20-F 1 d20f.htm ANNUAL REPORT Annual Report
Table of Contents

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on July 2, 2004

 


SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington D.C. 20549

 


 

FORM 20-F

 


 

(Mark One)

 

¨ REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(B) OR (G) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

x ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(D) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the fiscal year ended: March 31, 2004

 

¨ TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(D) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the transition period from              to             

 

Commission file number 1-14948

 


 

TOYOTA JIDOSHA KABUSHIKI KAISHA

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)

 

TOYOTA MOTOR CORPORATION

(Translation of Registrant’s Name Into English)

 

Japan

(Jurisdiction of Incorporation or Organization)

 


 

1 Toyota-cho, Toyota City

Aichi Prefecture 471-8571

Japan

+81 565 28-2121

(Address of Principal Executive Offices)

 

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of Each Class


  

Name of Each Exchange On Which Registered


Common Stock    The New York Stock Exchange

 

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

none

 

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act:

none

 

Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report:

 

Title of Each Class


   Amount outstanding as of March 31, 2004

Common Stock    3,330,470,317

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days:    Yes  x    No  ¨

 

Indicate by check mark which financial statement item the Registrant has elected to follow:    Item 17  ¨    Item 18  x

 



Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

          page

ITEM 1.

  

IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS

   1

ITEM 2.

  

OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE

   1

ITEM 3.

  

KEY INFORMATION

   1

3.A

  

SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

   1

3.B

  

CAPITALIZATION AND INDEBTEDNESS

   4

3.C

  

REASONS FOR THE OFFER AND USE OF PROCEEDS

   4

3.D

  

RISK FACTORS

   4

ITEM 4.

  

INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY

   7

4.A

  

HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE COMPANY

   7

4.B

  

BUSINESS OVERVIEW

   7

4.C

  

ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

   39

4.D

  

PROPERTY, PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT

   39

ITEM 5.

  

OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS

   41

5.A

  

OPERATING RESULTS

   41

5.B

  

LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES

   58

5.C

  

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT, PATENTS AND LICENSES

   61

5.D

  

TREND INFORMATION

   62

5.E

  

OFF-BALANCE SHEET ARRANGEMENTS

   62

5.F

  

TABULAR DISCLOSURE OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS

   65

5.G

  

SAFE HARBOR

   66

ITEM 6.

  

DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYEES

   67

6.A

  

DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT

   67

6.B

  

COMPENSATION OF DIRECTORS AND CORPORATE AUDITORS

   71

6.C

  

BOARD PRACTICES

   71

6.D

  

EMPLOYEES

   73

6.E

  

SHARE OWNERSHIP

   75

ITEM 7.

  

MAJOR SHAREHOLDERS AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS

   77

7.A

  

MAJOR SHAREHOLDERS

   77

7.B

  

RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS

   78

7.C

  

INTERESTS OF EXPERTS AND COUNSEL

   79

ITEM 8.

  

FINANCIAL INFORMATION

   80

8.A

  

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS AND OTHER FINANCIAL INFORMATION

   80

8.B

  

SIGNIFICANT CHANGES

   80

ITEM 9.

  

THE OFFER AND LISTING

   81

9.A

  

LISTING DETAILS

   81

9.B

  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

   81

9.C

  

MARKETS

   81

9.D

  

SELLING SHAREHOLDERS

   82

9.E

  

DILUTION

   82

9.F

  

EXPENSES OF THE ISSUE

   82

ITEM 10.

  

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

   83

10.A

  

SHARE CAPITAL

   83


Table of Contents
          page

10.B

  

MEMORANDUM AND ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION

   83

10.C

  

MATERIAL CONTRACTS

   88

10.D

  

EXCHANGE CONTROLS

   88

10.E

  

TAXATION

   89

10.F

  

DIVIDENDS AND PAYING AGENTS

   95

10.G

  

STATEMENT BY EXPERTS

   95

10.H

  

DOCUMENTS ON DISPLAY

   95

10.I

  

SUBSIDIARY INFORMATION

   95

ITEM 11.

  

QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

   96

ITEM 12.

  

DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES OTHER THAN EQUITY SECURITIES

   97

ITEM 13.

  

DEFAULTS, DIVIDEND ARREARAGES AND DELINQUENCIES

   98

ITEM 14.

  

MATERIAL MODIFICATIONS TO THE RIGHTS OF SECURITY HOLDERS AND USE OF PROCEEDS

   98

ITEM 15.

  

CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

   98

15.A

  

DISCLOSURES CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

   98

15.B

  

[RESERVED]

   98

15.C

  

[RESERVED]

   98

15.D

  

[RESERVED]

   98

ITEM 16.

  

[RESERVED]

   98

16.A

  

AUDIT COMMITTEE FINANCIAL EXPERT

   98

16.B

  

CODE OF ETHICS

   99

16.C

  

PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES

   99

16.D

  

[RESERVED]

   100

16.E

  

[RESERVED]

   100

ITEM 17.

  

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

   101

ITEM 18.

  

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

   101

ITEM 19.

  

EXHIBITS

   102


Table of Contents

As used in this annual report, the term “fiscal” preceding a year means the twelve-month period ended March 31 of the year referred to. All other references to years refer to the applicable calendar year.

 

In parts of this annual report, amounts reported in Japanese yen have been translated into U.S. dollars for the convenience of readers. Unless otherwise noted, the rate used for this translation was ¥105.69 = $1.00. This was the approximate exchange rate in Japan on March 31, 2004.

 

Cautionary Statement with Respect to Forward-Looking Statements

 

This annual report contains forward-looking statements that reflect Toyota’s plans and expectations. These forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause Toyota’s actual results, performance, achievements or financial position to be materially different from any future results, performance, achievements or financial position expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. These factors include:

 

(i) changes in economic conditions affecting, and the competitive environment in, the automotive markets in Japan, North America, Europe and other markets in which Toyota operates;

 

(ii) fluctuations in currency exchange rates, particularly with respect to the value of the Japanese yen, the U.S. dollar, the euro, the Australian dollar and the British pound;

 

(iii) Toyota’s ability to realize production efficiencies and to implement capital expenditures at the levels and times planned by management;

 

(iv) changes in the laws, regulations and government policies affecting Toyota’s automotive operations, particularly laws, regulations and policies relating to environmental protection, vehicle emissions, vehicle fuel economy and vehicle safety, as well as changes in laws, regulations and government policies affecting Toyota’s other operations, including the outcome of future litigation and other legal proceedings;

 

(v) political instability in the markets in which Toyota operates;

 

(vi) Toyota’s ability to timely develop and achieve market acceptance of new products; and

 

(vii) fuel shortages or interruptions in transportation systems, labor strikes, work stoppages or other interruptions to, or difficulties in, the employment of labor in the major markets where Toyota purchases materials, components and supplies for the production of its products or where its products are produced, distributed or sold.

 

A discussion of these and other factors which may affect Toyota’s actual results, performance, achievements or financial position is contained in “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” and “Information on the Company” and elsewhere in this annual report.


Table of Contents

PART I

 

ITEM 1. IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS

 

Not applicable.

 

ITEM 2. OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE

 

Not applicable.

 

ITEM 3. KEY INFORMATION

 

3.A SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

 

You should read the U.S. GAAP selected consolidated financial information presented below together with “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” and Toyota’s consolidated financial statements contained in this annual report.

 

Beginning in fiscal 2004, Toyota discontinued the preparation of annual consolidated financial statements under Japanese GAAP and Toyota currently prepares its annual consolidated financial statements only under U.S. GAAP.

 

U.S. GAAP Selected Financial Data

 

The following selected financial data have been derived from Toyota’s consolidated financial statements. These financial statements were prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP.

 

     Year Ended March 31,

 
     2000

    2001

    2002

    2003

    2004

    2004

 
     (in millions, except share and per share data)  

Consolidated Statement of Income Data:

                                                

Automotive (1):

                                                

Revenues

   ¥ 10,943,642     ¥ 11,591,061     ¥ 13,067,428     ¥ 14,311,451     ¥ 15,973,826     $ 151,139  

Operating income

     638,990       765,557       1,057,948       1,246,925       1,518,954       14,372  

Financial Services:

                                                

Revenues

     534,154       571,058       698,022       724,898       736,852       6,971  

Operating income

     31,667       31,693       45,115       30,328       145,998       1,381  

All Other (1)(2):

                                                

Revenues

     1,134,481       1,019,527       728,848       795,217       896,244       8,480  

Operating income (loss)

     26,453       (4,578 )     (2,954 )     4,529       15,247       144  

Elimination of intersegment:

                                                

Revenues

     (191,028 )     (226,409 )     (303,990 )     (330,013 )     (312,162 )     (2,953 )

Operating income (loss)

     1,451       (1,943 )     (6,477 )     (10,136 )     (13,309 )     (125 )

Total Company:

                                                

Revenues

     12,421,249       12,955,237       14,190,308       15,501,553       17,294,760       163,637  

Operating income

     698,561       790,729       1,093,632       1,271,646       1,666,890       15,772  

Income before income taxes, minority interest and equity in earnings of affiliated companies

     880,680       1,107,289       972,101       1,226,652       1,765,793       16,707  

Net income

     481,936       674,898       556,567       750,942       1,162,098       10,995  

Net income per share:

                                                

Basic

     128.27       180.65       152.26       211.32       342.90       3.24  

Diluted

     128.27       180.65       152.26       211.32       342.86       3.24  

Shares used in computing net income per share, basic (in thousands)

     3,757,276       3,735,862       3,655,304       3,553,602       3,389,074       —    

Shares used in computing net income per share, diluted (in thousands)

     3,757,317       3,735,941       3,655,306       3,553,624       3,389,378       —    

 

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Table of Contents
    Year Ended March 31,

    2000

  2001

  2002

  2003

  2004

  2004

    (in millions)

Consolidated Balance Sheet Data (end of period):

                                   

Total Assets:

                                   

Automotive

  ¥ 7,557,700   ¥ 7,951,107   ¥ 9,121,406   ¥ 9,392,749   ¥ 10,207,395   $ 96,579

Financial Services

    4,752,270     5,531,568     6,910,593     7,392,486     8,138,297     77,002

All other

    1,089,532     584,948     650,912     722,604     941,925     8,912

Intersegment Elimination/Unallocated

    3,041,458     2,952,160     2,622,819     2,645,135     2,752,611     26,044

Total company

    16,440,960     17,019,783     19,305,730     20,152,974     22,040,228     208,537

Short-term debt, including current portion of long-term debt

    2,171,490     2,183,681     2,984,378     3,118,665     3,314,219     31,358

Long-term debt, less current portion

    2,913,759     3,083,344     3,722,706     4,137,528     4,247,266     40,186

Shareholders’ equity (3)

    6,912,140     7,077,411     7,264,112     7,121,000     8,178,567     77,383

Other Data:

                                   

Capital Expenditures

    1,376,704     1,201,406     1,548,593     1,610,229     1,488,541     14,084

(1) In August 2001, Toyota increased its ownership interest in Hino Motors, Ltd. by 13.6% to 50.2%. As a result, revenues and operating income for the automotive and all other segments in fiscal 2002 reflect the consolidation of the results of Hino from the acquisition date. Previously, Hino was accounted for using the equity method. See note 5 of Toyota’s consolidated financial statements for a presentation of the unaudited pro forma results of operations of Toyota for fiscal 2002, as if the additional ownership interest in Hino had been acquired as of April 1, 2001.
(2) Revenues and operating income for the all other segment in fiscal 2000 reflect the consolidation of the results of IDO Corporation for the full fiscal year. IDO merged with DDI Corporation and KDD Corporation on October 1, 2000. Toyota’s current ownership in the merged entity is 11.7%. As a result, the investment in the merged entity is accounted for as a marketable equity security investment and the merged entity’s financial results are not otherwise reflected in Toyota’s own financial results beginning on October 1, 2000.
(3) Up through fiscal 2001, the results of certain subsidiaries in Europe and other regions were reported in the consolidated financial statements using a December 31 year-end. During fiscal 2002, the year-ends of most of these foreign subsidiaries were changed from December 31 to March 31. As a result, Toyota decreased retained earnings by ¥3,061 million to reflect the impact of conforming the year-ends at March 31, 2001.

 

Dividends

 

Toyota normally pays cash dividends twice per year. Toyota’s board of directors recommends the dividend to be paid following the end of each fiscal year. This recommended dividend must then be approved by shareholders at the ordinary general meeting of shareholders held in June of each year. Immediately following approval of the dividend at the shareholders’ meeting, Toyota pays the dividend to holders of record as of the preceding March 31. In addition to these year-end dividends, Toyota may pay interim dividends in the form of cash distributions from its retained earnings to its shareholders of record as of September 30 in each year by resolution of its board of directors and without shareholder approval. Toyota normally pays the interim dividend in late November.

 

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The following table sets forth the dividends paid by Toyota for each of the periods shown. The periods shown are the six months ended on that date. The U.S. dollar equivalents for the dividends shown are based on the noon buying rate for Japanese yen on the last date of each period set forth below.

 

     Dividend per Share  

Period Ended


   Yen

   Dollars

September 30, 1999

   11.0    0.10

March 31, 2000

   13.0    0.13

September 30, 2000

   11.0    0.10

March 31, 2001

   14.0    0.11

September 30, 2001

   13.0    0.11

March 31, 2002

   15.0    0.11

September 30, 2002

   16.0    0.13

March 31, 2003

   20.0    0.17

September 30, 2003

   20.0    0.18

March 31, 2004

   25.0    0.24

 

The payment and the amount of any future dividends are subject to the level of Toyota’s future earnings, its financial condition and other factors, including statutory restrictions on the payment of dividends.

 

Exchange Rates

 

In parts of this annual report, yen amounts have been translated into U.S. dollars for the convenience of investors. Unless otherwise noted, the rate used for the translations was ¥105.69 = $1.00. This was the approximate exchange rate in Japan on March 31, 2004.

 

The following table sets forth information regarding the noon buying rates for Japanese yen in New York City as announced for customs purposes by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York expressed in Japanese yen per $1.00 during the periods shown. On June 30, 2004, the noon buying rate was ¥109.43 = $1.00. The average exchange rate for the periods shown is the average of the month-end rates during the period.

 

Fiscal Year Ending March 31,


   At End
of Period


   Average
(of month-end rates)


   High

   Low

     (¥ per $1.00)

2000

   102.73    110.02    124.45    101.53

2001

   125.54    111.64    125.54    104.19

2002

   132.70    125.64    134.77    115.89

2003

   118.07    121.10    133.40    115.71

2004

   104.18    112.75    120.55    104.18

2005 (through June 30, 2004)

   109.43    109.69    114.30    103.70

 

Month Ending


   High

   Low

     (¥ per $1.00)

January 31, 2004

   107.17    105.52

February 29, 2004

   109.59    105.36

March 31, 2004

   112.12    104.18

April 30, 2004

   110.37    103.70

May 31, 2004

   114.30    108.50

June 30, 2004

   111.27    107.10

 

Fluctuations in the exchange rate between the Japanese yen and the U.S. dollar will affect the U.S. dollar equivalent of the price of the shares on the Japanese stock exchanges. As a result, exchange rate fluctuations are

 

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likely to affect the market price of the ADSs on the New York Stock Exchange. Toyota will declare any cash dividends on shares in Japanese yen. Exchange rate fluctuations will also affect the U.S. dollar amounts received on conversion of cash dividends.

 

Exchange rate fluctuations can also materially affect Toyota’s reported operating results. In particular, a strengthening of the Japanese yen against the U.S. dollar can have a material adverse effect on Toyota’s reported operating results. For a further discussion of the effects of currency rate fluctuations on Toyota’s operating results, please see “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — Operating Results — Overview — Currency Fluctuations”.

 

3.B CAPITALIZATION AND INDEBTEDNESS

 

Not applicable.

 

3.C REASONS FOR THE OFFER AND USE OF PROCEEDS

 

Not applicable.

 

3.D RISK FACTORS

 

Industry and Business Risks

 

The worldwide automobile market is highly competitive.

 

The worldwide automotive market is highly competitive. Toyota faces strong competition from automobile manufacturers in the respective markets in which it operates. Competition is likely to further intensify in light of continuing globalization and consolidation in the worldwide automotive industry. Factors affecting competition include product quality and features, innovation and development time, pricing, reliability, safety, fuel economy, customer service and financing terms. Increased competition may lead to lower vehicle unit sales and increased inventory, which may result in a further downward price pressure and adversely affect Toyota’s financial conditions and results of operations. Toyota’s ability to maintain its competitiveness will be fundamental to its future success in existing and new markets and its market share. There can be no assurances that Toyota will be able to compete successfully in the future.

 

The worldwide automobile industry is highly volatile.

 

The markets in which Toyota competes have been subject to considerable volatility in demand in each market. Demand for automobile sales depends to a large extent on general, social, political and economic conditions in a given market and the introduction of new vehicles and technologies. Economic conditions in Japan, North America and Europe are particularly important to Toyota because a significant portion of Toyota’s revenues are derived from sales in these markets. Demand may also be affected by factors directly impacting automobile price or the cost of purchasing and operating automobiles such as sales and financing incentives, prices of raw materials and parts and components, cost of fuel and governmental regulations (including tariffs, import regulation and other taxes). Volatility in demand may lead to lower vehicle unit sales and increased inventory, which may result in a further downward price pressure and adversely affect Toyota’s financial conditions and results of operations.

 

Toyota’s future success depends on its ability to offer innovative new, price competitive products that meet and satisfy customer demand on a timely basis.

 

Meeting and satisfying customer demand with attractive new vehicles and reducing product development times are critical elements to the success of automobile manufacturers. The timely introduction of new vehicle models, at competitive prices, meeting rapidly changing customer preferences and demands is fundamental to

 

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Toyota’s success. There is no assurance that Toyota may adequately perceive and identify changing customer preferences and demands with respect to quality, styling, reliability, safety and other features in a timely manner. Even if Toyota succeeds in perceiving and identifying customer preferences and demands, there is no assurance that Toyota will be capable of developing and manufacturing new, price competitive products in a timely manner with its available technology, intellectual property, sources of raw materials and parts and components (including the procurement thereof), production capacity and other factors affecting its productivity. Further, there is no assurance that Toyota will be able to implement capital expenditures at the level and times planned by management. Toyota’s inability to develop and offer products that meet customer demand in a timely manner can result in a lower market share and reduced sales volumes and margins, and may adversely affect Toyota’s financial conditions and results of operations.

 

Toyota’s ability to market and distribute effectively, and Toyota’s maintenance of brand image are integral parts of Toyota’s successful sales.

 

Toyota’s success in the sale of automobiles depends on its ability to market and distribute effectively based on distribution networks and sales techniques catered to its customers as well as its ability to maintain and further cultivate its brand image across the markets in which it operates. There is no assurance that Toyota will be able to develop sales techniques and distribution networks that effectively adapt to customer preferences or changes in the regulatory environment in the major markets in which it operates. Nor is there assurance that Toyota will be able to cultivate and protect its brand image. Toyota’s inability to maintain well developed sales techniques and distribution networks or brand image may result in decreased sales and market share and may adversely affect its financial conditions and results of operations.

 

The worldwide financial services industry is highly competitive.

 

The worldwide financial services industry is highly competitive. The market for automobile financing has grown as more consumers are financing their purchases, primarily in North America and Europe. Increased competition in automobile financing may lead to decreased margins. A decline in Toyota’s vehicle unit sales, an increase in residual value risk due to lower used vehicle price and increased funding costs are factors which may impact Toyota’s financial services operations. A negative impact on Toyota’s financial services operations may adversely affect its financial conditions and results of operations.

 

Political, Regulatory and Economic Risks

 

Toyota’s operations are subject to currency and interest rate fluctuations.

 

Toyota is sensitive to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates and is principally exposed to fluctuations in the value of the Japanese yen, the U.S. dollar and the euro and, to a lesser extent, the Australian dollar and the British pound. Toyota’s consolidated financial statements, which are presented in Japanese yen, are affected by foreign currency exchange fluctuations through both translation risk and transaction risk. Changes in foreign currency exchange rates may affect Toyota’s pricing of products sold and materials purchased in foreign currencies. In particular, a strengthening of the Japanese yen against the U.S. dollar can have a material adverse effect on Toyota’s operating results.

 

Toyota believes that its use of certain derivative financial instruments and increased localized production of its products have reduced, but not eliminated, the effects of interest rate and foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations, which in some years can be significant. Nonetheless, a negative impact resulting from fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates and changes in interest rates may adversely affect Toyota’s financial conditions and results of operations. For a further discussion of currency and interest rate fluctuations and the use of derivative financial instruments, please see “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — Operating Results — Overview — Currency Fluctuations,” “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk,” and notes 20 and 21 to Toyota’s consolidated financial statements.

 

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The automotive industry is subject to various governmental regulations and legal proceedings.

 

The worldwide automotive industry is subject to various governmental laws and regulations including those related to vehicle safety and environmental matters such as emission levels, fuel economy, noise and pollution. Many governments also regulate local content, impose tariffs and other trade barriers, taxes and levies, and enact price or exchange controls. Toyota has incurred, and expects to incur in the future, significant costs in complying with these regulations. New legislation or changes in existing legislation may also subject Toyota to additional expense in the future. Toyota is also subject to a number of pending legal proceedings. A negative outcome in one or more of these pending legal proceedings could adversely affect Toyota’s future financial conditions and results of operations. For a further discussion of government regulations, please see “Information on the Company — Business Overview — Governmental Regulation, Environmental and Safety Standards” and for legal proceedings, please see “Information on the Company — Business Overview — Legal Proceedings.”

 

Toyota may be adversely affected by political instabilities, fuel shortages or interruptions in transportation systems, natural calamities, wars, terrorism and labor strikes.

 

Toyota is subject to various risks associated with conducting business worldwide. These risks include political and economic instability, natural calamities, fuel shortages, interruption in transportation systems, wars, terrorisms, labor strikes and work stoppages. The occurrence of any of these events in the major markets in which Toyota purchases materials, components and supplies for the manufacture of its products or in which its products are produced, distributed or sold, may result in disruptions and delays in the operations of Toyota’s business. Significant or prolonged disruptions and delays in Toyota’s business operations may result to adversely affect Toyota’s financial conditions and results of operations.

 

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ITEM 4. INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY

 

4.A HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE COMPANY

 

Toyota Motor Corporation is a limited liability, joint-stock company incorporated under the Commercial Code of Japan. Toyota commenced operations in 1933 as the automobile division of Toyota Industries Corporation (formerly, Toyoda Automatic Loom Works, Ltd.). Toyota became a separate company on August 28, 1937. Today, Toyota operates through 554 consolidated subsidiaries and 228 affiliated companies of which 53 companies are accounted for through the equity method.

 

See “— Business Overview — Capital Expenditures and Divestitures” for a description of Toyota’s principal capital expenditures and divestitures since April 1, 2001 and information concerning Toyota’s principal capital expenditures and divestitures currently in progress.

 

Toyota’s principal executive offices are located at 1 Toyota-cho, Toyota City, Aichi Prefecture 471-8571, Japan. Toyota’s telephone number in Japan is 81-565-28-2121.

 

4.B BUSINESS OVERVIEW

 

General

 

Toyota is the largest producer of automobiles in Japan and the third largest automobile producer in the world in terms of both vehicles produced and vehicles sold. Toyota sold 6.71 million vehicles in fiscal 2004. Toyota had net revenues of ¥17.3 trillion and net income of ¥1.162 trillion in fiscal 2004.

 

Toyota’s business segments are automotive operations, financial services operations and all other operations. Toyota’s automotive operations include the design, manufacture, assembly and sale of passenger cars, recreational and sport-utility vehicles, minivans and trucks and related parts and accessories. Toyota’s financial services business consists primarily of providing financing to dealers and their customers for the purchase or lease of Toyota vehicles. Related to Toyota’s automotive operations is its development of intelligent transport systems. Intelligent transport systems are a variety of information technology-based systems encompassing car multimedia systems, on-board intelligent systems, advanced transportation systems and transportation infrastructure and logistics systems. These systems combine automotive, information and telecommunications technologies. An important element of Toyota’s work in intelligent transport systems is its research collaboration with telecommunication and information services providers. Toyota currently holds an 11.7% interest in KDDI Corporation, a full service telecommunications provider in Japan. Toyota’s other operations business segment includes its information technology related businesses, including certain intelligent transport systems and an e-commerce marketplace called Gazoo.com, and the design and manufacture of prefabricated housing.

 

Toyota sells its vehicles in more than 140 countries, and other regions. Toyota’s primary markets for its automobiles are Japan, North America and Europe. During fiscal 2004, approximately 34% of Toyota’s automobile unit sales were in Japan; 31% were in North America and 13% were in Europe. The remaining 22% of unit sales were in other markets, including approximately 8% in East and Southeast Asian countries other than Japan.

 

The Worldwide Automotive Market

 

Toyota estimates that annual worldwide vehicle sales totaled approximately 60 million units in 2003.

 

Automobile sales are affected by a number of factors including:

 

  social, political and economic conditions,

 

  introduction of new vehicles and technologies, and

 

  costs incurred by customers of purchasing and operating automobiles.

 

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These factors can cause consumer demand to vary substantially from year to year in different geographic markets and for individual categories of automobiles.

 

In 2003, North America, Europe and Japan represented the world’s top three automotive markets. Worldwide market share, based on total automobile unit sales in each market, was 33% for North America, 32% for Europe and 10% for Japan. In North America, new vehicle sales maintained a high level of 19.7 million units primarily attributable to the continuation of sales promotion incentives. In Europe, due to the economic slowdown, new vehicle sales remained at the same level as last year at 19.1 million units. In Japan, adverse economic conditions continued to keep overall consumer demand at a low level, but commercial vehicles sales increased primarily as a result of the rise in replacement demand due to stricter gas emissions regulations. As a result, total vehicle unit sales (including mini-vehicles) in Japan increased by 1.0% to 5.8 million units in 2003. In East and Southeast Asia, despite the economic recovery resulting in growing demand for new vehicles in many countries. However, unit sales in South Korea, one of the largest markets in East and Southeast Asia, decreased by 0.3 million units due to an economic slowdown. As a result, unit sales in East and Southeast Asian markets (excluding Japan, China and Hong Kong) in 2003 decreased by 3% to 3.31 million units. Additionally, the growing Chinese market (including Hong Kong) expanded by nearly 1.2 million units to 4.58 million units in 2003, making it the world’s third largest national automotive market, surpassing Germany.

 

The worldwide automotive industry is affected significantly by government regulation aimed at reducing harmful effects on the environment, enhancing vehicle safety and improving fuel economy. These regulations have added to the cost of vehicles. Many governments also regulate local content and impose tariffs and other trade barriers and price or exchange controls as a means of creating jobs, protecting domestic producers or influencing their balance of payments. Changes in regulatory requirements and other government-imposed restrictions can limit an automaker’s operations. These regulations can also make the repatriation of profits to an automaker’s home country difficult.

 

The development of the worldwide automotive market includes the continuing globalization of automotive operations. Manufacturers seek to achieve globalization by localizing the design and manufacture of automobiles and their components in the markets in which they are sold. By expanding production capabilities beyond their home markets, automotive manufacturers are able to reduce their exposure to fluctuations in foreign exchange rates and lessen their exposure to trade restrictions and tariffs.

 

Recent transactions have resulted in consolidation within the worldwide automotive industry. These transactions include:

 

  the acquisition by Ford Motor Company of the passenger car business of Volvo AB in March 1999,

 

  the acquisition by Renault S.A. of a 37% equity interest in Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. in March 1999, followed by the acquisition of an additional 8% equity interest in March 2002,

 

  the acquisition by General Motors Corporation of a 20% equity interest in Fiat S.p.A. in March 2000,

 

  the acquisition by Volkswagen AG of a 19% equity interest in Scania AB in March 2000,

 

  the acquisition by General Motors Corporation of a 21% equity interest in Fuji Heavy Industries Ltd. in April 2000,

 

  the acquisition by Ford Motor Company of the Land Rover business from BMW AG in June 2000,

 

  the acquisition by DaimlerChrysler AG of a 10% equity interest in Hyundai Motor Company in September 2000. The disposition of the foregoing equity interest by DaimlerChrysler AG was announced in May 2004,

 

  the acquisition by Renault S.A. of a 70% equity interest in Samsung Motors Incorporated in September 2000,

 

  the acquisition by DaimlerChrysler AG of a 34% equity interest in Mitsubishi Motors Corp. in October 2000, followed by the acquisition of an additional 3% equity interest in June 2001,

 

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  the increased equity investment by General Motors Corporation in Suzuki Motor Corporation from 10% to 20% in November 2000,

 

  the acquisition by Renault S.A. of a 20% equity interest in Volvo AB by June 2001,

 

  the acquisition by Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. of a 13.5% equity interest in Renault S.A. in March 2002, followed by the acquisition of an additional 1.5% equity interest in May 2002,

 

  General Motors Corporation and the Daewoo Motor Creditors Committee established a joint venture, GM Daewoo, in October 2002. General Motors Corporation holds a 42% stake, Suzuki Motor Corporation a 15% stake and Shanghai Automotive Industry Corp. a 10% stake, respectively, and Daewoo’s creditors own the remaining 33% in the joint venture, and

 

  DaimlerChrysler AG acquired a 43% interest in Mitsubishi Fuso Truck and Bus Corporation in March 2003, followed by an acquisition of an additional 22% interest in March 2004.

 

The reasons for these consolidation transactions vary, but include responses to global overcapacity in the production of automobiles, the need to reduce costs and create efficiencies by increasing the number of automobiles produced using common vehicle platforms and by sharing research and development expenses for environmental and other technology, the desire to expand a company’s global presence through increased size and the desire to expand into particular segments or geographic markets.

 

Toyota believes that it has the resources, strategies and technologies in place to compete effectively in the industry as an independent company. In addition, Toyota believes that its research and development initiatives, particularly the development of environmentally friendly new vehicle technologies and intelligent transport systems, provide it with a strategic advantage as a global competitor.

 

Toyota’s ability to compete in the consolidating global automotive industry will depend in part on Toyota’s successful implementation of its business strategy. This is subject to a number of factors, some of which are not in Toyota’s control. These factors are discussed in “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” and elsewhere in this annual report.

 

Toyota’s Strategy

 

Toyota believes that its preeminence in the Japanese automotive industry, its growth in the United States and Europe and its overall position as the world’s third largest automobile producer have resulted from the following factors:

 

  its timely introduction of new products that meet consumer demands and incorporate superior design and environmental and safety technologies,

 

  its continuing focus on high quality and low-cost manufacturing,

 

  its commitment to investment in research and development and its sales and production infrastructure, and

 

  its financial strength, which enables Toyota to achieve the above objectives.

 

Toyota’s corporate goal is to continue to be a market leader in the automotive industry and grow, while enhancing profitability and shareholder returns. Toyota’s strategy to achieve this goal consists of the following elements:

 

Localize Global Operations with Targeted Regional Strategies

 

Toyota believes that a global competitor in the worldwide automotive industry needs to supply each market in which it competes with products that are targeted carefully to local demand. Toyota also believes that a local

 

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sales, marketing and manufacturing presence is necessary to fully exploit a market’s potential. Localization better allows Toyota to design, manufacture and offer products within each market that respond to market changes and satisfy local tastes and preferences. A localized manufacturing presence also allows Toyota to make a social contribution to the communities in which it has a local presence. Finally, localization helps Toyota hedge against fluctuations in foreign exchange rates.

 

To be a leader in each major market in which it competes, Toyota is pursuing the following targeted regional strategies:

 

  Maintain Preeminence in Japan. Toyota is committed to maintaining its market leadership in Japan by consistently striving for a market share (excluding mini-vehicles) of at least 40% per year. Toyota, excluding Daihatsu and Hino, held a domestic market share (excluding mini-vehicles) on a retail basis of 42.2% in fiscal 2002, 42.3% in fiscal 2003 and 42.9% in fiscal 2004. Amid the continued market downturn and despite increased competition from its domestic competitors, Toyota maintained its market share above 40% in fiscal 2004 due to the active introduction of a new car model, the Wish, and remodeled cars of the Prius and the Crown. In the highly competitive Japanese market, Toyota is repositioning its retail channels under a new product and retail strategy in order to respond effectively to evolving consumer preferences and structural changes in the market. Under this new strategy, Toyota reorganized and strengthened its retail network in Japan to better cater to customer demand patterns. Specifically, Toyota’s five existing retail channels has been rearranged into four, combining the “Netz” and “Vista” sales channels into a new “Netz” channel in May 2004. In addition, Toyota plans to introduce to Japan in August 2005 the Lexus brand, which has been highly successful in the United States.

 

  Capitalize on Success in North America. Toyota’s North American unit sales continued to be strong in fiscal 2004, supported by the gradual economic recovery in the United States. Toyota’s North American unit sales grew from 1.98 million units in fiscal 2003 to 2.10 million units in fiscal 2004. In fiscal 2004, Toyota’s North American unit sales represented 31% of its total global unit sales. Toyota attributes its continuing success in the North American market to successful new product introductions and strong sales of core models such as the Corolla, Highlander and Lexus ES300. These product introductions include the Matrix in 2002 and the Lexus GX470 and the Scion xA and the Scion xB (marketed in Japan as the ist and the bB, respectively), which target younger drivers, in 2003. Toyota has also undertaken regular model changes and updates of major models in order to meet changing market demand. For example, Toyota recently completed a full model change for the 4Runner and Sienna. Relatively high margin light trucks now account for approximately 47% of Toyota’s vehicle unit sales in the United States, while passenger vehicles account for approximately 53%. Further, Toyota brand vehicles account for approximately 86% and Lexus brand vehicles account for approximately 14% of the vehicle unit sales in the United States, respectively. As a part of its strategy to globalize operations through localization, Toyota has increased its production capacity and upgraded its production facilities in North America over the past few years. In 2003, 1.12 million vehicles, or approximately 60% of Toyota vehicles sold in North America, were produced in North America. Toyota plans to continue to grow its North American business and, after the opening of its new Texas plant, expects to increase its local annual production capacity to 1.65 million vehicles by 2006.

 

 

Continue Growth in Europe. Toyota’s European unit sales grew to approximately 900,000 vehicles in fiscal 2004, an increase of approximately 15.8% compared to fiscal 2003 levels, despite a levelling-off in sales during 2003 in the overall European automotive market. Toyota is committed to achieving further growth in Europe by expanding and targeting its model line to European preferences, as well as enhancing cost competitiveness by increasing local production and procurement, thereby decreasing its exposure to currency fluctuations. Furthermore, during fiscal 2004, Toyota continued to expand its cost-cutting efforts in production, development, and sales and marketing. The success of the Yaris, Corolla and RAV4 and the remodeled Avensis, which was introduced in 2003, has been a major factor behind Toyota’s growth in the European market. Sales of the Yaris, which in 2001 became the first Toyota model to pass the 200,000 mark in Europe, reached 216,000 units in 2003. Toyota believes

 

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that the Yaris is strengthening Toyota’s position in the European subcompact category and is an important factor in improving Toyota’s overall brand image in Europe. Toyota’s manufacturing facility in France which produces the Yaris commenced operations in January 2001 and produced approximately 185,000 units in 2003. Annual production capacity at this facility reached 210,000 units in May 2004. Toyota also expects to increase the annual production capacity of its plants in the United Kingdom, which produce the Corolla hatchback models and the Avensis, from the current 220,000 units to 285,000 units in 2005. Together with the increased annual production capacity at the Turkey plant, which manufactures the Corolla, in March 2004 from 100,000 units to 150,000 units, and those of the French and United Kingdom facilities, Toyota’s total annual production capacity in Europe is expected to increase from 500,000 units in 2003 to 645,000 units in 2004. In addition, the Czech Republic plant, which is a joint venture with PSA Peugeot Citroën, is expected to commence operations in 2005 with an annual production capacity of 300,000 units, of which 100,000 units will be for the Toyota brand. Toyota also plans to support its growth in Europe by strengthening its sales network. In April 2002, a Europe-based holding company, Toyota Motor Europe S.A./N.V., was established in Belgium to coordinate Toyota’s European manufacturing, engineering and marketing activities. In April 2003, Toyota began consolidating its European sales companies under Toyota Motor Europe S.A./N.V. to further enhance coordination between Toyota’s local production and marketing operations throughout Europe. Toyota has achieved annual unit sales in Europe of 830,000 vehicles in 2003, with local production supporting 50% or more of those sales. In another move to expand European capacity, Toyota built a transmission manufacturing plant in Poland, which commenced production in 2002.

 

 

Maintain Commitment to East and Southeast Asia. Although the automobile markets in East and Southeast Asia were depressed following the Asian currency crisis in 1997, the markets have generally continued to recover, and in 2003, recovered to the peak level in 1996. Toyota believes that the markets in East and Southeast Asia continue to offer substantial growth opportunities. Toyota believes one factor behind its success in these markets is strong sales of core models such as the Hilux, the Corolla and the VIOS, a new subcompact car using the same platform as the Yaris and the Echo (marketed in Japan as the Platz). Toyota also made substantial investments in these markets earlier than its major global competitors and developed relationships with local suppliers in the region. While competition in East and Southeast Asia is increasing, Toyota believes that its existing local presence in the market provides it with a competitive advantage and expects to benefit from its early entrance into the market as demand for vehicles in the region continues to grow. Toyota plans to further increase its competitiveness by improving product lines offered in the region and increasing local procurement to decrease its exposure to foreign currency exchange fluctuations. For example, Toyota commenced production of the VIOS at its Thailand plant at the end of 2002 and in order to strengthen its product line, commenced production of the Wish and its Thailand plant at the end of 2003. In the near term, Toyota will continue to operate its plants in the region and export products to meet demand the growing demand in Southeast Asia as well as the demand in other regions. Furthermore, Toyota is actively expanding its business in India and China through local production and sales. Toyota Kirloskar Motor Ltd. in India commenced sales of the Qualis, a multi-purpose vehicle aimed exclusively at the Indian market, in January 2000. Local production and sales of the Corolla in India commenced in early 2003. In China, Sichuan Toyota Motor Co. released the Coaster small bus, the first Toyota vehicle bearing the Toyota name, in April 2001. Tianjin Toyota Motor Co., Toyota’s joint venture with Tianjin FAW Xiali Corporation, Ltd., commenced sales in November 2002 of the VIOS. In April 2003, Toyota and China FAW Group Corporation agreed to jointly produce four different Toyota-brand vehicle models in China. Under the agreement, production of the Corolla started at the first plant of Tianjin Toyota Motor Co., Ltd. with an annual production capacity of 30,000 in February 2004; production of Land Cruiser vehicles started at the Chang Chun Plant of China FAW Group Corporation with an annual production capacity of 10,000 in October 2003; production of the Land Cruiser Prado started at Sichuan Toyota Motor Co., Ltd. with an annual production capacity of 5,000 in September 2003; and production of the Crown luxury car is expected to start production at the second plant of Tianjin Toyota Motor Co., Ltd. with an annual production capacity of 150,000 in spring of 2005. In February 2004, Toyota and Guangzhou

 

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Automobile Group Co., Ltd. established a joint venture, Guangqi Toyota Engine, Ltd., which plant is expected to commence the production of engine parts and gasoline engines in 2005. In March 2004, Toyota and China FAW Group Corporation established a joint venture, FAW Toyota Changchun Engine Co., Ltd., which plant is expected to commence the production of V6 engines in early 2005 with an initial annual production capacity of 130,000 units.

 

Promote Key Initiatives Globally

 

Toyota believes that the following key initiatives are essential for increasing its competitiveness in the global marketplace and for improving its profitability and prospects for continued growth:

 

  Maintain Leadership in Research and Development. Toyota believes that its long-term success will depend on being a leader in automotive research and development. To that end, Toyota is focusing its research and development on the promotion of environmentally sound technologies, product safety and information technologies. Toyota is committed to building environmentally friendly automobiles and is focusing its initiatives on the following areas:

 

  the development of hybrid technology,

 

  the development of automobiles powered by fuel cells and other non-traditional fuel technologies,

 

  the reduction of emissions and improvement of fuel economy in conventional automobiles, and

 

  the increased recycling of manufacturing materials.

 

An example of Toyota’s leadership in environmental technologies was the introduction of the Prius to the Japanese market in December 1997. The Prius is the world’s first mass-produced hybrid car that runs on a combination of gasoline and electric power. Toyota introduced a new version of the Prius in May 2000, and introduced a completely remodeled version in September 2003 featuring Toyota’s new-generation hybrid system, which combines decreased environmental impact with increased power and performance. Toyota plans to introduce hybrid versions of its sport-utility vehicles from 2004 to 2005. Toyota currently also sells hybrid versions of the Estima and Alphard minivans, the Crown sedan and the Dyna and the Toyoace trucks. In addition, Toyota began limited sales of a fuel cell hybrid vehicle in Japan and the United States in December 2002. Fuel cell hybrid vehicles are hybrid cars that use fuel cells to generate the electricity that drives the motor. Toyota also promotes the development of advanced technologies through alliances with other major manufacturers. For instance, Toyota is broadening its research and development efforts through an alliance with General Motors Corporation for the development of advanced environmental technologies and an alliance with Exxon Mobil Corporation for the development of fuel compatible with future power sources. Toyota has also formed a collaborative relationship with Volkswagen in areas such as recycling and navigation technologies. In addition, Toyota has entered into an alliance with PSA Peugeot Citroën for the development and production of low-cost, fuel-efficient and environment-friendly vehicles.

 

  Improve Efficiency. Toyota plans to improve returns and enhance operating efficiencies by continuing to pursue aggressive cost reduction programs, including:

 

  improving product development and production efficiencies through the re-integration and improvement of vehicle platforms and power trains,

 

  producing higher volumes of successful vehicle models and discontinuing vehicle models not producing sufficient sales volumes,

 

  streamlining production systems,

 

  continuing collaborative research and development projects that help optimize use of capital and other resources,

 

  improving the efficiency of domestic and international distribution,

 

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  increasing the focus on global purchasing opportunities, standardization and modularization to optimize purchasing from suppliers, and

 

  applying advanced information technologies to improve efficiency throughout the product development and production processes.

 

Toyota is improving production efficiency further by installing more versatile equipment and systems, modifying vehicle body designs to allow for a greater variety of models on each production line and sharing more parts among vehicles.

 

  Expand Finance Operations. Toyota’s financial services include loans and leasing programs for customers and dealers. Toyota believes that its ability to provide financing to its customers is an important value-added service. In July 2000, Toyota established a wholly owned subsidiary, Toyota Financial Services Corporation, to oversee the management of Toyota’s finance companies worldwide. Toyota believes that Toyota Financial Services Corporation helps strengthen the overall competitiveness of Toyota’s financial business, improve risk management and streamline related decision-making processes. Toyota plans to expand its network of financial services, which currently covers 27 countries, in accordance with its strategy of developing auto-related financing businesses in significant markets.

 

Diversify into Automotive-Related Business Sectors

 

While Toyota’s principal focus will continue to be on the automotive industry, Toyota intends to further develop opportunities in automotive-related businesses where its technological strengths and experience provide a competitive advantage. In particular, Toyota is focusing its efforts on the development of intelligent transport systems that Toyota expects will alleviate traffic problems, stimulate technological progress in the automobile market and add value to vehicles.

 

Toyota believes that the development of intelligent transport systems will be an important way for automobile manufacturers to distinguish themselves in the future. Toyota further believes that the development of intelligent transport systems will complement its core automotive business. Toyota expects that the market for intelligent transport systems will greatly expand in the future and is committed to the development of intelligent transport systems technology.

 

Maintain Financial Strength

 

Toyota currently enjoys high credit ratings. These ratings reflect, among other factors, its strong financial position. In addition, Toyota currently maintains a substantial level of cash and liquid investments and a conservative debt-to-equity ratio. Toyota believes these factors will permit it to maintain the resources necessary to fund its research and development expenditures, capital expenditures and financing operations even if it experiences short-term fluctuations in earnings.

 

Focus on Shareholder Value

 

Toyota has increasingly focused on the special concerns and expectations of its shareholders in recent years and expects this to continue. As a result, Toyota has undertaken a share repurchase program and has increased cash dividends. Since instituting the first in a series of share repurchase plans in fiscal 1997, Toyota has repurchased approximately 537 million shares of its common stock at a total cost of approximately ¥1,780 billion. As a result, Toyota’s total outstanding shares were reduced to 3,330,470,317 shares (excluding treasury shares) as of March 31, 2004. Moreover, Toyota subsequently repurchased approximately 20 million shares of its common stock at a total cost of approximately ¥81 billion before its ordinary general meeting of shareholders in June 2004. Toyota may repurchase its shares by using retained earnings by resolution of its ordinary general meetings of shareholders or its board of directors, subject to certain limitations and restrictions. Pursuant to the

 

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resolutions of its ordinary general meeting of shareholders in 2004, during the one-year period until the next ordinary general meeting of shareholders, Toyota may repurchase up to 65 million shares or up to the number of shares equivalent to ¥250 billion in cost of repurchase. In addition, Toyota may repurchase additional shares by resolution of its board of directors pursuant to the Articles of Incorporation. The following table shows the number of shares repurchased and the cost of repurchase of those shares for each of the periods indicated:

 

     Year Ended March 31,

     2000

   2001

   2002

   2003

   2004

Approximate number of shares repurchased

     11 million      65 million      77 million      155 million      121 million

Approximate amount paid

   ¥ 45 billion    ¥ 264 billion    ¥ 278 billion    ¥ 453 billion    ¥ 399 billion

 

The amount of any share repurchases are subject to the level of Toyota’s future earnings, its financial condition and other factors.

 

Automotive Operations

 

Toyota’s revenues from its automotive operations were ¥16.0 trillion in fiscal 2004, ¥14.3 trillion in fiscal 2003 and ¥13.1 trillion in fiscal 2002.

 

Toyota produces and markets a full line of automobiles, including passenger cars, recreational and sport-utility vehicles, minivans and trucks. Toyota’s subsidiary, Daihatsu Motor Co., Ltd., produces and sells mini-vehicles and compact cars. Hino Motors, Ltd., which became Toyota’s subsidiary in August 2001, produces and sells commercial vehicles. Toyota also manufactures automotive parts, components and accessories for its own use and for sale to others.

 

Vehicle Models

 

Toyota’s product line includes subcompact and compact cars, mini-vehicles, hybrid, mid-size, luxury, sports and specialty cars, recreational and sport-utility vehicles, pickup trucks, minivans and trucks.

 

Subcompact and Compact

 

Toyota’s subcompact and compact cars include the four-door Corolla sedan, which is one of Toyota’s best selling models. The Yaris, marketed as the Vitz in Japan, is a subcompact car designed to include features that are particularly attractive to European consumers, such as better car performance and comfort as compared to other compact cars available on the market, with small car fuel economy and low emissions. The Vitz is currently available in Japan as a hatchback in three- and five-door models. Toyota succeeded in expanding its customer base in this segment during fiscal 2000 by introducing the Echo (marketed in Japan as the Platz) in North America and Japan and FunCargo, WiLL Vi and bB to the Japanese market, all of which are derived from the same platform as the Vitz. Toyota also introduced in January 2001 the Allex and the Corolla Runx subcompact cars to the Japanese market. Toyota introduced a remodeled Corolla Spacio to the Japanese market in May 2001, and introduced a remodeled Corolla to the European market in early 2002. In early 2002, Toyota introduced the Corolla and the Matrix to North America. Toyota also introduced the ist and the WiLL Cypha compact cars to the Japanese market in May 2002 and October 2002, respectively. In early 2003, Toyota began introducing the VIOS to China and other Asian markets. Further, Toyota introduced a remodeled Raum in Japan in May 2003 and introduced the Scion xA and the Scion xB (marketed in Japan as the ist and the bB, respectively) in the United States in June 2003.

 

Mini-Vehicles

 

Mini-vehicles are manufactured and sold by Daihatsu, a subsidiary of Toyota. Daihatsu manufactures mini-vehicles, passenger vehicles, commercial vehicles and auto parts. Mini-vehicles are cars, vans or trucks with engine displacements of 660 cubic centimeters or less. Toyota also sells under its name certain automobiles

 

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(excluding mini-vehicles) manufactured by Daihatsu. Daihatsu sold approximately 550,000 mini-vehicles and 70,000 automobiles during fiscal 2004. Daihatsu’s largest market is Japan. Japan accounted for approximately 82% of Daihatsu’s unit sales during fiscal 2004.

 

Hybrid

 

The Prius is the world’s first mass-produced hybrid car. It runs on an optimal combination of gasoline and electric power. This system allows it to travel twice as far as conventional vehicles of comparable size and performance on the same amount of gasoline. In addition, the hybrid design of the Prius results in the output of 75% less pollution than the maximum amount allowed by Japanese environmental regulations. Toyota views the Prius as the cornerstone of its emphasis on designing and producing environmentally friendly automobiles. In 2003, Toyota introduced in Japan, the United States, Europe and other markets, a fully remodeled Prius, which combines decreased environmental impact by higher fuel efficiency and ultra-low emissions with increased power and performance. Toyota plans to introduce hybrid versions of the RX330, a Lexus brand sports-utility vehicle (marketed in Japan as the Harrier), in North America, Europe and Japan, and the Highlander sport-utility vehicle (marketed in Japan as the Kluger V) in North America and Japan from 2004 to 2005. Toyota also began limited sales of a fuel cell hybrid vehicle in Japan and the United States in December 2002. As of March 31, 2004, Toyota has sold over 210,000 hybrid vehicle units. Toyota aims to continue its efforts to offer a diverse lineup of hybrid vehicles, enhance engine power while improving fuel efficiency, and otherwise promote increased sales of hybrid vehicles.

 

Mid-Size

 

Toyota’s mid-size models include the Camry, which has been the best selling car in the United States for six of the past seven years. The Camry line includes the Camry Solara sport coupe, which was fully remodeled in 2003. Toyota introduced a remodeled version of the Camry to the United States in September 2001. Camry sales in the United States for 2003 was approximately 413,300 units (including approximately 26,500 Solaras), making it the best selling car in the United States once again. Toyota’s Japanese mid-size cars also include the Mark II, the Opa, the Premio, the Allion and the Caldina station wagon. Toyota introduced the Mark II Blit to the Japanese market in January 2002. In September 2002, Toyota introduced a remodeled version of the Caldina station wagon to the Japanese market. In March 2003, Toyota introduced in Europe a remodeled version of the Avensis, its flagship mid-size car for European markets, which was also subsequently introduced in Japan in October 2003.

 

Luxury

 

In North America and Europe, Toyota’s luxury line consists primarily of vehicles sold under the Lexus brand name. In the United States, Lexus has earned its fourth consecutive title of best-selling luxury brand by selling over 259,000 vehicles in 2003. Lexus models include the full-size LS430 sedan, which is sold as the Celsior in Japan and was remodeled in August 2000; the smaller GS300 and GS430 sedans and the ES300 sedan, sold as the Aristo and the Windom in Japan; the IS300 and IS200 mid-size sport sedans, marketed in Japan as the Altezza; the IS300 Sport Cross, which is sold in Japan as the Altezza Gita; luxury sport-utility vehicles such as the GX470, which was introduced to the United States in December 2002 and is marketed in Japan as the Land Cruiser Prado; the RX330, which is marketed in Japan as the Harrier and which was completely remodeled and introduced to Japan and to the United States in February 2003 and March 2003, respectively; and the SC430 and LX470. Toyota expects to commence sales of its luxury automobiles in Japan under the Lexus brand in August 2005. Toyota’s best-selling full-size luxury car in Japan is the Crown, a hybrid version of which was introduced to the Japanese market in August 2001. In Japan, Toyota also sells the Progrés and the Brevis, compact luxury models, as well as the Century limousine. The Brevis was introduced to the Japanese market in June 2001.

 

Sports and Specialty

 

Toyota’s main sports car model is the Celica. The Celica is a two-door sports coupe with a four-cylinder engine. In Japan and other markets, Toyota sells the Lexus SC430 two-door sports coupe, which is marketed in

 

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Japan as the Soarer, as well as the MR2 Spyder, a mid-size sport car model marketed in Japan as the MR-S and in Europe as the MR2. In June 2004, Toyota introduced in the United States the Scion tC, a sport car model targeted to the younger market.

 

Recreational and Sport-Utility Vehicles and Pickup Trucks

 

Toyota sells a variety of sport-utility vehicles and pickup trucks, including the Tacoma and Tundra pickup trucks. Toyota sport-utility vehicles available in North America include the Sequoia; the 4Runner, which was completely remodeled and introduced to the United States in October 2002 and is marketed as the Hilux-Surf in Japan; the RAV4; the Highlander, which is available in Japan under the model name Kluger V; and the Land Cruiser. The Tacoma, the Tundra and the Sequoia are built in the United States. Toyota also offers sport-utility vehicles under the Lexus brand, including the LX470, the newly introduced GX470, and the remodeled RX330. The LX470, the Land Cruiser, the Tundra, the Sequoia, 4Runner (marketed as the Hilux-Surf in Japan), Prado and the GX470 sold in North America are equipped with V-8 engines. Toyota introduced the remodeled Harrier to the Japanese market in February 2003. Toyota’s pickup truck, the Hilux, has been the best selling model of all Toyota cars sold in Thailand.

 

Minivans

 

Toyota offers several basic models for the global minivan market. Its largest minivan, the Alphard, was released in May 2002. Toyota’s other minivan models include the Sienna, which underwent a model change in March 2003 and is sold in North America; the Previa, which is sold in Japan as the Estima; the European market’s Avensis Verso, which was remodeled in 2001 and is sold in Japan as the Ipsum; the Gaia, which is sold only in Japan; the Hiace; the Noah and the Voxy, both released in Japan in November 2001; the Wish, which was released in Japan in January 2003; and the Sienta, which was released in Japan in September 2003. In May 2004, Toyota introduced to the European market the Corolla Verso.

 

Trucks and Buses

 

Toyota’s product line-up includes trucks (including vans) up to a load capacity of four tons and micro-buses and are also sold in Japan and in the overseas markets. Trucks and buses are also manufactured and sold by Hino, a subsidiary of Toyota. Hino’s product line-up includes large trucks with a load capacity of over 10 tons, medium trucks with a load capacity between four and eight tons, and small trucks with a load capacity of between two and four tons. Hino held the largest share of the Japanese medium truck market in fiscal year 2004, primarily due to the success of its Ranger Pro model. Hino’s bus line-up includes large to medium buses used primarily as tour buses and public buses, small buses and micro-buses. Toyota and Hino maintain a large share of the small bus (including micro-buses) segment in Japan.

 

Product Development

 

New cars introduced in Japan during fiscal 2004 include the Sienta mini-van and the Avensis. During fiscal 2004, remodeled cars sold in Japan included the Raum compact car, the Alphard HV mini-van, the Prius hybrid car and the Crown luxury car. New cars introduced outside Japan during fiscal 2004 and thereafter include, the Scion xA and the Scion xB in the United States in June 2003, the Wish in Thailand at the end of 2003, the Avanza in Indonesia and Thailand at the end of 2003 and April 2004, respectively, and the Scion tC in the United States in June 2004. Remodeled cars sold outside of Japan during fiscal 2004 include the Prius in the United States, Europe and other countries in October 2003 and the Solara in the United States in September 2003. Toyota also began limited sales of a fuel cell hybrid vehicle in Japan and the United States in December 2002. Toyota also released a remodeled version of the Avensis in Europe in March 2003 and in Japan in October 2003.

 

Markets, Sales and Competition

 

Toyota’s primary markets are Japan, North America and Europe. The following table sets forth Toyota’s consolidated vehicle unit sales by geographic market for the periods shown. The vehicle unit sales below reflect

 

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vehicles sales made by Toyota to unconsolidated entities (and recognized as sales under Toyota’s revenue recognition policy), including sales to unconsolidated distributors and dealers. Vehicles sold by Daihatsu are included in vehicle unit sales numbers set forth below beginning in October 1998. Vehicles sold by Hino are included in vehicle unit sales numbers set forth below beginning in October 2001. North America sales information includes sales in Puerto Rico and Hawaii.

 

    Year Ended March 31,

 
    2000

    2001

    2002

    2003

    2004

 
    Units   %     Units   %     Units   %     Units   %     Units   %  

Market

                                                 

Japan

  2,177,524   42.0 %   2,322,838   42.0 %   2,217,002   40.0 %   2,217,770   36.3 %   2,303,078   34.3 %

North America

  1,689,483   32.6     1,733,569   31.4     1,780,133   32.1     1,981,912   32.4     2,102,681   31.3  

Europe

  633,879   12.2     691,135   12.5     727,192   13.1     775,952   12.7     898,201   13.4  

Other Regions

  681,888   13.2     779,321   14.1     818,395   14.8     1,137,644   18.6     1,415,403   21.0  
   
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Total

  5,182,774   100.0 %   5,526,863   100.0 %   5,542,722   100.0 %   6,113,278   100.0 %   6,719,363   100.0 %
   
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 

The following table sets forth Toyota’s vehicle unit sales and market share in Japan, North America and Europe on a retail basis for the periods shown. Each market’s total sales and Toyota’s sales represent new vehicle registrations in the relevant year. All information on Japan excludes mini-vehicles. The sales information contained below excludes unit sales by Daihatsu and Hino, each a consolidated subsidiary of Toyota. North America sales information includes sales in Puerto Rico and Hawaii.

 

    

Fiscal Year Ended March 31,

(sales in thousands of units)


 
     2000

    2001

    2002

    2003

    2004

 

Japan:

                              

Total market sales

   3,981     4,121     3,981     4,045     4,030  

Toyota sales (retail basis)

   1,682     1,774     1,678     1,710     1,729  

Toyota market share

   42.2 %   43.1 %   42.2 %   42.3 %   42.9 %

 

    

Calendar Year Ended December 31,

(sales in thousands of units)


 
     1999

    2000

    2001

    2002

    2003

 

North America:

                              

Total market sales

   19,769     20,377     20,113     19,956     19,717  

Toyota sales (retail basis)

   1,631     1,766     1,894     1,941     2,072  

Toyota market share

   8.3 %   8.7 %   9.4 %   9.7 %   10.5 %

Europe:

                              

Total market sales

   20,063     19,601     19,654     19,187     19,191  

Toyota sales (retail basis)

   592     656     666     756     835  

Toyota market share

   3.0 %   3.3 %   3.4 %   3.9 %   4.3 %

 

Japan

 

The automobile market in Japan has become saturated and its growth has become stagnant over the past several years. Despite this trend, Toyota believes that Japan continues to be the most important market for Toyota’s automotive products. In Japan, the automotive industry is highly competitive. The Japanese automotive industry includes five major domestic producers, five specialized domestic producers and a growing volume of imports from major United States and European manufacturers. The prolonged economic slump in the Japanese economy has also shifted consumer preference towards more affordable automobiles such as compact and subcompact vehicles and towards utility vehicles such as mini-vans. For more than 40 years, Toyota has been the largest automobile manufacturer in Japan. In each year since fiscal 1999, Toyota, excluding Daihatsu and Hino, has achieved a market share (excluding mini-vehicles) of over 40%, reflecting in part the success of the Vitz

 

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subcompact car and the successful introduction of the Wish mini-van and new model sedans. Toyota’s (excluding Daihatsu and Hino) share of the domestic market excluding mini-vehicles was 42.9% in fiscal 2004. Toyota’s (including Daihatsu and Hino) share of the market including mini-vehicles was 39.6% in fiscal 2004. Toyota is taking steps to further increase its market leadership in Japan by actively introducing products in key market segments and by establishing a new “Netz” sales channel.

 

North America

 

Toyota’s consolidated vehicle unit sales in North America was 2,102,681 in fiscal 2004. The United States is the largest portion of the North American market for Toyota, representing 90% of its total retail unit sales in the region. In 2003, Toyota’s unit sales in North America showed continued strength, achieving for the first time unit sales in excess of two million vehicles, reflecting the introduction of new products and the market success of its light trucks. Toyota’s market share in the United States was 11.1% in 2003, its largest market share ever. Competition in North America, particularly the United States, is intense. Toyota’s principal competitors in North America are General Motors, Ford and DaimlerChrysler, with other manufacturers providing competition within specific market segments.

 

Europe

 

European sales of Toyota vehicles in fiscal 2004 reached an all-time high for the seventh year in a row, with total sales of 898,201 vehicles, up 15.8% from fiscal 2003. In 2003, Toyota had a market share in Europe of 4.3% and achieved annual retail unit sales of 800,000 vehicles. European sales growth is largely attributable to the success of the Yaris, which was launched in April 1999 and is marketed as the Vitz in Japan, the RAV4, the remodeled Corolla introduced in 2001 and the fully remodeled Avensis in 2003. Toyota’s principal European markets are the United Kingdom, Italy and Germany. Toyota’s principal competitors in Europe are Volkswagen, General Motors and Ford.

 

East and Southeast Asia

 

The market in the East and Southeast Asia region (excluding China and Hong Kong) was 3.31 million units in 2003, a decrease of approximately 3% from 3.41 million units in 2002. However, the market in the East and Southeast Asia region (including China and Hong Kong) grew to 7.89 million units in 2003, an increase of approximately 16% from 6.82 million units in 2002. Toyota believes that the long-term potential of the East and Southeast Asian market is good and remains committed to its operations in the region.

 

The following table sets forth Toyota’s sales figures in East and Southeast Asia for the periods shown. This information excludes unit sales by Daihatsu and Hino.

 

Toyota Sales (in thousands of vehicles)


   Asia (excluding China
and Hong Kong)


   China and Hong Kong

2001

   310    32

2002

   393    62

2003

   513    107

 

While competition in East and Southeast Asia is increasing, Toyota believes that its early entry into the market gives it a competitive advantage. Toyota plans to further increase its competitiveness as it faces increased competition in the region by improving product lines offered in the region and increasing local procurement to decrease its exposure to foreign currency exchange fluctuations. Toyota’s market share in Asia (excluding China and Hong Kong) was 10.4% in 2001, 11.5% in 2002 and 15.5% in 2003.

 

East and Southeast Asia (excluding Hong Kong and China) accounted for 11.8% of Toyota’s overseas unit sales in 2003 (not including unit sales by Daihatsu and Hino outside Japan), an increase of 1.6% from 10.2% in 2002.

 

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Production

 

Toyota and its affiliates produce automobiles and related components through more than 50 manufacturing organizations in 25 countries and regions around the world. Toyota’s major manufacturing facilities include plants in Japan, the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, France, Turkey, Indonesia, Thailand, Taiwan, China, Australia, South Africa, Brazil and Argentina. Toyota commenced operations of its Alabama manufacturing plant for engines in May 2003. Daihatsu brand vehicles are produced at seven factories in Japan and six manufacturing organizations in six other countries, including Indonesia and Malaysia. In the United States, Toyota and General Motors operate a joint venture that assembles passenger cars and trucks. For a listing of Toyota’s principal production facilities, see “Information on the Company — Property, Plants and Equipment”.

 

In recent years Toyota has increased its production capacity outside Japan. This increase in overseas production capacity is integral to Toyota’s strategy of globalizing operations through localization. In 2003, approximately 61% of Toyota automobiles sold overseas were manufactured in overseas plants by Toyota and its unconsolidated affiliates. In 2003, 62% of Toyota vehicles sold in North America were produced in North America. Of the vehicles sold in Europe in 2003, 53% were produced in Europe, an increase from 43% in 2002. This increase is largely due to increased sales of the Yaris and the Avensis, which are produced at production facilities in France and the United Kingdom. In fiscal 2004, Toyota produced approximately 4.3 million vehicles in Japan and approximately 2.2 million vehicles overseas, compared to approximately 4.2 million vehicles in Japan and 1.7 million vehicles overseas in fiscal 2003.

 

The following table shows the worldwide vehicle unit production by Toyota for the periods shown. These production figures do not include vehicles produced by Toyota’s unconsolidated affiliates. The sales unit information elsewhere in this annual report includes sales of vehicles produced by these affiliates. Vehicles produced by Daihatsu are included in vehicle production numbers set forth below beginning in October 1998. Vehicles produced by Hino are included in the vehicle production numbers set forth below beginning in October 2001.

 

     Year Ended March 31,

     2000

   2001

   2002

   2003

   2004

Units Produced

   5,002,731    5,275,213    5,305,803    5,850,203    6,513,791

 

Toyota closely monitors its actual units of sale, market share and units of production data and uses this information to allocate resources to existing manufacturing facilities and to plan for future expansions.

 

See “— Capital Expenditures and Divestitures” for a description of Toyota’s recent investments in completed plant constructions and for a description of Toyota’s current investments in ongoing plant constructions.

 

The Toyota Production System

 

Toyota pioneered the internationally recognized production system known as the “Toyota Production System”. The Toyota Production System is based on Toyota’s own concepts of efficient production and has the following two principal elements:

 

  just-in-time production, and

 

  jidoka”.

 

The just-in-time method is a production method through which necessary parts and components are manufactured and delivered in just the right quantity at the moment they are needed. This allows Toyota to maintain low levels of inventory while maintaining operating efficiency.

 

Jidoka generally means automation in Japanese. Toyota combines automation with its ability to stop work immediately when problems arise in the production process to prevent the production of defective products. To achieve this, Toyota designs its equipment to detect abnormalities and to stop whenever abnormalities occur.

 

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Toyota also authorizes its machine operators and other members of its production team to stop production whenever they note anything suspicious. This permits Toyota to build quality into the production process by avoiding defects and preventing the waste that would result from producing a series of defective items.

 

Toyota believes that the Toyota Production System allows it to achieve mass-production efficiencies over small and large production volumes. This gives Toyota the flexibility to respond to changing consumer demand without significantly increased production costs. While the Toyota Production System remains the basis of Toyota’s automobile production, the system has been expanded for use in Toyota’s parts production, logistics and customer service activities.

 

In addition to the two principal elements described above, the Toyota Production System seeks to increase manufacturing efficiency and product quality internally through on-site identification and analysis of problems, improving transparency throughout the production process, and resolving problems at the source. As one means of realizing these goals, Toyota has introduced the use of sophisticated information technologies to improve each step of its vehicle development process, from product planning to commencement of mass-production. These technologies are intended to enhance flexibility, simplicity, quality, cost competitiveness, and speed. Specifically, detailed computer simulation of the assembly and test-run of a new vehicle or new vehicle production equipment or system is conducted before a prototype is made. An actual prototype is made only after defects and related issues have been identified and resolved by computer simulation, thereby minimizing the time required for rebuilding prototypes and significantly shortening production lead times. Moreover, this system is used to prepare virtual factories and other visual aids in order to facilitate training and communication at overseas plants and enable the efficient transfer of necessary technology and skills.

 

To improve efficiency in the manufacturing of auto bodies, Toyota has developed a Global Body Line that enables the use of the same general specifications for both small-quantity and mass production lines. This simple and flexible production system offers considerable advantages over previous flexible body manufacturing systems, and has already been implemented in 29 out of Toyota’s 34 body production lines worldwide as of March 31, 2004.

 

Cost Reduction

 

Toyota continues to focus on reducing costs and improving efficiencies through various measures. One of these measures is the reduction in the number of platforms used in vehicle production. Platforms are the essential structures that form the base of different vehicle models. By using a common platform for the production of a greater number of models, Toyota believes that it will be able to decrease the substantial expenditures required to design and develop multiple platforms. In addition, Toyota believes that it will be able to achieve the scale benefits of producing larger volumes per platform, thereby reducing manufacturing cost per vehicle.

 

In addition to platform reduction, Toyota continues to focus on other methods of increasing the commonality of parts and components used in different models. These steps include reducing model variations and the number of parts used in each model. Toyota is seeking to increase the efficiency of procurement from outside suppliers by making use of a common global database to enable plants in different parts of the world to purchase parts and materials from the most competitive sources.

 

Toyota’s ability to achieve these cost reductions is subject to a number of factors, some of which are not in Toyota’s control. These factors include the successful implementation of the manufacturing processes described above, as well as the business and financial conditions of Toyota’s suppliers and the general economic and political conditions in the markets in which these suppliers operate.

 

Distribution

 

Toyota’s automotive sales distribution network is the largest in Japan. As of May 1, 2004, this network consisted of 295 dealers employing approximately 40,000 sales personnel and operating more than 5,000 sales and service outlets. Toyota owns 23 of these dealers and the remainder are independent. In addition, at March 31,

 

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2004, Daihatsu’s sales distribution network consisted of 64 dealers employing approximately 5,300 sales personnel and operating approximately 800 sales and service outlets. Daihatsu owns 35 of these dealers.

 

Toyota believes that this extensive sales network has been an important factor in its success in the Japanese market. A large number of the cars sold in Japan are purchased from salespersons who visit customers in their homes or offices. In recent years, however, the traditional method of sales through home visits is being replaced by showroom sales. The percentage of automobile purchases through showrooms has been gradually increasing, particularly in the minivan and recreational vehicle segments. Toyota expects this trend to continue, and accordingly plans to review all aspects of its sales activities, including its customer service model at showrooms, with a view toward improving customer satisfaction and operational efficiency.

 

Sales of Toyota vehicles in Japan are conducted through four sales channels — “Toyota,” “Toyopet,” “Corolla” and “Netz.” In response to continuing structural changes in the Japanese market that reflect the evolving social environment and consumer preferences, Toyota is in the process of redistributing and restructuring its domestic sales network. Specifically, Toyota combined the Netz and Vista sales channels into an expanded Netz channel in May 2004 in order to cater to a growing number of customers with new values. In addition, Toyota plans to introduce the Lexus brand to the Japanese market in August 2005 in order to enhance its competitiveness in the domestic luxury automobile market. The following table provides information for each channel as of May 1, 2004.

 

     Dealers

         

Channel


   Toyota
Owned


   Independent

   Sales
Outlets


  

Market Focus


Toyota

   4    46    50    Luxury channel for Toyota brand name vehicles

Toyopet

   7    45    52    Leading channel for the medium market

Corolla

   7    67    74    Volume retail channel centering on compact models

Netz

   5    114    119    Sales channel targeting customers with new values for the 21st century.

 

Outside Japan, Toyota vehicles are marketed through approximately 170 distributors in more than 140 countries, and other regions. Daihatsu vehicles are sold through approximately 110 dealers operating approximately 2,300 sales outlets in more than 140 countries, and other regions. Toyota operates sales subsidiaries and maintains networks of dealers in each of its principal overseas markets, including North America, Europe and Asia. In Eastern Europe, Toyota has a wholly-owned sales subsidiary in Poland and participates in joint venture sales companies in the Czech Republic and Hungary. Toyota also operates 136 sales outlets in China.

 

Intelligent Transport Systems

 

Toyota continues to develop the use of intelligent transport systems in its automotive products. Toyota views the primary purpose of intelligent transport systems as adding value to its vehicles. Intelligent transport systems combine automotive, information and telecommunications technologies in an effort to provide vehicle occupants with an array of information and enhanced safety features. In developing intelligent transport systems, Toyota has engaged in, and expects to continue to engage in, collaborative research and development projects with other companies including telecommunications and information services providers, electronics manufacturers and automobile parts makers.

 

Features of intelligent transport systems include:

 

Car Intelligence. Advanced functions in vehicles to enhance safety and comfort by utilizing advanced information communications technology and sensing technology to compensate for human error such as overlooking obstacles, delay in braking and veering off lanes. Examples of car intelligence features currently available from Toyota include:

 

  a system that uses electric power steering and back guide monitor technology for automatic steering to provide driving assistance during parallel parking or parking in reverse;

 

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  a pre-collision safety system that uses millimeter wave radar sensors to help determine in advance whether a collision is unavoidable, seatbelts that tighten their hold on passengers during the early stage of collision detection and a brake assist system that is activated at an early stage by automatically applying increased braking force after the driver applies the brakes in order to help reduce collision speed; and

 

  a “night-view” system that uses near-infrared rays to better identify passengers, vehicles, obstacles and road conditions not only within but also beyond the area covered by an automobile’s headlights, to further assist the visibility of drivers.

 

Car Multimedia. Interactive systems that integrate automobile and information technology to provide passengers with real-time information. Toyota’s car navigation system, which forms the centerpiece of Toyota’s car multimedia offerings, incorporates satellite positioning system technology and digital map databases and is able to receive real-time information about congestion, accidents, parking and other traffic related data. Toyota also has made commercially available car multimedia systems that can send necessary information, such as vehicle position, to an emergency operation center that transmits such information to the police, the ambulance or a towing service, in the event of a traffic accident or medical or other emergencies. Toyota is conducting tests related to utilizing Internet technology in the fields of intelligent transport systems in preparation for future generation automobiles where closer coordination is expected between society and automobiles in the transmission of information.

 

Facilities. In-vehicle and roadside equipment designed to automate interaction between vehicles and social infrastructure. Toyota’s representative system in this field is the electronic toll collection system. By March 2003, automatic toll collection systems were installed at 900 sites, or about 70% of all toll collection sites in Japan, pursuant to the Japanese government’s plan. In addition to the development and sale of in-vehicle equipment, Toyota has procured orders for the installation of roadside equipment. Toyota is also working to apply this technology in other areas, such as automatic payment at parking lots and gasoline stations and ID based entry and exit through gates at factories and logistics centers.

 

Logistics. Systems that communicate positional information to an operating center through wireless transmission to enable efficient management of vehicle dispatches. This system is currently being utilized in the taxi industry, by delivery companies, in the elder care industry and by bus lines. Toyota is establishing and proposing intelligent transport system logistics system that meets the needs of other industries based on technology and know how acquired in the course of its automobile operations.

 

Transport. Toyota is aiming to develop and commercialize a next-generation intelligent transport system that will become a comprehensive business operation ranging from the initial stages of vehicle development to operational services. An example of Toyota’s efforts in this area is the intelligent multimode transit system, which permits vehicles to run on automated platoons on dedicated system roads in their main service areas, as well as on ordinary roads in outlying areas. Toyota believes this system can help reduce the high construction and maintenance costs associated with conventional track systems. In addition, Toyota developed a short range shared-use personal transit system that operates EV commuters, compact electric vehicles, and uses computers to manage reservation and recharging, IC cards held by members to serve as a car key, and a global positioning unit to track the location of each vehicle.

 

Toyota is committed to developing new intelligent transport system products. Toyota believes that intelligent transport systems will become an integral part of its overall automotive operations and enhance the competitiveness of its vehicles. As familiarity with and demand for intelligent transport system products grows, Toyota expects an increasing number of intelligent transport system products to become commercially available and achieve general acceptance each year.

 

Financial Services

 

Toyota’s revenues from its financial services operations were ¥737 billion in fiscal 2004, ¥725 billion in fiscal 2003 and ¥698 billion in fiscal 2002. The market for automobile financing has grown as more consumers are financing their purchases, particularly in North America and Europe.

 

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Toyota Financial Services Corporation is Toyota’s wholly owned subsidiary established in July 2000 which oversees the management of Toyota’s finance companies worldwide and the expansion into new automobile related product areas. Toyota plans to expand its network of financial services, which currently covers 27 countries, in accordance with its strategy of further developing its auto-related financing businesses in significant markets.

 

Toyota Motor Credit Corporation is Toyota’s principal financial services subsidiary in the United States. Toyota also provides financial services in 26 other countries through various financial services subsidiaries, including:

 

  Toyota Finance Corporation in Japan,

 

  Toyota Credit Canada Inc. in Canada,

 

  Toyota Finance Australia Ltd. in Australia,

 

  Toyota Kreditbank GmbH in Germany, and

 

  Toyota Financial Services (UK) PLC in the United Kingdom.

 

Toyota Motor Credit Corporation provides a full range of financial services, including retail financing, retail leasing, wholesale financing and insurance. Toyota Finance Corporation also provides a range of financial services, including retail financing, retail leasing, credit cards and mortgage loans. Toyota’s other finance subsidiaries provide retail financing, retail leasing and wholesale financing.

 

Toyota is planning to commence financial services operations in China and to establish Toyota Financial Savings Bank in the United States in fiscal 2005.

 

Net finance receivables outstanding for all of Toyota’s dealer and customer financing operations were ¥5.9 trillion at March 31, 2004, representing an increase of approximately 15.3% as compared to the amount outstanding as of March 31, 2003. The majority of Toyota’s financial services are provided in North America. As of March 31, 2004, approximately 63% of Toyota’s finance receivables were derived from financing operations in North America, 18% from Japan, 10% from Europe and 9% from other areas.

 

Approximately 39% of Toyota’s unit sales in the United States during fiscal year 2004 included a financing or lease arrangement with Toyota, compared to approximately 38% of fiscal year 2003 sales. Because a significant portion of Toyota’s finance business relates to sales of Toyota vehicles, lower vehicle unit sales may result in a reduction in the level of Toyota’s finance operations.

 

The worldwide financial services market is highly competitive. Toyota’s competitors for retail financing and retail leasing include commercial banks, credit unions, finance companies and other captive automobile finance companies. Commercial banks and other captive automobile finance companies also provide competition for Toyota’s wholesale financing activities. Competition for Toyota’s insurance operations is primarily from national and regional insurance companies.

 

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The following table provides information regarding Toyota’s finance receivables and operating leases as of March 31, 2002, 2003 and 2004.

 

     As of March 31,

 
     2002

    2003

    2004

    2004

 
     (in millions)  

Finance Receivables

                                

Retail

   ¥ 2,723,834     ¥ 3,071,232     ¥ 3,643,998     $ 34,478  

Finance leases

     1,391,924       1,129,220       912,622       8,635  

Wholesale and other dealer loans

     952,260       1,365,047       1,680,907       15,904  
    


 


 


 


       5,068,018       5,565,499       6,237,527       59,017  

Unearned income

     (323,897 )     (373,663 )     (298,153 )     (2,821 )

Allowance for credit losses

     (52,170 )     (116,888 )     (87,462 )     (828 )
    


 


 


 


Total finance receivables, net

     4,691,951       5,074,948       5,851,912       55,368  

Less – Current portion

     (2,020,491 )     (2,505,140 )     (2,622,939 )     (24,817 )
    


 


 


 


Noncurrent finance receivables, net

   ¥ 2,671,460     ¥ 2,569,808     ¥ 3,228,973     $ 30,551  
    


 


 


 


Operating Leases

                                

Vehicles

   ¥ 1,449,341     ¥ 1,480,556     ¥ 1,387,404     $ 13,127  

Equipment

     134,820       120,504       106,376       1,007  
    


 


 


 


       1,584,161       1,601,060       1,493,780       14,134  

Less – Accumulated depreciation

     (356,243 )     (397,289 )     (375,861 )     (3,556 )
    


 


 


 


Vehicles and equipment on operating leases, net

   ¥ 1,227,918     ¥ 1,203,771     ¥ 1,117,919     $ 10,578  
    


 


 


 


 

Retail Financing

 

Toyota’s finance subsidiaries purchase primarily new and used vehicle installment contracts from Toyota dealers. A significant portion of the used vehicle contracts purchased are certified Toyota used vehicle contracts which relate to vehicles purchased by dealers, reconditioned and certified to meet specified Toyota standards. These vehicles are then sold with an extended warranty from Toyota. Installment contracts purchased must first meet specified credit standards. Thereafter, the finance company retains responsibility for contract collection and administration. Toyota’s finance subsidiaries acquire security interests in the vehicles financed and can generally repossess vehicles if customers fail to meet their contractual obligations. Almost all retail financings are non-recourse, which relieves the dealers from financial responsibility in the event of repossession. In most cases, Toyota’s finance subsidiaries require their retail financing customers to carry fire, theft, collision and liability insurance on financed vehicles covering the interests of both the finance company and the customer.

 

Toyota completed the roll-out of a national risk based pricing program in the United States for retail and lease vehicle contracts as of March 31, 2001. The objective of this program is to better match credit risk with contract rates charged to allow Toyota to purchase contracts with a wider range of risk levels.

 

Toyota has historically sponsored, and continues to sponsor, special lease and retail programs by subsidizing below market lease and retail contract rates.

 

Retail Leasing

 

In the area of retail leasing, Toyota’s finance subsidiaries purchase primarily new vehicle lease contracts originated by Toyota dealers. Lease contracts purchased must first meet specified credit standards after which the finance company assumes ownership of the leased vehicle. The finance company is generally permitted to take possession of the vehicle upon a default by the lessee. Toyota’s finance subsidiaries are responsible for contract collection and administration during the lease period. The residual value is normally estimated at the time the

 

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vehicle is first leased. Vehicles returned to the finance subsidiaries at the end of their leases are sold through a network of auction sites as well as through the Internet. In most cases, Toyota’s finance subsidiaries require lessees to carry fire, theft, collision and liability insurance on leased vehicles covering the interests of both the finance company and the lessee.

 

Wholesale Financing

 

Toyota’s finance subsidiaries also provide wholesale financing primarily to qualified Toyota vehicle dealers to finance inventories of new and used Toyota vehicles. The finance companies acquire security interests in vehicles financed at wholesale. Substantially all wholesale financing is backed by corporate or individual guarantees from or on behalf of participating dealers. If a dealer defaults, the finance companies have the right to liquidate any assets acquired and seek legal remedies pursuant to the guarantees.

 

Toyota’s finance subsidiaries also make term loans to dealers for business acquisitions, facilities refurbishment, real estate purchases and working capital requirements. These loans are typically secured with liens on real estate, other dealership assets and/or personal guarantees of the dealers.

 

Insurance

 

Toyota provides insurance services in the United States through its wholly owned subsidiary, Toyota Motor Insurance Services, Inc. Its principal activities include marketing, underwriting and claims administration. Toyota Motor Insurance Services, Inc. also provides coverage related to vehicle service agreements and contractual liability agreements sold by or through Toyota dealers to customers. In addition, Toyota Motor Insurance Services, Inc. insures and reinsures risks undertaken by Toyota’s distributors and finance subsidiaries. Toyota dealerships in Japan also engage in vehicle insurance sales.

 

Toyota currently has an ownership interest of approximately 34.8% in Aioi Insurance Co., Ltd, a leading insurance company in Japan. Toyota continues to use its strong relationship with Aioi to develop attractive consumer insurance products for Toyota’s automotive customers.

 

Other Financial Services

 

Toyota Finance Corporation launched its credit card business in April 2001, and currently has 4.2 million card holders as of March 31, 2004. Toyota also established Toyota Financial Services Securities Corporation, a subsidiary of Toyota Financial Services Corporation, which commenced operations in April 2001 to coincide with the launch of the credit card business. Through Toyota Financial Services Securities Corporation, Toyota provides financial services primarily for its card holders in Japan, including sales of investment trusts and high grade corporate bonds.

 

Other Operations

 

In addition to its automotive operations and financial services operations, Toyota is involved in a number of other non-automotive business activities. Net sales for these activities totaled ¥896 billion in fiscal 2004, representing approximately 5.2% of Toyota’s total revenue for fiscal 2004, ¥795 billion in fiscal 2003 and ¥729 billion in fiscal 2002. The most significant of Toyota’s other operations are its information technology related businesses, including certain intelligent transport systems and an e-commerce marketplace called Gazoo.com, and pre-fabricated housing. Substantially all of Toyota’s revenues from other operations were derived in Japan.

 

Information Technology

 

Toyota is involved in developing information technology related products and services through joint efforts with certain telecommunication and information services providers. Its primary partner in these development efforts is KDDI Corporation, a domestic telecommunications service provider that offers integrated mobile,

 

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domestic and international telecommunications services. Toyota and KDDI Corporation are further strengthening their business relationship in light of the increasing necessity for developing services that are better adapted to existing telecommunications infrastructure. Toyota currently holds an 11.7% interest in KDDI.

 

Toyota established Toyota InfoTechnology Center Co., Ltd., a joint venture among its affiliates and KDDI, in January 2001. Toyota InfoTechnology Center, USA., Ltd., a wholly-owned subsidiary of the joint venture, was established in April 2001. This joint venture focuses on research and development of advanced information technologies that address market needs. Toyota believes these technologies will be integral to the further development of information services businesses, including intelligent transport systems, and to the application of information technologies to its financial services businesses. Toyota holds a 65% interest in the joint venture.

 

Toyota also operates a Japanese-language web site, Gazoo.com. The name “Gazoo” originates from the Japanese word gazo meaning images. Gazoo was established as a membership Internet service linking Toyota, its national dealer network and Gazoo members, and provides information on new and used Toyota automobiles and related services as well as online shopping capabilities. Gazoo has been expanded to offer a wide range of products and services, including information on an increased number of vehicle types offered by Toyota and certain additional service to its credit card members. To further expand its motor vehicle information service, Toyota launched an information service called G-Book in Japan in fall 2002 by applying information technology that was developed through Internet information communications services. G-Book provides various services including theft detection system, location tracking service, operator assistance service and the provision of traffic and other information and is currently available for over fifty vehicle models in Japan. Toyota has also licensed its G-Book technology to certain other competitors in Japan.

 

Pre-fabricated Housing

 

Toyota is also engaged in the manufacture and sale of prefabricated housing. Toyota has adapted the core production systems and methodologies used in its automotive operations to this business. In order to strengthen its product planning and sales of its prefabricated housing operations, Toyota spun-off its operations and established a subsidiary, Toyota Housing Corporation, in April 2003.

 

Governmental Regulation, Environmental and Safety Standards

 

Toyota is subject to laws in various jurisdictions regulating the levels of pollutants generated by its plants. In addition, Toyota is subject to regulations relating to the emission levels, fuel economy, noise and safety of its products. Toyota has incurred significant costs in complying with these regulations and expects to incur significant compliance costs in the future. However, Toyota’s management views leadership in environmental protection as an increasingly important competitive factor in the marketplace.

 

Vehicle Emissions

 

Japanese Standards

 

The Air Pollution Law of Japan and the Road Transportation Vehicle Law regulate vehicle emissions in Japan. In addition, both the Noise Regulation Law and the Road Transportation Vehicle Law provide for noise reduction standards on automobiles in Japan. Toyota’s vehicles manufactured for sale in Japan comply with all Japanese exhaust emission and noise level standards. In addition, Toyota is progressing with efforts to attain certification as “ultra low emission vehicles” for the majority of its automobile models under the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport’s Low Emission Vehicle Approval Standard. Under this standard, ultra low emission vehicles must achieve 75% emission reduction against standards established in fiscal 2000.

 

U.S. Federal Standards

 

The federal Clean Air Act directs the Environmental Protection Agency to establish and enforce air quality standards, including emission control standards on passenger cars, light-duty trucks and heavy-duty vehicles. Under current standards applicable to passenger cars and light-duty trucks produced in model years through

 

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2003, manufacturers are obligated to recall vehicles that fail to meet these standards for ten years or 100,000 miles, whichever occurs first. Pursuant to the Clean Air Act, the Environmental Protection Agency determined that it was necessary to tighten standards further and in February 2000 decided to adopt more stringent vehicle emission and fuel economy standards applicable to passenger cars and light-duty trucks produced in model years 2004 and beyond. In the standards adopted for model years 2004 and beyond, manufacturers must guarantee that their vehicles meet the requirements for ten years or 120,000 miles, whichever occurs first. Manufacturers will not be permitted to sell vehicles in the United States that do not meet the new standards. Separate standards for heavy-duty vehicles are also in effect, and are expected to become more stringent.

 

California Standards

 

Under the federal Clean Air Act, the State of California is permitted to establish its own, more stringent, emission control standards. As a result, the California Air Resources Board has established its own emission standards, known as the “Low Emission Vehicle Program”. In late 1998, the California Air Resources Board adopted additional vehicle emissions standards that must be phased in beginning in the 2004 model year. These new standards treat most light trucks the same as passenger cars and require both types of vehicles to meet the new emissions standards of the Low Emission Vehicle Program. As part of the original Low Emission Vehicle Program, the California Air Resources Board also required that a specified percentage of a manufacturer’s passenger cars and trucks sold in California for all model years 1998 and after be “zero-emission vehicles” (vehicles producing no emissions of regulated pollutants). The California Air Resources Board subsequently eliminated the zero-emission vehicles mandate for model years before 2005, and adopted a zero-emission vehicles requirement for model years 2005 and after. This zero-emission vehicles requirement also sets forth certain requirements that advanced technology vehicles such as hybrid cars and alternative fuel vehicles must meet to be recognized as “partial zero-emission vehicles”. Toyota’s battery- powered RAV4 EV compact sport-utility vehicle qualifies as a zero-emission vehicle and the new 2004 model Prius released in 2003 qualifies as a partial zero-emission vehicle under the new zero-emission vehicles requirement adopted by the California Air Resources Board. Toyota intends to continue to develop additional advanced technologies and alternative fuel technologies which will allow other vehicles using such technologies to qualify as zero-emission vehicles or partial-zero-emission vehicles. In July 2002, the California legislature passed new legislation that requires the California Air Resources Board to develop and adopt, by the end of 2004, regulations that achieve the maximum feasible reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The regulations would apply to passenger vehicles, light trucks and other noncommercial personal vehicles from the 2009 model year onward.

 

Other States

 

Other states may adopt California’s regulations, including its zero-emission vehicle mandates, by meeting the requirements under the federal Clean Air Act.

 

The states of Massachusetts, New York, Vermont and Maine have adopted California’s Low Emission Vehicle Program, effective with model year 2001 or before. Furthermore, the states of Massachusetts, New York, Vermont and New Jersey have made decisions to adopt California’s zero-emission vehicle requirement in the future.

 

Canadian and Mexican Standards

 

Canada has established vehicle emission standards equivalent to the federal standards in the United States, including the heightened requirements that will be applicable to passenger cars and light trucks in model years 2004 and after. Mexico’s emission control standards are similar to those applicable in the United States after the 1994 model year.

 

European Standards

 

Current vehicle emission control standards applicable in the European Union are generally no more restrictive than U.S. standards. However, the European Council and the European Parliament have adopted a

 

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directive that establishes increasingly stringent emissions standards for passenger vehicles and light commercial vehicles. Under this directive, the standards adopted beginning with year 2000 require manufacturers to recall any vehicles which fail to meet the standards for five years or 80,000 kilometers, whichever occurs first. Toyota introduced vehicles complying with this directive in 1999. Under the standards to be adopted beginning with model year 2005, manufacturers will be obligated to meet the more stringent standards for five years or 100,000 kilometers, whichever occurs first. The Prius complies with this directive. Standards for heavy commercial vehicles have been adopted by the European Council and the European Parliament for model years 2005 and 2008 and thereafter.

 

Compliance with new emission control standards will present significant technological challenges to vehicle manufacturers and will likely require significant expenditures. Examples of these challenges include the development of advanced technologies, such as high performance batteries and catalytic converters, as well as the development of alternative fuel technologies. Manufacturers that are unable to develop commercially viable technologies within the time frames established by the new standards will be limited in the number and types of vehicles and engines they are able to sell in their principal markets.

 

Vehicle Fuel Economy

 

Japanese Standards

 

The Law Concerning Rationalization of Energy Usage requires automobile manufacturers to improve their vehicles to meet specified fuel economy standards. Toyota has complied with these regulations in all material respects. The law requires that the actual average fuel economy of gasoline-fueled vehicles for each class based on vehicle weight proposed by each manufacturer complies with the fuel economy standards established thereunder by 2010, and that the actual average fuel economy of diesel-fueled vehicles for each class based on vehicle weight proposed by each manufacturer complies with relevant fuel economy standards by 2005. Toyota is now developing gasoline-fueled and diesel-fueled vehicles that will meet these standards, with the aim of achieving early compliance with these standards for all of its automobiles. Furthermore, Japan has signed the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and has agreed to take steps to restrain the emission of “greenhouse gases”. Japan ratified the Kyoto Protocol in June 2002. This protocol requires Japan to reduce its carbon dioxide emissions by 6% during the years 2008 to 2012 as measured from the 1990 base year if it becomes effective.

 

U.S. Standards

 

The Federal Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act requires automobile manufacturers to comply with Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards, commonly referred to as the CAFE standards. Under the CAFE standards, a manufacturer is subject to substantial penalties if, in any model year, its vehicles do not meet those standards. The current CAFE standards are 27.5 miles per gallon for passenger cars and 20.7 miles per gallon for light-duty trucks, including mini-vans and sport-utility vehicles. In April 2003, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration established new CAFE standards for light-duty trucks of 21.0 miles per gallon for 2005 model year vehicles, 21.6 miles per gallon for 2006 model year vehicles and 22.2 miles per gallon for model 2007 vehicles. A manufacturer which meets the CAFE standards earns credits determined by the difference between the actual average fuel economy of its vehicles and the CAFE standards. Credits earned for the three preceding model years and credits projected to be earned for the next three model years can be used to meet CAFE standards in the current model year. Credits earned in respect of passenger cars may not be used for trucks and credits earned in respect of trucks may not be used for passenger cars. Passenger cars are further divided into the two categories “Domestic” and “Import”, and credits earned in one category may be not applied toward another category.

 

Although Toyota has met the current CAFE standards for both passenger cars and light-duty trucks, the enactment of the new, more stringent standards could have a significant impact on Toyota’s ability to offer its automobiles for sale in the United States.

 

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Concern over the effect that carbon dioxide emissions may have on global warming has focused attention on the need for reducing fossil energy use, in part by increasing vehicle fuel economy. In November 1998, the United States signed the Kyoto Protocol. This protocol calls for the United States to reduce its carbon dioxide emissions by 7% during the years 2008 to 2012, as measured from the 1990 base year. The United States government currently has not ratified the protocol. However, the United States has been considering ways to achieve the called-for reductions, including more stringent CAFE standards, higher fuel costs and restrictions on fuel usage. In February 2002, the Bush administration released a climate change policy initiative stressing voluntary measures and a cap-and-trade program to stem the growth of greenhouse gas emissions. These actions would be costly to Toyota and could significantly restrict the products it is able to offer in the United States.

 

In addition, the Energy Tax Act of 1978 imposes a “gas guzzler” tax on automobiles with a fuel economy rating below specified levels.

 

European Standards

 

The European Union has signed the Kyoto Protocol and agreed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 8% during the years 2008 to 2012, as measured from the 1990 base year. In early 1999, the European Union entered into a voluntary engagement with the European Automotive Manufacturers Association which establishes an average emissions target of 140 grams of carbon dioxide per kilometer for new cars sold in the European Union in 2008. That target represents an average reduction in passenger vehicle fuel usage of 25%, measured from 1995 levels. In addition, the European Union has reaffirmed its goal of reducing average carbon dioxide emissions from new passenger cars to 120 grams per kilometer by 2012. As a result, automobile manufacturers have agreed to re-examine in 2003 the level of compliance towards the 2008 goal and whether further reductions are possible by 2012. The Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association and the Korean Automobile Manufacturers Association also entered into a similar voluntary engagement with the European Union with the year 2009 as a target year.

 

Vehicle Safety

 

Japanese Standards

 

Japanese safety regulations require manufacturers to equip their vehicles with safety features sufficient to ensure passenger safety for both head-on and side collisions occurring at speeds of up to 50 kilometers per hour. Japanese regulations also require vehicles to provide sufficient braking performance at high speeds. In addition, pedestrian safety standards, aimed to protect the safety of not only passengers but also pedestrians, and driving visibility standards are expected to be introduced. Regulations on offset frontal protection and front underrun protection as well as more stringent regulations on unbuckled seat belt alarms are also expected to be introduced. All Toyota motor vehicles currently sold in Japan meet or exceed applicable Japanese safety standards.

 

U.S. Standards

 

The U.S. National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966 requires vehicles and equipment sold in the United States to meet various safety standards issued by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. The Safety Act also authorizes the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration to investigate complaints relating to vehicle safety and to order manufacturers to recall and repair vehicles found to have safety-related defects. The cost of these recalls can be substantial depending on the nature of the repair and the number of vehicles affected.

 

In 2000, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration issued various motor vehicle safety standards, including an interim final rule specifying performance requirements for advanced airbag systems. The rule imposes a new regimen of tests with stringent new injury criteria, and sets forth a compliance phase in schedule mandating that 20% of all vehicles produced by a manufacturer from September 2003, 65% from September 2004, and 100% from September 2005, meet the new safety standard. These standards add to the cost and

 

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complexity of designing and producing new motor vehicles and original motor vehicle equipment. Toyota has complied with the first phase of requirements that took place in September 2003. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration continues to make proposals on subjects such as fuel system crash integrity and universal child restraint anchorages.

 

The Transportation Recall Enhancement, Accountability and Documentation Act was enacted in the United States on November 1, 2000. This Act requires the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration to upgrade federal motor vehicle safety standards relating to tires based on a dynamic vehicle test that takes into account the rollover propensity of vehicles. It also requires the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration to initiate new rules that enhance its authority to gather information potentially relating to motor vehicle defects. This Act substantially increases the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration’s authority to impose civil penalties for noncompliance with regulatory requirements and specifies possible criminal penalties for violations of the federal Fraud and False Statements Act. Under this Act, beginning in 2002, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration must strengthen regulations regarding tire-pressure monitoring systems, expand its New Car Assessment Program to implement consumer information programs for vehicle rollover resistance and child restraints and adopt extensive early warning defect reporting requirements, of which the latter two have been implemented to date.

 

Toyota actively invests in technologies designed to increase the safety of its vehicles. Toyota is developing technologies to increase the availability of existing safety systems to all segments of the market. These technologies include supplemental restraint system (SRS) airbags, anti-lock braking systems, side airbags, curtain shield airbags, vehicle stability control and other safety features.

 

European and Other Standards

 

Vehicles sold in Europe are subject to separate vehicle safety regulations established by the European Union, individual countries and the United Nations. Currently regulations that are deemed most important in Europe are those related to the protection of pedestrians, and legislation of vehicle safety aimed at the protection of not only passengers but also pedestrians has been decided by the European Union. Vehicle safety regulations in Canada are similar to those in the United States. Countries in South America and Asia have also established vehicle safety regulations. Countries that are members of ASEAN are believed to follow regulations promulgated by the United Nations and countries in South America are believed to follow those of the United Nations or the United States.

 

Environmental Matters

 

Japanese Standards

 

Toyota’s automotive operations in Japan are subject to substantial environmental regulation under the Air Pollution Law, the Water Pollution Control Law, the Noise Regulation Law and the Vibration Control Law. Under these laws, if a business entity establishes or alters any facility that is regulated by these laws, the business entity is required to give prior notice to regulators, and if a business entity discharges or causes exhaust, wastewater, noise or vibration from such facility, the business entity is also required to comply with the applicable standards. Toyota is also subject to local regulations, which in some cases impose more stringent obligations than the Japanese central government requirements. Toyota has complied with these regulations in all material respects. Moreover, under the Waste Disposal and Public Cleaning Law, producers of industrial waste must dispose of industrial waste in the way prescribed in the Waste Disposal and Public Cleaning Law. Toyota has also complied with the Waste Disposal and Public Cleaning Law.

 

In February 2003, the Soil Contamination Countermeasures Law became effective in Japan. The Soil Contamination Countermeasures Law stipulates the contamination testing and removal measures that are required when land and facilities used to process hazardous materials are converted to residential areas or other public use. In addition, the Law on Recycling of End-of-Life Vehicles was promulgated in July 2002. Under the

 

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Law on Recycling of End-of-Life Vehicles, vehicle manufacturers are required to take back and recycle certain materials of end-of-life vehicles. The provisions concerning such obligations of vehicle manufacturers are expected to become effective in January 2005.

 

U.S. Standards

 

Toyota’s assembly, manufacturing and other operations in the United States are subject to a wide range of environmental regulation under the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 and the Toxic Substances Control Act. Toyota is also subject to a variety of state legislation that parallels, and in some cases imposes more stringent obligations than, federal requirements. These federal and state regulations impose severe restrictions on air- and water-borne discharges of pollution from Toyota facilities, the handling of hazardous materials at Toyota facilities and the disposal of wastes from Toyota operations. Toyota is subject to many similar requirements in its operations in Europe and Canada.

 

Moreover, the Environmental Protection Agency has promulgated more stringent National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone and Particulate Matter, which define strategies needed to attain the new standards. Toyota expects growing pressure in the next several years to further reduce emissions from motor vehicles and manufacturing facilities.

 

European Standards

 

In September 2000, the European Union approved a directive that requires member states to promulgate regulations implementing the following by April 21, 2002:

 

  manufacturers shall bear all or a significant part of the costs for taking back end-of-life vehicles put on the market after July 1, 2002 and dismantling and recycling those vehicles. Beginning January 1, 2007, manufacturers will also be financially responsible for vehicles put on the market before July 1, 2002;

 

  manufacturers may not use certain hazardous materials in vehicles to be sold after July 2003;

 

  vehicles type-approved and put on the market from three years after the amendment of the directive on type-approval shall be re-usable and/or recyclable to a minimum of 85% by weight per vehicle and shall be re-usable and/or recoverable to a minimum of 95% by weight per vehicle; and

 

  end-of-life vehicles must meet actual re-use and recovery targets of 80% and 85%, respectively, of vehicle weight by 2006, rising respectively to 85% and 95% by 2015.

 

Currently, there are numerous uncertainties surrounding the form and implementation of the applicable regulations in different European Union member states, particularly regarding manufacturer responsibilities and resultant expenses that may be incurred. All of the member states, except for Finland, have adopted legislation to implement the directive. In addition, Sweden and Denmark have existing legislation that partially implements the directive. Belgium has partially adopted legislation implementing the directive. The ten new member states which joined the European Union in May 2004 are also in the process of adopting legislation to implement the directive.

 

In addition, under this directive member states must take measures to ensure that car manufacturers, distributors and other auto-related businesses establish adequate used vehicle disposal facilities and to ensure that hazardous materials and recyclable parts are removed from vehicles prior to scrapping. This directive impacts Toyota’s vehicles sold in the European Union and Toyota expects to introduce vehicles that are in compliance with such measures taken by the member states pursuant to the directive.

 

Based on the legislation that has been enacted to date, Toyota has provided for its estimated liability related to covered vehicles in existence as of March 31, 2004. Depending on the legislation that is yet to be enacted by certain member states and subject to other circumstances, Toyota may be required to provide additional accruals

 

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for the expected costs to comply with these regulations. Although Toyota does not expect its compliance with the directive to result in significant cash expenditures, Toyota is continuing to assess the impact of this future legislation on its results of operations, cash flows and financial position.

 

The European Union has also issued directives and made proposals relating to the following subjects on environmental matters:

 

  emission standards that include a framework permitting member states to introduce fiscal incentives to promote early compliance;

 

  reaffirmation of its goal of reducing carbon dioxide emissions; and

 

  reform of rules governing automotive distribution and service. Current block exemption on distribution has been amended in that dealers may engage in active sales within the European Union and may open additional facilities for sales and services and could no longer be required by manufacturers to operate both sales and services.

 

Toyota believes that its operations are materially in compliance with environmental regulatory requirements concerning its facilities and products in each of the markets in which it operates. Toyota continuously monitors these requirements and takes necessary operational measures to ensure that it remains in material compliance with all of these requirements.

 

Toyota believes that environmental regulatory requirements have not had a material adverse effect on its operations. However, compliance with environmental regulations and standards has increased costs and is expected to lead to higher costs in the future. Therefore, Toyota recognizes that effective environmental cost management will become increasingly important. Moreover, innovation and leadership in the area of environmental protection are becoming increasingly important to remain competitive in the market. As a result, Toyota has proceeded with the development and production of environmentally friendly technologies, such as hybrid vehicles, fuel-cell vehicles and high fuel efficiency, low emission engines.

 

In addressing environmental issues, based on an assessment of the environmental impact of its products through their life cycles, Toyota as a manufacturer takes all possible measures in each life stage of a product, from development through production and sales, and continues to work toward technological innovations to make efficient use of resources and to reduce the burden on the environment.

 

Research and Development

 

Toyota’s research and development activities focus on the environment, vehicle safety, information technology and product development. For a detailed discussion of the company’s research and development policies for the last three years, see “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — Research and Development, Patents and Licenses”.

 

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The following table provides information for Toyota’s principal research and development facilities.

 

Facility


  

Principal Activity


Japan

    

Toyota Technical Center

   Planning, design, vehicle evaluation, development of prototypes

Tokyo Design Research & Laboratory

   Design research and development of advanced styling designs

Higashi-Fuji Technical Center

   Research and advanced development on powertrains, materials, electronic parts and other matters

Shibetsu Proving Ground

   Vehicle testing and evaluation

United States

    

Toyota Technical Center, U.S.A., Inc.

   Development of the upper body part for a portion of North American manufactured vehicles, adapting vehicles sold in North America to the market, advanced technology research, external affairs for legal and regulatory affairs, certification

Calty Design Research, Inc.

   Design development, model production and design survey

Europe

    

TMEM R&D Group

   Technical support for vehicle manufacturing in Europe, market tuning for vehicles sold in Europe, advanced technology research, external affairs for legal and regulatory affairs, certification

Toyota Europe Design Development S.A.R.L.

   Design development, model production and design survey

Toyota Motorsport GmbH

   Development of Formula One race cars

Asia Pacific

    

Toyota Technical Center Asia Pacific Thailand Co., Ltd

  

 

Design of portions of vehicles that are tailored for vehicles sold in Australia and Asia, evaluation

Toyota Technical Center Asia Pacific Australia PTY, Ltd

  

 

Design of portions of vehicles that are tailored for vehicles sold in Australia and Asia, evaluation

 

The success of Toyota’s research and development activities is a key element of Toyota’s strategy. The effectiveness of Toyota’s research and development activities is subject to a number of factors, some of which are not in Toyota’s control. These factors include the introduction of innovations by Toyota’s competitors that may reduce the value of Toyota’s initiatives and Toyota’s ability to convert its research and development into commercially successful technologies and products.

 

Components and Parts, Raw Materials and Sources of Supply

 

Toyota purchases parts, components, raw materials, equipment and other supplies from several competing suppliers located around the world. Toyota works closely with its suppliers to obtain the best supplies. Toyota believes that this policy encourages technological innovation, cost reduction and other competitive measures. As a result, no single supplier accounted for more than 5% of Toyota’s consolidated purchases of raw materials, parts and equipment during fiscal 2004, except for Denso Corporation, an affiliate of Toyota, which supplied approximately 10% of Toyota’s purchases during fiscal 2004. Toyota plans to continue purchases based on the same principle and does not anticipate any difficulty in obtaining supplies in the foreseeable future.

 

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As part of its globalization plan, Toyota is taking steps to increase purchases from both new and existing suppliers outside of Japan. Toyota’s largest sources of supply outside Japan are currently located in the United States. In 2004, Toyota expects to launch its IMV Project, a global network designed to supply pickup trucks, multipurpose vehicles and major vehicle components to Southeast Asia, Europe, Africa, Central and South America and other regions from production bases in ASEAN countries, South Africa and Argentina. Toyota believes the network will enhance its overall competitiveness by coordinating Toyota’s worldwide development, procurement and production activities. Moreover, Toyota is also preparing for the introduction of a new global logistical support system in several steps in conjunction with the launch the IMV Project. This new support system will be used to determine the optimum means and routes of transportation, and to coordinate procurement activities in accordance with production status and the availability of delivery vehicles. This system is designed to further Toyota’s globalization efforts by establishing an internal standard for worldwide procurement and distribution in order to reduce production lead times and production costs, thereby ensuring timely delivery to customers. Toyota is preparing the implementation of this new global logistical support system towards the launch of the IMV Project in Thailand and Indonesia in August 2004.

 

Historically, the price of principal raw materials used by Toyota to produce its products have not been volatile.

 

Toyota’s ability to continue to obtain supplies in an efficient manner is subject to a number of factors, some of which are not in Toyota’s control. These factors include the ability of its suppliers to provide a continued source of supplies and the effect on Toyota of competition by other users in obtaining the supplies.

 

Intellectual Property

 

Toyota holds numerous Japanese and foreign trademarks, patents, design patents and utility model registrations. It also has a number of applications pending for Japanese and foreign patents. A utility model registration is a right granted under the laws of certain countries to inventions of less patentability than those which qualify for patents. In general, the effective period for a utility model registration is shorter than that granted for a patent. While Toyota considers all of its intellectual property to be important, it does not consider any one or group of patents, trademarks or utility model registrations to be so important that their expiration or termination would materially affect Toyota’s business.

 

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Capital Expenditures and Divestitures

 

Set forth below is a chart of Toyota’s principal capital expenditures between April 1, 2001 and March 31, 2004, the approximate total costs of such activity, as well as the location and method of financing of such activity, presented on a “by subsidiary” basis and as reported in Toyota’s annual Japanese securities report filed with the director of the Kanto Local Finance Bureau.

 

Description of Activity


   Total Cost
(billions of yen)


   Location

  

Method of
Financing


Investment primarily in manufacturing facilities to undertake model changes by Toyota Motor Corporation

   841.7    Japan    Internal funds

Investment primarily in new technology and products by Daihatsu Motor Co., Ltd.

   86.3    Japan    Internal funds

Investment primarily in new technology and products by Hino Motors, Ltd.

   54.3    Japan    Internal funds

Investment primarily in new technology and products by Toyota Motor Hokkaido, Inc.

   33.9    Japan    Internal funds

Investment primarily in new technology and products by Toyota Motor Kyushu, Inc.

   31.4    Japan    Internal funds

Investment primarily in new technology and products by Toyota Auto Body Co., Ltd.

   22.3    Japan    Internal funds

Investment to promote localization by Toyota Motor Manufacturing, Indiana, Inc.

   153.5    United States    Internal funds

Investment to promote localization by Toyota Motor Manufacturing, Canada, Inc.

   107.5    Canada    Internal funds

Investment to promote localization by Toyota Motor Manufacturing, Kentucky, Inc.

   94.0    United States    Internal funds

Investment to promote localization by Toyota Motor Manufacturing (UK) Limited

   52.8    United Kingdom    Internal funds

Investment to promote localization by Toyota Motor Manufacturing, California Inc.

   41.9    United States    Internal funds

Investment to promote localization by Toyota Motor Manufacturing Poland SP.zo.o.

   35.9    Poland    Internal funds

Investment to promote localization by Toyota Motor Manufacturing, Alabama, Inc.

   29.2    United States    Internal funds

Investment primarily in leased automobiles by Toyota Motor Credit Corporation

   1,143.4    United States    Internal funds and borrowings

 

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Set forth below is information with respect to Toyota’s material plans to construct, expand or improve its facilities between April 2004 and March 2005, presented on a “by subsidiary” basis and as reported in Toyota’s annual Japanese securities report filed with the director of the Kanto Local Finance Bureau.

 

Description of Activity


   Total Cost
(billions of yen)


   Location

   Method of
Financing


Investment primarily in manufacturing facilities by Toyota Motor Corporation

   340.0    Japan    Internal funds

Investment primarily in manufacturing facilities by Toyota Motor Thailand Co., Ltd.

   53.4    Thailand    Internal funds

Investment primarily in manufacturing facilities by Toyota Motor Manufacturing, Kentucky, Inc.

   46.2    United States    Internal funds

Investment primarily in manufacturing facilities by Daihatsu Motor Co., Ltd.

   39.0    Japan    Internal funds

Investment primarily in manufacturing facilities by Hino Motors, Ltd.

   28.1    Japan    Internal funds

Investment primarily in manufacturing facilities by Toyota South Africa Motors (Pty) Ltd.

   25.2    South Africa    Internal funds

 

Set forth below is additional information with respect to Toyota’s material plans to construct, expand or improve its facilities, presented on a “by facility” basis.

 

Czech Republic Plant. Toyota and PSA Peugeot Citroën commenced construction of a joint plant in the Czech Republic in April 2002, following an agreement between the two companies in January 2001 to form a joint venture for the joint production of small passenger vehicles. The plant will have an annual production capacity of approximately 300,000 units of small passenger vehicles. The plant is expected to commence operations in 2005. The total cost of this plant is expected to be approximately 1.5 billion euros. Toyota’s portion of these construction costs has been to date, and is expected to be in the future for its remaining portion, financed through internal funds and loans.

 

Poland Plant. Toyota commenced construction of a plant in Poland in August 2002. The expansion will enable the plant to manufacture 250,000 gasoline engines per year and increase the annual production capacity of manual transmissions from 250,000 to 550,000 units. The plant will also be used to produce up to 250,000 manual transmissions for Yaris, Corolla and Avensis models produced in Europe, as well as up to 250,000 engines and 300,000 manual transmissions per year for a new passenger vehicle to be produced in the Czech Republic by Toyota and PSA Peugeot Citroën starting 2005. The expansion is expected to be completed by the end of 2004. The total cost for the expansion is expected to be approximately 400 million euros. These construction costs have been to date, and are expected to be in the future for the remaining costs, financed through internal funds.

 

Mexico Plant. Toyota commenced construction of a plant in Mexico in June 2002. The plant will be used initially to produce truck beds for the Tacoma pickup truck, and it will have an annual production capacity of approximately 180,000 truck beds. The plant will also be used to produce approximately 30,000 completed Tacoma pickup trucks per year. The plant is expected to commence operations in August 2004, and it is scheduled to begin producing completed pickup trucks at the end of 2004. The total cost of this plant is expected to be approximately $140 million. These construction costs have been, and are expected to be, financed through internal funds.

 

Texas Plant. Toyota commenced construction of a plant in Texas in October 2003. The plant will be used to produce full-size Tundra pickup trucks, and will have an initial annual production capacity of approximately

 

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150,000 units. The plant is expected to commence operations in 2006. The total cost of this plant is expected to be approximately $800 million. Toyota has not decided how it will finance these construction costs.

 

Guangqi Engine Plant. In February 2004, Toyota established Guangqi Toyota Engine, Ltd. as a joint venture with Guangzhou Automobile Group Co., Ltd. The joint venture will operate a plant that is expected to commence production of engine parts in early 2005 and gasoline engines in fall 2005. The plant is expected to have an initial annual production capacity of 300,000 engines and is expected to produce 25,000 engines during its first year in 2005, all of which will be exported to Japan. The total cost of this plant is expected to be approximately 2.2 billion yuan (or ¥29.2 billion). Toyota’s share of the construction costs has been financed through internal funds and is expected to be financed through internal funds and loans.

 

Toyota does not collect information on the amount of expenditures already paid for each plant under construction because Toyota believes that it is difficult and it would require unreasonable effort to identify and categorize each expenditure item with reasonable accuracy as past and future expenditures. Toyota’s construction projects consist of numerous expenditures, each of which is continuously being adjusted and incurred in variable and constantly changing amounts as part of the overall work-in-progress.

 

Seasonality

 

Toyota has historically experienced slight seasonal fluctuations in unit sales. For each of the past three years, Toyota’s unit sales levels have been highest in March of each year, with approximately 10 to 11% of annual unit sales generated during that month, and for each of the remaining months, its unit sales have generated approximately 7 to 9% of its annual unit sales.

 

Legal Proceedings

 

United States Antitrust Proceedings

 

In February 2003, Toyota, General Motors Corporation, Ford, DaimlerChrysler, Honda, Nissan and BMW and their U.S. and Canadian sales and marketing subsidiaries, the National Automobile Dealers Association and the Canadian Automobile Dealers Association were named as defendants in purported nationwide class actions on behalf of all purchasers of new motor vehicles in the United States since January 1, 2001. Twenty-six similar actions were filed in federal courts in California, Illinois, New York, Massachusetts, Florida, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. Additionally, fifty-five parallel class actions were filed in state courts in California, Minnesota, New Mexico, New York, Tennessee, Wisconsin, Arizona, Florida and New Jersey on behalf of the same purchasers in these states. As of April 1, 2004, actions filed in federal courts were consolidated in Maine and actions filed in the state courts of California and New Jersey were also consolidated, respectively.

 

The nearly identical complaints allege that the defendants violated the Sherman Antitrust Act by conspiring among themselves and with their dealers to prevent the sale to United States citizens of vehicles produced for the Canadian market. The complaints allege that new vehicle prices in Canada are 10% to 30% lower than those in the United States and that preventing the sale of these vehicles to United States citizens resulted in United States consumers paying excessive prices for the same type of vehicles. The complaints seek permanent injunctions against the alleged antitrust violations and treble damages in an unspecified amount. In March 2004, the federal district court of Maine (i) dismissed claims against certain Canadian sales and marketing subsidiaries, including Toyota Canada, Inc., for lack of personal jurisdiction but denied or deferred to dismiss claims against certain other Canadian companies, and (ii) dismissed the claim for damages but did not bar the plaintiffs from seeking injunctive relief against the alleged antitrust violations. The plaintiffs have submitted an amended compliant in order to proceed on the claim for damages. Toyota believes that its actions have been lawful and intends to vigorously defend these cases.

 

On-board Diagnostic System Proceedings

 

On September 2, 1998, the California Air Resources Board issued a recall order against Toyota and its U.S. subsidiary, Toyota Technical Center, U.S.A., Inc., seeking the recall of approximately 337,000 Toyota and Lexus

 

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vehicles in the 1996, 1997 and 1998 model years sold in California. The California Air Resources Board claimed that the on-board diagnostic systems installed in these vehicles did not properly detect gas vapor leaks within the vehicles and illuminate warning lights when required by evaporative emissions regulatory requirements. In October 1998, Toyota filed a petition contesting the recall order under California administrative hearing procedures. After a full hearing on the claims, an administrative law judge in February 2000 issued a recommended decision concluding that (i) the Toyota vehicles meet the applicable standard for evaporative emissions monitoring, (ii) Toyota did not timely inform the California Air Resources Board of certain enabling conditions programmed into the operation of the evaporative emissions monitoring system, and (iii) the recall order should be dismissed. In February 2002, Toyota and the California Air Resources Board executed a settlement under which Toyota contributed funds to the state Air Pollution Control Fund and to selected projects proposed by the Air Resources Board staff. In addition, Toyota will extend warranties for the evaporative emission control system of relevant Toyota models from 3 years or 50,000 miles to 14 years or 150,000 miles and will accelerate introduction of near-zero-emission cars. The total estimated cost of the settlement to Toyota has been agreed to be $7.9 million.

 

On July 12, 1999, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, represented by the U.S. Department of Justice, filed a federal lawsuit against Toyota’s U.S. subsidiary, Toyota Motor Sales U.S.A., Inc., in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia. This lawsuit relates to approximately 2.2 million Toyota and Lexus vehicles in the 1996, 1997 and 1998 model years sold in the United States (including the vehicles subject to the California proceeding). This lawsuit alleges that Toyota violated the U.S. Clean Air Act as a result of similar claims of noncompliance with on-board diagnostic systems as were raised in the California proceeding. The complaint seeks a judgment enjoining Toyota from selling in the United States any new vehicle between the 1996 and 1998 model years that does not conform to the applicable federal regulations and ordering Toyota to take appropriate action to remedy the alleged violations of the Clean Air Act, as well as civil penalties of up to $27,500 for each vehicle allegedly sold in violation of that Act. In November 1999, the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Justice named Toyota and its U.S. subsidiary, Toyota Technical Center, U.S.A., Inc. as additional defendants.

 

In March 2003, Toyota and the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Justice agreed to a settlement and submitted it to the United States District Court for the District of Columbia, which became effective on July 1, 2003. Under the settlement terms, Toyota will contribute funds to certain supplemental environmental projects and make settlement payments to the United States government. In addition, Toyota will extend warranties for the evaporative emission control systems of relevant Toyota models from 3 years or 50,000 miles to 14 years or 150,000 miles and will accelerate the introduction of near-zero-emission cars. The total estimated cost of the settlement to Toyota is currently estimated to be $32.7 million.

 

Other Proceedings

 

Toyota has various other legal actions, governmental proceedings and other claims pending against it, including product liability claims in the United States. Although the claimants in some of these actions seek potentially substantial damages, Toyota cannot currently determine its potential liability or the damages, if any, with respect to these claims. However, based upon information currently available to Toyota, Toyota believes that its losses from these matters, if any, would not have a material adverse effect on Toyota’s financial position, operating results or cash flows.

 

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4.C ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

 

As of March 31, 2004, Toyota Motor Corporation had 323 Japanese subsidiaries and 231 overseas subsidiaries. The following table sets forth for each of Toyota Motor Corporation’s principal subsidiaries, the country of incorporation and the percentage ownership and the voting interest held by Toyota Motor Corporation.

 

Name of Subsidiary


   Country of
Incorporation


  

Percentage Ownership

and Voting Interest


Tokyo Toyota Motor Co., Ltd.

   Japan    100.00

Tokyo Toyo-Pet Motor Sales Co., Ltd.

   Japan    100.00

Osaka Toyopet Co., Ltd.

   Japan    100.00

Toyota Tokyo Corolla Co., Ltd.

   Japan    100.00

Hino Motors, Ltd.

   Japan    50.46

Toyota Motor Kyushu, Inc.

   Japan    100.00

Daihatsu Motor Co., Ltd.

   Japan    51.58

Toyota Motor Hokkaido, Inc.

   Japan    100.00

Toyota Auto Body Co., Ltd.

   Japan    50.21

Kanto Auto Works, Ltd.

   Japan    50.57

Araco Corporation

   Japan    81.35

Toyota Financial Services Corporation

   Japan    100.00

Toyota Finance Corporation

   Japan    100.00

Toyota Motor North America, Inc.

   United States    100.00

Toyota Motor Sales, U.S.A., Inc.

   United States    100.00

Toyota Motor Manufacturing North America, Inc.

   United States    100.00

Toyota Motor Manufacturing, Kentucky, Inc.

   United States    100.00

Toyota Motor Manufacturing, Indiana, Inc.

   United States    100.00

Toyota Motor Manufacturing, Canada, Inc.

   Canada    100.00

Toyota Motor Credit Corporation

   United States    100.00

Toyota Credit Canada Inc.

   Canada    100.00

Toyota Motor Europe S.A./N.V.

   Belgium    100.00

Toyota Motor Marketing Europe S.A./N.V.

   Belgium    100.00

Toyota Deutschland G.m.b.H.

   Germany    100.00

Toyota (GB) PLC

   United Kingdom    100.00

Toyota France S.A.

   France    100.00

Toyota Motor Italia S.p.A.

   Italy    100.00

Toyota Motor Engineering & Manufacturing Europe S.A./N.V.

   Belgium    100.00

Toyota Motor Manufacturing (UK) Ltd.

   United Kingdom    100.00

Toyota Kreditbank G.m.b.H.

   Germany    100.00

Toyota Motor Finance (Netherlands) B.V.

   Netherlands    100.00

Toyota Financial Services (UK) PLC

   United Kingdom    100.00

Toyota Motor Asia Pacific Pte Ltd.

   Singapore    100.00

Toyota Motor Corporation Australia Ltd.

   Australia    100.00

Toyota Motor Thailand Co., Ltd.

   Thailand    86.43

Toyota Finance Australia Ltd.

   Australia    100.00

Toyota Leasing (Thailand), Co., Ltd.

   Thailand    75.87

Toyota South Africa Motors (Pty) Ltd.

   South Africa    100.00

 

4.D PROPERTY, PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT

 

As of March 31, 2004, Toyota and its affiliates produced automobiles and related components through 67 manufacturing facilities and organizations, of which 26 were located in Japan. The remaining facilities are located principally in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, India, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, the United States and the United Kingdom.

 

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In addition to its manufacturing facilities, Toyota’s properties include sales offices and other sales facilities in major cities, repair service facilities, and research and development facilities.

 

The following table sets forth information, as of March 31, 2004, with respect to Toyota’s principal facilities and organizations, all of which are owned by Toyota or its subsidiaries. However, small portions, all under approximately 15%, of some facilities are on leased premises.

 

Facility or Subsidiary Name


  

Location


   Floor Space
(thousand
square meters)


  

Principal Products or
Functions


Japan

              

Tahara Plant

   Tahara-cho, Aichi Pref.    1,150    Automobiles

Toyota Head Office and Technical Center

   Toyota City, Aichi Pref.    1,100    Research and Development

Motomachi Plant

   Toyota City, Aichi Pref.    840    Automobiles

Kamigo Plant

   Toyota City, Aichi Pref.    550    Automobile parts

Takaoka Plant

   Toyota City, Aichi Pref.    710    Automobiles

Tsutsumi Plant

   Toyota City, Aichi Pref.    610    Automobiles

Myochi Plant

   Miyoshi-cho, Aichi Pref.    280    Automobile parts

Kinu-ura Plant

   Hekinan City, Aichi Pref.    360    Automobile parts

Honsha Plant

   Toyota City, Aichi Pref.    520    Automobiles

Higashi-Fuji Technical Center

   Susono City, Shizuoka Pref.    270    Research and Development

Toyota Motor Kyushu, Inc.

   Miyata-cho, Fukuoka Pref.    260    Automobiles

Daihatsu Motors Co., Ltd.

   Ikeda City, Osaka, etc.    960    Automobiles

Hino Motors, Ltd.

   Hino City, Tokyo, etc.    890    Automobiles

Outside Japan

              

Toyota Motor Manufacturing, Kentucky, Inc.

   Kentucky, U.S.A.    700    Automobiles

Toyota Motor Manufacturing, Indiana, Inc.

   Indiana, U.S.A.    320    Automobiles

Toyota Motor Sales, U.S.A., Inc.

   California, U.S.A.    670    Sales facilities

Toyota Motor Manufacturing, Canada Inc.

   Ontario, Canada    280    Automobiles

Toyota Motor Manufacturing (UK) Limited

   Burnaston and Deeside, UK    300    Automobiles

 

Toyota is constantly engaged in upgrading, modernizing and revamping the operations of its manufacturing facilities, based on its assessment of market needs and prospects. As market conditions and Toyota’s business objectives evolve, Toyota adjusts its capacity and utilization by opening, closing, expanding or downsizing production facilities accordingly. As a result, Toyota believes it is difficult and it would require unreasonable effort to track the exact productive capacity and the extent of utilization of each of its manufacturing facilities with a reasonable degree of accuracy. Toyota believes that its manufacturing facilities are generally all operating within normal operating capacity and not substantially below capacity.

 

As of March 31, 2004, property, plant and equipment having a net book value of approximately ¥122,113 million was pledged as collateral securing indebtedness incurred by Toyota’s consolidated subsidiaries. Toyota believes that there does not exist any material environmental issues that may affect the company’s utilization of its assets.

 

Toyota considers all its principal manufacturing facilities and other significant properties to be in good condition and adequate to meet the needs of its operations.

 

See “— Business Overview — Capital Expenditures and Divestitures” for a description of Toyota’s material plans to construct, expand or improve facilities.

 

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ITEM 5. OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS

 

5.A OPERATING RESULTS

 

All financial information discussed in this section is derived from Toyota’s consolidated financial statements that appear elsewhere in this annual report on Form 20-F. The financial statements have been prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

 

Overview

 

The business segments of Toyota Motor Corporation (“the parent company”) and its subsidiaries (collectively, “Toyota”) include automotive operations, financial services operations and all other operations. Automotive operations is Toyota’s most significant business segment, accounting for approximately 91% of Toyota’s total revenues before the elimination of intersegment revenues and 90% of Toyota’s operating income before the elimination of intersegment revenues and costs for the year ended March 31, 2004. Toyota’s primary markets based on vehicle unit sales for the year ended March 31, 2004 were: Japan (34%), North America (31%) and Europe (13%).

 

Automotive Market Environment

 

The worldwide automotive market is highly competitive and volatile. The demand for automobiles is affected by a number of factors including social, political and general economic conditions; introduction of new vehicles and technologies; and costs incurred by customers to purchase and operate vehicles. These factors can cause consumer demand to vary substantially from year to year in different geographic markets and for different types of automobiles.

 

The following table sets forth Toyota vehicle unit sales by geographical markets for the past three fiscal years.

 

     (Thousands of Units)

     Year Ended March 31,

     2002

   2003

   2004

Japan

   2,217    2,217    2,303

North America

   1,780    1,982    2,103

Europe

   727    776    898

All Other Markets

   818    1,138    1,415
    
  
  

Total

   5,542    6,113    6,719
    
  
  

 

Toyota vehicle unit sales in Japan increased during fiscal 2004 as compared to fiscal 2003, primarily as a result of the successful introduction of new and remodeled vehicles and the continuing strong sales efforts of domestic dealers. This follows a slight increase in Toyota vehicle unit sales in Japan during fiscal 2003 as compared to fiscal 2002, which also resulted primarily from the successful introduction of new models and the strong sales efforts of domestic dealers during a period of continued increased competition from other Japanese domestic manufacturers. In contrast, Toyota vehicle unit sales in Japan decreased during fiscal 2002 resulting primarily from an overall industry decline in the Japanese market and increased competition from other Japanese domestic manufacturers. Unit sales of Toyota vehicles in North America, Europe and all other markets increased, year over year, in each of fiscal 2004, 2003 and 2002, and was supported by strong demand for Toyota vehicles in all of these market regions.

 

Toyota’s share of total vehicle unit sales in each market is influenced by the quality, price, design, performance, safety, reliability, economy and utility of its vehicles compared with those offered by other manufacturers. The timely introduction of new or remodeled vehicles is also an important factor in satisfying customer demand. Toyota’s ability to satisfy changing customer preferences can affect its revenues and earnings significantly.

 

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The profitability of Toyota’s automotive operations is affected by many factors. These factors include:

 

  vehicle unit sales volumes,

 

  the mix of vehicle models and options sold,

 

  the levels of price discounts and other sales incentives and marketing costs,

 

  the cost of customer warranty claims and other customer satisfaction actions,

 

  the cost of research and development and other fixed costs,

 

  the ability to control costs,

 

  the efficient use of production capacity, and

 

  changes in the value of the Japanese yen and other currencies in which Toyota does business.

 

Changes in laws, regulations, policies and other governmental actions can also materially impact the profitability of Toyota’s automotive operations. These laws, regulations and policies include those affecting environmental matters and vehicle safety, fuel economy and emissions that add significantly to the cost of vehicles. The European Union has approved a directive that requires manufacturers to be financially responsible for taking back end-of-life vehicles and to take measures to ensure that adequate used vehicle disposal facilities are established and that hazardous materials and recyclable parts are removed from vehicles prior to scrapping. Please see “— Legislation Regarding End-of-Life Vehicles” and “Information on the Company — Business Overview — Governmental Regulation, Environmental and Safety Standards” and note 23 to the consolidated financial statements for a more detailed discussion of these laws, regulations and policies.

 

Many governments also regulate local content, impose tariffs and other trade barriers, and enact price or exchange controls which can limit an automaker’s operations and can make the repatriation of profits to an automaker’s home country difficult. Changes in these laws, regulations, policies and other governmental actions may affect the production, licensing, distribution or sale of Toyota’s products, cost of products or applicable tax rates. Toyota is currently one of the defendants in purported national class actions alleging violations of the U.S. Sherman Antitrust Act. For a more detailed description of this proceeding, see note 23 to the consolidated financial statements.

 

The worldwide automotive industry is in a period of globalization and consolidation, which may continue for the foreseeable future. As a result, the competitive environment in which Toyota operates is likely to intensify. Toyota believes it has the resources, strategies and technologies in place to compete effectively in the industry as an independent company for the foreseeable future.

 

In May 2003, Toyota acquired additional ownership interests in Toyota Auto Body Co., Ltd. (“Toyota Auto Body”) and Kanto Auto Works, LTD (“Kanto Auto Works”). As a result, Toyota’s ownership interests in Toyota Auto Body and Kanto Auto Works increased by 2.94% and 1.14% to 50.21% and 50.57%, respectively, and Toyota’s consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Toyota Auto Body and Kanto Auto Works from the acquisition date. Prior to the acquisition of the additional ownership interests, Toyota Auto Body and Kanto Auto Works were accounted for using the equity method. Toyota Auto Body and Kanto Auto Works are primarily engaged in the manufacturing and sale of Toyota vehicles and related parts. In November 2002, Toyota acquired an additional ownership interest in Toyota South Africa Motor Company (“Toyota South Africa”). As a result, Toyota’s ownership interests in Toyota South Africa increased by 39.3% to 75.0% and Toyota South Africa became a consolidated subsidiary of Toyota. Prior to the acquisition of the additional ownership interest, Toyota South Africa was accounted for using the equity method. Toyota South Africa is primarily engaged in the manufacturing and sale of Toyota vehicles and related parts. Fiscal 2004 is the first full year that Toyota’s consolidated financial statements include the operating results of Toyota South Africa.

 

Financial Services Operations

 

The worldwide financial services market is highly competitive. The market for automobile financing has grown as more consumers are financing their purchases, particularly in North America and Europe. Toyota faces

 

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increasing competition in its financial services operations from financial institutions including banks, savings institutions and leasing companies. These leasing companies include those affiliated with other automobile manufacturers, in particular those of the major U.S. producers. As competition increases, spreads earned on financing transactions may decrease and market share may also decline as customers obtain financing for Toyota vehicles from alternative sources.

 

The growth in Toyota’s financial assets continued during fiscal 2004 resulting primarily from the continued expansion of its financial services operations in North America.

 

The following table summarizes Toyota’s assets arising out of its financial services operations for the past three fiscal years.

 

     Yen in millions

 
     March 31,

 
     2002

    2003

    2004

 

Retail

   ¥ 2,723,834     ¥ 3,071,232     ¥ 3,643,998  

Finance leases

     1,391,924       1,129,220       912,622  

Wholesale and other dealer loans

     952,260       1,365,047       1,680,907  

Unearned income

     (323,897 )     (373,663 )     (298,153 )

Allowance for credit losses

     (52,170 )     (116,888 )     (87,462 )
    


 


 


Finance receivables, net

     4,691,951       5,074,948       5,851,912  

Vehicles and equipment on operating leases

     1,584,161       1,601,060       1,493,780  
    


 


 


Total financial assets

   ¥ 6,276,112     ¥ 6,676,008     ¥ 7,345,692  
    


 


 


 

Toyota’s financial services operations also include loans and leasing programs for customers and dealers. Toyota believes that its ability to provide financing to its customers is an important value added service. Toyota intends to continue to expand its network of finance subsidiaries in order to offer financial services in more countries. Toyota completed the roll-out of a national risk-based pricing program in the United States for retail finance receivables and vehicle finance lease contracts as of March 31, 2001. The objective of this program is to better match credit risk with contract rates to allow Toyota to purchase contracts with a wider range of risk levels. The implementation of the risk-based pricing program has contributed to increased contract yields in the United States during fiscal 2003 and 2004.

 

Toyota has continued to originate operating leases to finance new Toyota vehicles. These leasing activities are subject to residual value risk. Residual value risk arises when the lessee of a vehicle does not exercise the option to purchase the vehicle at the end of the lease. The number of vehicles returned at the end of leases has grown in recent years. For example, fewer than 20% of vehicles leased by Toyota Motor Credit Corporation, Toyota’s financing subsidiary located in the United States, were returned at the end of the applicable lease period during fiscal 1996, compared to a return rate of approximately 50% during fiscal 2003 and 2004. To avoid a loss on a vehicle returned to Toyota at the end of the lease, Toyota must resell or re-lease the vehicle at or above the residual value of the vehicle. If Toyota is unable to recover the residual value of the vehicle, it will incur a loss at the end of the lease, which offsets earnings on the lease. In recent years, the resale values of returned vehicles have been depressed, primarily because of an increased supply of used vehicles in the market that has depressed market prices. To the extent that sales incentives remain an integral part of sales promotion (reducing new vehicle prices and cost of ownership), resale prices of used vehicles and, correspondingly, the carrying value of Toyota’s leased vehicles could be subject to further downward pressure. As a result of the depressed market prices of used vehicles, Toyota has incurred losses related to residual values during fiscal 2002 and 2003. During fiscal 2004, losses have decreased due to a recovery of resale prices of used vehicles. See discussion in the Critical Accounting Estimates section regarding “Investment in Operating Leases” and the allowance for residual value.

 

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Toyota maintains an overall risk management strategy to mitigate its exposure to fluctuations in interest rates and currency exchange rates. Toyota enters into interest rate swap agreements and cross currency interest rate swap agreements to convert its fixed-rate debt to variable-rate functional currency debt. Toyota formally documents relationships between the derivative instrument and the hedged item, as well as its risk-management strategy for undertaking hedge transactions. If Toyota elects fair value hedge accounting, derivative instruments are designated with specific liabilities on Toyota’s consolidated balance sheet, and the fair value quarterly change component of each derivative instrument and hedged item is included in the assessment of hedge effectiveness. Most interest rate swap agreements are executed as an integral part of specific debt transactions, achieving designated hedges. Toyota uses cross currency interest rate swap agreements to entirely hedge exposure to exchange rate fluctuations on principal and/or interest payments and to manage its exposure to interest rate fluctuations. Certain derivative instruments are entered into to hedge interest rate risk from an economic perspective and are not designated to specific assets or liabilities on Toyota’s consolidated balance sheet. Accordingly, unrealized gains or losses related to derivatives that are not designated to specific assets and liabilities on Toyota’s consolidated balance sheet are recognized currently. As a result, earnings are impacted by these non-designated derivatives. During fiscal 2004, earnings were favorably impacted by the recognition of realized and unrealized gains on these non-designated derivatives. Toyota does not use any derivative instruments for trading purposes. See discussion in the Critical Accounting Estimates section regarding “Derivatives and Other Contracts at Fair Value”, and further discussion in the Market Risk Disclosures section.

 

In addition, funding costs can affect the profitability of Toyota’s financial services operations. Funding costs are affected by a number of factors, some of which are not in Toyota’s control. These factors include general economic conditions, prevailing interest rates and Toyota’s financial strength. Funding costs during fiscal 2004 decreased as a result of lower interest rates primarily in the United States.

 

Toyota launched its credit card business in Japan in April 2001. As of March 31, 2004, Toyota had 4.2 million cardholders, an increase of 0.6 million cardholders compared with March 31, 2003. Further, as of March 31, 2004, credit card receivables increased by ¥21.8 billion to ¥117.2 billion compared with March 31, 2003.

 

Other Business Operations

 

Toyota’s other business operations include information technology and telecommunications, intelligent transport systems, GAZOO, housing, marine, biotechnology and afforestation. The housing business, which is a major business component in Toyota’s other business operations, operates in the prefabricated housing market.

 

Toyota does not expect its other business operations to materially contribute to Toyota’s consolidated results of operations.

 

Currency Fluctuations

 

Toyota is sensitive to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates. In addition to the Japanese yen, Toyota is principally exposed to fluctuations in the value of the U.S. dollar and the euro, and to a lesser extent the Australian dollar and the British pound. Toyota’s consolidated financial statements, which are presented in Japanese yen, are affected by foreign currency exchange fluctuations through both translation risk and transaction risk. Changes in foreign currency exchange rates may positively or negatively affect Toyota’s revenues, operating costs and expenses, gross margins, operating income, net income and retained earnings.

 

Translation risk is the risk that Toyota’s financial statements for a particular period or for a particular date will be affected by changes in the prevailing exchange rates of the currencies in those countries in which Toyota does business compared with the Japanese yen. Even though the fluctuations of currencies against the Japanese yen can be substantial and, therefore, significantly impact comparisons with prior periods and among various geographic markets, the translation effect is a reporting consideration and does not reflect Toyota’s underlying results of operations. Toyota does not hedge against translation risk.

 

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Transaction risk is the risk that the currency structure of Toyota’s costs and liabilities will deviate from the currency structure of sales proceeds and assets. Transaction risk relates primarily to sales proceeds from Toyota’s non-domestic sales produced in Japan and, to a lesser extent, sales proceeds from Toyota’s continental European sales produced in the United Kingdom.

 

Toyota believes that the location of its production facilities in different parts of the world has significantly reduced the level of transaction risk. As part of its globalization strategy, Toyota has localized much of its production by constructing production facilities in the major markets in which it sells its vehicles. In calendar 2003, Toyota produced 60.9% of Toyota’s non-domestic sales outside Japan. In North America, 61.7% of vehicles sold in calendar 2003 were produced locally. In Europe, 52.6% of vehicles sold in calendar 2003 were produced locally. Local operations permit Toyota to purchase many of the supplies and resources used in the production process in a manner that matches the currencies of local revenues with the currencies of local expenses.

 

Toyota also enters into currency borrowings and other hedging instruments to address a portion of its transaction risk. This has reduced, but not eliminated, the effects of foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations, which in some years can be significant. See notes 20 and 21 to the consolidated financial statements for additional information regarding the extent of Toyota’s use of derivative financial instruments to hedge foreign currency exchange rate risks.

 

Generally, a weakening of the Japanese yen against other currencies has a positive effect on Toyota’s revenues, operating income and net income. A strengthening of the Japanese yen against other currencies has the opposite effect. The Japanese yen has on average been stronger against the U.S. dollar during fiscal 2004 and fiscal 2003, and weaker against the U.S. dollar during fiscal 2002. At the end of fiscal 2004, 2003 and 2002, the Japanese yen was stronger, stronger and weaker, respectively, against the U.S. dollar in comparison to the end of the prior fiscal year. The Japanese yen has on average been weaker against the euro during fiscal 2004, fiscal 2003 and fiscal 2002. At the end of each of fiscal 2004, 2003 and 2002, the Japanese yen was stronger, weaker and weaker, respectively, against the euro in comparison to the end of the prior fiscal year. See further discussion in the Market Risk Disclosures section regarding “Foreign Currency Exchange Rate Risk”.

 

Segmentation

 

Toyota’s most significant business segment is its automotive operations. Toyota carries out its automotive operations as a global competitor in the worldwide automotive market. In doing so, Toyota’s management allocates resources to, and assesses the performance of, its automotive operation on a worldwide basis as a single business segment. Toyota does not manage any subset of its automotive operations, such as domestic or overseas operations or parts, as separate segments.

 

The management of the automotive operations is aligned on a functional basis with managers having oversight responsibility for the major operating functions within the segment. Management assesses financial and non-financial data such as units of sale, units of production, market share information, vehicle model plans and plant location costs to allocate resources within the automotive operations.

 

Geographical Breakdown

 

The following table sets forth Toyota’s net revenues from external customers in each of its geographical markets for the past three fiscal years.

 

     Yen in millions

     Year Ended March 31,

     2002

   2003

   2004

Japan

   ¥ 6,384,807    ¥ 6,621,054    ¥ 7,167,704

North America

     5,475,405      5,929,803      5,910,422

Europe

     1,265,509      1,514,683      2,018,969

All Other Markets

     1,064,587      1,436,013      2,197,665

 

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Results of Operations — Fiscal 2004 Compared with Fiscal 2003

 

Net Revenues

 

Toyota had net revenues for fiscal 2004 of ¥17,294.7 billion, an increase of ¥1,793.2 billion, or 11.6%, compared with the prior year. This increase principally reflects the impact of increased vehicle unit sales, the consolidation of the results of subsidiaries previously accounted for on the equity basis, increased parts and service sales and the impact of increased financings. These increases were partially offset by the impact of fluctuations in foreign currency translation rates particularly against the U.S. dollar. Eliminating the difference in the yen value used for translation purposes, net revenues would have been approximately ¥17,554.3 billion during fiscal 2004, a 13.2% increase compared with the prior year. Toyota’s net revenues include net revenues from sales of products which increased during fiscal 2004 by 12.1% to ¥16,578.0 billion compared to the prior year and net revenues from financing operations which increased during fiscal 2004 by 1.3% to ¥716.7 billion compared with the prior year. Eliminating the difference in the yen value used for translation purposes, net revenues from sales of products would have been approximately ¥16,809.1 billion, a 13.6% increase, and net revenues from financing operations would have been approximately ¥745.2 billion, a 5.3% increase, during fiscal 2004 compared with the prior year. Net revenues for fiscal 2004 increased by 8.3% in Japan, 33.3% in Europe and 53.0% in all other markets and decreased by 0.3% in North America compared with the prior year. Eliminating the difference in the yen value used for translation purposes, net revenues would have increased by 8.3% in Japan, 7.1% in North America, 25.3% in Europe and 48.9% in all other markets compared with the prior year.

 

The following is a discussion of net revenues for each of Toyota’s business segments. The net revenue amounts discussed are amounts before the elimination of intersegment revenues.

 

Automotive Operations Segment

 

Net revenues from Toyota’s automotive operations constitute the largest percentage of Toyota’s net revenues and increased by ¥1,662.3 billion, or 11.6%, to ¥15,973.8 billion during fiscal 2004 compared with the prior year. The increase resulted primarily from the approximate ¥1,300.0 billion impact attributed to increased vehicle unit sales, ¥420.0 billion impact attributed to the consolidation of the results of subsidiaries previously accounted for on the equity basis, as discussed in note 5 to the consolidated financial statements, and increased parts and service sales. These increases were partially offset by the ¥230.0 billion impact of foreign currency translation rates fluctuations. Eliminating the difference in the yen value used for translation purposes, automotive operations revenues would have been approximately ¥16,205.2 billion during fiscal 2004, a 13.2% increase compared to the prior year. Net revenues in Japan were favorably impacted by vehicle unit sales growth in both of domestic and export markets, that were offset by lower average unit sales prices resulting from the continuing market shift in Japan to lower priced vehicles during fiscal 2004. Net revenues in North America were favorably impacted by vehicle unit sales growth, but were partially offset by the negative impact of foreign currency translation rates fluctuations during fiscal 2004. Net revenues in Europe were favorably impacted by combined net impact of vehicle unit sales growth and changes in sales mix, and foreign currency translation rates fluctuations during fiscal 2004. Net revenues in all other markets were favorably impacted by vehicle unit sales growth, but were partially offset by the lower average unit sales price.

 

Financial Services Operations Segment

 

Net revenues for Toyota’s financial services operations increased by ¥12.0 billion, or 1.6%, to ¥736.9 billion during fiscal 2004 compared with the prior year. This increase resulted primarily from the impact of a higher volume of financings and the impact of expansion of the credit card business in Japan that was partially offset by the impact of foreign currency translation rates fluctuations during fiscal 2004. Eliminating the difference in the yen value used for translation purposes, financial services operations net revenues would have been approximately ¥765.0 billion during fiscal 2004, a 5.5% increase compared with the prior year.

 

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All Other Operations Segment

 

Net revenues for Toyota’s other businesses increased by ¥101.0 billion, or 12.7%, to ¥896.2 billion during fiscal 2004 compared with the prior year. This increase resulted primarily from the impact of increased revenue from the prefabricated housing business.

 

Operating Costs and Expenses

 

Operating costs and expenses increased by ¥1,398.0 billion, or 9.8%, to ¥15,627.9 billion during fiscal 2004 compared with the prior year. The increase resulted primarily from the approximate ¥1,000.0 billion impact on cost of products attributed to increased vehicle unit sales, ¥470.0 billion impact from the consolidation of the results of subsidiaries previously accounted for on the equity basis, ¥110.0 billion impact of increase in labor costs, and the impact of increased parts and service sales. These increases were partially offset by the approximate ¥230.0 billion impact of cost reduction efforts and a ¥107.0 billion net gain on the transfer of the substitutional portion of certain employee pension funds in Japan.

 

In 2001, the Contributed Benefit Pension Plan Law was enacted and allowed a company to transfer the substitutional portion of the obligation to the government. Toyota and some of its affiliated companies in Japan applied for an exemption from the payment of benefits related to future employee services with respect to the substitutional portion of their employee pension funds and obtained approval from the Minister of Health, Labor, and Welfare. These companies also applied for approval for the separation of the benefit obligations of the substitutional portion which relates to past employee services. After approval was obtained, Toyota and the affiliated companies completed the transfer of the government-specified portion of plan assets relating to the substitutional portion in fiscal 2004. In accordance with the Emerging Issues Task Force (“EITF”) No.03-02, Accounting for the transfer to the Japanese Government of the Substitutional Portion of Employee Pension Fund Liabilities, settlement losses relating to the transfer of the substitutional portion was ¥213.9 billion and is reflected in cost of products sold (¥190.1 billion) and selling, general and administrative expenses (¥23.8 billion) for fiscal 2004. In addition, the government subsidy representing the difference between the benefit obligations of the substitutional portion and the government-specified portion of plan assets of ¥320.9 billion transferred to the government reduced selling, general and administrative expenses. The net impact of these items was a reduction of operating expenses by ¥107.0 billion during fiscal 2004. See note 19 to the consolidated financial statements.

 

Continued cost reduction efforts reduced costs and expenses for fiscal 2004 by approximately ¥230.0 billion over what would have otherwise been incurred. These cost reduction efforts relate to ongoing value engineering and value analysis activities, the use of common parts that result in a reduction of part types and other manufacturing initiatives designed to reduce the costs of vehicle production.

 

Cost of products sold increased by ¥1,592.1 billion, or 13.4%, to ¥13,506.3 billion during fiscal 2004 compared with the prior year. This increase (before the elimination of intersegment amounts) reflects an increase of ¥1,485.3 billion, or 12.9%, for the automotive operations and an increase of ¥92.5 billion, or 13.8%, for the all other operations segment. The increase in cost of products sold for the automotive operations reflects primarily the combined net impact of increased vehicle unit sales and changes in sales mix, the consolidation of the results of subsidiaries previously accounted for on the equity basis, the impact of increased parts and service sales, the increase in research and development expenses and settlement loss on transfer of the substitutional portion of the employee pension fund that was partially offset by the impact of continued cost reduction efforts and the impact of foreign currency translation rates fluctuations during fiscal 2004.

 

Cost of products sold as a percentage of revenues from sales of products increased to 81.5% during fiscal 2004 from 80.5% in the prior year. This reflects the impact of fluctuations in foreign currency translation rates against Toyota’s non-domestic sales of units produced in Japan and the impact of the settlement losses on the transfer of the substitutional portion of certain employee pension funds that was partially offset by continued cost reduction efforts.

 

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Cost of financing operations decreased by ¥59.7 billion, or 14.1%, to ¥364.2 billion during fiscal 2004 compared with the prior year. The decrease resulted primarily from the impact of gains on derivative financial instruments that are not designated as hedges and are marked-to-market at the end of each period, the impact of decreased interest expenses caused primarily by lower interest rates in the United States and the impact of fluctuations in foreign currency translation rates.

 

The cost of financing operations as a percentage of revenue from financing operations decreased to 50.8% during fiscal 2004 from 59.9% in the prior year. This change was principally the result of the impact of gains on derivative financial instruments not designated as hedges and the impact of decreased interest expenses caused by lower interest rates in the United States.

 

The cost of all other operations increased ¥90.3 billion, or 11.4% during fiscal 2004 compared to the prior year. The increase results from the increase in net revenues from Toyota’s other businesses.

 

Research and development expenses increased by ¥13.8 billion, or 2.1%, to ¥682.2 billion during fiscal 2004 compared with the prior year, as a result of the impact of research related to anticipatory, advanced and environmental technologies with a central focus on the development of a fuel cell battery and the impact of expanding new models to promote Toyota’s strength in a competitive global market for the future.

 

Selling, general and administrative expenses (after the elimination of intersegment amounts) decreased by ¥134.4 billion, or 7.1%, to ¥1,757.4 billion during fiscal 2004 compared with the prior year. This decrease (before the elimination of intersegment amounts) reflects a decrease of ¥95.0 billion, or 6.0%, for the automotive operations, a decrease of ¥43.7 billion, or 16.3%, for the financial services operations and a decrease of ¥2.3 billion, or 1.9%, for the other operations segment. The decrease for the automotive operations consisted primarily of the impact of continued cost reduction efforts, the impact of fluctuations in foreign currency translation rates and the government subsidy relating to the transfer of the substitutional portion of certain employee pension funds that was partially offset by the impact of increased labor costs arising from the expansion of operations overseas and increases in advertising costs. The decrease for the financial services operations reflects lower provisions for credit losses especially in North America due to an improvement in the delinquent loan collection rate and the impact of fluctuations in foreign currency translation rates.

 

Selling, general and administrative expenses as a percentage of revenue decreased to 10.2% during fiscal 2004 from 12.2% in the prior year. Selling, general and administrative expenses decreased as a percentage of net revenues primarily due to the impact of continued cost reduction efforts, the government subsidy relating to the transfer of the substitutional portion of certain employee pension funds and a decrease in provisions for credit losses. These decreases were partially offset by the increase in labor costs and advertising costs. Selling, general and administrative expenses in the automotive operations as a percentage of segment net revenues were 9.3% during fiscal 2004, compared to 11.1% in the prior year, reflecting the continued cost reduction efforts and the government subsidy relating to the transfer of the substitutional portion of certain employee pension funds. Selling, general and administrative expenses in the financial services operations as a percentage of segment net revenues were 30.5% during fiscal 2004, compared to 37.1% in the prior year, reflecting lower provisions for credit losses. Selling, general and administrative expenses in the all other operations segment as a percentage of segment net revenues were 13.3% during fiscal 2004 compared to 15.3% in the prior year, primarily due to increased revenue from the prefabricated housing business.

 

Operating Income

 

Toyota's operating income increased by ¥395.2 billion, or 31.1%, to ¥1,666.8 billion during fiscal 2004 compared with the prior year. Operating income was favorably affected primarily by vehicle unit sales growth, the impact of increased parts and service sales, continued cost reduction efforts, net gains on the transfer of the substitutional portion of certain employee pension funds and the consolidation of the results of subsidiaries previously accounted for on the equity basis. These increases were partially offset by increases in labor costs and advertising costs.

 

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During fiscal 2004, operating income (before the elimination of intersegment profits) increased by ¥163.8 billion, or 17.4%, in Japan, ¥111.0 billion, or 39.6%, in North America, ¥64.2 billion, or 772.7 % in Europe and ¥51.3 billion, or 112.4% in all other markets compared with the prior year. The increase in Japan relates primarily to the impact of increased production volume and vehicle unit sales, continued cost reduction efforts, the impact of the net gains on the transfer of the substitutional portion of certain employee funds and the consolidation of the results of subsidiaries previously accounted for on the equity basis. These increases were partially offset by the impact of fluctuations in foreign currency translation rates against Toyota’s non-domestic sales produced in Japan. The increase in North America relates primarily to the increase in production volume and vehicle unit sales, the impact of cost reduction efforts of manufacturing companies, lower provisions for credit losses and the impact of gains on derivative financial instruments, that were partially off set by the negative impact of the fluctuations in foreign currency translation rates. The increase in the European market relates mainly to the impact of cost reduction efforts of manufacturing companies, an increase in production volume and vehicle unit sales, impact of changes in sales mix and a favorable exchange rate of the yen against the euro, that was partially offset by the increase in labor costs due to the expansion of operations. The increase in other markets relates primarily to the impact of the increase in production volume and vehicle unit sales in Asia and a general improvement in other markets.

 

The following is a discussion of operating income for each of Toyota’s business segments. The operating income amounts discussed are before the elimination of intersegment profits.

 

Automotive Operations Segment

 

Operating income from Toyota’s automotive operations increased by ¥272.1 billion, or 21.8%, to ¥1,519.0 billion during fiscal 2004 compared with the prior year. Operating income was favorably affected primarily by the increase in vehicle unit sales, the increase in parts and service sales, the impact of continued cost reduction efforts, net gains on the transfer of the substitutional portion of certain employee pension funds, the consolidation of the results of subsidiaries previously accounted for on the equity basis, and the favorable exchange rate fluctuations of the yen against the euro. These increases were partially offset by increases in labor costs and advertising expenses, and the unfavorable exchange rate fluctuations of the yen against the U.S. dollar.

 

Financial Services Operations Segment

 

Operating income from Toyota’s financial services operations increased by ¥115.7 billion, or 381.4%, to ¥146.0 billion during fiscal 2004 compared with the prior year. This increase was primarily due to the impact of gains on derivative financial instruments, lower provisions for credit losses, an increase in the finance receivables asset base, the decrease in interest expenses attributed to lower interest rates on borrowings in the United States and the increase in the number of credit cards issued in Japan. These increases were partially offset by the unfavorable fluctuations in the U.S. dollar exchange rate against the yen.

 

All Other Operations Segment

 

Operating income from Toyota’s other businesses increased by ¥10.7 billion, or 236.7% to ¥15.2 billion during fiscal 2004. This increase primarily relates to increased revenue from the prefabricated housing business.

 

Other Income and Expenses

 

Interest and dividend income increased by ¥3.0 billion, or 5.6%, to ¥55.6 billion during fiscal 2004 compared with the prior year due to an increase in investment securities in the United States subsidiary, which was partially offset by lower interest rates in the United States.

 

Interest expense decreased by ¥9.8 billion, or 32.0%, to ¥20.7 billion during fiscal 2004 compared with the prior year due to a decrease in borrowings in the automotive segment and lower interest rates in the United States.

 

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Foreign exchange gain increased by ¥2.6 billion, or 7.3%, to ¥38.2 billion during fiscal 2004 compared with the prior year. Foreign exchange gain and loss include the differences between the value of foreign currency denominated sales translated at prevailing exchange rates and the value of the sales amounts settled during the year, including those settled using forward foreign currency exchange contracts.

 

Other gain and loss changed to a gain of ¥25.8 billion from a loss of ¥102.8 billion in the prior year. During fiscal 2003, there were losses of ¥111.3 billion relating to other-than temporary impairments on investment securities. During fiscal 2004, there were no material impairments on investment securities primarily attributed to the more favorable stock market conditions in Japan.

 

Income Taxes

 

Provision for income taxes increased by ¥164.3 billion during fiscal 2004 compared with the prior year, primarily as a result of the increase in income before income taxes and an increased provision for taxes on undistributed earnings of affiliated companies accounted for by the equity method. The effective tax rate for fiscal 2004 decreased to 38.6% from 42.1% for the prior year due to the reduction in valuation allowances and an increase in certain tax credits.

 

Minority Interest in Consolidated Subsidiaries and Equity in Earnings of Affiliated Companies

 

Minority interest in consolidated subsidiaries increased by ¥31.1 billion to ¥42.6 billion during fiscal 2004 compared with the prior year. This increase was mainly due to the consolidation of the results of subsidiaries previously accounted for on the equity basis.

 

Equity in earnings of affiliated companies during fiscal 2004 increased by ¥67.4 billion to ¥120.2 billion compared with the prior year due to an increase in net income as a result of favorable operations at most of the affiliated companies, a net gain on the transfer of the substitutional portion of an employee pension fund of an affiliate company in Japan, partially offset by the acquisition and consolidation of certain affiliate companies.

 

Net Income

 

Toyota’s net income increased by ¥411.1 billion, or 54.8%, to ¥1,162.0 billion during fiscal 2004 compared with the prior year.

 

Other Comprehensive Income and Loss

 

Other comprehensive income and loss increased by ¥736.6 billion to an income of ¥399.7 billion during fiscal 2004 compared with the prior year. This change resulted primarily from an increase in unrealized holding gains on securities during fiscal 2004 of ¥329.7 billion compared with unrealized holding losses of ¥26.5 billion in the prior year due to favorable market conditions in Japan and minimum pension liability adjustments during fiscal 2004, which resulted in a ¥273.3 billion gain adjustment compared with a ¥171.9 billion loss adjustment in the prior year due to the transfer of the substitutional portion of certain employee pension funds, an increase in cash contributions to the plans, and the increase in the market value of assets of the plans, offset by an increase in the losses for foreign currency translation adjustments during fiscal 2004 of ¥203.3 billion compared with a losses of ¥139.3 billion in the prior year.

 

Results of Operations — Fiscal 2003 Compared with Fiscal 2002

 

Net Revenues

 

Toyota had net revenues for fiscal 2003 of ¥15,501.5 billion, an increase of ¥1,311.2 billion, or 9.2%, compared with the prior year. This increase principally reflects the impact of increased vehicle unit sales, the

 

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impact of the full year consolidation of Hino and Kuozui Motors Ltd. (“Kuozui”), increased parts and service sales and the impact of increased financings. These increases were partially offset by the impact of changes in sales mix and the impact of fluctuations in foreign currency translation rates particularly against the U.S. dollar. Eliminating the difference in the yen value used for translation purposes, revenues would have been approximately ¥15,590.3 billion during fiscal 2003, a 9.9% increase compared to the prior year. Toyota’s net revenues include sales of products which increased during fiscal 2003 by 9.6% to ¥14,794.0 billion compared with the prior year and financing operations which increased during fiscal 2003 by 2.4% to ¥707.5 billion compared with the prior year. Eliminating the difference in the yen value used for translation purposes, revenues from sales of products would have been approximately ¥14,874.9 billion, a 10.2% increase, and net revenues from financing operations would have been approximately ¥715.4 billion, a 3.6% increase, during fiscal 2003 compared to the prior year. Net revenues for fiscal 2003 increased by 3.7% in Japan, 8.3% in North America, 19.7% in Europe and 34.9% in all other markets compared with the prior year. Eliminating the difference in the yen value used for translation purposes, net revenues would have increased by 3.7% in Japan, 10.9% in North America, 10.4% in Europe and 40.7% in all other markets compared to the prior year.

 

The following is a discussion of net revenues for each of Toyota’s business segments. The net revenue amounts discussed are amounts before the elimination of intersegment revenues.

 

Automotive Operations Segment

 

Net revenues from Toyota’s automotive operations constitute the largest percentage of Toyota’s revenues and increased by ¥1,244.1 billion, or 9.5%, to ¥14,311.5 billion during fiscal 2003 compared with the prior year. The increase resulted primarily from the approximate ¥750.0 billion combined net impact of increased vehicle unit sales and changes in sales mix, ¥338.2 billion impact of full year consolidation of Hino and Kuozui and increased parts and service sales. These increases were partially offset by the ¥77.4 billion impact of foreign currency translation rates. Eliminating the difference in the yen value used for translation purposes, automotive operations net revenues would have been approximately ¥14,388.8 billion during fiscal 2003, a 10.1% increase compared with the prior year. Eliminating the difference in the yen value used for translation purposes and the impact of the consolidation of Hino and Kuozui, automotive operations net revenues would have increased by 7.7% compared with the prior year. Net revenues in Japan were favorably impacted by the full year consolidation of Hino and higher vehicle unit sales to export markets, that were partially offset by lower average unit sales prices resulting from the continuing market shift in Japan to lower priced vehicles and decreased vehicle unit sales other than with respect to Hino in Japan. Net revenues in North America were favorably impacted by vehicle unit sales growth partially offset by the impact of foreign currency translation rates fluctuations during fiscal 2003 and lower average unit price. Net revenues in Europe were favorably impacted by foreign currency translation rates fluctuations during fiscal 2003 and increased vehicle unit sales partially offset by lower average unit prices. Net revenues in all other markets were favorably impacted by the full year consolidation of Kuozui and the combined net impact of increased vehicle unit sales and changes in sales mix, that were partially offset by the foreign currency translation rates fluctuations during the fiscal 2003. Excluding the impact of the consolidation of Hino and Kuozui, North American, European and all other markets sales reflect vehicle unit sales growth of 11.3%, 6.6% and 26.2%, respectively, compared to the prior year, while vehicle unit sales in Japan decreased by 0.7% compared to the prior year.

 

Financial Services Operations Segment

 

Net revenues for Toyota’s financial services operations increased by ¥26.9 billion, or 3.9%, to ¥724.9 billion during fiscal 2003 compared with the prior year. This increase resulted primarily from the impact of a higher volume of financings and the impact of expansion of the credit card business that were partially offset by the impact of foreign currency translation rates during fiscal 2003. Eliminating the difference in the yen value used for translation purposes, financial services operations net revenues would have been approximately ¥732.9 billion during fiscal 2003, a 5.0% increase compared with the prior year.

 

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All Other Operations Segment

 

Net revenues for Toyota’s other businesses increased by ¥66.4 billion, or 9.1%, to ¥795.2 billion during fiscal 2003 compared with the prior year. This increase resulted primarily from the impact of increased net revenues attributed to the prefabricated housing business.

 

Operating Costs and Expenses

 

Operating costs and expenses increased by ¥1,133.2 billion, or 8.7%, to ¥14,229.9 billion during fiscal 2003 compared with the prior year. The increase resulted primarily from the approximate ¥590.0 billion combined net impact on cost of products sold of increased vehicle unit sales and changes in sales mix, ¥327.1 billion impact of full year consolidation of Hino and Kuozui, the impact of increased parts and service sales, ¥87.5 billion impact of higher selling, general and administrative expenses and ¥79.1 billion increase in research and development expenses. These increases were partially offset by the approximate ¥290.0 billion impact of cost cutting efforts.

 

Continued cost reduction efforts reduced costs and expenses for fiscal 2003 by approximately ¥290.0 billion over what would have otherwise been incurred. These cost cutting efforts relate to ongoing value engineering and value analysis activities, the use of common parts that result in a reduction of part types and other manufacturing initiatives designed to reduce the costs of vehicle production.

 

Cost of products sold increased by ¥1,039.7 billion, or 9.6%, to ¥11,914.2 billion during fiscal 2003 compared with the prior year. This increase (before the elimination of intersegment amounts) reflects an increase of ¥971.3 billion, or 9.2%, for the automotive operations and an increase of ¥68.2 billion, or 11.4%, for the all other operations segment. The increase for the automotive operations reflects primarily the combined net impact of increased vehicle unit sales and changes in sales mix, the impact of the full year consolidation of Hino and Kuozui, the impact of increased parts and service sales and the increase in research and development expenses that was partially offset by the impact of continued cost reduction efforts.

 

Cost of products sold as a percentage of net revenues from sales of products decreased to 80.5% during fiscal 2003 from 80.6% in the prior year. This reflects the impact of continued cost reduction efforts that was partially offset by the impact of changes in sales mix, the impact of fluctuations in foreign currency translation rates against Toyota’s non-domestic sales produced in Japan.

 

Cost of financing operations decreased by ¥35.3 billion, or 7.7%, to ¥423.9 billion during fiscal 2003 compared with the prior year. The decrease resulted primarily from the impact of lower interest rates in the United States and the impact of foreign currency translation rates that was partially offset by the impact of increased volume of financings and the impact of losses on derivative financial instruments that are not designated as hedges and are marked-to-market at the end of each period.

 

The cost of financing operations as a percentage of net revenue from financing operations decreased to 59.9% during fiscal 2003 from 66.5% in the prior year. This change was principally the result of the impact of decreased interest expenses caused by the lower interest rates in the United States and was partially offset by the impact of losses on derivative financial instruments that are not designated as hedges.

 

Research and development expenses increased by ¥79.1 billion, or 13.4%, to ¥668.4 billion during fiscal 2003 compared with the prior year, as a result of increased activities relating primarily to the development of new models, vehicle safety, new vehicle energy and environmental technologies to promote Toyota’s strength in a competitive market for the future, and the impact of the full year consolidation of Hino during fiscal 2003.

 

Selling, general and administrative expenses (after the elimination of intersegment amounts) increased by ¥128.8 billion, or 7.3%, to ¥1,891.8 billion during fiscal 2003 compared with the prior year. This increase (before the elimination of intersegment amounts) reflects an increase of ¥83.7 billion, or 5.6%, for the automotive

 

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operations, an increase of ¥76.8 billion, or 40.0%, for the financial services operations and a decrease of ¥9.3 billion, or 7.1%, for the other operations segment. The increase for the automotive operations consisted primarily of the impact of the full year consolidation of Hino, the increase in labor costs resulting primarily from expanded operations in North America and Europe and the increase in advertising costs that was partially offset by the impact of continued cost reduction efforts and the impact of fluctuations in foreign currency translation rates. The increase for the financial services operations reflects higher provisions for credit losses especially in North America resulting from the increase in finance receivables and increased credit loss experience, which was partially offset by the impact of fluctuations in foreign currency translation rates. The decrease for the all other operations segment reflects the impact of fluctuations in foreign currency translation rates that was partially offset by the increase in labor costs.

 

Selling, general and administrative expenses as a percentage of net revenue decreased to 12.2% during fiscal 2003 from 12.4% in the prior year. Selling, general and administrative expenses decreased as a percentage of net revenue primarily due to the impact of continued cost reduction efforts. These decreases were partially offset by the increase in labor costs, the increase in advertising costs and higher provisions for credit losses. Selling, general and administrative expenses in the automotive operations as a percentage of segment net revenues were 11.1% during fiscal 2003, compared to 11.5% in the prior year, reflecting the continued cost reduction efforts. Selling, general and administrative expenses in the financial services operations as a percentage of segment net revenues were 37.1% during fiscal 2003, compared to 27.5% in the prior year, reflecting higher provisions for credit losses. Selling, general and administrative expenses in the all other operations segment as a percentage of segment net revenues were 15.3% during fiscal 2003 compared to 18.0% in the prior year, primarily due to improvements in the intelligent transport systems business.

 

Operating Income

 

Toyota’s operating income increased by ¥178.0 billion, or 16.3%, to ¥1,271.6 billion during fiscal 2003 compared with the prior year. Operating income was affected primarily by vehicle unit sales growth, continued cost reduction efforts, the impact of the full year consolidation of Hino and Kuozui and the impact of increased parts and service sales. These increases were partially offset by the impact of changes in sales mix, the increase in selling, general and administrative expenses and the increase in research and development costs.

 

During fiscal 2003, operating income (before the elimination of intersegment profits) increased by ¥100.2 billion, or 11.9%, in Japan, ¥15.2 billion, or 5.8%, in North America, ¥32.6 billion, or 249.7 %, in all other markets compared with the prior year and changed by ¥32.5 billion to ¥8.3 billion from a loss of ¥24.1 billion in the prior year, in Europe. The increase in Japan relates primarily to the impact of increased exports to North America and Asian countries, continued cost reduction efforts and the impact of the full year consolidation of Hino during fiscal year 2003. These increases were partially offset by the impact of changes in sales mix in Japan. The increase in North America relates primarily to the increase in vehicle unit sales that was partially offset by higher provisions for credit losses, the impact of losses on non-designated derivative financial instruments, the impact of costs to transfer production lines between North American manufacturing plants and the impact of changes in sales mix. The increase in European market relates mainly to the impact of favorable exchange rate of the yen against the euro and the increase in vehicle unit sales driven by stable shipment volume from the manufacturing plants in France and United Kingdom, that was partially offset by the impact of changes in sales mix. The increase in other markets relates primarily to the combined net impact of the increase in vehicle unit sales in Asian countries and changes in sales mix and the impact of the full year consolidation of Kuozui.

 

The following is a discussion of operating income for each of Toyota’s business segments. The operating income amounts discussed are before the elimination of intersegment profits.

 

Automotive Operations Segment

 

Operating income from Toyota’s automotive operations increased by ¥189.0 billion, or 17.9%, to ¥1,246.9 billion during fiscal 2003 compared with the prior year. Operating income was favorably affected primarily by

 

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the increase in the vehicle unit sales, continued cost reduction efforts, the impact of the full year consolidation of Hino and Kuozui and increased parts and service sales. These increases were partially offset by the impact of changes in sales mix, increased selling, general and administrative expenses and research and development costs.

 

Financial Services Operations Segment

 

Operating income from Toyota’s financial services operations decreased by ¥14.8 billion, or 32.8%, to ¥30.3 billion during fiscal 2003 compared with the prior year. This decrease was primarily due to higher provisions for credit losses and the impact of losses on non-designated derivative financial instruments, which was partially offset by higher volume of financings, the decrease in the interest expenses resulting from lower interest rates on borrowings in the United States, the impact of increased spreads on financings and the increase in the number of credit cards issued.

 

All Other Operations Segment

 

Operating income from Toyota’s other businesses changed by ¥7.5 billion to ¥4.5 billion during fiscal 2003 from a loss of ¥3.0 billion in the prior year. This increase primarily relates to general profitability improvements.

 

Other Income and Expenses

 

Interest and dividend income decreased by ¥3.1 billion, or 5.6%, to ¥52.7 billion during fiscal 2003 compared with the prior year due to decreased bank deposits and lower interest rates in the United States.

 

Interest expense increased by ¥3.7 billion, or 13.7%, to ¥30.5 billion during fiscal 2003 compared with the prior year due to higher borrowings that was partially offset by lower interest rates in the United States.

 

Foreign exchange gain increased to ¥35.6 billion during fiscal 2003 from the prior year. Foreign exchange gain and loss include the differences between the value of foreign currency denominated sales translated at prevailing exchange rates and the value of the sales amounts settled during the year, including those settled using forward foreign currency exchange contracts. Foreign exchange gains increased due to the favorable trend of the Japanese yen against the U.S. dollar in the second half of fiscal 2003, as compared with an unfavorable trend in the second half of fiscal 2002.

 

Other loss decreased by ¥47.7 billion, or 31.7%, to ¥102.8 billion during fiscal 2003 compared with the prior year. During fiscal 2002, there were gains of ¥75.1 billion on exchange transactions relating to financial institutions in which Toyota held ownership interests and losses of ¥257.4 billion relating to other-than temporary impairments on investment securities of which ¥212.9 billion related to Toyota’s investment in KDDI. During fiscal 2003, there were losses of ¥111.3 billion relating to other-than temporally impairments on investment securities.

 

Income Taxes

 

Provision for income taxes increased by ¥94.2 billion during fiscal 2003 compared with the prior year primarily as a result of the increase in income before income taxes and increased provision for taxes on undistributed earnings of affiliated companies accounted for by the equity method. The effective tax rate for fiscal 2003 decreased to 42.1% from 43.5% for the prior year due to various normal changes in taxable income, tax rates and tax credits.

 

Minority Interest in Consolidated Subsidiaries and Equity in Earnings of Affiliated Companies

 

Minority interest in consolidated subsidiaries increased by ¥0.6 billion to ¥11.5 billion during fiscal 2003 compared with the prior year.

 

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Equity in earnings of affiliated companies during fiscal 2003 increased by ¥34.7 billion to ¥52.8 billion during fiscal 2003 compared with the prior year as a result of the impact of operating losses recorded by Aioi during fiscal 2002.

 

Net Income

 

Toyota’s net income increased by ¥194.4 billion, or 34.9%, to ¥750.9 billion during fiscal 2003 compared with the prior year.

 

Other Comprehensive Income and Loss

 

Other comprehensive income and loss changed by ¥352.0 billion to a loss of ¥336.9 billion during fiscal 2003 compared with the prior year. This change resulted primarily from a decrease in a foreign currency translation adjustments during fiscal 2003 to a loss of ¥139.3 billion compared with a gain of ¥133.9 billion in the prior year, an increase in minimum pension liability loss adjustments during fiscal 2003 to ¥171.9 billion compared to losses of ¥114.4 billion in the prior year and an increase in unrealized holding losses on securities during fiscal 2003 to ¥26.5 billion compared to ¥3.6 billion in the prior year.

 

Related Party Transactions

 

Toyota does not have any significant related party transactions other than transactions with affiliated companies in the ordinary course of business as described in note 12 to the consolidated financial statements.

 

Legislation Regarding End-of-Life Vehicles

 

In September 2000, the European Union approved a directive that requires member states to promulgate regulations implementing the following by April 21, 2002:

 

  manufacturers shall bear all or a significant part of the costs for taking back end-of-life vehicles put on the market after July 1, 2002 and dismantling and recycling those vehicles. Beginning January 1, 2007, manufacturers will also be financially responsible for vehicles put on the market before July 1, 2002;

 

  manufacturers may not use certain hazardous materials in vehicles to be sold after July 2003;

 

  vehicles type-approved and put on the market from three years after the amendment of the directive on type-approval shall be re-usable and/or recyclable to a minimum of 85% by weight per vehicle and shall be re-usable and/or recoverable to a minimum of 95% by weight per vehicle; and

 

  end-of-life vehicles must meet actual re-use and recovery targets of 80% and 85%, respectively, of vehicle weight by 2006, rising respectively to 85% and 95% by 2015.

 

See note 23 to the consolidated financial statements for further discussion.

 

Critical Accounting Estimates

 

The consolidated financial statements of Toyota are prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. The preparation of these financial statements requires the use of estimates, judgments and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the periods presented. Toyota believes that of its significant accounting policies, the following may involve a higher degree of judgments, estimates and complexity:

 

Product Warranty

 

Toyota generally warrants its products against certain manufacturing and other defects. Product warranties are provided for specific periods of time and/or usage of the product and vary depending upon the nature of the

 

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product, the geographic location of its sale and other factors. All product warranties are consistent with commercial practices. Toyota provides a provision for estimated product warranty costs as a component of cost of sales at the time the related sale is recognized. The accrued warranty costs represent management’s best estimate at the time of sale of the total costs that Toyota will incur to repair or replace product parts that fail while still under warranty. The amount of accrued estimated warranty costs is primarily based on historical experience as to product failures as well as current information on repair costs. The amount of warranty costs accrued also contains an estimate as to warranty claim recoveries from suppliers. The foregoing evaluations are inherently uncertain, as they require material estimates and some products’ warranties extend for several years. Consequently, actual warranty costs will differ from the estimated amounts and could require additional warranty provisions. If these factors require a significant increase in Toyota’s accrued estimated warranty costs, it would negatively affect future operating results of the automotive operations.

 

Allowance for Doubtful Accounts and Credit Losses

 

Natures of estimates and assumptions

 

Sales financing and finance lease receivables consist of retail installment sales contracts secured by passenger cars and commercial vehicles. Collectibility risks include consumer and dealer insolvencies and insufficient collateral values (less costs to sell) to realize the full carrying values of these receivables. As a matter of policy, Toyota maintains an allowance for doubtful accounts and credit losses representing Toyota management’s estimate of the amount of asset impairment in the portfolios of finance, trade and other receivables. Toyota determines the allowance for doubtful accounts and credit losses based on a systematic, ongoing review and evaluation performed as part of the credit-risk evaluation process, historical loss experience, the size and composition of the portfolios, current economic events and conditions, the estimated fair value and adequacy of collateral and other pertinent factors. This evaluation is inherently judgmental and requires material estimates, including the amounts and timing of future cash flows expected to be received, which may be susceptible to significant change. Although management considers the allowance for doubtful accounts and credit losses to be adequate based on information currently available, additional provisions may be necessary due to (i) changes in management estimates and assumptions about asset impairment, (ii) information that indicates changes in the expected future cash flows, or (iii) changes in economic and other events and conditions. To the extent that sales incentives remain an integral part of sales promotion with the effect of reducing new vehicle prices, resale prices of used vehicles and, correspondingly, the collateral value of Toyota’s sales financing and finance lease receivables could experience further downward pressure. If these factors require a significant increase in Toyota’s allowance for doubtful accounts and credit losses, it could negatively affect future operating results of the financial services operations.

 

Sensitivity analysis

 

The level of credit losses, which could significantly impact Toyota’s results of operations, is influenced primarily by two factors: frequency of occurrence and loss severity. The overall allowance for credit losses is evaluated at least quarterly, considering a variety of assumptions and factors to determine whether reserves are considered adequate to cover probable losses. The following table illustrates the effect of an assumed change in expected loss severity which we believe is one of the key critical estimates, for the allowance for credit losses, holding all other assumptions consistent. The table includes the allowance for credit losses in Toyota’s financial services operations as the change impacts most significantly on the financial services operations.

 

     Yen in millions

    

Effect on the allowance
for credit losses

as of March 31, 2004


10 percent increase in expected loss severity

   ¥ 6,161

 

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Investment in Operating Leases

 

Natures of estimates and assumptions

 

Vehicles on operating leases, where Toyota is the lessor, is valued at acquisition cost and depreciated over its estimated useful life using the straight-line method to its estimated residual value. Toyota utilizes industry published information and its own historical experience to determine estimated residual values for these vehicles. Toyota evaluates the recoverability of the carrying values of its leased vehicles for impairment when there are indications of declines in residual values, and if impaired, Toyota recognizes an allowance for residual values. In recent years, the resale values of returned vehicles have been depressed, primarily because of an increased supply of used vehicles in the market that has depressed market prices. In addition, to the extent that sales incentives remain an integral part of sales promotion with the effect of reducing new vehicle prices, resale prices of used vehicles and, correspondingly, the fair value of Toyota’s leased vehicles could be subject to further downward pressure. If resale prices of used vehicles decline, future operating results of the financial services operations are likely to be adversely affected by incremental charges to reduce estimated residual values. Throughout the life of the lease, management performs periodic evaluations of estimated end-of-term market values to determine whether estimates used in the determination of the contractual residual value are still considered reasonable. Factors affecting the estimated residual value at lease maturity include, but are not limited to, new vehicle incentive programs, new vehicle pricing, used vehicle supply, projected vehicle return rates, and projected loss severity. The vehicle return rate represents the number of leased vehicles returned at contract maturity and sold by Toyota during the period as a percentage of the number of lease contracts that, as of their origination dates, were scheduled to mature in the same period. A higher rate of vehicle returns exposes Toyota to higher losses incurred at lease termination. Loss severity is the extent to which the end-of-term market value of a lease is less than its carrying value at lease end.

 

Sensitivity analysis

 

The following table illustrates the effect of an assumed change in the vehicle return rate, which we believe is one of the critical estimates, in determining the allowance for residual value, holding all other assumptions consistent. The following table includes the allowance for residual values in Toyota’s financial services operations as those changes impact most significantly on financing operations.

 

     Yen in millions

    

Effect on the allowance
for residual value

as of March 31, 2004


5 percent increase in vehicle return rate

   ¥ 846

 

Impairment of Long-Lived Assets

 

Toyota periodically reviews the carrying value of its long-lived assets held and used and assets to be disposed of, including goodwill and other intangible assets, when events and circumstances warrant such a review. This review is performed using estimates of future cash flows. If the carrying value of a long-lived asset is considered impaired, an impairment charge is recorded for the amount by which the carrying value of the long-lived asset exceeds its fair value. Management believes that the estimates of future cash flows and fair value are reasonable; however, changes in estimates of such cash flows and fair value would affect the evaluations and negatively affect future operating results of the automotive operations.

 

Pension Costs and Obligations

 

Natures of estimates and assumptions

 

Pension costs and obligations are dependent on assumptions used in calculating such amounts. These assumptions include discount rates, benefits earned, interest costs, expected rate of return on plan assets,

 

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mortality rates and other factors. Actual results that differ from the assumptions are accumulated and amortized over future periods and, therefore, generally affect recognized expense and the recorded obligation in future periods. While management believes that the assumptions used are appropriate, differences in actual experience or changes in assumptions may affect Toyota’s pension costs and obligations.

 

Sensitivity analysis

 

The following table illustrates the effect of assumed changes in discount rates and the expected rate of return on plan assets, which we believe are critical estimates in determining pension costs and obligations, assuming all other assumptions are consistent.

 

     Yen in millions

    

Effect on pre-tax income
for the year ending

March 31, 2005


  

Effect on PBO

as of March 31, 2004


Discount rates

         

0.5% decrease

   ¥ - 1,257    ¥    154,996

0.5% increase

   2,295    - 154,996

Expected rate of return on plan assets

         

0.5% decrease

   ¥ - 5,249     

0.5% increase

   5,249     

 

Derivatives and Other Contracts at Fair Value

 

Toyota uses derivatives in the normal course of business to manage its exposure to foreign currency exchange rates and interest rates. The accounting is complex and continues to evolve. In addition, there are the significant judgments and estimates involved in the estimating of fair value in the absence of quoted market values. These estimates are based upon valuation methodologies deemed appropriate in the circumstances; however, the use of different assumptions may have a material effect on the estimated fair value amounts.

 

Marketable securities

 

Toyota’s accounting policy is to record a write-down of such investments to realizable value when a decline in fair value below carrying value is other-than-temporary. In determining if a decline in value is other-than-temporary, Toyota considers the length of time and the extent to which the fair value has been less than the carrying value, the financial condition and prospects of the company and Toyota’s ability and intent to retain its investment in the company for a period of time sufficient to allow for any anticipated recovery in market value.

 

5.B LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES

 

Historically, Toyota has funded its capital expenditures and research and development activities primarily through cash generated by operations.

 

Toyota expects to sufficiently fund its capital expenditures and research and development activities in fiscal 2005 primarily through cash and cash equivalents on hand and operating cash flows. See “Information on the Company — Business Overview — Capital Expenditures and Divestitures” for information regarding Toyota’s material capital expenditures and divestitures from April 1, 2001 to March 31, 2004 and information concerning Toyota’s principal capital expenditures and divestitures currently in progress.

 

Toyota funds its financing programs for customers and dealers, including leasing programs, from both operating cash flows and through borrowings by its finance subsidiaries. Toyota seeks to expand its ability to raise funds locally in markets throughout the world by expanding its network of finance subsidiaries.

 

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Net cash provided by operating activities was ¥2,283.0 billion for fiscal 2004, compared with ¥2,085.0 billion for the prior year. The increase in net cash provided by operating activities resulted primarily from increased operating income in the automotive operations, which was partially offset by an increase in contributions to plan assets of employee pension plans.

 

Net cash used in investing activities was ¥2,312.7 billion for fiscal 2004, compared with ¥2,146.4 billion for the prior year. The increase in net cash used in investing activities resulted primarily from the increase in finance receivables, net, which was partially offset by the increase in proceeds and redemptions of marketable securities and security investments and a decrease in additions to fixed assets.

 

Net cash provided by financing activities was ¥242.2 billion for fiscal 2004, compared with ¥37.6 billion for the prior year. The increase in net cash provided by financing activities resulted primarily from an increase in short-term borrowings and, to a lesser extent, reduced purchases of common stock, which was partially offset by increased payments of long-term debt.

 

Total capital expenditures for property, plant and equipment, excluding vehicles and equipment on operating leases, were ¥945.8 billion during fiscal 2004, a decrease of 6.0% over the ¥1,005.9 billion in total capital expenditures for the prior year. The decrease in capital expenditures resulted primarily from the impact of the change in foreign currency translation rates.

 

Total expenditures for vehicles and equipment on operating leases were ¥542.7 billion during fiscal 2004, a decrease of 10.2% over the ¥604.3 billion in expenditures in the prior year. The change resulted primarily from decreased operating lease assets in finance subsidiaries in North America and the change in foreign currency translation rates.

 

Toyota expects investments in property, plant and equipment, excluding vehicles leased to others, to approximate ¥990.0 billion during fiscal 2005. Toyota’s expected capital expenditures include approximately ¥590.0 billion in Japan, ¥140.0 billion in North America, ¥80.0 in Europe and ¥180.0 in all other areas, respectively.

 

Based on currently available information, Toyota does not expect environmental matters to have a material impact on its financial position, results of operations, liquidity or cash flows during fiscal 2005. However, there exists a substantial amount of uncertainty with respect to Toyota’s obligations under current and future environment regulations as described in “Information on the Company — Business Overview — Governmental Regulations, Environment and Safety Standards”.

 

Cash and cash equivalents were ¥1,729.7 billion at March 31, 2004. Most of Toyota’s cash and cash equivalents are held in Japanese yen. In addition, time deposits were ¥68.5 billion and marketable securities were ¥448.5 billion at March 31, 2004.

 

Liquid assets, which Toyota defines as cash and cash equivalents, time deposits, marketable debt securities and its investment in monetary trust funds, increased during fiscal 2004 by ¥160.5 billion, or 4.9%, to ¥3,456.2 billion.

 

Trade accounts and notes receivable, net increased during fiscal 2004 by ¥55.9 billion, or 3.8%, to ¥1,531.7 billion, reflecting the impact of increased revenues, which was partially offset by the impact of the change in foreign currency translation rates.

 

Inventories increased during fiscal 2004 by ¥57.5 billion, or 5.6%, to ¥1,083.3 billion, reflecting the impact of increased volumes that was partially offset by the impact of the change in foreign currency translation rates.

 

Total finance receivables, net increased during fiscal 2004 by ¥777.0 billion, or 15.3%, to ¥5,851.9 billion. The change resulted primarily from the increase in wholesale and other dealer loans, including real estate loans

 

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and working capital financings provided to dealers, the increase in retail financings mainly due to the continuing increase in the portion of installment sales by dealers that are being financed through Toyota’s financial services operations, and the increase in the number of credit cards issued in Japan. These increases were partially offset by the decrease in finance leases, decrease in securitizations of finance receivables and the change in foreign currency translation rates. Toyota maintains programs to sell finance receivables through special purpose entities and obtained proceeds from securitization transactions, net of purchased and retained interests, amounting to ¥168.1 billion during fiscal 2004. As of March 31, 2004, finance receivables were geographically distributed as follows: in North America 62.9%, in Japan 17.7%, in Europe 9.8% and in all other markets 9.6%.

 

Marketable securities and other securities investments including those included in current assets increased during fiscal 2004 by ¥432.8 billion, or 19.2%, to ¥2,690.4 billion, reflecting the recovery of market values at March 31, 2004.

 

Property, plant and equipment increased during fiscal 2004 by ¥150.7 billion, or 2.9%, reflecting an increase of capital expenditures and an increase in the number of consolidated subsidiaries, which was partially offset by depreciation and changes in foreign currency translation rates.

 

Accounts payable increased during fiscal 2004 by ¥177.7 billion, or 11.6%, reflecting the expansion of product volume, which was partially offset by changes in foreign currency translation rates.

 

Accrued expenses increased during fiscal 2004 by ¥69.8 billion, or 6.6%, reflecting the increase in expenses due to the increase in product volume, the increase in sales related expenses and employee bonuses, the impact of the increase in the accrued liability for credit card points, which was partially offset by the change in foreign currency translation rates.

 

Income taxes payable decreased during fiscal 2004 by ¥48.1 billion, or 16.0%, principally as a result of the decrease in the current tax provision due to additional tax credits allowable in Japan effective in fiscal 2004 relating primarily to research and development expenditures.

 

Toyota’s total borrowings increased during fiscal 2004 by ¥305.3 billion, or 4.2%. Toyota’s short-term borrowings consist of loans with a weighted-average fixed interest rate of 1.29% and commercial paper with a weighted-average fixed interest rate of 1.47%. Short-term borrowings increased during fiscal 2004 by ¥333.4 billion, or 18.0%, to ¥2,189.0 billion. Toyota’s long-term debt consists of unsecured and secured loans, medium-term notes, unsecured notes and long-term capital lease obligations with fixed interest rates ranging from 0.05% to 16.0%, with maturity dates ranging from 2004 to 2031. Toyota’s long-term debt also consists of notes payable related to securitized finance receivables structured as collateralized borrowings. The current portion of long-term debt decreased during fiscal 2004 by ¥137.8 billion, or 10.9%, to ¥1,125.2 billion and the non-current portion increased by ¥109.8 billion, or 2.7%, to ¥4,247.3 billion. The increase in total borrowings reflects the issuance of commercial paper in North America, which was offset by the impact of the change in foreign currency translation rates. At March 31, 2004, approximately 42% of long-term debt was denominated in U.S. dollars, 31% in Japanese yen, 15% in euros and 12% in other currencies. Toyota hedges fixed rate exposure by entering into interest rate swaps. There are no material seasonal variations in Toyota’s borrowings requirements.

 

As of March 31, 2004, Toyota’s total financial debt was 92.5% of total shareholders’ equity, compared to 101.9% as of March 31, 2003.

 

Toyota’s unfunded pension liabilities decreased during fiscal 2004 by ¥572.7 billion, or 40.5% to ¥841.2 billion. The unfunded pension liabilities relate primarily to the parent company and its Japanese subsidiaries. The unfunded amounts will be funded through future cash contributions by Toyota and its employees or in some cases will be funded on the retirement date of each covered employee. The unfunded pension liabilities decreased as compared to the prior year due to the transfer of the substitutional portion of certain employee pension funds, an increase in cash contributions to the plans and the increase in the market value of assets of the plans. See note 19 to the consolidated financial statements.

 

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Toyota’s long-term debt was rated “AAA” by Standard & Poor’s Ratings Group and “Aaa” by Moody’s Investors Services as of March 31, 2004. These ratings represent Standard and Poor’s highest long-term debt rating and Moody’s highest long-term rating that has been raised from second highest rating during fiscal 2004. A credit rating is not a recommendation to buy, sell or hold securities. A credit rating may be subject to withdrawal or revision at any time. Each rating should be evaluated separately of any other rating.

 

Toyota’s treasury policy is to maintain controls on all exposures, to adhere to stringent counterparty credit standards, and to actively monitor marketplace exposures. Toyota centralized, and is pursuing global efficiency of, its financial services operations through Toyota Financial Services Corporation.

 

The key element of Toyota’s financial policy is maintaining a strong financial position that will allow Toyota to fund its research and development initiatives, capital expenditures and financing operations on a cost effective basis even if earnings experience short-term fluctuations. Toyota believes that it maintains sufficient liquidity for its present requirements and that by maintaining high credit ratings, it will continue to be able to access funds from external sources in large amounts and at relatively low costs. Toyota’s ability to maintain its high credit ratings is subject to a number of factors, some of which are not within Toyota’s control. These factors include general economic conditions in Japan and the other major markets in which Toyota does business, as well as Toyota’s successful implementation of its business strategy.

 

5.C RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT, PATENTS AND LICENSES

 

Toyota’s research and development activities focus on the environment, vehicle safety, information technology and product development.

 

Toyota’s environmental research and development activities focus on:

 

  Developing light weight and more fuel-efficient engines and transmissions. These technologies include the direct injection four-stroke gasoline engine, the nitrous oxide storage reduction catalytic system and the common rail direct injection diesel engine.

 

  Developing alternative fuel powering systems for commercial sale. This includes developing hybrid vehicles such as the Prius and fuel-cell vehicles. The next-generation Prius that Toyota introduced in September 2003 features a new hybrid system combining decreased environmental impact with increased power and performance. Toyota also began limited sales of a fuel cell hybrid vehicle in Japan and the United States in December 2002. Other Toyota efforts in this area include the development of vehicles fueled by compressed natural gas and other alternative fuel vehicles. Toyota has formed a research and development alliance with General Motors Corporation to develop future power systems.

 

  Recycling of vehicle parts through the development of recycling technologies. Work in this area includes developing uses for shredder residue, the recycling of nickel-metal hydride batteries and the development of vehicles constructed with a high proportion of recyclable parts.

 

Toyota’s work in the area of vehicle safety is focused on the development of technologies designed to prevent accidents in the first instance, as well as the development of technologies that protect passengers and reduce the damage on impact in the event of an accident. Safety technologies in development include:

 

  research on protecting diverse passengers, including senior citizens,

 

  autonomous driving support systems, including frontal crash-prevention support systems, and

 

  data exchange driving-support systems using advanced communication technologies.

 

To expand the frontiers of safety technology in automobiles, Toyota completed in 1995 its first prototype Advanced Safety Vehicle, the ASV-1. In 2000, Toyota created a successor prototype, the ASV-2. The ASV-2 incorporates emerging technologies, such as an autonomous safety support system that uses CCD stereo cameras

 

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to recognize obstacles in traffic lanes and an infrastructure-harmonized safety support system to warn the driver of pedestrian crossings. In 2002, Toyota conducted road testing of the ASV-3, a prototype based on further improved infrastructure-harmonized system. With the February 2003 introduction of the Harrier models in Japan, Toyota became the first car manufacturer to implement a pre-collision safety system in its automobiles. This advanced system consists of pre-collision sensors that use millimeter wave radar to detect an imminent crash, seat belts that tighten their hold on passengers during the early stage of crash detection and a brake assist system that utilizes power-assisted braking to minimize the speed on impact. In February 2004, Toyota introduced the pre-collision safety system for the first time in the United States by equipping the LS430 with the above features and suspension control features that control nose dives when apply the brakes. Toyota plans to further continue its focus on developing practical applications for its advanced safety technologies.

 

Toyota’s product development program uses a series of methods which are generally intended to promote timely and appropriate responses to changing market demand. These methods include:

 

  reducing the number of vehicle platforms,

 

  sharing parts and components among multiple vehicles,

 

  shortening the time for development and production preparation by the simultaneous study of design and production engineering processes, and

 

  using computers for production design and its evaluation.

 

In September 2002, Toyota and Nissan Motor Co. entered into an agreement setting forth the basic terms of technical cooperation and other long-term projects involving hybrid systems between the parties. This agreement, which aims for a long-term business relationship of 10 years or longer, calls for Toyota to supply state-of-the-art hybrid system components to Nissan. In addition, with the aim of promoting technical cooperation, both companies agreed to exchange information on hybrid systems that both Toyota and Nissan are currently developing independently, and to discuss the joint development of related components. In March 2004, Toyota and Ford Motor Company entered into licensing agreements for patents related to hybrid systems and emissions purification. Pursuant to the agreements, Toyota will license to Ford Motor Corporation patents related to hybrid system control technology. Further, both companies agreed to a cross-licensing arrangement of emission purification technology patents for lean-burn engines.

 

Toyota’s research and development expenditures were approximately ¥682 billion in fiscal 2004, ¥668 billion in fiscal 2003 and ¥589 billion in fiscal 2002. Worldwide, approximately 27,000 employees are involved in Toyota’s research and development activities.

 

Toyota does not consider any one group of patents or licenses to be so important that their expiration or termination would materially affect Toyota’s business. For a further discussion of Toyota’s intellectual property, see “Information on the Company — Business Overview — Intellectual Property”.

 

5.D TREND INFORMATION

 

For a discussion of the trends that affect Toyota’s business and operating results, see “— Operating Results” and “— Liquidity and Capital Resources”.

 

5.E OFF-BALANCE SHEET ARRANGEMENTS

 

Securitization Funding

 

Toyota uses its securitization program as part of its funding for its financial services operations. Toyota believes that the securitization market is an important element of its financial services operations as it provides a cost-effective funding source.

 

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Securitization of receivables allows Toyota to access a highly liquid and efficient capital market while providing Toyota with an alternative source of funding and investor diversification. See note 7 to the consolidated financial statements with respect to the impact on the balance sheet, income statement, and cash flows of these securitizations.

 

Toyota’s securitization program involves a two-step transaction. Toyota sells discrete pools of retail finance receivables to a wholly-owned bankruptcy remote special purpose entity (“SPE”), which in turn transfers the receivables to a qualified special purpose entity (“QSPE” or “securitization trust”) in exchange for the proceeds from securities issued by the securitization trust. Once the receivables are transferred to the QSPE, the receivables are no longer assets of Toyota and, therefore, no longer appear in Toyota’s consolidated balance sheet. These securities are secured by collections on the sold receivables and structured into senior and subordinated classes.

 

The following flow chart diagrams a typical securitization transaction:

 

LOGO

 

Toyota’s use of SPEs in securitizations is consistent with conventional practices in the securitization markets. The sale to the SPE isolates the sold receivables from other creditors of Toyota for the benefit of securitization investors and, assuming accounting requirements are satisfied, the sold receivables are accounted for as a sale. While Toyota retains subordinated interests, investors in securitizations have no recourse to Toyota, any cash reserve funds, and any amounts available or funded under the revolving liquidity notes discussed below. Toyota does not guarantee any securities issued by the securitization trust. Each SPE has a limited purpose and may only be used to purchase and sell the receivables. The individual securitization trusts have a limited duration and generally terminate when investors holding the asset-backed securities have been paid all amounts owed to them.

 

The SPE retains an interest in the securitization trust. The retained interest includes subordinated securities issued by the securitization trust and interest-only strips representing the right to receive any excess interest. The retained interests are subordinated and serve as credit enhancements for the more senior securities issued by the securitization trust. The retained interests are held by the SPE as restricted assets and are not available to satisfy any obligations of Toyota. If forecasted future cash flows result in an other-than-temporary decline in the fair value of the retained interests, then an impairment loss is recognized to the extent that the fair value is less than the carrying amount. Such losses, are included in the consolidated statement of income. These retained interests as well as senior securities purchased by Toyota are reflected in the consolidated balance sheet for accounting purposes.

 

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Various other forms of credit enhancements are provided to reduce the risk of loss for senior classes of securities. These credit enhancements may include the following:

 

Cash reserve funds or restricted cash

 

A portion of the proceeds from the sale of asset-backed securities may be held by the securitization trust in segregated reserve funds and may be used to pay principal and interest to investors if collections on the sold receivables are insufficient. In the event a trust experiences charge-offs or delinquencies above specified levels, additional excess amounts from collections on receivables held by the securitization trusts will be added to such reserve funds.

 

Revolving liquidity notes

 

In certain securitization structures, revolving liquidity notes (“RLN”) are used in lieu of deposits to a cash reserve fund. The securitization trust may draw upon the RLN to cover any shortfall in interest and principal payments to investors. Toyota funds any draws, and the terms of the RLN obligate the securitization trust to repay amounts drawn plus accrued interest. Repayments of principal and interest due under the RLN are subordinated to principal and interest payments on the asset-backed securities and, in some circumstances, to deposits into a reserve account. If collections are insufficient to repay amounts outstanding under a RLN, Toyota will recognize a loss for the outstanding amounts. Toyota must fund the entire amount available under the RLN if Toyota’s short-term unsecured debt rating is downgraded below P-1 or A-1 by Moody’s or S&P, respectively. Management believes the likelihood of Toyota incurring such losses or Toyota’s short-term credit rating being downgraded is remote. There were no outstanding amounts drawn on the RLN’s at March 31, 2003 and 2004.

 

Toyota may enter into a swap agreement with the securitization trust under which the securitization trust is obligated to pay Toyota a fixed rate of interest on payment dates in exchange for receiving amounts equal to the floating rate of interest payable on the asset backed securities. This arrangement enables the securitization trust to issue securities bearing interest on a basis different from that of the receivables held.

 

Toyota continues to service the sold receivables for a servicing fee. Toyota’s servicing duties include collecting payments on receivables and submitting them to the trustee for distribution to the certificate holders. While servicing the sold receivables for the securitization trusts, Toyota applies the same servicing policies and procedures that are applied to the owned receivables and maintains a normal relationship with the financing customers.

 

Other significant provisions relating to securitizations are described below.

 

Receivable Repurchase Obligations

 

Toyota makes certain representations and warranties to the SPE, and the SPE makes corresponding representations and warranties to the securitization trust, relating to receivables sold in a securitization. Toyota and the SPE may be required to repurchase any receivables in the event of a breach of a representation and warranty relating to the receivable that materially and adversely affects the interest of the SPE, or securitization trust, as applicable. In addition, Toyota, as servicer of the receivables, may be required to repurchase any receivable in the event of a breach of a covenant by the servicer with respect to the receivable that materially and adversely affects the interest of the securitization trust or of an extension or modification of a receivable as to which Toyota, as servicer, does not commit to make advances to fund reductions in interest payments. The repurchase price is generally the outstanding principal balance of the receivable and accrued interest. These provisions are customary for securitization transactions.

 

Advancing Requirements

 

As the servicer, Toyota is required to advance certain shortfalls in obligor payments to the securitization trust to the extent it believes the advance will be recovered from future collections of that receivable. Generally, the securitization trust is required to reimburse Toyota for these advances from collections on all receivables before making other required payments. These provisions are customary for securitization transactions.

 

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Lending Commitments

 

Credit facilities with credit card holders

 

Toyota’s financial services operation issues credit cards to customers. As customary for credit card businesses, Toyota maintains credit facilities with holders of credit cards issued by Toyota. These facilities are used upon each holders’ requests up to the limits established on an individual holder basis. Although loans made to customers through this facility are not secured, for the purposes of minimizing credit risks and of appropriately establishing credit limits for each individual credit card holder, Toyota employs its own risk management policy which includes an analysis of information provided by financial institutions in alliance with Toyota. Toyota periodically reviews and revises, as appropriate, these credit limits. Outstanding credit facilities with credit card holders were ¥1,670.6 billion.

 

Credit facilities with dealers

 

Toyota’s financial services operation maintains credit facilities with dealers. These credit facilities may be used for business acquisitions, facilities refurbishment, real estate purchases, and working capital requirements. These loans are typically collateralized with liens on real estate, vehicle inventory, and/or other dealership assets, as appropriate. Toyota obtains a personal guarantee from the dealer or corporate guarantee from the dealership when deemed prudent. Although the loans are typically collateralized or guaranteed, the value of the underlying collateral or guarantees may not be sufficient to cover Toyota’s exposure under such agreements. Toyota prices the credit facilities according to the risks assumed in entering into the credit facility. Toyota’s financial services operation also provides financing to various multi-franchise dealer organizations, referred to as dealer groups, often as part of a lending consortium, for wholesale inventory financing, business acquisitions, facilities refurbishment, real estate purchases, and working capital requirements. Toyota’s outstanding credit facilities with dealers were totaled ¥1,081.2 billion as of March 31, 2004.

 

Guarantees

 

Toyota enters into certain guarantee contracts with its dealers to guarantee customers’ payment of their installment payables that arises from installment contracts between customers and Toyota dealers, as and when requested by Toyota dealers. Guarantee periods are set to match maturity of installment payments, and at March 31, 2004 range from one month to 35 years; however, they are generally shorter than the useful lives of products sold. Toyota is required to execute its guarantee primarily when customers are unable to make required payments. The maximum potential amount of future payments as of March 31, 2004 is ¥1,035.2 billion. Liabilities for these guarantees of ¥4.4 billion have been provided as of March 31, 2004. Under these guarantee contracts, Toyota is entitled to recover any amounts paid by it from the customers whose obligations it guaranteed.

 

5.F TABULAR DISCLOSURE OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS

 

For information regarding debt obligations, capital lease obligations, operating leases, and other obligations, including amounts maturing in each of the next five years, see notes 13, 22 and 23 to the consolidated financial statements. In addition, as part of Toyota’s normal business practices, Toyota enters into long-term arrangements with suppliers for purchases of certain raw materials, components and services. These arrangements may contain fixed/minimum quantity purchase requirements. Toyota enters into such arrangements to facilitate an adequate supply of these materials and services.

 

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The following tables summarize Toyota’s contractual obligations and commercial commitments as of March 31, 2004:

 

    Yen in millions

        Payments Due by Period

    Total

 

Less than

1 year


 

1 to 3

years


 

3 to 5

years


 

More than

5 years


Contractual Obligations:

                             

Short-term borrowings (note 13)

                             

Loans

  ¥ 806,508   ¥ 806,508                  

Commercial paper

    1,382,516     1,382,516                  

Long-term debt (note 13)

    5,295,756     1,111,198   ¥ 1,587,852   ¥ 1,735,370   ¥ 861,336

Capital lease obligations (note 13)

    76,705     13,997     26,569     13,714     22,425

Non-cancelable operating lease obligations (note 22)

    40,920     9,304     12,751     6,630     12,235

Commitments for the purchase of property, plant and other assets (note 23)

    56,352     54,445     1,907     —       —  
   

 

 

 

 

Total

  ¥ 7,658,757   ¥ 3,377,968   ¥ 1,629,079   ¥ 1,755,714   ¥ 895,996
   

 

 

 

 

 

No material funding contribution to the pension fund is expected for fiscal 2005 and subsequent years as of March 31, 2004.

 

    Yen in millions

       

Amount of Commitment Expiration

Per Period


   

Total

Amounts

Committed


 

Less than

1 year


 

1-3

years


 

4-5

years


 

Over

5 years


Commercial Commitments:

                             

Maximum potential exposure to guarantees given in the ordinary course of business (note 23)

  ¥ 1,035,211   ¥ 374,021   ¥ 463,221   ¥ 163,609   ¥ 34,360
   

 

 

 

 

Total Commercial Commitments

  ¥ 1,035,211   ¥ 374,021   ¥ 463,221   ¥ 163,609   ¥ 34,360
   

 

 

 

 

 

5.G SAFE HARBOR

 

All in formation that is not historical in nature disclosed under “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements” and “— Tabular Disclosure of Contractual Obligations” is deemed to be a forward-looking statement. See “Cautionary Statement with Respect to Forward-Looking Statements” for additional information.

 

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ITEM 6. DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYEES

 

6.A DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT

 

In June 2003, Toyota implemented a comprehensive reorganization of its senior management structure. As part of this reorganization, Toyota introduced a streamlined board of directors and established the new position of non-board managing officer. Senior Managing Directors not only serve as members of the board to participate in the management of Toyota but also serve as the highest authorities in their respective areas of supervision and oversee the daily operations of specific fields/divisions in conjunction with non-board managing officers. This allows Senior Managing Directors to serve as a conduit between management and daily operations. The 44 non-board managing officers generally have responsibility for Toyota’s daily operations in specific fields/divisions and report to the designated Senior Managing Director, and are appointed for one-year terms. Toyota believes that this new management system has enhanced its global competitiveness by promoting timely, hands-on decision-making for day-to-day operational matters. In addition, Toyota appointed an additional outside corporate auditor in order to strengthen the corporate auditing efforts of its board of auditors.

 

Name


   Age

  

Title


  

Date First Elected
to Board or as
Auditor


Hiroshi Okuda

   71    Chairman of the Board    July 1982

Kosuke Ikebuchi

   67    Vice Chairman of the Board    September 1988

Katsuhiro Nakagawa

   62    Vice Chairman of the Board    June 2001

Fujio Cho

   67    President, Member of the Board    September 1988

Akihiko Saito

   63    Executive Vice President, Member of the Board    September 1991

Ryuji Araki

   64    Executive Vice President, Member of the Board    September 1992

Yoshio Ishizaka

   64    Executive Vice President, Member of the Board    September 1992

Kosuke Shiramizu

   63    Executive Vice President, Member of the Board    September 1992

Katsuaki Watanabe

   62    Executive Vice President, Member of the Board    September 1992

Kazushi Iwatsuki

   63    Executive Vice President, Member of the Board    June 1999

Yasuhito Yamauchi

   62    Senior Managing Director, Member of the Board    June 1995

Takashi Kamio

   61    Senior Managing Director, Member of the Board    June 1996

Hiroyuki Watanabe

   61    Senior Managing Director, Member of the Board    June 1996

Akio Matsubara

   62    Senior Managing Director, Member of the Board    June 1996

Tokuichi Uranishi

   62    Senior Managing Director, Member of the Board    June 1996

Kazuo Okamoto

   60    Senior Managing Director, Member of the Board    June 1996

Kyoji Sasazu

   60    Senior Managing Director, Member of the Board    June 1997

Mitsuo Kinoshita

   58    Senior Managing Director, Member of the Board    June 1997

Yoshimi Inaba

   58    Senior Managing Director, Member of the Board    June 1997

Takeshi Uchiyamada

   57    Senior Managing Director, Member of the Board    June 1998

Masatami Takimoto

   58    Senior Managing Director, Member of the Board    June 1999

Akio Toyoda

   48    Senior Managing Director, Member of the Board    June 2000

Tetsuo Hattori

   57    Senior Management Director, Member of the Board    June 1999

Takeshi Suzuki

   56    Senior Management Director, Member of the Board    June 2000

Shoichiro Toyoda

   79    Honorary Chairman of the Board    July 1952

Yukitoshi Funo

   57    Director, Member of the Board    June 2000

Atsushi Niimi

   56    Director, Member of the Board    June 2000

Hideaki Miyahara

   61    Corporate Auditor    June 2000

Yoshiro Hayashi

   55    Corporate Auditor    June 2003

Chiaki Yamaguchi

   54    Corporate Auditor    June 2003

Yasutaka Okamura

   75    Corporate Auditor    June 1997

Hiromu Okabe

   67    Corporate Auditor    June 2002

Yoichi Kaya

   70    Corporate Auditor    June 2003

Tadashi Ishikawa

   62    Corporate Auditor    June 2003

 

The term of each director listed above expires in June 2005.

 

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Biographies

 

Hiroshi Okuda has served as a Director, Member of the Board of Toyota Motor Corporation since 1982 and as the Chairman of the Board since 1999. Mr. Okuda served as the President, Member of the Board of Toyota from 1995 to 1999. Mr. Okuda also serves as a Director of KDDI Corporation. Mr. Okuda joined Toyota in 1955.

 

Kosuke Ikebuchi has served as a Director, Member of the Board of Toyota Motor Corporation since 1988 and as the Vice Chairman of the Board since 2001. Mr. Ikebuchi served as an Executive Vice President, Member of the Board of Toyota from 1999 to 2001. Mr. Ikebuchi joined Toyota in 1960.

 

Katsuhiro Nakagawa has served as a Managing Director, Member of the Board of Toyota Motor Corporation since 2001 and as the Vice Chairman of the Board since 2004. Mr. Nakagawa served as an Executive Vice President, Member of the Board between 2003 and 2004. Mr. Nakagawa served as the Executive Advisor of The Tokio Marine and Fire Insurance Co., Ltd. between 1998 and 2001. Mr. Nakagawa was the Vice-Minister for International Affairs at the former Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry before joining The Tokio Marine and Fire Insurance Co., Ltd. Mr. Nakagawa joined Toyota in 2001.

 

Fujio Cho has served as a Director, Member of the Board of Toyota Motor Corporation since 1988 and as the President, Member of the Board of Toyota since 1999. Mr. Cho served as an Executive Vice President, Member of the Board of Toyota from 1998 to 1999 and as the President of Toyota Motor Manufacturing, U.S.A., Inc. from 1988 to 1994. Mr. Cho also serves as a Director of Aioi Insurance Co., Ltd. Mr. Cho joined Toyota in 1960.

 

Akihiko Saito has served as a Director, Member of the Board of Toyota Motor Corporation since 1991 and as an Executive Vice President, Member of the Board since 2001. Mr. Saito also serves as a Director of Toyoda Boshoku Corporation. Mr. Saito joined Toyota in 1968.

 

Ryuji Araki has served as a Director, Member of the Board of Toyota Motor Corporation since 1992 and as an Executive Vice President, Member of Board since 2001. Mr. Araki also serves as the Chairman of Toyota Financial Services (UK) PLC. Mr. Araki also serves as Director of New United Motor Manufacturing, Inc. Mr. Araki joined Toyota in 1962.

 

Yoshio Ishizaka has served as a Director, Member of the Board of Toyota Motor Corporation since 1992 and as an Executive Vice President, Member of the Board since 2001. Mr. Ishizaka has also served as the President of Toyota Motor Sales, U.S.A., Inc. between 1996 and 1999 and as the Chairman of Toyota Motor Marketing Europe S.A./N.V. since 2001. Mr. Ishizaka joined Toyota in 1964.

 

Kosuke Shiramizu has served as a Director, Member of the Board of Toyota Motor Corporation since 1992 and as an Executive Vice President, Member of the Board since 2001. Mr. Shiramizu also serves as the Chairman of Toyota Motor Technical Center (China) Co., Ltd. Mr. Shiramizu joined Toyota in 1963.

 

Katsuaki Watanabe has served as a Director, Member of the Board of Toyota Motor Corporation since 1992 and as an Executive Vice President, Member of the Board since 2001. Mr. Watanabe also serves as a Vice Chairman of Gamagori Marine Development Co., Ltd. and as a Director of Mitsubishi Securities Co., Ltd. Mr. Watanabe joined Toyota in 1964.

 

Kazushi Iwatsuki has served as a Senior Managing Director, Member of the Board of Toyota Motor Corporation since 1999 and as an Executive Vice President, Member of the Board since 2001. Mr. Iwatsuki has also served as the President of Osaka Toyopet Co., Ltd. from 1997 to 1999. Mr. Iwatsuki joined Toyota in 1964.

 

Yasuhito Yamauchi has served as a Director, Member of the Board of Toyota Motor Corporation since 1995 and as a Senior Managing Director, Member of the Board since 2001. Mr. Yamauchi has served as the Chief Production Engineering Officer and Chief Manufacturing Officer of Toyota since 2003. Mr. Yamauchi joined Toyota in 1968.

 

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Takashi Kamio has served as a Director, Member of the Board of Toyota Motor Corporation since 1996 and as a Senior Managing Director, Member of the Board since 2001. Mr. Kamio has served as the Chief Government and Public Affairs Officer of Toyota since 2003. Mr. Kamio joined Toyota in 1965.

 

Hiroyuki Watanabe has served as a Director, Member of the Board of Toyota Motor Corporation since 1996 and as a Senior Managing Director, Member of the Board since 2001. Mr. Watanabe has served as the Chief IT & ITS Officer and Chief Quality Control Officer of Toyota since 2003. Mr. Watanabe joined Toyota in 1967.

 

Akio Matsubara has served as a Director, Member of the Board of Toyota Motor Corporation since 1996 and as a Senior Managing Director, Member of the Board since 2003. Mr. Matsubara has served as the Chief General Administration & Human Resources Officer and the Chief Information Systems Officer of Toyota since 2003. Mr. Matsubara joined Toyota in 1966.

 

Tokuichi Uranishi has served as a Director, Member of the Board of Toyota Motor Corporation since 1996 and as a Senior Managing Director, Member of the Board since 2003. Mr. Uranishi has also served as the Chief Europe & Africa Operations Officer of Toyota since 2003 and the Chief Overseas Planning Officer since 2004. Mr. Uranishi joined Toyota in 1966.

 

Kazuo Okamoto has served as a Director, Member of the Board of Toyota Motor Corporation since 1996 and as a Senior Managing Director, Member of the Board since 2003. Mr. Okamoto has also served as the Chief Design Officer and Chief Product Development Officer of Toyota since 2003. Mr. Okamoto joined Toyota in 1967.

 

Kyoji Sasazu has served as a Director, Member of the Board of Toyota Motor Corporation since 1997 and as a Senior Managing Director, Member of the Board since 2003. Mr. Sasazu has also served as the Chief Domestic Sales Operations Officer of Toyota since 2003. Mr. Sasazu joined Toyota in 1967.

 

Mitsuo Kinoshita has served as a Director, Member of the Board of Toyota Motor Corporation since 1997 and as a Senior Managing Director, Member of the Board since 2003. Mr. Kinoshita has also served as the Chief Business Development Officer, Chief Purchasing Officer and Chief Housing Officer of Toyota since 2004. Mr. Kinoshita joined Toyota in 1968.

 

Yoshimi Inaba has served as a Director, Member of the Board of Toyota Motor Corporation since 1997 and as a Senior Managing Director, Member of the Board since 2003. Mr. Inaba has also served as the Chief The Americas Operations Officer and Chief Oceania, Middle East and Southwest Asia Operations Officer and Chief Overseas Customer Service Operations Officer of Toyota since 2003. Mr. Inaba joined Toyota in 1968.

 

Takeshi Uchiyamada has served as a Director, Member of the Board of Toyota Motor Corporation since 1998 and as a Senior Managing Director, Member of the Board since 2003. Mr. Uchiyamada has also served as the Chief Production Control & Logistics Officer of Toyota since 2004. Mr. Uchiyamada joined Toyota in 1969.

 

Masatami Takimoto has served as a Director, Member of the Board of Toyota Motor Corporation since 1999 and as a Senior Managing Director, Member of the Board since 2003. Mr. Takimoto has also has served as the Chief Power Train Development Officer and Chief Fuel Cell System Development Officer of Toyota since 2003. Mr. Takimoto joined Toyota in 1970.

 

Akio Toyoda has served as a Director, Member of the Board of Toyota Motor Corporation since 2000 and as a Senior Managing Director, Member of the Board since 2003. Mr. Toyoda has also served as the Chief Asia & China Operations Officer of Toyota since 2003. Mr. Toyoda joined Toyota in 1984.

 

Tetsuo Hattori has served as a Senior Managing Director, Member of the Board of Toyota Motor Corporation since 2004. Mr. Hattori has also served as the Chief Vehicle Engineering Officer of Toyota since 2004. Mr. Hattori served as a Director, Member of the Board from 1999 to 2003 and as a Managing Officer from 2003 to 2004. Mr. Hattori joined Toyota in 1971.

 

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Takeshi Suzuki has served as a Senior Managing Director, Member of the Board of Toyota Motor Corporation since 2004. Mr. Suzuki has also served as the Chief Accounting and Finance Officer since 2004. Mr. Suzuki served as a Director, Member of the Board from 2000 to 2003 and as a Managing Officer from 2003 to 2004. Mr. Suzuki joined Toyota in 1970.

 

Shoichiro Toyoda has served as a Director, Member of the Board of Toyota Motor Corporation since 1952. Dr. Toyoda is currently the Honorary Chairman of the Board of Toyota Motor Corporation. Dr. Toyoda joined Toyota in 1952.

 

Yukitoshi Funo has served as a Director, Member of the Board of Toyota Corporation since 2004. Mr. Funo has also served as the Chief The Americas Operations Officer since 2000 and as the President of Toyota Motor Sales, U.S.A., Inc. since 2003. Mr. Funo served as a Director, Member of the Board from 2000 to 2003 and as a Managing Officer from 2003 to 2004. Mr. Funo joined Toyota in 1970.

 

Atsushi Niimi has served as a Director, Member of the Board of Toyota Corporation since 2004. Mr. Niimi has also served as the President of Toyota Motor Manufacturing North America, Inc. since 2002. Mr. Niimi served as a Director, Member of the Board from 2000 to 2003 and as a Managing Officer from 2003 to 2004. Mr. Niimi joined Toyota in 1971.

 

Hideaki Miyahara has served as a Corporate Auditor of Toyota Motor Corporation since 2000. Mr. Miyahara served as a Director, Member of the Board of Toyota from 1996 to 1999 and as a Managing Director, Member of the Board from 1999 to 2000. Mr. Miyahara joined Toyota in 1965.

 

Yoshiro Hayashi has served as a Corporate Auditor of Toyota Motor Corporation since 2003. Mr. Hayashi also served as the General Manager of Toyota’s TQM Promotion Division from 1999 to 2003. Mr. Hayashi joined Toyota in 1974.

 

Chiaki Yamaguchi has served as a Corporate Auditor of Toyota Motor Corporation since 2003. Mr. Yamaguchi also served as the Senior Managing Director of Toyota Finance Corporation from 2001 to 2003. Mr. Yamaguchi joined Toyota in 1972.

 

Yasutaka Okamura has served as a Corporate Auditor of Toyota Motor Corporation since 1997. Mr. Okamura is an attorney at the Okamura Legal Offices. Mr. Okamura has been registered as a practicing lawyer since 1994.

 

Hiromu Okabe has served as a Corporate Auditor of Toyota Motor Corporation since 2002. Mr. Okabe is the Vice Chairman of the Board of Denso Corporation.

 

Yoichi Kaya has served as a Corporate Auditor of Toyota Motor Corporation since 2003. Mr. Kaya is the Assistant Director of the Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth.

 

Tadashi Ishikawa has served as a Corporate Auditor of Toyota Motor Corporation since 2003. Mr. Ishikawa is the President of Toyota Industries Corporation.

 

Akio Toyoda is Shoichiro Toyoda’s son. There are no other family relationships between directors and/or corporate auditors.

 

None of the persons listed above was selected as a director, corporate auditor or member of senior management pursuant to an arrangement or understanding with Toyota’s major shareholders, customers, suppliers or others.

 

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6.B COMPENSATION OF DIRECTORS AND CORPORATE AUDITORS

 

The aggregate amount of remuneration, including bonuses but excluding stock options, paid to all directors and corporate auditors as a group by Toyota for services in all capacities during fiscal 2004 was ¥1,997 million. Directors and corporate auditors of Toyota Motor Corporation receive year-end bonuses, the aggregate amount of which is approved at Toyota Motor Corporation’s annual general meeting of shareholders and is based on Toyota Motor Corporation’s financial performance for the fiscal year. The amounts of the bonuses paid to individual directors and corporate auditors are then determined at a meeting of Toyota Motor Corporation’s board of directors and the meeting of corporate auditors.

 

Toyota Motor Corporation also granted to its directors 4,600 stock acquisition rights to purchase up to 460,000 shares of common stock during fiscal 2004 under its stock option plan. For a detailed description of the stock options and the stock option plan, see “— Share Ownership”.

 

In accordance with customary Japanese business practice, when a director or corporate auditor of Toyota Motor Corporation retires, a proposal to pay a lump sum retirement allowance is submitted to a general meeting of shareholders for approval. The amount of the retirement allowance for a director or corporate auditor generally reflects his position at the time of retirement, the length of his service as a director or corporate auditor and his contribution to Toyota Motor Corporation’s performance. No reserves are accumulated for payment of these allowances.

 

During fiscal 2004, Toyota paid retirement allowances aggregating ¥2,207 million to retiring directors and corporate auditors.

 

6.C BOARD PRACTICES

 

Toyota’s articles of incorporation provide for a board of directors of not more than 30 members and for not more than seven corporate auditors. Shareholders elect the directors and corporate auditors at general meetings of shareholders. The normal term of office of a director is one year and of a corporate auditor is three years (four years for corporate auditors elected in or after June 2003). Directors and corporate auditors may serve any number of consecutive terms. In June 2003, pursuant to the implementation of a comprehensive reorganization of its senior management structure, Toyota reduced the size of its board of directors from 58 directors to 27 directors.

 

The board of directors may elect one Chairman of the Board, one President and one or more Vice Chairmen of the Board, Executive Vice Presidents and Senior Managing Directors. The board of directors elects, pursuant to its resolutions, one or more Representative Directors. Each Representative Director represents Toyota generally in the conduct of its affairs. The board of directors has the ultimate responsibility for the administration of Toyota’s affairs. None of Toyota’s directors is party to a service contract with Toyota or any of its subsidiaries that provides for benefits upon termination of employment.

 

Under Japan’s Commercial Code, and the Law concerning Exceptional Measures to the Commercial Code with respect to Auditing, etc. of Joint Stock Corporations (the “Special Exception Law”), Toyota must have at least three corporate auditors. At least one must be a person who has not been a Director, executive officer, general manager or employee of Toyota or any of its subsidiaries during the five-year period prior to his or her election as a corporate auditor. After the conclusion of the ordinary general meeting of shareholders to be held in June 2006, at least half of the corporate auditors will be required to be persons who have not been a Director, executive officer, general manager of employee of Toyota or any of its subsidiaries at any time prior to their election as corporate auditors. The corporate auditors may not at the same time be directors, executive officers, general managers or employees of Toyota or any of its subsidiaries. Together, these corporate auditors form a board of corporate auditors. The corporate auditors have the duty to examine the financial statements and business reports which are submitted by the board of directors to the general meeting of shareholders. The

 

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corporate auditors also supervise the administration of Toyota’s affairs by the directors. Corporate auditors are not required to be, and Toyota’s corporate auditors are not, certified public accountants. They are required to participate in meetings of the board of directors but are not entitled to vote.

 

Toyota does not have a remuneration committee.

 

Significant Differences in Corporate Governance Practices between Toyota and U.S. Companies Listed on the NYSE

 

Pursuant to home country practices exemptions granted by the New York Stock Exchange (the “NYSE”), Toyota is permitted to follow certain corporate governance practices complying with Japanese laws, regulations and stock exchange rules in lieu of NYSE’s listing standards. In November 2003, the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) approved changes to the NYSE’s listing standards related to corporate governance practices of listed companies (the “NYSE Corporate Governance Rules”). Toyota is exempted from the approved changes, except for requirements that (a) Toyota’s board of corporate auditors satisfies the requirements of Rule 10A-3 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), (b) Toyota must disclose significant differences in its corporate governance practices as compared to those followed by domestic companies under the NYSE listing standards and (c) Toyota’s principal executive officer must notify the NYSE of material non-compliance with (a) and (b). Toyota’s corporate governance practices and those followed by domestic companies under the NYSE Corporate Governance Rules have the following significant differences:

 

1. Directors. Toyota currently does not have any directors who will be deemed as an “independent director” as required under the NYSE Corporate Governance Rules for U.S. listed companies. Unlike the NYSE Corporate Governance Rules, the Commercial Code of Japan (the “Code”) and the Law concerning Exceptional Measures to the Commercial Code with respect to Auditing, etc. of Joint Stock Corporations (the “Special Exception Law”) do not require Japanese companies with a board of corporate auditors such as Toyota to have any independent directors on its board of directors. While the NYSE Corporate Governance Rules require that the non-management directors of each listed company meet at regularly scheduled executive sessions without management, Toyota currently has no non-management director on its board of directors. Unlike the NYSE Corporate Governance Rules, the Code and the Special Exception Law do not require, and accordingly Toyota does not have, an internal corporate organ or committee comprised solely of independent directors.

 

2. Committees. Under the Code and the Special Exception Law, Toyota has elected to structure its corporate governance system as a company with corporate auditors, who are under a statutory duty to monitor, review and report on the management of the affairs of Toyota. Toyota, as with other Japanese companies with a board of corporate auditors, but unlike U.S. listed companies subject to the NYSE Corporate Governance Rules, does not have specified committees, including those that are responsible for director nomination, corporate governance and executive compensation.

 

Pursuant to the Code, Toyota’s board of directors nominates and submits a proposal for the appointment of directors for shareholder approval. The shareholders vote on such nomination at the general meeting of shareholders. The Code requires that the respective total amount of remuneration to be paid to all directors and all corporate auditors must be determined by a resolution of the general meeting of shareholders, unless their remuneration is provided for in the Articles of Incorporation. The distribution of remuneration among each director is broadly delegated to the board of directors and the distribution of remuneration among each corporate auditor is determined by consultation among the corporate auditors.

 

3. Audit Committee. Toyota plans to avail itself of paragraph (c)(3) of Rule 10A-3 of the Exchange Act, which provides a general exemption from the audit committee requirements to a foreign private issuer with a board of corporate auditors, subject to certain requirements which continue to be applicable under Rule 10A-3.

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Code and the Special Exception Law, Toyota elects its corporate auditors through a resolution adopted at a general meeting of shareholders. Toyota currently has seven (7) corporate auditors, which exceeds the minimum number of corporate auditors required pursuant to the Code and the Special Exception Law.

 

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Unlike the NYSE Corporate Governance Rules, the Code and the Special Exception Law, among others, do not require corporate auditors to establish an expertise in accounting nor are they required to present other special knowledge and experience. Under the Special Exception Law, the board of corporate auditors may determine the auditing policies and methods of investigating the conditions of Toyota’s business and assets, and may resolve other matters concerning the execution of the corporate auditor’s duties. The board of corporate auditors also prepares auditors’ reports and gives consent to proposals of the nomination of corporate auditors and accounting auditors.

 

Toyota currently has four (4) outside corporate auditors under the Special Exception Law. Under the Special Exception Law, at least one of the corporate auditors of Toyota must be an “outside” corporate auditor, which is such person who was not a director, executive officer, manager, or employee of Toyota or its subsidiaries during the five-year period prior to such corporate auditor’s election. Such qualifications for an “outside” corporate auditor are different from the audit committee independence requirement under the NYSE Corporate Governance Rules.

 

4. Corporate Governance Guidelines. Unlike the NYSE Corporate Governance Rules, Toyota is not required to adopt or disclose corporate governance guidelines under Japanese laws and regulations, including the Code and the Securities and Exchange Law of Japan or stock exchange rules. However, Toyota is required to disclose policies and the present status of its corporate governance in its annual securities report and certain other disclosure documents in accordance with the regulations under the Japanese Securities and Exchange Law and stock exchange rules in respect of timely disclosure.

 

5. Code of Business Conduct and Ethics. Unlike the NYSE Corporate Governance Rules, under Japanese laws and regulations including the Code and the Securities and Exchange Law of Japan, or stock exchange rules, Toyota is not required to adopt a code of business conduct and ethics for directors, officers and employees. Accordingly, Toyota is not required to adopt and disclose waivers of the code of business conduct and ethics for these individuals. However, Toyota maintains guidelines and internal regulations such as “Guiding Principles at the Company” and “Code of Conduct for the Company Employees” and has also established a code of ethics pursuant to Section 406 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. Please see “Code of Ethics” for additional information.

 

6. Shareholder Approval of Equity Compensation Plans. Unlike the NYSE Corporate Governance Rules, under which material revisions to equity-compensation plans of listed companies are subject to shareholder approval, pursuant to the Code, if Toyota desires to adopt an equity-compensation plan under which stock acquisition rights are granted on specially favorable terms to the recipient (except where such rights are granted to all of its shareholders on a pro-rata basis at the same time), then Toyota must obtain approval by super-majority (as defined in the Code) at the general meeting of shareholders. Such approval is applicable only to stock acquisition rights to be granted within one year from the date of the approval.

 

6.D EMPLOYEES

 

The total number of Toyota employees, on a consolidated basis, as reported in Toyota’s annual Japanese securities report filed with the director of the Kanto Local Finance Bureau was 264,410 at March 31, 2004, 264,096 at March 31, 2003 and 246,702 at March 31, 2002. The following tables set forth a breakdown of persons employed by business segment and by geographic location at March 31, 2004.

 

Segment


   Number of
Employees


  

Location


   Number of
Employees


Automotive

   233,184    Japan    175,096

Financial services

   6,370    North America    30,806

All other

   19,895    Europe    17,349

Unallocated

   4,961    Other foreign countries    41,159
    
       

Total company

   264,410    Total company    264,410
    
       

 

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As a result of Toyota’s business plan to further localize its global operations, the number of Toyota’s employees in the countries in which Toyota operates has generally been growing over the last several years.

 

Most regular employees of Toyota Motor Corporation and its consolidated subsidiaries in Japan, other than management, are required to become members of the labor unions that comprise the FEDERATION OF ALL TOYOTA WORKERS’ UNIONS. Approximately 89% of Toyota Motor Corporation’s regular employees in Japan are members of this union.

 

In Japan, basic wages and other working conditions are negotiated annually. In addition, in accordance with Japanese national custom, each employee is also paid a semiannual bonus. Bonuses are negotiated at the time of wage negotiations and are based on Toyota’s financial results, prospects and other factors. The average wage increases per employee, excluding bonuses, in Japan have been approximately 2.0% per year for the past five fiscal years.

 

In North America, Toyota’s workers at its facilities in California are unionized. The collective bargaining agreement for these workers expires in July 2004. Toyota’s workers at its joint venture with General Motors are also unionized. The collective bargaining agreement for these workers expires in August 2005.

 

In general, Toyota considers its labor relations with all of its workers to be good. However, Toyota is currently a party to, and otherwise from time to time experiences, labor disputes in some of the countries in which it operates. Toyota does not expect any disputes to which it is currently a party to materially affect Toyota’s consolidated financial position.

 

Toyota’s average number of temporary employees at the end of each month on a consolidated basis was 48,664 during fiscal 2004, compared to 30,816 during fiscal 2003 (5,010 on an unconsolidated basis during fiscal 2003).

 

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6.E SHARE OWNERSHIP

 

The following table sets forth information with respect to the number of shares of Toyota’s common stock held by each director and corporate auditor as of June 2004.

 

Name


   Number of
Shares


Hiroshi Okuda

   64,963

Kosuke Ikebuchi

   17,080

Katsuhiro Nakagawa

   10,000

Fujio Cho

   25,105

Akihiko Saito

   116,757

Ryuji Araki

   108,293

Yoshio Ishizaka

   14,310

Kosuke Shiramizu

   10,000

Katsuaki Watanabe

   12,171

Kazushi Iwatsuki

   12,110

Yasuhito Yamauchi

   12,936

Takashi Kamio

   15,100

Hiroyuki Watanabe

   7,315

Akio Matsubara

   14,044

Tokuichi Uranishi

   15,333

Kazuo Okamoto

   13,264

Kyoji Sasazu

   14,092

Mitsuo Kinoshita

   12,070

Yoshimi Inaba

   15,000

Takeshi Uchiyamada

   12,464

Masatami Takimoto

   10,100

Akio Toyoda

   2,529,891

Tetsuo Hattori

   5,526

Takeshi Suzuki

   7,076

Shoichiro Toyoda

   13,136,193

Yukitoshi Funo

   5,248

Atsushi Niimi

   7,038

Hideaki Miyahara

   19,600

Yoshiro Hayashi

   5,000

Chiaki Yamaguchi

   5,000

Yasutaka Okamura

   —  

Hiromu Okabe

   —  

Yoichi Kaya

   —  

Tadashi Ishikawa

   3,000

Total

   16,256,079

 

Each of the persons listed above owns less than one percent of the issued and outstanding shares of common stock of Toyota. The shares listed above do not include options that are exercisable for shares of Toyota’s common stock. For a description of these options, see “— Stock Options” below.

 

None of Toyota’s shares of common stock entitles the holder to any preferential voting rights.

 

Stock Options

 

Toyota has enacted stock option plans in each of the past five years. The plans for which stock options or stock acquisition rights are currently exercisable or will become exercisable in the future were approved by Toyota’s shareholders in June of 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003 and 2004. Under the plan enacted in 2000, Toyota

 

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issued options to purchase up to 455,000 shares of common stock to its directors. Under the plan enacted in 2001, Toyota issued options to purchase up to 1,361,000 shares of common stock to its directors and 408 other employees that held the two highest ranks at Toyota at the time the plan was approved. Under the plan enacted in 2002, Toyota issued stock acquisition rights, which are rights introduced as of April 2002 pursuant to the amendment to the Commercial Code, to purchase up to 1,876,000 shares of common stock to its directors and 496 officers and employees, including directors, officers and employees of its subsidiaries and one Toyota affiliate. Under the 2003 plan, Toyota is authorized to issue stock acquisition rights to purchase up to 1,958,000 shares of common stock to its directors and 565 officers and employees, including directors, officers and employees of its subsidiaries and one Toyota affiliate. Under the 2004 plan, Toyota is authorized to issue stock acquisition rights to purchase up to 2,021,000 shares of common stock to its directors and 582 officers and employees, including directors, officers and employees of its subsidiaries and one Toyota affiliate.

 

Pursuant to the provisions of each plan enacted prior to 2002, options may be exercised during a two-year period that starts two years from the date first granted at an exercise price of 1.025 times the closing price of Toyota’s common stock on the Tokyo Stock Exchange on the date of grant. Each plan provides that each director will be granted no more than 15,000 and no less than 5,000 options and the year 2001 plan provides that each eligible employee will be granted 2,000 options. Each option represents one share of common stock of Toyota. Pursuant to the provisions of the 2002, 2003 and 2004 plans, stock acquisition rights may be exercised during a four-year period that starts two years from the date first granted at an exercise price of 1.025 times the closing price of Toyota’s common stock on the Tokyo Stock Exchange on the date of grant. The 2002 plan provides that each director will be granted no more than 200 and no less than 100 stock acquisition rights, and each eligible officer or employee will be granted no more than 100 and no less than 20 stock acquisition rights. The 2003 plan provides that each director will be granted no more than 200 and no less than 150 stock acquisition rights, and each eligible officer or employee will be granted no more than 100 and no less than 20 stock acquisition rights. The 2004 plan provides that each director will be granted no more than 200 and no less than 150 stock acquisition rights, and each eligible officer or employee will be granted no more than 100 and no less than 20 stock acquisition rights. For each of the 2002, 2003 and 2004 plans, one hundred shares will be issued or delivered upon the exercise of each stock acquisition right. The options are granted as of August 1 of each year for each plan, except for the 2004 plan, which options are to be granted as of August 2, 2004.

 

Each plan further provides that an option holder who retires while his options are still exercisable retains the right to exercise his options until the earlier of: (i) six months after his retirement, or (ii) four years (six years under the 2002 plan) after the date the options were first granted. Under the 2003 and 2004 plan, an option holder who retires while his options are still exercisable retains the right to exercise his shares until six years after the date the options were first granted. An option holder’s right to purchase common stock under each plan lapses automatically upon his death.

 

The following table summarizes information for options outstanding and exercisable at March 31, 2004:

 

     Outstanding

   Exercisable

Exercise Price range


   Number of
shares


   Weighted-
average
exercise
price


   Weighted-
average
exercise
price


   Weighted-
average
remaining
life


   Number of
shares


   Weighted-
average
exercise
price


   Weighted-
average
exercise
price


(Yen)         (Yen)    (Dollars)    (Years)         (Yen)    (Dollars)

¥2,958 – 4,000

   3,525,000    ¥ 3,044    $ 29    4.88    —        —        —  

¥4,001 – 4,838

   1,253,000    ¥ 4,330    $ 41    1.13    1,253,000    ¥ 4,330    $ 41

 

During 2001, Toyota adopted an incentive plan with terms similar to its stock option plans described above. Under the plan, 58 directors, officers and employees of Toyota subsidiaries and one Toyota affiliate, each located outside Japan, are eligible to receive 2,000 options.

 

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ITEM 7. MAJOR SHAREHOLDERS AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS

 

7.A MAJOR SHAREHOLDERS

 

As of March 31, 2004, 3,330,470,317 shares (excluding treasury shares) of Toyota’s common stock were outstanding. Beneficial ownership of Toyota’s common stock in the table below was prepared from publicly available records of the filings made by Toyota’s shareholders regarding their ownership of Toyota’s common stock under the Securities and Exchange Law of Japan.

 

Under the Securities and Exchange Law of Japan, any person who becomes, beneficially and solely or jointly, a holder, including, but not limited to, a deemed holder who manages shares for another holder pursuant to a discretionary investment agreement, of more than 5% of the shares with voting rights of a company listed on a Japanese stock exchange (including ADSs representing such shares) must file a report concerning the shareholding with the Director of the relevant local finance bureau. A similar report must be filed, with certain exceptions, if the percentage of shares held by a holder, solely or jointly, of more than 5% of the total issued shares of a company increases or decreases by 1% or more, or if any change to a material matter set forth in any previously filed reports occurs.

 

Based on publicly available information, the following table sets forth the beneficial ownership of holders of more than 5% of Toyota’s common stock as of the dates indicated in the reports described below.

 

Name of Beneficial Owner


   Number of
Shares


   Percentage
of Shares
Outstanding


Toyota Industries Corporation

   187,115,312    5.18

UFJ Bank Limited and its joint holders

   180,931,065    5.01

 

The number of shares owned by UFJ Bank Limited (a successor in interest to The Sanwa Bank, Limited and The Tokai Bank, Limited that was created by a merger between the two banks as of January 15, 2002) and its joint holders is based on a report filed under the Securities and Exchange Law of Japan stating that, as of April 30, 2004, UFJ Bank Limited and its joint holders directly held 102,642,565 shares, and was deemed to hold beneficially, pursuant to investment or trust contracts, 78,288,500 shares of Toyota’s common stock.

 

The number of shares owned by Toyota Industries Corporation (formerly, Toyoda Automatic Loom Works, Ltd.) is based on a report filed under the Securities and Exchange Law of Japan stating that Toyota Industries Corporation held or was deemed to hold beneficially, as of November 13, 1995, 187,115,312 shares of Toyota’s common stock.

 

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Based on information made publicly available on or after January 1, 2001, the following table describes transactions resulting in a 1% or greater change in the percentage ownership held by major beneficial owners of Toyota’s common stock.

 

Name of Shareholder


  Date of Transaction

  Shares Owned
Prior to
Transaction


  Percentage
of Shares
Issued


  Number of
Shares
Changed


    Shares Owned
After the
Transaction


  Percentage
of Shares
Issued


The Sanwa Bank, Limited and its joint holders*

  April 2, 2001   191,706,330   5.12   225,519,895     417,226,225   11.31

Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation and its joint holder

  April 30, 2001   —     —     —       186,315,239   5.06

The Sanwa Bank, Limited, The Tokai Bank, Limited and their joint holders

  May 17, 2001   417,226,225   11.31   (37,414,900 )   379,811,325   10.31

The Sanwa Bank, Limited, The Tokai Bank, Limited and their joint holders

  October 31, 2001   378,027,758   10.26   (45,710,200 )   332,317,558   9.10

UFJ Bank Limited** and its joint holders

  January 31, 2002   332,317,558   9.10   (38,857,900 )   293,459,658   8.04

Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation and its joint holder

  October 31, 2002   186,315,239   5.06   (67,881,090 )   118,434,149   3.28

UFJ Bank Limited and its joint holders

  April 30, 2003   255,060,258   7.07   (37,921,480 )   217,135,458   6.01

* The Tokai Bank, Limited became a joint holder as of April 2, 2001.
** Created by a merger between The Sanwa Bank, Limited and The Tokai Bank, Limited on January 15, 2002. The percentage holding of shares issued by UFJ Bank Limited and its joint holders was changed to 7.80 as of April 30, 2002.

 

According to The Bank of New York, depositary for Toyota’s ADSs, as of March 31, 2004, 36,842,444 shares of Toyota’s common stock were held in the form of ADRs and there were 1,851 ADR holders of record in the United States. According to Toyota’s register of shareholders, as of March 31, 2004, there were 339,549 holders of common stock of record worldwide. As of March 31, 2004, there were 263 record holders of Toyota’s common stock with addresses in the United States, whose shareholdings represented approximately 5.9% of the outstanding common stock on that date. Because some of these shares were held by brokers or other nominees, the number of record holders with addresses in the United States might not fully show the number of beneficial owners in the United States.

 

None of Toyota’s shares of common stock entitles the holder to any preferential voting rights.

 

To the extent known to Toyota, Toyota is not owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by another corporation, any foreign government or any natural or legal person.

 

Toyota knows of no arrangements the operation of which may at a later time result in a change of control.

 

7.B RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS

 

Business Relationships

 

Toyota purchases materials, supplies and services from numerous suppliers throughout the world in the ordinary course of business, including Toyota’s equity-method affiliates and those firms with which certain members of Toyota’s board of directors are affiliated. Toyota purchased materials, supplies and services from these affiliated entities in the amount of ¥2,182.2 billion in fiscal 2004. Toyota also sells its products and services

 

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to Toyota’s equity-method affiliates and firms with which certain members of Toyota’s board of directors are affiliated. Toyota sold products and services to these affiliated entities in the amount of ¥883.1 billion in fiscal 2004. Toyota believes all of these purchase and sale transactions were arm’s-length transactions. See note 12 of Toyota’s consolidated financial statements for additional information regarding Toyota’s investments in and transactions with affiliated companies.

 

Loans

 

Toyota regularly has trade accounts and other receivables payable by, and accounts payable to, Toyota’s equity-method affiliates and firms with which certain members of Toyota’s board of directors are affiliated. Toyota had outstanding trade accounts and other receivables payable by these affiliated entities in the amount of ¥129 billion as of March 31, 2004. Toyota had accounts payable to these affiliated entities in the amount of ¥460.7 billion as of March 31, 2004.

 

Toyota held convertible debt securities issued by an equity-method affiliate in the amount of ¥6.2 billion as of March 31, 2004. The debt securities have interest rate of 0.6%. The maturity of these debt securities is two years.

 

Toyota, from time to time, provides short- to medium-term loans to its affiliates, as well as loans under a loan program established by certain subsidiaries to assist their executives and directors with the purchase of homes. As of March 31, 2004, an aggregate amount of ¥4.8 billion in loans was outstanding to its equity-method affiliates. As of March 31, 2004, an aggregate amount of ¥34.6 billion in loans was outstanding to those of its affiliates not accounted for under the equity method, which are 20% to 50% owned by Toyota. As of March 31, 2004, the largest single loan outstanding to any such equity-method affiliate was a short-term loan of ¥2.9 billion at a fixed rate. Toyota believes that each of these loans was entered into in the ordinary course of business.

 

7.C INTERESTS OF EXPERTS AND COUNSEL

 

Not applicable.

 

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ITEM 8. FINANCIAL INFORMATION

 

8.A CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS AND OTHER FINANCIAL INFORMATION

 

1-3. Consolidated Financial Statements. Toyota’s audited consolidated financial statements are included under “Item 18 — Financial Statements”. Except for Toyota’s consolidated financial statements included under Item 18, no other information in this annual report has been audited by Toyota’s auditors.

 

4. Not applicable.

 

5. Not applicable.

 

6. Export Sales. See “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — Operating Results — Overview — Geographical Breakdown”.

 

7. Legal and Arbitration Proceedings. See “Information on the Company — Business Overview — Legal Proceedings”.

 

8. Dividend Policy. See “Selected Financial Data — Dividends”.

 

8.B SIGNIFICANT CHANGES

 

Except as disclosed in this annual report, there have been no significant changes since the date of Toyota’s latest annual financial statements.

 

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ITEM 9. THE OFFER AND LISTING

 

9.A LISTING DETAILS

 

The following table sets forth for the periods shown the reported high and low sales prices of the common stock on the Tokyo Stock Exchange and the ADSs on the Nasdaq SmallCap Market (through September 28, 1999) and the New York Stock Exchange (from September 29, 1999).

 

     Tokyo Stock
Exchange


   Nasdaq

   New York Stock
Exchange


     Price per Share

   Price per ADS

   Price per ADS

     High

   Low

   High

   Low

   High

   Low

Fiscal Year Ending March 31,


                             

2000

   5,500    3,150    104    52 3/8    $ 104    $ 60.875

2001

   5,800    3,370                108.25      58.20

2002

   4,450    2,665                71.50      46.60

2003

   3,790    2,625                57.45      44.40

2004

   3,950    2,480                74.50      41.96

Financial Quarter Ending


                             

September 30, 2002

   3,450    2,690                54.30      47.00

December 31, 2002

   3,300    2,755                53.85      45.50

March 31, 2003

   3,300    2,625                55.37      44.40

June 30, 2003

   3,180    2,455                53.75      41.17

September 30, 2003

   3,920    2,975                67.52      49.65

December 31, 2003

   3,720    3,130                69.75      57.75

March 31, 2004

   3,990    3,390                75.88      64.52

June 30, 2004

   4,420    3,740                81.73      66.71

Month Ending


                             

January 31, 2004

   3,800    3,450                72.29      65.80

February 28, 2004

   3,800    3,390                69.99      64.52

March 31, 2004

   3,990    3,630                75.88      68.25

April 30, 2004

   4,180    3,740                76.55      70.71

May 31, 2004

   4,010    3,730                74.67      65.65

June 30, 2004

   4,420    3,990                81.73      72.77

 

9.B PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

 

Not applicable.

 

9.C MARKETS

 

The primary trading market for Toyota’s common stock is the Tokyo Stock Exchange. The common stock is also listed on the Nagoya Stock Exchange and three other regional stock exchanges in Japan.

 

Since September 29, 1999, American Depositary Shares, each equal to two shares of Toyota’s common stock and evidenced by American Depositary Receipts, have been traded and listed on the New York Stock Exchange through a sponsored ADR facility operated by The Bank of New York, as depositary. Prior to that time, Toyota’s ADSs were listed on the Nasdaq SmallCap Market through five unsponsored ADR facilities.

 

Toyota’s common stock is also listed on the London Stock Exchange.

 

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9.D SELLING SHAREHOLDERS

 

Not applicable.

 

9.E DILUTION

 

Not applicable.

 

9.F EXPENSES OF THE ISSUE

 

Not applicable.

 

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ITEM 10. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

 

10.A SHARE CAPITAL

 

Not applicable.

 

10.B MEMORANDUM AND ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION

 

Set forth below is information relating to Toyota’s common stock, including brief summaries of the relevant provisions of Toyota’s articles of incorporation and share handling regulations, as currently in effect, and of the Commercial Code of Japan and related legislation.

 

General

 

Toyota’s authorized share capital as of March 31, 2004 is 9,740,185,400 shares, of which 3,609,997,492 shares were issued. Under the Commercial Code, shares must be registered and are transferable by delivery of share certificates. In order to assert shareholders’ rights against Toyota, a shareholder must have its name and address registered on Toyota’s register of shareholders, in accordance with Toyota’s share handling regulations. The registered beneficial holder of deposited shares underlying the ADSs is the depositary for the ADSs. Accordingly, holders of ADSs will not be able directly to assert shareholders’ rights.

 

A holder of shares may choose, at its discretion, to participate in the central clearing system for share certificates under the Law Concerning Central Clearing of Share Certificates and Other Securities of Japan. Participating shareholders must deposit certificates representing all of the shares to be included in this clearing system with Japan Securities Depository Center, Inc. If a holder is not a participating institution in the Securities Center, it must participate through a participating institution, such as a securities company or bank having a clearing account with the Securities Center. All shares deposited with the Securities Center will be registered in the name of the Securities Center on Toyota’s register of shareholders. Each participating shareholder will in turn be registered on Toyota’s register of beneficial shareholders and be treated in the same way as shareholders registered on Toyota’s register of shareholders. For the purpose of transferring deposited shares, delivery of share certificates is not required. Entry of the share transfer in the books maintained by the Securities Center for participating institutions, or in the book maintained by a participating institution for its customers, has the same effect as delivery of share certificates. The registered beneficial owners may exercise the rights attached to the shares, such as voting rights, and will receive dividends (if any) and notices to shareholders directly from Toyota. The shares held by a person as a registered shareholder and those held by the same person as a registered beneficial owner are aggregated for these purposes. Beneficial owners may at any time withdraw their shares from deposit and receive share certificates.

 

Objects and Purposes

 

Article 2 of the Articles of Incorporation of Toyota states that its purpose is to engage in the following businesses:

 

  the manufacture, sale, leasing and repair of:

 

  motor vehicles, industrial vehicles, ships, aircraft, other transportation machinery and apparatus, space machinery and apparatus, and parts thereof;

 

  industrial machinery and apparatus, other general machinery and apparatus, and parts thereof;

 

  electrical machinery and apparatus, and parts thereof; and

 

  measuring machinery and apparatus, medical machinery and apparatus, and parts thereof;

 

  the manufacture and sale of ceramics and synthetic resin products, and materials thereof;

 

  the manufacture, sale and repair of construction materials and equipment, and machinery and apparatus relating to residential buildings;

 

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  the planning, designing, supervision, execution and undertaking of construction work, civil engineering work, land development, urban development and regional development;

 

  the sale, purchase, leasing, brokerage and management of real estate;

 

  information processing, information communications and information supply services, and the development, sale and leasing of software;

 

  the design and development of product sales systems that utilize networks such as the Internet;

 

  the sale, leasing and maintenance of product sales systems that utilize networks, and sales of products through the use of such systems;

 

  the inland transportation, marine transportation, air transportation, stevedoring, warehousing and tourism businesses;

 

  the printing, publishing, advertising and publicity, general leasing, security and temporary staffing businesses;

 

  credit card operations, the purchase and sale of securities, investment consulting, investment trust operations, and other financial services;

 

  the operation and management of facilities, such as parking lots, showrooms, educational facilities, medical care facilities, sports facilities, marinas, airfields, food and drink stands and restaurants, lodging facilities, retail stores and others;

 

  the non-life insurance agency business and the life insurance agency business;

 

  the production and processing through the use of biotechnology of agricultural products, including trees, and the sale of such products;

 

  the sale of goods related to each of the preceding items and mineral oil; and

 

  conducting engineering, consulting and research and inventing products related to each of the preceding items and the utilization of such inventions and research, and any businesses incidental to or related to any of the preceding businesses.

 

Dividends

 

Under its articles of incorporation, Toyota’s financial accounts will be closed on March 31 of each year and dividends, if any, will be paid to shareholders of record as of that date. In addition to year-end dividends, the board of directors may by resolution declare an interim cash dividend to shareholders of record as of September 30 of each year. Under the Commercial Code, however, Toyota cannot declare or pay dividends unless specified financial criteria are met based on the amount of its stated capital and legal reserves.

 

Under its articles of incorporation, Toyota is not obligated to pay any dividends which are left unclaimed for a period of three years after the date on which they first became payable.

 

Capital Accounts and Stock Splits

 

Under the Commercial Code, the entire amount of the issue price of new shares is required to be accounted for as stated capital, although Toyota may account for an amount not exceeding one-half of the issue price as additional paid-in capital. Toyota may at any time transfer the whole or any part of its additional paid-in capital and legal reserve to stated capital by resolution of the board of directors. Toyota may also reduce the sum of its legal reserve and additional paid-in capital to one-quarter or more of its stated capital by resolution of a general meeting of shareholders. The whole or any part of retained earnings which may be distributed as year-end dividends may also be transferred to stated capital by resolution of an ordinary general meeting of shareholders.

 

Toyota may at any time split the outstanding shares into a greater number of shares by resolution of the board of directors. Toyota must give public notice of the stock split, specifying a record date for the stock split,

 

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not less than two weeks prior to the record date. In addition, promptly after the stock split takes effect, Toyota must give notice to each shareholder specifying the number of shares to which the shareholder is entitled by virtue of the stock split.

 

Japanese Unit Share System

 

General. Consistent with the requirements of the Commercial Code, Toyota’s articles of incorporation provide that 100 shares constitute one “unit”. Although the number of shares constituting a unit is included in the articles of incorporation, any amendment to the articles of incorporation reducing (but not increasing) the number of shares constituting a unit or eliminating the provisions for the unit of shares may be made by resolution of the board of directors rather than by a special shareholders resolution, which is otherwise required for amending the articles of incorporation. The number of shares constituting one unit, however, cannot exceed the lesser of 1,000 shares and one-two hundredths (1/200) of the number of all issued shares.

 

Voting Rights under the Unit Share System. Under the unit share system, shareholders have one voting right for each unit of shares that they hold. Any number of shares less than a full unit will carry no voting rights.

 

Share Certificate for Less Than a Full Unit of Shares. Toyota’s articles of incorporation provide that generally no share certificate for any number of shares less than a unit will be issued. As the transfer of shares normally requires delivery of share certificates, any fraction of a unit for which share certificates are not issued will not be transferable.

 

Repurchase by Toyota of Shares Constituting Less Than a Unit. A holder of shares constituting less than a full unit may require Toyota to purchase those shares at their market value in accordance with the provisions of Toyota’s share handling regulations.

 

Surrender of American Depositary Shares. As a result of the unit share system, ADR holders will only be permitted to surrender ADRs and withdraw underlying shares constituting whole units. If a holder surrenders an ADR representing shares that do not constitute an integral number of whole units, the depositary will deliver to that holder only those shares which constitute a whole unit. The depositary will then issue to the holder a new ADR representing the remaining shares. Holders of an ADR that represents less than a whole unit of underlying shares will be unable to withdraw the underlying shares. As a result, those holders will be unable to require Toyota to purchase their underlying shares to the extent those shares constitute less than one whole unit.

 

Voting Rights

 

Toyota holds its ordinary general meeting of shareholders in June of each year in or near Toyota City or in Nagoya City, Japan. In addition, Toyota may hold an extraordinary general meeting of shareholders whenever necessary by giving at least two weeks’ advance notice. Under the Commercial Code, notice of any shareholders’ meeting must be given to each shareholder having voting rights or, in the case of a non-resident shareholder, to his resident proxy or mailing address in Japan in accordance with Toyota’s share handling regulations, at least two weeks prior to the date of the meeting.

 

A holder of shares constituting one or more whole units is generally entitled to one vote per unit of shares subject to the limitations on voting rights set forth in this paragraph. In general, under the Commercial Code, a resolution can be adopted at a general meeting of shareholders by a majority of the shares having voting rights represented at the meeting. The Commercial Code and Toyota’s articles of incorporation require a quorum for the election of directors and corporate auditors of not less than one-third of the total number of outstanding shares having voting rights. Toyota’s shareholders are not entitled to cumulative voting in the election of directors. A corporate shareholder whose outstanding shares are in turn more than one-quarter directly or indirectly owned by Toyota does not have voting rights.

 

Shareholders may exercise their voting rights through proxies, provided that those proxies are also shareholders who have voting rights.

 

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The Commercial Code provides that a quorum of at least one-third of outstanding shares with voting rights must be present at a shareholders’ meeting to approve any material corporate actions such as:

 

  amendment of the articles of incorporation,

 

  the removal of a director or corporate auditor,

 

  a dissolution, merger, consolidation or split-up of Toyota,

 

  the transfer of the whole or an important part of Toyota’s business,

 

  the taking over of the whole of the business of any other corporation,

 

  any issuance of new shares (including transfer of treasury stock) at a specially favorable price (or any issuance of stock acquisition rights with specially favorable conditions or of bonds with stock acquisition rights with specially favorable conditions) to persons other than shareholders, and

 

  share exchange or share transfer for the purpose of establishing 100% parent-subsidiary relationships.

 

At least two-thirds of the shares having voting rights represented at the meeting must approve these actions.

 

The voting rights of holders of ADSs are exercised by the depositary based on instructions from those holders.

 

Subscription Rights

 

Holders of shares have no preemptive rights under Toyota’s articles of incorporation. Under the Commercial Code, the board of directors may, however, determine that shareholders be given subscription rights in connection with a particular issue of new shares, stock acquisition rights or bonds with stock acquisition rights. In this case, such rights must be given on uniform terms to all shareholders as of a specified record date by at least two weeks’ prior public notice to shareholders of the record date. Public or individual notice must be given to each of these shareholders at least two weeks prior to the date of expiration of the subscription rights.

 

Rights to subscribe for new shares may be transferable or nontransferable and may be made substantially below the market price of shares. Accordingly, rights offerings can result in substantial dilution or can result in rights holders not being able to realize the economic value of those rights.

 

Liquidation Rights

 

In the event of a liquidation of Toyota, the assets remaining after payment of all debts, liquidation expenses and taxes will be distributed among the shareholders in proportion to the respective number of shares they own.

 

Liability to Further Calls or Assessments

 

All of Toyota’s currently outstanding shares, including shares represented by the ADSs, are fully paid and nonassessable.

 

Transfer Agent

 

UFJ Trust Bank Limited is the transfer agent for the shares. UFJ Trust’s office is located at 4-3, Marunouchi 1-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 100-0005 Japan. UFJ Trust maintains Toyota’s register of shareholders and records transfers of record ownership upon presentation of share certificates.

 

Record Date

 

The close of business on March 31 is the record date for Toyota’s year-end dividends, if paid. A holder of shares constituting one or more whole units who is registered as a holder on Toyota’s register of shareholders or register of beneficial ownership at the close of business as of March 31 is also entitled to exercise shareholders’

 

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voting rights at the ordinary general meeting of shareholders with respect to the fiscal year ending on March 31. The close of business on September 30 of each year is the record date for interim dividends, if paid. In addition, Toyota may set a record date for determining the shareholders entitled to other rights and for other purposes by giving at least two weeks’ public notice.

 

The shares generally trade ex-dividend or ex-rights in the Japanese stock exchanges on the third business day before a record date (or if the record date is not a business day, the fourth business day prior thereto), for the purpose of dividends or rights offerings.

 

Repurchase by Toyota of Shares

 

Toyota may acquire its own shares (i) through a stock exchange on which such shares are listed or by way of tender offer (pursuant to an ordinary resolution of an ordinary general meeting of shareholders or a resolution of the board of directors), (ii) by purchase from a specific party (pursuant to a special resolution of an ordinary general meeting of shareholders) or (iii) from a subsidiary of Toyota (pursuant to a resolution of the board of directors). When such acquisition is made by Toyota from a specific party other than a subsidiary of Toyota, any other shareholder may make a demand to a representative director, more than five calendar days prior to the relevant shareholders’ meeting, that Toyota also purchase the shares held by such shareholder. Any such acquisition of shares must satisfy certain requirements, including, in a case other than the acquisition by Toyota of its own shares pursuant to a resolution of the board of directors or the acquisition by Toyota of its shares from its subsidiaries, that the total amount of the purchase price may not exceed the amount of the retained earnings available for dividend payments after taking into account any reduction, if any, of the stated capital, additional paid-in capital or legal reserve (if such reduction of the stated capital, additional paid-in capital or legal reserve has been authorized pursuant to a resolution of the relevant ordinary general meeting of shareholders), minus the amount to be paid by way of appropriation of retained earnings for the relevant fiscal year and the amount to be transferred to stated capital pursuant to a resolution of the relevant ordinary general meeting of shareholders. If Toyota purchases shares pursuant to a resolution of the board of directors or if Toyota purchases shares from its subsidiaries, the total amount of the purchase price may not exceed the amount of the retained earnings available for an interim dividend payment minus the amount of any interim dividend Toyota actually paid. However, if it is anticipated that the net assets on the balance sheet as at the end of the immediately following fiscal year will be less than the aggregate amount of the stated capital, additional paid-in capital and certain other items, Toyota may not acquire such shares.

 

Shares acquired by Toyota may be held by it for any period or may be cancelled by resolution of the board of directors. Toyota may also transfer to any person the shares held by it, subject to a resolution of the board of directors, and subject also to other requirements similar to those applicable to the issuance of new shares. Toyota may also utilize its treasury stock for the purpose of transfer to any person upon exercise of stock acquisition rights or for the purpose of acquiring another company by way of merger, share exchange or corporate split through exchange of treasury stock for shares or assets of the acquired company.

 

The Commercial Code generally prohibits any subsidiary of Toyota from acquiring shares of Toyota.

 

Acquisition or Disposition of Shares or ADS

 

Under the Foreign Exchange and Foreign Trade Law and the cabinet orders and ministerial ordinances thereunder (collectively, the “Foreign Exchange Regulations”), all aspects of regulations on foreign exchange and foreign trade transactions are, with minor exceptions relating to inward direct investments (which are not generally applicable to Toyota’s shares), only subject to post transaction reporting requirements. Acquisitions and dispositions of shares of common stock or ADS by non-residents of Japan (including foreign corporations not resident in Japan) are generally not subject to this reporting requirement. However, the Minister of Finance has the power to impose a licensing requirement for transactions in limited circumstances.

 

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Report of Substantial Shareholdings

 

The Securities and Exchange Law of Japan and regulations under the Law require any person who has become a holder (together with its related persons) of more than 5% of the total issued shares of a company listed on any Japanese stock exchange or whose shares are traded on the over-the-counter market (including ADSs representing such shares) to file with the Director of a competent Local Finance Bureau, within five business days, a report concerning those shareholdings. A similar report must also be filed to reflect any change of 1% or more in any shareholding or any change in material matters set out in reports previously filed. Copies of any report must also be furnished to the company and to all Japanese stock exchanges on which the company’s shares are listed or, in the case of shares traded on the over-the-counter market, the Japan Securities Dealers Association. For this purpose, shares issuable to a 5% or greater shareholder upon exercise of stock acquisition rights are taken into account in determining both the number of shares held by that holder and the company’s total issued share capital.

 

10.C MATERIAL CONTRACTS

 

All contracts concluded by Toyota during the two years preceding this filing were entered into in the ordinary course of business.

 

10.D EXCHANGE CONTROLS

 

The Foreign Exchange and Foreign Trade Law of Japan and its related cabinet orders and ministerial ordinances (the “Foreign Exchange Regulations”) govern the acquisition and holding of shares of capital stock of Toyota by “exchange non-residents” and by “foreign investors.” The Foreign Exchange Regulations currently in effect do not, however, affect transactions between exchange non-residents to purchase or sell shares outside Japan using currencies other than Japanese yen.

 

Exchange non-residents are:

 

  individuals who do not reside in Japan; and

 

  corporations whose principal offices are located outside Japan.

 

Generally, branches and other offices of non-resident corporations that are located within Japan are regarded as residents of Japan. Conversely, branches and other offices of Japanese corporations located outside Japan are regarded as exchange non-residents.

 

Foreign investors are:

 

  individuals who are exchange non-residents;

 

  corporations that are organized under the laws of foreign countries or whose principal offices are located outside of Japan; and

 

  corporations (1) of which 50% or more of their voting rights are held by individuals who are exchange non-residents and/or corporations (a) that are organized under the laws of foreign countries or (b) whose principal offices are located outside of Japan or (2) a majority of whose officers, or officers having the power of representation, are individuals who are exchange non-residents.

 

In general, the acquisition of shares of a Japanese company (such as the shares of capital stock of Toyota) by an exchange non-resident from a resident of Japan is not subject to any prior filing requirements. In certain limited circumstances, however, the Minister of Finance may require prior approval of an acquisition of this type. While prior approval, as described above, is not required, in the case where a resident of Japan transfers shares of a Japanese company (such as the shares of capital stock of Toyota) for consideration exceeding ¥100 million to an exchange non-resident, the resident of Japan who transfers the shares is required to report the transfer to the Minister of Finance within 20 days from the date of the transfer, unless the transfer was made through a bank, securities company or financial futures trader licensed under Japanese law.

 

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If a foreign investor acquires shares of a Japanese company that is listed on a Japanese stock exchange (such as the shares of capital stock of Toyota) or that is traded on an over-the-counter market in Japan and, as a result of the acquisition, the foreign investor, in combination with any existing holdings, directly or indirectly holds 10% or more of the issued shares of the relevant company, the foreign investor must file a report of the acquisition with the Minister of Finance and any other competent Ministers having jurisdiction over that Japanese company within 15 days from and including the date of the acquisition, except where the offering of the company’s shares was made overseas. In limited circumstances, such as where the foreign investor is in a country that is not listed on an exemption schedule in the Foreign Exchange Regulations, a prior notification of the acquisition must be filed with the Minister of Finance and any other competent Ministers, who may then modify or prohibit the proposed acquisition.

 

Under the Foreign Exchange Regulations, dividends paid on, and the proceeds of sales in Japan of, shares held by non-residents of Japan may in general be converted into any foreign currency and repatriated abroad. Under the terms of the deposit agreement pursuant to which Toyota’s ADSs are issued, the Depositary is required, to the extent that in its judgment it can convert yen on a reasonable basis into dollars and transfer the resulting dollars to the United States, to convert all cash dividends that it receives in respect of deposited shares into dollars and to distribute the amount received (after deduction of applicable withholding taxes) to the holder of ADSs.

 

10.E TAXATION

 

The following discussion is a general summary of the principal U.S. federal income and Japanese national tax consequences of the acquisition, ownership and disposition of shares of common stock or ADSs. This summary does not purport to address all material tax consequences that may be relevant to holders of shares of common stock or ADSs, and does not take into account the specific circumstances of any particular investors, some of which (such as tax-exempt entities, banks, insurance companies, broker-dealers, traders in securities that elect to use a mark-to-market method of accounting for their securities holdings, regulated investment companies, real estate investment trusts, partnerships and other pass-through entities, investors liable for the U.S. alternative minimum tax, investors that own or are treated as owning 10% or more of Toyota’s voting stock, investors that hold shares of common stock or ADSs as part of a straddle, hedge, conversion transaction or other integrated transaction and U.S. Holders (as defined below) whose functional currency is not the U.S. dollar) may be subject to special tax rules. This summary is based on the tax laws and regulations of the United States and Japan, judicial decisions, published rulings and administrative pronouncements all as in effect on the date hereof, as well as on the current income tax convention between the United States and Japan, as described below, all of which are subject to change (possibly with retroactive effect), and to differing interpretations. In addition, this summary is based in part upon the representations of the depositary and the assumption that each obligation in the deposit agreement, and in any related agreement, will be performed in accordance with its terms.

 

U.S. Holders (as defined below) should note that the United States and Japan have ratified the new income tax convention (the “New Treaty”), which is to replace its predecessor income tax convention signed on March 8, 1971 (the “Prior Treaty”). The New Treaty entered into force on March 30, 2004 and shall be applicable in Japan, in place of the Prior Treaty, (i) with respect to taxes withheld at source, for amounts taxable on or after July 1, 2004, and (ii) with respect to taxes on income which are not withheld at source and the enterprise taxes, as regards income for any taxable year beginning on or after January 1, 2005 (subject to certain transitional rules with respect to both items (i) and (ii) above). The Prior Treaty shall cease to have effect in relation to any tax from the date on which the New Treaty shall be applicable (subject to certain transitional rules allowing for exceptions). Where relevant, U.S. Holders are urged to confirm whether they are entitled to the treaty benefit provided under the Prior Treaty or the New Treaty, as the case may be, with their tax advisors.

 

For purposes of this discussion, a “U.S. Holder” is any beneficial owner of shares of common stock or ADSs that, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, is:

 

1. an individual citizen or resident of the United States,

 

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2. a corporation (or other entity taxable as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes) organized in or under the laws of the United States, any state thereof, or the District of Columbia,

 

3. an estate the income of which is subject to U.S. federal income tax without regard to its source, or

 

4. a trust that is subject to the primary supervision of a U.S. court and the control of one or more U.S. persons, or that has a valid election in effect under applicable Treasury regulations to be treated as a U.S. person.

 

An “Eligible U.S. Holder” is a U.S. Holder that:

 

1. is a resident of the United States for purposes of the Prior Treaty or the New Treaty, as applicable from time to time,

 

2. does not maintain a permanent establishment or fixed base in Japan to which the Shares or ADSs are attributable and through which the U.S. Holder carries on or has carried on business (or, in the case of an individual, performs or has performed independent personal services), and

 

3. is otherwise eligible for benefits under the Prior Treaty or the New Treaty, as applicable, with respect to income and gain derived in connection with the shares of common stock or ADSs.

 

This summary does not address any aspects of U.S. federal tax law other than income taxation, and does not discuss any aspects of Japanese tax law other than such income taxation, as limited to national taxes and inheritance and gift taxation. This summary also does not cover any state or local, or non-U.S. non-Japanese tax considerations. Investors are urged to consult their tax advisors regarding the U.S. federal, state and local and Japanese and other tax consequences of acquiring, owning and disposing of shares of common stock or ADSs. In particular, where relevant, investors are urged to confirm their status as Eligible U.S. Holders with their tax advisors and to discuss with their tax advisors any possible consequences of their failure to qualify as Eligible U.S. Holders.

 

In general, taking into account the earlier assumption, for purposes of the Prior Treaty and the New Treaty, as applicable, and for U.S. federal income and Japanese tax purposes, owners of ADRs evidencing ADSs will be treated as the owners of the shares of common stock represented by those ADSs, and exchanges of shares of common stock for ADSs, and exchanges of ADSs for shares of common stock, will not be subject to U.S. federal income or Japanese tax.

 

The discussion below is intended for general information only and does not constitute a complete analysis of all tax consequences relating to ownership of shares of common stock or ADSs. Prospective purchasers of shares of common stock or ADSs should consult their own tax advisors concerning the tax consequences of their particular situations.

 

Japanese Taxation

 

The following is a summary of the principal Japanese tax consequences (limited to national taxes) to holders of shares of common stock and of ADSs who are either individuals who are not residents of Japan or non-Japanese corporations, without a permanent establishment in Japan (“non-resident Holders”).

 

Generally, a non-resident of Japan or a non-Japanese corporation is subject to Japanese withholding tax on dividends paid by Japanese corporations. Stock splits in themselves are not subject to Japanese income tax.

 

In the absence of an applicable tax treaty, convention or agreement reducing the maximum rate of Japanese withholding tax or allowing exemption from Japanese withholding tax, the rate of Japanese withholding tax applicable to dividends paid by Japanese corporations to individuals who are non-residents of Japan or non-Japanese corporations is 20 percent. With respect to dividends paid on listed shares issued by a Japanese corporation (such as the shares of common stock of Toyota) to any corporate or individual shareholders (including those shareholders who are non-Japanese corporations or Japanese non-resident individuals, such as

 

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non-resident Holders), except for any individual shareholder who holds 5 percent or more of the total issued shares issued by the relevant Japanese corporation, the aforementioned 20 percent withholding tax rate is reduced to (i) 7 percent for dividends due and payable on or before March 31, 2008, and (ii) 15 percent for dividends due and payable on or after April 1, 2008. At the date of this annual report, Japan has income tax treaties, conventions or agreements whereby the above-mentioned withholding tax rate is reduced, in most cases to 15 percent for portfolio investors with, among other countries, Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Singapore, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the U.K.

 

Under the Prior Treaty, the maximum rate of Japanese withholding tax which may be imposed on dividends paid by a Japanese corporation to an Eligible U.S. Holder that is a portfolio investor was limited to 15 percent of the gross amount actually distributed. However, under the New Treaty which would become applicable to dividends declared by Toyota on or after July 1, 2004, the maximum rate of Japanese withholding tax which may be imposed on dividends paid by a Japanese corporation to an Eligible U.S. Holder that is a portfolio investor is generally limited to 10 percent of the gross amount actually distributed, and Japanese withholding tax with respect to dividends paid by a Japanese corporation to an Eligible U.S. Holder that is a pension fund is exempt from Japanese taxation by way of withholding or otherwise unless such dividends are derived from the carrying on of a business, directly or indirectly, by such pension fund.

 

If the maximum tax rate provided for in the income tax treaty applicable to dividends paid by Toyota to any particular non-resident Holder is lower than the withholding tax rate otherwise applicable under Japanese tax law or any particular non-resident Holder is exempt from Japanese income tax with respect to such dividends under the income tax treaty applicable to such particular non-resident Holder, such non-resident Holder who is entitled to a reduced rate of or exemption from Japanese withholding tax on payment of dividends on shares of common stock by Toyota is required to submit an Application Form for Income Tax Convention Regarding Relief from Japanese Income Tax on Dividends in advance through Toyota to the relevant tax authority before the payment of dividends. A standing proxy for non-resident Holders of a Japanese corporation may provide this application service. With respect to ADSs, this reduced rate or exemption is applicable if the Depositary or its agent submits two Application Forms (one before payment of dividends, the other within eight months after Toyota’s fiscal year-end). To claim this reduced rate or exemption, any relevant non-resident Holder of ADSs will be required to file a proof of taxpayer status, residence and beneficial ownership (as applicable) and to provide other information or documents as may be required by the Depositary. A non-resident Holder who is entitled, under an applicable income tax treaty, to a reduced treaty rate lower than the withholding tax rate otherwise applicable under Japanese tax law or an exemption from the withholding tax, but failed to submit the required application in advance will be entitled to claim the refund of withholding taxes withheld in excess of the rate under an applicable tax treaty (if such non-resident Holder is entitled to a reduced treaty rate under the applicable income tax treaty) or the whole of the withholding tax withheld (if such non-resident Holder is entitled to an exemption under the applicable income tax treaty) from the relevant Japanese tax authority.

 

Gains derived from the sale of shares of common stock or ADSs outside Japan by a non-resident Holder holding such shares of common stock or ADSs as portfolio investors are, in general, not subject to Japanese income or corporation tax. Eligible U.S. Holders are not subject to Japanese income or corporation tax with respect to such gains under the Prior Treaty and the New Treaty, as applicable.

 

Japanese inheritance and gift taxes at progressive rates may be payable by an individual who has acquired shares of common stock or ADSs as a legatee, heir or donee even though neither the individual nor the deceased nor donor is a Japanese resident.

 

Holders of shares of common stock or ADSs should consult their tax advisors regarding the effect of these taxes and, in the case of U.S. Holders, the possible application of the Estate and Gift Tax Treaty between the U.S. and Japan.

 

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U.S. Federal Income Taxation

 

U.S. Holders

 

The following discussion is a summary of the principal U.S. federal income tax consequences to holders of shares of common stock of Toyota and of ADSs that are U.S. Holders and that hold those shares or ADSs as capital assets (generally, for investment purposes).

 

Taxation of Dividends

 

Subject to the passive foreign investment company rules discussed below, under U.S. federal income tax law, the gross amount of any distribution made by Toyota in respect of shares of common stock or ADSs (without reduction for Japanese withholding taxes) will constitute a taxable dividend to the extent paid out of current or accumulated earnings and profits, as determined under U.S. federal income tax principles. The U.S. dollar amount of such a dividend generally will be included in the gross income of a U.S. Holder, as ordinary income, when actually or constructively received by the U.S. Holder, in the case of shares of common stock, or by the depositary, in the case of ADSs. Dividends paid by us will not be eligible for the dividends-received deduction generally allowed to U.S. corporations in respect of dividends received from other U.S. corporations.

 

Subject to certain exceptions for short-term and hedged positions, and provided that we are not a passive foreign investment company (as discussed below), dividends received by certain U.S. Holders (including individuals) prior to January 1, 2009 with respect to the common stock or ADSs will be subject to U.S. federal income taxation at a maximum rate of 15%. However, the U.S. Treasury Department has announced its intention to promulgate rules pursuant to which shareholders (and intermediaries) will be permitted to rely on certifications from issuers to establish that dividends qualify for the reduced rate of U.S. federal income taxation. Because such procedures have not yet been issued, we are not certain that we will be able to comply with them. U.S. Holders of ADSs or common stock should consult their own tax advisors regarding the availability of the reduced rate in the light of their own particular circumstances.

 

The U.S. dollar amount of a dividend paid in Japanese yen will be determined based on the Japanese yen/U.S. dollar exchange rate in effect on the date that the dividend is included in the gross income of the U.S. Holder, regardless of whether the payment is converted into U.S. dollars. Generally, any gain or loss resulting from currency exchange fluctuations during the period from the date the dividend payment is included in the gross income of a U.S. Holder through the date that payment is converted into U.S. dollars (or otherwise disposed of) will be treated as U.S. source ordinary income or loss. U.S. Holders should consult their own tax advisors regarding the calculation and U.S. federal income tax treatment of foreign currency gain or loss.

 

To the extent, if any, that the amount of any distribution received by a U.S. Holder in respect of shares of common stock or ADSs exceeds Toyota’s current and accumulated earnings and profits, as determined under U.S. federal income tax principles, the distribution first will be treated as a tax-free return of capital to the extent of the U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in those shares or ADSs, and thereafter will be treated as U.S. source capital gain.

 

Distributions of additional shares of common stock that are made to U.S. Holders with respect to their shares of common stock or ADSs, and that are part of a pro rata distribution to all of Toyota’s shareholders, generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax.

 

For U.S. foreign tax credit purposes, dividends included in gross income by a U.S. Holder in respect of shares of common stock or ADSs will constitute income from sources outside the United States, and generally will be treated separately, together with other items of “passive income” (or, in the case of some holders, “financial services income”), in computing foreign tax credit limitations. Subject to generally applicable limitations under U.S. federal income tax law and the Treaty, any Japanese withholding tax imposed in respect of a Toyota dividend may be claimed as a credit against the U.S. federal income tax liability of a U.S. Holder, or if

 

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the U.S. Holder so elects as a deduction from such U.S. Holder’s taxable income. Special rules generally will apply to the calculation of foreign tax credits in respect of dividend income that qualifies for preferential U.S. federal income tax rates. Additionally, special rules apply to individuals whose foreign source income during the taxable year consists entirely of “qualified passive income” and whose creditable foreign taxes paid or accrued during the taxable year do not exceed $300 ($600 in the case of a joint return). Further, under some circumstances, a U.S. Holder that:

 

(i) has held shares of common stock or ADSs for less than a specified minimum period, or

 

(ii) is obligated to make payments related to Toyota dividends,

 

will not be allowed a foreign tax credit for Japanese taxes imposed on Toyota dividends.

 

Investors are urged to consult their tax advisors regarding the availability of the foreign tax credit under their particular circumstances. The IRS has expressed concern that parties to whom ADSs are released may be taking actions that are inconsistent with the claiming of foreign tax credits by U.S. Holders of ADSs. Accordingly, investors should be aware that the discussion above regarding the creditability of Japanese withholding tax on dividends could be affected by future actions that may be taken by the IRS.

 

Taxation of Capital Gains and Losses

 

In general, upon a sale or other taxable disposition of shares of common stock or ADSs, a U.S. Holder will recognize gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes in an amount equal to the difference between the amount realized on the sale or other taxable disposition and the U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in those shares or ADSs. A U.S. Holder generally will have an adjusted tax basis in a share of common stock or an ADS equal to its U.S. dollar cost. Subject to the passive investment company rules discussed below, gain or loss recognized on the sale or other taxable disposition of shares of common stock or ADSs generally will be capital gain or loss and, if the U.S. Holder’s holding period for those shares or ADSs exceeds one year, will be long-term capital gain or loss. Certain U.S. Holders, including individuals, are eligible for preferential rates of U.S. federal income tax in respect of long-term capital gains. Under U.S. federal income tax law, the deduction of capital losses is subject to limitations. Any gain or loss recognized by a U.S. Holder in respect of the sale or other disposition of shares of common stock or ADSs generally will be treated as U.S. source income or loss for U.S. foreign tax credit purposes.

 

Deposits and withdrawals of common stock in exchange for ADSs will not result in the realization of gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

 

Passive Foreign Investment Companies

 

A non-U.S. corporation generally will be classified as a passive foreign investment company (a “PFIC”) for U.S. federal income tax purposes in any taxable year in which, after applying look-through rules, either (1) at least 75% of its gross income is passive income, or (2) on average at least 50% of the gross value of its assets is attributable to assets that produce passive income or are held for the production of passive income. Passive income for this purpose generally includes dividends, interest, royalties, rents and gains from commodities and securities transactions. The PFIC determination is made annually and generally is based on the value of a non-U.S. corporation’s assets (including goodwill) and composition of its income.

 

Toyota does not believe that it is a PFIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and intends to continue its operations in such a manner that it will not become a PFIC in the future although no assurances can be made regarding determination of our PFIC status in the current or any future taxable year. If Toyota becomes a PFIC, U.S. Holders could be subject to additional U.S. federal income taxes on gain recognized with respect to the shares of common stock or ADSs and on certain distributions. In addition, an interest charge may apply to the portion of the U.S. federal income tax liability on such gains or distributions treated under the PFIC rules as

 

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having been deferred by the U.S. Holder. Moreover, dividends that a U.S. Holder receives from us will not be eligible for the reduced U.S. federal income tax rates described above if we are a PFIC either in the taxable year of the distribution or the preceding taxable year (and instead will be taxable at rates applicable to ordinary income). Toyota will inform U.S. Holders if it believes that it will be classified as a PFIC in any taxable year.

 

Prospective investors should consult their own tax advisors regarding the potential application of the PFIC rules to shares of common stock or ADSs.

 

Non-U.S. Holders

 

The following discussion is a summary of the principal U.S. federal income tax consequences to beneficial holders of shares of common stock or ADSs that are neither U.S. Holders nor partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes (“Non-U.S. Holders”).

 

Subject to the discussion below under “Backup Withholding and Information Reporting”, a Non-U.S. Holder generally will not be subject to any U.S. federal income or withholding tax on distributions received in respect of shares of common stock or ADSs unless the distributions are effectively connected with the conduct by the Non-U.S. Holder of a trade or business within the United States (and, if an applicable tax treaty requires, is attributable to a U.S. permanent establishment or fixed base of such Non-U.S. Holder).

 

Subject to the discussion below under “Backup Withholding and Information Reporting”, a Non-U.S. Holder generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax in respect of gain recognized on a sale or other disposition of shares of common stock or ADSs, unless:

 

(i) the gain is effectively connected with a trade or business conducted by the Non-U.S. Holder within the United States (and, if an applicable tax treaty requires, is attributable to a U.S. permanent establishment or fixed base of such Non-U.S. Holder), or

 

(ii) the Non-U.S. Holder is an individual who was present in the United States for 183 or more days in the taxable year of the disposition and other conditions are met.

 

Backup Withholding and Information Reporting

 

In general, information reporting requirements will apply to dividends paid to a U.S. Holder in respect of shares of common stock or ADSs, and to the proceeds received upon the sale, exchange or redemption of the shares of common stock or ADSs within the United States by U.S. Holders. Furthermore, a backup withholding tax may apply to those amounts (currently at a 28% rate) if a U.S. Holder fails to provide an accurate tax identification number, to certify that such holder is not subject to backup withholding or to otherwise comply with the applicable requirements of the backup withholding requirements.

 

Dividends paid to a Non-U.S. Holder in respect of shares of common stock or ADSs, and proceeds received in the sale, exchange or redemption of shares of common stock or ADSs by a Non-U.S. Holder, generally are exempt from information reporting and backup withholding under current U.S. federal income tax law. However, a Non-U.S. Holder may be required to provide certification of non-U.S. status in order to obtain that exemption.

 

Persons required to establish their exempt status generally must provide such certification on IRS Form W-9, entitled Request for Taxpayer Identification Number and Certification, in the case of U.S. persons, and on IRS Form W-8BEN, entitled Certificate of Foreign Status (or other appropriate IRS Form W-8), in the case of non-U.S. persons. Back up withholding is not an additional tax. The amount of backup withholding imposed on a payment generally may be claimed as a credit against the holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability provided that the required information is properly furnished to the IRS.

 

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THE SUMMARY OF U.S. FEDERAL INCOME AND JAPANESE TAX CONSEQUENCES SET OUT ABOVE IS INTENDED FOR GENERAL INFORMATION PURPOSES ONLY. PROSPECTIVE PURCHASERS OF COMMON STOCK OR ADSs ARE URGED TO CONSULT WITH THEIR OWN TAX ADVISORS WITH RESPECT TO THE PARTICULAR TAX CONSEQUENCES TO THEM OF OWNING OR DISPOSING OF COMMON STOCK OR ADSs, BASED ON THEIR PARTICULAR CIRCUMSTANCES.

 

10.F DIVIDENDS AND PAYING AGENTS

 

Not applicable.

 

10.G STATEMENT BY EXPERTS

 

Not applicable.

 

10.H DOCUMENTS ON DISPLAY

 

Toyota files annual reports on Form 20-F and reports on Form 6-K with the SEC. You may read and copy this information at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 450 Fifth Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20549 or by accessing the SEC’s home page (http://www.sec.gov). You can also request copies of the documents, upon payment of a duplicating fee, by writing to the Public Reference Section of the SEC. Please call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for further information on the operation of the Public Reference Room. In addition, Toyota’s reports, proxy statements and other information may be inspected at the offices of the New York Stock Exchange, 20 Broad Street, New York, New York 10005. Copies of the documents referred to herein may also be inspected at Toyota’s offices by contacting Toyota at 1 Toyota-cho, Toyota City, Aichi Prefecture 471-8571, Japan, attention: Financial Reporting Department, Accounting Division, telephone number: 81-565-28-2121.

 

10.I SUBSIDIARY INFORMATION

 

Not applicable.

 

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ITEM 11. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

 

Toyota is exposed to market risk from changes in foreign currency exchange rates, interest rates and certain commodity and equity security prices. In order to manage the risk arising from changes in foreign currency exchange rates and interest rates, Toyota enters into a variety of derivative financial instruments.

 

A description of Toyota’s accounting policies for derivative instruments is included in note 2 to the consolidated financial statements and further disclosure is provided in notes 20 and 21 to the consolidated financial statements.

 

Toyota monitors and manages these financial exposures as an integral part of its overall risk management program, which recognizes the unpredictability of financial markets and seeks to reduce the potentially adverse effect on Toyota’s operating results.

 

The financial instruments included in the market risk analysis consist of all of Toyota’s cash and cash equivalents, marketable securities, finance receivables, securities investments, long-term and short-term debt and all derivative financial instruments. Toyota’s portfolio of derivative financial instruments consists of forward foreign currency exchange contracts, foreign currency options, interest rate swaps, interest rate currency swap agreements and interest rate options. Anticipated transactions denominated in foreign currencies that are covered by Toyota’s derivative hedging are not included in the market risk analysis. Although operating leases are not required to be included, Toyota has included these instruments in determining interest rate risk.

 

Foreign Currency Exchange Rate Risk

 

Toyota has foreign currency exposures related to buying, selling and financing in currencies other than the local currencies in which it operates. Toyota is exposed to foreign currency risk related to future earnings or assets and liabilities that are exposed due to operating cash flows and various financial instruments that are denominated in foreign currencies. Toyota’s most significant foreign currency exposures relate to the United States and Western European countries.

 

Toyota uses a value-at-risk analysis (“VAR”) to evaluate its exposure to changes in foreign currency exchange rates. The value-at-risk of the combined foreign exchange position represents a potential loss in pre-tax earnings that are estimated to be ¥29.5 billion as of March 31, 2003 and ¥37.8 billion as of March 31, 2004. Based on Toyota’s overall currency exposure (including derivative positions), the risk during the year ended March 31, 2004 to pre-tax cash flow from currency movements was on average ¥34.0 billion, with a high of ¥37.8 billion and a low of ¥30.1 billion.

 

The VAR was estimated by using a Monte Carlo Simulation method and assumed 95% confidence level on the realization date and a 10-day holding period.

 

Interest Rate Risk

 

Toyota is subject to market risk from exposure to changes in interest rates based on its financing, investing and cash management activities. Toyota enters into various financial instrument transactions to maintain the desired level of exposure to the risk of interest rate fluctuations and to minimize interest expense. Certain exchange traded future and option contracts, interest rate caps and floors, along with various investments, have been entered into to reduce the interest rate risk related to these activities. The potential decrease in fair value resulting from a hypothetical 100 basis point upward shift in interest rates would be approximately ¥23.1 billion as of March 31, 2003 and ¥29.6 billion as of March 31, 2004.

 

There are certain shortcomings inherent to the sensitivity analyses presented. The model assumes interest rate changes are instantaneous parallel shifts in the yield curve; however, in reality, changes are rarely instantaneous. Although certain assets and liabilities may have similar maturities or periods to repricing, they may not react correspondingly to changes in market interest rates. Also, the interest rates on certain types of

 

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assets and liabilities may fluctuate with changes in market interest rates, while interest rates on other types of assets may lag behind changes in market rates. Finance receivables are less susceptible to prepayments when interest rates change and, as a result, Toyota’s model does not address prepayment risk for automotive related finance receivables. However, in the event of a change in interest rates, actual loan prepayments may deviate significantly from assumptions used in the model.

 

Commodity Price Risk

 

Commodity price risk is the possibility of higher or lower costs due to changes in the prices of commodities, such as non-ferrous (e.g., aluminum), precious metals (e.g., palladium, platinum and rhodium) and ferrous alloys (e.g., steel), which Toyota uses in the production of motor vehicles. Toyota does not use derivative instruments to hedge the price risk associated with the purchase of those commodities and controls its commodity price risk by holding minimum stock levels.

 

Equity Price Risk

 

Toyota holds investments in various available-for-sale securities which are subject to price risk. The fair value of available-for-sale securities was approximately ¥487.6 billion as of March 31, 2003 and the fair value of available-for-sale equity securities was approximately ¥952.5 billion as of March 31, 2004. The potential change in the fair value of these investments, assuming a 10% change in prices, would be approximately ¥48.7 billion as of March 31, 2003 and ¥95.2 billion as of March 31, 2004.

 

ITEM 12. DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES OTHER THAN EQUITY SECURITIES

 

Not applicable.

 

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PART II

 

ITEM 13. DEFAULTS, DIVIDEND ARREARAGES AND DELINQUENCIES

 

None.

 

ITEM 14. MATERIAL MODIFICATIONS TO THE RIGHTS OF SECURITY HOLDERS AND USE OF PROCEEDS

 

None.

 

ITEM 15. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

 

15.A DISCLOSURES CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

 

Toyota performed an evaluation of the effectiveness of the design and operation of its disclosure controls and procedures as of the end of fiscal 2004. Disclosure controls and procedures are designed to ensure that the material financial and non-financial information required to be disclosed in Form 20-F and filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is recorded, processed, summarized and reported in a timely manner. The evaluation was performed under the supervision of Hiroshi Okuda, Toyota’s Chairman of the Board, and Ryuji Araki, Toyota’s Executive Vice President, Member of the Board. In designing and evaluating the disclosure controls and procedures, management recognized that any controls and procedures, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable, rather than absolute, assurance of achieving the desired control objectives. Managerial judgment was necessary to evaluate the cost-benefit relationship of possible controls and procedures. Based on the foregoing, Mr. Okuda and Mr. Araki have concluded that Toyota’s disclosure controls and procedures were effective.

 

There have been no changes in Toyota’s internal control over financial reporting during fiscal 2004 that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, Toyota’s internal control over financial reporting.

 

15.B [RESERVED]

 

15.C [RESERVED]

 

15.D [RESERVED]

 

ITEM 16. [RESERVED]

 

16.A AUDIT COMMITTEE FINANCIAL EXPERT

 

Toyota maintains a corporate auditor system, in accordance with the Japanese Commercial Code (the “Code”) and the Law concerning Exceptional Measures to the Commercial Code with respect to Auditing, etc. of Joint Stock Corporations (the “Special Exception Law”). Rule 10A-3(c)(3) under the Exchange Act prescribes a general exemption from the audit committee member independence requirements for a foreign private issuer maintaining, among others, a board of corporate auditors established and selected pursuant to home country laws. Toyota’s board of corporate auditors is comprised of seven corporate auditors, four of whom are outside corporate auditors. Each corporate auditor has been appointed at its shareholders’ meetings and has certain statutory powers independently, including auditing the business affairs and accounts of Toyota.

 

At the present time, Toyota’s board of corporate auditors has determined that it does not have an audit committee financial expert serving on the board of corporate auditors. The qualifications for, and powers of, the corporate auditor delineated in the Code and the Special Exception Law are different from those anticipated for

 

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any audit committee financial expert. Corporate auditors have the authority to be given reports from a certified public accountant or an accounting firm concerning audits, including technical accounting matters. At the same time, each corporate auditor has the authority to consult internal and external experts on accounting matters. Toyota’s board of corporate auditors has confirmed that each corporate auditor should fulfill the requirements under Japanese laws and regulations and otherwise follow Japanese corporate governance practices and, accordingly, it is not necessarily in Toyota’s best interest to nominate as corporate auditor a person who meets the definition of audit committee financial experts. Although Toyota does not have an audit committee financial expert on its board of corporate auditors, Toyota believes that Toyota’s current corporate governance system, taken as a whole, including the corporate auditors’ ability to consult internal and external experts, is fully equivalent to a system having an audit committee financial expert on its board of corporate auditors.

 

16.B CODE OF ETHICS

 

Toyota has adopted a code of ethics that applies to its directors and managing officers, including its principal executive officer, principal financial officer, principal accounting officer or controller, or persons performing similar functions. A copy of Toyota’s code of ethics was filed as an exhibit to the annual report on Form 20-F for the year ended March 31, 2003 and is incorporated herein by reference.

 

16.C PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES

 

ChuoAoyama PricewaterhouseCoopers has served as our independent public accountants for each of the financial years in the three-year period ended March 31, 2004, for which audited financial statements appear in this annual report on Form 20-F.

 

The following table presents the aggregate fees for professional services and other services rendered by ChuoAoyama PricewaterhouseCoopers and the various member firms of the PricewaterhouseCoopers to Toyota in fiscal 2004 and fiscal 2003.

 

     Yen in millions

     2004

   2003

Audit Fees (1)

   1,606    1,284

Audit-related Fees (2)

   407    64

Tax Fees (3)

   768    621

All Other Fees (4)

   97    696

Total

   2,878    2,665

(1) Audit Fees consist of fees billed for the annual audit services engagement and other audit services, which are those services that only the external auditor reasonably can provide, and include the services of annual audit, quarter reviews and semi-annual reviews of Toyota and its subsidiaries and affiliates; the services associated with SEC registration statements or other documents issued in connection with securities offerings such as comfort letters and consents; consultations as to the accounting or disclosure treatment of transactions or events.
(2) Audit-related Fees consist of fees billed for assurance and related services that are reasonably related to the performance of the audit or review of our financial statements or that are traditionally performed by the external auditor, and mainly include the services such as due diligence; agreed-upon or expanded audit procedures; internal control reviews and assistance; review of the effectiveness of the internal audit function; assistance with implementation of the requirements of SEC rules pursuant to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act; financial statement audits of employee benefit plans.
(3) Tax Fees include fees billed for tax compliance services, including the services such as tax planning, advice and compliance of federal, state, local and international tax; the review of tax returns; assistance with tax audits and appeals; tax only valuation services including transfer pricing and cost segregation studies; expatriate tax assistance and compliance.

 

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(4) All Other non-audit Fees mainly include fees billed for risk management advisory services of assessment and testing of security infrastructure controls; advisory services relating to accounting manual and accounting control; advisory services relating to establishment of a new subsidiary; assistance with continuing education and training; services providing information related to automotive market conditions and sales networks and advisory services on information systems related to dealer controls; and in fiscal 2003 assistance with close reduction* and financial information systems design and implementation*.
* On October 1, 2002, the PricewaterhouseCoopers sold its consulting business. Fees relating to the business sold were 584 million yen for fiscal 2003, included herein.

 

Policies and Procedures of the Board of Corporate Auditors

 

Below is a summary of the current policies and procedures of the board of corporate auditors for the pre-approval of audit and permissible non-audit services performed by Toyota’s independent public accountants.

 

Under the policy, the Representative Directors submit a request for general pre-approval of audit and permissible non-audit services for the following fiscal year, which shall include details of the specific services and estimated fees for the services, to the board of corporate auditors, which reviews and determines whether or not to grant the request by the end of March of the fiscal year. Upon the general pre-approval of the board of corporate auditors, the Representative Directors are not required to obtain any specific pre-approval for audit and permissible non-audit services so long as those services fall within the scope of the general pre-approval provided.

 

The board of corporate auditors makes further determination of whether or not to grant a request to revise the general pre-approval for the applicable fiscal year if such request is submitted by the Representative Directors. Such request may include (i) adding any audit or permissible non-audit services other than the ones listed in the general pre-approval and (ii) obtaining services, which are listed in the general pre-approval but of which the total fee amount exceeds the amount affirmed by the general pre-approval. The determination of whether or not to grant a request to revise the general pre-approval noted in the foregoing may alternatively be made by an Executive Corporate Auditor, who is designated in advance by a resolution of the board of corporate auditors, in which case such Executive Corporate Auditor shall report such decision at the next meeting of the board of corporate auditors. The performance of audit and permissible non-audit services and the payment of fees are subject to review by the board of corporate auditors at least once every fiscal half year.

 

16.D [RESERVED]

 

16.E [RESERVED]

 

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PART III

 

ITEM 17. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

Not applicable.

 

ITEM 18. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

The following financial statements are filed as part of this annual report on Form 20-F.

 

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TOYOTA MOTOR CORPORATION

 

INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

     Page

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

   F - 2

Consolidated balance sheets at March 31, 2003 and 2004

   F - 3

Consolidated statements of income for the years ended
March 31, 2002, 2003 and 2004

   F - 5

Consolidated statements of shareholders’ equity for the years ended
March 31, 2002, 2003 and 2004

   F - 6

Consolidated statements of cash flows for the years ended
March 31, 2002, 2003 and 2004

   F - 8

Notes to consolidated financial statements

   F -10

 

All financial statement schedules are omitted because they are not applicable or the required information is shown in the financial statements or the notes thereto.

 

Financial statements of 50% or less owned persons accounted for by the equity method have been omitted because the registrant’s proportionate share of the income from continuing operations before income taxes is less than 20% of consolidated income from continuing operations before income taxes and the investment in and advances to each company is less than 20% of consolidated total assets.

 

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Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

 

To the Shareholders and Board of Directors of

Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha

(“Toyota Motor Corporation”)

 

In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements listed in the accompanying index present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of Toyota Motor Corporation and its subsidiaries at March 31, 2003 and 2004, and the results of their operations and their cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended March 31, 2004, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these financial statements based on our audits. We conducted our audits of these statements in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement. An audit includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements, assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, and evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

 

/s/ ChuoAoyama PricewaterhouseCoopers

Nagoya, Japan

June 23, 2004

 

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TOYOTA MOTOR CORPORATION

 

CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS

 

ASSETS

 

     Yen in millions

   

U.S. dollars

in millions


 
     March 31,

    March 31,

 
     2003

    2004

    2004

 

Current assets

                        

Cash and cash equivalents

   ¥ 1,592,028     ¥ 1,729,776     $ 16,367  

Time deposits

     55,406       68,473       648  

Marketable securities

     605,483       448,457       4,243  

Trade accounts and notes receivable, less allowance for doubtful accounts of ¥29,489 million in 2003 and ¥28,966 million ($274 million) in 2004

     1,475,797       1,531,651       14,492  

Finance receivables, net

     2,505,140       2,622,939       24,817  

Other receivables

     513,952       396,788       3,754  

Inventories

     1,025,838       1,083,326       10,250  

Deferred income taxes

     385,148       457,161       4,325  

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

     463,441       509,882       4,825  
    


 


 


Total current assets

     8,622,233       8,848,453       83,721  
    


 


 


Noncurrent finance receivables, net

     2,569,808       3,228,973       30,551  
    


 


 


Investments and other assets

                        

Marketable securities and other securities investments

     1,652,110       2,241,971       21,213  

Affiliated companies

     1,279,645       1,370,171       12,964  

Employees receivables

     21,270       35,857       339  

Other

     804,029       960,156       9,085  
    


 


 


Total investments and other assets

     3,757,054       4,608,155       43,601  
    


 


 


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