain from sales of short-term investments

     479        472        1,210   

Impairment loss on short-term investments

     (144     (281     0   

Impairment loss on long-term investments

     (950     0        0   

Other benefit (expenses), net

     4        (353     (36
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total other income, net

     5,226        3,196        3,567   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Income before income tax (benefit) expense and discontinued operations

     60,990        63,303        38,350   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Income tax (benefit) expense

     (11,996     9,560        4,893   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Income from continuing operations

     72,986        53,743        33,457   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Discontinued operations:

      

Income from operations of discontinued operations

     0        1,663        2,341   

Loss on sales of discontinued operations

     0        (84     0   

Income tax expense for discontinued operations

     0        521        368   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Income from discontinued operations, net of taxes

     0        1,058        1,973   

Net income

     72,986        54,801        35,430   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Less: Net loss attributable to the noncontrolling interest

     (1,573     (1,410     (429
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net income attributable to AsiaInfo-Linkage, Inc.

   $ 74,559      $ 56,211      $ 35,859   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Earnings per share:

      

Net income from continuing operations attributable to AsiaInfo-Linkage, Inc. common stockholders:

      

Basic

   $ 1.02      $ 0.90      $ 0.75   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Diluted

   $ 1.01      $ 0.89      $ 0.73   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net income from discontinued operations attributable to AsiaInfo-Linkage, Inc. common stockholders:

      

Basic

   $ 0.00      $ 0.02      $ 0.04   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Diluted

   $ 0.00      $ 0.02      $ 0.04   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net income attributable to AsiaInfo-Linkage, Inc. common stockholders:

      

Basic

   $ 1.02      $ 0.92      $ 0.79   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Diluted

   $ 1.01      $ 0.91      $ 0.77   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Weighted average shares used in computation:

      

Basic

     73,106,037        61,036,299        45,182,831   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Diluted

     73,670,981        61,782,710        46,386,278   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

See the accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.

 

F-4


Table of Contents

ASIAINFO-LINKAGE, INC.

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN EQUITY AND COMPREHENSIVE INCOME

(In thousands, except share amounts)

 

    AsiaInfo-Linkage, Inc. Stockholders                    
    Common Stock     Additional
Paid-in
Capital
    Treasury
Stock
    Retained
Earnings
    Statutory
Reserve
    Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Income
    Noncontrolling
Interest
    Total     Comprehensive
Income
 
    Shares     Amount                  

Balance at January 1, 2009

    43,466,170      $ 464      $ 215,948      $ (27,749   $ (15,566   $ 17,212      $ 18,093      $ 58        $208,460     

Noncontrolling interest acquired in business combinations

    0        0        0        0        0        0        0        1,655        1,655     

Net income

    0        0        0        0        35,859        0        0        (429     35,430      $ 35,430   

Net loss attributable to redeemable noncontrolling interest

    0        0        0        0        0        0        0        78        78     

Statutory reserve

    0        0        0        0        (5,094     5,094        0        0        0     

Other comprehensive income:

                   

Foreign currency translation adjustments

    0        0        0        0        0        0        58        0        58        58   

Transfer to statements of operations of realized (gains) losses on sale of available-for-sale securities, net of tax effects of nil

    0        0        0        0        0        0        (1,210     0        (1,210     (1,210

Net unrealized gains (losses) on available-for-sale securities, net of tax effects of $(388)

    0        0        0        0        0        0        3,271        0        3,271        3,271   
                   

 

 

 

Comprehensive income

                    $ 37,549   
                   

 

 

 

Stock option exercises

    2,259,397        23        18,239        0        0        0        0        0        18,262     

Restricted stock units vesting

    124,300        1        (1     0        0        0        0        0        0     

Performance-based restricted stock units vesting

    1,265,954        13        (13     0        0        0        0        0        0     

Stock-based compensation (restricted stock units)

    0        0        820        0        0        0        0        0        820     

Stock-based compensation (performance-based restricted stock units)

    0        0        9,845        0        0        0        0        0        9,845     
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

Balance at December 31, 2009

    47,115,821      $ 501      $ 244,838      $ (27,749   $ 15,199      $ 22,306      $ 20,212        $1,362      $ 276,669     
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

Net income

    0        0        0        0        56,211        0        0        (1,410     54,801      $ 54,801   

Net loss attributable to redeemable noncontrolling interest

    0        0        0        0        0        0        0        558        558     

Statutory reserve

    0        0        0        0        666        (666     0        0        0     

Other comprehensive income:

                   

Foreign currency translation adjustments

    0        0        0        0        0        0        9,229        0        9,229        9,229   

Transfer to statements of operations of realized (gains) losses on sale of available-for-sale securities, net of tax effects of $35

    0        0        0        0        0        0        (437     0        (437     (437

Net unrealized gains (losses) on available-for-sale securities, net of tax effects of $(525)

    0        0        0        0        0        0        1,509        0        1,509        1,509   

Transfer to statements of operations of other-than-temporary impairment of available-for-sale securities

    0        0        0        0        0        0        281          281        281   
                   

 

 

 

Comprehensive income

                    $ 65,383   
                   

 

 

 

 

F-5


Table of Contents

ASIAINFO-LINKAGE, INC.

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN EQUITY AND COMPREHENSIVE INCOME

(In thousands, except share amounts)

 

    AsiaInfo-Linkage, Inc. Stockholders                    
    Common Stock     Additional
Paid-in
Capital
    Treasury
Stock
    Retained
Earnings
    Statutory
Reserve
    Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Income
    Noncontrolling
Interest
    Total     Comprehensive
Income
 
    Shares     Amount                  

Stock option exercises

    418,649        4        6,031        0        0        0        0        0        6,035     

Restricted stock units vesting

    27,859        0        0        0        0        0        0        0        0     

Performance-based restricted stock units vesting

    538,344        5        (5     0        0        0        0        0        0     

Shares issued in connection with acquisition of Linkage

    26,832,731        269        581,465        0        0        0        0        0        581,734     

Stock-based compensation (restricted stock units)

    0        0        989        0        0        0        0        0        989     

Stock-based compensation (performance-based restricted stock units)

    0        0        7,010        0        0        0        0        0        7,010     
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

Balance at December 31, 2010

    74,933,404      $ 779      $ 840,328      $ (27,749   $ 72,076      $ 21,640      $ 30,794      $ 510      $ 938,378     
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

Noncontrolling interest acquired in business combinations

    0        0        0        0        0        0        0        125        125     

Net income

    0        0        0        0        74,559        0        0        (1,573     72,986      $ 72,986   

Net loss attributable to redeemable noncontrolling interest

    0        0        0        0        0        0        0        1,533        1,533     

Statutory reserve

    0        0        0        0        (108     108        0        0        0     

Other comprehensive income:

                   

Foreign currency translation adjustments

    0        0        0        0        0        0        17,281        0        17,281        17,281   

Transfer to statements of operations of realized (gains) losses on sale of available-for-sale securities, net of tax effects of $123

    0        0        0        0        0        0        (356     0        (356     (356

Net unrealized gains (losses) on available-for-sale securities, net of tax effects of $128

    0        0        0        0        0        0        (739     0        (739     (739

Transfer to statements of operations of other-than-temporary impairment of available-for-sale securities

    0        0        0        0        0        0        144        0        144        144   
                   

 

 

 

Comprehensive income