20-F 1 d20f.htm ANNUAL REPORT Annual Report
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As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on June 24, 2011

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM 20-F

 

 

(Mark One)

 

¨ REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

 

x ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended: March 31, 2011

OR

 

¨ TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

 

¨ SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

Commission file number: 1-14948

 

 

TOYOTA JIDOSHA KABUSHIKI KAISHA

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)

TOYOTA MOTOR CORPORATION

(Translation of Registrant’s Name into English)

Japan

(Jurisdiction of Incorporation or Organization)

 

 

1 Toyota-cho, Toyota City

Aichi Prefecture 471-8571

Japan

+81 565 28-2121

(Address of Principal Executive Offices)

Kenichiro Makino

Telephone number: +81 565 28-2121

Facsimile number: +81 565 23-5800

Address: 1 Toyota-cho, Toyota City, Aichi Prefecture 471-8571, Japan

(Name, telephone, e-mail and/or facsimile number and address of registrant’s contact person)

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of Each Class:

 

Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered:

American Depositary Shares*   The New York Stock Exchange
Common Stock**  

 

* American Depositary Receipts evidence American Depositary Shares, each American Depositary Share representing two shares of the registrant’s Common Stock.
** No par value. Not for trading, but only in connection with the registration of American Depositary Shares, pursuant to the requirements of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

None

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act:

None

Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report: 3,135,698,687 Shares of Common Stock (including 85,866,758 Shares of Common Stock in the form of American Depositary Shares) as of March 31, 2011

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act: Yes  x    No  ¨

If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934: Yes  ¨    No  x

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days: Yes  x    No  ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files): Yes  x    No  ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, or a non-accelerated filer. See definition of “accelerated filer and large accelerated filer” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

Large accelerated filer  x            Accelerated filer  ¨            Non-accelerated filer  ¨

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:

U.S. GAAP  x            International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board  ¨              Other  ¨

If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow: Item 17  ¨    Item  18    ¨

If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act): Yes  ¨    No  x

 

 

 


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

          Page  

ITEM 1.

   IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS      1   

ITEM 2.

   OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE      1   

ITEM 3.

   KEY INFORMATION      1   

 3.A

   SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA      1   

 3.B

   CAPITALIZATION AND INDEBTEDNESS      4   

 3.C

   REASONS FOR THE OFFER AND USE OF PROCEEDS      4   

 3.D

   RISK FACTORS      4   

ITEM 4.

   INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY      9   

 4.A

   HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE COMPANY      9   

 4.B

   BUSINESS OVERVIEW      9   

 4.C

   ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE      50   

 4.D

   PROPERTY, PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT      50   

ITEM 4A.

   UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS      52   

ITEM 5.

   OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS      52   

 5.A

   OPERATING RESULTS      52   

 5.B

   LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES      87   

 5.C

   RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT, PATENTS AND LICENSES      90   

 5.D

   TREND INFORMATION      93   

 5.E

   OFF-BALANCE SHEET ARRANGEMENTS      93   

 5.F

   TABULAR DISCLOSURE OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS      94   

 5.G

   SAFE HARBOR      95   

ITEM 6.

   DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYEES      95   

 6.A

   DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT      95   

 6.B

   COMPENSATION      100   

 6.C

   BOARD PRACTICES      101   

 6.D

   EMPLOYEES      102   

 6.E

   SHARE OWNERSHIP      102   

ITEM 7.

   MAJOR SHAREHOLDERS AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS      104   

 7.A

   MAJOR SHAREHOLDERS      104   

 7.B

   RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS      104   

 7.C

   INTERESTS OF EXPERTS AND COUNSEL      105   

ITEM 8.

   FINANCIAL INFORMATION      105   

 8.A

   CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS AND OTHER FINANCIAL INFORMATION      105   

 8.B

   SIGNIFICANT CHANGES      105   

ITEM 9.

   THE OFFER AND LISTING      106   

 9.A

   LISTING DETAILS      106   

 9.B

   PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION      106   

 9.C

   MARKETS      106   

 9.D

   SELLING SHAREHOLDERS      107   

 9.E

   DILUTION      107   

 9.F

   EXPENSES OF THE ISSUE      107   

ITEM 10.

   ADDITIONAL INFORMATION      107   

 10.A

   SHARE CAPITAL      107   

 10.B

   MEMORANDUM AND ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION      107   

 10.C

   MATERIAL CONTRACTS      113   


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 10.D

   EXCHANGE CONTROLS      113   

 10.E

   TAXATION      114   

 10.F

   DIVIDENDS AND PAYING AGENTS      120   

 10.G

   STATEMENT BY EXPERTS      120   

 10.H

   DOCUMENTS ON DISPLAY      120   

 10.I

   SUBSIDIARY INFORMATION      120   

ITEM 11.

   QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK      121   

ITEM 12.

   DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES OTHER THAN EQUITY SECURITIES      122   

 12.A

   DEBT SECURITIES      122   

 12.B

   WARRANTS AND RIGHTS      122   

 12.C

   OTHER SECURITIES      122   

 12.D

   AMERICAN DEPOSITARY SHARES      123   

ITEM 13.

   DEFAULTS, DIVIDEND ARREARAGES AND DELINQUENCIES      124   

ITEM 14.

   MATERIAL MODIFICATIONS TO THE RIGHTS OF SECURITY HOLDERS AND USE OF PROCEEDS      124   

ITEM 15.

   CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES      124   

ITEM 16.

   [RESERVED]      125   

ITEM 16A.

   AUDIT COMMITTEE FINANCIAL EXPERT      125   

ITEM 16B.

   CODE OF ETHICS      125   

ITEM 16C.

   PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES      125   

ITEM 16D.

   EXEMPTIONS FROM THE LISTING STANDARDS FOR AUDIT COMMITTEES      127   

ITEM 16E.

   PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES BY THE ISSUER AND AFFILIATED PURCHASERS      127   

ITEM 16F.

   CHANGE IN REGISTRANT’S CERTIFYING ACCOUNTANT      128   

ITEM 16G.

   CORPORATE GOVERNANCE      128   

ITEM 17.

   FINANCIAL STATEMENTS      130   

ITEM 18.

   FINANCIAL STATEMENTS      130   

ITEM 19.

   EXHIBITS      131   


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As used in this annual report, the term “fiscal” preceding a year means the twelve-month period ended March 31 of the year referred to. All other references to years refer to the applicable calendar year, unless the context otherwise requires. As used herein, the term “Toyota” refers to Toyota Motor Corporation and its consolidated subsidiaries as a group, unless the context otherwise indicates.

In parts of this annual report, amounts reported in Japanese yen have been translated into U.S. dollars for the convenience of readers. Unless otherwise noted, the rate used for this translation was ¥83.15 = $1.00. This was the approximate exchange rate in Japan on March 31, 2011.

CAUTIONARY STATEMENT CONCERNING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

Written forward-looking statements may appear in documents filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, including this annual report, documents incorporated by reference, reports to shareholders and other communications.

The U.S. Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 provides a “safe harbor” for forward-looking information to encourage companies to provide prospective information about themselves without fear of litigation so long as the information is identified as forward looking and is accompanied by meaningful cautionary statements identifying important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those projected in the information. Toyota relies on this safe harbor in making forward-looking statements.

Forward-looking statements appear in a number of places in this annual report and include statements regarding Toyota’s current intent, belief, targets or expectations or those of its management. In many, but not all cases, words such as “aim”, “anticipate”, “believe”, “estimate”, “expect”, “hope”, “intend”, “may”, “plan”, “predict”, “probability”, “risk”, “should”, “will”, “would”, and similar expressions, are used as they relate to Toyota or its management, to identify forward-looking statements. These statements reflect Toyota’s current views with respect to future events and are subject to risks, uncertainties and assumptions. Should one or more of these risks or uncertainties materialize or should underlying assumptions prove incorrect, actual results may vary materially from those which are anticipated, aimed at, believed, estimated, expected, intended or planned.

Forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and involve risks and uncertainties. Actual results may differ from those in forward-looking statements as a result of various factors. Important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from estimates or forecasts contained in the forward-looking statements are identified in “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this annual report, and include, among others:

(i) various effects of the Great East Japan Earthquake that occurred on March 11, 2011 and ensuing events;

(ii) changes in economic conditions and market demand affecting, and the competitive environment in, the automotive markets in Japan, North America, Europe and other markets in which Toyota operates;

(iii) fluctuations in currency exchange rates, particularly with respect to the value of the Japanese yen, the U.S. dollar, the euro, the Australian dollar, the Canadian dollar and the British pound;

(iv) changes in funding environment in financial markets;

(v) Toyota’s ability to realize production efficiencies and to implement capital expenditures at the levels and times planned by management;

(vi) changes in the laws, regulations and government policies in the markets in which Toyota operates that affect its automotive operations, particularly laws, regulations and policies relating to vehicle safety including recalls, trade, environmental protection, vehicle emissions and vehicle fuel economy, as well as changes in laws, regulations and government policies that affect Toyota’s other operations, including the outcome of current and future litigation and other legal proceedings;


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(vii) political instability in the markets in which Toyota operates;

(viii) Toyota’s ability to timely develop and achieve market acceptance of new products;

(ix) any impact on Toyota’s ability to maintain and develop its brand image as a result of Toyota’s inability to deliver safe and high-quality products or its failure to promptly implement safety measures such as recalls when necessary;

(x) Toyota’s reliance on various suppliers for the provision of supplies; and

(xi) natural disasters, fuel shortages, interruptions in social infrastructure such as electricity or transportation, labor strikes, work stoppages or other interruptions to, or difficulties in, the employment of labor in the major markets where Toyota purchases materials, components and supplies for the production of its products or where its products are produced, distributed or sold.


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PART I

ITEM 1. IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS

Not applicable.

ITEM 2. OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE

Not applicable.

ITEM 3. KEY INFORMATION

3.A SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

You should read the U.S. GAAP selected consolidated financial information presented below together with “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” and Toyota’s consolidated financial statements contained in this annual report.

U.S. GAAP Selected Financial Data

The following selected financial data have been derived from Toyota’s consolidated financial statements. These financial statements were prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP.

 

    Year Ended March 31,  
    2007     2008     2009     2010     2011     2011  
    (in millions, except share and per share data)  

Consolidated Statement of Income Data:

           

Automotive:

           

Revenues

  ¥ 21,928,006      ¥ 24,177,306      ¥ 18,564,723      ¥ 17,197,428      ¥ 17,337,320      $ 208,507   

Operating income (loss)

    2,038,828        2,171,905        (394,876     (86,370     85,973        1,034   

Financial Services:

           

Revenues

    1,300,548        1,498,354        1,377,548        1,245,407        1,192,205        14,338   

Operating income (loss)

    158,495        86,494        (71,947     246,927        358,280        4,309   

All Other:

           

Revenues

    1,323,731        1,346,955        1,184,947        947,615        972,252        11,693   

Operating income (loss)

    39,679        33,080        9,913        (8,860     35,242        424   

Elimination of intersegment:

           

Revenues

    (604,194     (733,375     (597,648     (439,477     (508,089     (6,111

Operating income (loss)

    1,681        (21,104     (4,101     (4,181     (11,216     (135

Total Company:

           

Revenues

    23,948,091        26,289,240        20,529,570        18,950,973        18,993,668        228,427   

Operating income (loss)

    2,238,683        2,270,375        (461,011     147,516        468,279        5,632   

Income (loss) before income taxes and equity in earnings of affiliated companies

    2,382,516        2,437,222        (560,381     291,468        563,290        6,774   

Net income (loss) attributable to Toyota Motor Corporation

    1,644,032        1,717,879        (436,937     209,456        408,183        4,909   

Net income (loss) attributable to Toyota Motor Corporation per share:

           

Basic

    512.09        540.65        (139.13     66.79        130.17        1.57   

Diluted

    511.80        540.44        (139.13     66.79        130.16        1.57   

Shares used in computing net income (loss) attributable to Toyota Motor Corporation per share, basic (in thousands)

    3,210,423        3,177,445        3,140,417        3,135,986        3,135,881        —     

Shares used in computing net income (loss) attributable to Toyota Motor Corporation per share, diluted (in thousands)

    3,212,235        3,178,662        3,140,417        3,135,998        3,135,915        —     

 

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     Year Ended March 31,  
     2007      2008      2009      2010      2011      2011  
     (in millions, except per share and numbers of vehicles sold data)  

Consolidated Balance Sheet Data (end of period):

                 

Total Assets:

   ¥ 32,574,779       ¥ 32,458,320       ¥ 29,062,037       ¥ 30,349,287       ¥ 29,818,166       $ 358,607   

Short-term debt, including current portion of long-term debt

     5,865,507         6,228,152         6,317,184         5,497,997         5,951,836         71,579   

Long-term debt, less current portion

     6,263,585         5,981,931         6,301,469         7,015,409         6,449,220         77,561   

Toyota Motor Corporation shareholders’ equity

     11,836,092         11,869,527         10,061,207         10,359,723         10,332,371         124,262   

Common stock

     397,050         397,050         397,050         397,050         397,050         4,775   

Other Data:

                 

Dividends per share

   ¥ 120.0       ¥ 140.0       ¥ 100.0       ¥ 45.0       ¥ 50.0       $ 0.60   

Number of vehicles sold

                 

Japan

     2,273,152         2,188,389         1,944,823         2,162,418         1,913,117         —     

North America

     2,942,661         2,958,314         2,212,254         2,097,374         2,031,249         —     

Europe

     1,223,628         1,283,793         1,061,954         858,390         795,534         —     

Asia

     789,637         956,509         904,892         979,651         1,255,016         —     

Other*

     1,295,581         1,526,934         1,443,433         1,139,329         1,313,123         —     
                                               

Worldwide total

     8,524,659         8,913,939         7,567,356         7,237,162         7,308,039         —     
                                               

 

* “Other” consists of Central and South America, Oceania, Africa and the Middle East, etc.

Dividend Information

Toyota normally pays dividends twice per year, including an interim dividend and a year-end dividend. Although Toyota’s articles of incorporation provide that retained earnings can be distributed as dividends pursuant to the resolution of its board of directors, Toyota’s board of directors recommends the payment of year-end dividends to shareholders and pledgees of record as of March 31 in each year. Year-end dividends are usually paid to the shareholders immediately following approval of the dividends at the general shareholders’ meeting, normally around the end of June of each year. In addition to these year-end dividends, Toyota may pay interim dividends in the form of cash distributions from its distributable surplus to shareholders and pledgees of record as of September 30 in each year by resolution of its board of directors. Toyota normally pays the interim dividend in late November.

In addition, under the Corporation Act of Japan (the “Corporation Act”), dividends may be paid to shareholders and pledgees of record as of any record date, other than those specified above, as set forth in Toyota’s articles of incorporation or as determined by its board of directors from time to time. Toyota’s articles of incorporation also permit Toyota to pay dividends, in addition to interim dividends mentioned in the preceding paragraph, by a resolution of its board of directors. Toyota has incorporated such a provision into its articles of incorporation in order to enable a flexible capital policy. Under the Corporation Act, dividends may be distributed in cash or (except in the case of interim dividends mentioned in the preceding paragraph) in kind, subject to limitations on distributable surplus and to certain other conditions.

 

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The following table sets forth the dividends declared by Toyota for each of the periods shown. The periods shown are the six months ended on that date. The U.S. dollar equivalents for the cash dividends shown are based on the noon buying rate for Japanese yen on the last date of each period set forth below.

 

       Cash Dividends per Share    

Period Ended

   Yen      Dollars  

September 30, 2006

     50.0         0.42   

March 31, 2007

     70.0         0.59   

September 30, 2007

     65.0         0.65   

March 31, 2008

     75.0         0.75   

September 30, 2008

     65.0         0.61   

March 31, 2009

     35.0         0.35   

September 30, 2009

     20.0         0.22   

March 31, 2010

     25.0         0.26   

September 30, 2010

     20.0         0.24   

March 31, 2011

     30.0         0.36   

The payment and the amount of any future dividends are dependent on the amount of Toyota’s future earnings, its financial condition and other factors, including statutory restrictions on the payment of dividends.

Toyota deems the benefit of its shareholders as one of its priority management policies, and it is working to improve corporate structure towards the realization of sustainable growth in order to enhance its corporate value. Toyota will strive to continue to pay stable dividends while giving due consideration to factors such as business results for each term, investment plans and its cash reserves. In order to successfully compete in this highly competitive industry, Toyota plans to utilize its internal funds for the early commercialization of next-generation environment and safety technologies, giving priority to customer safety and reliability. Considering these factors, an annual dividend of 50 yen per share was paid for fiscal 2011, consisting of a year-end dividend of 30 yen per share and an interim dividend of 20 yen per share.

Toyota has decided, for the time being, to refrain from repurchasing its own shares in order to prioritize retention of cash reserves given the uncertain future of global financial conditions. Since Toyota began repurchasing shares in fiscal 1997, the cumulative number of shares repurchased as of the end of March 2011 was 736.98 million shares at a total cost of ¥2,868.8 billion. The following table shows the approximate number of shares repurchased and the approximate cost of repurchase of those shares for each of the periods indicated:

 

     Year Ended March 31,  
     2007      2008      2009      2010      2011  

Number of shares repurchased

     45 million         49 million         15 million         0         0   

Amount paid

   ¥   300 billion       ¥   317 billion       ¥ 73 billion         0         0   

Toyota’s future share repurchases will be influenced by factors such as Toyota’s future earnings and financial position. For a further discussion of Toyota’s share repurchases, please see “Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers”.

Exchange Rates

In parts of this annual report, yen amounts have been translated into U.S. dollars for the convenience of investors. Unless otherwise noted, the rate used for the translations was ¥83.15 = $1.00. This was the approximate exchange rate in Japan on March 31, 2011.

 

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The following table sets forth information regarding the noon buying rates for Japanese yen in New York City as announced for customs purposes by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York expressed in Japanese yen per $1.00 during the periods shown. At the end of May 2011, the noon buying rate was ¥81.29 = $1.00. The average exchange rate for the periods shown is the average of the month-end rates during the period.

 

Fiscal Year Ended or Ending March 31,

   At End of Period      Average
(of month-end rates)
     High      Low  
            (¥ per $1.00)                

2007

     117.56         116.55         121.81         110.07   

2008

     99.85         113.61         124.09         96.88   

2009

     99.15         100.85         110.48         87.80   

2010

     93.40         92.49         100.71         86.12   

2011

     82.76         85.00         94.68         78.74   

2012 (through May 31, 2011)

     81.29         81.30         85.26         80.12   

 

Month Ended

   High      Low  
     (¥ per $1.00)  

December 31, 2010

     84.23         81.67   

January 31, 2011

     83.36         81.56   

February 28, 2011

     83.79         81.48   

March 31, 2011

     82.98         78.74   

April 30, 2011

     85.26         81.31   

May 31, 2011

     82.12         80.12   

Fluctuations in the exchange rate between the Japanese yen and the U.S. dollar will affect the dollar equivalent of the price of the shares on the Japanese stock exchanges. As a result, exchange rate fluctuations are likely to affect the market price of the American Depositary Shares (“ADSs”) on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”). Toyota will declare any cash dividends on shares in Japanese yen. Exchange rate fluctuations will also affect the U.S. dollar amounts received on conversion of cash dividends.

Exchange rate fluctuations can also materially affect Toyota’s reported operating results. In particular, a strengthening of the Japanese yen against the U.S. dollar can have a material adverse effect on Toyota’s reported operating results. For a further discussion of the effects of currency rate fluctuations on Toyota’s operating results, please see “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — Operating Results — Overview — Currency Fluctuations”.

3.B CAPITALIZATION AND INDEBTEDNESS

Not applicable.

3.C REASONS FOR THE OFFER AND USE OF PROCEEDS

Not applicable.

3.D RISK FACTORS

Risks relating to the Great East Japan Earthquake

Toyota may be adversely affected by the continuing effects of the Great East Japan Earthquake and ensuing events.

The Japanese economy as a whole suffered significant damage as a result of the Great East Japan Earthquake that occurred on March 11, 2011 and the ensuing tsunami and accidents at nuclear power plants in Fukushima Prefecture (collectively, the “Great East Japan Earthquake”).

 

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After the earthquake’s occurrence on March 11, 2011, Toyota temporarily suspended operations at all of its domestic factories due to damage to social infrastructure including energy supply, transportation systems, gas, water and communication systems caused by the earthquake, shortages of parts from suppliers, and damage sustained by some subsidiaries of Toyota in regions adjacent to the disaster zone. On March 18, 2011, Toyota began resuming production in stages. As of April 18, 2011, Toyota had resumed operations at all domestic factories. As of the date of this annual report, production levels at both domestic and overseas factories vary by region and vehicle type and, primarily due to shortages of supplies from external suppliers, production is not yet normalized at some factories. Toyota anticipates that its factories will reach normal operational capacity between November and December 2011, but there is no assurance that production will normalize by that time. Also, in May 2011, operations at the nuclear power plant in Shizuoka Prefecture that supplied a portion of the electricity to the area where Toyota’s global headquarters and main plants are located were suspended in light of the damage sustained by the Fukushima nuclear power plant. There is concern regarding potential shortages of electricity during the demanding summer months, and such a shortage could negatively impact Toyota’s production. The Great East Japan Earthquake has negatively impacted Toyota’s operations and the duration and magnitude of the impact ensuing from it remain unclear. Depending on developments, the impact on Toyota’s results of operations and financial condition may be significant.

The Japanese economy has been negatively impacted by damage caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake, costs associated to rebuild the affected areas and interrupted infrastructure, including energy shortages. The duration and magnitude of the total impact on the Japanese economy are unclear. In addition, the nuclear power plants in Fukushima Prefecture are not yet fully under control and the resolution of the situation at these plants, including timing, remains unclear. Continuing radiation leakage and further aggravation of the nuclear power plants are possible. These various issues in connection with the Great East Japan Earthquake may cause significant and unforeseeable adverse effects on the Japanese economy, Toyota’s operations, and demand for Toyota’s products.

Industry and Business Risks

The worldwide automotive market is highly competitive.

The worldwide automotive market is highly competitive. Toyota faces intense competition from automotive manufacturers in the markets in which it operates. Although the global economy is gradually recovering, competition in the automotive industry has further intensified amidst difficult overall market conditions. In addition, competition is likely to further intensify in light of further continuing globalization in the worldwide automotive industry, possibly resulting in further industry reorganization. Factors affecting competition include product quality and features, safety, reliability, fuel economy, the amount of time required for innovation and development, pricing, customer service and financing terms. Increased competition may lead to lower vehicle unit sales, which may result in a further downward price pressure and adversely affect Toyota’s financial condition and results of operations. Toyota’s ability to adequately respond to the recent rapid changes in the automotive market and to maintain its competitiveness will be fundamental to its future success in existing and new markets and to maintain its market share. There can be no assurances that Toyota will be able to compete successfully in the future.

The worldwide automotive industry is highly volatile.

Each of the markets in which Toyota competes has been subject to considerable volatility in demand. Demand for vehicles depends to a large extent on social, political and economic conditions in a given market and the introduction of new vehicles and technologies. As Toyota’s revenues are derived from sales in markets worldwide, economic conditions in such markets are particularly important to Toyota. During fiscal 2010, although government efforts to stimulate demand in Japan, North America and Europe, which are Toyota’s main markets, resulted in a trend towards economic recovery, market conditions in those areas remained difficult, and Toyota was adversely affected by changes in the market structure with further shifts in consumer demand to compact and low-priced vehicles. Such weakness in demand for automobiles and changes in market structure is

 

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continuing, and it is unclear how this situation will transition in the future. Toyota’s financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected if the weakness in demand for automobiles and changes in market structure continue or progress further. Demand may also be affected by factors directly impacting vehicle price or the cost of purchasing and operating vehicles such as sales and financing incentives, prices of raw materials and parts and components, cost of fuel and governmental regulations (including tariffs, import regulation and other taxes). Volatility in demand may lead to lower vehicle unit sales, which may result in a further downward price pressure and adversely affect Toyota’s financial condition and results of operations.

Toyota’s future success depends on its ability to offer new innovative competitively priced products that meet customer demand on a timely basis.

Meeting customer demand by introducing attractive new vehicles and reducing the amount of time required for product development are critical to automotive manufacturers. In particular, it is critical to meet customer demand with respect to quality, safety and reliability. The timely introduction of new vehicle models, at competitive prices, meeting rapidly changing customer preferences and demand is more fundamental to Toyota’s success than ever, as the automotive market is rapidly transforming in light of the changing global economy. There is no assurance, however, that Toyota will adequately and appropriately respond to changing customer preferences and demand with respect to quality, safety, reliability, styling and other features in a timely manner. Even if Toyota succeeds in perceiving customer preferences and demand, there is no assurance that Toyota will be capable of developing and manufacturing new, price competitive products in a timely manner with its available technology, intellectual property, sources of raw materials and parts and components, and production capacity, including cost reduction capacity. Further, there is no assurance that Toyota will be able to implement capital expenditures at the level and times planned by management. Toyota’s inability to develop and offer products that meet customers’ preferences and demand with respect to quality, safety, reliability, styling and other features in a timely manner could result in a lower market share and reduced sales volumes and margins, and may adversely affect Toyota’s financial condition and results of operations.

Toyota’s ability to market and distribute effectively is an integral part of Toyota’s successful sales.

Toyota’s success in the sale of vehicles depends on its ability to market and distribute effectively based on distribution networks and sales techniques tailored to the needs of its customers. There is no assurance that Toyota will be able to develop sales techniques and distribution networks that effectively adapt to changing customer preferences or changes in the regulatory environment in the major markets in which it operates. Toyota’s inability to maintain well-developed sales techniques and distribution networks may result in decreased sales and market share and may adversely affect its financial condition and results of operations.

Toyota’s success is significantly impacted by its ability to maintain and develop its brand image.

In the highly competitive automotive industry, it is critical to maintain and develop a brand image. In order to maintain and develop a brand image, it is necessary to further increase customers’ confidence by providing safe, high-quality products that meet customer preferences and demand. If Toyota is unable to effectively maintain and develop its brand image as a result of its inability to provide safe, high-quality products or as result of the failure to promptly implement safety measures such as recalls when necessary, vehicle unit sales and/or sale prices may decrease, and as a result revenues and profits may not increase as expected or may decrease, adversely affecting its financial condition and results of operations.

Toyota relies on suppliers for the provision of certain supplies including parts, components and raw materials.

Toyota purchases supplies including parts, components and raw materials from a number of external suppliers located around the world. For some supplies, Toyota relies on a single supplier or a limited number of suppliers, whose replacement with another supplier may be difficult. Inability to obtain supplies from a single or limited source supplier may result in difficulty obtaining supplies and may restrict Toyota’s ability to produce

 

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vehicles. Furthermore, even if Toyota were to rely on a large number of suppliers, first-tier suppliers with whom Toyota directly transacts may in turn rely on a single second-tier supplier or limited second-tier suppliers. Toyota’s ability to continue to obtain supplies from its suppliers in a timely and cost-effective manner is subject to a number of factors, some of which are not within Toyota’s control. These factors include the ability of Toyota’s suppliers to provide a continued source of supply, and Toyota’s ability to effectively compete and obtain competitive prices from suppliers. A loss of any single or limited source supplier or inability to obtain supplies from suppliers in a timely and cost-effective manner could lead to increased costs or delays or suspensions in Toyota’s production and deliveries, which could have an adverse effect on Toyota’s financial conditions and results of operations.

The worldwide financial services industry is highly competitive.

The worldwide financial services industry is highly competitive. Increased competition in automobile financing may lead to decreased margins. A decline in Toyota’s vehicle unit sales, an increase in residual value risk due to lower used vehicle price, an increase in the ratio of credit losses and increased funding costs are factors which may impact Toyota’s financial services operations. If Toyota is unable to adequately respond to the changes and competition in automobile financing, Toyota’s financial services operations may adversely affect its financial condition and results of operations.

Financial Market and Economic Risks

Toyota’s operations are subject to currency and interest rate fluctuations.

Toyota is sensitive to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates and is principally exposed to fluctuations in the value of the Japanese yen, the U.S. dollar and the euro and, to a lesser extent, the Australian dollar, the Canadian dollar and the British pound. Toyota’s consolidated financial statements, which are presented in Japanese yen, are affected by foreign currency exchange fluctuations through both translation risk and transaction risk. Changes in foreign currency exchange rates may affect Toyota’s pricing of products sold and materials purchased in foreign currencies. In particular, strengthening of the Japanese yen against the U.S. dollar can have an adverse effect on Toyota’s operating results. The Japanese yen has been appreciating against major currencies including the U.S. dollar in the past year. If the Japanese yen continues to appreciate against major currencies, including the U.S. dollar, Toyota’s financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.

Toyota believes that its use of certain derivative financial instruments including interest rate swaps and increased localized production of its products have reduced, but not eliminated, the effects of interest rate and foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations. Nonetheless, a negative impact resulting from fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates and changes in interest rates may adversely affect Toyota’s financial condition and results of operations. For a further discussion of currency and interest rate fluctuations and the use of derivative financial instruments, see “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — Operating Results — Overview — Currency Fluctuations”, “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk”, and notes 20 and 21 to Toyota’s consolidated financial statements.

High prices of raw materials and strong pressure on Toyota’s suppliers could negatively impact Toyota’s profitability.

Increases in prices for raw materials that Toyota and Toyota’s suppliers use in manufacturing their products or parts and components such as steel, precious metals, non-ferrous alloys including aluminum, and plastic parts, may lead to higher production costs for parts and components. This could, in turn, negatively impact Toyota’s future profitability because Toyota may not be able to pass all those costs on to its customers or require its suppliers to absorb such costs.

 

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The downturn in the financial markets could adversely affect Toyota’s ability to raise capital.

Should the world economy suddenly deteriorate, a number of financial institutions and investors will face difficulties in providing capital to the financial markets at levels corresponding to their own financial capacity, and, as a result, there is a risk that companies may not be able to raise capital under terms that they would expect to receive with their creditworthiness. If Toyota is unable to raise the necessary capital under appropriate conditions on a timely basis, Toyota’s financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.

Political, Regulatory, Legal and Other Risks

The automotive industry is subject to various governmental regulations.

The worldwide automotive industry is subject to various laws and governmental regulations including those related to vehicle safety and environmental matters such as emission levels, fuel economy, noise and pollution. In particular, automotive manufacturers such as Toyota are required to implement safety measures such as recalls for vehicles that do not or may not comply with the safety standards of laws and governmental regulations. In addition, Toyota may, in order to reassure its customers of the safety of Toyota’s vehicles, decide to voluntarily implement recalls or other safety measures even if the vehicle complies with the safety standards of relevant laws and governmental regulations. Many governments also impose tariffs and other trade barriers, taxes and levies, or enact price or exchange controls. Toyota has incurred, and expects to incur in the future, significant costs in complying with these regulations. If Toyota launches products that result in safety measures such as recalls, Toyota may incur various costs including significant costs for free repairs. Furthermore, new legislation or changes in existing legislation may also subject Toyota to additional expenses in the future. If Toyota incurs significant costs related to implementing safety measures or meeting laws and governmental regulations, Toyota’s financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.

Toyota may become subject to various legal proceedings.

As an automotive manufacturer, Toyota may become subject to legal proceedings in respect of various issues, including product liability and infringement of intellectual property. Toyota may also be subject to legal proceedings brought by its shareholders and governmental proceedings and investigations. Toyota is in fact currently subject to a number of pending legal proceedings and government investigations. A negative outcome in one or more of these pending legal proceedings could adversely affect Toyota’s financial condition and results of operations. For a further discussion of governmental regulations, see “Information on the Company — Business Overview — Governmental Regulation, Environmental and Safety Standards” and for legal proceedings, please see “Information on the Company — Business Overview — Legal Proceedings”.

Toyota may be adversely affected by natural calamities, political and economic instability, fuel shortages or interruptions in social infrastructure, wars, terrorism and labor strikes.

Toyota is subject to various risks associated with conducting business worldwide. These risks include natural calamities; political and economic instability; fuel shortages; interruption in social infrastructure including energy supply, transportation systems, gas, water, or communication systems resulting from natural hazards or technological hazards; wars; terrorism; labor strikes and work stoppages. Should the major markets in which Toyota purchases materials, parts and components and supplies for the manufacture of Toyota products or in which Toyota’s products are produced, distributed or sold be affected by any of these events, it may result in disruptions and delays in the operations of Toyota’s business. Should significant or prolonged disruptions or delays related to Toyota’s business operations occur, it may adversely affect Toyota’s financial condition and results of operations.

 

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ITEM 4. INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY

4.A HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE COMPANY

Toyota Motor Corporation is a limited liability, joint-stock company incorporated under the Commercial Code of Japan and continues to exist under the Corporation Act. Toyota commenced operations in 1933 as the automobile division of Toyota Industries Corporation (formerly, Toyoda Automatic Loom Works, Ltd.). Toyota became a separate company on August 28, 1937. In 1982, the Toyota Motor Company and Toyota Motor Sales merged into one company, the Toyota Motor Corporation of today. As of March 31, 2011, Toyota operated through 511 consolidated subsidiaries and 217 affiliated companies, of which 56 companies were accounted for through the equity method.

See “— Business Overview — Capital Expenditures and Divestitures” for a description of Toyota’s principal capital expenditures and divestitures between April 1, 2008 and March 31, 2011 and information concerning Toyota’s principal capital expenditures and divestitures currently in progress.

Toyota’s principal executive offices are located at 1 Toyota-cho, Toyota City, Aichi Prefecture 471-8571, Japan. Toyota’s telephone number in Japan is +81-565-28-2121.

4.B BUSINESS OVERVIEW

Toyota primarily conducts business in the automotive industry. Toyota also conducts business in finance and other industries. Toyota sold 7,308 thousand vehicles in fiscal 2011 on a consolidated basis. Toyota had net revenues of ¥18,993.6 billion and net income attributable to Toyota Motor Corporation of ¥408.1 billion in fiscal 2011.

Toyota’s business segments are automotive operations, financial services operations and all other operations. The following table sets forth Toyota’s sales to external customers in each of its business segments for each of the past three fiscal years.

 

     Yen in millions  
     Year Ended March 31,  
     2009      2010      2011  

Automotive

   ¥ 18,550,501       ¥ 17,187,308       ¥ 17,322,753   

Financial Services

     1,355,850         1,226,244         1,173,168   

All Other

     623,219         537,421         497,767   

Toyota’s automotive operations include the design, manufacture, assembly and sale of passenger cars, minivans and commercial vehicles such as trucks and related parts and accessories. Toyota’s financial services business consists primarily of providing financing to dealers and their customers for the purchase or lease of Toyota vehicles. Toyota’s financial services also provide retail leasing through the purchase of lease contracts originated by Toyota dealers. Related to Toyota’s automotive operations is its development of intelligent transport systems (“ITS”). Toyota’s all other operations business segment includes the design and manufacture of prefabricated housing, information technology related businesses including an e-commerce marketplace called GAZOO.com, and sales promotions for KDDI communication related products (predominantly the au brand).

 

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Toyota sells its vehicles in approximately 170 countries and regions. Toyota’s primary markets for its automobiles are Japan, North America, Europe and Asia. The following table sets forth Toyota’s sales to external customers in each of its geographical markets for each of the past three fiscal years.

 

     Yen in millions  
     Year Ended March 31,  
     2009      2010      2011  

Japan

   ¥ 7,471,916       ¥ 7,314,813       ¥ 6,966,929   

North America

     6,097,676         5,583,228         5,327,809   

Europe

     2,889,753         2,082,671         1,920,416   

Asia

     2,450,412         2,431,648         3,138,112   

Other*

     1,619,813         1,538,613         1,640,422   

 

* “Other” consists of Central and South America, Oceania and Africa.

During fiscal 2011, 26.2% of Toyota’s automobile unit sales on a consolidated basis were in Japan, 27.8% were in North America, 10.9% were in Europe and 17.2% were in Asia. The remaining 17.9% of consolidated unit sales were in other markets.

The Japanese economy as a whole suffered significant damage as a result of the Great East Japan Earthquake that occurred on March 11, 2011, including the ensuing tsunami and nuclear incident in Fukushima Prefecture.

After the earthquake’s occurrence on March 11, 2011, Toyota temporarily suspended operations at all of its domestic factories due to damage to social infrastructure including energy supply, transportation systems, gas, water and communication systems caused by the earthquake, shortages of parts from suppliers, and damage sustained by some subsidiaries of Toyota in regions adjacent to the disaster zone. On March 18, 2011, Toyota began resuming production in stages. As of April 18, 2011, Toyota had resumed operations at all domestic factories. As of the date of this annual report, production levels at both domestic and overseas factories vary by region and vehicle type and, primarily due to shortages of supplies from external suppliers, production is not yet normalized at some factories. Toyota anticipates that factories will reach normal operational capacity between November and December 2011. Also, in May 2011, operations at the nuclear power plant in Shizuoka Prefecture that supplied a portion of the electricity to the area where Toyota’s global headquarters and main plants are located were suspended in light of the damage sustained by the Fukushima nuclear power plant. Amidst mounting concerns regarding shortages of electricity during the demanding summer months, Toyota is cooperating with the Japanese government and the Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association and is working to minimize the negative impact of electricity shortages on production and company activities by leveling out consumption by shifting its operating days and conserving electricity between July and September 2011.

Toyota is exerting every effort to realize full normalization of production as soon as possible, and to minimize the negative impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on profits.

In addition, with regard to the series of product quality related issues that began in early 2010, in March 2010, Toyota established a Special Committee for Global Quality to thoroughly investigate the cause of the product quality issues and review all of Toyota’s processes, including design, production, sales, service, and human resource development. Toyota believes it is making steady and solid improvements in these regards.

Building on the work of the Special Committee for Global Quality, each region is implementing comprehensive improvements to the company’s operations and strengthening the company’s quality improvement activities.

Further, in order to obtain objective third-party evaluation, in July 2010, Toyota obtained a report concerning Toyota’s quality-assurance review-and-improvement measures from the Union of Japanese Scientists

 

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and Engineers and external experts recommended by the union. This report evaluated the preventative measures undertaken by Toyota in response to the series of product quality related issues it experienced beginning in early 2010, such as strengthening analysis of customer information and human resource development, and indicated places where these measures should be deepened in order to bring about further improvement. Toyota has received the evaluation with humility, and is making efforts toward further improvements.

Through the quality control approach described above, Toyota and its officers and employees will unite to do their best to make customer safety their first emphasis, ensure that thorough quality control is a constant element of their work, strengthen quality control infrastructure and cultivate customers’ trust. For further details concerning recalls and other safety measures, see “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — Operating Results — Results of Operations — Fiscal 2011 Compared with Fiscal 2010 — Operating Costs and Expenses”.

The Worldwide Automotive Market

Toyota estimates that annual worldwide vehicle sales totaled approximately 75 million units in 2010.

Automobile sales are affected by a number of factors including:

 

   

social, political and economic conditions,

 

   

introduction of new vehicles and technologies, and

 

   

costs incurred by customers to purchase and operate automobiles.

These factors can cause consumer demand to vary substantially from year to year in different geographic markets and in individual categories of automobiles.

The global economy in fiscal 2011 recovered gradually, with strong growth in investment and consumption principally in developing Asian economies despite slow recovery in developed countries due to the deceleration of government policies. The automotive industry also followed the trend of the global economy, with markets expanding in emerging countries such as China and India. The automotive market in the United States gradually recovered, and the markets in Japan and Europe, which were supported by government stimulus measures, also saw signs of recovery. The markets expanded overall, principally in developing economies.

Toyota expects the automotive market to grow in the medium- to long-term driven principally by the growth in resource-rich markets and the emerging markets. Global competition is severe, as competition in compact and low-price vehicles intensifies, and technological development and development of new products become more frequent with a heightened global awareness of the environment.

In 2010, Europe, China, North America, Asia, Central and South America, and Japan were the world’s largest automotive markets. The share of each market in the global market, based on total automobile sales on a retail basis in each market, was 25% for Europe, 24% for China, 19% for North America (18% excluding Mexico and Puerto Rico), 10% for Asia, 7% for Central and South America, and 7% for Japan. In Europe, new vehicle sales remained at the same level as the previous year at approximately 19.0 million units. In China, new vehicle sales increased significantly to approximately 18.3 million units. In North America, new vehicle sales increased to approximately 14.4 million units. In Asia (including India but excluding Japan and China), new vehicle unit sales increased to approximately 7.6 million units. In Central and South America, new vehicle sales increased from the previous year to approximately 5.4 million units. In Japan, total new vehicle unit sales (including mini-vehicles) increased to approximately 5.0 million units.

The worldwide automotive industry is affected significantly by government regulations aimed at reducing harmful effects on the environment, enhancing vehicle safety and improving fuel economy. These regulations have added to the cost of manufacturing vehicles. Many governments also mandate local procurement of parts and components and impose tariffs and other trade barriers and price or exchange controls as a means of creating

 

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jobs, protecting domestic producers or influencing their balance of payments. Changes in regulatory requirements and other government-imposed restrictions can limit an automaker’s operations. These regulations can also make it difficult to repatriate profits to an automaker’s home country.

The development of the worldwide automotive market includes the continuing globalization of automotive operations. Manufacturers seek to achieve globalization by localizing the design and manufacture of automobiles and their parts and components in the markets in which they are sold. By expanding production capabilities beyond their home markets, automotive manufacturers are able to reduce their exposure to fluctuations in foreign exchange rates as well as to trade restrictions and tariffs.

Since 2000, various transactions have promoted consolidation within the global automotive industry. There are various reasons behind these transactions including the need to respond to the excessive global capacity in the production of automobiles, the need to reduce costs and improve efficiency by increasing the number of automobiles produced using common vehicle platforms and by sharing research and development expenses for environmental and other technology, the desire to expand a company’s global presence through increased size and the desire to expand into particular segments or geographic markets. Recently these have included business alliances and investments between major manufacturers in Japan and Europe.

Toyota believes that its research and development initiatives, particularly the development of environmentally friendly new vehicle technologies, vehicle safety and information technology, provide it with a strategic advantage.

Toyota’s ability to compete in the global automotive industry will depend in part on Toyota’s successful implementation of its business strategy. This is subject to a number of factors, some of which are not in Toyota’s control. These factors are discussed in “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” and elsewhere in this annual report.

Toyota Global Vision

In March 2011, Toyota unveiled its “Toyota Global Vision” corporate outline for the future, which serves not only to give direction to Toyota employees around the world, but also to convey such direction to customers and to the public at large. Toyota will work to achieve sustained growth through the realization of the following ideals which are parts of the Vision:

“The safest and most responsible ways of moving people”

 

   

Safety is Toyota’s highest priority, and Toyota will continue to provide world-class safety.

 

   

Toyota will also continue to contribute to environmental quality and to human happiness by using leading environmental technology and by deploying that technology in a growing line of vehicle models. At the same time, Toyota will work through the provision of products, sales and services that exceed customer expectation to offer a rewarding experience for customers.

“Enriching lives around the world”

 

   

Toyota has been consistently true to its founding spirit of serving society through conscientious manufacturing, and it will continue working in that spirit to contribute to enhance the quality of life wherever it has operations.

 

   

Toyota will strive to continue contributing to economic vitality wherever it has operations by generating stable employment and by participating in mutually beneficial business relationships with dealers and suppliers. It will also strive to continue to actively engage in initiatives for human resources development and the promotion of cultural activities of its host communities.

 

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“Lead the way to the future of mobility”

 

   

Toyota will lead the industry in technological development that will spawn next-generation mobility. For example, it will explore possibilities in personal mobility and in the convergence of information technology for automobiles and “smart grids” for optimizing energy generation and consumption. Toyota will strive to offer products and services that match the needs in each market.

 

   

Toyota will strive to advance environmental technology and develop low-carbon technologies and technologies for maximizing safety through interaction with the transport infrastructure to lay a foundation for sustainable and amenable future mobility.

“Our commitment to quality, constant innovation”

 

   

Toyota is committed to providing quality vehicles that are highly reliable and driven with a sense of safety and reliability.

 

   

Toyota will constantly reinvent itself and continue to engage in cutting-edge technology development. Toyota will work towards offering vehicles around the world that address the needs of today and of tomorrow at affordable prices.

“Continued awareness for the Earth and environment”

 

   

Toyota will continue to work towards minimizing environmental impact in its manufacturing and other operations, and products.

 

   

With an emphasis on environmental awareness, Toyota will in its operations work towards energy conservation, reduction in carbon dioxide emission, efficient use of resources such as recycling, and human resource development and production methods that allow for coexistence with nature.

“Exceed expectations and be rewarded with a smile”

 

   

Everyone at Toyota will continuously maintain a sense of gratitude to customers and will strive to earn smiles with products and services that are stimulating and inspiring and exceed customer expectation.

“There is always a better way”

 

   

All Toyota employees will share the recognition that there is always a better way and share a commitment to continuous improvement, which are fundamental to The Toyota Way.

“Meet challenging goals by engaging the talent and passion of people”

 

   

Toyota will nurture a corporate culture where teamwork and individual creativity thrive and where people will approach their work with pride and passion.

 

   

Toyota will honor the spirit of diversity in recruiting, training and promoting capable individuals around the world. Human resources development at Toyota will continue to promote the transfer of the company’s monozukuri spirit of conscientious manufacturing and related skills and know-how from one generation to the next.

With respect to the future business environment, it is expected that the economies of emerging countries, principally China and India, will continue to expand and the economies of developed countries, such as Europe and the United States, will continue to slowly recover. However, attention must be paid to risks such as an increase in crude oil prices and high unemployment rates continuing in Europe and the United States. The Japanese economy is expected to recover against the background of the improvement of the overseas economy and the various effects of government policies among other factors, but recovery is expected to be weak in the near future due to the serious effects of the substantial damage from the Great East Japan Earthquake.

 

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Several of Toyota’s production bases, sales companies and suppliers are located in the affected areas and suffered extensive damage. Toyota as a group will exert every effort to realize a recovery as quickly as possible.

From a medium- to long-term viewpoint, while the automobile market is expected to expand centering around developing economies, competition among small and low-cost vehicles will gain momentum, and fierce global competition is also expected with respect to environmentally-friendly vehicles.

Even in this harsh business environment, the Toyota Group as a whole will make an even greater effort to address the following in order to realize two of Toyota’s enduring wishes: “to be a company customers choose” and “to bring smiles to every customer who chooses Toyota”:

First, in product development, Toyota intends to make substantial improvements in design and perceived quality and to establish systems by which products launched in a certain region will be developed based on the customer needs of that region. For environmentally-friendly vehicles (“eco-cars”), Toyota will make all-around efforts to expand its product line-up of hybrid vehicles and develop next-generation eco-cars such as plug-in hybrid vehicles, electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles, along with the high-efficiency gasoline engine.

Second, as for “emerging markets” with strong promise for future growth, Toyota intends to reinforce core models for local production such as IMV and newly developed compact vehicles, while launching more hybrid vehicles. Through these efforts, Toyota will build a well-balanced business structure that impartially allocates resources to both developed countries and emerging countries.

(*) IMV is an abbreviation for Innovative International Multi-purpose Vehicle, which refers to sport-utility vehicles (SUVs), pickup trucks, and other multi-purpose vehicles that are produced overseas for markets worldwide.

Third, to quickly reflect feedback from customers around the world in Toyota’s research and development, production and sales operations, Toyota will build a structure where decisions can be made regionally, in areas closest to the customers.

Fourth, Toyota will further reinforce three basic functions: quality improvement, cost reduction, and human resource development.

Based on these efforts, Toyota will enrich the lives of its communities through manufacturing good automobiles that are accepted by customers and society. This will encourage more customers to purchase Toyota cars and thereby lead to the establishment of a stable business base. By perpetuating this good cycle, Toyota will aim to realize sustainable growth and enhance corporate value. Toyota will fulfill its social responsibilities by carrying out its Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).

Automotive Operations

Toyota’s revenues from its automotive operations were ¥17.3 trillion in fiscal 2011, ¥17.2 trillion in fiscal 2010 and ¥18.6 trillion in fiscal 2009.

Toyota produces and sells passenger cars, minivans and commercial vehicles such as trucks. Toyota Motor Corporation’s subsidiary, Daihatsu Motor Co., Ltd. (“Daihatsu”), produces and sells mini-vehicles and compact cars. Hino Motors, Ltd. (“Hino”), also a subsidiary of Toyota Motor Corporation, produces and sells commercial vehicles such as trucks and buses. Toyota also manufactures automotive parts, components and accessories for its own use and for sale to others.

 

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Vehicle Models

Toyota’s vehicles (produced by Toyota, Daihatsu and Hino) can be classified into two categories: hybrid vehicles and conventional engine vehicles. Toyota’s product line-up includes subcompact and compact cars, mini-vehicles, mid-size, luxury, sports and specialty cars, recreational and sport-utility vehicles, pickup trucks, minivans, trucks and buses.

Hybrid Vehicles

The world’s first mass-produced hybrid car was Toyota’s Prius. It runs on an efficient combination of a gasoline engine and motor. This system allows the Prius to travel more efficiently than conventional engine vehicles of comparable size and performance. The hybrid design of the Prius also results in the output of 75% less emission than the maximum amount allowed by Japanese environmental regulations. Toyota views the Prius as the cornerstone of its emphasis on designing and producing eco-friendly automobiles. As of the end of March 2011, the total number of Toyota’s hybrid vehicles sold was just less than 3.052 million units.

In May 2008, Toyota introduced the hybrid version of the Crown, which is the signature model of the Toyota brand, in Japan. In April 2009, the Lexus RX450h, which is the fully-remodeled Lexus RX400h, was successively introduced in Japan, North America and Europe. The Prius, of which 2.265 million units have been sold (as of the end of March 2011) since it was first introduced in 1997 and whose name has become synonymous with hybrid vehicles, underwent its second full model change in May 2009. The hybrid vehicles HS250h and SAI were introduced in July 2009 and December 2009, respectively. In December 2009, Toyota began leasing the Prius plug-in hybrid equipped with a lithium ion battery targeted at certain corporate users including electrical power companies. In January 2011, the Lexus hybrid vehicle CT200h was also introduced. Further, Toyota introduced the Prius a (Prius Alpha) wagon in May 2011 and is planning further ways to enhance the Prius series lineup. Toyota anticipates strong growth in the hybrid vehicles area and will continue to introduce new models.

Toyota began limited sales of a fuel cell hybrid vehicle in Japan and the United States in December 2002. In June 2005, Toyota’s new fuel cell hybrid passenger vehicle became the first in Japan to acquire vehicle type certification under the Road Vehicles Act, as amended, on March 31, 2005, by Japan’s Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. Leases for the vehicle began in July 2005. By 2007, Toyota was able to make improvements to start-up and cruising distance at temperatures below freezing, which were technological challenges. Toyota has made advances by solving technological issues such as the above and has been working towards the practical use of such solutions.

Toyota aims to continue its efforts to offer a diverse line-up of hybrid vehicles, enhance engine power while improving fuel economy and otherwise work towards increasing the sales of hybrid vehicles.

Conventional Engine Vehicles

Subcompact and Compact

Toyota’s subcompact and compact cars include the four-door Corolla sedan, which is one of Toyota’s best selling models. The Yaris, marketed as the Vitz in Japan, is a subcompact car designed to perform better and offer greater comfort than other compact cars available in the market, with low emissions that are particularly attractive to European consumers. In Japan, Toyota introduced the micropremium iQ in November 2008, as well as the remodeled Passo in February 2010, Ractis in November 2010, and Vitz in December 2010. In India, Toyota introduced the Etios in October 2010.

Mini-Vehicles

Mini-vehicles are manufactured and sold by Daihatsu. Daihatsu manufactures mini-vehicles, passenger vehicles, commercial vehicles and auto parts. Mini-vehicles are passenger cars, vans or trucks with engine

 

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displacements of 660 cubic centimeters or less. Daihatsu sold approximately 531 thousand mini-vehicles and 167 thousand automobiles on a consolidated basis during fiscal 2011. Daihatsu’s largest market is Japan, which accounted for approximately 60% of Daihatsu’s unit sales during fiscal 2011. From fall 2011, Toyota plans to sell some mini-vehicles manufactured by Daihatsu under the Toyota brand.

Mid-Size

Toyota’s mid-size models include the Camry, which has been the best selling passenger car in the United States for thirteen of the past fourteen calendar years (from 1997 to present) and also for the last nine consecutive years. The Camry was fully remodeled in January 2006. Camry sales in the United States for 2010 were approximately 327 thousand units. In addition, Toyota’s other mid-size models include (i) the REIZ for the Chinese market, (ii) the Avensis, which was remodeled in November 2008 for the European market, and (iii) the Mark X, which was remodeled in October 2009 for the Japanese market.

Luxury & Large

In North America, Europe, Japan and other regions, Toyota’s luxury lineup consists primarily of vehicles sold under the Lexus brand name. In the United States, Lexus has earned the title of best-selling luxury brand for the eleventh consecutive year by selling approximately 229 thousand units in 2010. Lexus passenger car models include the LS, the GS, the ES, the HS, the IS, the CT, and the LFA. Lexus models also include the LX, the GX, and the RX sold as luxury sport-utility vehicles in the United States. Toyota commenced sales of its luxury automobiles in Japan under the Lexus brand in August 2005. As of May 31, 2011, the Lexus brand lineup in Japan includes the LS, the GS, the HS, the IS, the CT, the RX, and the LFA. The Toyota brand’s full-size luxury car, the Crown, was remodeled in February 2008, and the Crown Majesta was remodeled in March 2009. Toyota also sells the Century limousine in Japan.

Sports and Specialty

In the United States Toyota sells the Scion tC, a sport car model targeted at young drivers. In December 2010, Toyota introduced the LFA model under the Lexus brand as the high-performance sports model.

Recreational and Sport-Utility Vehicles and Pickup Trucks

Toyota sells a variety of sport-utility vehicles and pickup trucks. Toyota sport-utility vehicles available in North America include the Sequoia, the 4Runner, the RAV4, the Highlander, the FJ Cruiser and the Land Cruiser, and pickup trucks available are the Tacoma and Tundra. The Tacoma, the Tundra, the Highlander and the Sequoia are manufactured in the United States. Toyota also offers three types of sport-utility vehicles under the Lexus brand, including the LX, the GX, and the RX. Toyota also manufactures the RX and RAV4 models in Canada. Toyota’s pickup truck, the Hilux, has been the best selling model of all Toyota cars sold in Thailand. In December 2008, Toyota introduced the new Venza in North America. The fully remodeled RX was introduced in February 2009 in North America and in March 2009 in Europe. In Japan, the RX was introduced in January 2009, and the FJ Cruiser in December 2010.

Minivans and Cabwagons

Toyota offers several basic models for the global minivan market. Its largest minivan, the Alphard was remodeled in May 2008 in Japan at the same time that the Vellfire was introduced. In addition, the Corolla Verso was introduced in December 2008 in Europe, and the Wish was remodeled in April 2009 in Japan. Toyota’s other minivan models include, in Japan, the Hiace, the Regius Ace, the Estima, the Noah, the Voxy, the Sienta, the Isis and the Passo Sette and, in North America, the Sienna.

 

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Trucks and Buses

Toyota’s product lineup includes trucks (including vans) up to a gross vehicle weight of five tons and micro-buses, which are sold in Japan and in overseas markets. Trucks and buses are also manufactured and sold by Hino, a subsidiary of Toyota. Hino’s product lineup includes large trucks with a gross vehicle weight of over eleven tons, medium trucks with a gross vehicle weight of between five and eleven tons, and small trucks with a gross vehicle weight of up to five tons. Hino’s bus lineup includes medium to large buses used primarily as tour buses and public buses, small buses and micro-buses. Toyota and Hino maintain a large share of the small bus (including micro-buses) market in Japan.

Product Development

New cars introduced in Japan during fiscal 2011 and thereafter include the FJ Cruiser, Lexus LFA, CT200h, and the Prius a (Prius Alpha). Remodeled cars in Japan during fiscal 2011 and thereafter include the Ractis and the Vitz. New vehicles developed during fiscal 2011 and thereafter and introduced outside of Japan include the Lexus LFA and the CT200h introduced in the United States, and the Auris HV, Lexus LFA, and the CT200h introduced in Europe. Remodeled cars outside of Japan during fiscal 2011 and thereafter include the Scion tC in the United States, and the Verso-S and Yaris HB in Europe.

In addition, the IMV product lineup based on the Innovative International Multi-purpose Vehicle project (IMV) to optimize global manufacturing and supply systems is a lineup of strategic multipurpose vehicles produced from a single platform to meet market demand. The IMV product lineup includes, as of May 31, 2011, the Hilux, Fortuner and Innova, one or all of which are available in all regions except for Japan and North America.

Markets, Sales and Competition

Toyota’s primary markets are Japan, North America, Europe and Asia. The following table sets forth Toyota’s consolidated vehicle unit sales by geographic market for the periods shown. The vehicle unit sales below reflect vehicle sales made by Toyota to unconsolidated entities (recognized as sales under Toyota’s revenue recognition policy), including sales to unconsolidated distributors and dealers. Vehicles sold by Daihatsu and Hino are included in the vehicle unit sales figures set forth below.

 

    Year Ended March 31,  
    2007     2008     2009     2010     2011  
    Units     %     Units     %     Units     %     Units     %     Units     %  

Market

                   

Japan

    2,273,152        26.7     2,188,389        24.6     1,944,823        25.7     2,162,418        29.9     1,913,117        26.2

North America

    2,942,661        34.5        2,958,314        33.2        2,212,254        29.2        2,097,374        29.0        2,031,249        27.8   

Europe

    1,223,628        14.3        1,283,793        14.4        1,061,954        14.0        858,390        11.9        795,534        10.9   

Asia

    789,637        9.3        956,509        10.7        904,892        12.0        979,651        13.5        1,255,016        17.2   

Other*

    1,295,581        15.2        1,526,934        17.1        1,443,433        19.1        1,139,329        15.7        1,313,123        17.9   
                                                                               

Total

    8,524,659        100.0     8,913,939        100.0     7,567,356        100.0     7,237,162        100.0     7,308,039        100.0
                                                                               

 

* “Other” consists of Central and South America, Oceania, Africa and the Middle East, etc.

 

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The following table sets forth Toyota’s vehicle unit sales and market share in Japan, North America, Europe and Asia on a retail basis for the periods shown. Each market’s total sales and Toyota’s sales represent new vehicle registrations in the relevant year (except for the Asia market where vehicle registration does not necessarily apply). All information on Japan excludes mini-vehicles. The sales information contained below excludes unit sales by Daihatsu and Hino, each a consolidated subsidiary of Toyota. Vehicle unit sales in Asia do not include sales in Pakistan.

 

     (Thousands of Units)  
     Fiscal Year Ended March 31,  
     2007     2008     2009     2010     2011  

Japan:

          

Total market sales (excluding mini-vehicles)

     3,590        3,428        2,894        3,184        2,975   

Toyota sales (retail basis, excluding mini-vehicles)

     1,643        1,564        1,331        1,535        1,407   

Toyota market share

     45.8     45.6     46.0     48.2     47.3
     (Thousands of Units)  
     Calendar Year Ended December 31,  
     2006     2007     2008     2009     2010  

North America:

          

Total market sales

     19,979        19,360        16,294        12,705        14,058   

Toyota sales (retail basis)

     2,840        2,923        2,537        2,053        2,008   

Toyota market share

     14.2     15.1     15.6     16.2     14.3

Europe:

          

Total market sales

     21,799        23,100        21,212        18,314        18,368   

Toyota sales (retail basis)

     1,144        1,261        1,141        905        808   

Toyota market share

     5.2     5.5     5.3     4.9     4.4

Asia:

          

Total market sales

     5,107        5,463        5,540        5,933        7,568   

Toyota sales (retail basis)

     750        779        809        779        1,039   

Toyota market share

     14.7     14.3     14.6     13.1     13.7

Japan

Japan is one of the leading countries with respect to technological advancements and improvements and will continue to demonstrate such strength. Toyota strives to earn customer satisfaction by introducing products distinctive of Japan’s manufacturing ability such as value-added products including Lexus models, hybrid vehicles, vehicles with 3-seat rows and mini-vehicles. In fiscal 2011, the Japanese economy recovered gradually as a result of government-enacted economic stimulus measures and an increase in exports to emerging economies, but the economy remains in harsh conditions due to the high unemployment rate and the effects of the Great East Japan Earthquake. Toyota’s consolidated net sales in the Japanese market in fiscal 2011 was 1,913 thousand units, a 250 thousand unit decrease in comparison with the previous year. Toyota endeavors to secure and maintain its large share of and position atop the Japanese market. Toyota held a domestic market share (excluding mini-vehicles) on a retail basis of 46.0% in fiscal 2009, 48.2% in 2010, and 47.3% in 2011. Amid a low level of domestic economic activity and intense domestic competition, Toyota maintained its high market share in fiscal 2011 through continuing success of the Prius, which maintained its position as the top seller for the last 20 months since its introduction in May 2009, actively launching vehicles such as those that were eligible for subsidies until mid-2010 and others that are still eligible for tax breaks under government policies promoting eco-cars, and supporting sales of Toyota’s existing models.

Although Toyota’s principle is to conduct production in regions where there is demand, it considers Japan to be the source of its good manufacturing practices. Toyota supports its operations worldwide through measures such as the development of new technologies and products, low-volume vehicles to complement local

 

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production, production of global vehicle models which straddle multiple regions, and supporting overseas factories. In Japan, Toyota is implementing flexible production based on market needs, in order to support its large share of domestic sales.

In January 2011, Central Motor Co., Ltd., Toyota’s subsidiary, began production at its Tohoku plant, implementing innovative production technology that realizes cost reductions. The Tohoku plant produces compact vehicles such as the Yaris sedan and the Corolla Axio and serves as one of Toyota’s three domestic production bases, which are Tokai, Kyushu, and Tohoku.

Since Toyota formed an alliance with Fuji Heavy Industries, Ltd. (“FHI”) in 2005, Toyota and FHI have utilized each other’s resources in development and production such as moving some of Toyota’s production to FHI’s North American production center operated by Subaru of Indiana Automotive, Inc. In April 2008, in order to create synergy and to further strengthen competitiveness, Toyota, Daihatsu and FHI agreed on the following three points: (1) Toyota and FHI will jointly develop a compact rear-wheel-drive sports car that will be marketed by both Toyota and FHI, (2) Toyota will provide FHI with a compact car on an original equipment manufacturing basis (“OEM”) and (3) Daihatsu will supply FHI with mini-vehicles and an FHI version of the Daihatsu Coo compact car on an OEM basis. In order to promote a smooth cooperation, FHI transferred 61 million FHI shares owned by FHI to Toyota in July 2008. As a result of this transfer, Toyota owns 16.5% of FHI issued shares.

In Japan, there are five major domestic manufacturers, five specialized domestic producers and a growing volume of imports from major United States and European manufacturers. The prolonged economic slump in the Japanese economy has also shifted consumer preference towards more affordable automobiles such as compact and subcompact vehicles and towards utility vehicles such as mini-vans. For more than 40 years, Toyota has maintained its position as the largest automobile manufacturer in Japan. Every year since fiscal 1999, Toyota, excluding Daihatsu and Hino, has achieved a market share (excluding mini-vehicles) of over 40%, reflecting in part the success of the introduction of new models for subcompact and compact cars, mini-vans and sedans. In August 2005, Toyota launched the Lexus brand in Japan and achieved a record top market share of 23.7% in the luxury market in 2010. Toyota aims to further distinguish the Lexus brand by continuing to attract new and affluent customers including customers that typically had purchased imported vehicles.

North America

In North America, one of Toyota’s most significant markets and an economy that has struggled since the financial crisis, Toyota has restructured its production system and improved its product lineup. In addition, Toyota is actively working to promote increased local independence of operations in North America, in accordance with the Toyota Global Vision, announced in 2011.

The North American market is an important market representing approximately 29% of Toyota’s total global unit sales on a consolidated basis in fiscal 2011. Sales of models such as the Lexus RX, which was fully remodeled in February 2009, the new Prius model introduced in May 2009, and the Sienna, which was fully remodeled at the beginning of 2010 provide foundational support for Toyota’s total sales. Toyota hopes to increase its share with a Lexus-brand compact hybrid vehicle, the CT200h, which Toyota introduced at the beginning of 2011. In 2010, Toyota brand vehicles accounted for approximately 87%, and Lexus brand for approximately 13%, of the vehicle unit sales in the United States.

Toyota commenced sales of the first-generation Prius hybrid model in North America in 2000. The Prius became Toyota’s best selling model behind the Corolla and Camry, having gained particular support among persons concerned for the environment. Toyota released the first hybrid model under the Lexus brand, the RX400h, and the Highlander hybrid in 2005. And in July 2009, Toyota continued expansion of its hybrid models with sales of the HS model, as well as the CT200h in 2011, under the Lexus brand.

 

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Since announcing the LS and ES models under the premium brand model Lexus in the United States in 1989, Toyota has expanded its Lexus sales with models including the GS and IS. In 2010, Lexus sales exceeded 229 thousand units and Lexus became the most purchased luxury brand vehicle for the past eleven consecutive years.

Toyota is continuing to revise its production system in North America in order to flexibly respond to the substantially contracting sales market caused by the economic downturn brought about by the financial crisis. In November 2008, due to a significant decline in demand for the Tundra, Toyota’s Texas plant was designated the sole production facility for the Tundra, which was previously produced jointly by Toyota’s Indiana plant and Texas plant. Toyota’s Kentucky plant commenced production of the new Venza model in November 2008 and the Indiana plant began local production of the Highlander in October 2009. The new Woodstock plant in Canada commenced production of the RAV4 by single shift operation in November 2008 and the Cambridge plant in Canada commenced production of the remodeled Lexus RX in January 2009. Due to an increase in demand, production of the RAV4 at the Woodstock plant changed to double shift operation beginning March 2010.

Due to the termination of the NUMMI joint venture with GM in the middle of 2009, Toyota ceased placing orders for the Tacoma and Corolla with NUMMI and production was stopped at the NUMMI plant in April 2010. Equipment utilized in the production of the Tacoma model was transferred to the Texas plant, where production of the Tacoma began in July 2010. The Corolla is currently produced at the Cambridge plant in Canada and finished vehicles are imported into North America from the Takaoka plant and the plant of the Kanto Auto Works, Ltd. in Japan, but Toyota plans to begin production of the Corolla at its Mississippi plant as of fall 2011 instead of importing from Japan.

In North America, with the United States as its primary market, Toyota offers a wide range of products in all model types except for one-ton/half-ton trucks and buses. Toyota’s consolidated vehicle unit sales in North America was 2,031 thousand units in fiscal 2011. The United States is the largest portion of the North American market for Toyota, representing 87.8% of its total retail unit sales in the region. Toyota’s retail unit sales in North America in 2010 were at 88.2% as compared to the previous year. However, the scrap incentive program introduced in July 2009 boosted sales of new vehicles, and the fully remodeled Lexus RX and the new Prius which were introduced in 2009, and the fully remodeled Sienna which was introduced in 2010, contributed to overall sales. Consequently, Toyota’s market share in the United States in 2010 was a record 14.3%. Competition is intense in North America, particularly in the United States. Toyota’s principal competitors in North America are General Motors, Ford, Chrysler, Honda and Nissan. In recent years, Hyundai has shown remarkable growth.

Europe

In fiscal 2011, strong sales in Eastern Europe covered for Western Europe, where sales declined upon the conclusion of government stimulus measures, and results in the European market were generally in line with the previous year. In Western Europe, the conclusion of scrap incentive programs in Germany, the United Kingdom, Italy, and Spain caused a decrease in the market and sales from the previous year. Although there was a decline primarily in small vehicle sales, the Auris HV, sales of which commenced in mid 2010, achieved strong sales, and sales of the RAV4 and LC Prado exceeded the previous year, receiving a boost from growth momentum in the SUV market. Meanwhile, in Eastern Europe, due to economic recovery primarily in Russia, the market exceeded the previous year, and sales, primarily those of SUVs and of Lexus, exceeded those of the previous fiscal year.

Toyota has in the past increased local production in response to sales growth, establishing Toyota Motor Manufacturing (UK) Ltd. (“TMUK”) in 1992, Toyota Motor Manufacturing Turkey Inc. in 1994 and Toyota Motor Manufacturing France S.A.S. in 2001 as supply factories to Europe. However, in light of the current levels of demand in the United Kingdom, TMUK will limit its production to one production line at its Burnaston plant. TMUK will determine whether and when to reopen the second production line based on the direction of the market. Toyota began operation of a factory in 2007 at Toyota Motor Manufacturing Russia, as a foothold in the Russian market, where future growth is expected. Further, Toyota plans to commence contract assembly of SUVs by Sollers in Vladivostok in 2012.

 

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Consolidated European sales of Toyota vehicles in fiscal 2011 was 796 thousand units, down 7.3% from fiscal 2010. In 2010, Toyota had a market share in Europe of 4.4%, down 0.5% as compared to the previous year, and achieved annual retail unit sales of approximately 808 thousand units. While the number of units sold in Russia and Turkey in Eastern Europe exceeded the previous year, sales in Germany and other countries where economic stimulus packages came to an end, decreased as compared to the previous year, resulting in an overall decrease in sales in the European market. Toyota will aim to improve its operations in Europe through product strategies, including introduction of new vehicle models. Toyota’s principal European markets are Germany, France, the United Kingdom, Italy, Spain and Russia. Toyota’s principal competitors in Europe are Volkswagen, Opel, Renault, Ford and Peugeot.

Asia

In light of the importance of the Asian market that is expected to grow in the long term, Toyota aims to build an operational framework that is efficient and self-reliant as well as a predominant position in the automotive market in Asia. Operating income for Asia in fiscal 2011 increased compared to fiscal 2010. This increase is attributable to the recovery of markets in Thailand, Indonesia and elsewhere in Asia following the economic recession brought about by the financial crisis beginning fall 2008, and also due in part to the fact that Toyota made strategic investments in this market earlier than its major global competitors and developed relationships with local suppliers in the region. While competition in Asia is further increasing, Toyota believes that its existing local presence in the market provides it with a competitive advantage and expects to be able to promptly respond to demand for vehicles in the region.

Toyota is aiming to further increase its competitiveness by improving the product line-up offered in the region and increasing local procurement to decrease its exposure to foreign currency exchange fluctuations. For example, Toyota began producing IMV models (Hilux, Fortuner and Innova) in Thailand, Indonesia, India, the Philippines and Malaysia in fiscal 2005 and in Vietnam in fiscal 2006. Furthermore, with increased production capacity, the Thailand plant now produces IMV models (Hilux and Fortuner) for sale outside of Asia, including in Australia and in the Middle East, and has contributed greatly to the expansion of Toyota’s automotive business. Furthermore, Toyota Motor Thailand Co., Ltd., Toyota’s vehicle production base in Thailand, commenced production of the Camry Hybrid in July 2009. In India, Toyota is developing its business through local production and sales, constructing a second plant with an annual production capacity of 70 thousand units, and commenced production and sales of the Etios compact model designed specifically for the Indian market in December 2010.

Consolidated Asian sales of Toyota vehicles in fiscal 2011 was 1,255 thousand units, up 28.1% from fiscal 2010. In 2010, Toyota had a market share in Asia of 13.7% and achieved annual retail unit sales of approximately 1,039 thousand vehicles. Increased sales due to market recoveries primarily in Thailand and in Indonesia contributed to the growth in Asian sales.

Toyota’s principal Asian markets are Thailand, Indonesia, India, Malaysia and Taiwan.

China

Toyota has been conducting its operations in China through joint ventures, and its success in producing products that meet local demands and in establishing its sales and service network has significantly contributed to Toyota’s profits. Based on the firm business foundation that it has established, Toyota is conducting its operations with the aim of promoting further growth and increasing profitability through further development of its sales and service network and expansion of its product lineup.

In China, Toyota has been conducting joint ventures with two major partners. First, with respect to the joint venture with China FAW Group Corporation, since Toyota first launched the Vios through the joint venture in 2002, Toyota has been producing and selling eight car models in China, including the Land Cruiser Prado, Land

 

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Cruiser, Corolla, Crown, REIZ, Coaster and RAV4. With regard to increasing production capacity, in May 2007, Toyota commenced production of the new Corolla on the second line of the Tianjin Teda plant, which has an annual production capacity of 200 thousand units, and commenced production of the RAV4 on the same line in March 2009. Toyota is currently constructing a new factory in Changchun, China, where Toyota will begin producing Corollas in 2012 with an annual production capacity of 100 thousand units. Guangzhou Toyota Motor Co., Ltd., a joint venture between Toyota and Guangzhou Automobile Group Co., Ltd., commenced production of the Camry in May 2006 with an annual production capacity of 100 thousand units on a single shift basis and, by late 2006, it expanded its annual production capacity to 200 thousand units on a double shift basis. In addition, it commenced production of the Yaris in May 2008, and the second Guangzhou plant commenced production of the Highlander in May 2009 and the Camry hybrid in April 2010.

In China, vehicle sales increased 34% from 13.7 million in 2009 to 18.3 million in 2010, and the market has expanded from 2009 due to strong economic growth. In this market, Toyota’s sales in 2010 were 850 thousand vehicles. In the locally produced passenger vehicle market (total of approximately 11.7 million units), Toyota’s sales were 760 thousand units, for a market share of 7%. In the 2010 market, due to the continuation from 2009 of the government’s policies promoting low-emission vehicles, favorable conditions in the less-than-1.6 liter market continued, and the SUV market expanded as a result of value diversification. Toyota increased the number of the new REIZ (September 2010), the Corolla and the Corolla EX, which are Toyota’s main models under 1.6 liters, and the RAV4 and Highlander SUV models, which resulted in record high sales. As for Toyota’s distribution network, Toyota has been expanding the distribution network for locally produced vehicles in cooperation with Chinese joint venture partners under Tianjin FAW Toyota Motor Co., Ltd. and Guanqi Toyota Motor Co., Ltd., and for imported vehicles, Toyota has also been expanding primarily the Lexus brand sales network. Toyota plans to further increase sales by expanding the number of dealers and the product lineup for both locally produced and imported vehicles. In addition, as the market in China develops, Toyota plans to promote the so-called “Value Chain” businesses such as used cars, services, financing and insurance.

South and Central America, Oceania, Africa and the Middle East

Consolidated sales of Toyota vehicles in fiscal 2011 in South and Central America, Oceania, Africa and the Middle East (collectively, the “Four Regions”) was 1,313 thousand units, an increase of 15.3% from fiscal 2010, receiving boosts from strong IMV sales on the backdrop of positive market conditions. The core models in this region are global models such as the Corolla, IMV (Hilux) and the Camry, which are designed to satisfy regional demands, while keeping production costs down by using common platforms and core parts and components with vehicle models in other regions. Furthermore, Toyota Motor Corporation Australia Ltd., Toyota’s vehicle production base in Australia, commenced production of the Camry Hybrid in the beginning of 2010. Further, in order to expand business in Brazil, Toyota constructed a new factory in Sorocaba with an annual production capacity of 70,000 units, and plans to begin production and sales of the compact vehicles introduced to the Indian market at the end of 2012. In addition, in order to increase production of IMV models, Toyota plans to expand the annual production capacity of its Argentina factory from 70,000 units to 90,000 units during the second half of 2011.

In these regions, which are expected to become increasingly important to Toyota’s business strategy, Toyota aims to develop new products which meet the specific demands of each region, increase production and further promote sales.

Toyota’s principal markets in the Four Regions are Brazil in South and Central America, Australia in Oceania, South Africa in Africa and Saudi Arabia and Oman in the Middle East.

Production

Toyota and its affiliates produce automobiles and related parts and components through more than 50 manufacturing companies in 26 countries and regions around the world. Toyota’s major manufacturing

 

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facilities include plants in Japan, the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, France, Turkey, Thailand, China, Taiwan, South Africa, Australia, Argentina, Brazil, Indonesia and India. Daihatsu brand vehicles are produced at 4 factories in Japan and 6 manufacturing companies in 6 other countries, including Indonesia and Malaysia. Hino produces medium trucks for the North American market in Ontario, Canada and West Virginia, United States. For a listing of Toyota’s principal production facilities, see “Information on the Company — Property, Plants and Equipment”.

In promoting a sustainable growth strategy, establishing a system capable of providing optimal supply of products in the global market is integral to Toyota’s strategy. In May 2010, Toyota announced its production strategy aimed at achieving an optimal supply system in the global market. For example, Toyota will increase its local production capacities to meet a wide range of growing customer demands in a timely manner in emerging countries such as China and India. On the other hand, in developed countries with mature markets, Toyota will reconsider production models to respond to changes in market demand and establish a flexible and efficient production system that can withstand currency fluctuations. In 2010, approximately 73% of Toyota automobiles sold in overseas markets were manufactured in overseas plants by Toyota and its unconsolidated affiliates. In 2010, approximately 73% of Toyota vehicles sold in North America were produced in North America. Of the vehicles sold in Europe in 2010, approximately 59% were produced in Europe. In fiscal 2011, Toyota produced on a consolidated basis approximately 3,721 thousand vehicles in Japan and approximately 3,448 thousand vehicles overseas, compared to approximately 3,956 thousand vehicles in Japan and approximately 2,853 thousand vehicles overseas in fiscal 2010.

The following table shows the worldwide vehicle unit production by Toyota for the periods shown. These production figures do not include vehicles produced by Toyota’s unconsolidated affiliates. The sales unit information elsewhere in this annual report includes sales of vehicles produced by these affiliates. Vehicles produced by Daihatsu and Hino are included in the vehicle production figures set forth below.

 

     Year Ended March 31,  
     2007      2008      2009      2010      2011  

Units Produced

     8,180,951         8,547,200         7,051,032         6,809,440         7,169,721   

Toyota closely monitors its actual units of sale, market share and units of production data and uses this information to allocate resources to existing manufacturing facilities and to plan for future expansions.

See “— Capital Expenditures and Divestitures” for a description of Toyota’s recent investments in completed plant constructions and for a description of Toyota’s current investments in ongoing plant constructions.

The Toyota Production System

Toyota pioneered the internationally recognized production system known as the “Toyota Production System”. The Toyota Production System is based on Toyota’s own concepts of efficient production of only necessary and quality products and efficient cost reduction, and has the following two principal elements:

 

   

Just-in-Time”, and

 

   

Jidoka”.

Just-in-Time is an approach in which necessary parts and components are manufactured and delivered in just the right quantity in a timely manner just as they are needed. This allows Toyota to maintain low levels of inventory while maintaining operating efficiency.

Jidoka is a production concept consisting of the immediate stop of work when problems arise in the production line in order to stop the production of defective items by preventing the sending of defective items to

 

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later stages in the production process, and making product quality a matter of production process. To achieve this, Toyota’s equipment is designed to detect and highlight abnormalities and to stop whenever abnormalities occur. Toyota also authorizes its machine operators and other members of its production team to stop production whenever they note anything suspicious. This helps Toyota to build quality into the production process by avoiding defects and preventing the waste that would result from producing a series of defective items.

Toyota believes that the Toyota Production System allows it to achieve mass-production efficiencies even in high-mix low-volume production. This system gives Toyota the flexibility to respond to changing consumer demand without significantly increasing production costs. While the Toyota Production System remains the basis of Toyota’s automobile production, the system has been expanded for use in Toyota’s parts production, logistics and customer service activities as well.

In addition, Toyota utilizes sophisticated information technologies to improve each step of its vehicle development process, from product planning to commencement of mass-production. These technologies are intended to enhance flexibility, simplicity, quality, cost competitiveness, and speed. Specifically, detailed computer simulation of the assembly and test-run of a new vehicle or new vehicle production equipment or system is conducted before a prototype is made. An actual prototype is made only after defects and related issues have been identified and resolved by computer simulation, thereby minimizing the time required for rebuilding prototypes and significantly shortening the time required for production. Moreover, this system is used to prepare virtual factories and other visual aids in order to facilitate training and communication at overseas plants and enable the efficient transfer of necessary technology and skills.

In order to strengthen manufacturing and promote localization of overseas production, Toyota established the Global Production Center (“GPC”) in July 2003 as a development and training center for global human resources. The GPC is intended to introduce local managers to the Toyota methodology, allowing them to train their subordinates with the local management. GPC develops simple, easy-to-understand and efficient training systems for the development of explicit knowledge. One characteristic of the GPC is that managers and supervisors, new hires and experienced workers can all receive common skill training. GPC’s training system involves a pre-training phase where trainees learn basic skills and discover the skills that they must acquire through image training. This is followed by various steps, from basic skill training, elemental task training, to standard task training, which is a sure method of training. The fruits of this training method are reduced training time, higher levels of achievement and the efficiency of training. Since January 2006, Toyota has opened regional GPCs in North America, Europe and Asia. In each region, Toyota commenced courses where trainees from each department are trained by local trainers to become trainers themselves. Since its establishment, GPC (including regional GPCs) has trained approximately 29,000 people in eight years.

With the aim of enhancing its competitive edge in “self-manufacturing”, Toyota, since 2001, has been developing and implementing the “simple and user-friendly operation systems & facilities that can be handled by anyone, anywhere”. Toyota is developing its innovative production system, facilities and processing technologies and is currently promoting it at a global level.

Distribution

Toyota’s automotive sales distribution network is the largest in Japan. As of March 31, 2011, this network consisted of 283 dealers employing approximately 35,000 sales personnel and operating approximately 4,800 sales and service outlets. Toyota owns 15 of these dealers and the remainder are independent.

Toyota believes that this extensive sales network has been an important factor in its success in the Japanese market. A large number of the cars sold in Japan are purchased from salespersons who visit customers in their homes or offices. In recent years, however, the traditional method of sales through home visits is being replaced by showroom sales and the percentage of automobile purchases through showrooms has been gradually increasing. Toyota expects this trend to continue, and accordingly, plans to improve its sales activities such as customer reception and meticulous service at showrooms to increase customer satisfaction.

 

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Sales of Toyota vehicles in Japan are conducted through four sales channels — “Toyota”, “Toyopet”, “Corolla” and “Netz”. In addition, Toyota introduced the Lexus brand to the Japanese market in August 2005, and currently distributes the Lexus brand vehicles through a network of approximately 170 sales outlets in order to enhance its competitiveness in the domestic luxury automobile market. The following table provides information for each channel as of March 31, 2011.

 

     Dealers       

Channel

   Toyota
Owned
     Independent      Total     

Market Focus

Toyota

     4         45             49       Luxury channel for Toyota brand vehicles

Toyopet

     4         48             52       Leading channel for the medium market

Corolla

     4         70             74       Volume retail channel centering on compact models

Netz

     3         105             108       Sales channel targeting customers with new values for the 21st century

Brand

     Sales
Outlets
    

Market Focus

Lexus

  

     165       Premium brand

Outside Japan, Toyota vehicles are marketed through approximately 180 distributors in approximately 170 countries and regions. Through these distributors, Toyota maintains networks of dealers. The chart below shows the number of Toyota distributors as of April 2011 by country and region:

 

Country/Region

   Number of Countries      Number of Distributors  

North America

     3         5   

Europe

     36         30   

China

     1         4   

Asia (excluding China)

     17         12   

Oceania

     17         16   

Middle East

     17         14   

Africa

     53         55   

Central and South America

     31         42   

Improve Efficiency

Toyota is working on the following to create a structure allowing for efficient development, production and sales that can respond flexibly to changes in the external environment:

 

   

working with suppliers to dramatically increase the efficiency of development,

 

   

creating a production structure that can better withstand fluctuations in demand and currency exchange rates, and

 

   

strengthening sales capabilities in line with local conditions.

Toyota also plans to improve profitability and enhance operating efficiency by continuing to pursue aggressive cost reduction programs, including:

 

   

improving product development and production efficiencies through the re-integration and improvement of vehicle platforms and power trains and through the development of electronic platforms which organize electronic devices of vehicles as a package and standardize electronic structure and infrastructure,

 

   

implementing Ryohin-Renka Cost Innovation (RR-CI) activity, which aims at the elimination of waste in all processes from design to production while ensuring the reliability and safety of each part,

 

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applying advanced information technologies to improve efficiency throughout the product development and production processes,

 

   

increasing the focus on global purchasing opportunities, standardization and modularization to optimize purchasing from suppliers,

 

   

streamlining production systems, and

 

   

improving the efficiency of domestic and international distribution.

Toyota is further improving production efficiency by installing more versatile equipment and systems, modifying vehicle body designs to allow for a greater variety of models on each production line and sharing more parts among vehicles.

Toyota continues to focus on reducing costs and improving efficiency through various measures. One of these measures is the reduction in the number of platforms used in vehicle production. Platforms are the essential structures that form the base of different vehicle models. By using a common platform for the production of a greater number of models, Toyota believes that it will be able to decrease the substantial expenditures required to design and develop vehicles. In addition, Toyota believes that it will be able to achieve the scale benefits of producing larger volumes per platform, thereby reducing manufacturing cost per vehicle.

Enhancing Vehicle Functionality and Intelligent Transport Systems

Toyota is striving to enhance vehicle functionality that will increase the attractiveness of vehicles and the excitement of driving. Toyota is also working in various ways to comprehensively realize enhanced transport systems that are aimed at transporting people and goods in a smooth and efficient manner and to build a safe transportation environment. ITS combines automotive technologies and information technologies in an effort to provide vehicle occupants with an array of information and enhanced safety features.

Enhancing Vehicle Functionality — Information service functions.

To Toyota, enhancing vehicle functionality means advancing information service functions that integrate vehicles with telecommunication systems, and driving assistance functions that use communication technologies and sensing technologies to create vehicles with intelligent features. Information service functions can improve the convenience and enrich the driving experience by means of information communication technologies, which add new functions “connected” to the basic vehicle functions of “running, turning and stopping”. Examples include the following:

 

   

Advanced car navigation systems are equipped with functions such as displaying maps and detailed information about the car parking space and the VICS (Vehicle Information and Communication System) that provides real-time information about road traffic such as congestion, accidents, traffic restrictions and parking. These car navigation systems play an important role in providing drivers with various types of information on safety, smooth traveling, comfort and convenience.

 

   

G-BOOK is the latest information network service that merges the latest network technologies and car multimedia, prior to the arrival of the ubiquitous network society. G-BOOK provides various types of information useful for driving a car as well as safety and security services that detect unusual conditions in the vehicle, which supports a lifestyle using automobiles anytime and anywhere through a network. In 2005, Toyota started G-BOOK ALPHA and G-Link that is a telematics service exclusive to Lexus, which added various features including the traffic congestion forecast service. In 2007, Toyota launched G-BOOK mX, which has matured as a comprehensive telematics service and is built on the proven reliability and security of G-BOOK with the addition of services allowing drivers to use more convenient navigation systems such as “Map-on-Demand” — the world’s first technology for automatically updating map data and “Probe Communication Traffic Information” that provides drivers with highly precise information on traffic congestion.

 

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HELPNET emergency call service is an emergency notification system that transmits necessary information such as the vehicle location either automatically or through the touch of a button in the event of a traffic accident or medical emergency. It immediately contacts police and fire departments through the HELPNET Operation Center. This system is integrated into G-BOOK and G-Link to improve the quality of services. HELPNET shortens the time taken to report following an emergency situation, which contributes to decreasing the number of traffic accident fatalities and reducing the level of impact, preventing second disasters and easing traffic congestion.

In addition to the above, Toyota also operates a Japanese-language website, GAZOO.com. The name “Gazoo” originates from the Japanese word gazo meaning images. Gazoo was established as a membership Internet service linking Toyota, its national dealer network and Gazoo members, and has provided information on new and used Toyota vehicles and related services as well as online shopping capabilities. Currently, in addition to information on Toyota vehicles, Gazoo provides information on automobile companies, while providing information through an enhanced blog on an automobile portal site where customers can experience the enjoyment that cars offer. Furthermore, Toyota is using new content such as GAZOO Racing and GAZOO Mura to further add to its content line-up. In October 2008, Toyota introduced the new Internet-based service GAZOO METAPOLIS, which is Toyota’s own virtual city using 3-D images, to inspire new interest in cars and propose new ways for people to enjoy their vehicles through the Internet. Toyota utilized its GAZOO technology to further expand its automobile information service by launching the G-BOOK telematics service in Japan in fall 2002 and G-Link, which is a service exclusive to Lexus, in August 2005. Toyota also offers a theft detection system, vehicle tracking service, operator support service as standard to enhance services aiming to provide safety, security and comfort for G-BOOK and G-Link users in their lifestyle using vehicles. With G-BOOK mX announced in April 2007, Toyota started offering services that allow drivers to use more convenient navigation systems such as “Map-on-Demand” — the world’s first technology for automatically updating map data. Also, Toyota has further strengthened its linkage between Gazoo and G-BOOK and has, for example, allowed map information searched on a blog on GAZOO.com to be used on G-BOOK, further maturing as a comprehensive telematics service. In Japan, Toyota is seeking to promote the use of the G-BOOK by equipping all Crown models with the G-BOOK and increasing the number of car navigation system models that are compatible with G-BOOK. Toyota has also licensed its G-BOOK technology to certain other competitors in Japan. Toyota is applying the technology and experience it has accumulated in Japan to regions outside Japan. G-BOOK services have been available in China since March 2009, and its unique telematics services in the United States was launched in August 2009. In addition, Toyota began offering the new G-BOOK software for smartphones starting from December 2010.

In addition, in March 2004, Toyota launched its CRM (Customer Relationship Management) system called e-CRB (evolutionary Customer Relationship Building) in Thailand. e-CRB builds on a technology cultivated through the development of Gazoo and G-BOOK and offers its customers a variety of services such as providing information of new vehicles, accepting requests for brochures and estimates and notifying customers when it is time for maintenance by keeping track of the vehicle’s maintenance history and mileage. In addition, e-CRB offers an advanced operation system that can be utilized comprehensively at dealers including new and used cars and services. Toyota is currently promoting e-CRB in countries such as China, Thailand, Australia and India where steady progress has been made as the service-in ratio has increased.

Also, Toyota introduced a system called Sales Logistics Integrated Management (SLIM) in Guangzhou, China. By utilizing real sales information and linking with production and distribution, Toyota is able to realize the Just-in-Time production system of producing and delivering only the number of vehicles that have been sold. SLIM has been recognized to significantly increase the freshness of inventory and improve cash flow.

In September 2010, Toyota announced its smart-grid initiatives, which are intended to demonstrate efficient energy use toward the realization of a low-carbon and energy-saving society. By utilizing technology cultivated through the Internet and telematics services mentioned above, Toyota developed the Toyota

 

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Smart Center (TSC) that optimally controls electricity and links EVs (electric vehicles) and PHVs (plug-in hybrid vehicles) with homes, and commenced in Rokkasho Village in Aomori, a demonstration project aimed to reduce overall CO2 emissions and users’ electricity costs. Element technology developed through this demonstration project will be incorporated in other smart-grid demonstration projects in which Toyota will be involved and also in electricity management that will enable the widespread use of next-generation eco-cars. In addition, in order to develop a global platform of the Toyota Smart Center, Toyota announced a partnership with Microsoft Corp. in April 2011 and a partnership with Salesforce.com in May 2011. Toyota is implementing cooperative efforts to work with the new information technology and industry to establish a framework for Toyota Smart Center’s global implementation and to realize a mobility society in the future.

Enhancing Vehicle Functionality — Driving Assistance Functions.

Toyota’s driving assistance functions offer functions that assist drivers with an aim to lessen the burden of driving, enhance safety and provide pleasure of driving to everyone. Toyota is proceeding with enhancements to commercialize various functions that assist the driver in sensing external information, avoiding danger and making appropriate maneuvers. These functions have started to be incorporated in some Toyota vehicles. Examples of driving assistance functions include the following:

 

   

VDIM (Vehicle Dynamics Integrated Management) is a system that constantly monitors the driver’s operations and the vehicle’s situation and centrally manages the engine, steering mechanisms and brakes. By stabilizing the vehicle before the driver loses control of the vehicle, the VDIM achieves a high level of ‘active safety’ and improves driving performance namely running, turning and stopping.

 

   

“Pre-collision Safety System” is a system that perceives possibilities of a crash with obstacles or the car in front through a millimeter-wave radar sensor that can precisely detect objects even in bad weather conditions. If collision seems to be unavoidable, it proceeds to activate safety devices at an early stage to reduce any damage. Toyota is also developing an advanced system that recognizes unavoidable collisions at an earlier stage with a system using a front camera that better detects objects and a driver monitoring camera that detects facial orientation and the opening and closing of eyes.

 

   

Radar Cruise Control (with all-speed tracking function) allows the vehicle to keep a constant distance between itself and the preceding vehicle within a speed range from zero to a preset speed, automatically slowing down and stopping if necessary to avoid collision. When the car in front speeds up, it allows the driver to accelerate, resuming the system.

 

   

“Lane Keeping Assist System” is a system that uses a camera to detect white or yellow lane markers while driving on a highway. The system assists the driver’s operation of the steering wheel in order to help keep the vehicle traveling between the lane markers by controlling electric power steering, and also warns the driver if it detects possible deviation. This system does not automatically control the steering to maintain travel between lane markers, but requires the driver to steer.

 

   

“Intelligent Parking Assist” is the world’s first parking assistance system that enables the vehicle to be automatically steered by electric steering when backing into a parking spot or when parallel-parking. The driver presets the parking position on the display monitor. The system allows the driver to set the parking position more easily, reducing driver manuevering by using a spatial cognition feature that detects the parking space through ultrasonic sensors.

 

   

“Night View” is a system that supports the driver’s vision at night. By utilizing infrared rays, pedestrians, vehicles and other objects within and beyond headlight range are displayed clearly and the driver’s range of vision is widened. In addition, Toyota is developing a system that brackets pedestrians in yellow in the Night View screen and prompts attention.

Enhancing Transport Systems.

Enhancing transport systems requires taking a general approach that addresses various factors across a wide scope that are pertinent not only to vehicles but also roads, people and public transport systems in

 

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order to ensure smooth and efficient movement of people and vehicles and to build a safe transportation environment. Recent advances in information technology and ITS are making it possible to develop various systems that used to be mere concepts, such as the VICS (Vehicle Information and Communication System) and the ETC (Electronic Toll Collection System), which are already standard in Japan, as well as the “Vehicle-Infrastructure Cooperative Systems that Support Safety Driving” that has begun to be partially implemented. The following are examples of transport systems enhancements.

 

   

“Vehicle-Infrastructure Cooperative Systems that support Safety Driving” is a system developed with the aim of handling accidents that are difficult to prevent with only existing safety equipment. It utilizes communication between vehicle and road, vehicle and other vehicles and vehicle and pedestrians, providing information to the driver and prompting attention with sound.

 

   

“ITS Spot Service” commenced in 2009 and corresponding products are available for purchase. This service links with car navigation and aims to reduce road accidents and promote effective movements by connecting road and vehicle and supplying drivers with information related to road traffic and safe driving through video and voice.

 

   

In spring of 2011, the National Police Agency has started operation of a driving safety support system (DSSS), which is under preparation for launch in summer of 2011. In addition to traffic safety functions such as activating warnings of red traffic lights, the system is also planned to serve the function of contributing to environmentally-friendly driving by improving traffic flow.

Toyota is committed to developing new ITS products. Toyota believes that intelligent transport systems will become an integral part of its overall automotive operations and enhance the competitiveness of its vehicles. As familiarity with and demand for ITS products grows, Toyota expects an increasing number of ITS products to become commercially available and achieve greater acceptance each year.

Financial Services

Toyota’s financial services include loan programs and leasing programs for customers and dealers. Toyota believes that its ability to provide financing to its customers is an important value-added service. In July 2000, Toyota established a wholly-owned subsidiary, Toyota Financial Services Corporation (“TFSC”), to oversee the management of Toyota’s finance companies worldwide, through which Toyota aims to strengthen the overall competitiveness of its financial business, improve risk management and streamline decision-making processes. Toyota plans to expand its network of financial services, in accordance with its strategy of developing auto-related financing businesses in significant markets. Accordingly, Toyota currently operates financial services companies in 33 countries and regions, which support its automotive operations globally.

Toyota’s revenues from its financial services operations were ¥1,192 billion in fiscal 2011, ¥1,245 billion in fiscal 2010 and ¥1,378 billion in fiscal 2009. In fiscal 2010, with a more widespread recovery in Asia and other emerging countries, the economy has stabilized and the financial services operations were steady overall. Toyota’s financial services operations remained strong in fiscal 2011 due to continued growth in demand and increased export activity in emerging markets in Asia and elsewhere, as well as the effects of economic stimulus measures in countries throughout the world. Toyota also maintained a high level of financing share at 33.4% in fiscal 2011. Moreover, the implementation of government financing initiatives worldwide has resulted in the financing environment showing signs of recovery since January 2009. In countries such as the United States, where a rising unemployment rate contributed to the worsening of individual credit standing, measures such as the revision of lending standards have kept down costs of credit, and the percentage of credit losses improved by 0.12% in fiscal 2010 as compared to fiscal 2009 to 0.72%. In fiscal 2011, the percentage of credit losses improved by 0.31% from fiscal 2010 to 0.41%, as Toyota strengthened its collection management system and performed ongoing revisions to its lending standards. Additionally in fiscal 2011, the prices of used cars in the United States have remained steady, keeping down costs from residual value, leading to record profits for Toyota’s financial services operations. Toyota continues to work towards improving its risk management measures in connection with credit and control of residual value risk.

 

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Toyota Motor Credit Corporation is Toyota’s principal financial services subsidiary in the United States. Toyota also provides financial services in 32 other countries and regions through various financial services subsidiaries, including:

 

   

Toyota Finance Corporation in Japan,

 

   

Toyota Credit Canada Inc. in Canada,

 

   

Toyota Finance Australia Ltd. in Australia,

 

   

Toyota Kreditbank GmbH in Germany, and

 

   

Toyota Financial Services (UK) PLC in the United Kingdom.

Toyota Motor Credit Corporation provides a wide range of financial services, including retail financing, retail leasing, wholesale financing and insurance. Toyota Finance Corporation also provides a range of financial services, including retail financing, retail leasing, credit cards and housing loans. Toyota’s other finance subsidiaries provide services including retail financing, retail leasing and wholesale financing.

In October 2008, Toyota established Toyota Financial Services Vietnam Company Limited, a financial services company, in Vietnam.

Net finance receivables for all of Toyota’s dealer and customer financing operations were approximately ¥9.7 trillion as of March 31, 2011, representing a decrease of approximately 1.5% as compared to the previous year. The majority of Toyota’s financial services are provided in North America. As of March 31, 2011, approximately 59.0% of Toyota’s finance receivables were derived from financing operations in North America, 12.7% from Japan, 10.4% from Europe, 5.8% from Asia and 12.1% from other areas.

Approximately 54% of Toyota’s unit sales in the United States during fiscal 2011 included a finance or lease arrangement with Toyota. Because the majority of Toyota’s financial services operations are related to the sale of Toyota vehicles, a decrease in vehicle unit sales may lead to a contraction of Toyota’s financial services operations.

The worldwide financial services market is highly competitive. Toyota’s competitors in retail financing and retail leasing include commercial banks, credit unions and other finance companies. Commercial banks and other automobile finance subsidiary companies serving their parent automobile companies are competitors of Toyota’s wholesale financing activities. Competitors in Toyota’s insurance operations are primarily national and regional insurance companies.

 

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The following table provides information for Toyota’s finance receivables and operating leases as of March 31, 2010 and 2011.

 

     Yen in millions     US dollars
in millions
 
     March 31,     March 31,  
     2010     2011     2011  

Finance Receivables

      

Retail

   ¥ 7,162,082      ¥ 7,128,453      $ 85,730   

Finance leases

     1,232,508        1,123,188        13,508   

Wholesale and other dealer loans

     2,051,301        1,990,557        23,939   
                        
     10,445,891        10,242,198        123,177   

Deferred origination costs

     109,747        104,391        1,256   

Unearned income

     (482,983     (496,235     (5,968

Allowance for credit losses

      

Retail

     (160,351     (92,199     (1,109

Finance leases

     (36,917     (36,024     (433

Wholesale and other dealer loans

     (35,211     (28,580     (344
                        
     (232,479     (156,803     (1,886
                        

Total finance receivables, net

     9,840,176        9,693,551        116,579   

Less – Current portion

     (4,209,496     (4,136,805     (49,751
                        

Noncurrent finance receivables, net

   ¥ 5,630,680      ¥ 5,556,746      $ 66,828   
                        

Operating Leases

      

Vehicles

   ¥ 2,516,948      ¥ 2,404,032      $ 28,912   

Equipment

     96,300        87,914        1,057   
                        
     2,613,248        2,491,946        29,969   

Less – Accumulated depreciation

     (791,169     (662,255     (7,964
                        

Vehicles and equipment on operating leases, net

   ¥ 1,822,079      ¥ 1,829,691      $ 22,005   
                        

Retail Financing

Toyota’s finance subsidiaries acquire new and used vehicle installment contracts primarily from Toyota dealers. Installment contracts acquired must first meet specified credit standards. Thereafter, the finance company retains responsibility for contract collection and administration. Toyota’s finance subsidiaries acquire security interests in the vehicles financed and can generally repossess vehicles if customers fail to meet their contractual obligations. Almost all retail financings are non-recourse, which relieves the dealers from financial responsibility in the event of repossession. In most cases, Toyota’s finance subsidiaries require their retail financing customers to carry automobile insurance on financed vehicles covering the interests of both the finance company and the customer.

Toyota has historically sponsored, and continues to sponsor, special lease and retail programs by subsidizing below market lease and retail contract rates.

Retail Leasing

In the area of retail leasing, Toyota’s finance subsidiaries acquire new vehicle lease contracts originated primarily through Toyota dealers. Lease contracts acquired must first meet specified credit standards after which the finance company assumes ownership of the leased vehicle. The finance company is generally permitted to take possession of the vehicle upon a default by the lessee. Toyota’s finance subsidiaries are responsible for contract collection and administration during the lease period. The residual value is normally estimated at the

 

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time the vehicle is first leased. Vehicles returned to the finance subsidiaries at the end of their leases are sold by auction. For example, in the United States, vehicles are sold through a network of auction sites as well as through the Internet. In most cases, Toyota’s finance subsidiaries require lessees to carry automobile insurance on leased vehicles covering the interests of both the finance company and the lessee.

Wholesale Financing

Toyota’s finance subsidiaries also provide wholesale financing primarily to qualified Toyota vehicle dealers to finance inventories of new Toyota vehicles and used vehicles of Toyota and others. The finance companies acquire security interests in vehicles financed at wholesale. In cases where additional security interests would be required, the finance companies take dealership assets or personal assets, or both, as additional security. If a dealer defaults, the finance companies have the right to liquidate any assets acquired and seek legal remedies.

Toyota’s finance subsidiaries also make term loans to dealers for business acquisitions, facilities refurbishment, real estate purchases and working capital requirements. These loans are typically secured with liens on real estate, other dealership assets and/or personal assets of the dealers.

Insurance

Toyota provides insurance services in the United States through Toyota Motor Credit Corporation’s wholly-owned subsidiary, Toyota Motor Insurance Services, Inc. (“TMIS”) and its wholly-owned insurance company subsidiaries. Their principal activities include marketing, underwriting and claims administration. TMIS also provides coverage related to vehicle service agreements and contractual liability agreements through Toyota dealers to customers. In addition, TMIS also provides coverage and related administrative services to affiliates of Toyota Motor Credit Corporation. Toyota dealerships in Japan and in other countries and regions also engage in vehicle insurance sales.

Toyota held approximately 34% of the voting rights in leading domestic insurance company Aioi Insurance Company, Limited (“Aioi”) until Aioi’s business integration with the Mitsui Sumitomo Insurance Group (Mitsui Sumitomo Insurance Group Holdings, Inc. and Mitsui Sumitomo Insurance Company, Limited) and Nissay Dowa General Insurance Company, Limited in April 2010. As a result of the share transfer effecting the business integration, Toyota now holds approximately 8% of the voting rights in the combined holding company MS&AD Insurance Group Holdings, Inc.

Other Financial Services

Toyota Finance Corporation launched its credit card business in April 2001 and began issuing Lexus credit cards in 2005 when the Lexus brand was introduced in Japan. As of March 31, 2011, Toyota Finance Corporation has over 8.8 million card holders (including Lexus credit card holders).

As part of Toyota’s restructuring of its domestic financial services businesses, Toyota assigned all of the stock of Toyota Financial Services Securities Corporation (“TFSS”), a subsidiary of Toyota Financial Services Corporation (“TFSC”), to Tokai Tokyo Financial Holdings, Inc. (“TTFH”) and agreed to the merger of TFSS with Tokai Tokyo Securities Co., Ltd., a subsidiary of TTFH. In order to ensure the smooth implementation of the merger and to support the new company after the merger, TFSC made a 5% investment in TTFH.

All Other Operations

In addition to its automotive operations and financial services operations, Toyota is involved in a number of other non-automotive business activities. Net sales for these activities totaled ¥972 billion in fiscal 2011, ¥948 billion in fiscal 2010 and ¥1,185 billion in fiscal 2009. Sales to external customers of all other operations in fiscal 2011 represented 2.6% of Toyota’s net revenues for fiscal 2011. Substantially all of Toyota’s revenues from other operations were derived in Japan.

 

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Housing

Toyota established its subsidiary Toyota Housing Corporation in April 2003 and has transferred to it product planning and sales operations related to the manufacture and sale of housing. Furthermore, in order to quickly and accurately grasp clients’ needs and to plan, develop and sell products on a timely basis, in April 2008, Toyota transferred the product development operation to Toyota Housing Corporation. In October 2010, Toyota spun-off its housing operations (project planning, technology development and manufacturing) through a statutory demerger and integrated them into Toyota Housing Corporation. Toyota believes that in the vastly changing housing market environment, the integration of the development, manufacture and sales functions will expedite decision making and lead to flexible business operations that will enable Toyota to better respond to the needs of even more customers. In March 2005, Toyota, together with institutional investors, agreed to jointly invest in Misawa Home Holdings, Inc. (“Misawa”; renamed Misawa Homes Co., Ltd.) pursuant to its request for assistance in its rehabilitation. In April 2010, determining that a stronger collaboration with Misawa would be desirable in order to achieve further growth in the difficult operating environment of the housing industry, Toyota Housing Corporation agreed to purchase Misawa shares from an institutional investor. In addition, Toyota transferred ownership of Misawa to Toyota Housing Corporation in October 2010. Through these activities, Toyota intends to strengthen the housing business of both companies.

Information Technology

See “— Increase Vehicles Functionality and Intelligent Transport Systems” for a description of Toyota’s information technology.

Governmental Regulation, Environmental and Safety Standards

Toyota is subject to laws in various jurisdictions regulating the levels of pollutants generated by its plants. In addition, Toyota is subject to regulations relating to the emission levels, fuel economy, noise and safety of its products. Toyota has incurred significant costs in complying with these regulations and expects to incur significant compliance costs in the future. Toyota’s management views leadership in environmental protection as an important competitive factor in the marketplace.

Vehicle Emissions

Japanese Standards

The Air Pollution Control Law of Japan and the Road Vehicle Law and the Law Concerning Special Measures for Total Emission Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides from Automobiles in Specified Areas regulate vehicle emissions in Japan. In addition, both the Noise Regulation Law and the Road Vehicles Law provide for noise reduction standards on automobiles in Japan. Toyota’s vehicles manufactured for sale in Japan comply with all Japanese exhaust emission and noise level standards.

U.S. Federal Standards

The federal Clean Air Act directs the Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) to establish and enforce air quality standards, including emission control standards on passenger cars, light trucks and heavy-duty vehicles. The EPA decided in February 2000 to adopt more stringent vehicle emission and fuel economy standards applicable to passenger cars and light trucks produced in model years 2004 and beyond. In the standards adopted for model years 2004 and beyond, manufacturers must guarantee that their vehicles meet the requirements for ten years or 120,000 miles, whichever occurs first. Manufacturers are not permitted to sell vehicles in the United States that do not meet the standards. In April 2007, EPA regulations that further restrict emissions from passenger cars and light trucks operating at cold temperatures became effective. The new emissions standards set by these regulations are being phased in between 2010 and 2013. Similar standards that further restrict emissions from heavy-duty vehicles operating at cold temperatures will be phased in from 2012 to 2015.

 

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Furthermore, in April 2007 the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the EPA has the authority to regulate automobile emissions of greenhouse gases. In response to this ruling, on April 1, 2010 the EPA and the federal National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (“NHTSA”) issued a joint final rule to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases from passenger cars, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles for model years 2012 through 2016. These vehicles are required to meet an estimated combined average emissions level of 250 grams of carbon dioxide per mile, equivalent to 35.5 miles per gallon if the requirements were met through fuel economy standards. The NHTSA also set Corporate Average Fuel Economy (“CAFE”) standards for passenger cars and light trucks that will require manufacturers of those vehicles to meet an estimated combined average fuel economy level of 34.1 miles per gallon in model year 2016.

California Standards

Under the federal Clean Air Act, states are permitted to establish their own vehicle emission control standards if they receive a waiver from the EPA. As a result, the California Air Resources Board (“CARB”) established the “Low Emission Vehicle Program” and set emission standards for certain regulated pollutants that were phased in beginning in the 2004 model year. Under these standards most light trucks and passenger cars are required to meet the same emissions standards, which were stricter than the federal standards. As part of the original Low Emission Vehicle Program, the CARB also required that a specified percentage of a manufacturer’s passenger cars and light trucks sold in California for all model years 1998 and after be “zero-emission vehicles” (vehicles producing no emissions of regulated pollutants). The CARB subsequently eliminated the zero-emission vehicles mandate for model years before 2005, and decided to adopt a zero-emission vehicles requirement for model years 2005 and beyond. This zero-emission vehicles requirement also permitted certain advanced technology vehicles such as PHV (Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles), hybrid cars and alternative fuel vehicles that meet “partial zero-emission vehicles requirements” to be granted partial qualification as EV (Electronic Vehicles) or FC (Fuel Cells). Toyota’s battery-powered RAV4 EV compact sport-utility vehicle and the Toyota FCHV qualify as zero-emission vehicles. The current Prius model and the Camry Hybrid qualify as partial zero-emission vehicles under the zero-emission vehicles requirement adopted by the CARB. Toyota intends to continue to develop additional advanced technologies and alternative fuel technologies that will allow other vehicles using such technologies to qualify as zero-emission vehicles or partial-zero-emission vehicles.

In July 2002, the California legislature passed legislation that required the CARB to develop and adopt, by the end of 2004, regulations that achieved the maximum feasible reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from vehicles. In September 2004, the CARB adopted regulations that required a 20 to 30 percent reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from passenger vehicles, light trucks and other noncommercial vehicles to be phased in between the 2009 and 2016 model years.

In December 2007, the EPA denied California’s request for a waiver under the Clean Air Act that would have allowed the state to enforce these regulations to control greenhouse gas emissions from motor vehicles. However, the EPA reconsidered its decision pursuant to a direction issued by the U.S. President in January 2009, and in July 2009 decided to allow the state to enforce such regulations.

In February 2010, the CARB enacted regulations that deem automobile manufacturers that produced vehicles in model years 2012 through 2016 that are in compliance with the greenhouse gas emission regulations of the EPA to be in compliance with California’s greenhouse gas emission regulations. Toyota is currently developing plans to comply with the EPA regulations.

Other States

The states of New York, Massachusetts, Arizona, Connecticut, Maine, Maryland, New Jersey, New Mexico, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, Washington, Delaware, Colorado and Florida have either adopted, or plan to adopt, regulations substantially similar to California’s zero-emission vehicles requirement and greenhouse gas emissions regulations.

 

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Canadian and Mexican Standards

Canada has established vehicle emission standards equivalent to the federal standards in the United States, including the heightened requirements that became applicable to passenger cars and light trucks in model years 2004 and beyond. In October 2010, the Canadian government also established its proposed greenhouse gas emission regulations that are similar to those enacted by the EPA. Furthermore, certain Canadian provinces are currently considering enacting their own regulations on vehicle emissions of greenhouse gases. Mexico’s emission control standards are similar to those applicable in the United States after the 1994 model year; however, emission regulations have become tighter for model years 2007 and beyond. Further regulations on emission are scheduled to match the improved fuel property.

European Standards

The European Union adopted a directive that establishes increasingly stringent emissions standards for passenger vehicles and light commercial vehicles in October 1998. Under this directive, the standards adopted beginning with year 2000 require manufacturers to recall any vehicles which fail to meet the standards for five years or 80,000 kilometers, whichever occurs first. Toyota introduced vehicles complying with this directive in 1999. Under standards adopted in 2005, manufacturers are obligated to meet the more stringent standards for five years or 100,000 kilometers, whichever occurs first. In 2007, the European Parliament adopted more stringent emission standards for passenger vehicles and light commercial vehicles. The effective dates for phasing in these stricter standards for passenger cars were September 2009 for Euro 5 and September 2014 for Euro 6. For light commercial vehicles, the effective dates are September 2010 for Euro 5 and September 2015 for Euro 6. Euro 5 provides for lower emission levels for gasoline and diesel powered vehicles and also extends the manufacturers’ responsibility for emission performance to 160,000 kilometers. The primary focus of Euro 6 is to limit further emissions of diesel powered vehicles and bring them down to a level equivalent to gasoline powered vehicles.

Chinese Standards

Emissions regulations are being implemented throughout China pursuant to the Chinese National Standards (GB) of the Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People’s Republic of China, and the manufacture and sale of models not meeting these regulations are prohibited. As for passenger vehicles, pursuant to GB18352.3-2005, Level 3 Emissions Regulations (corresponding to Euro 3 standards) apply to new models after July 2007, and Level 4 Emissions Regulations (corresponding to Euro 4 standards) apply to new models after July 2010. New models after July 2008 are also required to be equipped with on-board diagnostics. As for diesel-powered commercial vehicles, pursuant to GB17691-2005, new Level 3 Emissions Regulations apply to models after January 2007, Level 4 Emissions Regulations apply to new models after January 2010, and Level 5 Emissions Regulations will apply to new models after July 2012. As for gasoline-powered commercial vehicles, pursuant to GB14762-2008, Level 4 Emissions Regulations apply to new models after July 2009, and Level 5 Emissions Regulations will apply to new models after July 2012. After the first day the regulation is implemented to a new model, all new models released during the following approximate one-year period are also subject to the regulation. In addition, in some areas such as Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and the Pearl River Delta region, the above mentioned regulations were implemented several years earlier by regional environmental preservation authorities with the authorization of the Chinese State Council. With respect to passenger vehicles, adoption procedures regarding the Level 5 Emissions Regulations corresponding to Euro 5 are currently in progress, in order to implement the regulations in approximately 2016.

Compliance with new emission control standards will present significant technological challenges to automobile manufacturers and will likely require significant expenditures. Examples of these challenges include the development of advanced technologies, such as high performance batteries and catalytic converters, as well as the development of alternative fuel technologies. Manufacturers that are unable to develop commercially viable technologies within the time frames set by the new standards will lose their market share and will be forced to decrease the number of types of vehicles and engines in their principal markets.

 

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Vehicle Fuel Economy

Japanese Standards

The Law Concerning the Rational Use of Energy (the “Act”) requires automobile manufacturers to improve their vehicles to meet specified fuel economy standards. Fuel economy standards are established according to the types of vehicles specified below, and are required to be met by either fiscal 2011 (April 2010-March 2011) or fiscal 2016 (April 2015-March 2016).

Among qualifying passenger vehicles are:

 

   

Vehicles which are designated in Article 75, Paragraph 1 of the Road Vehicles Law as type-designated vehicles (“type-designated vehicles”) with 10 seats or less using gasoline, gas oil or LPG;

 

   

Type-designated vehicles with 11 seats or more that are 3.5 tons or less in vehicle weight using gasoline or gas oil; and

 

   

Type-designated vehicles with 11 seats or more that are over 3.5 tons in vehicle weight using gas oil, or designated carbon monoxide emission control vehicles (“designated carbon monoxide emission control vehicles”) which are designated in Article 75-2 Paragraph 1 of the Road Vehicles Law.

Among qualifying cargo vehicles are:

 

   

Type-designated vehicles that are 3.5 tons or less in vehicle weight using gasoline, gas oil or LPG; and

 

   

Type-designated vehicles that are over 3.5 tons in vehicle weight using gas oil or LPG, or designated carbon monoxide emission control vehicles.

Toyota is in compliance with the fuel economy standards that currently apply and is promoting the improvement of its vehicles in order to achieve compliance with the standards that will apply beginning in fiscal 2016.

Japan is a signatory to the Framework Convention on Climate Change and has agreed to take measures to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions. Improved vehicle fuel economy is contributing to the reduction in carbon dioxide emissions.

U.S. Standards

The Federal Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act requires automobile manufacturers to comply with CAFE standards. Under this law, limits are imposed on the amount of regulated pollutants that may be emitted by new motor vehicles in the United States. A manufacturer is subject to substantial civil penalties if, in any model year, its vehicles do not meet the CAFE standards. Manufacturers that exceed the CAFE standards earn credits determined by the difference between the average fuel economy performance of their vehicles and the CAFE standards. Credits earned for the five model years preceding the current model year, and credits projected to be earned for the next three model years, can be used to meet CAFE standards in a current model year.

In April 2006, the NHTSA established CAFE standards applicable to light trucks for model year 2008 and beyond. These CAFE standards aimed to shift the framework from one that used to be advantageous only to compact car manufacturers to one that is fair to full line manufacturers. The requirements were changed so that the CAFE standards are now determined by a sales rate based on vehicle size (measured by the area of the wheel and wheel base) for each manufacturer.

In addition to the CAFE standards, there are multiple standards in the United States including the EPA’s emission regulations and the California standard. Automobile manufacturers had called for uniform standards, as they would need to comply with standards that varied by state if all standards became effective. On April 1, 2010 the EPA and the NHTSA issued a joint final rule to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases from passenger cars, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles for model years 2012 through 2016. These vehicles

 

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are required to meet an estimated combined average emissions level of 250 grams of carbon dioxide per mile, equivalent to 35.5 miles per gallon if the requirements were met through fuel economy standards. The NHTSA also set CAFE standards for passenger cars and light trucks that will require manufacturers of those vehicles to meet an estimated combined average fuel economy level of 34.1 miles per gallon in model year 2016. Furthermore, the EPA and NHTSA joint final rule allows the two agencies and California standards to act in a unified way, and creates a regulatory framework that makes compliance less burdensome for the manufacturers. However, the standards of fuel economy are stringent, and Toyota strives to meet the fuel economy standards by further developing fuel-efficient technology, alternative fuel technology and other advanced technology.

In addition, the Energy Tax Act of 1978 imposes a “gas guzzler” tax on automobiles with a fuel economy rating below specified levels.

European Standards

The European Union has signed the Kyoto Protocol and agreed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 8% during the years 2008 to 2012, as measured from the 1990 base year. In early 1999, the European Commission and the European Automotive Manufacturers Association (ACEA) reached a voluntary agreement which establishes an average emissions target of 140 grams of carbon dioxide per kilometer for new cars sold in the European Union in 2008 (the voluntary agreement applied to the 15 states who were members of the European Union at that time). The Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association and the Korean Automobile Manufacturers Association have also reached a voluntary agreement, similar to that entered into by the European Commission, with the year 2009 as a target year.

In December 2008, the European Parliament approved a new regulation that establishes an average emission standard of 130 grams of carbon dioxide per kilometer by 2012 for passenger vehicles sold in member states, made effective in June 2009. The regulation will phase in gradually, initially requiring 65% of new cars to comply with the new standards in 2012 and increasing to 100% of new cars in 2015. As a result of the new regulations, different targets will apply to each manufacturer, based on their respective fleets of vehicles and weight. Penalties will apply to those manufacturers who fail to meet their targets from 2012, in amounts corresponding to the degree of shortfall. Manufacturers failing to meet their targets between 2012 and 2018 will incur penalties of between €5 and €95 per each gram of carbon dioxide per kilometer shortfall for each non-compliant vehicle, and such penalties will rise to €95 in 2019 and beyond. Furthermore, a medium- to long-term target of reducing emissions to 95 grams of carbon dioxide per kilometer by 2020 has also been proposed. This represents a remarkably ambitious target, even in comparison to other fuel efficiency requirements worldwide. Furthermore, in March 2011, the Council of the European Union approved a new carbon dioxide emission standard applicable to light commercial vehicles to establish an average emissions target of 175 grams of carbon dioxide per kilometer. This regulation has the same basic regulatory framework as passenger vehicles, raising the compliance rate from 70% in 2014 to 100% in 2017, and as a longer term objective, 147 grams of carbon dioxide per kilometer by 2020.

An increasing number of European Union member states are introducing vehicle tax laws based on carbon dioxide emission levels, pursuant to the directive issued by the European Commission in 2005. This trend is expected to continue, in accordance with the recent increases in environmental awareness.

Chinese Standards

Fuel consumption regulations are being implemented pursuant to the Chinese National Standards (GB), and the manufacture and sale of vehicle models not meeting these regulations are prohibited. As for passenger vehicles, pursuant to GB19578-2004, Level 1 Fuel Consumption Regulations apply to new models after July 2005, and Level 2 Fuel Consumption Regulations apply to new models after July 2006. As for small commercial vehicles, pursuant to GB20997-2007, Level 2 Fuel Consumption Regulations apply to new models after February 2008, Level 1 Fuel Consumption Regulations apply to all vehicles as of January 2009, and Level 1 Fuel Consumption Regulations apply to all models as of January 2011. Each of these regulations applies to all

 

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applicable models beginning one year after first applying to new models. These regulations determine the consumption standards that apply depending on the mass of the applicable vehicle, and sets forth a method for determining if each model has met the regulation. Standards to strengthen fuel consumption regulations from 2012 are currently being developed. In these Level 3 Fuel Consumption Regulations, substantial revisions to the regulation framework are planned, such as a change from regulations requiring each model to meet consumption standards to regulations requiring automobile manufacturers to meet standards of average consumption across models.

Standards of Other Countries

As momentum gathers to prevent global warming, other countries in addition to Japan, the United States, and Europe are moving to introduce fuel consumption regulations. In particular, Korea, Australia, Taiwan, India, and Mexico are actively considering the introduction of new fuel consumption regulations using the regulations of Europe and the United States as a base, and may implement them by approximately 2015. Toyota predicts that this trend will spread to other countries, and in the future many nations will consider new regulations related to fuel consumption and CO2.

Vehicle Safety

Japanese Standards

Standards requiring protection against electrocution will apply to hybrid vehicles and electric vehicles manufactured on and after July 2012. In addition, Toyota is proceeding with its preparations to introduce the technological standards established by the Economic Commission for Europe (“ECE”), as well as complying with Japan’s passenger protection standards against electrocution.

For the purpose of harmonizing with international standards, frontal offset collision standards already apply to passenger vehicles, and will be applied to new cargo vehicle models manufactured after April 2011 and cargo vehicles that continue to be manufactured after April 2016. In addition, seatbelt and seatbelt anchorage standards are also expected to be combined with the ECE standards, and cars manufactured after July 2012 are required to meet these standards.

Electronic stability control and brake assist systems will be required to be applied to new vehicle models manufactured after October 2012 (October 2014 for mini-vehicles), and to vehicles continued to be manufactured after October 2014 (February 2018 for mini-vehicles).

Furthermore, preparations for the introduction of ECE standards to interference-resistant on-board electronic systems, tire pressure monitoring systems (TPMS) and pedestrian protection standards are currently in progress.

In addition, in Japan, considerations regarding the standardization of brake override systems, the strengthening of anti-spinal injury measures, drive recorders, lithium-ion battery safety, and anti-drunk driving measures are currently under consideration.

U.S. Standards

The U.S. National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966, or Safety Act, requires vehicles and equipment sold in the United States to meet various safety standards issued by the NHTSA. The Safety Act also authorizes the NHTSA to investigate complaints relating to vehicle safety and to order manufacturers to recall and repair vehicles found to have safety-related defects. The cost of these recalls can be substantial depending on the nature of the repair and the number of vehicles affected.

The Transportation Recall Enhancement, Accountability and Documentation Act was enacted in the United States on November 1, 2000. This Act required the NHTSA to regulate the dynamic rollover standards and to upgrade federal motor vehicle safety standards relating to tires. It also required the NHTSA to enhance its

 

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authority to gather information potentially relating to motor vehicle defects. This Act substantially increases the NHTSA’s authority to impose civil penalties for noncompliance with regulatory requirements and specifies possible criminal penalties for violations of the federal Fraud and False Statements Act. In 2002, the NHTSA expanded its New Car Assessment Program to implement consumer information programs for vehicle rollover resistance and child restraints and, beginning in 2003, adopted extensive early warning defect reporting requirements. Regulations regarding tire-pressure monitoring systems were strengthened in 2005.

Legislation on a transportation budget plan promoting a safe and efficient vehicle safety program for drivers, the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU) was passed in August 2005. The legislation requires the NHTSA to propose and issue safety standards to reduce rollover accidents, to complete the creation of standards for the reduction of vehicle passengers released from cars at the time of rollover accidents, to upgrade door lock standards, to complete the upgrade of roof crash standards, to decide on the side impact protection standards for passengers in all seat locations, to review seat belt wearing technology and complete a study that includes a proposal for improving the rate of seat belt usage, to establish standards to display New Car Assessment Program ratings on new car labels, and to complete the upgrade of the standard for power windows that will require pulling up switches. Some actions have already been taken and completed in response to the above requirements.

In February 2008, legislation to prevent non-traffic related injuries to young children caused by vehicles, the “Cameron Gulbransen Kids Transportation Safety Act”, was passed. The legislation requires the NHTSA to make rules to ensure safety on all passenger vehicles, including the following: (1) to consider requiring features that will prevent children from getting caught in power windows and decide on the standards or on the discontinuance of the establishment of standards (by August 30, 2010); (2) to begin drafting standards for rearward visibility to prevent children from being struck by backing vehicle and finalize the standards (by February 28, 2011); and (3) to require brake shift interlock systems, currently a voluntary regulation, after September 1, 2010.

In April 2010, the Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 2010 (the “2010 Safety Act”), which includes the brake-override standard, was submitted to Congress, but has not yet been deliberated by the House or Senate floor, and only the alert sound requirement for hybrid and electric vehicles was signed into law. However, even without the enactment of the 2010 Safety Act, NHTSA has begun to consider the revision of the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards and Regulations.

Toyota actively invests in technology development designed to increase the safety of its vehicles. Toyota is developing technologies to increase the availability of existing safety systems to all types of its vehicles. These technologies include supplemental restraint system (SRS) airbags, anti-lock braking systems, side airbags, curtain shield airbags, vehicle stability control and other safety features.

European, Canadian and Other Standards

In Europe, following the White Paper “European Transport Policy for 2010: Time to Decide” adopted in 2001, which targets halving the number of deaths caused by road accidents by 2010, various groups in different fields have conducted research and analyses.

As a next-generation policy, the “Traffic Safety Policy from 2011 to 2020” was newly adopted by the board of directors at the end of fiscal 2010. The policy aims to reduce fatalities from traffic accidents by half over the next 10 years, starting in 2010. Because the built-in effectiveness of the new technical system depends on users’ behavior, user instructions, training, and traffic law enforcement are crucial. However, with road safety systems, human error as well as inappropriate behavior needs to be corrected. Seven goals were established in order to consider the steps necessary to prevent and control the negative impact of human error, with a strong focus on vulnerable road users (pedestrians, cyclists, etc.). The topics to be discussed are speed limits for small

 

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commercial vehicles, installing alcohol interlocks for specific vehicles, the introduction and promotion of the newest technologies, such as ITS for road security, as well as road departure warnings, preventative rear-end collision warnings, a pedestrian detection system, the proliferation of automatic emergency alarm systems (eCall), and the enhanced safety of motorcycles and EVs.

Regarding the spread of eCall, although details such as method of regulation have not yet been decided, there is a possibility that it may become mandatory within the framework of “Whole Vehicle Type Approval” in the future. However, the governing body in charge of legislation, the European Commission Enterprise Directorate General, indicates that maintaining infrastructure such as a communications base in different countries is necessary as well as the promotion of on-board eCall. This matter is currently in ongoing discussion and consideration.

The European Commission and the ACEA have established CARS 21, a High Level Group that aims to strengthen the competitiveness of the European automotive industry, and examined the recommendations with the legal framework of a decade later in mind. The CARS 21 final report issued at the end of 2005 contains recommendations relating to the simplification of legislation and road safety, among other issues, and indicates a Ten Year Roadmap, and in February 2007, the European Commission issued a communication regarding the CARS 21 final report, in which concrete action plans for future legislation were announced, and much legislation had proceeded.

In October 2010, CARS 21 issued another newsletter for the purpose of explaining the European Commission’s “2020 Strategy”, which aims for the realization of high-level, sustainable and comprehensive growth. The High Level Group is planned to convene in the spring of 2012 along with the release of its final report.

In 2009, based on the CARS 21 final report released in February 2007, the European Commission enacted a new regulation and established a simplified framework, repealing more than 50 existing European Commission directives and replacing them with a single regulation aimed at incorporating the United Nations standards. The new regulation also requires the adoption of advanced safety systems. The incorporation of the United Nations standards will commence in 2012, and as to new regulations on advanced safety systems, the European Commission plans to require new model cars from 2011 to have electronic stability control systems, to introduce regulations relating to low rolling resistance tires in 2013, to require tire pressure monitoring systems starting in 2012 and to require heavy vehicles to have advanced emergency braking systems and lane departure warning systems from 2013. The United Nations is currently evaluating the technical requirements for these advanced safety systems led by the European Commission.

From April 2009, the criteria for whole vehicle type approval were extended to cover all new road vehicles, and are being phased in over five years depending on vehicle category. Furthermore, these categories (especially those for passenger and small commercial vehicles) must be verified, and are planned to be extended in 2011. Through the extension, the criteria will become applicable to small commercial vehicles, with a possibility that vehicles currently classified as small commercial vehicles will become classified as passenger vehicles.

Vehicle safety regulations in Canada are similar to those in the United States. Among the ASEAN countries, in 2006, Thailand and Malaysia acceded to the 1958 agreement of the United Nations regarding safety regulations and both countries plan to develop a legal system in order to incorporate ECE Regulations into domestic laws. Vietnam, Singapore, Indonesia and the Philippines will soon follow suit by acceding to the 1958 agreement, whereby ASEAN countries will be required to comply with the ECE Regulations. Countries in South America and the Middle East have also adopted automobile safety regulations, with South America generally following standards set by the United Nations, ECE or the United States, and the Middle East basing their domestic laws primarily on international regulations or legal standards.

 

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Chinese Standards

Vehicle safety laws in China were drafted with reference to the ECE Regulations and cover the same matters as the ECE Regulations. However, these laws also include unique provisions which take into account the distinctive characteristics of the Chinese market environment and differ from the ECE Regulations. As for future safety regulations, standards related to electric vehicle collision safety equipment, such as airbags, are currently in planning.

Environmental Matters

Japanese Standards

Toyota’s automotive operations in Japan are subject to substantial environmental regulation under laws such as the Air Pollution Law, the Water Pollution Control Law, the Noise Regulation Law and the Vibration Control Law. Under these laws, if a business entity establishes or alters any facility that is regulated by these laws, the business entity is required to give prior notice to regulators, and if a business entity discharges substances that are environmental burdens or causes noise or vibration from such facility, the business entity is also required to comply with the applicable standards. Toyota is also subject to local regulations, which in some cases impose more stringent obligations than the Japanese central government requirements. Toyota has complied with these regulations. Under the Waste Disposal and Public Cleaning Law, producers of industrial waste must dispose of industrial waste in the manner prescribed in the Waste Disposal and Public Cleaning Law. Toyota has also complied with the Waste Disposal and Public Cleaning Law.

In February 2003, the Soil Contamination Countermeasures Law became effective in Japan. The Soil Contamination Countermeasures Law requires that land owners conduct contamination testing and submit a report at the time they cease to use hazardous substances, such as in connection with the sale of a former factory, or if there is a possibility of health hazards due to land contamination. If it is found that land contamination exceeds a certain level, the relevant prefectural authority designates the area considered to be contaminated and orders the land owner to take necessary measures. Toyota is suitably managing its land in accordance with the same law. In addition, the Law on Recycling of End-of-Life Vehicles was promulgated in July 2002. Under the Law on Recycling of End-of-Life Vehicles, vehicle manufacturers are required to take back and recycle specified materials (automotive shredder residues, air bags and fluorocarbons) of end-of-life vehicles and the provisions concerning such obligations of vehicle manufacturers became effective in January 2005. Toyota has coordinated with relevant parties to establish a vehicle take-back and recycle system throughout Japan. As a result, in fiscal 2011, Toyota achieved a recycling rate of 85% for automobile shredder residue (the legal requirement being 50%) and 94% for air bags (the legal requirement being 85%) and reached the targets set forth in this law.

U.S. Standards

Toyota’s assembly, manufacturing and other operations in the United States are subject to a wide range of environmental regulation under the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Pollution Prevention Act and the Toxic Substances Control Act. Toyota is also subject to a variety of state legislation that parallels, and in some cases imposes more stringent obligations than, federal requirements. These federal and state regulations impose severe restrictions on air- and water-borne discharges of pollution from Toyota facilities, the handling of hazardous materials at Toyota facilities and the disposal of wastes from Toyota operations. Toyota is subject to many similar requirements in its operations in Europe, Canada and other countries.

Moreover, the EPA has promulgated more stringent National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone and Particulate Matter, which define strategies needed to attain the new standards. Toyota expects growing pressure in the next several years to further reduce emissions from motor vehicles and manufacturing facilities.

 

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European Standards

In October 2000, the European Union brought into effect a directive that requires member states to promulgate regulations implementing the following:

 

   

automotive manufacturers shall bear all or a significant part of the costs for taking back end-of-life vehicles sold after July 1, 2002 and dismantling and recycling those vehicles. Beginning January 1, 2007, this requirement became applicable to vehicles sold before July 1, 2002 as well;

 

   

automotive manufacturers may not use certain hazardous materials in vehicles sold after July 1, 2003;

 

   

certified vehicles models sold after December 15, 2008, shall be re-usable and/or recyclable to a minimum of 85% by weight per vehicle and shall be re-usable and/or re-use as material or energy to a minimum of 95% by weight per vehicle; and

 

   

end-of-life vehicles must meet actual re-use and/or recycling of 80% and re-use and/or recovery of 85%, respectively, of vehicle weight by 2006, rising respectively to 85% and 95% by 2015.

Laws to implement this directive came into effect in each of the European Union member states. Currently, there are uncertainties surrounding the implementation of the applicable regulations in different European Union member states, particularly regarding automotive manufacturer responsibilities and resultant expenses that may be incurred.

In addition, under this directive, the member states must take measures to ensure that car manufacturers, distributors and other auto-related economic operators establish adequate used vehicle collection and treatment facilities and to ensure that hazardous materials and recyclable parts are removed from vehicles prior to shredding. This directive impacts Toyota’s vehicles sold in the European Union. Toyota is planning to accommodate, in offering its products, any measures the European Union member states will choose to take in order to comply with this directive.

Based on the legislation that has been enacted to date, Toyota has provided for its estimated liability related to covered vehicles in existence as of March 31, 2011. The amount of estimated liability may change depending on the legislation that will be enacted and subject to other circumstances. Although Toyota does not expect its compliance with the directive to result in significant cash expenditures, Toyota is continuing to assess the impact of this future legislation on its results of operations, cash flows and financial position.

The European Union has also issued directives and made proposals relating to the following subjects on environmental matters:

 

   

emission standards that include a framework permitting member states to introduce fiscal incentives to promote early compliance; and

 

   

reform of rules governing automotive distribution and service. The block exemption on distribution has been amended so that dealers may engage in cross-border sales actively within the European Union and open additional facilities for sales and services. Additionally, dealers may no longer be required by manufacturers to operate both sales and service facilities side by side.

Toyota believes that its operations are materially in compliance with environmental regulatory requirements concerning its facilities and products in each of the markets in which it operates. Toyota continuously monitors these requirements and takes necessary operational measures to ensure that it remains in material compliance with all of these requirements.

Toyota believes that environmental regulatory requirements have not had a material adverse effect on its operations. However, compliance with environmental regulations and standards has increased costs and is expected to lead to higher costs in the future. Therefore, Toyota recognizes that effective environmental cost management will become increasingly important. Moreover, innovation and leadership in the area of

 

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environmental protection are becoming increasingly important to remain competitive in the market. As a result, Toyota has proceeded with the development and production of environmentally friendly technologies, such as hybrid vehicles, fuel-cell vehicles and high fuel efficiency, low emission engines.

In addressing environmental issues, based on an assessment of the environmental impact of its products through their life cycles, Toyota, as a manufacturer, strives to take all possible measures in each life stage of a product, from development through production and sales, and continues to work toward technological innovations to make efficient use of resources and to reduce the burden on the environment.

Research and Development

Toyota’s research and development activities focus on the environment and energy, safety, IT/ITS technology and product development. For a detailed discussion of the company’s research and development policies for the last three years, see “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — Research and Development, Patents and Licenses”.

The following table provides information for Toyota’s principal research and development facilities.

 

Facility

  

Principal Activity

Japan   

Toyota Technical Center

   Product planning, design, evaluation, development of prototypes

Tokyo Design Research & Laboratory

   Research of advanced styling designs

Higashi-Fuji Technical Center

   Advanced research and development

Shibetsu Proving Ground

   Vehicle testing and evaluation

Tokyo Development Center

   Advanced development of electronics

United States

  

Toyota Motor Engineering and Manufacturing North America, Inc.

   North American production and product planning, upper body planning, evaluation

Calty Design Research, Inc.

   Design

Toyota Research Institute of North America (TRI-NA)

   Advanced research relating to “energy and environment”, “safety” and “mobility infrastructure”

Europe

  

Toyota Motor Europe NV/SA

   Upper body planning for European production, advanced research

Toyota Europe Design Development S.A.R.L.

   Design

Toyota Motorsport GmbH

   Development of motor sports vehicles

Asia Pacific

  

Toyota Motor Asia Pacific Engineering and Manufacturing Co., Ltd.

   Production, planning and evaluation of vehicles that are produced in Australia and Asia

Toyota Technical Center Asia Pacific Australia PTY, Ltd.

   Production, planning and evaluation of vehicles that are produced in Australia and Asia

China

  

Toyota Motor Engineering and Manufacturing (China) Co., Ltd.

   Research of new, low-energy vehicle technology, vehicle evaluation and quality assurance in China

 

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The success of Toyota’s research and development activities is a key element of Toyota’s strategy. The effectiveness of Toyota’s research and development activities is subject to a number of factors, some of which are not in Toyota’s control. These factors include the introduction of innovations by Toyota’s competitors that may reduce the value of Toyota’s initiatives and Toyota’s ability to convert its research and development into commercially successful technologies and products.

Components and Parts, Raw Materials and Sources of Supply

Toyota purchases parts, components, raw materials, equipment and other multiple from several competing suppliers located around the world. Toyota works closely with its suppliers to purchase on the most favorable terms possible. Toyota believes that this policy encourages technological innovation, cost reduction and other measures to strengthen its vehicle competitiveness. No single supplier accounted for more than 5% of Toyota’s consolidated purchases of raw materials, parts and equipment during fiscal 2011, except for Denso Corporation, an affiliate of Toyota, which supplied approximately 10% of Toyota’s purchases during fiscal 2011. Toyota plans to continue purchases based on the same principle and does not anticipate any difficulty in obtaining stable supplies in the foreseeable future.

Because Toyota had more than 50 overseas operations in 26 countries and regions as of March 31, 2011, procurement of parts and components is being carried out not only locally in the country of the production site but also from third countries, and the distribution network has become increasingly more complex. In order to realize timely and efficient distribution at the same time as keeping total costs at a minimum, Toyota is promoting efforts to optimize each stage of the supply-chain. To this end, Toyota has developed a standardized system of global distribution and is supporting the operation of the system at each production base. The use of the global distribution system aims at implementing parts procurement that meets changes in vehicle production in a timely manner. These varying efforts, combined together, have led to maximized customer satisfaction, as well as to building a good working relationship with Toyota’s suppliers.

Toyota has placed ongoing efforts into other methods for pursuing the commoditization of components and parts used in various vehicle models. This includes minimizing the differences between models and reducing the number of parts used for each model. Toyota uses a shared global database in order to purchase parts and materials from the most competitive supplier among Toyota factories located in various areas worldwide. By doing so, Toyota aims to boost the efficiency of its sourcing from external suppliers. In addition, Toyota is working on a cost reduction measure referred to as ‘RR-CI activities’. RR-CI activities aim to improve competitive power through thorough localization, promoting diversity and commoditizing and manufacturing reformulation together with producing commercial products to match customers’ needs in each area, and for each car classification. Emergency value analysis (VA) activity that began in 2008 implements cost reductions as part of a unified effort with suppliers for the various types of vehicles already on sale. Toyota has been working on constant, company-wide VA activities since the beginning of fiscal 2010.

The market price of raw materials such as steel temporarily fell, but has again shown an upward tendency. Toyota is continually promoting cost reduction efforts, such as reducing the amount of raw materials it uses.

Toyota’s ability to continue to obtain supplies in an efficient manner is subject to a number of factors, some of which are not in Toyota’s control. These factors include the ability of its suppliers to provide a continued source of supplies and the effect on Toyota of competition by other users in obtaining the supplies.

Intellectual Property

Toyota holds numerous Japanese and foreign patents, trademark, design patents and some utility model registrations. It also has a number of applications pending for Japanese and foreign patents. While Toyota considers all of its intellectual property to be important, it does not consider any one or group of patents, trademarks, design patents or utility model registrations to be so important that their expiration or termination would materially affect Toyota’s business.

 

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Capital Expenditures and Divestitures

Set forth below is a chart of Toyota’s principal capital expenditures between April 1, 2008 and March 31, 2011, the approximate total costs of such activity, as well as the location and method of financing of such activity, presented on a “by subsidiary” basis and as reported in Toyota’s annual Japanese securities report filed with the director of the Kanto Local Finance Bureau.

 

Description of Activity

   Total Cost
(billions of yen)
     Location    Method of
Financing

Investment primarily in technology and products by
Toyota Motor Corporation  

  

 

 

 

 

736.9

 

 

  

 

  

 

Japan

 

  

 

Internal funds,
proceeds from
issuance of
bonds, etc.

Investment primarily in technology and products by
Hino Motors, Ltd.  

     89.6       Japan    Internal funds

Investment primarily in technology and products by
Primearth EV Enegy Co., Ltd.  

     84.1       Japan    Internal funds

Investment primarily in technology and products by
Toyota Motor Kyushu, Inc.  

     70.2       Japan    Internal funds

Investment primarily in technology and products by
Daihatsu Motor Co., Ltd.  

     64.1       Japan    Internal funds

Investment primarily in technology and products by
Toyota Auto Body Co., Ltd.  

     55.3       Japan    Internal funds

Investment primarily in technology and products by
Central Motor Co., Ltd.  

     40.6       Japan    Internal funds

Investment primarily in technology and products by
Kanto Auto Works, Ltd.  

     26.6       Japan    Internal funds

Investment to promote localization by
Toyota Motor Manufacturing Canada Inc.  

     109.2       Canada    Internal funds

Investment to promote localization by
Toyota Motor Manufacturing, Indiana, Inc.  

     85.7       United States    Internal funds

Investment to promote localization by
Toyota Motor Manufacturing, Kentucky, Inc.  

     79.6       United States    Internal funds

Investment to promote localization by
Toyota Motor Europe NV/SA.  

     66.4       Belgium    Internal funds

Investment to promote localization by
Toyota Motor Manufacturing, Mississippi, Inc.  

     49.0       United States    Internal funds

Investment to promote localization by
Toyota Kirloskar Motor Private Ltd.  

     48.5       India    Internal funds

Investment to promote localization by
Toyota Motor Corporation Australia Ltd.  

     36.7       Australia    Internal funds

Investment to promote localization by
Toyota do Brasil Ltda.  

     33.7       Brazil    Internal funds

Investment primarily in leased automobiles by
Toyota Motor Credit Corporation  

  

 

 

 

2,480.8

 

  

  

 

United States

  

 

Internal funds
and borrowings

 

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Set forth below is information with respect to Toyota’s material plans to construct, expand or improve its facilities between April 2011 and March 2012, presented on a “by subsidiary” basis and as reported in Toyota’s annual Japanese securities report filed with the director of the Kanto Local Finance Bureau.

 

Description of Activity

   Total Cost
(billions of yen)
     Location    Method of
Financing
 

Investment primarily in manufacturing facilities by
Toyota Motor Corporation  

     169.9       Japan      Internal funds   

Investment primarily in manufacturing facilities by
Hino Motors, Ltd.  

     45.9       Japan      Internal funds   

Investment primarily in manufacturing facilities by
Toyota do Brasil Ltda.  

     37.5       Brazil      Internal funds   

Investment primarily in manufacturing facilities by
Toyota Motor Thailand Co., Ltd.  

     33.8       Thailand      Internal funds   

Investment primarily in manufacturing facilities by
Toyota Motor Corporation Australia Ltd.  

     26.1       Australia      Internal funds   

Investment primarily in manufacturing facilities by
Daihatsu Motor Co., Ltd.  

     20.0       Japan      Internal funds   

Set forth below is additional information with respect to Toyota’s material plans to construct, expand or improve its facilities, presented on a “by facility” basis.

Mississippi Plant. In June 2010, Toyota announced that it will commence production at Toyota Motor Manufacturing, Mississippi, Inc. (“TMMMS”), its new Mississippi plant, in fall of 2011. The construction of TMMMS was announced in February 2007. In December 2008, Toyota postponed the commencement of production; however, with the June 2010 announcement, Toyota will resume the construction of TMMMS. TMMMS is expected to produce the Corolla with an annual production capacity of 150 thousand units. Production of the Corolla will be launched at TMMMS in order to move production of the Corolla for the North American market, a part of which had been moved to Japan in April 2010, back to the United States as quickly as possible.

Tohoku Region Plant. In April 2008, Toyota decided to build an engine plant in Kurokawa, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. However, the commencement of production at this plant, which was initially expected to occur at the end of 2010, has been postponed. Toyota will determine the timing for commencement of production in consideration of fluctuations in demand.

China Changchun Plant. Toyota decided to construct a second vehicle plant in Changchun, and in October 2008 held a groundbreaking ceremony for the construction of the new plant. Toyota subsequently postponed construction due to the economic crisis, but in April 2010, decided to recommence construction in light of China’s economic recovery. This plant is expected to produce the Corolla with an annual production capacity of 100 thousand units. The plant is expected to commence production in late 2012.

Sorocaba Plant. In August 2010, Toyota decided to construct a vehicle plant in Sorocaba, Brazil. This plant is expected to produce the Etios small vehicle introduced in India with an annual production capacity of 70 thousand units. The plant is expected to commence production in late 2012.

Toyota does not collect information on the amount of expenditures already paid for each plant under construction because Toyota believes that it is difficult and it would require unreasonable effort or expense to identify and categorize each expenditure item with reasonable accuracy as past and future expenditures. Toyota’s construction projects consist of numerous expenditures, each of which is continually being adjusted and incurred in variable and constantly changing amounts as part of the overall work-in-progress.

 

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Seasonality

Toyota has historically experienced slight seasonal fluctuations in unit sales. Generally, Toyota’s unit sales levels are highest in March. In fiscal 2010 and fiscal 2011, Toyota’s unit sales levels were highest in March of each year, with approximately 10% to 11% of annual unit sales generated during that month, and for each of the remaining months, its unit sales have generated approximately 7% to 9% of its annual unit sales. Fiscal 2009 was an exception, as the rapid contraction of automotive markets had a greater impact on sales than seasonal fluctuations.

Legal Proceedings

Product Recalls

From time to time, Toyota issues vehicle recalls and takes other safety measures including safety campaigns relating to its vehicles. In November 2009, Toyota announced a safety campaign in North America for certain models of Toyota and Lexus vehicles related to floor mat entrapment of accelerator pedals, and later expanded it to include additional models. In January 2010, Toyota announced a recall in North America for certain models of Toyota vehicles related to sticking and slow-to-return accelerator pedals. Also in January 2010, Toyota recalled in Europe and China certain models of Toyota vehicles related to sticking accelerator pedals. In February 2010, Toyota announced a worldwide recall related to the software program that controls the antilock braking system (ABS) in certain vehicles models including the Prius. Set forth below is a description of various claims, lawsuits and government investigations involving Toyota in the United States relating to these recalls and other safety measures.

Class Action and Consolidated Litigation

There are approximately 200 putative class actions that have been filed since November 2009 alleging that certain Toyota, Lexus and Scion vehicles contain defects that lead to unintended acceleration. Many of the putative class actions allege that malfunctions involving the floor mats and accelerator pedals do not cover the full scope of possible defects related to unintended acceleration. Rather, they allege that Electronic Throttle Control System-intelligent (ETCS-i) is the true cause and that Toyota has failed to inform consumers despite its awareness of the problem. In general, these cases seek recovery for the alleged diminution in value of the vehicles, injunctive and other relief. In April 2010, the approximately 190 federal cases were consolidated for pretrial proceedings into a single multi-district litigation in the United States District Court for the Central District of California. In addition, of the approximately 325 individual product liability personal injury cases relating to unintended acceleration pending against Toyota, the federal cases have been or are likely to be consolidated into the multi-district litigation. The remaining individual product liability personal injury cases relating to unintended acceleration remain pending in various state courts in the United States. This consolidated federal action suit is in its early stages and has included document production, depositions and various motions.

Additionally, there are approximately ten putative class actions in various state courts, including California. The claims are similar to the class actions in federal court. One of the putative California class actions was filed by the Orange County District Attorney and, among other things, seeks statutory penalties alleging that Toyota sold and marketed defective vehicles and that consumers have been harmed as a result of diminution in value of their vehicles.

Beginning in February 2010, Toyota has also been sued in approximately 20 putative class actions alleging defects in the antilock braking systems in various hybrid vehicles that cause the vehicles to fail to stop in a timely manner when driving in certain road conditions. The plaintiffs seek an order requiring Toyota to repair the vehicles and claim that all owners and lessees of vehicles, including those for which recalls have been implemented, should be compensated for the defects related to the antilock braking systems. These cases have been consolidated into two actions, one in federal court in the United States District Court for the Central District of California and one in state court in the Los Angeles County Superior Court.

 

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In February to April 2010, Toyota was also sued in six putative shareholder class actions on behalf of investors in Toyota ADSs and common stock. The cases have been consolidated into a single action in the United States District Court for the Central District of California, and a lead plaintiff has been appointed. The consolidated complaint, filed October 4, 2010, alleges violations of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and Japan’s Financial Instruments and Exchange Act on the basis that defendants made statements that were false or misleading in that they failed to disclose problems with, or the causes of, unintended acceleration in a number of vehicle models. Plaintiffs seek monetary damages in an amount to be proven at trial, interest and attorneys’ fees and costs.

On May 21, 2010, a shareholder derivative action was filed against certain officers and directors of Toyota in the Superior Court of the State of California, County of Los Angeles. The complaint alleged that the defendants breached their fiduciary duties of care and loyalty in their handling of design defects in Toyota vehicles, alleging facts similar to those alleged in the securities class action. On April 20, 2011, the Court issued an order dismissing the case and entered judgment in favor of defendants.

On July 22, 2010, Toyota was sued in the Superior Court of the State of California, County of Los Angeles in a putative bondholder class action filed on behalf of purchasers of Toyota and Toyota Motor Credit Corporation bonds traded on foreign securities exchanges. The complaint alleges violations of California securities law, fraud, breach of fiduciary duty, and other state law claims. On September 15, 2010, Toyota removed the putative bondholder class action to the United States District Court for the Central District of California. On January 10, 2011, the District Court issued an order dismissing the case with prejudice, and entered judgment in favor of defendants. Plaintiff has filed a notice of appeal to the United States Circuit Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit.

Toyota believes that it has meritorious defenses to all of the cases and will vigorously defend against them.

Government Investigations

In February 2010, Toyota received a subpoena from the U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York and a voluntary request and subpoena from the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). The subpoenas and the voluntary request primarily seek documents related to unintended acceleration and certain financial records. This is a coordinated investigation and has included interviews of Toyota and non-Toyota witnesses, as well as production of documents. In June 2010, Toyota received a second voluntary request and subpoena from the SEC and a subpoena from the U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York. The subpoenas and the voluntary request primarily seek production of documents related to the recalls of the steering relay rod.

During the first two quarters of calendar year 2010, Toyota received four inquires from the NHTSA. The first two, TQ10-001 and TQ10-002, address the timing of the announcement of the recalls related to floor mat entrapment and sticking accelerator pedals, respectively. The third, RQ10-003, addresses the scope of the recalls and unintended acceleration generally. On April 19, 2010, Toyota and NHTSA announced a settlement resolving TQ10-002 pursuant to which Toyota paid $16.4 million to the U.S. Treasury. Toyota denied the allegations that it violated the Safety Act or its implementing regulations but agreed to the settlement to avoid a protracted dispute and to concentrate on regaining customer confidence.

On May 10, 2010, Toyota received an inquiry from NHTSA on the timing of its announcement of the 2005 recall of certain pickup trucks and sport utility vehicles for a possible issue with the steering relay rod (TQ10-004). On December 21, 2010, Toyota and NHTSA announced that they had reached a settlement with respect to TQ10-001 and TQ10-004 pursuant to which Toyota paid approximately $32.4 million in the aggregate to the U.S. Treasury. As in the April 2010 settlement resolving TQ10-002, Toyota denied that it violated the Safety Act or its implementing regulations but agreed to the settlement to avoid a protracted dispute and to concentrate on regaining customer confidence. In addition, on March 1, 2011, RQ10-003 was officially resolved.

 

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Toyota has also received subpoenas and formal and informal requests from various states’ attorneys general, including the Executive Committee for a group of 28 states’ attorney general, and certain local governmental agencies regarding various recalls, the facts underlying its recent recalls and customer handling related to those recalls.

Toyota is cooperating with the government agencies in their investigations, which, except as noted above, are ongoing.

The recalls and other safety measures described above have led to a number of claims, lawsuits and government investigations against Toyota in the United States as set forth in the preceding paragraphs. Amounts accrued as of March 31, 2011 related to these legal proceedings and governmental investigations are not material to Toyota’s financial position, results of operations, or cash flow. Toyota cannot currently estimate its potential liability, damages or range of potential loss, if any, beyond the amounts accrued; however, the resolution of these matters could have an adverse effect on Toyota’s financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

United States Antitrust Proceedings

In early 2003, Toyota, GM, Ford, Daimler Chrysler, Honda, Nissan, BMW and their sales subsidiaries in the Unites States and Canada, as well as the National Automobile Dealers Association and the Canadian Automobile Dealers Association, were named as defendants in approximately 85 purported federal and state class action lawsuits on behalf of all purchasers of new motor vehicles who purchased their vehicles in the United States on or after January 1, 2001. As of April 1, 2005, the federal lawsuits were consolidated in the State of Maine, and lawsuits in the State of California and the State of New Jersey were also consolidated within the respective states (lawsuits in the state courts have been stayed until the federal lawsuits proceed).

The complaints allege that the defendants violated the Sherman Antitrust Act or state antitrust law by conspiring among themselves and with their dealers to prevent the sale to United States citizens of vehicles produced for the Canadian market, resulting in higher prices to United States consumers. Toyota believes that its actions have been lawful. In the interest of resolving these legal actions, however, Toyota entered into a settlement agreement with the plaintiffs in February 2006. The settlement agreement remains subject to court approval. In the meantime, the federal court granted summary judgment in favor of the remaining defendants and the time to appeal has lapsed. Current activity is centered in the California state courts, although that action is stayed against Toyota pending a ruling on the pending Toyota settlement. In February 2011, the federal court held a hearing with respect to approval of Toyota’s settlement agreement. If final approval is granted, that approval should resolve this matter for Toyota.

Other Proceedings

Toyota has various other legal actions, other governmental proceedings and other claims pending against it, including other product liability claims in the United States. Although the claimants in some of these actions seek potentially substantial damages, Toyota cannot currently estimate its potential liability, damages or range of potential loss, if any, beyond the amounts accrued, with respect to these claims. However, based upon information currently available to Toyota, Toyota believes that its losses from these matters, if any, would not have a material adverse effect on Toyota’s financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

 

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4.C ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

As of March 31, 2011, Toyota Motor Corporation had 270 Japanese subsidiaries and 241 overseas subsidiaries. The following table sets forth for each of Toyota Motor Corporation’s principal subsidiaries, the country of incorporation and the percentage ownership and the voting interest held by Toyota Motor Corporation.

 

Name of Subsidiary

   Country of
Incorporation
   Percentage
Ownership
Interest
     Percentage
Voting
Interest
 

Toyota Financial Services Corporation  

   Japan      100.00         100.00   

Hino Motors, Ltd.  

   Japan      50.21         50.77   

Toyota Motor Kyushu, Inc.  

   Japan      100.00         100.00   

Daihatsu Motor Co., Ltd.  

   Japan      51.35         51.64   

Toyota Finance Corporation  

   Japan      100.00         100.00   

Toyota Auto Body Co., Ltd.  

   Japan      56.28         56.84   

Kanto Auto Works, Ltd.  

   Japan      50.47         50.83   

Toyota Motor Engineering & Manufacturing North America, Inc.  

   United States      100.00         100.00   

Toyota Motor Manufacturing, Kentucky, Inc.  

   United States      100.00         100.00   

Toyota Motor North America, Inc.  

   United States      100.00         100.00   

Toyota Motor Credit Corporation  

   United States      100.00         100.00   

Toyota Motor Manufacturing, Indiana, Inc.  

   United States      100.00         100.00   

Toyota Motor Manufacturing, Texas, Inc.  

   United States      100.00         100.00   

Toyota Motor Sales, U.S.A., Inc.  

   United States      100.00         100.00   

Toyota Motor Manufacturing Canada Inc.  

   Canada      100.00         100.00   

Toyota Credit Canada Inc.  

   Canada      100.00         100.00   

Toyota Motor Europe NV/SA  

   Belgium      100.00         100.00   

Toyota Kreditbank GmbH  

   Germany      100.00         100.00   

Toyota Motor Finance (Netherlands) B.V.  

   Netherlands      100.00         100.00   

Toyota Motor Manufacturing (UK) Ltd.  

   United Kingdom      100.00         100.00   

Toyota (GB) PLC  

   United Kingdom      100.00         100.00   

OOO “TOYOTA MOTOR”  

   Russia      100.00         100.00   

Toyota Motor (China) Investment Co., Ltd.  

   China      100.00         100.00   

P.T. Toyota Motor Manufacturing Indonesia  

   Indonesia      95.00         95.00   

Toyota Motor Asia Pacific Pte Ltd.  

   Singapore      100.00         100.00   

Kuozui Motors, Ltd.  

   Taiwan      70.00         70.00   

Toyota Motor Thailand Co., Ltd.  

   Thailand      86.43         86.43   

Toyota Leasing (Thailand) Co., Ltd.  

   Thailand      82.94         82.94   

Toyota Motor Asia Pacific Engineering and Manufacturing Co., Ltd.  

   Thailand      100.00         100.00   

Toyota Motor Corporation Australia Ltd.  

   Australia      100.00         100.00   

Toyota Finance Australia Ltd.  

   Australia      100.00         100.00   

Toyota Argentina S.A.  

   Argentina      100.00         100.00   

Toyota do Brasil Ltda.  

   Brazil      100.00         100.00   

Toyota South Africa Motors (Pty) Ltd.  

   South Africa      100.00         100.00   

4.D PROPERTY, PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT

As of March 31, 2011, Toyota and its affiliates produce automobiles and related components through more than 50 manufacturing organizations in 26 countries and regions around the world. The facilities are located principally in Japan, the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, France, Turkey, Czech Republic, Thailand, China, Taiwan, South Africa, Australia, Argentina and Brazil.

 

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In addition to its manufacturing facilities, Toyota’s properties include sales offices and other sales facilities in major cities, repair service facilities, and research and development facilities.

The following table sets forth information, as of March 31, 2011, with respect to Toyota’s principal facilities and organizations, all of which are owned by Toyota Motor Corporation or its subsidiaries. However, small portions, all under approximately 20%, of some facilities are on leased premises.

 

Facility or Subsidiary Name

 

Location

  Floor Space
(thousand
square
meters)
    Principal
Products or
Functions
 

Japan

     

Toyota Head Office and Technical Center

  Toyota City, Aichi Pref.     1,380       
 
Research and
Development
  
  

Tahara Plant

  Tahara City, Aichi Pref.     1,180        Automobiles   

Motomachi Plant

  Toyota City, Aichi Pref.     990        Automobiles   

Takaoka Plant

  Toyota City, Aichi Pref.     730        Automobiles   

Tsutsumi Plant

  Toyota City, Aichi Pref.     620        Automobiles   

Kamigo Plant

  Toyota City, Aichi Pref.     570        Automobile parts   

Honsha Plant

  Toyota City, Aichi Pref.     490        Automobile parts   

Kinu-ura Plant

  Hekinan City, Aichi Pref.     400        Automobile parts   

Higashi-Fuji Technical Center

  Susono City, Shizuoka Pref.     310       
 
Research and
Development
  
  

Nagoya Office

  Nagoya City, Aichi Pref.     50        Office   

Daihatsu Motor Co., Ltd.

  Ikeda City, Osaka, etc.     1,030        Automobiles   

Toyota Auto Body Co., Ltd.

  Kariya City, Aichi Pref., etc.     1,000        Automobiles   

Hino Motors, Ltd.

  Hino City, Tokyo, etc.     960        Automobiles   

Toyota Motor Kyushu, Inc.

  Miyawaka City, Fukuoka Pref., etc.     700        Automobiles   

Kanto Auto Works, Ltd.

  Susono City, Shizuoka Pref., etc.     400        Automobiles   

Outside Japan

     

Toyota Motor Sales, U.S.A., Inc.

  California, U.S.A.     860        Sales facilities   

Toyota Motor Manufacturing, Kentucky, Inc.

 

Kentucky, U.S.A.

 

 

700

  

 

 

Automobiles

  

Toyota Motor Manufacturing, Canada, Inc.

  Ontario, Canada     450        Automobiles   

Toyota Motor Manufacturing, Indiana, Inc.

  Indiana, U.S.A.     370        Automobiles   

Toyota Motor Corporation Australia, Ltd.

  Victoria, Australia     230        Automobiles   

Toyota is constantly engaged in upgrading, modernizing and revamping the operations of its manufacturing facilities, based on its assessment of market needs and prospects. To respond flexibly to fluctuations in demand in each of its production operations throughout the world, Toyota continually reviews and implements appropriate production measures such as revising takt time and adjusting days of operation. As a result, Toyota believes it would require unreasonable effort to track the exact productive capacity and the extent of utilization of each of its manufacturing facilities with a reasonable degree of accuracy.

As of March 31, 2011, property, plant and equipment having a net book value of approximately ¥57,237 million was pledged as collateral securing indebtedness incurred by Toyota Motor Corporation’s consolidated subsidiaries. Toyota believes that there does not exist any material environmental issues that may affect the company’s utilization of its assets.

Toyota considers all its principal manufacturing facilities and other significant properties to be in good condition and adequate to meet the needs of its operations.

See “— Business Overview — Capital Expenditures and Divestitures” for a description of Toyota’s material plans to construct, expand or improve facilities.

 

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ITEM 4A. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.

ITEM 5. OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS

5.A OPERATING RESULTS

All financial information discussed in this section is derived from Toyota’s consolidated financial statements that appear elsewhere in this annual report. The financial statements have been prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

Overview

The business segments of Toyota include automotive operations, financial services operations and all other operations. Automotive operations are Toyota’s most significant business segment, accounting for 89% of Toyota’s total revenues before the elimination of intersegment revenues for fiscal 2011. Toyota’s primary markets based on vehicle unit sales for fiscal 2011 were: Japan (26%), North America (28%), Europe (11%) and Asia (17%). Japan’s economy suffered greatly from the effects of the Great East Japan Earthquake that occurred on March 11, 2011, and its aftermath (collectively, the “Great East Japan Earthquake”). Toyota experienced impacts on its production in the latter half of March 2011. This also had an effect on Toyota’s results of operations in fiscal 2011, particularly in terms of damages on several types of assets such as inventories and an increase in provision for credit losses. The following analysis describes these impacts. See “Information on the Company — Business Overview —” for more detailed information of the Great East Japan Earthquake.

Automotive Market Environment

The worldwide automotive market is highly competitive and volatile. The demand for automobiles is affected by a number of factors including social, political and general economic conditions; introduction of new vehicles and technologies; and costs incurred by customers to purchase or operate vehicles. These factors can cause consumer demand to vary substantially in different geographic markets and for different types of automobiles.

During fiscal 2011, the automotive market expanded especially in emerging countries such as China, and technological development and new product launches have accelerated, primarily due to increased consumer demand for the compact and low-price vehicles and heightened worldwide environmental awareness.

The following table sets forth Toyota’s consolidated vehicle unit sales by geographic market based on location of customers for the past three fiscal years.

 

     Thousands of units  
     Year Ended March 31,  
             2009                      2010                      2011          

Japan

     1,945         2,163         1,913   

North America

     2,212         2,098         2,031   

Europe

     1,062         858         796   

Asia

     905         979         1,255   

Other*

     1,443         1,139         1,313   
                          

Overseas total

     5,622         5,074         5,395   
                          

Total

     7,567         7,237         7,308   
                          

 

* “Other” consists of Central and South America, Oceania, Africa and the Middle East, etc.

 

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During fiscal 2010, Toyota’s consolidated vehicle unit sales in Japan increased as compared with the prior fiscal year reflecting frequent introduction of new products and sales efforts of domestic dealers. During fiscal 2011, market conditions in Japan deteriorated as compared with the prior fiscal year. Despite this, Toyota and Lexus brands’ market share in Japan excluding mini-vehicles was 47.3%, and Toyota’s market share (including Daihatsu and Hino brands) in Japan including mini-vehicles was 43.7%, both maintaining the high level of market share in Japan from the prior fiscal year. Overseas consolidated vehicle unit sales decreased during fiscal 2010, whereas they increased during fiscal 2011. During fiscal 2010, total overseas vehicle unit sales decreased, particularly in Europe, despite an increase in Asia. During fiscal 2011, vehicle unit sales increased in Asia and Other.

Toyota’s share of total vehicle unit sales in each market is influenced by the quality, safety, reliability, price, design, performance, economy and utility of Toyota’s vehicles compared with those offered by other manufacturers. The timely introduction of new or redesigned vehicles is also an important factor in satisfying customer needs. Toyota’s ability to satisfy changing customer preferences can affect its revenues and earnings significantly.

The profitability of Toyota’s automotive operations is affected by many factors. These factors include:

 

   

vehicle unit sales volumes,

 

   

the mix of vehicle models and options sold,

 

   

the level of parts and service sales,

 

   

the levels of price discounts and other sales incentives and marketing costs,

 

   

the cost of customer warranty claims and other customer satisfaction actions,

 

   

the cost of research and development and other fixed costs,

 

   

the prices of raw materials,

 

   

the ability to control costs,

 

   

the efficient use of production capacity,

 

   

the adverse effect on production due to the reliance on various suppliers for the provision of supplies,

 

   

the adverse effect on market, sales and productions of natural calamities and interruptions of social infrastructure, and

 

   

changes in the value of the Japanese yen and other currencies in which Toyota conducts business.

Changes in laws, regulations, policies and other governmental actions can also materially impact the profitability of Toyota’s automotive operations. These laws, regulations and policies include those attributed to environmental matters, vehicle safety, fuel economy and emissions that can add significantly to the cost of vehicles. The European Union has enforced a directive that requires manufacturers to be financially responsible for taking back end-of-life vehicles and to take measures to ensure that adequate used vehicle disposal facilities are established and those hazardous materials and recyclable parts are removed from vehicles prior to scrapping. See “Legislation Regarding End-of-Life Vehicles”, “Information on the Company — Business Overview — Governmental Regulation, Environmental and Safety Standards” and note 23 to the consolidated financial statements for a more detailed discussion of these laws, regulations and policies.

Many governments also regulate local content, impose tariffs and other trade barriers, and enact price or exchange controls that can limit an automaker’s operations and can make the repatriation of profits unpredictable. Changes in these laws, regulations, policies and other governmental actions may affect the production, licensing, distribution or sale of Toyota’s products, cost of products or applicable tax rates. Toyota is currently one of the defendants in purported national class actions alleging violations of the U.S. Sherman

 

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Antitrust Act. Toyota believes that its actions have been lawful. In order to avoid a protracted dispute, however, Toyota entered into a settlement agreement with the plaintiffs at the end of February 2006. The settlement agreement is pending the approval of the federal district court, and immediately upon approval the plaintiffs will be required under the terms of the settlement agreement to withdraw all pending actions against Toyota in the federal district court as well as all state courts and all related actions will be closed. From time-to-time when potential safety problems arise, Toyota issues vehicle recalls and takes other safety measures including safety campaigns with respect to its vehicles. In November 2009, Toyota announced a safety campaign in North America for certain models of Toyota and Lexus brands’ vehicles related to floor mat entrapment of accelerator pedals, and later expanded it to include additional models. In January 2010, Toyota announced a recall in North America for certain models of Toyota vehicles related to sticking and slow-to-return accelerator pedals. Also in January 2010, Toyota recalled in Europe and China certain models of Toyota vehicles related to sticking accelerator pedals. In February 2010, Toyota announced a recall in markets including Japan, North America and Europe related to the braking control system in certain vehicle models including the Prius. The recalls and other safety measures described above have led to a number of claims, lawsuits and government investigations against Toyota in the United States. For a more detailed description of these claims, lawsuits and government investigations, see note 23 to the consolidated financial statements.

The worldwide automotive industry is in a period of global competition which may continue for the foreseeable future, and in general the competitive environment in which Toyota operates is likely to intensify. Toyota believes it has the resources, strategies and technologies in place to compete effectively in the industry as an independent company for the foreseeable future.

Financial Services Operations

The competition of worldwide automobile financial services industry is intensifying despite the recovery trend in the automotive markets. As competition increases, margins on financing transactions may decrease and market share may also decline as customers obtain financing for Toyota vehicles from alternative sources.

Toyota’s financial services operations mainly include loans and leasing programs for customers and dealers. Toyota believes that its ability to provide financing to its customers is an important value added service. Therefore, Toyota has expanded its network of finance subsidiaries in order to offer financial services in many countries.

Toyota’s competitors for retail financing and retail leasing include commercial banks, credit unions and other finance companies. Meanwhile, commercial banks and other captive automobile finance companies also compete against Toyota’s wholesale financing activities.

Toyota’s financial assets decreased during fiscal 2011 due to the unfavorable impact of fluctuations in foreign currency translation rates.

 

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The following table provides information regarding Toyota’s finance receivables and operating leases in the past two fiscal years.

 

     Yen in millions  
     March 31,  
     2010     2011  

Finance Receivables

    

Retail

   ¥ 7,162,082      ¥ 7,128,453   

Finance leases

     1,232,508        1,123,188   

Wholesale and other dealer loans

     2,051,301        1,990,557   
                
     10,445,891        10,242,198   

Deferred origination costs

     109,747        104,391   

Unearned income

     (482,983     (496,235 )

Allowance for credit losses

    

Retail

     (160,351     (92,199

Finance leases

     (36,917     (36,024

Wholesale and other dealer loans

     (35,211     (28,580
                
     (232,479 )     (156,803
                

Total finance receivables, net

     9,840,176        9,693,551   

Less – Current portion

     (4,209,496     (4,136,805 )
                

Noncurrent finance receivables, net

   ¥ 5,630,680      ¥ 5,556,746   
                

Operating Leases

    

Vehicles

   ¥ 2,516,948      ¥ 2,404,032   

Equipment

     96,300        87,914   
                
     2,613,248        2,491,946   

Less – Accumulated depreciation

     (791,169 )     (662,255
                

Vehicles and equipment on operating leases, net

   ¥ 1,822,079      ¥ 1,829,691   
                

Toyota’s finance receivables are subject to collectability risks. These risks include consumer and dealer insolvencies and insufficient collateral values (less costs to sell) to realize the full carrying values of these receivables. See discussion in “Critical Accounting Estimates — Allowance for Doubtful Accounts and Credit Losses” and note 11 to the consolidated financial statements.

Toyota continues to originate leases to finance new Toyota vehicles. These leasing activities are subject to residual value risk. Residual value losses could be incurred when the lessee of a vehicle does not exercise the option to purchase the vehicle at the end of the lease term. See discussion in “Critical Accounting Estimates — Investment in Operating Leases” and note 2 to the consolidated financial statements.

Toyota enters into interest rate swap agreements and cross currency interest rate swap agreements to convert its fixed-rate debt to variable-rate functional currency debt. A portion of the derivative instruments are entered into to hedge interest rate risk from an economic perspective and are not designated as a hedge of specific assets or liabilities on Toyota’s consolidated balance sheet and accordingly, unrealized gains or losses related to derivatives that are not designated as a hedge are recognized currently in operations. See discussion in “Critical Accounting Estimates — Derivatives and Other Contracts at Fair Value” and “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk” and note 20 to the consolidated financial statements.

The fluctuations in funding costs can affect the profitability of Toyota’s financial services operations. Funding costs are affected by a number of factors, some of which are not in Toyota’s control. These factors

 

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include general economic conditions, prevailing interest rates and Toyota’s financial strength. Funding costs decreased during fiscal 2010 and 2011, mainly as a result of lower interest rates.

Toyota launched its credit card business in Japan in April 2001. As of March 31, 2010, Toyota had 7.7 million cardholders, an increase of 0.6 million cardholders compared with March 31, 2009. As of March 31, 2011, Toyota had 8.9 million cardholders, an increase of 1.2 million cardholders compared with March 31, 2010. The credit card receivables at March 31, 2010 increased by ¥30.8 billion from March 31, 2009 to ¥255.4 billion. The credit card receivables at March 31, 2011 increased by ¥8.1 billion from March 31, 2010 to ¥263.5 billion.

Other Business Operations

Toyota’s other business operations consist of housing, including the manufacture and sale of prefabricated homes; information technology related businesses, including information technology and telecommunications, intelligent transport systems, GAZOO and other.

Toyota does not expect its other business operations to materially contribute to Toyota’s consolidated results of operations.

Currency Fluctuations

Toyota is affected by fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates. In addition to the Japanese yen, Toyota is exposed to fluctuations in the value of the U.S. dollar and the euro and, to a lesser extent, the Australian dollar, the Canadian dollar, the British pound, and others. Toyota’s consolidated financial statements, which are presented in Japanese yen, are affected by foreign currency exchange fluctuations through both translation risk and transaction risk.

Translation risk is the risk that Toyota’s consolidated financial statements for a particular period or for a particular date will be affected by changes in the prevailing exchange rates of the currencies in those countries in which Toyota does business compared with the Japanese yen. Even though the fluctuations of currency exchange rates to the Japanese yen can be substantial, and, therefore, significantly impact comparisons with prior periods and among the various geographic markets, the translation risk is a reporting consideration and does not reflect Toyota’s underlying results of operations. Toyota does not hedge against translation risk.

Transaction risk is the risk that the currency structure of Toyota’s costs and liabilities will deviate from the currency structure of sales proceeds and assets. Transaction risk relates primarily to sales proceeds from Toyota’s non-domestic operations from vehicles produced in Japan.

Toyota believes that the location of its production facilities in different parts of the world has significantly reduced the level of transaction risk. As part of its globalization strategy, Toyota has continued to localize production by constructing production facilities in the major markets in which it sells its vehicles. In calendar 2009 and 2010, Toyota produced 64.5% and 73.4% of Toyota’s non-domestic sales outside Japan, respectively. In North America, 60.0% and 72.6% of vehicles sold in calendar 2009 and 2010 respectively were produced locally. In Europe, 57.0% and 59.0% of vehicles sold in calendar 2009 and 2010 respectively were produced locally. Localizing production enables Toyota to locally purchase many of the supplies and resources used in the production process, which allows for a better match of local currency revenues with local currency expenses.

Toyota also enters into foreign currency transactions and other hedging instruments to address a portion of its transaction risk. This has reduced, but not eliminated, the effects of foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations, which in some years can be significant. See notes 20 and 21 to the consolidated financial statements for additional information.

 

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Generally, a weakening of the Japanese yen against other currencies has a positive effect on Toyota’s revenues, operating income and net income attributable to Toyota Motor Corporation. A strengthening of the Japanese yen against other currencies has the opposite effect. In fiscal 2010 and 2011, the Japanese yen was on average and at the end of the fiscal year stronger against the U.S. dollar and the euro in comparison to the prior fiscal year. See further discussion in “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk — Market Risk Disclosures — Foreign Currency Exchange Rate Risk”.

During fiscal 2010 and 2011, the average exchange rate of the Japanese yen strengthened against the major currencies including the U.S. dollar and the euro compared with the average exchange rate of the prior fiscal year. The operating results excluding the impact of currency fluctuations described in “Results of Operations — Fiscal 2011 Compared with Fiscal 2010” and “Results of Operations — Fiscal 2010 Compared with Fiscal 2009” show results of net revenues obtained by applying the Japanese yen’s average exchange rate in the previous fiscal year to the local currency-denominated net revenues for fiscal 2010 and 2011, respectively, as if the value of the Japanese yen had remained constant for the comparable periods. Results excluding the impact of currency fluctuations year-on-year are not on the same basis as Toyota’s consolidated financial statements and do not conform with U.S. GAAP. Furthermore, Toyota does not believe that these measures are a substitute for U.S. GAAP measures. However, Toyota believes that such results excluding the impact of currency fluctuations year-on-year provide additional useful information to investors regarding the operating performance on a local currency basis.

Segmentation

Toyota’s most significant business segment is its automotive operations. Toyota carries out its automotive operations as a global competitor in the worldwide automotive market. Management allocates resources to, and assesses the performance of, its automotive operations as a single business segment on a worldwide basis. Toyota does not manage any subset of its automotive operations, such as domestic or overseas operations or parts, as separate management units.

The management of the automotive operations is aligned on a functional basis with managers having oversight responsibility for the major operating functions within the segment. Management assesses financial and non-financial data such as vehicle unit sales, production volume, market share information, vehicle model plans and plant location costs to allocate resources within the automotive operations.

Geographic Breakdown

The following table sets forth Toyota’s net revenues in each geographic market based on the country location of the parent company or the subsidiaries that transacted the sale with the external customer for the past three fiscal years.

 

     Yen in millions  
     Year ended March 31,  
     2009      2010      2011  

Japan

   ¥ 7,471,916       ¥ 7,314,813       ¥ 6,966,929   

North America

     6,097,676         5,583,228         5,327,809   

Europe

     2,889,753         2,082,671         1,920,416   

Asia

     2,450,412         2,431,648         3,138,112   

Other*

     1,619,813         1,538,613         1,640,422   

 

* “Other” consists of Central and South America, Oceania and Africa.

 

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Results of Operations — Fiscal 2011 Compared with Fiscal 2010

 

     Yen in millions  
     Year ended March 31,     2011 v. 2010 Change  
     2010     2011     Amount     Percentage  

Net revenues:

        

Japan

   ¥ 11,220,303      ¥ 10,986,246      ¥ (234,057     (2.1 )% 

North America

     5,670,526        5,429,136        (241,390     (4.3

Europe

     2,147,049        1,981,497        (165,552     (7.7

Asia

     2,655,327        3,374,534        719,207        27.1   

Other*

     1,673,861        1,809,116        135,255        8.1   

Intersegment elimination/unallocated amount

     (4,416,093     (4,586,841     (170,748     —     
                                

Total

     18,950,973        18,993,688        42,715        0.2   

Operating income (loss):

        

Japan

     (225,242     (362,396     (137,154     —     

North America

     85,490        339,503        254,013        297.1   

Europe

     (32,955     13,148        46,103        —     

Asia

     203,527        312,977        109,450        53.8   

Other*

     115,574        160,129        44,555        38.6   

Intersegment elimination/unallocated amount

     1,122        4,918        3,796        338.3   
                                

Total

     147,516        468,279        320,763        217.4   

Operating margin

     0.8     2.5     1.7  

Income before income taxes and equity in earnings of affiliated companies

     291,468        563,290        271,822        93.3   

Net margin from income before income taxes and equity in earnings of affiliated companies

     1.5     3.0     1.5  

Equity in earnings of affiliated companies

     45,408        215,016        169,608        373.5   

Net income attributable to Toyota Motor Corporation

     209,456        408,183        198,727        94.9   

Net margin attributable to Toyota Motor Corporation

     1.1     2.1     1.0  

 

* “Other” consists of Central and South America, Oceania and Africa.

Net Revenues

Toyota had net revenues for fiscal 2011 of ¥18,993.6 billion, an increase of ¥42.7 billion, or 0.2%, compared with the prior fiscal year. This increase reflects the impact of increased vehicle unit sales and changes in sales mix of approximately ¥740.0 billion, as well as increased parts sales of ¥69.8 billion, partially offset by unfavorable impact of fluctuations in foreign currency translation rates of ¥801.3 billion. Excluding the difference in the Japanese yen value used for translation purposes of ¥801.3 billion, net revenues would have been approximately ¥19,794.9 billion during fiscal 2011, a 4.5% increase compared with the prior fiscal year. The automotive market in fiscal 2011 contracted by 6.6% in Japan compared with the prior fiscal year due to the decline in demand following the conclusion of subsidies for environmentally-friendly vehicles (“eco-car”) offered by the government as a part of its stimulus packages, as well as the impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake. However, the Asian automotive market marked a significant increase of 27.6% compared with the prior calendar year, reflecting the recovery trend of the Asian economy. Under these automotive market conditions, Toyota’s consolidated vehicle unit sales increased to 7,308 thousand vehicles by 1.0% compared with the prior fiscal year.

 

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The table below shows Toyota’s net revenues from external customers by product category and by business.

 

     Yen in millions  
     Year ended March 31,      2011 v. 2010 Change  
     2010      2011      Amount     Percentage  

Vehicles

   ¥ 14,309,595       ¥ 14,507,479       ¥ 197,884        1.4
Parts and components for overseas production      355,273         335,366         (19,907     (5.6
Parts and components for after service      1,543,941         1,553,497         9,556        0.6   

Other

     978,499         926,411         (52,088     (5.3
                                  

Total Automotive

     17,187,308         17,322,753         135,445        0.8   

All Other

     537,421         497,767         (39,654     (7.4
                                  

Total sales of products

     17,724,729         17,820,520         95,791        0.5   

Financial services

     1,226,244         1,173,168         (53,076     (4.3
                                  

Total

   ¥ 18,950,973       ¥ 18,993,688       ¥ 42,715        0.2
                                  

Toyota’s net revenues include net revenues from sales of products, consisting of net revenues from automotive operations and all other operations, that increased by 0.5% during fiscal 2011 compared with the prior fiscal year to ¥17,820.5 billion, and net revenues from financial services operations that decreased by 4.3% during fiscal 2011 compared with the prior fiscal year to ¥1,173.1 billion. Excluding the difference in the Japanese yen value used for translation purposes of ¥724.1 billion, net revenues from sales of products would have been ¥18,544.6 billion, a 4.6% increase during fiscal 2011 compared with the prior fiscal year. The increase in net revenues from sales of products is due to an increase in Toyota vehicle unit sales by 71 thousand vehicles. Excluding the difference in the Japanese yen value used for translation purposes of ¥77.2 billion, net revenues from financial services operations would have been approximately ¥1,250.3 billion, a 2.0% increase during fiscal 2011 compared with the prior fiscal year. This increase was mainly due to the increase of ¥13.1 billion rental revenue generated by vehicles and equipment on operating lease.

The following table shows the number of financing contracts by geographic region at the end of the fiscal 2011 and 2010, respectively.

 

     Number of financing contracts in thousands  
         Year ended March 31,              2011 v. 2010 Change      
     2010      2011      Amount      Percentage  

Japan

     1,684         1,709         25         1.5

North America

     4,488         4,654         166         3.7   

Europe

     774         790         16         2.0   

Asia

     428         522         94         22.1   

Other*

     476         527         51         10.7   
                                   

Total

     7,850         8,202         352         4.5
                                   

 

* “Other” consists of Central and South America, Oceania and Africa.

Geographically, net revenues (before the elimination of intersegment revenues) for fiscal 2011 decreased by 2.1% in Japan, 4.3% in North America, and 7.7% in Europe, whereas net revenues increased by 27.1% in Asia and 8.1% in Other compared with the prior fiscal year. Excluding the difference in the Japanese yen value used for translation purposes of ¥801.3 billion, net revenues in fiscal 2011 would have decreased by 2.1% in Japan, and would have increased by 3.6% in North America, 4.1% in Europe, 29.7% in Asia and 11.0% in Other compared with the prior fiscal year.

 

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The following is a discussion of net revenues in each geographic market (before the elimination of intersegment revenues).

Japan

 

     Thousands of units  
         Year ended March 31,              2011 v. 2010 Change      
     2010      2011      Amount     Percentage  

Toyota’s consolidated vehicle unit sales

     2,163         1,913         (250     (11.5 )% 
     Yen in millions  
     Year ended March 31,      2011 v. 2010 Change  
     2010      2011      Amount     Percentage  

Net revenues:

          

Sales of products

   ¥ 11,095,044       ¥ 10,864,329       ¥ (230,715     (2.1 )% 

Financial services

     125,259         121,917         (3,342     (2.7
                                  

Total

   ¥ 11,220,303       ¥ 10,986,246       ¥ (234,057     (2.1 )% 
                                  

Due to the decline in demand following the conclusion of subsidies for eco-car offered by the government as a part of its stimulus packages, as well as the impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake, Toyota’s domestic vehicle unit sales decreased by 250 thousand vehicles compared with the prior fiscal year. The decrease in vehicle unit sales resulted primarily from a 30 thousand vehicles, or 31.1%, decrease in Passo sales and a 29 thousand vehicles, or 38.4%, decrease in WISH sales. On the other hand, the decrease in net revenues from domestic vehicle unit sales was partially offset by the increase in the number of exported vehicles for the overseas markets of 190 thousand vehicles, or 8.6%.

North America

 

     Thousands of units  
         Year ended March 31,              2011 v. 2010 Change      
     2010      2011      Amount     Percentage  

Toyota’s consolidated vehicle unit sales

     2,098         2,031         (67     (3.2 )% 
     Yen in millions  
     Year ended March 31,      2011 v. 2010 Change  
     2010      2011      Amount     Percentage  

Net revenues:

          

Sales of products

   ¥ 4,782,379       ¥ 4,603,192       ¥ (179,187     (3.7 )% 

Financial services

     888,147         825,944         (62,203     (7.0
                                  

Total

   ¥ 5,670,526       ¥ 5,429,136       ¥ (241,390     (4.3 )% 
                                  

In North America, the vehicle unit sales of specified vehicle models increased due to the recovering trends of the automobile market and improvements to the overall economy. The increase in vehicle unit sales and this impact on sales trends were mainly represented by a 48 thousand vehicles, or 54.5%, increase in Sienna sales, a 30 thousand vehicles, or 39.2%, increase in Highlander sales, a 29 thousand vehicles, or 123.7%, increase in 4Runner sales, and a 27 thousand vehicles, or 14.1%, increase in RAV4 sales. Despite the improvements including a favorable effect of changes in sales mix, net revenues decreased compared with the prior fiscal year due to the decrease in vehicle unit sales by an intense competitive environment that introduced new vehicle models to the market and the unfavorable impact of fluctuations in foreign currency translation rates of

 

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¥448.0 billion. The decrease in vehicle unit sales resulted primarily from an 84 thousand vehicles, or 23.0%, decrease in Corolla sales and a 28 thousand vehicles, or 7.9%, decrease in Camry sales, partially offset by the increase in vehicle unit sales of the aforementioned specified vehicle models.

Europe

 

     Thousands of units  
     Year ended March 31,      2011 v. 2010 Change  
     2010      2011      Amount     Percentage  

Toyota’s consolidated vehicle unit sales

     858         796         (62     (7.3 )% 
     Yen in millions  
     Year ended March 31,      2011 v. 2010 Change  
     2010      2011      Amount     Percentage  

Net revenues:

          

Sales of products

   ¥ 2,065,768       ¥ 1,910,336       ¥ (155,432     (7.5 )% 

Financial services

     81,281         71,161         (10,120     (12.5
                                  

Total

   ¥ 2,147,049       ¥ 1,981,497       ¥ (165,552     (7.7 )% 
                                  

Although retail sales of Toyota and Lexus brands’ vehicles increased in some European countries compared with the prior fiscal year, such as 36 thousand vehicles, or 52.5%, increase in Russia and 20 thousand vehicles, or 82.6%, increase in Turkey, net revenues in Europe generally decreased due primarily to the 62 thousand vehicles decrease in Toyota’s vehicle unit sales compared with the prior fiscal year resulting from a decrease in demand following the conclusion of government stimulus packages in Western Europe, and the unfavorable impact of fluctuations in foreign currency translation rates of ¥253.2 billion.

Asia

 

     Thousands of units  
     Year ended March 31,      2011 v. 2010 Change  
     2010      2011      Amount      Percentage  

Toyota’s consolidated vehicle unit sales

     979         1,255         276         28.1
     Yen in millions  
     Year ended March 31,      2011 v. 2010 Change  
     2010      2011      Amount      Percentage  

Net revenues:

           

Sales of products

   ¥ 2,612,595       ¥ 3,325,466       ¥ 712,871         27.3

Financial services

     42,732         49,068         6,336         14.8   
                                   

Total

   ¥ 2,655,327       ¥ 3,374,534       ¥ 719,207         27.1
                                   

Toyota’s vehicle unit sales in Asia increased by 276 thousand vehicles compared with the prior fiscal year and represented a record high unit sales. This increase in net revenues was due to the overall recovery of Asian automotive markets which was supported by the recovery trend of the Asian economy, particularly in Thailand and Indonesia. Excluding the difference of ¥70.7 billion in the Japanese yen value used for translation purposes, net revenues would have increased by ¥789.9 billion.

 

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Other

 

     Thousands of units  
     Year ended March 31,      2011 v. 2010 Change  
     2010      2011      Amount      Percentage  

Toyota’s consolidated vehicle unit sales

     1,139         1,313         174         15.3
     Yen in millions  
     Year ended March 31,      2011 v. 2010 Change  
     2010      2011      Amount      Percentage  

Net revenues:

           

Sales of products

   ¥ 1,571,846       ¥ 1,694,680       ¥ 122,834         7.8

Financial services

     102,015         114,436         12,421         12.2   
                                   

Total

   ¥ 1,673,861       ¥ 1,809,116       ¥ 135,255         8.1
                                   

Net revenues in Other increased due to increases in Toyota’s vehicle unit sales as a result of economic recovery in certain of these markets. Toyota’s vehicle unit sales increased by 103 thousand vehicles in the Middle East, by 50 thousand vehicles in Central and South America, and by 25 thousand vehicles in Africa, respectively, compared with the prior fiscal year.

Operating Costs and Expenses

 

     Yen in millions  
     Year ended March 31,      2011 v. 2010 Change  
     2010      2011      Amount     Percentage  

Operating costs and expenses

          

Cost of products sold

   ¥ 15,971,496       ¥ 15,985,783       ¥ 14,287        0.1

Cost of financing operations

     712,301         629,543         (82,758     (11.6

Selling, general and administrative

     2,119,660         1,910,083         (209,577     (9.9
                                  

Total

   ¥ 18,803,457       ¥ 18,525,409       ¥ (278,048     (1.5 )% 
                                  

 

     Yen in millions  
     2011 v. 2010 Change  

Changes in operating costs and expenses:

  

Effect of increase in vehicle unit sales and changes in sales mix

   ¥ 580,000   

Effect of fluctuation in foreign currency translation rates

     (765,100

Effect of increase in parts sales

     15,400   

Effect of cost reduction efforts

     (180,000

Effect of increase in miscellaneous costs and others

     71,652   
        

Total

   ¥ (278,048
        

Operating costs and expenses decreased by ¥278.0 billion, or 1.5%, to ¥18,525.4 billion during fiscal 2011 compared with the prior fiscal year. This decrease resulted from the ¥765.1 billion favorable impact of fluctuations in foreign currency translation rates, and the ¥180.0 billion impact of cost reduction efforts, partially offset by the ¥580.0 billion impact of increase in vehicle unit sales and change in sales mix and the ¥71.7 billion increase in the miscellaneous costs and others including ¥20.0 billion increase in costs related to the Great East Japan Earthquake, and the ¥15.4 billion impact of increase in parts sales.

The ¥71.7 billion increase in miscellaneous costs and others includes ¥30.0 billion increase in product quality related expenses. This cost increased compared with the prior fiscal year due to the approximately ¥100.0 billion increase in costs related to recalls and other safety measures conducted to heighten the level of reassurance for customers, partially offset by the approximately ¥70.0 billion decrease in product warranty costs

 

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due to decrease in payments to repair or replace defects of vehicles based on warranty contracts. See note 14 to the consolidated financial statements for further information.

In fiscal 2011, Toyota announced recalls and other safety measures including the following:

In July 2010, Toyota announced in Japan and other regions the voluntary safety recall of certain models of Toyota and Lexus brands’ vehicles related to abnormal engine noise or idling due to engine valve springs that contained some foreign materials. The affected vehicle models included Crown, GS350/450h/460, IS350, and LS460/600h/600hL, and 275 thousand vehicles were included in this recall.

In August 2010, Toyota announced in North America the voluntary safety recall of certain models of Toyota vehicles to address the check engine illuminations and harsh shifting that may result from improper manufacturing of some Electronic Control Modules (ECMs). The affected vehicle models included Corolla and Matrix, and 1,360 thousand vehicles were included in this recall.

In October 2010, Toyota announced in Japan and other regions the voluntary safety recall of certain models of Toyota and Lexus brands’ vehicles related to the connector terminal that may fail due to the inflexibility of the material of the fuel pump wiring harness and braking performance that may gradually decline by brake fluid leakage from the brake master cylinder. The affected vehicle models included Crown, Crown Majesta, Mark X, KlugerL, KlugerV, Harrier, AlphardG, AlphardV, Avalon, Highlander, RX 330, GS300, GS350, IS250, IS350, and IS220D, and 1,470 thousand vehicles were included in this recall.

In January 2011, Toyota announced in Japan and other regions the voluntary safety recall of certain models of Toyota and Lexus brands’ vehicles to address fuel leakage that may result from improper manufacturing of engine fuel pipe and fuel pump. The affected vehicle models included Noah, Voxy, RAV4L, RAV4J, Caldina, Isis, Vista, Vista Ardeo, Opa, Premio, Allion, Gaia, Nadia, WISH, Avensis, and Avensis Wagon and 1,343 thousand vehicles were included in this recall.

The net changes in fiscal 2010 and 2011 in the accrual for the four recalls and other safety measures that occurred in fiscal 2010 are shown below.

Toyota expanded the coverage of a safety campaign in North America for certain models of Toyota and Lexus brands’ vehicles related to floor mat entrapment of accelerator pedals to include additional models, which was initially announced in November 2009. In March 2011, Toyota also expanded the safety campaign coverage to include more models to heighten the level of reassurance for customers. The vehicle models involved were LX570, RAV4, and 4Runner.

 

     Yen in millions  
     Year ended March 31,  
     2010     2011  

Balance at the beginning of year

   ¥ —        ¥ 56,600   

Accrual

     89,000        13,100   

Amounts paid

     (32,400     (51,700
                

Balance at the end of year

   ¥ 56,600      ¥ 18,000   
                

Cost Reduction Efforts

During fiscal 2011, continued cost reduction efforts reduced operating costs and expenses by ¥180.0 billion. The effect of cost reduction efforts include the impact of fluctuation in the price of steel, precious metals, non-ferrous alloys including aluminum, plastic parts and other production materials and parts. In fiscal 2011, raw materials prices were on an increasing trend; however, continued cost reduction efforts, by working closely with

 

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suppliers, contributed to the improvement in earnings by offsetting the effects from price increase. These cost reduction efforts related to ongoing value engineering and value analysis activities, the use of common parts resulting in a reduction of part types and other manufacturing initiatives designed to reduce the costs of vehicle production.

Cost of Products Sold

Cost of products sold increased by ¥14.3 billion, or 0.1%, to ¥15,985.8 billion during fiscal 2011 compared with the prior fiscal year. The increase resulted from the ¥520.0 billion impact of increase in vehicle unit sales and changes in sales mix, ¥90.0 billion increase in miscellaneous costs, and the ¥13.9 billion impact of increases in parts sales, partially offset by the ¥584.9 billion favorable impact of fluctuations in foreign currency translation rates, and the ¥180.0 billion impact of cost reduction efforts. The increase in miscellaneous costs was due mainly to the ¥30.0 billion increase in costs related to quality initiatives, the ¥25.0 billion increase in research and development expenses and the ¥5.2 billion increase in labor costs. The increase in vehicle unit sales and the changes in sales mix was due to the automotive market recovery associated with global economic turnaround.

Cost of Financing Operations

 

     Yen in millions  
     2011 v. 2010 Change  

Changes in cost of financing operations:

  

Effect of fluctuation in foreign currency translation rates

   ¥ (64,700

Effect of increase in valuation gains on interest rate swaps stated at fair value

     (6,400

Effect of decrease in provision for residual value losses

     (30,000

Other

     18,342   
        

Total

   ¥ (82,758
        

Cost of financing operations decreased by ¥82.8 billion, or 11.6%, to ¥629.5 billion during fiscal 2011 compared with the prior fiscal year. The decrease resulted from the ¥64.7 billion favorable impact of fluctuations in foreign currency translation rates, the ¥30.0 billion decrease in provision for residual value losses and the ¥6.4 billion recognition of valuation gains on interest rate swaps stated at fair value. The decrease in provision for residual value losses is attributable to prices in the used vehicles markets remaining at an unprecedented high level particularly in the United States.

Selling, General and Administrative Expenses

Selling, general and administrative expenses decreased by ¥209.5 billion, or 9.9%, to ¥1,910.1 billion during fiscal 2011 compared with the prior fiscal year. This decrease reflects the ¥115.5 billion favorable impact of fluctuations in foreign currency translation rates and the ¥83.9 billion decrease for the financial services operations. This decrease for the financial services operations includes the ¥100.0 billion decrease in provision for credit losses and net charge-offs, which is attributable to the prices of used vehicles remaining at an unprecedented high level mainly in the United States and the prices of used Toyota and Lexus brands’ vehicles also remaining at a high level, partially offset by the ¥15.0 billion increase in provision for credit losses and charge-offs in relation to the Great East Japan Earthquake.

 

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Operating Income

 

     Yen in millions  
     2011 v. 2010 Change  

Changes in operating income and loss:

  

Effect of increase in vehicle unit sales and changes in sales mix and other operational factors

   ¥ 300,000   

Effect of increase in parts sales

     54,400   

Effect of fluctuation in foreign currency translation rates

     (36,200

Effect of increase in miscellaneous costs

     (30,000

Effect of cost reduction efforts, financial services operations, and others

     32,563   
        

Total

   ¥ 320,763   
        

Toyota’s operating income increased by ¥320.7 billion, or 217.4%, to ¥468.2 billion during fiscal 2011 compared with the prior fiscal year. This increase was favorably impacted by the ¥300.0 billion increase in vehicle unit sales and changes in sales mix and other operational factors, the ¥54.4 billion increase in parts sales, the ¥32.6 billion impact of cost reduction efforts, financial services operations, and others, partially offset by the ¥36.2 billion unfavorable impact of fluctuations in foreign currency translation rates, and the ¥30.0 billion increase in miscellaneous costs including ¥20.0 billion impact of increase in expenses related to the Great East Japan Earthquake. The ¥32.6 billion increase of cost reduction efforts, financial services operations, and others was due to the ¥180.0 billion impact of cost reduction efforts and the ¥130.0 billion impact of financial services operations, partially offset by the ¥290.0 billion unfavorable impact of fluctuations in foreign currency translation rates.

During fiscal 2011, operating income (before elimination of intersegment profits), increased by ¥254.1 billion, or 297.1%, in North America, increased by ¥46.1 billion in Europe, increased by ¥109.4 billion, or 53.8%, in Asia, and increased by ¥44.6 billion, or 38.6%, in Other compared with the prior fiscal year, whereas it decreased by ¥137.2 billion in Japan.

The following is a description of operating income and loss in each geographic market.

Japan

 

     Yen in millions  
     2011 v. 2010 Change  

Changes in operating income and loss:

  

Effect of increase in the number of exported vehicles for the overseas market and other operational factors

   ¥ 115,000   

Effect of cost reduction efforts, increase in miscellaneous costs and others

     (252,154
        

Total

   ¥ (137,154
        

The increase in operating losses in Japan was due to the ¥252.2 billion increase in cost reduction efforts, increase in miscellaneous costs and others, partially offset by the ¥115.0 billion impact of increase in the number of exported vehicles for the overseas market. The cost reduction efforts, increase in miscellaneous costs and others were mainly due to the ¥330.0 billion unfavorable impact of fluctuations in foreign currency translation rates and the ¥50.0 billion increase in miscellaneous costs and others, partially offset by the ¥140.0 billion impact of cost reduction efforts in automotive operations. The ¥50.0 billion increase in miscellaneous costs and others includes the ¥20.0 billion increase in costs related to the Great East Japan Earthquake.

 

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North America

 

     Yen in millions  
     2011 v. 2010 Change  

Changes in operating income and loss:

  

Effect of increase in production volume and other operational factors

   ¥ 105,000   

Effect of fluctuation in foreign currency translation rates

     (23,800

Effect of financial services operations, cost reduction efforts, decrease in miscellaneous costs and others

     172,813   
        

Total

   ¥ 254,013   
        

The increase in operating income in North America was due to the ¥130.0 billion increase in operating income in the financial services operations including impacts of the ¥100.0 billion decrease in the provision for credit losses and net charge-offs and the ¥30.0 billion decrease in the provision for residual value losses primarily for sales finance subsidiaries in the United States, the ¥105.0 billion impact of increase in production volume, the ¥30.0 billion impact of cost reduction efforts, and the ¥15.0 decrease in miscellaneous costs and others, partially offset by the ¥23.8 billion unfavorable impact of the fluctuations in foreign currency translation rates. The increase in production volume in North America is attributable to the increase in local vehicle production by 296 thousands of RAV4, Highlander and other models.

Europe

 

     Yen in millions  
     2011 v. 2010 Change  

Changes in operating income and loss:

  

Effect of fluctuation in foreign currency translation rates

   ¥ 1,400   

Effect of cost reduction efforts, decrease in miscellaneous costs and others

     44,703   
        

Total

   ¥ 46,103   
        

The increase in operating income in Europe was due to the ¥30.0 billion decrease in miscellaneous costs in automotive operations, the ¥5.0 billion effect of cost reduction efforts, the ¥5.0 billion increase in operating income in the financial services operations, and the ¥1.4 billion favorable impact of fluctuations in foreign currency translation rates.

Asia

 

     Yen in millions  
     2011 v. 2010 Change  

Changes in operating income and loss:

  

Effect of increase in production volume and vehicle unit sales and other operational factors

   ¥ 105,000   

Effect of fluctuation in foreign currency translation rates

     (5,900

Effect of cost reduction efforts, decrease in miscellaneous costs and others

     10,350   
        

Total

   ¥ 109,450   
        

The increase in operating income in Asia was due to the ¥105.0 billion impact of increases in both production volume and vehicle unit sales and other operational factors, partially offset by the ¥5.9 billion

 

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unfavorable impact of fluctuations in foreign currency translation rates. The increases in both production volume and vehicle unit sales in Asia were primarily attributable to the increase in Toyota’s vehicle unit sales by 276 thousand vehicles supported by the recovery of Asian automotive markets, particularly in Thailand and Indonesia, as the Asian economy is generally in the recovery trend.

Other Income and Expenses

Interest and dividend income increased by ¥12.6 billion, or 16.0%, to ¥90.8 billion during fiscal 2011 compared with the prior fiscal year due to the ¥10.5 billion increase of dividend income.

Interest expense decreased by ¥4.1 billion, or 12.2%, to ¥29.3 billion during fiscal 2011 compared with the prior fiscal year.

Foreign exchange gain, net decreased by ¥53.9 billion, or 79.0%, to ¥14.3 billion during fiscal 2011 compared with the prior fiscal year. Foreign exchange gains and losses include the differences between the value of foreign currency denominated sales translated at prevailing exchange rates and the value of the sales amounts settled during the year, including those settled using forward foreign currency exchange contracts.

Other income, net decreased by ¥11.7 billion, or 37.7%, to ¥19.2 billion during fiscal 2011 compared with the prior fiscal year.

Income Taxes

The provision for income taxes increased by ¥220.2 billion, or 237.6%, to ¥312.8 billion during fiscal 2011 compared with the prior fiscal year due to the increase in income before income taxes. The effective tax rate for fiscal 2011 was 55.5%, which was higher than the statutory tax rate in Japan. This was due to the increase in deferred tax liabilities relating to undistributed earnings in affiliated companies accounted for by the equity method.

Net Income and Loss attributable to the Noncontrolling Interest and Equity in Earnings of Affiliated Companies

Net income attributable to the noncontrolling interest increased by ¥22.5 billion, or 64.9%, to ¥57.3 billion during fiscal 2011 compared with the prior fiscal year. This increase was due to an increase during fiscal 2011 in net income attributable to the shareholders of consolidated subsidiaries.

Equity in earnings of affiliated companies during fiscal 2011 increased by ¥169.6 billion, or 373.5%, to ¥215.0 billion compared with the prior fiscal year. This increase was due to an increase during fiscal 2011 in net income attributable to the shareholders of affiliated companies accounted for by the equity method.

Net Income attributable to Toyota Motor Corporation

Net income attributable to the shareholders of Toyota Motor Corporation increased by ¥198.7 billion, or 94.9%, to ¥408.1 billion during fiscal 2011 compared with the prior fiscal year.

Other Comprehensive Income and Loss

Other comprehensive income decreased by ¥558.8 billion to loss of ¥297.9 billion for fiscal 2011 compared with the prior fiscal year. This decrease resulted from unfavorable foreign currency translation adjustments losses of ¥287.6 billion in fiscal 2011 compared with gains of ¥9.8 billion in the prior fiscal year, and from unrealized holding losses on securities in fiscal 2011 of ¥26.1 billion compared with gains of ¥176.4 billion in the prior fiscal year. The decrease in unrealized holding gains on securities was due to changes in stock prices.

 

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Segment Information

The following is a discussion of results of operations for each of Toyota’s operating segments. The amounts presented are prior to intersegment elimination.

 

     Yen in millions  
     Year ended March 31,     2011 v. 2010 Change  
     2010     2011     Amount     Percentage  

Automotive:

        

Net revenues

   ¥ 17,197,428      ¥ 17,337,320      ¥ 139,892        0.8

Operating income (loss)

     (86,370     85,973        172,343        —     

Financial Services:

        

Net revenues

     1,245,407        1,192,205        (53,202     (4.3

Operating income

     246,927        358,280        111,353        45.1   

All Other:

        

Net revenues

     947,615        972,252        24,637        2.6   

Operating income (loss)

     (8,860     35,242        44,102        —     

Intersegment elimination/unallocated amount:

        

Net revenues

     (439,477     (508,089     (68,612     —     

Operating income (loss)

     (4,181     (11,216     (7,035     —     

Automotive Operations Segment

The automotive operations segment is Toyota’s largest operating segment by net revenues. Net revenues for the automotive segment increased during fiscal 2011 by ¥139.9 billion, or 0.8%, compared with the prior fiscal year to ¥17,337.3 billion. The increase was due to the ¥740.0 billion impact of increased vehicle unit sales and the changes in sales mix and the ¥69.8 billion increase in parts sales, partially offset by the ¥722.5 billion unfavorable impact of fluctuations in foreign currency translation rates.

Operating income from the automotive operations increased by ¥172.3 billion during fiscal 2011 compared with the prior fiscal year to ¥86.0 billion. This increase in operating income was due to the ¥300.0 billion impact of increased vehicle unit sales and the changes in sales mix, the ¥180.0 billion effect of cost reduction efforts and the ¥54.4 billion impact of increase in parts sales, partially offset by the ¥30.0 billion increase in miscellaneous costs and the ¥290.0 billion unfavorable impact of fluctuations in foreign currency rates.

The increase in vehicle unit sales and changes in sales mix was due primarily to an increase in Toyota’s vehicle unit sales by 71 thousand vehicles compared with the prior fiscal year, favored by the automotive market recovery during fiscal 2011. The increase in miscellaneous costs includes the ¥30.0 billion increase in costs related to quality initiatives and the ¥5.0 billion impact of damages in inventories and other assets resulting from the Great East Japan Earthquake.

Financial Services Operations Segment

Net revenues for the financial services operations decreased during fiscal 2011 by ¥53.2 billion, or 4.3%, compared with the prior fiscal year to ¥1,192.2 billion. This decrease was primarily due to the unfavorable impact of fluctuations in foreign currency translation rates of ¥77.5 billion, partially offset by the ¥13.1 billion increase in rental income from vehicles and equipment on operating leases.

Operating income from financial services operations increased by ¥111.3 billion, or 45.1%, to ¥358.2 billion during fiscal 2011 compared with the prior fiscal year. This increase was due to the ¥100.0 billion decrease in provision for credit losses and net charge-offs, and the ¥30.0 billion decrease in provision for residual value losses, while the provision for credit losses and net charge-offs include the ¥15.0 billion increase in provision for credit losses and net charge-offs related to the Great East Japan Earthquake.

 

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The decrease in provisions for credit losses, net of charge-offs and residual value losses are primarily attributable to used car prices rising to an unprecedented high level in the United States and the prices of used Toyota and Lexus brands’ vehicles also remaining at a high level.

Ratio of credit loss experience in the United States is as follows:

 

     Year ended March 31,  
     2010     2011  

Net charge-offs as a percentage of average gross earning assets:

    

Finance receivables

     1.15     0.61

Operating lease

     0.63        0.22   
                

Total

     1.03     0.52
                

All Other Operations Segment

Net revenues for Toyota’s other operations segments increased by ¥24.6 billion, or 2.6%, to ¥972.2 billion during fiscal 2011 compared with the prior fiscal year.

Operating income from Toyota’s other operations segments increased by ¥44.1 billion to ¥35.2 billion during fiscal 2011 compared with the prior fiscal year.

Results of Operations — Fiscal 2010 Compared with Fiscal 2009

 

     Yen in millions  
     Year ended March 31,     2010 v. 2009 Change  
     2009     2010     Amount     Percentage  

Net revenues:

        

Japan

   ¥ 12,186,737      ¥ 11,220,303      ¥ (966,434     (7.9 )% 

North America

     6,222,914        5,670,526        (552,388     (8.9

Europe

     3,013,128        2,147,049        (866,079     (28.7

Asia

     2,719,329        2,655,327        (64,002     (2.4

Other*

     1,882,900        1,673,861        (209,039