20-F 1 form20f.htm FORM-20F form20f.htm


UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
FORM 20-F
 
(Mark One)
 
o Registration statement pursuant to Section 12(b) or (g) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
 
OR
 
x Annual Report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
 
For the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012
 
OR
 
o Transition Report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
 
For the transition period from __________ to __________
 
OR
 
o Shell Company Report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
 
Date of event requiring this shell company report________
 
Commission File Number 000-25383
 
INFOSYS LIMITED
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
 
Not Applicable
(Translation of Registrant's name into English)
 
Bangalore, Karnataka, India
(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
 
Electronics City, Hosur Road, Bangalore, Karnataka, India 560 100. +91-80-2852-0261
(Address of principal executive offices)
  
V. Balakrishnan, Member of the Board and Chief Financial Officer, +91-80-2852-0261, balakv@infosys.com
Electronics City, Hosur Road, Bangalore, Karnataka, India 560 100.
(Name, telephone, e-mail and/or facsimile number and address of company contact person)
  
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
 
Title of Each Class
Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
 
 
American Depositary Shares each represented by one Equity Share, par value rupee-symbol5 per share
NASDAQ Global Select Market
 
 
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
 
None.
(Title of class)
 
Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act:
 
Not Applicable
(Title of class)
 
Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer's classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the Annual Report: 574,230,001 Equity Shares
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
 
Yes x No o
 
If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.
 
Yes o No x
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
 
Yes x No o
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data file required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such filed).
 
Yes o No o
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, or a non-accelerated filer. See definition of accelerated filer and large accelerated filer in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
 
Large accelerated filer x
Accelerated filer o
Non- accelerated filer o
 
Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:
 
U.S. GAAP o International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Account Standards Board x Other o
 
If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).
 
Yes o No x
 
Currency of presentation and certain defined terms
 
In this Annual Report on Form 20-F, references to "U.S." or "United States" are to the United States of America, its territories and its possessions. References to "India" are to the Republic of India. References to "$" or "dollars" or "U.S. dollars" are to the legal currency of the United States and references to "Rupee-Symbol" or "Rupees" or "Indian rupees" are to the legal currency of India. Our financial statements are presented in U.S. dollars and are prepared in accordance with the International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Account Standards Board, or IFRS. References to "Indian GAAP" are to Indian Generally Accepted Accounting Principles. References to a particular "fiscal" year are to our fiscal year ended March 31 of such year.
 
All references to "we," "us," "our," "Infosys" or the "Company" shall mean Infosys Limited, and, unless specifically indicated otherwise or the context indicates otherwise, our consolidated subsidiaries. "Infosys" is a registered trademark of Infosys Limited in the United States and India. All other trademarks or tradenames used in this Annual Report on Form 20-F are the property of their respective owners.
 
Except as otherwise stated in this Annual Report on Form 20-F, all translations from Indian rupees to U.S. dollars effected on or after April 1, 2009 are based on the fixing rate in the City of Mumbai on March 31, 2012 for cable transfers in Indian rupees as published by the Foreign Exchange Dealers' Association of India, or FEDAI, which was Rupee-Symbol50.88 per $1.00. No representation is made that the Indian rupee amounts have been, could have been or could be converted into U.S. dollars at such a rate or any other rate. Any discrepancies in any table between totals and sums of the amounts listed are due to rounding.
 
Special Note Regarding Forward Looking Statements
 
This Annual Report on Form 20-F contains 'forward-looking statements', as defined in Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, that are based on our current expectations, assumptions, estimates and projections about our Company, our industry, economic conditions in the markets in which we operate, and certain other matters. Generally, these forward-looking statements can be identified by the use of forward-looking terminology such as 'anticipate', 'believe', 'estimate', 'expect', 'intend', 'will', 'project', 'seek', 'should' and similar expressions. Those statements include, among other things, the discussions of our business strategy and expectations concerning our market position, future operations, margins, profitability, liquidity and capital resources. These statements are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors, which may cause actual results or outcomes to differ materially from those implied by the forward-looking statements. Important factors that may cause actual results or outcomes to differ from those implied by the forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, those discussed in the “Risk Factors” section in this Annual Report on Form 20-F. In light of these and other uncertainties, you should not conclude that the results or outcomes referred to in any of the forward-looking statements will be achieved. All forward-looking statements included in this Annual Report on Form 20-F are based on information available to us on the date hereof, and we do not undertake to update these forward-looking statements to reflect future events or circumstances.
 
This Annual Report on Form 20-F includes statistical data about the IT industry that comes from information published by sources including Forrester Research, Inc., providers of market information and strategic information for the IT industry and the National Association of Software and Service Companies, or NASSCOM, an industry trade group. This type of data represents only the estimates of Forrester, NASSCOM, and other sources of industry data. In addition, although we believe that data from these companies is generally reliable, this type of data is inherently imprecise. We caution you not to place undue reliance on this data.
 
Table of Contents
 
 
 
 
Not applicable.
 
 
Not applicable.
 
 
SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
 
Summary of Consolidated Financial Data
 
You should read the summary consolidated financial data below in conjunction with the Company's consolidated financial statements and the related notes, as well as the section entitled “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects,” all of which are included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 20-F. The summary consolidated statements of comprehensive income for the five years ended March 31, 2012 and the summary consolidated balance sheet data as of March 31, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009 and 2008 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements and related notes which were prepared and presented in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by International Accounting Standards Board (IFRS). Historical results are not necessarily indicative of future results.
 
(Dollars in millions, except share data)
Comprehensive Income Data
Fiscal Year ended March 31,
 
2012
2011
2010
2009
2008
Revenues
$6,994
$6,041
$4,804
$4,663
$4,176
Cost of sales
4,118
3,497
2,749
2,699
2,453
Gross profit
2,876
2,544
2,055
1,964
1,723
Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
Selling and marketing expenses
366
332
251
239
230
Administrative expenses
497
433
344
351
334
Total operating expenses
863
765
595
590
564
Operating profit
2,013
1,779
1,460
1,374
1,159
Other income, net
397
267
209
101
175
Profit before income taxes
2,410
2,046
1,669
1,475
1,334
Income tax expense
694
547
356
194
171
Net profit
$1,716
$1,499
$1,313
$1,281
$1,163
Earnings per equity share:
 
 
 
 
 
Basic ($)
3.00
2.62
2.30
2.25
2.04
Diluted ($)
3.00
2.62
2.30
2.25
2.04
Weighted average equity shares used in computing earnings per equity share:
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
571,365,494
571,180,050
570,475,923
569,656,611
568,564,740
Diluted
571,396,142
571,368,358
571,116,031
570,629,581
570,473,287
Cash dividend per Equity Share ($)*
0.76
1.22
0.48
0.89
0.31
Cash dividend per Equity Share (rupee-symbol)*
35.00
55.00
23.50
37.25
12.50
* Excludes corporate dividend tax and converted at the monthly exchange rate in the month of declaration of dividend.
 
 (Dollars in millions)
Balance Sheet Data
 As of March 31,
 
2012
2011
2010
2009
2008
Cash and cash equivalents
$4,047
$3,737
$2,698
$2,167
$2,058
Available-for-sale financial assets, current
6
5
561
 –
18
Investments in certificates of deposit
68
27
265
Net current assets
5,008
4,496
3,943
2,583
2,578
Non-current assets
1,592
1,698
1,495
1,249
1,381
Total assets
7,537
7,010
6,148
4,369
4,508
Non-current liabilities
24
72
77
48
43
Total equity
$6,576
$6,122
$5,361
$3,784
$3,916
 
Exchange rates
 
Our functional currency is the Indian rupee. We generate a major portion of our revenues in foreign currencies, particularly the U.S. dollar, the United Kingdom Pound Sterling, Euro and the Australian dollar, whereas we incur a majority of our expenses in Indian rupees. The exchange rate between the rupee and the U.S. dollar has changed substantially in recent years and may fluctuate substantially in the future. Consequently, the results of our operations are adversely affected as the rupee appreciates against the U.S. dollar. For fiscal 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009 and 2008, U.S. dollar denominated revenues represented 71.7%, 72.8%, 73.3%, 71.1% and 69.5% of total revenues. For the same periods, revenues denominated in United Kingdom Pound Sterling represented 6.8%, 7.2%, 9.2%, 12.7% and 14.9% of total revenues, revenues denominated in the Euro represented 7.7%, 6.9%, 6.9%, 7.1% and 5.7% of total revenues while revenues denominated in the Australian dollar represented 7.6%, 6.5%, 5.8%, 4.6% and 4.8% of total revenues. As such, our exchange rate risk primarily arises from our foreign currency revenues, receivables and payables.
 
Fluctuations in the exchange rate between the Indian rupee and the U.S. dollar will also affect the U.S. dollar equivalent of the Indian rupee price of our equity shares on the Indian stock exchanges and, as a result, will likely affect the market price of our ADSs, and vice versa. Such fluctuations also impact the U.S. dollar conversion by the Depositary of any cash dividends paid in Indian rupees on our equity shares represented by the ADSs.
 
The following table sets forth, for the fiscal years indicated, information concerning the number of Indian rupees for which one U.S. dollar could be exchanged based on the fixing rate in the City of Mumbai on business days during the period for cable transfers in Indian rupees as published by the Foreign Exchange Dealers' Association of India, or FEDAI. The column titled “Average” in the table below is the average of the last business day of each month during the year.
 
Fiscal
Period End
Average
High
Low
 
rupee-symbol
rupee-symbol
rupee-symbol
rupee-symbol
2012
50.88
48.10
54.28
44.00
2011
44.60
45.54
47.36
44.07
2010
44.90
47.43
50.57
44.87
2009
50.72
46.54
52.00
39.88
2008
40.02
40.00
43.05
38.48
 
The following table sets forth the high and low exchange rates for the previous six months and is based on the fixing rate in the City of Mumbai on business days during the period for cable transfers in Indian rupees as published by the FEDAI.
 
 Month
High
Low
 
rupee-symbol
rupee-symbol
April 2012
52.71
50.53
March 2012
51.27
49.15
February 2012
49.67
48.67
January 2012
53.17
49.38
December 2011
54.28
51.31
November 2011
52.68
48.86
 
On May 3, 2012, the fixing rate in the City of Mumbai for cash transfers in Indian rupees as published by FEDAI was Rupee-Symbol53.24.
 
The exchange rates for month-end and period-end reporting purposes have been based on the FEDAI rates. We believe that exchange rates published by FEDAI are more representative of market exchange rates than exchange rates published by individual banks. However, FEDAI does not publish exchange rates on a daily basis, and in the absence of availability of daily exchange rates from FEDAI, we utilize exchange rates from Deutsche Bank, Mumbai, for daily transactions in the ordinary course of business.
 
Risk Factors
 
This Annual Report on Form 20-F contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, including those set forth in the following risk factors and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 20-F.
 
Risks Related to Our Company and Our Industry
 
Our revenues and expenses are difficult to predict and can vary significantly from period to period, which could cause our share price to decline.
 
Our revenues and profitability have grown rapidly in certain years and are likely to vary significantly in the future from period to period. Therefore, we believe that period-to-period comparisons of our results of operations are not necessarily meaningful and should not be relied upon as an indication of our future performance. It is possible that in the future our results of operations may be below the expectations of market analysts and our investors, which could cause the share price of our equity shares and our ADSs to decline significantly.
 
Factors which affect the fluctuation of our operating results include:
  • the size, timing and profitability of significant projects, including large outsourcing deals;
  • changes in our pricing policies or the pricing policies of our competitors;
  • economic fluctuations that affect the strength of the economy of the United States, Europe or any of the other markets in which we operate;
  • foreign currency fluctuations and our hedging activities that are intended to address such fluctuations;
  • the effect of wage pressures, seasonal hiring patterns, attrition, and the time required to train and productively utilize new employees, particularly information technology, or IT professionals;
  • the proportion of services that we perform at our development centers or at our client sites;
  • utilization of billable employees;
  • the size and timing of facilities expansion and resulting depreciation and amortization costs;
  • varying expenditures and lead times in connection with responding to, and submission of, proposals for large client engagements including on account of changing due diligence requirements
  • unanticipated cancellations, contract terminations, deferrals of projects or delays in purchases, including those resulting from our clients reorganizing their operations, mergers or acquisitions involving our clients and changes in management;
  • the inability of our clients and potential clients to forecast their business and IT needs, and the resulting impact on our business;
  • unanticipated cancellations, contract terminations, deferrals of projects or delays in purchases resulting from our clients' efforts to comply with regulatory requirements;
  • the proportion of our customer contracts that are on a fixed-price, fixed-timeframe basis, compared with time and material contracts; and
  • unanticipated variations in the duration, size and scope of our projects, as well as in the corporate decision-making process of our client base.
A significant part of our total operating expenses, particularly expenses related to personnel and facilities, are fixed in advance of any particular period. As a result, unanticipated variations in the number and timing of our projects or employee utilization rates, or the accuracy of our estimates of the resources required to complete ongoing projects, may cause significant variations in our operating results in any particular period.
 
There are also a number of factors, other than our performance, that are not within our control that could cause fluctuations in our operating results from period to period. These include:
  • the duration of tax holidays or tax exemptions and the availability of other incentives from the Government of India;
  • changes in regulations and taxation in India or the other countries in which we conduct business;
  • currency fluctuations, particularly if the rupee appreciates in value against the U.S. dollar, the United Kingdom Pound Sterling, the Euro or the Australian dollar, since the majority of our revenues are in these currencies and a significant part of our costs are in Indian rupees; and
  • other general economic and political factors, including the economic conditions in the United States, Europe or any other geographies in which we operate.
In addition, the availability of visas for working in the United States may vary substantially from quarter to quarter. Visas for working in the United States may be available during one quarter, but not another, or there may be differences in the number of visas available from one quarter to another. As such, the variable availability of visas may require us to incur significantly higher visa-related expenses in certain quarters when compared to others. For example, we incurred $7 million in costs for visas in the three months ended March 31, 2012, compared to $15 million in costs for visas in the three months ended September 30, 2011.
 
We may not be able to sustain our previous profit margins or levels of profitability.
 
Our profitability could be affected by pricing pressures on our services, volatility of the exchange rates between the Indian rupee, the U.S. dollar and other currencies in which we generate revenues or incur expenses, increased wage pressures in India and at other locations where we maintain operations, and increases in taxes or the expiration of tax benefits.
 
Since fiscal 2003, we have incurred substantially higher selling and marketing expenses as we have invested to increase brand awareness among target clients and promote client loyalty and repeat business among existing clients. We may incur increased selling and marketing expenses in the future, which could result in declining profitability. In addition, while our Global Delivery Model allows us to manage costs efficiently, if the proportion of our services delivered at client sites increases we may not be able to keep our operating costs as low in the future, which would also have an adverse impact on our profit margins. Further, in recent years, our profit margin has been adversely impacted by the expiration of certain tax holidays and benefits in India, and we expect that our profit margin may be further adversely affected as additional tax holidays and benefits expire in the future.
 
During fiscal 2012, fiscal 2011 and fiscal 2010, there was volatility in the exchange rate of the Indian rupee against the U.S. dollar. The exchange rate for one dollar as published by FEDAI was Rupee-Symbol50.88 as of March 31, 2012 as against Rupee-Symbol44.60 as of March 31, 2011 and Rupee-Symbol44.90 as of March 31, 2010. Exchange rate fluctuations and our hedging activities have in the past adversely impacted, and may in the future adversely impact, our operating results.
 
Increased selling and marketing expenses, and other operating expenses in the future, as well as fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates including, in particular, the appreciation of the rupee against foreign currencies or the appreciation of the U.S. dollar against other foreign currencies, could materially and adversely affect our profit margins and results of operations in future periods.
 
The economic environment, pricing pressure and decreased employee utilization rates could negatively impact our revenues and operating results.
 
Spending on technology products and services is subject to fluctuations depending on many factors, including the economic environment in the markets in which our clients operate. For example, there was a decline in the growth rate of global IT purchases in the latter half of 2008 due to the global economic slowdown. This downward trend continued into 2009, with global IT purchases declining due to the challenging global economic environment. We believe that the economic environment in the markets in which many of our clients operate remains unstable, and that the economic conditions in many countries remain challenging and may continue to be challenging in the near future. For instance, in many European countries, large government deficits together with a downgrading of government debt and credit ratings, have escalated concerns about continuing weakness in the economies of such countries.
 
Reduced IT spending in response to the challenging economic environment has also led to increased pricing pressure from our clients, which has adversely impacted our revenue productivity, which we define as our revenue divided by billed person months. For instance, during the year ended March 31, 2011, our offshore revenue productivity, other than for business process management, decreased by 3.1% when compared to the year ended March 31, 2010.
 
Further, many of our clients have also been seeking extensions in credit terms from the standard terms that we provide, including pursuing credit from us for periods of up to 60 days or more. Such extended credit terms may result in reduced revenues in a given period as well as the delay of the realization of revenues, and may adversely affect our cash flows. Additionally, extended credit terms also increase our exposure to customer-specific credit risks. Reductions in IT spending, reductions in revenue productivity, increased credit risk and extended credit terms arising from or related to the global economic slowdown have in the past adversely impacted, and may in the future adversely impact, our revenues, gross profits, operating margins and results of operations.
 
Moreover, in the past, reduced or delayed IT spending has also adversely impacted our utilization rates for technology professionals. For instance, in fiscal 2012, our utilization rate for technology professionals, including trainees, was approximately 69.0%, as compared to 72.1% during fiscal 2011. This decrease in employee utilization rates adversely affected our profitability for fiscal 2012, and any decrease in employee utilization rates in the future, whether on account of reduced or delayed IT spending, may adversely impact our results of operations.
 
In addition to the business challenges and margin pressure resulting from the global economic slowdown and the response of our clients to such slowdown, there is also a growing trend among consumers of IT services towards consolidation of technology service providers in order to improve efficiency and reduce costs. Our success in the competitive bidding process for new consolidation projects or in retaining existing projects is dependent on our ability to fulfill client expectations relating to staffing, efficient offshoring of services, absorption of transition costs, deferment of billing and more stringent service levels. If we fail to meet a client's expectations in such consolidation projects, this would likely adversely impact our business, revenues and operating margins. In addition, even if we are successful in winning the mandates for such consolidation projects, we may experience significant pressure on our operating margins as a result of the competitive bidding process.
 
Moreover, our ability to maintain or increase pricing is restricted as clients often expect that as we do more business with them, they will receive volume discounts or special pricing incentives. In addition, existing and new customers are also increasingly using third-party consultants with broad market knowledge to assist them in negotiating contractual terms. Any inability to maintain or increase pricing on this account may also adversely impact our revenues, gross profits, operating margins and results of operations.
 
Our revenues are highly dependent on clients primarily located in the United States and Europe, as well as on clients concentrated in certain industries, and an economic slowdown or other factors that affect the economic health of the United States, Europe or those industries, or any other impact on the growth of such industries, may affect our business.
 
In fiscal 2012, fiscal 2011 and fiscal 2010, approximately 63.9%, 65.3% and 65.8% of our revenues were derived from projects in North America. In the same periods, approximately 21.9%, 21.5% and 23.0% of our revenues were derived from projects in Europe. The recent instability in the global economy, driven by slower growth in developed markets coupled with the European debt crisis, has had an impact on the growth of the IT industry and may continue to impact it in the future. This instability also impacts our business and results of operations, and may continue to do so in the future. The global economy, driven by slower growth in developed markets coupled with the European debt crisis, could have an impact on the growth of the IT industry. If the United States or European economy remains weak or unstable or weakens further, our clients may reduce or postpone their technology spending significantly, which may in turn lower the demand for our services and negatively affect our revenues and profitability.
 
In fiscal 2012, fiscal 2011 and fiscal 2010, we derived approximately 35.1%, 35.9% and 34.0% of our revenues from the financial services and insurance industry. The crisis in the financial and credit markets in the United States led to significant changes in the financial services industry, with the United States federal government being forced to take over or provide financial support to many leading financial institutions and with some leading investment banks going bankrupt or being forced to sell themselves in distressed circumstances. Global economic uncertainty may result in the reduction, postponement or consolidation of IT spending by our clients, contract terminations, deferrals of projects or delays in purchases, especially in the financial services sector. Any reduction, postponement or consolidation in IT spending may lower the demand for our services or impact the prices that we can obtain for our services and consequently, adversely affect our revenues and profitability.
 
Any lingering instability or weakness in the United States economy could have a material adverse impact on our revenues, particularly from businesses in the financial services industry and other industries that are particularly vulnerable to a slowdown in consumer spending. In fiscal 2012, fiscal 2011 and fiscal 2010, we derived approximately 35.1%, 35.9% and 34.0% of our revenues from clients in the financial services and insurance industry, approximately 21.4%, 24.0% and  25.6% of our revenues from clients in the energy, utilities and telecommunications services industry and approximately 22.9%, 20.5% and 20.6% of our revenues from clients in the retail, logistics, consumer product group, life sciences and health care industry, which industries are especially vulnerable to a slowdown in the U.S. economy. Any weakness in the United States economy or in the industry segments from which we generate revenues could have a negative effect on our business and results of operations.
 
Some of the industries in which our clients are concentrated, such as the financial services industry or the energy and utilities industry, are, or may be, increasingly subject to governmental regulation and intervention. For instance, clients in the financial services sector have been subject to increased regulation following the enactment of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act in the United States. Increased regulation, changes in existing regulation or increased governmental intervention in the industries in which our clients operate may adversely affect the growth of their respective businesses and therefore negatively impact our revenues. 
 
Currency fluctuations may affect the results or our operations or the value of our ADSs.
 
Our functional currency is the Indian rupee although we transact a major portion of our business in several currencies and accordingly face foreign currency exposure through our sales in the United States and elsewhere, and purchases from overseas suppliers in various foreign currencies. Generally, we generate the majority of our revenues in foreign currencies, such as the U.S. dollar or the United Kingdom Pound Sterling, and incur the majority of our expenses in Indian rupees. Recently, as a result of the increased volatility in foreign exchange currency markets, there has been increased demand from our clients that all risks associated with foreign exchange fluctuations be borne by us. Also, historically, we have held a substantial majority of our cash funds in Indian rupees. Accordingly, changes in exchange rates may have a material adverse effect on our revenues, other income, cost of services sold, gross margin and net income, and may have a negative impact on our business, operating results and financial condition. The exchange rate between the Indian rupee and foreign currencies, including the U.S. dollar, the United Kingdom Pound Sterling, the Euro and the Australian dollar, has changed substantially in recent years and may fluctuate substantially in the future, and this fluctuation in currencies had a material and adverse effect on our operating results in fiscal 2011 and fiscal 2010. We expect that a majority of our revenues will continue to be generated in foreign currencies, including the U.S. dollar, the United Kingdom Pound Sterling, the Euro and the Australian dollar, for the foreseeable future and that a significant portion of our expenses, including personnel costs, as well as capital and operating expenditures, will continue to be denominated in Indian rupees. Consequently, the results of our operations are adversely affected as the Indian rupee appreciates against the U.S. dollar and other foreign currencies.
 
We use derivative financial instruments such as foreign exchange forward and option contracts to mitigate the risk of changes in foreign exchange rates on accounts receivable and forecast cash flows denominated in certain foreign currencies. As of March 31, 2012, we had outstanding forward contracts of U.S.$729 million, Euro 51 million, United Kingdom Pound Sterling 35 million and Australian dollar 24 million and options of U.S.$50 million. We may not purchase derivative instruments adequate to insulate ourselves from foreign currency exchange risks. For instance, during fiscal 2009, we incurred significant losses as a result of exchange rate fluctuations that were not offset in full by our hedging strategy.
 
Additionally, our hedging activities have also contributed to increased losses in recent periods due to volatility in foreign currency markets. For example, in fiscal 2009, we incurred losses of $165 million in our forward and option contracts. These losses, partially offset by gains of $71 million as a result of foreign exchange translations during the same period, resulted in a total loss of $94 million related to foreign currency transactions, which had a significant and adverse effect on our profit margin and results of operations. If foreign currency markets continue to be volatile, such fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates could materially and adversely affect our profit margins and results of operations in future periods. Also, the volatility in the foreign currency markets may make it difficult to hedge our foreign currency exposures effectively.
 
Further, the policies of the Reserve Bank of India may change from time to time which may limit our ability to hedge our foreign currency exposures adequately. In addition, a high-level committee appointed by the Reserve Bank of India recommended that India move to increased capital account convertibility over the next few years and proposed a framework for such increased convertibility. Full or increased capital account convertibility, if introduced, could result in increased volatility in the fluctuations of exchange rates between the rupee and foreign currencies.
 
During fiscal 2012, we derived 28.3% of our revenues in currencies other than the U.S. dollar, including 6.8%, 7.7% and 7.6% of our revenues in United Kingdom Pound Sterling, Euro and Australian dollars, respectively. During fiscal 2012, the U.S. dollar depreciated against a majority of the currencies in which we transact business, depreciating by 3.2%, 4.5% and 11.7% against the United Kingdom Pound Sterling, Euro and Australian dollar, respectively.
 
Fluctuations in the exchange rate between the Indian rupee and the U.S. dollar will also affect the dollar conversion by Deutsche Bank Trust Company Americas, the Depositary with respect to our ADSs, of any cash dividends paid in Indian rupees on the equity shares represented by the ADSs. In addition, these fluctuations will affect the U.S. dollar equivalent of the Indian rupee price of equity shares on the Indian stock exchanges and, as a result, the prices of our ADSs in the United States, as well as the U.S. dollar value of the proceeds a holder would receive upon the sale in India of any equity shares withdrawn from the Depositary under the Depositary Agreement. Holders may not be able to convert Indian rupee proceeds into U.S. dollars or any other currency, and there is no guarantee of the rate at which any such conversion will occur, if at all.
 
Our success depends largely upon our highly skilled technology professionals and our ability to hire, attract, motivate, retain and train these personnel.
 
Our ability to execute projects, maintain our client relationships and obtain new clients depends largely on our ability to attract, train, motivate and retain highly skilled technology professionals, particularly project managers and other mid-level professionals. If we cannot hire, motivate and retain personnel or pay market competitive salaries to our professionals, our ability to bid for projects, obtain new projects and expand our business will be impaired and our revenues could decline.
 
We believe that there is significant worldwide competition for skilled technology professionals. Additionally, technology companies, particularly in India, have recently increased their hiring efforts. Increasing worldwide competition for skilled technology professionals and increased hiring by technology companies may affect our ability to hire an adequate number of skilled and experienced technology professionals and may have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
 
Increasing competition for technology professionals in India may also impact our ability to retain personnel. For example, our attrition rate for the twelve months ended March 31, 2012 was 14.7%, compared to our attrition rate for the twelve months ended March 31, 2011, which was 17.0%, without accounting for attrition in Infosys BPO or our other subsidiaries.
 
We may not be able to hire enough skilled and experienced technology professionals to replace employees who we are not able to retain. If we are unable to motivate and retain technology professionals, this could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
 
Changes in policies or laws may also affect the ability of technology companies to attract and retain personnel. For instance, the central government or state governments in India may introduce legislation requiring employers to give preferential hiring treatment to underrepresented groups. The quality of our work force is critical to our business. If any such central government or state government legislation becomes effective, our ability to hire the most highly qualified technology professionals may be hindered.
 
In addition, the demands of changes in technology, evolving standards and changing client preferences may require us to redeploy and retrain our technology professionals. If we are unable to redeploy and retrain our technology professionals to keep pace with continuing changes in technology, evolving standards and changing client preferences, this may adversely affect our ability to bid for and obtain new projects and may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
 
Any inability to manage our growth could disrupt our business and reduce our profitability.
 
We have grown significantly in recent periods. Between March 31, 2008 and March 31, 2012 our total employees grew from approximately 91,200 to approximately 150,000. We added approximately 19,174, 17,000 and 8,900 new employees, net of attrition, in fiscal 2012, fiscal 2011 and fiscal 2010, respectively. As of March 31, 2012, we had approximately 150,000 employees.
 
In addition, in the last five years we have undertaken and continue to undertake major expansions of our existing facilities, as well as the construction of new facilities. We expect our growth to place significant demands on our management team and other resources. Our growth will require us to continuously develop and improve our operational, financial and other internal controls, both in India and elsewhere. In addition, continued growth increases the challenges involved in:
  • recruiting, training and retaining sufficient skilled technical, marketing and management personnel;
  • adhering to and further improving our high quality and process execution standards;
  • preserving our culture, values and entrepreneurial environment;
  • successfully expanding the range of services offered to our clients;
  • developing and improving our internal administrative infrastructure, particularly our financial, operational, communications and other internal systems; and
  • maintaining high levels of client satisfaction.
Our growth strategy also relies on the expansion of our operations to other parts of the world, including Europe, Australia, Latin America and other parts of Asia. During fiscal 2004, we established Infosys China and also acquired Infosys Australia to expand our operations in those countries. In addition, we have embarked on an expansion of our business in China, and have expended significant resources in this expansion. During fiscal 2008, we established a wholly owned subsidiary and opened a development center in Mexico. Also, during fiscal 2008, as part of an outsourcing agreement with a client, Philips Electronics Nederland B.V. (Philips), our majority owned subsidiary, Infosys BPO, acquired from Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. certain shared services centers in India, Poland and Thailand that were engaged in the provision of finance, accounting and procurement support services to Philips' operations worldwide. During fiscal 2010, Infosys BPO aquired 100% of the voting interest in McCamish Systems LLC (McCamish), a business process solutions provider based in Atlanta, Georgia, in the United States. In fiscal 2010, we established a wholly-owned subsidiary, Infosys Technologia do Brasil, Ltda, in Brazil to provide information technology services in Latin America. Further, during fiscal 2010, we formed Infosys Public Services, Inc. to focus on governmental outsourcing and consulting in the United States. In fiscal 2011, we formed Infosys Technologies (Shanghai) Company Limited. In January 2012, Infosys BPO completed the acquisition of Portland Group Pty Ltd., a leading provider of strategic sourcing and category management services based in Australia.
 
The costs involved in entering and establishing ourselves in new markets, and expanding such operations, may be higher than expected and we may face significant competition in these regions. Our inability to manage our expansion and related growth in these markets or regions may have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
 
We may face difficulties in providing end-to-end business solutions for our clients, which could lead to clients discontinuing their work with us, which in turn could harm our business.
 
Over the past several years, we have been expanding the nature and scope of our engagements by extending the breadth of services that we offer. The success of some of our newer service offerings, such as operations and business process consulting, IT consulting, business process management, systems integration and infrastructure management, depends, in part, upon continued demand for such services by our existing and new clients and our ability to meet this demand in a cost-competitive and effective manner. In addition, our ability to effectively offer a wider breadth of end-to-end business solutions depends on our ability to attract existing or new clients to these service offerings. To obtain engagements for our end-to-end solutions, we are competing with large, well-established international consulting firms as well as other India-based technology services companies, resulting in increased competition and marketing costs. Accordingly, our new service offerings may not effectively meet client needs and we may be unable to attract existing and new clients to these service offerings.
 
The increased breadth of our service offerings may result in larger and more complex client projects. This will require us to establish closer relationships with our clients and potentially with other technology service providers and vendors, and require a more thorough understanding of our clients' operations. Our ability to establish these relationships will depend on a number of factors including the proficiency of our technology professionals and our management personnel.
 
Larger projects often involve multiple components, engagements or stages, and a client may choose not to retain us for additional stages or may cancel or delay additional planned engagements. These terminations, cancellations or delays may result from the business or financial condition of our clients or the economy generally, as opposed to factors related to the quality of our services. Cancellations or delays make it difficult to plan for project resource requirements, and resource planning inaccuracies may have a negative impact on our profitability.
 
Intense competition in the market for technology services could affect our cost advantages, which could reduce our share of business from clients and decrease our revenues.
 
The technology services market is highly competitive. Our competitors include large consulting firms, captive divisions of large multinational technology firms, infrastructure management services firms, Indian technology services firms, software companies and in-house IT departments of large corporations.
 
The technology services industry is experiencing rapid changes that are affecting the competitive landscape, including recent divestitures and acquisitions that have resulted in consolidation within the industry. These changes may result in larger competitors with significant resources. In addition, some of our competitors have added or announced plans to add cost-competitive offshore capabilities to their service offerings. These competitors may be able to offer their services using the offshore and onsite model more efficiently than we can. Many of these competitors are also substantially larger than us and have significant experience with international operations. We may face competition in countries where we currently operate, as well as in countries in which we expect to expand our operations. We also expect additional competition from technology services firms with current operations in other countries, such as China and the Philippines. Many of our competitors have significantly greater financial, technical and marketing resources, generate greater revenues, have more extensive existing client relationships and technology partners and have greater brand recognition than we do. We may be unable to compete successfully against these competitors, or may lose clients to these competitors. Additionally, we believe that our ability to compete also depends in part on factors outside our control, such as the price at which our competitors offer comparable services, and the extent of our competitors' responsiveness to their clients' needs.
 
Our revenues are highly dependent upon a small number of clients, and the loss of any one of our major clients could significantly impact our business.
 
We have historically earned, and believe that in the future we will continue to earn, a significant portion of our revenues from a limited number of clients. In fiscal 2012, fiscal 2011 and fiscal 2010, our largest client accounted for 4.3%, 4.7% and 4.6% of our total revenues, respectively, and our five largest clients together accounted for 15.5%, 15.4% and 16.4% of our total revenues respectively. The volume of work we perform for specific clients is likely to vary from year to year, particularly since we historically have not been the exclusive external technology services provider for our clients. Thus, a major client in one year may not provide the same level of revenues in a subsequent year. However, in any given year, a limited number of clients tend to contribute a significant portion of our revenues. There are a number of factors, other than our performance, that could cause the loss of a client and that may not be predictable. In certain cases, we have significantly reduced the services provided to a client when the client either changed its outsourcing strategy by moving more work in-house or replaced its existing software with packaged software supported by the licensor. Reduced technology spending in response to a challenging economic or competitive environment may also result in our loss of a client. If we lose one of our major clients or one of our major clients significantly reduces its volume of business with us or there is an increase in the accounts receivables from any of our major clients, our revenues and profitability could be reduced.
 
Legislation in certain countries in which we operate, including the United States and the United Kingdom, may restrict companies in those countries from outsourcing work to us, or may limit our ability to send our employees to certain client sites.
 
Recently, some countries and organizations have expressed concerns about a perceived association between offshore outsourcing and the loss of jobs. With the growth of offshore outsourcing receiving increased political and media attention, especially in the United States, which is our largest market, and particularly given the prevailing economic environment, it is possible that there could be a change in the existing laws or the enactment of new legislation restricting offshore outsourcing or imposing restrictions on the deployment of, and regulating the wages of, work visa holders at client locations, which may adversely impact our ability to do business in the jurisdictions in which we operate, especially with governmental entities. For instance, the Governor of the State of Ohio issued an executive order that prohibits governmental entities of the State of Ohio from expending public funds for services that are provided offshore. It is also possible that private sector companies working with these governmental entities may be restricted from outsourcing projects related to government contracts or may face disincentives if they outsource certain operations.
 
The recent credit crisis in the United States and elsewhere has also resulted in the United States federal government and governments in Europe acquiring or proposing to acquire equity positions in leading financial institutions and banks. If either the United States federal government or another governmental entity acquires an equity position in any of our clients, any resulting changes in management or reorganizations may result in deferrals or cancellations of projects or delays in purchase decisions, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations or financial condition. Moreover, equity investments by governmental entities in, or governmental financial aid to, our clients may involve restrictions on the ability of such clients to outsource offshore or otherwise restrict offshore IT vendors from utilizing the services of work visa holders at client locations. Any restriction on our ability to deploy our trained offshore resources at client locations may in turn require us to replace our existing offshore resources with local resources, or hire additional local resources, which local resources may only be available at higher wages. Any resulting increase in our compensation, hiring and training expenses could adversely impact our revenues and operating profitability.
 
In addition, the European Union (EU) member states have adopted the Acquired Rights Directive, while some European countries outside of the EU have enacted similar legislation. The Acquired Rights Directive and certain local laws in European countries that implement the Acquired Rights Directive, such as the Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of Employees) Regulations, or TUPE, in the United Kingdom, allow employees who are dismissed as a result of "service provision changes", which may include outsourcing to non-EU companies, to seek compensation either from the company from which they were dismissed or from the company to which the work was transferred. This could deter EU companies from outsourcing work to us and could also result in us being held liable for redundancy payments to such workers. Any such event could adversely affect our revenues and operating profitability.
 
Restrictions on immigration may affect our ability to compete for and provide services to clients in the United States, Europe and other jurisdictions, which could hamper our growth or cause our revenues to decline.
 
The vast majority of our employees are Indian nationals. Most of our projects require a portion of the work to be completed at the client's location. The ability of our technology professionals to work in the United States, Europe and in other countries depends on the ability to obtain the necessary visas and work permits.
 
As of March 31, 2012, the majority of our technology professionals in the United States held either H-1B visas (approximately 10,115 persons, not including Infosys BPO employees or employees of our wholly owned subsidiaries), which allow the employee to remain in the United States for up to six years during the term of the work permit and work as long as he or she remains an employee of the sponsoring firm, or L-1 visas (approximately 1,988 persons, not including Infosys BPO employees or employees of our wholly owned subsidiaries), which allow the employee to stay in the United States only temporarily.
 
Although there is no limit to new L-1 visas, there is a limit to the aggregate number of new H-1B visas that the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, or CIS, may approve in any government fiscal year which is 85,000 annually. 20,000 of these visas are only available to skilled workers who possess a Master's or higher degree from institutions of higher education in the United States. Further, in response to the terrorist attacks in the United States, the CIS has increased its level of scrutiny in granting new visas. This may, in the future, also lead to limits on the number of L-1 visas granted. In addition, the granting of L-1 visas precludes companies from obtaining such visas for employees with specialized knowledge: (1) if such employees will be stationed primarily at the worksite of another company in the U.S. and the employee will not be controlled and supervised by his or her employer, or (2) if such offsite placement is essentially an arrangement to provide labor for hire rather than in connection with the employee's specialized knowledge. Immigration laws in the United States may also require us to meet certain levels of compensation, and to comply with other legal requirements, including labor certifications, as a condition to obtaining or maintaining work visas for our technology professionals working in the United States.
 
Immigration laws in the United States and in other countries are subject to legislative change, as well as to variations in standards of application and enforcement due to political forces and economic conditions. For instance, the United States government is considering the enactment of an Immigration Reform Bill, and the United Kingdom government has recently introduced an interim limit on the number of visas that may be granted. Further, effective August 14, 2010, the CIS had announced a fee increase of $2,000 for certain H-1B visa petitions and $2,250 for certain L-1 visa petitions. It is difficult to predict the political and economic events that could affect immigration laws, or the restrictive impact they could have on obtaining or monitoring work visas for our technology professionals. Our reliance on work visas for a significant number of technology professionals makes us particularly vulnerable to such changes and variations as it affects our ability to staff projects with technology professionals who are not citizens of the country where the work is to be performed. We have recently observed that there has been an increase in the number of rejections of visa applications as well as requests for evidence on visas from Indian companies. This may affect our ability to get timely visas and accordingly staff projects. As a result, we may not be able to obtain a sufficient number of visas for our technology professionals or may encounter delays or additional costs in obtaining or maintaining the conditions of such visas. Additionally, we may have to apply in advance for visas and this could result in additional expenses during certain quarters of the fiscal year.
 
On May 23, 2011, we received a subpoena from a grand jury in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Texas. The subpoena requires that we provide to the grand jury certain documents and records related to our sponsorships for, and uses of, B1 business visas. We are complying with the subpoena. In connection with the subpoena, during a recent meeting with the United States Attorney’s Office for the Eastern District of Texas, we were advised that we and certain of our employees are targets of the investigation. We intend to have further discussions with the U.S. Attorney’s Office regarding this matter, however, we cannot predict the final outcome of the investigation by, or discussions with, the U.S. Attorney’s Office.
 
In addition, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS or the Department) is undertaking a review of our employer eligibility verifications on Form I-9 with respect to our employees working in the United States. In connection with this review, we have been advised that the DHS has found errors in a significant percentage of our Forms I-9 that the Department has reviewed. In the event that the DHS ultimately concludes that our Forms I-9 contained errors, the Department would likely impose fines and penalties on us. At this time, we cannot predict the final outcome of the review by, or the discussions with, the DHS or other governmental authority regarding the review of our Forms I-9.
 
In light of the fact that, among other things, the foregoing investigation and review are ongoing and we remain in discussions with the U.S. Attorney’s Office regarding these matters, we are unable to make an estimate of the amount or range of loss that we could incur from unfavorable outcomes in such matters.
 
In the event that any government undertakes any actions which limit any visa program that we utilize, or imposes sanctions, fines or penalties on us or our employees, this could materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations. This could potentially increase the rejection rates of our visa applications which could have potential impact our onsite staffing.
 
Our success depends in large part upon our management team and key personnel and our ability to attract and retain them.
 
We are highly dependent on the senior members of our Board of Directors (Board) and the management team, including the continued efforts of our Co- Chairman, our Chief Executive Officer, our Chief Financial Officer, other executive members of the Board and members of our executive council which consists of certain executive and other officers. Our future performance will be affected by any disruptions in the continued service of our directors, executives and other officers. For instance, significant changes to our Board and senior management became effective in August 2011, including the appointment of a new Chief Executive Officer and a new Chairman of our Board. In the past year, we have also internally reorganized our business units, which could have potential operational risks, including attrition of some key senior management personnel. We cannot assure you that the departure of directors and the transition of management personnel will not cause disruption to our operations or customer relationships, or materially impact our results of operations.
 
Competition for senior management in our industry is intense, and we may not be able to retain senior management personnel or attract and retain new senior management personnel in the future. Furthermore, we do not maintain key man life insurance for any of the senior members of our management team or other key personnel. The loss of any member of our senior management or other key personnel may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
 
Our failure to complete fixed-price, fixed-timeframe contracts or transaction-based pricing contracts within budget and on time may negatively affect our profitability.
 
As an element of our business strategy, in response to client requirements and pressures on IT budgets, we are offering an increasing portion of our services on a fixed-price, fixed-timeframe basis, rather than on a time-and-materials basis. In fiscal 2012, fiscal 2011 and fiscal 2010, revenues from fixed-price, fixed-timeframe projects accounted for 39.3%, 40.3% and 38.5% of our total services revenues, respectively, including revenues from our business process management services. In addition, pressure on the IT budgets of our clients has led us to deviate from our standard pricing policies and to offer varied pricing models to our clients in certain situations in order to remain competitive. For example, we have recently begun entering into transaction-based pricing contracts with certain clients who were not previously offered such terms in order to give our clients the flexibility to pay as they use our services.
 
The risk of entering into fixed-price, fixed-timeframe arrangements and transaction-based pricing arrangements is that if we fail to properly estimate the appropriate pricing for a project, we may incur lower profits or losses as a result of being unable to execute projects on the timeframe and with the amount of labor we expected. Although we use our software engineering methodologies and processes and past project experience to reduce the risks associated with estimating, planning and performing fixed-price, fixed-timeframe projects and transaction-based pricing projects, we bear the risk of cost overruns, completion delays and wage inflation in connection with these projects. If we fail to estimate accurately the resources and time required for a project, future wage inflation rates, or currency exchange rates, or if we fail to complete our contractual obligations within the contracted timeframe, our profitability may suffer. We expect that we will continue to enter into fixed-price, fixed-timeframe and transaction-based pricing engagements in the future, and such engagements may increase in relation to the revenues generated from engagements on a time-and-materials basis, which would increase the risks to our business.
 
Our client contracts can typically be terminated without cause and with little or no notice or penalty, which could negatively impact our revenues and profitability.
 
Our clients typically retain us on a non-exclusive, project-by-project basis. Most of our client contracts, including those that are on a fixed-price, fixed-timeframe basis, can be terminated with or without cause, with between zero and 90 days notice and without any termination-related penalties. Our business is dependent on the decisions and actions of our clients, and there are a number of factors relating to our clients that are outside of our control which might lead to termination of a project or the loss of a client, including:
  • financial difficulties for a client;
  • a change in strategic priorities, resulting in a reduced level of technology spending;
  • a demand for price reductions;
  • a change in outsourcing strategy by moving more work to the client's in-house technology departments or to our competitors;
  • the replacement by our clients of existing software with packaged software supported by licensors;
  • mergers and acquisitions;
  • consolidation of technology spending by a client, whether arising out of mergers and acquisitions, or otherwise; and
  • sudden ramp-downs in projects due to an uncertain economic environment.
Our inability to control the termination of client contracts could have a negative impact on our financial condition and results of operations.
 
Our engagements with customers are singular in nature and do not necessarily provide for subsequent engagements.
 
Our clients generally retain us on a short-term, engagement-by-engagement basis in connection with specific projects, rather than on a recurring basis under long-term contracts. Although a substantial majority of our revenues are generated from repeat business, which we define as revenue from a client who also contributed to our revenue during the prior fiscal year, our engagements with our clients are typically for projects that are singular in nature. Therefore, we must seek out new engagements when our current engagements are successfully completed or are terminated, and we are constantly seeking to expand our business with existing clients and secure new clients for our services. In addition, in order to continue expanding our business, we may need to significantly expand our sales and marketing group, which would increase our expenses and may not necessarily result in a substantial increase in business. If we are unable to generate a substantial number of new engagements for projects on a continual basis, our business and results of operations would likely be adversely affected.
 
Our client contracts are often conditioned upon our performance, which, if unsatisfactory, could result in less revenue than previously anticipated.
 
A number of our contracts have incentive-based or other pricing terms that condition some or all of our fees on our ability to meet defined performance goals or service levels. Our failure to meet these goals or a client's expectations in such performance-based contracts may result in a less profitable or an unprofitable engagement.
 
Some of our long-term client contracts contain benchmarking provisions which, if triggered, could result in lower future revenues and profitability under the contract.
 
As the size and duration of our client engagements increase, clients may increasingly require benchmarking provisions. Benchmarking provisions allow a customer in certain circumstances to request a benchmark study prepared by an agreed upon third-party comparing our pricing, performance and efficiency gains for delivered contract services to that of an agreed upon list of other service providers for comparable services. Based on the results of the benchmark study and depending on the reasons for any unfavorable variance, we may be required to reduce the pricing for future services performed under the balance of the contract, which could have an adverse impact on our revenues and profitability. Benchmarking provisions in our client engagements may have a greater impact on our results of operations during an economic slowdown, because pricing pressure and the resulting decline in rates may lead to a reduction in fees that we charge to clients that have benchmarking provisions in their engagements with us.
 
Our increasing work with governmental agencies may expose us to additional risks.
 
Currently, the vast majority of our clients are privately or publicly owned. However, we are increasingly bidding for work with governments and governmental agencies, both within and outside the United States. Projects involving governments or governmental agencies carry various risks inherent in the government contracting process, including the following:
  • Such projects may be subject to a higher risk of reduction in scope or termination than other contracts due to political and economic factors such as changes in government, pending elections or the reduction in, or absence of, adequate funding;
  • Terms and conditions of government contracts tend to be more onerous than other contracts and may include, among other things, extensive rights of audit, more punitive service level penalties and other restrictive covenants. Also, the terms of such contracts are often subject to change due to political and economic factors;
  • Government contracts are often subject to more extensive scrutiny and publicity than other contracts. Any negative publicity related to such contracts, regardless of the accuracy of such publicity, may adversely affect our business or reputation;
  • Participation in government contracts could subject us to stricter regulatory requirements, which may increase our cost of compliance; and
  • Such projects may involve multiple parties in the delivery of services and require greater project management efforts on our part, and any failure in this regard may adversely impact our performance.
In addition, we operate in jurisdictions in which local business practices may be inconsistent with international regulatory requirements, including anti-corruption and anti-bribery regulations prescribed under the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA), and the Bribery Act 2010 (U.K.), which, among other things, prohibits giving or offering to give anything of value with the intent to influence the awarding of government contracts. Although we believe that we have adequate policies and enforcement mechanisms to ensure legal and regulatory compliance with the FCPA, the Bribery Act 2010 and other similar regulations, it is possible that some of our employees, subcontractors, agents or partners may violate any such legal and regulatory requirements, which may expose us to criminal or civil enforcement actions, including penalties and suspension or disqualification from U.S. federal procurement contracting. If we fail to comply with legal and regulatory requirements, our business and reputation may be harmed.
 
Any of the above factors could have a material and adverse effect on our business or our results of operations.
 
Our business will suffer if we fail to anticipate and develop new services and enhance existing services in order to keep pace with rapid changes in technology and in the industries on which we focus.
 
The technology services market is characterized by rapid technological change, evolving industry standards, changing client preferences and new product and service introductions. Our future success will depend on our ability to anticipate these advances and develop new product and service offerings to meet client needs. We may fail to anticipate or respond to these advances in a timely basis, or, if we do respond, the services or technologies that we develop may not be successful in the marketplace. The development of some of the services and technologies may involve significant upfront investments and the failure of these services and technologies may result in our being unable to recover these investments, in part or in full. Further, products, services or technologies that are developed by our competitors may render our services non-competitive or obsolete.
 
We have recently introduced, and propose to introduce, several new solutions involving complex delivery models combined with innovative, and often transaction based, pricing models. Some of our solutions, including the Software as a Service, or SaaS, solution, are often based on a transaction-based pricing model even though these solutions require us to incur significant upfront costs. The advent of new technologies like cloud computing, and new initiatives such as enterprise mobility and environment sustainability and the pace of adoption of new technologies and initiatives by clients could have potential impact on our growth. The complexity of these solutions, our inexperience in developing or implementing them and significant competition in the markets for these solutions may affect our ability to market these solutions successfully. Further, customers may not adopt these solutions widely and we may be unable to recover any investments made in these solutions. Even if these solutions are successful in the market, the dependence of these solutions on third party hardware and software and on our ability to meet stringent service levels in providing maintenance or support services may result in our being unable to deploy these solutions successfully or profitably. Further, where we offer a transaction-based pricing model in connection with an engagement, we may also be unable to recover any upfront costs incurred in solutions deployed by us in full.
 
Compliance with new and changing corporate governance and public disclosure requirements adds uncertainty to our compliance policies and increases our costs of compliance.
 
Changing laws, regulations and standards relating to accounting, corporate governance and public disclosure, including the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, new SEC regulations, NASDAQ Global Select Market rules, Securities and Exchange Board of India or SEBI rules and Indian stock market listing regulations are creating uncertainty for companies like ours. These new or changed laws, regulations and standards may lack specificity and are subject to varying interpretations. Their application in practice may evolve over time as new guidance is provided by regulatory and governing bodies. This could result in continuing uncertainty regarding compliance matters and higher costs of compliance as a result of ongoing revisions to such governance standards.
 
In particular, continuing compliance with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the related regulations regarding our required assessment of our internal control over financial reporting requires the commitment of significant financial and managerial resources and external auditor's independent assessment of the internal control over financial reporting.
 
In connection with this Annual Report on Form 20-F for fiscal 2012, our management assessed our internal controls over financial reporting, and determined that our internal controls were effective as of March 31, 2012, and our independent auditors have expressed an unqualified opinion over the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of the end of such period. However, we will undertake management assessments of our internal control over financial reporting in connection with each annual report, and any deficiencies uncovered by these assessments or any inability of our auditors to issue an unqualified opinion could harm our reputation and the price of our equity shares and ADSs.
 
Further, since 2009 and continuing into 2012, there has been an increased focus on corporate governance by the U.S. Congress and by the SEC in response to the recent credit and financial crisis in the United States. As a result of this increased focus, additional corporate governance standards have been promulgated with respect to companies whose securities are listed in the United States, including by way of the enactment of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, and more governance standards are expected to be imposed on companies whose securities are listed in the United States in the future.
 
It is also possible that laws in India may be made more stringent with respect to standards of accounting, auditing, public disclosure and corporate governance. We are committed to maintaining high standards of corporate governance and public disclosure, and our efforts to comply with evolving laws, regulations and standards in this regard have resulted in, and are likely to continue to result in, increased general and administrative expenses and a diversion of management time and attention from revenue-generating activities to compliance activities.
 
In addition, it may become more expensive or more difficult for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance. Further, our Board members, Chief Executive Officer, and Chief Financial Officer could face an increased risk of personal liability in connection with their performance of duties and our SEC reporting obligations. As a result, we may face difficulties attracting and retaining qualified Board members and executive officers, which could harm our business. If we fail to comply with new or changed laws or regulations, our business and reputation may be harmed.
 
Disruptions in telecommunications, system failures, or virus attacks could harm our ability to execute our Global Delivery Model, which could result in client dissatisfaction and a reduction of our revenues.
 
A significant element of our distributed project management methodology, which we refer to as our Global Delivery Model, is to continue to leverage and expand our global development centers. We currently have 74 global development centers located in various countries around the world. Our global development centers are linked with a telecommunications network architecture that uses multiple service providers and various satellite and optical links with alternate routing. We may not be able to maintain active voice and data communications between our various global development centers and our clients' sites at all times due to disruptions in these networks, system failures or virus attacks. Any significant failure in our ability to communicate could result in a disruption in business, which could hinder our performance or our ability to complete client projects on time. This, in turn, could lead to client dissatisfaction and a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
 
We may be liable to our clients for damages caused by disclosure of confidential information, system failures, errors or unsatisfactory performance of services.
 
We are often required to collect and store sensitive or confidential client and customer data. Many of our client agreements do not limit our potential liability for breaches of confidentiality. If any person, including any of our employees, penetrates our network security or misappropriates sensitive data, we could be subject to significant liability from our clients or from our clients' customers for breaching contractual confidentiality provisions or privacy laws. Unauthorized disclosure of sensitive or confidential client and customer data, whether through breach of our computer systems, systems failure or otherwise, could damage our reputation and cause us to lose clients.
 
Many of our contracts involve projects that are critical to the operations of our clients' businesses, and provide benefits which may be difficult to quantify. Any failure in a client's system or breaches of security could result in a claim for substantial damages against us, regardless of our responsibility for such failure. Furthermore, any errors by our employees in the performance of services for a client, or poor execution of such services, could result in a client terminating our engagement and seeking damages from us.
 
Although we generally attempt to limit our contractual liability for consequential damages in rendering our services, these limitations on liability may be unenforceable in some cases, or may be insufficient to protect us from liability for damages. We maintain general liability insurance coverage, including coverage for errors or omissions, however, this coverage may not continue to be available on reasonable terms and may be unavailable in sufficient amounts to cover one or more large claims. Also an insurer might disclaim coverage as to any future claim. A successful assertion of one or more large claims against us that exceeds our available insurance coverage or changes in our insurance policies, including premium increases or the imposition of a large deductible or co-insurance requirement, could adversely affect our operating results.
 
Recently, many of our clients have been seeking more favorable terms from us in our contracts, particularly in connection with clauses related to the limitation of our liability for damages resulting from unsatisfactory performance of services. The inclusion of such terms in our client contracts, particularly where they relate to our attempt to limit our contractual liability for damages, may increase our exposure to liability in the case of our failure to perform services in a manner required under the relevant contracts. Further, any damages resulting from such failure, particularly where we are unable to recover such damages in full from our insurers, may adversely impact our business, revenues and operating margins. 
 
We are investing substantial cash assets in new facilities and physical infrastructure, and our profitability could be reduced if our business does not grow proportionately.
 
As of March 31, 2012, we had contractual commitments of approximately $205 million for capital expenditures, particularly related to the expansion or construction of facilities. We may encounter cost overruns or project delays in connection with new facilities. These expansions will increase our fixed costs. If we are unable to grow our business and revenues proportionately, our profitability will be reduced.
 
We may be unable to recoup our investment costs to develop our software products.
 
In fiscal 2012, fiscal 2011 and fiscal 2010, we earned 4.6%, 4.9% and 4.2% of our total revenue from the licensing of software products, respectively. The development of our software products requires significant investments. The markets for our primary suite of software products which we call FinacleTM are competitive. Our current software products or any new software products that we develop may not be commercially successful and the costs of developing such new software products may not be recouped. Since software product revenues typically occur in periods subsequent to the periods in which the costs are incurred for the development of such software products, delayed revenues may cause periodic fluctuations in our operating results.
 
We may engage in acquisitions, strategic investments, strategic partnerships or alliances or other ventures that may or may not be successful.
 
We may acquire or make strategic investments in complementary businesses, technologies, services or products, or enter into strategic partnerships or alliances with third parties in order to enhance our business. For example, during fiscal 2008, as part of an outsourcing agreement with Philips, our majority-owned subsidiary, Infosys BPO, acquired from Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. certain shared services centers in India, Poland and Thailand that were engaged in the provision of finance, accounting and procurement support services to Philips' operations worldwide. Further, during fiscal 2010, Infosys BPO completed the acquisition of McCamish Systems LLC. In January 2012, Infosys BPO completed the acquisition of Portland Group Pty Ltd., a leading provider of strategic sourcing and category management services based in Australia.
 
It is possible that we may not identify suitable acquisitions, candidates for strategic investment or strategic partnerships, or if we do identify suitable targets, we may not complete those transactions on terms commercially acceptable to us, or at all. Our inability to identify suitable acquisition targets or investments or our inability to complete such transactions may affect our competitiveness and growth prospects.
 
Even if we are able to identify an acquisition that we would like to consummate, we may not be able to complete the acquisition on commercially reasonable terms or because the target is acquired by another company. Furthermore, in the event that we are able to identify and consummate any future acquisitions, we could:
  • issue equity securities which would dilute current shareholders' percentage ownership;
  • incur substantial debt;
  • incur significant acquisition-related expenses;
  • assume contingent liabilities; or
  • expend significant cash.
These financing activities or expenditures could harm our business, operating results and financial condition or the price of our common stock. Alternatively, due to difficulties in the capital and credit markets, we may be unable to secure capital on acceptable terms, if at all, to complete acquisitions.
 
Moreover, even if we do obtain benefits from acquisitions in the form of increased sales and earnings, there may be a delay between the time when the expenses associated with an acquisition are incurred and the time when we recognize such benefits.
 
Further, if we acquire a company, we could have difficulty in assimilating that company's personnel, operations, technology and software. In addition, the key personnel of the acquired company may decide not to work for us. These difficulties could disrupt our ongoing business, distract our management and employees and increase our expenses.
 
We have made and may in the future make strategic investments in early-stage technology start-up companies in order to gain experience in or exploit niche technologies. However, our investments may not be successful. The lack of profitability of any of our investments could have a material adverse effect on our operating results.
 
We may be the subject of litigation which, if adversely determined, could harm our business and operating results.
 
We are, and may in the future be, subject to legal claims arising in the normal course of business. An unfavorable outcome on any litigation matter could require that we pay substantial damages, or, in connection with any intellectual property infringement claims, could require that we pay ongoing royalty payments or could prevent us from selling certain of our products. In addition, we may decide to settle any litigation, which could cause us to incur significant costs. A settlement or an unfavorable outcome on any litigation matter could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, financial position or cash flows.
 
The markets in which we operate are subject to the risk of earthquakes, floods, tsunamis and other natural and manmade disasters.
 
Some of the regions that we operate in are prone to earthquakes, floods, tsunamis and other natural and manmade disasters. In the event that any of our business centers are affected by any such disasters, we may sustain damage to our operations and properties, suffer significant financial losses and be unable to complete our client engagements in a timely manner, if at all. Further, in the event of a natural disaster, we may also incur costs in redeploying personnel and property. For instance, as a result of the natural disasters in Japan in March 2011, and the resulting fallout of nuclear radiation from damaged nuclear power plants, we were required to temporarily relocate some of the employees from our offices in Japan to India. In addition if there is a major earthquake, flood or other natural disaster in any of the locations in which our significant customers are located, we face the risk that our customers may incur losses, or sustained business interruption, which may materially impair their ability to continue their purchase of products or services from us. A major earthquake, flood or other natural disaster in the markets in which we operate could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
 
Risks Related to Investments in Indian Companies and International Operations Generally
 
Our net income would decrease if the Government of India reduces or withdraws tax benefits and other incentives it provides to us or when our tax holidays expire or terminate.
 
We have benefited from certain tax incentives the Government of India had provided to the export of software from specially designated software technology parks, or STPs, in India and we continue to benefit from certain tax incentives for facilities set up under the Special Economic Zones Act, 2005.
 
As per the original provisions of the Indian Income Tax Act, the STP tax holiday was available for ten consecutive years beginning from the financial year when the unit started producing computer software or April 1, 1999, whichever is earlier. The Indian Government, through the Finance Act, 2009, had extended the tax holiday for STP units until March 31, 2011. During the fiscal 2011, one of our STP units was under tax holiday. Since the Finance Act, 2011 has not extended the tax holiday for STP units beyond March 31, 2011, the tax benefits for the unit have expired. All of our STP units are now taxable.
 
In the Finance Act, 2005, the Government of India introduced a separate tax holiday scheme for units set up under designated special economic zones, or SEZs, engaged in manufacture of articles or in provision of services. Under this scheme, units in designated SEZs which begin providing services on or after April 1, 2005, will be eligible for a deduction of 100 percent of profits or gains derived from the export of software or services for the first five years from commencement of provision of software or services and 50 percent of such profits or gains for a further five years. Certain tax benefits are also available for a further five years subject to the unit meeting defined conditions.
 
As a result of these tax incentives, a portion of our pre-tax income has not been subject to tax in recent years.
 
These tax incentives resulted in a decrease of $202 million, $173 million and $223 million in our income tax expense for fiscal 2012, fiscal 2011 and fiscal 2010 respectively, compared to the effective tax amounts that we estimate we would have been required to pay if these incentives had not been available. The per share effect of these tax incentives for the fiscal 2012, fiscal 2011 and fiscal 2010 is $0.35, $0.30 and $0.39, respectively.
 
In August 2010, the Direct Taxes Code Bill, 2010 was introduced in the Indian Parliament. The Direct Taxes Code Bill, if enacted, is intended to replace the Indian Income Tax Act. The Direct Taxes Code Bill proposes that while profit-linked tax benefits for existing units in SEZs will continue for the unexpired portions of the applicable tax holiday period, such tax benefits will not be available to new units in SEZs that were notified after March 31, 2012 and will become operational after March 31, 2014.
 
Further, the Finance Act, 2007, had included income eligible for deductions under Section 10A of the Indian Income Tax Act in the computation of book profits for the levy of a Minimum Alternative Tax, or MAT. Effective April 1, 2011, the Finance Act, 2011 extended MAT to SEZ operating as well as SEZ developer units. Income in respect of which a deduction may be claimed under section 10AA or section 80IAB of the Indian Income Tax Act therefore has to be included in book profits for computing MAT liability. The Finance Act, 2011 increased the effective rate of MAT for domestic companies from 19.93% to 20.01% (inclusive of a surcharge and education cess) of book profits. With our growth of business in SEZ units, we may have to compute our tax liability under MAT in future years.
 
The Income Tax Act provides that the MAT paid by us can be adjusted against our regular tax liability over the next ten years. Although MAT paid by us can be set off against our future tax liability, due to the introduction of MAT, our net income and cash flows for intervening periods could be adversely affected.
 
The Direct Taxes Code Bill also proposes the rate of MAT to be 20% (including surcharges) on the book profits of domestic companies, and the amounts paid towards MAT are expected to be adjusted against regular tax liability over a fifteen year period.
 
The expiration, modification or termination of any of our tax benefits or holidays, including on account of non-availability of the SEZ tax holiday scheme pursuant to the enactment of the Direct Taxes Code Bill, would likely increase our effective tax rates significantly. Any increase in our effective tax liability in India could have a material and adverse effect on our net income.
 
In the event that the Government of India or the government of another country changes its tax policies in a manner that is adverse to us, our tax expense may materially increase, reducing our profitability.
 
In the Finance Bill, 2012, the Government of India has proposed to levy service tax based on a negative list of services. Consequently, all services are likely to become taxable, except notified exempted services. Further, the rate of service tax has been proposed to be increased from 10% to 12%. This would increase the cost of input services. Although currently there are no material pending or threatened claims against us for service taxes, such claims may be asserted against us in the future. Defending these claims would be expensive, time consuming and may divert our management's attention and resources from operating our Company.
 
The Finance Bill 2012 has also proposed the General Anti-Avoidance Rule (GAAR), wherein the tax authority may declare an arrangement as an impermissable avoidance arrangement if an arrangement is not entered at arm's length, results in misuse/abuse of provisions of the Income Tax Act, 1961, lacks commercial substance or the purpose of arrangement is for obtaining a tax benefit. The authority has yet to issue the guidelines and conditions relating to implementation of GAAR. The Finance Bill 2012 also amended certain of the tax provisions retrospectively.
 
We operate in jurisdictions that impose transfer pricing and other tax-related regulations on us, and any failure to comply could materially and adversely affect our profitability.
 
We are required to comply with various transfer pricing regulations in India and other countries. Failure to comply with such regulations may impact our effective tax rates and consequently affect our net margins. Additionally, we operate in several countries and our failure to comply with the local and municipal tax regime may result in additional taxes, penalties and enforcement actions from such authorities. In the event that we do not properly comply with transfer pricing and tax-related regulations, our profitability may be adversely affected.
 
Wage pressures in India and the hiring of employees outside India may prevent us from sustaining our competitive advantage and may reduce our profit margins.
 
Wage costs in India have historically been significantly lower than wage costs in the United States and Europe for comparably skilled professionals, which has been one of our competitive strengths. Although, currently, a vast majority of our workforce consists of Indian nationals, we expect to increase hiring in other jurisdictions, including the United States and Europe. Any such recruitment of foreign nationals is likely to be at wages higher than those prevailing in India and may increase our operating costs and adversely impact our profitability.
 
Further, in certain jurisdictions in which we operate, legislation has been adopted that requires our non-resident alien employees working in such jurisdictions to earn the same wages as similarly situated residents or citizens of such jurisdiction. In jurisdictions where this is required, the compensation expenses for our non-resident alien employees would adversely impact our results of operations. For example, recently, the minimum wages for certain work permit holders in the United Kingdom have been increased, thereby increasing the cost of conducting business in that jurisdiction.
 
Additionally, wage increases in India may prevent us from sustaining this competitive advantage and may negatively affect our profit margins. We have historically experienced significant competition for employees from large multinational companies that have established and continue to establish offshore operations in India, as well as from companies within India. This competition has led to wage pressures in attracting and retaining employees, and these wage pressures have led to a situation where wages in India are increasing at a faster rate than in the United States, which could result in increased costs for companies seeking to employ technology professionals in India, particularly project managers and other mid-level professionals. We may need to increase our employee compensation more rapidly than in the past to remain competitive with other employers, or seek to recruit in other low labor cost jurisdictions to keep our wage costs low. For example, we established a long term retention bonus policy for our senior executives and employees. Under this policy, certain senior executives and employees will be entitled to a yearly cash bonus upon their continued employment with us based upon seniority, their role in the company and their performance. Typically, we undertake an annual compensation review, and, pursuant to such review, the average salaries of our employees have increased significantly. Any compensation increases in the future may result in a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. In certain years, we may not give wage increases due to adverse market conditions for our business while our competitors may still give wage increases. This may result in higher attrition rates and may impact our ability to hire the best talent.
 
Terrorist attacks or a war could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
 
Terrorist attacks, such as the attacks of September 11, 2001 in the United States, the attacks of July 25, 2008 in Bangalore, the attacks of November 26 to 29, 2008 and July 13, 2011 in Mumbai and other acts of violence or war, such as the continuing conflict in Afghanistan, have the potential to have a direct impact on our clients or on us. To the extent that such attacks affect or involve the United States or Europe, our business may be significantly impacted, as the majority of our revenues are derived from clients located in the United States and Europe. In addition, such attacks may destabilize the economic and political situation in India, may make travel more difficult, may make it more difficult to obtain work visas for many of our technology professionals who are required to work in the United States or Europe, and may effectively reduce our ability to deliver our services to our clients. Such obstacles to business may increase our expenses and negatively affect the results of our operations. Furthermore, any attacks in India could cause a disruption in the delivery of our services to our clients, and could have a negative impact on our business, personnel, assets and results of operations, and could cause our clients or potential clients to choose other vendors for the services we provide. Terrorist threats, attacks or war could make travel more difficult, may disrupt our ability to provide services to our clients and could delay, postpone or cancel our clients' decisions to use our services.
 
Regional conflicts in South Asia could adversely affect the Indian economy, disrupt our operations and cause our business to suffer.
 
South Asia has, from time to time, experienced instances of civil unrest and hostilities among neighboring countries, including between India and Pakistan. In recent years there have been military confrontations between India and Pakistan that have occurred in the region of Kashmir and along the India-Pakistan border. Further, in recent months, Pakistan has been experiencing significant instability and this has heightened the risks of conflict in South Asia. Military activity or terrorist attacks in the future could influence the Indian economy by disrupting communications and making travel more difficult and such political tensions could create a greater perception that investments in Indian companies involve higher degrees of risk. This, in turn, could have a material adverse effect on the market for securities of Indian companies, including our equity shares and our ADSs, and on the market for our services.
 
Changes in the policies of the Government of India or political instability could delay the further liberalization of the Indian economy and adversely affect economic conditions in India generally, which could impact our business and prospects.
 
Since 1991, successive Indian governments have pursued policies of economic liberalization, including significantly relaxing restrictions on the private sector. Nevertheless, the role of the Central and State governments in the Indian economy as producers, consumers and regulators has remained significant. The current Government of India, formed in May 2009, has announced policies and taken initiatives that support the continued economic liberalization policies pursued by previous governments. However, these liberalization policies may not continue in the future. The rate of economic liberalization could change, and specific laws and policies affecting technology companies, foreign investment, currency exchange and other matters affecting investment in our securities could change as well. A significant change in India's economic liberalization and deregulation policies could adversely affect business and economic conditions in India generally, and our business in particular.
 
The Indian Government has also announced its intent to make further changes in the policies applicable to Special Economic Zones, or SEZs. Some of our software development centers located at Chandigarh, Chennai, Hyderabad, Mangalore, Mysore, Pune, Trivandrum and Jaipur currently operate in SEZs and many of our proposed development centers are likely to operate in SEZs. If the Government of India changes its policies affecting SEZs in a manner that adversely impact the incentives for establishing and operating facilities in SEZs, our business, results of operations and financial condition may be adversely affected.
 
Political instability could also delay the reform of the Indian economy and could have a material adverse effect on the market for securities of Indian companies, including our equity shares and our ADSs, and on the market for our services.
 
Our international expansion plans subject us to risks inherent in doing business internationally.
 
Currently, we have global development centers in 16 countries around the world, with our largest development centers located in India. We have recently established or intend to establish new development facilities. During fiscal 2004, we established Infosys China and also acquired Infosys Australia to expand our operations in those countries. In fiscal 2005, we formed Infosys Consulting to focus on consulting services in the United States. In fiscal 2008, we established a wholly-owned subsidiary, Infosys Technologies S.de.R.L.de.C.V. (Infosys Mexico), in Monterrey, Mexico, to provide business consulting and information technology services for clients in North America, Latin America and Europe. Also, during fiscal 2008, as part of an outsourcing agreement with Philips, our majority-owned subsidiary, Infosys BPO, acquired from Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. certain shared services centers in India, Poland and Thailand that are engaged in the provision of finance, accounting and procurement support services to Philips' operations worldwide. During fiscal 2010, Infosys BPO aquired 100% of the voting interest in McCamish Systems LLC (McCamish), a business process solutions provider based in Atlanta, Georgia, in the United States. In fiscal 2010, we established a wholly-owned subsidiary, Infosys Tecnologia do Brasil Ltda in Brazil to provide information technology services in Latin America. Further, during fiscal 2010, we formed Infosys Public Services, Inc. to focus on governmental outsourcing and consulting in the United States and in fiscal 2011, we formed Infosys Technologies (Shanghai) Company Limited to further expand our operations in China. In January 2012, Infosys BPO completed the acquisition of Portland Group Pty Ltd., a leading provider of strategic sourcing and category management services based in Australia.
 
We also have a very large workforce spread across our various offices worldwide. As of March 31, 2012, we employed approximately 150,000 employees worldwide, and approximately 31,200 of those employees were located outside of India. Because of our global presence, we are subject to additional risks related to our international expansion strategy, including risks related to compliance with a wide variety of treaties, national and local laws, including multiple and possibly overlapping tax regimes, privacy laws and laws dealing with data protection, export control laws, restrictions on the import and export of certain technologies and national and local labor laws dealing with immigration, employee health and safety, and wages and benefits, applicable to our employees located in our various international offices and facilities. We may from time to time be subject to litigation or administrative actions resulting from claims against us by current or former employees, individually or as part of a class action, including for claims of wrongful termination, discrimination (including on grounds of nationality, ethnicity, race, faith, gender, marital status, age or disability), misclassification, payment of redundancy payments under TUPE-type legislation, or other violations of labor laws, or other alleged conduct. Our being held liable for unpaid compensation, redundancy payments, statutory penalties, and other damages arising out of such actions and litigations could adversely affect our revenues and operating profitability. For example, in December 2007, we entered into a voluntary settlement with the California Division of Labor Standards Enforcement regarding the potential misclassification of certain of our current and former employees, whereby we agreed to pay overtime wages that may have been owed to such employees. The total settlement amount was approximately $26 million, including penalties and taxes.
 
In addition, we may face competition in other countries from companies that may have more experience with operations in such countries or with international operations generally. We may also face difficulties integrating new facilities in different countries into our existing operations, as well as integrating employees that we hire in different countries into our existing corporate culture. As an international company, our offshore and onsite operations may also be impacted by disease, epidemics and local political instability. For instance, some of the regions in which we operate, including North Africa, have experienced political instability in recent times, which required us to temporarily redeploy some of our personnel and property from those regions. Political instability in the regions in which we operate could have a material adverse effect on revenues and profitability.
 
Our international expansion plans may not be successful and we may not be able to compete effectively in other countries. Any of these events could adversely affect our revenues and operating profitability.
 
It may be difficult for holders of our ADSs to enforce any judgment obtained in the United States against us or our affiliates.
 
We are incorporated under the laws of India and many of our directors and executive officers reside outside the United States. Virtually all of our assets are located outside the United States. As a result, holders of our ADSs may be unable to effect service of process upon us outside the United States. In addition, holders of our ADSs may be unable to enforce judgments against us if such judgments are obtained in courts of the United States, including judgments predicated solely upon the federal securities laws of the United States.
 
The United States and India do not currently have a treaty providing for reciprocal recognition and enforcement of judgments (other than arbitration awards) in civil and commercial matters. Therefore, a final judgment for the payment of money rendered by any federal or state court in the United States on the basis of civil liability, whether or not predicated solely upon the federal securities laws of the United States, would not be enforceable in India. However, the party in whose favor such final judgment is rendered may bring a new suit in a competent court in India based on a final judgment that has been obtained in the United States. The suit must be brought in India within three years from the date of the judgment in the same manner as any other suit filed to enforce a civil liability in India. It is unlikely that a court in India would award damages on the same basis as a foreign court if an action is brought in India. Furthermore, it is unlikely that an Indian court would enforce foreign judgments if it viewed the amount of damages awarded as excessive or inconsistent with Indian practice. A party seeking to enforce a foreign judgment in India is required to obtain approval from the Reserve Bank of India under the Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999, to repatriate any amount recovered pursuant to the execution of such a judgment.
 
Holders of ADSs are subject to the Securities and Exchange Board of India’s Takeover Code with respect to their acquisitions of ADSs or the underlying equity shares, and this may impose requirements on such holders with respect to disclosure and offers to purchase additional ADSs or equity shares.
 
In September 2011, the Securities and Exchange Board of India notified the Securities and Exchange Board of India (Substantial Acquisition of Shares and Takeovers) Regulations, 2011 (the Takeover Code) which replaces the Securities and Exchange Board of India (Substantial Acquisition of Shares and Takeovers) Regulations, 1997.
 
The Takeover Code is applicable to a publicly listed Indian company. Therefore, the provisions of the Takeover Code apply to us and to any person acquiring our equity shares or voting rights in our Company, such as those represented by our ADSs.
 
Upon the acquisition of shares or voting rights in a publicly listed Indian company such that the aggregate share-holding of the acquirer (meaning a person who directly or indirectly, acquires or agrees to acquire shares or voting rights in a target company, or acquires or agrees to acquire control over the target company, either by himself or together with any person acting in concert) is 5% or more of the shares of the company, the acquirer is required to, within two working days of such acquisition, has to disclose the aggregate shareholding and voting rights in the company to the company and to the stock exchanges in which the shares of the company are listed.
 
Further, an acquirer, who, together with persons acting in concert with him, holds shares or voting rights entitling them to 5% or more of the shares or voting rights in a target company must disclose if there has been a sale or acquisition of shares representing 2% or more of the shares or voting rights of the company and the acquirer’s revised shareholding to the company and to the stock exchanges in which the shares of the company are listed within two working days of such acquisition or sale or receipt of intimation of allotment of such shares.
 
The Takeover Code may impose conditions that discourage a potential acquirer, which could prevent an acquisition of the company in a transaction that could be beneficial for the holders of our equity. 
 
The laws of India do not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as those of the United States, and we may be unsuccessful in protecting our intellectual property rights. We may also be subject to third party claims of intellectual property infringement.
 
We rely on a combination of patent, copyright, trademark and design laws, trade secrets, confidentiality procedures and contractual provisions to protect our intellectual property. However, the laws of India do not protect proprietary rights to the same extent as laws in the United States. Therefore, our efforts to protect our intellectual property may not be adequate. Our competitors may independently develop similar technology or duplicate our products or services. Unauthorized parties may infringe upon or misappropriate our products, services or proprietary information.
 
The misappropriation or duplication of our intellectual property could disrupt our ongoing business, distract our management and employees, reduce our revenues and increase our expenses. We may need to litigate to enforce our intellectual property rights or to determine the validity and scope of the proprietary rights of others. Any such litigation could be time consuming and costly. As the number of patents, copyrights and other intellectual property rights in our industry increases, and as the coverage of these rights increase, we believe that companies in our industry will face more frequent infringement claims. Defense against these claims, even if such claims are not meritorious, could be expensive, time consuming and may divert our management's attention and resources from operating our Company. From time to time, third parties have asserted, and may in the future assert, patent, copyright, trademark and other intellectual property rights against us or our customers. Our business partners may have similar claims asserted against them. A number of third parties, including companies with greater resources than Infosys, have asserted patent rights to technologies that we utilize in our business. If we become liable to third parties for infringing their intellectual property rights, we could be required to pay a substantial damage award and be forced to develop non-infringing technology, obtain a license or cease selling the applications or products that contain the infringing technology. We may be unable to develop non-infringing technology or to obtain a license on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. An unfavorable outcome in connection with any infringement claim against us as a result of litigation, other proceeding or settlement, could have a material and adverse impact on our business, results of operations and financial position.
 
Our ability to acquire companies organized outside India depends on the approval of the Government of India and/or the Reserve Bank of India, and failure to obtain this approval could negatively impact our business.
 
Generally, the Reserve Bank of India must approve any acquisition by us of any company organized outside of India. The Reserve Bank of India permits acquisitions of companies organized outside of India by an Indian party without approval if the transaction consideration is paid in cash, the transaction value does not exceed 400% of the net worth of the acquiring company as on the date of the latest audited balance sheet, or unless the acquisition is funded with cash from the acquiring company's existing foreign currency accounts or with cash proceeds from the issue of ADRs/GDRs.
 
It is possible that any required approval from the Reserve Bank of India or any other government agency may not be obtained. Our failure to obtain approvals for acquisitions of companies organized outside India may restrict our international growth, which could negatively affect our business and prospects.
 
Indian laws limit our ability to raise capital outside India and may limit the ability of others to acquire us, which could prevent us from operating our business or entering into a transaction that is in the best interests of our shareholders.
 
Indian law relating to foreign exchange management constrains our ability to raise capital outside India through the issuance of equity or convertible debt securities. Generally, any foreign investment in, or acquisition of an Indian company does not require the approval from relevant government authorities in India, including the Reserve Bank of India. However, in a number of industrial sectors, there are restrictions on foreign investment in an Indian company. Changes to the policies may create restrictions on our capital raising abilities. For example, a limit on the foreign equity ownership of Indian technology companies or pricing restrictions on the issue of ADRs/GDRs may constrain our ability to seek and obtain additional equity investment by foreign investors. In addition, these restrictions, if applied to us, may prevent us from entering into certain transactions, such as an acquisition by a non-Indian company, which might otherwise be beneficial for us and the holders of our equity shares and ADSs.
 
Risks Related to the ADSs
 
Historically, our ADSs have traded at a significant premium to the trading prices of our underlying equity shares, and may not continue to do so in the future.
 
Historically, our ADSs have traded on NASDAQ at a premium to the trading prices of our underlying equity shares on the Indian stock exchanges. We believe that this price premium has resulted from the relatively small portion of our market capitalization previously represented by ADSs, restrictions imposed by Indian law on the conversion of equity shares into ADSs, and an apparent preference of some investors to trade dollar-denominated securities. We have already completed three secondary ADS offerings and the completion of any additional secondary ADS offering will significantly increase the number of our outstanding ADSs. Also, over time, some of the restrictions on the issuance of ADSs imposed by Indian law have been relaxed and we expect that other restrictions may be relaxed in the future. As a result, the historical premium enjoyed by ADSs as compared to equity shares may be reduced or eliminated upon the completion of any additional secondary offering of our ADSs or similar transactions in the future, a change in Indian law permitting further conversion of equity shares into ADSs or changes in investor preferences.
 
In the past several years, we have observed the conversion of a significant number of our ADSs into equity shares in India as the premium on ADSs compared to equity shares has significantly narrowed. If a substantial amount of our ADSs are converted into underlying equity shares in India, it could affect the liquidity of such ADSs on the NASDAQ market and could impact the price of our ADSs.
 
Sales of our equity shares may adversely affect the prices of our equity shares and ADSs.
 
Sales of substantial amounts of our equity shares, including sales by our insiders in the public market, or the perception that such sales may occur, could adversely affect the prevailing market price of our equity shares or the ADSs or our ability to raise capital through an offering of our securities. In the future, we may also sponsor the sale of shares currently held by some of our shareholders as we have done in the past, or issue new shares. We can make no prediction as to the timing of any such sales or the effect, if any, that future sales of our equity shares, or the availability of our equity shares for future sale, will have on the market price of our equity shares or ADSs prevailing from time to time.
 
Negative media coverage and public scrutiny may adversely affect the prices of our equity shares and ADSs.
 
Media coverage and public scrutiny of our business practices, policies and actions has increased dramatically over the past several years, particularly through the use of Internet forums and blogs. Any negative media coverage in relation to our business, regardless of the factual basis for the assertions being made, may adversely impact our reputation. Responding to allegations made in the media may be time consuming and could divert the time and attention of our senior management from our business. Any unfavorable publicity may also adversely impact investor confidence and result in sales of our equity shares and ADSs, which may lead to a decline in the share price of our equity shares and our ADSs.
 
Indian law imposes certain restrictions that limit a holder's ability to transfer the equity shares obtained upon conversion of ADSs and repatriate the proceeds of such transfer which may cause our ADSs to trade at a premium or discount to the market price of our equity shares.
 
Under certain circumstances, the Reserve Bank of India must approve the sale of equity shares underlying ADSs by a non-resident of India to a resident of India. The Reserve Bank of India has given general permission to effect sales of existing shares or convertible debentures of an Indian company by a resident to a non-resident, subject to certain conditions, including the price at which the shares may be sold. Additionally, except under certain limited circumstances, if an investor seeks to convert the rupee proceeds from a sale of equity shares in India into foreign currency and then repatriate that foreign currency from India, he or she will have to obtain Reserve Bank of India approval for each such transaction. Required approval from the Reserve Bank of India or any other government agency may not be obtained on terms favorable to a non-resident investor or at all.
 
An investor in our ADSs may not be able to exercise preemptive rights for additional shares and may thereby suffer dilution of such investor's equity interest in us.
 
Under the Companies Act, 1956, or the Indian Companies Act, a company incorporated in India must offer its holders of equity shares preemptive rights to subscribe and pay for a proportionate number of shares to maintain their existing ownership percentages prior to the issuance of any new equity shares, unless such preemptive rights have been waived by three-fourths of the shareholders voting on the resolution to waive such rights. Holders of ADSs may be unable to exercise preemptive rights for equity shares underlying ADSs unless a registration statement under the Securities Act of 1933 as amended, or the Securities Act, is effective with respect to such rights or an exemption from the registration requirements of the Securities Act is available. We are not obligated to prepare and file such a registration statement and our decision to do so will depend on the costs and potential liabilities associated with any such registration statement, as well as the perceived benefits of enabling the holders of ADSs to exercise their preemptive rights, and any other factors we consider appropriate at the time. No assurance can be given that we would file a registration statement under these circumstances. If we issue any such securities in the future, such securities may be issued to the Depositary, which may sell such securities for the benefit of the holders of the ADSs. There can be no assurance as to the value, if any, the Depositary would receive upon the sale of such securities. To the extent that holders of ADSs are unable to exercise preemptive rights granted in respect of the equity shares represented by their ADSs, their proportional interests in us would be reduced.
 
ADS holders may be restricted in their ability to exercise voting rights.
 
At our request, the Depositary will electronically mail to holders of our ADSs any notice of shareholders' meeting received from us together with information explaining how to instruct the Depositary to exercise the voting rights of the securities represented by ADSs. If the Depositary receives voting instructions from a holder of our ADSs in time, relating to matters that have been forwarded to such holder, it will endeavor to vote the securities represented by such holder's ADSs in accordance with such voting instructions. However, the ability of the Depositary to carry out voting instructions may be limited by practical and legal limitations and the terms of the securities on deposit. We cannot assure that holders of our ADSs will receive voting materials in time to enable such holders to return voting instructions to the Depositary in a timely manner. Securities for which no voting instructions have been received will not be voted. There may be other communications, notices or offerings that we only make to holders of our equity shares, which will not be forwarded to holders of ADSs. Accordingly, holders of our ADSs may not be able to participate in all offerings, transactions or votes that are made available to holders of our equity shares.
 
 
COMPANY OVERVIEW
 
Infosys provides business consulting, technology, engineering and outsourcing services to help clients in over thirty countries to build tomorrow’s enterprise.
 
Our comprehensive end-to-end business solutions include:
  • Consulting and systems integration comprising consulting, enterprise solutions, systems integration and advanced technologies;
  • Business IT services comprising application development and maintenance, independent validation services, infrastructure management, engineering services comprising product engineering and life cycle solutions and business process management;
  • Products, business platforms and solutions to accelerate intellectual property led innovation, including FinacleTM, our banking product, which offers solutions to address core banking, mobile banking and e-banking needs of retail, corporate and universal banks worldwide; and
  • Newer areas such as cloud computing, enterprise mobility and sustainability.
Our professionals deliver high quality solutions through our Global Delivery Model. Using our Global Delivery Model, we divide projects into components that we execute simultaneously at client sites and at our development centers in India and around the world. We optimize our cost structure by maintaining the flexibility to execute project components where it is most cost effective. Our Global Delivery Model, with its scalable infrastructure and ability to execute project components around the clock and across time zones, enables us to reduce project delivery times.
 
We have organized our sales, marketing and business development departments into teams that focus on specific geographies and industries, enabling us to better customize our service offerings to our clients' needs. Our primary geographic markets are the Americas, Europe, Asia Pacific (APAC) and Middle East and Africa (MEA) regions. We serve clients in financial services and insurance, manufacturing, energy, utilities, communications and services, retail, consumer packaged goods, logistics and life sciences, healthcare and public services.
 
Our revenues grew from $4,176 million in fiscal 2008 to $6,994 million in fiscal 2012, representing an compound annualized growth of 10.9%. Our net income grew from $1,163 million to $1,716 million during the same period, representing an compound annualized growth of 8.1%. Between March 31, 2008 and March 31, 2012, our total employees grew from approximately 91,200 to approximately 150,000, representing a compound annualized growth rate of approximately 10.5%.
 
We believe we have some of the best talent in the technology services industry, and we are committed to remaining among the industry's leading employers.
 
We were incorporated on July 2, 1981 in Maharashtra, India, as Infosys Consultants Private Limited, a private limited company under the Indian Companies Act, 1956. We changed our name to Infosys Technologies Private Limited in April 1992, to Infosys Technologies Limited in June 1992, when we became a public limited company. In June 2011, we changed our name from “Infosys Technologies Limited” to “Infosys Limited,” following approval of the name change by our Board, shareholders and the Indian regulatory authorities. The name change was intended to reflect our transition from a provider of technology services to a partner with our clients solving business problems by leveraging technology. We completed our initial public offering of equity shares in India in 1993 and our initial public offering of ADSs in the United States in 1999. In August 2003, June 2005 and November 2006, we completed sponsored secondary offerings of ADSs in the United States on behalf of our shareholders. Our 2005 and 2006 offerings also each included a public offering without listing in Japan, or POWL. In December 2006, we became the first Indian company to be added to the NASDAQ - 100 index. In 2008, we were selected as an original component member of 'The Global Dow', a world-wide stock index made up of 150 leading blue-chip stocks.
 
Infosys BPO Limited (Infosys BPO) is our majority-owned and controlled subsidiary. Infosys Australia, Infosys Brazil, Infosys China, Infosys Consulting India Limited, Infosys Mexico, Infosys Sweden, Infosys Public Services and Infosys Shanghai are our wholly-owned and controlled subsidiaries.
 
The address of our registered office is Electronics City, Hosur Road, Bangalore-560 100, Karnataka, India. The telephone number of our registered office is +91-80-2852-0261. Our agent for service of process in the United States is CT Corporation System, 1350 Treat Boulevard, Suite 100, Walnut Creek, CA 94597-2152. Our website address is www.infosys.com and the information contained in our website does not constitute a part of this Annual Report.
 
Principal Capital Expenditures and Divestitures
 
In fiscal 2012, 2011 and 2010, we spent $301 million, $285 million and $138 million, respectively, on capital expenditure. As of March 31, 2012, we had contractual commitments of approximately $205 million for capital expenditure. These commitments included approximately $164 million in domestic purchases and $41 million in imports and overseas commitments for hardware, supplies and services. All our capital expenditures were financed out of cash generated from operations.
 
During fiscal 2010, Infosys BPO acquired 100% of the voting interests in McCamish Systems LLC (McCamish), a business process solutions provider based in Atlanta, Georgia, in the United States. The business acquisition was conducted by entering into a Membership Interest Purchase Agreement for a cash consideration of $37 million and a contingent consideration of up to $20 million. The fair value of the contingent consideration on the date of acquisition was $9 million.
 
On February 21, 2011, Infosys incorporated a wholly owned subsidiary Infosys Technologies (Shanghai) Company Limited.
 
During the year ended March 31, 2011, Infosys BPO (Thailand) Limited was liquidated.
 
On October 7, 2011, the board of directors of Infosys Consulting Inc., approved the termination and winding down of the entity, and entered into an assignment and assumption agreement with Infosys Limited. The termination of Infosys Consulting, Inc. became effective on January 12, 2012, in accordance with the Texas Business Organizations Code. Effective January 12, 2012, the assets and liabilities of Infosys Consulting, Inc., were transferred to Infosys Limited.
 
On January 4, 2012, Infosys BPO acquired 100% of the voting interest in Portland Group Pty Ltd a strategic sourcing and category management services provider based in Australia. This business acquisition was conducted by entering into a share sale agreement for a cash consideration of $41 million.
 
INDUSTRY OVERVIEW
 
Changing economic and business conditions, evolving consumer preferences, rapid technological innovation and adoption and globalization are creating an increasingly competitive market environment that is driving corporations to transform the manner in which they operate. Companies in this environment are now focusing even more on their core business objectives, such as revenue growth, profitability and asset efficiency.
 
Technology has evolved from merely driving cost efficiency – technology is now also driving tangible business value. The ability to define, design, develop, implement and maintain advanced technology platforms and business solutions to address business needs has become a competitive advantage and a priority for corporations worldwide.
 
As a result, there is an increasing need for highly skilled professionals in the market to help corporations transform their business, optimize operations and drive innovation by leveraging technology. At the same time, enterprises are reluctant to expand their internal IT departments and increase costs. These factors have led to the increased reliance of corporations on their outsourcing providers and are expected to continue to drive future growth for outsourced technology services.
 
According to the Global Tech Market Outlook for 2012 and 2013, an independent report published by Forrester Research, Inc. in January 2012, purchases of IT consulting, systems integration services and IT outsourcing by global businesses and governments are estimated to grow by 6.3% in calendar year 2012, when calculated in U.S. dollars.
 
Corporations are increasingly turning to offshore service providers to meet their need for higher quality, cost competitive technology solutions. As a result, offshore service providers have become critical to the operations of many enterprises and these service providers continue to grow in recognition and sophistication. In view of this, the addressable market for offshore technology services has expanded.
 
The India Advantage
 
India is widely recognized as the premier destination for offshore technology services. According to the NASSCOM Strategic Review 2012, IT services exports (excluding exports relating to business process outsourcing (BPO), hardware, engineering design and product development) from India are estimated to grow by 16.3% in fiscal 2012, to record revenues of $40 billion. According to the NASSCOM Strategic Review 2012, BPO exports from India are estimated to record revenues of $16 billion, which is a growth of over 12% compared to fiscal 2011. There are several key factors contributing to the growth of IT and IT-enabled services (ITES) in India and by Indian companies.
 
High Quality Delivery. According to the Process Maturity Profile published by the Carnegie Mellon Software Engineering Institute in September 2011, only 5.1% of 4,220 organizations most recently appraised are operating at Level 5, which is the highest level of the CMMi assessment. Out of 462 organizations appraised recently in India, 108 companies are at SEI-CMMi Level 5, higher than any other country in the world. SEI-CMMi is the Carnegie Mellon Software Engineering Institute's Capability Maturity Model, which assesses the quality of organizations' management system processes and methodologies. 
 
Significant Cost Benefits. The NASSCOM Strategic Review 2012 indicates that India offers the lowest cost of delivery as compared to other offshore locations, with certain cities in India offering savings of approximately 50%-80% over source locations.
 
Abundant Skilled Resources. India has a large and highly skilled English-speaking labor pool. According to the NASSCOM Strategic Review 2012, approximately 4.5 million students are expected to graduate from Indian universities in fiscal 2012, including approximately 917,000 graduates with technical and post-graduate degrees.
 
The factors described above also make India the premier destination for services such as business process management. While these advantages apply to many companies with offshore capabilities in India, we believe that there are additional factors critical to a successful, sustainable and scalable technology services business. These factors include the ability to:
  • effectively integrate onsite and offshore execution capabilities to deliver seamless, scalable services;
  • increase depth and breadth of service offerings to provide a one-stop solution in an environment where enterprises are increasingly reducing the number of technology services vendors they are using;
  • develop and maintain knowledge of a broad range of existing and emerging technologies;
  • demonstrate significant domain knowledge to understand business processes and requirements;
  • leverage in-house industry expertise to customize business solutions for clients;
  • attract and retain high-quality technology professionals; and
  • make strategic investments in human resources and physical infrastructure or facilities throughout the business cycle.
Evolution of Technology Outsourcing
 
The nature of technology outsourcing is changing. Historically, enterprises either outsourced their technology requirements entirely or on a standalone project-by-project basis. In an environment of rapid technological change, globalization and regulatory changes, the complete outsourcing model is often perceived to limit a company's operational flexibility and not fully deliver potential cost savings and efficiency benefits. Similarly, project-by-project outsourcing is also perceived to result in increased operational risk and coordination costs and as failing to fully leverage technology service providers' full ranges of capabilities. To address these issues, companies are looking at outsourcing approaches that require their technology service providers to develop specialized systems, processes and solutions along with cost-effective delivery capabilities.
 
OUR COMPETITIVE STRENGTHS
 
We believe our competitive strengths include:
 
Leadership in sophisticated solutions that enable clients to deliver improved business results in addition to optimizing the efficiency of their business. We bring together our expertise in consulting, IT services and business process management to create solutions that allow our clients to transform their business, optimize operations and drive innovation, thus making them more competitive in their market. Our suite of comprehensive, end-to-end business solutions that leverage technology enables us to offer services through our broad network of relationships, increase our dialogue with key decision makers within each client, and increase the points of sale for new clients. As a result, we believe we are able to capture a greater share of our clients' budgets. Our suite of business solutions includes business and technology consulting, enterprise solutions, systems integration, custom application development, application maintenance and production support, infrastructure management, independent testing and validation, product engineering, lifecycle solutions, business process management, software products, business platforms and solutions.
 
Proven Global Delivery Model We have a highly evolved Global Delivery Model, which enables us to take work to the location where the best talent is available and to where it makes the best economic sense with the least amount of acceptable risk. Over the last thirty years, we have developed our onsite and offshore execution capabilities to deliver high quality and scalable services. In doing so, we have made substantial investments in our processes, infrastructure and systems and have refined our Global Delivery Model to effectively integrate onsite and offshore technology services. Our Global Delivery Model provides clients with seamless, high quality solutions in reduced timeframes, enabling our clients to achieve operating efficiencies. To address changing industry dynamics, we are continuously refining our Global Delivery Model. Through our Modular Global Sourcing framework, we assist clients in segmenting their internal business processes and applications and outsourcing these segments selectively on a modular basis to reduce risk and cost and to increase operational flexibility. We believe that this approach enables us to retain our leadership position in the industry.
 
Commitment to Quality and Process Execution. We have developed a new integrated engineering methodology, enabling improved execution capabilities along with our own sophisticated project and program management. We have also developed a service management methodology to enable timely, consistent and accurate delivery of superior quality solutions to maintain a high level of client satisfaction. We benchmark our services and processes against globally recognized quality standards. Our Australia center has been assessed to SEI-CMMi V1.3 Level 5. Mi. Infosys BPO has been certified for eSCM – SP v. 2.0 Level 5, the eSourcing Capability Model for service providers developed by a consortium led by Carnegie Mellon University's Information Technology Services Qualification Center. Our other international quality standards certifications got renewed are ISO 9001: 2008, ISO 27001, ISO 20000, AS EN 9100, BS25999, TL 9000-SV, OHSAS 18001, ISO 14001. We have also received an independent auditors assurance report on compliance to ISAE 3402/SSAE16 and a certification of compliance on PCIDSS V 2.0 for Infosys BPO.
 
Strong Brand and Long-Standing Client Relationships. We have long-standing relationships with large multinational corporations built on successful prior engagements with them. Our track record of delivering high quality solutions across the entire software life cycle and our strong domain expertise helps us to solidify these relationships and gain increased business from our existing clients. As a result, we have a history of client retention and derive a significant proportion of revenues from repeat clients.
 
Status as an Employer of Choice. We believe we have some of the best talent in the Indian technology services industry and we are committed to remaining among the industry's leading employers. We have a presence in 13 cities in India, allowing us to recruit technology professionals with specific geographic preferences. Our diverse workforce includes employees of 89 nationalities. Our training programs ensure that new hires enhance their skills in alignment with our requirements and are readily deployable upon completion of their training programs.
 
Ability to Scale. We have successfully managed our growth by investing in infrastructure and by rapidly recruiting, training and deploying new professionals. We currently have 74 global development centers, the majority of which are located in India. We also have development centers in various countries including Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Japan, Mauritius, Mexico, Poland, Philippines and at multiple locations in the United States and Europe. Our financial position allows us to make the investments in infrastructure and personnel required to continue growing our business. We can rapidly deploy resources and execute new projects through the scalable network of our global delivery centers. Between March 31, 2008 and March 31, 2012, our total employees grew from approximately 91,200 to approximately 150,000.
 
Innovation and Leadership. We are a pioneer in the technology services industry. We were one of the first Indian companies to achieve a number of significant milestones, which has enhanced our reputation in the marketplace. For example, we were one of the first companies to develop and deploy a global delivery model and attain SEI-CMMI Level 5 certification for both our offshore and onsite operations. In addition, we were the first Indian company to be listed on a U.S. stock exchange, and we were also the first Indian company to complete a POWL (Public Offer Without Listing) in Japan. In December 2006, we became the first Indian company to be added to the NASDAQ - 100 index. In 2008, we were selected as an original component member of 'The Global Dow', a world-wide stock index made up of 150 leading blue-chip stocks.
 
OUR STRATEGY
 
We seek to further strengthen our position as a leading global consulting and technology company by:
  • Strengthening our strategic partnership with our clients;
  • Increasing our relevance to clients by being able to work in the entire spectrum of their business; and
  • Delivering higher business value to clients through the alignment of our structure and offerings to their business objectives.
To achieve these goals, we seek to:
 
Increase Business from Existing and New Clients. Our goal is to build enduring relationships with both existing and new clients. With existing clients, we aim to expand the nature and scope of our engagements by increasing the size and number of projects and extending the breadth of our service offerings. For new clients, we seek to provide value-added solutions by leveraging our in-depth industry expertise and expanding the breadth of services offered to them beyond those in the initial engagement. We also seek to increase our recurring business with existing clients by providing product engineering, maintenance, infrastructure management and business process management services which are long-term in nature and require frequent client contact. In order to further improve our business generation capabilities, we have established a Strategic Global Sourcing Group, which is comprised of senior professionals, and seeks to identify, secure and manage new, large, and long-term client engagements.
 
Continue to Enhance our Engagement Models and Offerings. We seek to continually enhance our portfolio of solutions as a means of developing and growing our business. To differentiate our services, we focus on emerging trends, new technologies, specific industries and pervasive business issues that confront our clients. In the changing world of today, many opportunities are closely linked with advances in IT. In our endeavor to assist our clients in taking advantage of business and technological change, we have identified seven key drivers – digital consumers, emerging economies, sustainable tomorrow, smarter organizations, new commerce, pervasive computing and healthcare economy. We believe that realizing the full potential of these drivers is important for tomorrow's enterprise to forge ahead of its competition. We have aligned our offerings to enable our clients to take advantage of these trends. In 2011, we internally re-organized our offerings into - consulting and systems integration, business IT services and products, and platforms and solutions. By categorizing our offerings this way, we believe we will be able to engage with clients across their key areas of investment: transformation, optimization and innovation. We have also extended our capability into areas such as cloud computing, enterprise mobility and sustainability.
 
Expand Geographically. We seek to selectively expand our global presence to enhance our ability to serve clients. We plan to accomplish this by establishing new sales and marketing offices, representative offices and global development centers to expand our geographical reach. We intend to further increase our presence in China through Infosys China and Infosys Shanghai, in the Czech Republic and Eastern Europe directly and through Infosys BPO, in Australia through Infosys Australia and Infosys BPO and in Latin America, through Infosys Brazil and Infosys Mexico. We intend to use our operations in these regions to eventually support clients in the local market as well as our global clients.
 
Continue to Develop Deep Industry Knowledge. We intend to continue to build specialized industry expertise in the financial services and insurance, manufacturing, energy, utilities, communications and services, retail, consumer packaged goods, logistics, life sciences, healthcare and public services industries. We combine deep industry knowledge with an understanding of our clients' needs and technologies to provide high value, quality services. Our industry expertise can be leveraged to assist clients throughout an industry, thereby improving quality and reducing the cost of services to our clients. We will continue to build on our extensive industry expertise and we plan to provide our services to new industries in the future.
 
Pursue Alliances and Strategic Acquisitions. We intend to continue to develop alliances that complement our core competencies. Our alliance strategy is targeted at partnering with leading technology providers, which allows us to take advantage of emerging technologies in a mutually beneficial and cost-competitive manner. We also intend to selectively pursue acquisitions that augment our existing expertise, client base or geographical presence. For example, in December 2011, Infosys BPO signed a definitive share sale agreement to acquire 100% of the voting interest in Portland Group Pty Ltd., a strategic sourcing and procurement management services provider based in Australia, for a cash consideration of approximately $38 million. This business acquisition was completed in January 2012.
 
Enhance Brand Visibility. We intend to continue to invest in the development of our premium brand identity in the marketplace. Our branding efforts include participating in media and industry analyst events, sponsorship of, and participation in, targeted industry conferences, trade shows, recruiting efforts, community outreach programs and investor relations. We have instituted the ACM-Infosys Foundation Award jointly with the Association of Computing Machinery, or ACM, for the recognition of young scientists and system developers whose innovations have an impact on the computing field. Additionally, the Infosys Science Foundation has instituted an annual award to honor outstanding achievements of researchers and scientists across six categories: Engineering and Computer Sciences, Humanities, Life Sciences, Mathematical Sciences, Physical Sciences and Social Sciences. We believe that a strong and recognizable Infosys brand will continue to facilitate the new-business lead generation process and enhance our ability to attract talented personnel globally.
 
Continue to Invest in Infrastructure and Employees. We intend to continue to invest in physical and technological infrastructure to support our growing worldwide development and sales operations and to increase our productivity. To enhance our ability to hire and successfully deploy increasingly greater numbers of technology professionals, we intend to continue investing in recruiting, training and maintaining a challenging and rewarding work environment. During fiscal 2012, we received approximately 622,970 employment applications, interviewed approximately 60,860 applicants and extended offers of employment to approximately 41,460 applicants. These statistics do not include Infosys BPO or our other subsidiaries. We have also completed the construction of an employee training facility, the Infosys Global Education Center, in our campus in Mysore, India to further enhance our employee training capabilities. The Infosys Global Education Center can train approximately 14,000 employees at a time.
 
OUR GLOBAL DELIVERY MODEL
 
Our Global Delivery Model allows us to take work to the location where the best talent is available and to where it makes the best economic sense with the least amount of acceptable risk. Our Global Delivery Model enables us to derive maximum benefit from:
  • access to our large pool of highly skilled technology professionals;
  • 24-hour execution capabilities across multiple time zones;
  • the ability to accelerate delivery times of large projects by simultaneously processing project components;
  • cost competitiveness across geographic regions;
  • built-in redundancy to ensure uninterrupted services; and
  • a knowledge management system that enables us to re-use solutions where appropriate.
In a typical offshore development project, we assign a team of our technology professionals to visit a client's site to determine the scope and requirements of the project. Once the initial specifications of the project have been established, our project managers return to the relevant global development center to supervise a larger team of technology professionals dedicated to the development or implementation of the solution. Typically, a small team remains at the client's site to manage project coordination and address changes in requirements as the project progresses. Teams return to the client's site when necessary to ensure seamless integration. To the extent required, a dedicated team provides ongoing maintenance from our global development centers. The client's systems are linked to our facilities enabling simultaneous processing in our global development centers. Our model ensures that project managers remain in control of execution throughout the life of the project regardless of their geographical location.
 
We have successfully executed projects at all of our global development centers. We have 74 global development centers, of which 33 are located in India, 16 are in North and South America, 20 are in the Asia-Pacific region and five are in Europe. Our largest development centers are located in India. Approximately 72.8% of the total billed person-months for our services rendered during fiscal 2012 originated from our global development centers in India, with the balance efforts being rendered at client sites and our global development centers located outside India.
 
Our quality control processes and programs are designed to minimize defects and ensure adherence to pre-determined project parameters. Additionally, software quality advisors help individual teams establish appropriate processes for projects and adhere to multi-level testing plans. The project manager is responsible for tracking metrics, including actual effort spent versus initial estimates, project budgeting and estimating the remainder of efforts required on a project.
 
Our Global Delivery Model mitigates risks associated with providing offshore technology services to our clients. For our communications needs, we use multiple service providers and a mix of terrestrial and optical fiber links with alternate routing. In India, we rely on two telecommunications carriers to provide high-speed links connecting our global development centers. Internationally, we rely on multiple links on submarine cable paths provided by various service providers to connect our Indian global development centers with network hubs in other parts of the world. Our significant investment in redundant infrastructure enables us to provide uninterrupted service to our clients.
 
MODULAR GLOBAL SOURCING
 
The nature of technology outsourcing is changing. Historically, enterprises either outsourced their technology requirements entirely or on a standalone project-by-project basis. The complete outsourcing model is perceived to be deficient as a result of:
  • the increased pace of technological change;
  • continuous change in the business environment due to globalization and deregulation;
  • the need to better manage risk in an evolving regulatory environment;
  • the failure to deliver promised cost savings and expected benefits; and
  • the changing role of technology from merely improving operational efficiency to becoming an integral part of a corporation's strategy.
Similarly, project-by-project outsourcing is also perceived to have its deficiencies, resulting in increased operational risk and coordination costs, as well as the failure to fully leverage service providers' complete range of capabilities.
 
We have developed our Modular Global Sourcing framework to address these issues and assist clients in evaluating and defining, on both a modular and an enterprise-wide basis, the client's business processes and applications that can be outsourced, and the capabilities required to effectively deliver those processes and applications to the organization. We then assist the client in assessing whether a particular process, application or infrastructure is best retained within the organization or is suitable for outsourcing based on various factors including third-party capabilities, potential cost savings, risks to the organization and importance of the function. Thereafter, we assist in sourcing decisions, the related risk assessments, transitioning, and program management and execution.
 
Our systematic approach to evaluating an enterprise's IT systems and business processes under the Modular Global Sourcing framework allows us to better align our solutions to our clients' business, operations and IT platforms. As a result, our clients are able to benefit from our Global Delivery Model and potentially realize cost savings, enhanced efficiencies and competitive advantages, while retaining control and flexibility. Modular Global Sourcing also positions us to offer the broadest range of services to the greatest number of clients and to capture a greater share of our clients' technology budgets.
 
ORGANIZATION RESTRUCTURING
 
We internally reorganized ourselves in 2011, which we believe will:
  • strengthen our strategic partnership with our clients;
  • increase our relevance to clients by being able to work in the entire spectrum of their business; and
  • enable us to deliver higher business value to clients through alignment of our structure and offerings to their business objectives.
This internal reorganization consolidated our previous seven business units into four industry units. These new units are:
  • Financial Services & Insurance;
  • Energy, Utilities, Communications & Services;
  • Manufacturing; and
  • Retail, Consumer Packaged Goods, Logistics and Life Sciences.
These units are global encompassing the Americas, Europe, APAC and MEA. They each contain complete client service and delivery capabilities for meeting client needs, allowing these units to respond to client needs with domain specific service capabilities.
 
India and FinacleTM business units continue to be organized as before.
 
To complement the new internal business unit structure, we have consolidated our offerings into three groups:
  • Consulting and Systems Integration comprising consulting, enterprise solutions, systems integration and advanced technologies to transform our clients business;
  • Business IT Services comprising application development and maintenance, independent validation services, infrastructure management and business process management to optimize client operations; and
  • Products, Platforms and Solutions to accelerate intellectual property led innovation.
OUR SOLUTIONS
 
Consulting and Systems Integration Services
 
Infosys’ Consulting and Systems Integration (C&SI) services group focuses on delivering best-in-class end-to-end business transformation with a focus on delivering tangible, traceable and quantifiable business value. Our portfolio of services includes providing front-end business strategy consulting services, business requirements definition, business process re-engineering, business and technology solution design, package evaluation and implementation, complex program management, organizational design and change management, systems integration services and upgrades and maintenance. We have a best-in-class value realization method that enables delivery of real business value through tightly linking operational metrics with technology and process decisions.
 
Additionally, we work with our clients as they leverage commercially available enterprise software packages for large, complex business transformation programs. We provide solutions to help our clients implement and utilize these software packages developed by third party vendors. Our solutions largely relate to product suites from SAP and Oracle and also extend to certain product suites from IBM Corporation, Microsoft Corporation, Pegasystems Inc., SalesForce.com Inc., Software AG and TIBCO Software Inc.
 
We also provide services to clients in areas such as customer relationship management, supply chain management, human capital management, corporate performance management, business analytics, business process management, enterprise application integration and system integration
 
For example, for a leading global consumer packaged goods company, we were engaged to re-engineer their order-to-cash process for their largest customers worldwide. These customers included large retailers and processed over 60% of the client’s orders. The first phase of the program involved the design and re-engineering of all the core business processes associated with managing orders from these large customers. The second phase involved the configuration and implementation of a leading enterprise software package to enable the new capabilities. The final phase involved rolling out the new application to over 13 countries in Western Europe and the U.S.
 
For a leading specialty retailer, we were asked to help create an integrated multi-channel retail strategy and roadmap. The client historically had two separate organizations managing its direct (online and catalog) and store businesses, leading to a very fragmented customer experience and little integration or leverage across the enterprise. We first helped create the overarching strategy for integrating the business and creating a smooth customer experience, followed by the development of a three-year roadmap for what capabilities were needed and the initiatives necessary to realize the vision.
 
Business IT Services
 
We work with clients worldwide to help them run more efficient IT operations. Our charter for the Business Optimization services is to partner with clients in their journey towards unlocking greater efficiency from their existing IT assets – systems, processes and infrastructure. With our Business Optimization services, we believe clients can achieve sustained operational superiority with the ability to significantly differentiate themselves in the marketplace.
 
At the heart of our work we deliver best-in-class services ranging across application development, application maintenance, third party testing, large scale IT infrastructure rationalization and business process outsourcing. These offerings are provided to clients across geographies and industry verticals including banking and capital markets, insurance, technology, communications, media, entertainment, energy, utilities, manufacturing, aerospace and defense, pharmaceuticals, healthcare, retail, consumer goods, logistics and public services. We complement our industry expertise with specialized support for our clients. We also leverage the expertise of our various Technology Centres of Excellence and Infosys Labs, our research arm, to create customized solutions for our clients. Finally, we ensure the integrity of our service delivery by utilizing a scalable and secure infrastructure. 
 
We generally assume full project management responsibility in each of our solution offerings. We strictly adhere to our SEI-CMMI Level 5 internal quality and project management processes. Our project delivery focus is supplemented by our knowledge management system that enables us to leverage existing solutions across our company, where appropriate, and develop in-house tools for project management and software life-cycle support. We believe that these processes, methodologies, knowledge management systems and tools help deliver cost-effective solutions to clients, mitigate project-related risks, enhance the quality of our offerings and allow our clients to improve the time-to-market for their solutions.
 
Custom Software Application Development
 
We develop customized software solutions for our clients. We aim to provide high-quality solutions that are secure, easy-to-deploy and modular so as to facilitate enhancements and extensions. Our proprietary methodologies also allow our software applications to integrate stringent security measures throughout the software development lifecycle.
 
We create new applications or enhance the functionalities of our clients' existing software applications. Our projects vary in size and duration. Each project typically involves all aspects of the software development process including defining requirements, designing, prototyping, programming and module integration, user acceptance testing, user training, installation and maintenance and support of these systems.
 
We perform system design and software coding and run pilots primarily at our global development centers, while activities relating to the defining of requirements, transition planning, user training, user acceptance testing and deployment are performed at the client's site. Our application development services span the entire range of mainframe, client server, Internet and mobile technologies.
 
As an example, we were recently engaged by a mobile application and software solutions provider to integrate its award-winning service to a cloud-based platform, which resulted in significant performance improvement, scalability and cost savings. The client’s service allows small businesses and consumers to quickly create personalized mobile Internet sites, without code-creation. Infosys developed a usage-based platform for the client that provided a set of developer services for creating a range of flexible, cost-effective solutions via the cloud.
 
In another instance, we developed a services oriented architecture based order management system for a large global automotive company that operated in multiple countries. The application we developed enables the client to rationalize its order management systems by converging applications across geographies and order management business models. Our development of this application resulted in a significant reduction in the duplication of technology platforms and related services across our client’s organization, and a reduction in the cost and time required for the development of new functionality enhancements. In addition, the costs of maintaining the application were significantly reduced compared to the client’s legacy systems.
 
Maintenance and Production Support Services
 
Our maintenance and production support services help clients improve the availability of their applications portfolio and reduce cost of maintenance. These services also provide clients with insights into their application portfolio and help them optimize the value of that portfolio and manage the risks associated with it. We take a proactive approach to software maintenance and production support, by focusing on long-term functionality, stability and preventive maintenance to avoid problems that typically arise from incomplete or short-term solutions. The practice focus on Application Services has been deepened and it works constantly with the Maintenance Center of Excellence (CoE) to pioneer next generation enhanced maintenance services that enable our clients to reduce lights-on operational spends and focus on strategic transformation. This approach is coupled with stringent quality control processes and global shared services centers. We have also invested in knowledge management and internal development of software processes and tools to increase automation of our delivery systems and thereby enhance productivity.
 
Our new Integrated Application Management Platform (IAM) has adopted a set of tools to aid in the acquisition, collating and use of organizational knowledge and incident diagnosis in production support. IAM's knowledge management features are able to address multiple issues that commonly arise in the maintenance and support of software and enable our clients to get the benefit of reduced IT support cost, higher-quality first level problem resolution and operational efficiency.
 
As an example, we have strengthened our relationship with an agribusiness company for a range of IT applications catering to various business functions, including manufacturing, supply chain management, marketing, finance and other enabling functions. Our team of approximately 400 professionals is working with the client's IT and business teams from multiple locations in Europe, the U.S. and India to maintain these applications based on specified service levels. These service levels are monitored regularly for service penalties applicable across the portfolio and tracked consistently with the client.
 
In another instance, we are working with a leading financial services company that needs to operate continuously in different time zones and maintain high levels of data security and operational reliability. The client partnered with us for continuous production support, including beeper support, life cycle support for bug fixes and enhancements, and support for analysis requests for one of the critical applications at the company. Using these features, we significantly reduced the time taken to transition production support activities from the client, thereby freeing the company’s resources to focus on other business critical tasks. It also enabled the project team to reduce the training period and the number of incidents and increase annual productivity.
 
Independent Validation Solutions
 
We offer end-to-end validation solutions, including test consulting, quality assurance organization transformation, testing for large business transformation and testing for package implementations, upgrades and rollouts. These solutions are provided to clients across various industry verticals in relation to custom application engagements, software products and packaged software. Also, keeping in line with the ever changing market and client demands, we have introduced new service offerings such as cloud testing and mobility testing. Our quality assurance solutions are aimed at building high reliability and predictability in our client technology systems within a fixed time frame and at minimal cost.
 
We have invested internally in developing testing solutions comprising of technology based solutions for test life cycle automation and non-functional testing and vertical specific solutions. We have also built alliances with leading test tool vendors such as HP, IBM, Microsoft, iTKO Lisa, Green Hat, Micro Focus and are involved in building joint solutions with these alliance partners. These testing solutions facilitate high-reliability in our client applications and products while ensuring that they are delivered cost-effectively and with reduced time-to-market. Our dedicated testing professionals are trained at an in-house testing academy along various dimensions including industry domains, technology, quality processes, testing methodologies and project management.
 
As an example, we are a major quality assurance partner for a leading global financial services firm. Our engagement spans across multiple geographies and business lines of the client, and we provide a broad range of services, including customer relationship management (CRM) package implementation testing, test environment management, data warehouse testing, capacity assessment and performance monitoring of systems and user acceptance testing for risk management applications. We provide these offerings through a “Managed Testing Services” model with centers of specialization for test automation, performance testing, data warehouse testing and user acceptance testing. With our managed testing services model and our test consulting services, we have played a key role in transforming the client’s testing organization leading to continuous improvement in quality at reduced costs.
 
Infrastructure Management Services
 
Through our infrastructure management services offering, we assist with the transformation of our clients' IT infrastructure. Our service offerings span the areas of Managed Infrastructure Services, Datacenter Optimization, End User Computing, Infrastructure Operations Optimization, and Infrastructure Refresh services. These end-to-end solutions leverage our technical expertise and benchmarked operational processes to help our clients achieve technology-led business transformation with better alignment to business goals, agility in responding to changing business needs, and to manage the costs and complexity of their ever-changing IT infrastructure. Leveraging our consulting-led approach to infrastructure management services, we assist our clients with new IT operations process paradigms, such as virtualization, cloud computing, grid computing, infrastructure-as-utility, “green” IT and help transform our clients’ IT environments to leverage these next generation technologies across their data centers, networks, production and end-user computing environments.
 
Engineering Services
 
We provide engineering solutions to support our clients across the product lifecycle of our clients’ offerings, ranging from product ideation to realization but also from and sustenance to end of life management. Our solutions offerings include the execution of product and software development programs where we operate our development teams as businesses with a relentless pursuit of quality and productivity (e.g., R&D research and development services, design and development of mechanical, electronic and embedded systems, product globalization, testing and validation), the management of products and commoditiesy management where we combine our engineering, supply chain and business process outsourcing capabilities (e.g., benchmarking, value analysis/engineering, prototyping and sourcing, commodity management, digital manufacturing and automation, manufacturing support, professional services), the participation to product co-innovation where we work with our clients to take their offerings to market and invest along the way(with our solution offerings relating to engineering consulting and mobility), the development, implementation and implementation of business platforms where we design, implement and needed by our client to run operations and ensure full connectivity to the rest of the enterprise maintain engineering systems to support our clients’ business processes (e.g., product lifecycle management, manufacturing execution, knowledge-based engineering, innovation and collaboration platforms, telecom network operations, and contact centers), and finally the operation of cross-industry services as shared services where we provide specialized engineering capabilities and assets that allow our client to leverage our scale. as shared services to our clients. Our solution offerings caters to a cross-section of industries including aerospace, automotive, banking and financial services, business services, chemicals, consumer products, energy, high technology, industrial products and equipment, media and entertainment, medical devices, metals and mining, pharmaceuticals, retail, telecommunications and utilities.
 
Our engagement models vary widely across domains and industry verticals. Our teams vary in size from a few experts working closely with a client engineering leadership team on improving core processes or designing a new technology roadmap to several hundred engineers deeply engaged in all facets of a new program launch be it for a section of an aircraft fuselage or a next generation wireless communication platform. We adjust our approach, execution methodology and KPIs to the specific nature of each situation to ensure that our engineers focus on achieving the right outcome for our clients and that our teams get measured and rewarded in a way that is consistent with our client’s own internal business objectives.
 
Business Process Management
 
We offer business process management services through Infosys BPO. Infosys BPO enables clients to outsource several process-intensive operations that relate to specific industry vertical processes and functional horizontal processes. Infosys BPO's industry-specific service offerings include the following:
  • Banking and financial services -- For our clients in the banking and financial services industry, we offer services in credit card operations, collections, banking operations, mortgage and loan account servicing, payments processing, trade clearing and settlement services, registrar and transfer agency services, fund administration and reporting, reference data management, hedge fund servicing and platform solutions;
  • Telecommunications -- For our clients in the telecommunications industry, we offer services in order fulfilment, service assurance, billing and revenue assurance, data cleansing and validation services, telecom-specific analytic offerings, technology-led point solutions;
  • Insurance, Healthcare and Life Sciences -- For our clients in the insurance, healthcare and life sciences industries, we offer services in new business fulfilment, pensions and annuities, policy maintenance, claims administration, reinsurance finance and accounting, underwriting, statutory reporting services;
  • Manufacturing -- For our clients in the manufacturing industry, we offer services in customer operations, master data management, material planning, mid-office support, product data management, quoting and demand fulfilment, supply chain and logistics support;
  • Media and Entertainment -- For our clients in the media and entertainment industry, we offer services in advertisement analytics, content development, content management and desktop publishing;
  • Retail and Consumer Packaged Goods (CPG) -- For our clients in the CPG industry, we offer services in master data management, trade promotions management, store solutions, supply chain solutions, reporting and analytics; and
  • Energy, Utilities and Services -- For our clients in the energy, utilities and services industries, we offer services in master data management, supplier performance management and analytics, engineering documentation, advanced metering infrastructure support, data validation, new product/feature support and meter data analytics.
The function-specific service offerings of Infosys BPO include the following:
  • Customer Service – Our customer services include customer engagement solutions including sales, ongoing service and recoveries situations, and customer relationship management through various service channels;
  • Finance and Accounting – Our finance and accounting services include accounts payable, accounts receivable, billing and invoicing, collections and credit management, general ledger operations, financial planning and control and compliance related services;
  • HR Outsourcing – Our HR outsourcing services include payroll processing, benefits administration, learning and development, HR helpdesk, recruitment and staffing services, workforce administration;
  • Legal Process Outsourcing – Our legal process outsourcing services include contract management services and solutions, legal process outsourcing, document review services;
  • Sales and Fulfillment Operations – Our sales and fulfilment operations services include sales support operations, customer data management, account planning, order administration, customer advocacy, returns management, warranty management, demand forecasting, material and inventory management, reverse logistics; and
  • Sourcing and Procurement – Our sourcing and procurement services include sourcing, category management, transactional procurement, performance and compliance management, eBusiness solutions and spend, demand and supply market analytics.
As an example, we manage the end-to-end sales and fulfilment processes, including sales operations, fulfilment operations and revenue operations, for a leading network equipment manufacturer with operations in over 60 countries. By leveraging our domain expertise, operational excellence and technology-focused approach, our customer service representatives provide processing and management support for the consolidation and integration of the client's sales and fulfilment processes. Infosys BPO handles service requests received from partners, resellers and end customers of the client through voice and data support and has, among other things, enabled a reduction in response and resolution time from 56 hours to about 38 hours, leading to increased working capital efficiency.
 
As another example, we manage the securities processing services across the middle office and back office functions for a global investment bank. We are responsible for the timely clearing of transactions and manage the clearing process for the client’s exchange-traded derivatives business globally across 56 exchanges. We perform a number of key functions for this client, including transaction clearing, confirmations, deliveries and reconciliations. We have also partnered with this client to create a shared-services reconciliation utility, which provides end-to-end reconciliation services across product classes such as derivatives, fixed income securities and equity securities within the investment banking operations and aids in the management of operational risk. Our client has experienced significant efficiency improvements and operational benefits as a result of our partnership.
 
Products, Platforms & Solutions Services
 
Our products, platforms & solutions are geared to drive innovation-led growth for our clients. They cater to next generation market needs driven by global trends, including digital consumers, emerging economies, new commerce and healthcare. Our offerings leverage technologies in the areas of cloud computing, mobility, big data, rich media and social. By combining products from us and our partners, cloud-based hosting and platform operations, we help clients accelerate the business outcomes they seek.
 
Our products are licensable systems that deliver functionalities that clients value. They can be used as standalone, customized or as building blocks in a larger enterprise application. They drive a business model that encompasses larger service engagements around the product license. We are investing in both industry-specific and cross-industry products.
 
For example, our Customer Self - Service Energy Manager, a home energy and demand side management product enables our customers to provide sustainable energy management and revitalized customer service to their own clients. Our Health Benefit Exchange, provides a competitive insurance hub, for individuals and small businesses to buy qualified plans. Infosys Trading Platform helps companies to strategically differentiate their brokerage services by providing superior trading experience to customers. Infosys Omni-Channel Personalization Engine helps retailers foster consumer relationship by presenting personalized content across channels. Our Supply Chain Performance Management Suite provides insight into the supply-demand service chain performance.
 
Our suite of business platforms, which we refer to as InfosysEdge™, is built around specific themes that provide significant opportunities to enterprises. This suite drives deeper engagement with digital consumers, builds smarter organizations and addresses the needs of emerging markets. Our offerings are powered by best-in-class domain expertise, IP and cloud computing. Our focus is on delivering guaranteed business outcomes that impact either our client’s top-line or bottom-line. We host, operate and manage these business platforms on a subscription-based pricing model, providing our clients with rapid time-to-value.
 
For example, Infosys SocialEdge™, our social media marketing and employee engagement platform helps companies monetize digital demand by harnessing the power of social media to deepen consumer & employee engagement. Infosys BrandEdge™, our digital marketing platform built using our proprietary Infosys BLUE™ framework addresses the comprehensive marketing needs of organizations – from building digital assets and launching marketing campaigns to listening to customers as well as analyzing and acting on customer insights. Infosys CommerceEdge™, our ecommerce and social commerce platform drives multi-channel commerce by enhancing consumer experience, driving traffic and increasing order value. Infosys TalentEdge™, our comprehensive talent management paltform enables enterprises to deepen employee engagement and simplify the entire Hire-to-Retire lifecycle of human resource function. Infosys ProcureEdge™, our end-to-end Source-to-Pay helps enterprises realize rapid and sustainable savings across their source-to-pay lifecycle. Infosys WalletEdge™, our mobile commerce and payemnts platforms enables a financial ecosystem of consumers, merchants, telecoms, banks, government, & enterprises, to tap the potential of mobile commerce. Infosys TradeEdge™, our comprehensive trader partner platform enables global companies to accelerate long-term growth in emerging markets by driving better trade collaboration and bringing visibility and reach on secondary sales.
 
Infosys BPO's platforms include (i) McCamish Systems' proprietary VPAS and PMACS platforms which provide innovative solutions to the insurance and financial services industries; (ii) solutions in strategic sourcing, category management and managed procurement services provided by Portland Group; and (iii) integrated technology and BPO offerings on a cloud model for human resources and sourcing and procurement services using the TalentEdge™ and Infosys ProcureEdge™ platforms.
 
Each of our solutions address a specific business opportunity or a challenge, often domain-specific. This includes a unique viewpoint, a method for value delivery and innovation accelerators. Our solutions are early instances of a future product or platform and are typically co-created with clients. We are investing significantly on solutions in the areas of cloud, enterprise mobility and sustainability.
 
Banking Software Products
 
FinacleTM, our universal banking solution, partners with banks to transform product, process and customer experience, equipping them with ‘accelerated innovation’ that is key to building tomorrow's bank. FinacleTM is a comprehensive, flexible and fully Web-enabled solution that addresses the core, e-banking, mobile, CRM, wealth management, treasury, and Islamic banking requirements of universal, retail and corporate banks worldwide. Other offerings include the FinacleTM core banking solution for regional rural banks; FinacleTM digital commerce solution, which enables next generation digital payments; FinacleTM alerts solution, which alerts end-users on events recorded by diverse business systems; FinacleTM Advizor, which combines the convenience of human intervention with banking self-service channels through the interplay of video, audio and data communication; and FinacleTM WatchWiz, a comprehensive new-generation monitoring solution that allows banks to monitor, diagnose and resolve issues.
 
Our professional services complement the solutions portfolio and include consulting, package implementation, independent validation, migration, application development and maintenance, system integration, software performance engineering and support.
 
As of March 31, 2012, FinacleTM is the choice of 160 banks across 78 countries and powers operations across 48,500 branches and enables its customer banks to serve 423 million accounts and 347 million consumers worldwide.
 
OUR CLIENTS
 
We market our services to large enterprises in North America, Europe and the Asia Pacific region. We have a strong market presence in North America and are working towards expanding our presence in Europe.
 
Our revenues for the last three fiscal years by geographic area are as follows:
 
 
Fiscal
 
2012
2011
2010
North America
63.9%
65.3%
65.8%
Europe
21.9%
21.5%
23.0%
India
2.2%
2.2%
1.2%
Rest of the World
12.0%
11.0%
10.0%
Total
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
 
We have in-depth expertise in the financial services, manufacturing, telecommunications and retail industries, as well as, to a lesser extent, the utilities and logistics industries. Our revenues for the last three fiscal years by market segment are as follows:
 
  Fiscal
 
2012
2011
2010
Financial services and insurance (FSI)
35.1%
35.9%
  34.0%
Manufacturing enterprises (MFG)
20.6%
19.6%
  19.8%
Energy, utilities and telecommunication services (ECS)
21.4%
24.0%
  25.6%
Retail, logistics, consumer product group, life sciences and health care enterprises (RCL)
22.9%
20.5%
  20.6%
Total
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
 
For fiscal 2012, 2011 and 2010 our largest client contributed 4.3%, 4.7% and 4.6%, respectively, of our total revenues.
 
The volume of work we perform for specific clients is likely to vary from year to year, particularly since we are not the exclusive external IT services provider for our clients. Thus, a major client in one year may not provide the same level of revenues in a subsequent year. However, in any given year, a limited number of clients tend to contribute a significant portion of our revenues.
 
SALES AND MARKETING
 
Our sales and marketing strategies are distinct and complementary.
 
Sales Strategy: Our sales strategy focuses on the following:
  • Adding Value for Our Clients – One of the cornerstones of our sales strategy is to demonstrate the improvements that we are capable of instituting in the operating efficiency and competitiveness of our clients. We highlight to our clients how our solutions can lower a client’s cost structure through outsourcing and operational efficiency initiatives, increase their revenues through new and improved product and service offerings, and promote innovation and flexibility in the use of IP and business platforms;
  • Enhancing Our Client Base – We seek to win new business from targeted prospects around the globe, and undertake initiatives that promote client loyalty and repeat business among our existing clients. A significant portion of our existing clients, and our target prospects, are Global 2000 companies;
  • Expanding Our Geographical Footprint – We seek to accelerate sales growth in underpenetrated markets in developed and emerging economies; and
  • Promoting and Building Sustainable Ecosystems – We leverage our alliance relationships in order to capture specific sales opportunities and to support our longer-term vision of creating sustainable ecosystems between us, our partners and our clients. We believe that our focus on our ecosystem is becoming an increasingly important part of our sales strategy as the traditional boundaries between customers and service providers continue to erode and create new opportunities for business generation.
Marketing Strategy: Our marketing strategy complements our sales strategy by:
  • Building on our brand as a global company to lead the new wave of global consulting and IT services;
  • Providing a defined and robust Internet presence and leveraging social media tools in ways that reflect our image as an innovator and thought leader;
  • Collaborating with business partners to market joint solutions and showcase our vision for organizational transformation; and
  • Helping identify and manage client and industry events that are aligned to drive sales by showcasing our services, products and strategic alliances.
Sales Execution Strategy: Our sales teams are trained to promote and sell our solutions by articulating the business value that we are able to deliver to our prospects and clients. To do so, we use a cross-functional, integrated sales approach in which our account managers, sales personnel, project managers and business consultants analyze potential projects and collaboratively develop strategies to sell our solutions to potential clients.
 
Also, all significant sales efforts have an executive-level sponsor to provide requisite oversight and institutionalize the relationship with the prospect or client organization.
 
This integrated sales approach allows for a smooth transition to execution once the sale is completed, and the institutionalized connection between the organizations strengthens the relationship and helps to address client concerns and changes in project requirements rapidly and effectively.
 
With existing clients, we constantly seek to expand the nature and scope of our engagements by extending the breadth and volume of services offered, with a focus on increasing our clients' competitiveness through our proven and reliable Global Delivery Model. During fiscal 2012, 2011 and 2010, 97.8%, 98.0% and 97.3% of our revenue came as repeat business from existing clients, respectively. Our onsite project and account managers proactively identify client needs and work with our sales team to structure solutions to address those needs.
 
Further, client visits offshore also serve as an important mechanism to strengthen client loyalty and trust. Clients interact with their respective Infosys teams, share their own experiences and expectations with us, and in turn get a much better perspective about our strengths and capabilities.
 
Besides these one-on-one contacts between our clients and Infosys, we also promote client loyalty through a sales, marketing and alliances program that includes media and industry analyst events, sponsorship of, and participation in, targeted industry conferences, trade shows, recruiting efforts, community outreach and investor relations.
 
As a result of our growing worldwide brand and presence, prospective clients proactively reach out to us in many cases.
 
Sales and Marketing Organization. We sell and market our services from 65 sales and marketing offices located in 29 countries. With our global sales operations spread across different parts of the world, we target our efforts towards the world's largest companies. Our sales efforts are complemented by our marketing team, which assists in brand building and other corporate and field-level marketing efforts. As of March 31, 2012, we had 1,132 sales and marketing employees.
 
COMPETITION
 
We operate in a highly competitive and rapidly changing market and compete with:
  • Consulting firms such as Accenture Limited, Atos Origin S.A., Cap Gemini S.A., and Deloitte Consulting LLP;
  • Divisions of large multinational technology firms such as Hewlett-Packard Company and IBM Corporation;
  • IT outsourcing firms such as Computer Sciences Corporation, and Dell Perot Systems;
  • Offshore technology services firms such as Cognizant Technology Solutions Corporation, Tata Consultancy Services Limited and Wipro Technologies Limited;
  • Software firms such as Oracle Corporation and SAP A.G.;
  • Business process outsourcing firms such as Genpact Limited and WNS Global Services;
  • In-house IT departments of large corporations; and
  • Specialty Platform and SaaS companies.
For larger projects, we typically bid against other technology services providers in response to requests for proposals. Clients often cite our Global Delivery Model, comprehensive end-to-end solutions, ability to scale, superior quality and process execution, industry expertise, experienced management team, talented professionals, track record and competitive pricing as reasons for awarding us contracts.
 
In the future we expect intensified competition from some of the firms above, and may also experience competition from new competitors. In particular, we expect increased competition from firms that strengthen their offshore presence in India or other low-cost locations and from firms in market segments that we have recently entered.
 
We understand that price alone cannot constitute a sustainable competitive advantage. We believe that the principal competitive factors in our business are:
  • the ability to attract and retain high-quality management, technology professionals, and sales personnel;
  • the ability to articulate and demonstrate long-term value to potential customers;
  • the ability to effectively integrate onsite and offshore execution capabilities to deliver high quality, seamless, scalable, cost-effective services
  • the ability to increase the scale and breadth of service offerings to provide one-stop solutions for customer needs;
  • the ability to keep pace with ever-changing technology and customer requirements;
  • a strong and well-recognized brand;
  • a proven track record of performance excellence and customer satisfaction;
  • the financial strength to be able to invest in personnel and infrastructure to support the evolving demands of customers; and
  • high ethical and corporate governance standards to ensure honest and professional business practices and protect the reputation of the company and its customers.
We believe we compete favorably with respect to these factors.
 
HUMAN CAPITAL
 
Our professionals are our most important assets. We believe that the quality and level of service that our professionals deliver are among the highest in the global technology services industry. We are committed to remaining among the industry's leading employers.
 
As of March 31, 2012, we employed approximately 150,000 employees, of which approximately 141,790 are technology professionals, including trainees. During fiscal 2012, we recorded approximately 19,174 new hires, net of attrition. Our culture and reputation as a leader in the technology services industry enables us to recruit and retain some of the best available talent in India. The key elements that define our culture include:
 
Recruitment
 
We have built our global talent pool by recruiting new students from premier universities, colleges and institutes in India and through need-based hiring of project leaders and middle managers. We typically recruit only students in India who have consistently shown high levels of achievement. We also selectively recruit students from campuses in the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia and China. We rely on a rigorous selection process involving a series of aptitude tests and interviews to identify the best applicants. This selection process is continually assessed and refined based on the performance tracking of past recruits.
 
Our reputation as a premier employer enables us to select from a large pool of qualified applicants. For example, during fiscal 2012, we received approximately 622,970 employment applications, interviewed approximately 60,860 applicants and extended offers of employment to approximately 41,460 applicants. In fiscal 2012, we added approximately 16,069 new employees, net of attrition. These statistics do not include Infosys BPO and our wholly-owned subsidiaries, which together, recruited approximately 3,105 new hires, net of attrition, during fiscal 2012.
 
Training and Development
 
Our focus on developing our employees and providing continuing education training continues to be a key element of our strategy. We train the new engineering graduates that join us at our Global Education Center in Mysore. With a total built-up area of 1.44 million square feet, the Infosys Global Education Center can train approximately 14,000 employees at a time.
 
Our education programs are designed based on the competencies needed to service our clients and are aligned with the specific roles of our professionals. Our training curriculum and offerings are frequently upgraded to meet our business needs. During fiscal 2012 we introduced programs in emerging areas like cloud programming and mobile application development.
 
As of March 31, 2012, we employed 891 full-time employees as educators, including 310 with doctorate or masters degrees. Our educators conduct training programs for both the new entrants and experienced employees. Our researchers published extensively during the financial year with articles, white papers in prestigious journals and conferences as well as books and invited chapters in reputed publications.
 
Our engagement with engineering colleges through our Campus Connect program continued last year. Last year, we conducted over 190 faculty enablement workshops covering more than 4,500 faculty members from various colleges.
 
Leadership development is a core part of our training programs. We established the Infosys Leadership Institute in our 337-acre campus in Mysore, India, to enhance leadership skills that are required to manage the complexities of the rapidly changing marketplace and to further instil our culture through leadership training.
 
Compensation
 
Our technology professionals receive competitive salaries and benefits. We have a performance-linked compensation program that links compensation to individual performance, as well as our company performance.
 
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY
 
Our intellectual property rights are critical to our business. We rely on a combination of patent, copyright, trademark and design laws, trade secrets, confidentiality procedures and contractual provisions to protect our intellectual property. We currently have 47 issued patents granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office and 1 patent issued by the Luxembourg Patent Office. An aggregate of 474 unique patent applications are pending under various stages of prosecution. We have 18 trademarks registered across classes identified for various goods and services in India and in other countries. We require employees, independent contractors and, whenever possible, vendors to enter into confidentiality agreements upon the commencement of their relationships with us. These agreements generally provide that any confidential or proprietary information developed by us or on our behalf be kept confidential. These agreements also provide that any confidential or proprietary information disclosed to third parties in the course of our business be kept confidential by such third parties. However, our clients usually own the intellectual property in the software we develop for them.
 
Our efforts to protect our intellectual property may not be adequate. Our competitors may independently develop similar technology or duplicate our products and/or services. Unauthorized parties may infringe upon or misappropriate our products, services or proprietary information. In addition, the laws of India do not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as laws in the United States. In the future, litigation may be necessary to enforce our intellectual property rights or to determine the validity and scope of the proprietary rights of others. Any such litigation could be time-consuming and expensive.
 
We could be subject to intellectual property infringement claims as the number of our competitors grows and our product or service offerings overlap with competitive offerings. In addition, we may become subject to such claims since we may not always be able to verify the intellectual property rights of third parties from whom we license a variety of technologies. Defending against these claims, even if they are not meritorious, could be expensive and divert our attention from operating our company. If we become liable to third parties for infringing upon their intellectual property rights, we could be required to pay substantial damage awards and be forced to develop non-infringing technology, obtain licenses or cease selling the applications that contain the infringing technology. The loss of some of our existing licenses could delay the introduction of software enhancements, interactive tools and other new products and services until equivalent technology could be licensed or developed. We may be unable to develop non-infringing technology or obtain licenses on commercially reasonable terms, if at all.
 
We regard our trade name, trademarks, service marks and domain names as important to our success. We rely on the law to protect our proprietary rights to them, and we have taken steps to enhance our rights by filing trademark applications where appropriate. We have obtained registration of our key brand 'INFOSYS' as a trademark in both India and in the United States. We also aggressively protect these names and marks from infringement by others.
 
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
 
Our research and development efforts focus on developing and refining our methodologies, tools and techniques, improving estimation processes and adopting new technologies. We have several groups engaged in our research and development activities. These groups are listed below.
 
Education and Research Group. This group is the home to all of our educators engaged in designing, developing and conducting our competency development programs. The group partners with world class academic institutions to conduct joint research in areas that are relevant to our business.
 
Infosys Labs.
 
Infosys Labs is organized as a global network of research labs and innovation hubs. We have identified large, multidisciplinary problem spaces that embody the challenges facing our clients and, through Infosys Labs, we are creating technological solutions to solve them. Our enterprise technology research group focuses on a number of topics including visualization, semantic technology, context aware systems and others. Our research also focuses on the software engineering and services innovation aspects.
 
To enable co-creation of new solutions, an important vehicle that we believe drives innovation, we have set up innovation centers with a number of our clients, university partners, technology partners and industry research bodies. These centers focus on creating affordable solutions for tomorrow’s enterprise. These research centers also help increase the productivity of our current service offerings and help create new services.
 
During the year, we, as a result of the research generated from Infosys Labs, filed 143 unique patent applications in the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), the Indian Patent Office and other jurisdictions. Our research and development expenses for fiscal 2012, 2011 and 2010 were $140 million, $116 million and $92 million respectively.
 
EFFECT OF GOVERNMENT REGULATION ON OUR BUSINESS
 
Regulation of our business by the Indian government affects our business in several ways. We benefit from certain tax incentives promulgated by the Government of India, including a ten-year tax holiday from Indian corporate income taxes for the operation of our Indian facilities located in STPs and tax holidays for operation of our Indian facilities located in SEZs. As a result of these incentives, our operations have been subject to relatively insignificant Indian tax liabilities. The tax holiday for all of our STP units expired as of March 31, 2011. We have also benefited from the liberalization and deregulation of the Indian economy by the successive Indian governments since 1991, including the current Indian government. Further, there are restrictive Indian laws and regulations that affect our business, including regulations that require us to obtain approval from the Reserve Bank of India and/or the Ministry of Finance of the Government of India to acquire companies organized outside India, and regulations that require us, subject to some exceptions, to obtain approval from relevant government authorities in India in order to raise capital outside India. The conversion of our equity shares into ADSs is governed by guidelines issued by the Reserve Bank of India.
 
In addition, the ability of our technology professionals to work in the United States, Europe and in other countries depends on the ability to obtain the necessary visas and work permits.
 
As of March 31, 2012, the majority of our technology professionals in the United States held either H-1B visas (approximately 10,115 persons, not including Infosys BPO employees or employees of our wholly owned subsidiaries), which allow the employee to remain in the United States for up to six years during the term of the work permit and work as long as he or she remains an employee of the sponsoring firm, or L-1 visas (approximately 1,988 persons, not including Infosys BPO employees or employees of our wholly owned subsidiaries), which allow the employee to stay in the United States only temporarily. Although there is no limit to new L-1 visas, there is a limit to the aggregate number of new H-1B visas that the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, or CIS, may approve in any government fiscal year which is 85,000 annually. 20,000 of these visas are only available to skilled workers who possess a Master's or higher degree from institutions of higher education in the United States. Further, in response to the terrorist attacks in the United States, the CIS has increased its level of scrutiny in granting new visas. This may, in the future, also lead to limits on the number of L-1 visas granted. In addition, the granting of L-1 visas precludes companies from obtaining such visas for employees with specialized knowledge: (1) if such employees will be stationed primarily at the worksite of another company in the U.S. and the employee will not be controlled and supervised by his or her employer, or (2) if such offsite placement is essentially an arrangement to provide labor for hire rather than in connection with the employee's specialized knowledge. Immigration laws in the United States may also require us to meet certain levels of compensation, and to comply with other legal requirements, including labor certifications, as a condition to obtaining or maintaining work visas for our technology professionals working in the United States.
 
Immigration laws in the United States and in other countries are subject to legislative change, as well as to variations in standards of application and enforcement due to political forces and economic conditions. For instance, the U.S. government is considering the enactment of an Immigration Reform Bill, and the United Kingdom government has recently introduced an interim limit on the number of visas that may be granted. Further, effective August 14, 2010, the CIS has announced a fee increase of $2,000 for certain H-1B visa petitions and $2,250 for certain L-1 visa petitions. It is difficult to predict the political and economic events that could affect immigration laws, or the restrictive impact they could have on obtaining or monitoring work visas for our technology professionals. Our reliance on work visas for a significant number of technology professionals makes us particularly vulnerable to such changes and variations as it affects our ability to staff projects with technology professionals who are not citizens of the country where the work is to be performed. As a result, we may not be able to obtain a sufficient number of visas for our technology professionals or may encounter delays or additional costs in obtaining or maintaining the conditions of such visas. Additionally, we may have to apply in advance for visas and this could result in additional expenses during certain quarters of the fiscal year.
 
One of our employees has filed a lawsuit against us which alleged, among other things, that we were improperly utilizing the U.S. B-1 business visitor visa program. Following the filing of such lawsuit, a United States senator submitted a letter to U.S. Secretary of State and Secretary of Homeland Security, requesting that their respective departments review the B-1 business visa program and investigate the manner in which it is being utilized by companies, including Infosys. In the event that the U.S. government undertakes any actions which limit the B-1 business visa program or other visa program that we utilize, this could materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.
 
LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
 
On May 23, 2011, we received a subpoena from a grand jury in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Texas. The subpoena requires that we provide to the grand jury certain documents and records related to our sponsorships for, and uses of, B1 business visas. We are complying with the subpoena. In connection with the subpoena, during a recent meeting with the United States Attorney’s Office for the Eastern District of Texas, we were advised that we and certain of our employees are targets of the investigation. We intend to have further discussions with the U.S. Attorney’s Office regarding this matter, however, we cannot predict the outcome of the investigation by, or discussions with, the U.S. Attorney’s Office.
 
In addition, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS or the Department) is undertaking a review of our employer eligibility verifications on Form I-9 with respect to our employees working in the United States. In connection with this review, we have been advised that the DHS has found errors in a significant percentage of our Forms I-9 that the Department has reviewed. In the event that the DHS ultimately concludes that our Forms I-9 contained errors, the Department would likely impose fines and penalties on us. At this time, we cannot predict the final outcome of the review by, or the discussions with, the DHS or other governmental authority regarding the review of our Forms I-9.
 
In addition, we are subject to legal proceedings and claims, which have arisen in the ordinary course of our business. Our management does not reasonably expect that these legal actions, when ultimately concluded and determined, will have a material and adverse effect on our results of operations or financial condition.
 
ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
 
We hold a majority interest in the following company:
 
Infosys BPO. Infosys established Infosys BPO in April 2002, under the laws of India. As of March 31, 2012, Infosys holds 99.98% of the outstanding equity shares of Infosys BPO.
 
Infosys is the sole shareholder of the following companies:
 
Infosys Australia. In January 2004, we acquired, for cash, 100% of the equity in Expert Information Services Pty. Limited, Australia. The acquired company was renamed as 'Infosys Technologies (Australia) Pty. Limited'.
 
Infosys China. In October 2003, we established a wholly-owned subsidiary, Infosys China in Shanghai, China, to expand our business operations in China.
 
Infosys Mexico. In June 2007, we established a wholly-owned subsidiary, Infosys Mexico to expand our business operations in Latin America.
 
Infosys Sweden. In March 2009, we incorporated a wholly owned subsidiary, Infosys Technologies (Sweden) AB to expand our operations in Europe.
 
Infosys Brasil. On August 7, 2009, we incorporated a wholly owned subsidiary, Infosys Tecnologia do Brasil Ltda to expand our operations in South America
 
Infosys Public Services. On October 9, 2009, we incorporated a wholly-owned subsidiary, Infosys Public Services, to focus and expand our operations in the U.S public services market.
 
Infosys Shanghai. On February 21, 2011, we incorporated a wholly-owned subsidiary, Infosys Technologies (Shanghai) Company Limited.
 
Infosys Consulting Inc. In April 2004, we incorporated a wholly-owned subsidiary, Infosys Consulting Inc., in the State of Texas to add high-end consulting capabilities to our global delivery model. On October 7, 2011, the board of directors of Infosys Consulting Inc., approved the termination and winding down of the entity, and entered into an assignment and assumption agreement with Infosys Limited. The termination of Infosys Consulting, Inc. became effective on January 12, 2012, in accordance with the Texas Business Organizations Code. Effective January 12, 2012, the assets and liabilities of Infosys Consulting, Inc., were transferred to Infosys Limited.
 
Infosys Consulting India Limited. Infosys Consulting India is a wholly owned subsidiary of Infosys Consulting Inc. Effective January 12, 2012, the assets and liabilities of Infosys Consulting, Inc., were transferred to Infosys Limited. Consequently, Infosys Consulting India Limited is now a wholly owned subsidiary of Infosys Limited.
 
PROPERTY, PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT
 
Our principal campus, "Infosys City" is located at Electronics City, Bangalore, India. Infosys City consists of approximately 3.55 million square feet of land and 4 million square feet of operational facilities. The campus features:
  • 1,200,000 square feet of landscaped area;
  • 453 conference rooms;
  • An Education and Research unit consisting of 115,000 square feet of facilities space, including a library, 6 class rooms, 12 laboratories, computer-based learning and audio-visual aids, and 60 faculty rooms;
  • A Management Development Center consisting of 75,500 square feet of facilities space, with 16 class rooms, 6 rooms with workstations and 24 faculty rooms;
  • A world-class conference room with the capacity to simultaneously video-conference 24 locations across the globe;
  • A Convention Centre with a seating capacity of 1,400, state-of-the-art audio and video technology and basement car parking facilities with a capacity of 150 cars;
  • A banquet hall with a seating capacity of 900 with video conferencing facilities;
  • Redundant power supply through captive generators;
  • Leisure facilities, including tennis courts, a miniature golf course, a basketball court, a swimming pool, health club and a bookstore;
  • A multi-level parking lot with a capacity to park 1,600 cars and 800 two wheelers;
  • A multi-cuisine restaurant, six food courts and accommodation facilities; and
  • A store selling Infosys branded merchandise.
Additionally, we have leased independent facilities measuring approximately 373,500 square feet in Electronics City which accommodates approximately 4,100 employees.
 
Our capital expenditure on property, plant and equipment for fiscal 2012, 2011 and 2010 was $301 million, $285 million and $138 million, respectively. As of March 31, 2012 we had contractual commitments for capital expenditure of $205 million. All our capital expenditures are financed out of cash generated from operations.
 
Our software development facilities are equipped with a world-class technology infrastructure that includes networked workstations, servers, data communication links and video-conferencing.
 
We have 18 sales and marketing offices in the United States, four each in Australia, India and Germany, three each in Canada, Switzerland, UAE and UK, two each in the Czech Republic, Japan and France and one each in Belgium, Brazil, Denmark, Finland, Hong Kong, Ireland, Malaysia, Mauritius, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Russia, Singapore, Spain, South Africa and Sweden. We believe our facilities are adequately utilized. Appropriate expansion plans are being undertaken to meet our expected future growth.
 
Our most significant leased and owned properties are listed in the table below. We have only listed our leased and owned properties that are in excess of 100,000 square feet, and each such facility is located in India. 
 
Location
Building
Land
 
 
Approx. Sq. ft.
Approx Sq. ft.
Ownership
Software Development Facilities
     
Bangalore (Infosys City), Karnataka
23,958
Leased
Bangalore (Infosys City), Karnataka
3,772,114
3,523,812
Owned
Bangalore (Center Point, Electronics City), Karnataka
148,300
Leased
Bangalore (Sarakki, J.P.Nagar), Karnataka
16,553
Owned
Bangalore Sarjapur & Billapur, Karnataka
11,972,295
Owned
Bangalore (Devanahalli), Karnataka
 418,178
 Owned
Bangalore (Salarpuria Building, Electronics City) Karnataka
225,245
Leased
Bangalore (Tower Office, Banerghatta Road), Karnataka
120,906
Leased
Bhubaneswar (Chandaka Industrial Park), Orissa
879,721
1,999,455
Leased
Bhubaneswar (Info Valley Goudakasipur & Arisol), Orissa
2,218,040
Leased
Chandigarh (SEZ Campus)
1,135,580
1,316,388
Leased
Chennai (Sholinganallur), Tamil Nadu
508,300
578,043
Leased
Chennai (Maraimalai Nagar), Tamil Nadu
2,775,490
5,617,084
Leased
Hyderabad (Manikonda Village), Andhra Pradesh
1,873,209
2,194,997
Owned
Hyderabad (Pocharam Village), Andhra Pradesh
6,41,480
19,615,145
Owned
Mangalore (Kottara), Karnataka
204,000
119,790
Owned
Mangalore (Pajeeru and Kairangala Village), Karnataka
746,072
15,148,485
Leased
Mangalore (Kairangala Village), Karnataka
258,747
Owned
Mysore (Hebbal Electronic City), Karnataka
8,933,983
12,652,487
Owned
Mysore (Hebbal Electronic City), Karnataka
 –
2,047,346
Leased
Pune (Hinjewadi), Maharashtra
589,647
1,089,004
Leased
Pune (Hinjewadi Phase II), Maharashtra
4,368,055
4,965,005
Leased
Thiruvananthapuram (SEZ campus), Kerala
493,625
2,178,009
Leased
Thiruvananthapuram (Technopark), Kerala
124,576
Leased
Jaipur (BPO – SEZ Campus, M-City), Rajasthan
374,139
Leased
Jaipur (Mahindra World City), Rajasthan
 –
 6,452,568
 Leased
New Delhi-Vasanth Vihar
 –
9,360
Owned
Nagpur- Dahegaon Village (SEZ campus)
6,193,211
Leased
Indore – Tikgarita Badshah & Badangarda Village (SEZ campus)
5,666,307
Leased
Proposed Software Development Facilities
     
Chennai (Maraimalai Nagar), Tamil Nadu
570,958
Leased
Hyderabad (Pocharam Village), Andhra Pradesh
2,398,800
Owned
Mangalore, Karnataka
383,897
Leased
Mysore (Hebbal Electronic City), Karnataka
2,111,425
Leased
Pune (Hinjewadi Phase II), Maharashtra
 951,987
Leased
Thiruvananthapuram (Technopark), Kerala
1,171,000
Leased
 
 
None
 
 
The consolidated financial statements of the Company included in this Annual Report on Form 20-F have been prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by International Accounting Standards Board. The discussion, analysis and information presented in this section should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements included herein and the notes thereto.
 
OPERATING RESULTS
 
This information is set forth under the caption entitled 'Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations' below and is incorporated herein by reference.
 
LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES
 
This information is set forth under the caption entitled 'Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations' below and is incorporated herein by reference.
 
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT, PATENTS AND LICENSES, ETC.
 
We have committed and expect to continue to commit in the future, a material portion of our resources to research and development. Efforts towards research and development are focused on refinement of methodologies, tools and techniques, implementation of metrics, improvement in estimation process and the adoption of new technologies.
 
Our research and development expenses for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2012, 2011 and 2010 were $140 million, $116 million and $92 million, respectively.
 
TREND INFORMATION
 
This information is set forth under the caption entitled “Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” below and is incorporated herein by reference.
 
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
Overview
 
We are a leading global technology services company that provides business consulting, technology, engineering and outsourcing services. In addition, we offer software products for clients in the banking industry.
 
Our professionals deliver high quality solutions by leveraging our Global Delivery Model through which we divide projects into components that we execute simultaneously at client sites and at our development centers in India and around the world. We seek to optimize our cost structure by maintaining the flexibility to execute project components where it is most cost effective. Our Global Delivery Model also allows us to provide clients with high quality solutions in reduced time-frames enabling them to achieve operational efficiencies. Our sales, marketing and business development teams are organized to focus on specific geographies and industries and this helps us to customize our service offerings to our client's needs. Our primary geographic markets are North America, Europe and the Asia Pacific region. We serve clients in financial services, manufacturing, telecommunications, retail, utilities, logistics and other industries.
 
There is an increasing need for highly skilled technology professionals in the markets in which we operate and in the industries to which we provide services. At the same time, companies are reluctant to expand their internal IT departments and increase costs. These factors have increased the reliance of companies on their outsourced technology service providers and are expected to continue to drive future growth for outsourced technology services. We believe that because the effective use of offshore technology services may offer lower total costs of ownership of IT infrastructure, lower labor costs, improved quality and innovation, faster delivery of technology solutions and more flexibility in scheduling, companies are increasingly turning to offshore technology service providers. India, in particular, has become a premier destination for offshore technology services. The key factors contributing to the growth of IT and IT enabled services in India include high quality delivery, significant cost benefits and the availability of skilled IT professionals. Our proven Global Delivery Model, our comprehensive end to end solutions, our commitment to superior quality and process execution, our long standing client relationships and our ability to scale make us one of the leading offshore technology service providers in India.
 
There are numerous risks and challenges affecting the business. These risks and challenges are discussed in detail in the section entitled 'Risk Factors' and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 20-F.
 
We were founded in 1981 and are headquartered in Bangalore, India. We completed our initial public offering of equity shares in India in 1993 and our initial public offering of ADSs in the United States in 1999. We completed three sponsored secondary ADS offerings in the United States in August 2003, June 2005 and November 2006. We did not receive any of the proceeds from any of our sponsored secondary offerings.
 
During fiscal 2010, we incorporated two wholly-owned subsidiaries, Infosys Tecnologia do Brasil Ltda and Infosys Public Services, Inc., and, Infosys Consulting incorporated a wholly-owned subsidiary, Infosys Consulting India Limited.
 
During fiscal 2011, we incorporated a wholly owned subsidiary, Infosys Technologies (Shanghai) Company Limited.
 
In June 2011, we officially changed our name from “Infosys Technologies Limited” to “Infosys Limited,” following approval of the name change by our board of directors, shareholders and Indian regulatory authorities.
 
On October 7, 2011, the board of directors of Infosys Consulting Inc., approved the termination and winding down of the entity, and entered into an assignment and assumption agreement with Infosys Limited. The termination of Infosys Consulting, Inc. became effective on January 12, 2012, in accordance with the Texas Business Organizations Code. Effective January 12, 2012, the assets and liabilities of Infosys Consulting, Inc., were transferred to Infosys Limited.
 
At our Annual General Meeting held on June 11, 2011, our shareholders approved a final dividend of $0.45 per equity share, which in the aggregate resulted in a cash outflow of $296 million, inclusive of corporate dividend tax of $42 million.
 
Our Board of Directors, at their meeting held on October 12, 2011, approved payment of an interim dividend of approximately $0.31 per equity share. The dividend payment resulted in a cash outflow of approximately $205 million, including a corporate dividend tax of $28 million, and was paid to holders of our equity shares and ADSs in October 2011.
 
Further, our Board of Directors, in its meeting on April 13, 2012, proposed a final dividend of approximately $0.43 per equity share (Rupee-Symbol22 per equity share) and a special dividend, recognizing ten years of Infosys BPO’s operations, of approximately $0.20 per equity share Rupee-Symbol10 per equity share). The proposal is subject to the approval of shareholders at the Annual General Meeting to be held on June 9, 2012, and if approved, would result in a cash outflow of approximately $420 million, inclusive of corporate dividend tax of $59 million.
 
Infosys BPO is our majority-owned subsidiary. During fiscal 2008, Infosys BPO acquired 100% of the equity shares of P-Financial Services Holding B.V. This business acquisition was conducted by entering into a Sale and Purchase Agreement with Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (Philips), a company incorporated under the laws of the Netherlands, for acquiring the shared service centers of Philips for finance, accounting and procurement business in Poland, Thailand and India for a cash consideration of $27 million. During fiscal 2009, the investments held by P-Financial Services Holding B.V. in its wholly owned subsidiaries Pan-Financial Shared Services India Private Limited, Infosys BPO (Poland) Sp. Z.o.o., and Infosys BPO (Thailand) Limited were transferred to Infosys BPO, consequent to which P-Financial Services Holding B.V. was liquidated. Further, Infosys BPO merged its wholly owned subsidiary Pan-Financial Shared Services India Private Limited, retrospectively with effect from April 1, 2008, through a scheme of amalgamation sanctioned by the Karnataka and Madras High courts. During the year ended March 31, 2011 Infosys BPO (Thailand) Limited was liquidated.
 
During fiscal 2010, Infosys BPO acquired 100% of the voting interests in McCamish Systems LLC (McCamish), a business process solutions provider based in Atlanta, Georgia, in the United States. The business acquisition was conducted by entering into a Membership Interest Purchase Agreement for a cash consideration of $37 million and a contingent consideration of up to $20 million. The fair value of the contingent consideration on the date of acquisition was $9 million.On January 4, 2012, Infosys BPO acquired 100% of the voting interest in Portland Group Pty Ltd a strategic sourcing and category management services provider based in Australia. This business acquisition was conducted by entering into a share sale agreement for a cash consideration of $41 million.
 
The following table illustrates our growth in revenues, net profit, earnings per equity share and number of employees from fiscal 2008 to fiscal 2012:
 
 (Dollars in millions except share data)
 
2012
2008
Compound annual
growth rate
Revenues
$6,994
$4,176
10.9%
Net profit
$1,716
$1,163
8.1%
Earnings per equity share (Basic)
$3.00
$2.04
8.0%
Earnings per equity share (Diluted)
$3.00
$2.04
8.0%
Approximate number of employees at the end of the fiscal year
150,000
91,200
10.5%
 
Our revenue growth was attributable to a number of factors, including an increase in the size and number of projects executed for clients, as well as an expansion in the solutions that we provide to our clients. We added 172 new customers during fiscal 2012 as compared to 139 new customers during fiscal 2011 and 141 new customers during fiscal 2010. For fiscal 2012, 2011 and 2010, 97.8%, 98.0% and 97.3%, respectively, of our revenues came from repeat business, which we define as revenue from a client who also contributed to our revenue during the prior fiscal year.
 
Our business is designed to enable us to seamlessly deliver our onsite and offshore capabilities using a distributed project management methodology, which we refer to as our Global Delivery Model. We divide projects into components that we execute simultaneously at client sites and at our geographically dispersed development centers in India and around the world. Our Global Delivery Model allows us to provide clients with high quality solutions in reduced time-frames enabling them to achieve operational efficiencies.
 
Revenues
 
Our revenues are generated principally from technology services provided on either a time-and-materials or a fixed-price, fixed-timeframe basis. Revenues from services provided on a time-and-materials basis are recognized as the related services are performed. Revenues from services provided on a fixed-price, fixed-timeframe basis are recognized pursuant to the percentage-of-completion method. Most of our client contracts, including those that are on a fixed-price, fixed-timeframe basis can be terminated by clients with or without cause, without penalties and with short notice periods of between 0 and 90 days. Since we collect revenues on contracts as portions of the contracts are completed, terminated contracts are only subject to collection for portions of the contract completed through the time of termination. Most of our contracts do not contain specific termination-related penalty provisions. In order to manage and anticipate the risk of early or abrupt contract terminations, we monitor the progress on all contracts and change orders according to their characteristics and the circumstances in which they occur. This includes a focused review of our ability and our client's ability to perform on the contract, a review of extraordinary conditions that may lead to a contract termination, as well as historical client performance considerations. Since we also bear the risk of cost overruns and inflation with respect to fixed-price, fixed-timeframe projects, our operating results could be adversely affected by inaccurate estimates of contract completion costs and dates, including wage inflation rates and currency exchange rates that may affect cost projections. Losses on contracts, if any, are provided for in full in the period when determined. Although we revise our project completion estimates from time to time, such revisions have not, to date, had a material adverse effect on our operating results or financial condition. We also generate revenue from software application products, including banking software. Such software products represented 4.6%, 4.9% and 4.2% of our total revenues for fiscal 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively.
 
We experience from time to time, pricing pressure from our clients. For example, clients often expect that as we do more business with them, they will receive volume discounts. Additionally, clients may ask for fixed-price, fixed-time frame arrangements or reduced rates. We attempt to use fixed-price arrangements for engagements where the specifications are complete, so individual rates are not negotiated.
 
Cost of Sales
 
Cost of sales represented 58.9%, 57.9% and 57.2% of total revenues for fiscal 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively. Our cost of sales primarily consists of salary and other compensation expenses, depreciation, amortization of intangible assets, overseas travel expenses, cost of software purchased for internal use, third party items bought for service delivery to clients, cost of technical subcontractors, rent and data communication expenses. We depreciate our personal computers, mainframe computers and servers over two to five years and amortize intangible assets over their estimated useful life. Third party items bought for service delivery to clients are expensed on acceptance of delivery by the client. We recorded share-based compensation expense of less than $1 million under cost of sales during fiscal 2010 using the fair value recognition provisions contained in IFRS 2, Share-based Payment. For fiscal 2012 and 2011, the share-based compensation expense was nil. Amortization expense for fiscal 2012, 2011 and 2010 included under cost of sales was $3 million, $2 million and $8 million, respectively.
 
We typically assume full project management responsibility for each project that we undertake. Approximately 72.8%, 74.0% and 75.8% of the total billed person-months for our services during fiscal 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively, were performed at our global development centers in India, and the balance of the work was performed at client sites and global development centers located outside India. The proportion of work performed at our facilities and at client sites varies from quarter to quarter. We charge higher rates and incur higher compensation and other expenses for work performed at client sites and global development centers located outside India. Services performed at a client site or at a global development center located outside India typically generate higher revenues per-capita at a lower gross margin than the same services performed at our facilities in India. As a result, our total revenues, cost of sales and gross profit in absolute terms and as a percentage of revenues fluctuate from quarter- to- quarter based in part on the proportion of work performed outside India. We intend to hire more local employees in many of the overseas markets in which we operate, which could decrease our gross profits due to increased wage and hiring costs. Additionally, any increase in work performed at client sites or global development centers located outside India may decrease our gross profits. We hire subcontractors on a limited basis from time to time for our own technology development needs, and we generally do not perform subcontracted work for other technology service providers. For fiscal 2012, 2011 and 2010, approximately 3.9%, 3.8% and 2.9%, respectively, of our cost of sales was attributable to cost of technical subcontractors. We do not anticipate that our subcontracting needs will increase significantly as we expand our business.
 
Revenues and gross profits are also affected by employee utilization rates. We define employee utilization as the proportion of total billed person months to total available person months, excluding administrative and support personnel. We manage utilization by monitoring project requirements and timetables. The number of software professionals that we assign to a project will vary according to the size, complexity, duration, and demands of the project. An unanticipated termination of a significant project could also cause us to experience lower utilization of technology professionals, resulting in a higher than expected number of unassigned technology professionals. In addition, we do not utilize our technology professionals when they are enrolled in training programs, particularly during our 20-29 week training course for new employees.
 
Selling and Marketing Expenses
 
Selling and marketing expenses represented 5.2%, 5.5% and 5.2% of total revenues for fiscal 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively. Our selling and marketing expenses primarily consist of expenses relating to salaries and other compensation expenses of sales and marketing personnel, travel expenses, brand building, commission charges, rental for sales and marketing offices and telecommunications. We recorded share-based compensation expense of less than $1 million in selling and marketing expenses during fiscal 2010, using the fair value recognition provisions contained in IFRS 2. For fiscal 2012 and 2011, the share-based compensation expense was nil. We may increase our selling and marketing expenses as we seek to increase brand awareness among target clients and promote client loyalty and repeat business among existing clients.
 
Administrative Expenses
 
Administrative expenses represented 7.1%, 7.2% and 7.2% of total revenues for fiscal 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively. Our administrative expenses primarily consist of expenses relating to salaries and other compensation expenses of senior management and other support personnel, travel expenses, legal and other professional fees, telecommunications, office maintenance, power and fuel charges, insurance, other miscellaneous administrative costs and provisions for doubtful accounts receivable. The factors which affect the fluctuations in our provisions for bad debts and write offs of uncollectible accounts include the financial health of our clients and of the economic environment in which they operate. We recorded share-based compensation expense of less than $1 million in administrative expenses during fiscal 2010 using the fair value recognition provisions contained in IFRS 2. For fiscal 2012 and 2011, the share-based compensation expense was nil.
 
Other Income
 
Other income includes interest income, income from certificates of deposit, income from available-for-sale financial assets, marked to market gains / (losses) on foreign exchange forward and option contracts and foreign currency exchange gains / (losses) on translation of other assets and liabilities. For fiscal 2012, the interest income on deposits and certificates of deposit was $374 million and income from available-for-sale financial assets / investments was $6 million. In fiscal 2012, we also recorded a foreign exchange gain of $70 million on translation of other assets and liabilities partially offset by a foreign exchange loss of $57 million on forward and options contracts,. For fiscal 2011, the interest income on deposits and certificates of deposit was $250 million and income from available-for-sale financial assets / investments was $5 million. In fiscal 2011, we also recorded a foreign exchange gain of $13 million on forward and options contracts, partially offset by a foreign exchange loss of $4 million on translation of other assets and liabilities. For fiscal 2010, the interest income on deposits and certificates of deposit was $164 million and income from available-for-sale financial assets / investments was $34 million. In fiscal 2010, we also recorded a foreign exchange gain of $63 million on forward and options contracts, partially offset by a foreign exchange loss of $57 million on translation of other assets and liabilities. Income from available-for-sale financials assets/investments includes $11 million of income from sale of an unlisted equity securities.
 
Functional Currency and Foreign Exchange
 
The functional currency of Infosys, Infosys BPO and Infosys Consulting India is the Indian rupee. The functional currencies for Infosys Australia, Infosys China, Infosys Mexico, Infosys Sweden, Infosys Brasil, Infosys Public Services and Infosys Shanghai are the respective local currencies. The consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 20-F are presented in U.S. dollars (rounded off to the nearest million) to facilitate global comparability. The translation of functional currencies of foreign operations to U.S. dollars is performed for assets and liabilities using the exchange rate in effect at the balance sheet date, and for revenue, expenses and cash flow items using a monthly average exchange rate for the respective periods. The gains or losses resulting from such translation are included in other comprehensive income and presented as currency translation reserves under other components of equity.
 
Generally, Indian law requires residents of India to repatriate any foreign currency earnings to India to control the exchange of foreign currency. More specifically, Section 8 of the Foreign Exchange Management Act, or FEMA, requires an Indian company to take all reasonable steps to realize and repatriate into India all foreign currency earned by the company outside India, within such time periods and in the manner specified by the Reserve Bank of India, or RBI. The RBI has promulgated guidelines that require the company to repatriate any realized foreign currency back to India, and either:
  • sell it to an authorized dealer for Rupees within seven days from the date of receipt of the foreign currency;
  • retain it in a foreign currency account such as an Exchange Earners Foreign Currency, or EEFC, account with an authorized dealer; or
  • use it for discharge of debt or liabilities denominated in foreign currency.
We typically collect our earnings and pay expenses denominated in foreign currencies using a dedicated foreign currency account located in the local country of operation. In order to do this, we are required to, and have obtained, special approval from the RBI to maintain a foreign currency account in overseas countries like the United States. However, the RBI approval is subject to limitations, including a requirement that we repatriate all foreign currency in the account back to India within a reasonable time, except an amount equal to our local monthly operating cost for our overseas branch. We currently pay such expenses and repatriate the remainder of the foreign currency to India on a regular basis. We have the option to retain those in an EEFC account (foreign currency denominated) or an Indian-rupee-denominated account. We convert substantially all of our foreign currency to Indian rupees to fund operations and expansion activities in India.
 
Our failure to comply with these regulations could result in RBI enforcement actions against us.
 
Income Taxes
 
Our net profit earned from providing software development and other services outside India is subject to tax in the country where we perform the work. Most of our taxes paid in countries other than India can be applied as a credit against our Indian tax liability to the extent that the same income is subject to tax in India.
 
We benefit from the tax incentives the Government of India gives to the export of software from specially designated software technology parks, or STPs, in India and for facilities set up under the Special Economic Zones Act, 2005. The STP Tax Holiday was available for ten consecutive years beginning from the financial year when the unit started producing computer software or April 1, 1999, whichever was earlier. The Indian Government through the Finance Act, 2009 had extended the tax holiday for the STP units until March 31, 2011. The tax holidays for all of our STP units expired by the end of fiscal 2011. Under the Special Economic Zones Act, 2005 scheme, units in designated special economic zones which begin providing services on or after April 1, 2005 are eligible for a deduction of 100 percent of profits or gains derived from the export of services for the first five years from commencement of provision of services and 50 percent of such profits or gains for the five years thereafter. Certain tax benefits are also available for a further five years subject to the unit meeting defined conditions. When our tax holidays expire or terminate, our tax expense will materially increase, reducing our profitability.
 
As a result of these tax incentives, a portion of our pre-tax income has not been subject to significant tax in recent years. These tax incentives resulted in a decrease in our income tax expense of $202 million, $173 million and $223 million for fiscal 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively, compared to the effective tax amounts that we estimate we would have been required to pay if these incentives had not been available. The per share effect of these tax incentives for fiscal 2012, 2011 and 2010 was $0.35, $0.30, and $0.39, respectively.
 
Further, as a result of such tax incentives our effective tax rate for fiscal 2012, 2011 and 2010 was 28.8%, 26.7% and 21.3%, respectively. The increase in the effective tax rate to 28.8% for fiscal 2012 was mainly due to the expiration of the tax holiday period for our STP units and movement of one of our SEZ units from the 100% tax exempt category to the 50% tax exempt category due to completion of its first five years of operations and increase in taxes on non operating income. Our Indian statutory tax rate for the same period was 32.45%.
 
 Pursuant to the enacted changes in the Indian Income Tax Laws effective April 1, 2007, a Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) has been extended to income in respect of which a deduction may be claimed under section 10A of the Income Tax Act for STP units. Further, the Finance Act, 2011, which became effective April 1, 2011, extended MAT to SEZ operating and SEZ developer units also. Consequently, Infosys BPO has calculated its tax liability for current domestic taxes after considering MAT. The excess tax paid under MAT provisions being over and above regular tax liability can be carried forward and set off against future tax liabilities computed under regular tax provisions. Infosys BPO was required to pay MAT, and, accordingly, a deferred tax asset of $11 million and $14 million has been recognized on the balance sheet as of March 31, 2012 and March 31, 2011, respectively, which can be carried forward for a period of ten years from the year of recognition.
 
 In addition, the Finance Act, 2011, which became effective April 1, 2011, extended MAT to SEZ operating and SEZ developer units also, which means that income in respect of which a deduction may be claimed under section 10AA or 80IAB of the Income Tax Act has to be included in book profits for computing MAT liability. With the growth of our business in SEZ units, we may be required to compute our tax liability under MAT in future years.
 
We, as an Indian resident, are required to pay taxes in India on the entire global income in accordance with Section 5 of the Indian Income Tax Act, 1961, which is reflected as domestic taxes. The geographical segment disclosures on revenue in note 2.20.2 of Item 18 of this Annual Report are based on the location of customers and do not reflect the geographies where the actual delivery or revenue-related efforts occur. The income on which domestic taxes are imposed are not restricted to the income generated from the “India” geographic segment. As such, amounts applicable to domestic income taxes and foreign income taxes will not necessarily correlate to the proportion of revenue generated from India and other geographical segments as per the geographic segment disclosure set forth in note 2.20.2 of Item 18 of this Annual Report.
 
Results of Operations
 
The following table sets forth certain financial information as a percentage of revenues:
 
 
 Fiscal
 
2012
2011
2010
Revenues
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
Cost of sales
58.9%
57.9%
57.2%
Gross profit
       41.1%
42.1%
42.8%
Operating expenses:
 
 
 
Selling and marketing expenses
5.2%
5.5%
5.2%
Administrative expenses
7.1%
7.2%
7.2%
Total operating expenses
12.3%
12.7%
12.4%
Operating profit
28.8%
29.4%
30.4%
Other income, net
5.7%
4.4%
4.3%
Profit before income taxes
34.5%
33.8%
34.7%
Income tax expense
9.9%
9.0%
7.4%
Net profit
24.6%
24.8%
27.3%
 
Results for Fiscal 2012 compared to Fiscal 2011
 
Revenues
 
The following table sets forth the growth in our revenues in fiscal 2012 from fiscal 2011:
 (Dollars in millions)
 
Fiscal 2012
Fiscal 2011
Change
Percentage Change
Revenues
$6,994
$6,041
$953
15.8%
 
Revenues increased across all segments of our business. The increase in revenues was attributable primarily to an increase in business from existing clients, particularly in industries such as financial services and insurance (FSI), manufacturing (MFG) and retail, logistics, consumer products group, life sciences and health care enterprises (RCL).
 
Effective as of the quarter ended June 30, 2011, we internally reorganized our business to increase our client focus. Consequent to this internal reorganization there were changes effected in the reportable segments based on the “management approach” as defined in IFRS 8, Operating Segments (Refer Note 2.20, Segment reporting, of Item 18 of this Annual Report).
 
The following table sets forth our revenues by industry segments for fiscal 2012 and fiscal 2011:
 
Industry Segments
Percentage of Revenues
 
Fiscal 2012
Fiscal 2011
Financial services and insurance (FSI)
35.1%
35.9%
Manufacturing enterprises (MFG)
20.6%
19.6%
Energy, utilities and telecommunication services (ECS)
21.4%
24.0%
Retail, logistics, consumer product group, life sciences and health care enterprises (RCL)
22.9%
20.5%
 
During fiscal 2012, the U.S. dollar depreciated against a majority of the currencies in which we transact business. The U.S. dollar depreciated by 3.2%, 4.5% and 11.7% against the United Kingdom Pound Sterling, Euro and Australian dollar, respectively.
 
There were significant currency movements during fiscal 2012. Had the average exchange rate between each of these currencies and the U.S. dollar remained constant, during fiscal 2012 in comparison to fiscal 2011, our revenues in constant currency terms for fiscal 2012 would have been lower by $103 million at $6,891 million as against our reported revenues of $6,994 million, resulting in a growth of 14.1% as against a reported growth of 15.8%. The following table sets forth our revenues by industry segments for fiscal 2012, had the average exchange rate between each of the currencies namely, the United Kingdom Pound Sterling, Euro and Australian dollar, and the U.S. dollar remained constant, during fiscal 2012 in comparison to fiscal 2011, in constant currency terms:
 
Industry Segments
Fiscal 2012
Financial services and insurance (FSI)
35.1%
Manufacturing enterprises (MFG)
20.6%
Energy, utilities and telecommunication services (ECS)
23.1%
Retail, logistics, consumer product group, life sciences and health care enterprises (RCL)
21.2%
 
The following table sets forth our industry segment profit (revenues less identifiable operating expenses and allocated expenses) as a percentage of industry segment revenue for fiscal 2012 and fiscal 2011 (refer note 2.20.1 under Item 18 of this Annual Report):
 
Industry Segments
Fiscal 2012
Fiscal 2011
Financial services and insurance (FSI)
32.2%
33.3%
Manufacturing enterprises (MFG)
29.8%
31.6%
Energy, utilities and telecommunication services (ECS)
31.9%
32.3%
Retail, logistics, consumer product group, life sciences and health care enterprises (RCL)
31.9%
32.5%
 
Our revenues are also segmented into onsite and offshore revenues. Onsite revenues are for those services which are performed at client sites or at our global development centres outside India, as part of software projects, while offshore revenues are for services which are performed at our software development centers located in India. The table below sets forth the percentage of our revenues by location for fiscal 2012 and fiscal 2011:
 
 
Percentage of revenues
 
Fiscal 2012
Fiscal 2011
Onsite
49.9%
49.2%
Offshore
50.1%
50.8%
 
The services performed onsite typically generate higher revenues per-capita, but at lower gross margins in percentage as compared to the services performed at our own facilities. The table below sets forth details of billable hours expended as a percentage of revenue for onsite and offshore for fiscal 2012 and fiscal 2011:
 
 
Fiscal 2012
Fiscal 2011
Onsite
25.0%
 24.2%
Offshore
75.0%
 75.8%
 
Revenues from services represented 95.4% of total revenues for fiscal 2012 as compared to 95.1% for fiscal 2011. Sales of our software products represented 4.6% of our total revenues for fiscal 2012 as compared to 4.9% for fiscal 2011.
 
The following table sets forth the revenues from fixed-price, fixed-timeframe contracts and time-and-materials contracts as a percentage of total services revenues for fiscal 2012 and fiscal 2011:
 
 
Percentage of total services revenues
 
Fiscal 2012
Fiscal 2011
Fixed-price, fixed-time frame contracts
39.3%
40.3%
Time-and-materials contracts
60.7%
59.7%
 
The following table sets forth our revenues by geographic segments for fiscal 2012 and fiscal 2011:
 
 
Percentage of revenues
Geographic Segments
Fiscal 2012
Fiscal 2011
North America
63.9%
65.3%
Europe
21.9%
21.5%
India
2.2%
2.2%
Rest of the World
12.0%
11.0%
 
A focus of our growth strategy is to expand our business to parts of the world outside North America, including Europe, Australia and other parts of Asia, as we expect that increases in the proportion of revenues generated from customers outside of North America would reduce our dependence upon our sales to North America and the impact on us of economic downturns in that region.
 
There were significant currency movements during fiscal 2012. The following table sets forth our revenues by geographic segments for fiscal 2012, had the average exchange rate between each of the currencies namely, the United Kingdom Pound Sterling, Euro and Australian dollar, and the U.S. dollar remained constant, during fiscal 2012 in comparison to fiscal 2011, in constant currency terms:
 
Geographic Segments
Fiscal 2012
North America
64.8%
Europe
21.7%
India
2.2%
Rest of the World
11.3%
 
The following table sets forth our geographic segment profit (revenues less identifiable operating expenses and allocated expenses) as a percentage of geographic segment revenue for fiscal 2012 and fiscal 2011 (refer note 2.20.2 under Item 18 of this Annual Report):
 
Geographic Segments
Fiscal 2012
Fiscal 2011
North America
31.3%
31.9%
Europe
30.5%
33.4%
India
27.7%
29.5%
Rest of the World
35.8%
35.5%
 
The decline in geographic segment profit as a percentage of geographic segment revenue in the Indian geographic segment during fiscal 2012 as compared to fiscal 2011 was primarily due to the initial operational costs incurred in connection with certain projects.
 
During fiscal 2012, the total billed person-months for our services other than business process management grew by 11.1% compared to fiscal 2011. The onsite and offshore billed person-months growth for our services other than business process management were 14.8% and 9.5% during fiscal 2012 compared to fiscal 2011. During fiscal 2012, there was a 5.1% increase in offshore revenue productivity, and a 2.2% increase in the onsite revenue productivity when compared to fiscal 2011. On a blended basis, the revenue productivity increased by 4.7% during fiscal 2012 when compared to fiscal 2011.
 
Cost of sales
 
The following table sets forth our cost of sales for fiscal 2012 and fiscal 2011:
(Dollars in millions)
 
Fiscal 2012
Fiscal 2011
Change
Percentage Change
Cost of sales
$4,118
$3,497
$621
17.8%
As a percentage of revenues
58.9%
57.9%
 
 
 
(Dollars in millions)
 
Fiscal 2012
Fiscal 2011
Change
Employee benefit costs
$3,377
 $2,850
$527
Depreciation and amortization
195
 189
6
Travelling costs
164
 152
12
Cost of technical sub-contractors
160
 132
28
Software packages for own use
101
 77
24
Third party items bought for service delivery to clients
34
 30
4
Operating lease payments
26
 20
6
Communication costs
19
 18
1
Repairs and maintenance
13
 12
1
Provision for post-sales client support
13
 1
12
Other expenses
16
16
Total
$4,118
$3,497
$621
 
The increase in cost of sales as a percentage of revenues during fiscal 2012 from fiscal 2011 was attributable primarily to an increase in our employee benefit costs, cost of technical sub-contractors, software packages for own use and provision for post-sales client support. The increase in employee benefit costs during fiscal 2012 from fiscal 2011 was due to an increase in employees, excluding sales and support personnel, from 123,811 as of fiscal 2011 to 141,788 as of fiscal 2012. Further, the offshore and onsite wages of our employees increased on an average by 10% to 12% and 2% to 3%, respectively, with effect from April 2011. The increase in cost of technical sub-contractors was due to increased engagement of technical sub- contractors to meet certain skill requirement in large projects. The increase in software packages for own use, is due to an increase in volume of system integration projects executed in the Indian market and also general increase in software bought for internal use. The increase in provision for post-sales client support during fiscal 2012 from fiscal 2011 was due to increase in provision made for contracts especially in certain financial services clients.
 
Gross profit
 
The following table sets forth our gross profit for fiscal 2012 and fiscal 2011:
(Dollars in millions)
 
Fiscal 2012
Fiscal 2011
Change
Percentage Change
Gross profit
$2,876
$2,544
$332
13.1%
As a percentage of revenues
41.1%
42.1%
 
 
 
The increase in gross profit during fiscal 2012 from fiscal 2011 was attributable to a 15.8% increase in revenue, partially offset by a 1.0% increase in cost of sales as a percentage of revenue.
 
Revenues and gross profits are also affected by employee utilization rates. The following table sets forth the utilization rates of billable employees for services and software application products, excluding business process outsourcing services: 
 
 
Fiscal
 
2012
2011
Including trainees
69.0%
72.1%
Excluding trainees
75.9%
79.6%
 
Selling and marketing expenses
 
The following table sets forth our selling and marketing expenses for fiscal 2012 and fiscal 2011:
(Dollars in millions)
 
Fiscal 2012
Fiscal 2011
Change
Percentage Change
Selling and marketing expenses
$366
$332
$34
10.2%
As a percentage of revenues
5.2%
5.5%
 
 
 
(Dollars in millions)
 
Fiscal 2012
Fiscal 2011
Change
Employee benefit costs
$283
 $268
$15
Travelling costs
37
 28
9
Branding and marketing
25
 21
4
Operating lease payments
5
 4
1
Commission
6
 3
3
Consultancy and professional charges
5
3
2
Other expenses
5
5
Total
$366
$332
$34
 
The number of our sales and marketing personnel increased to 1,132 as of March 31, 2012 from 1,001 as of March 31, 2011. The increase in selling and marketing expenses during fiscal 2012 from fiscal 2011 was primarily attributable to an increase in employee benefit costs as a result of increased head count and the result of the salary increase in April 2011.
 
Administrative expenses
 
The following table sets forth our administrative expenses for fiscal 2012 and fiscal 2011:
(Dollars in millions)
 
Fiscal 2012
Fiscal 2011
Change
Percentage Change
Administrative expenses
$497
$433
$64
14.8%
As a percentage of revenues
7.1%
7.2%
 
 
 
(Dollars in millions)
 
Fiscal 2012
Fiscal 2011
Change
Employee benefit costs
$155
 $147
$8
Consultancy and professional charges
94
 72
22
Repairs and maintenance
76
 67
9
Power and fuel
38
 37
1
Communication costs
34
 30
4
Travelling costs
32
 30
2
Rates and taxes
13
 12
1
Operating lease payments
9
 9
-
Insurance charges
8
 7
1
Postage and courier
3
 3
-
Printing and stationery
3
 3
-
Provisions for doubtful accounts receivable
14
 –
14
Other expenses
18
 16
2
Total
$497
$433
$64
 
The increase in administrative expenses for fiscal 2012 compared to fiscal 2011 was primarily due to an increase in employee benefit costs and an increase in consultancy, professional charges and provisions for doubtful accounts receivable. The increase in consultancy and professional charges is primarily due to an increase in hiring charges of employees as well as increased legal charges. The increase in employee cost during fiscal 2012 from fiscal 2011 is primarily due to an increase in head count from 6,008 as at March 31, 2011 to 7,074 as at March 31, 2012, as well as increased salaries in April 2011. The increase in provision for doubtful account receivable was based on the management’s estimation on the collectability of the receivables.

Operating profit
 
The following table sets forth our operating profit for fiscal 2012 and fiscal 2011:
(Dollars in millions)
 
Fiscal 2012
Fiscal 2011
Change
Percentage Change
Operating profit
$2,013
$1,779
$234
13.2%
As a percentage of revenues
28.8%
29.4%
 
 
 
The decrease in operating profit as a percentage of revenues for fiscal 2012 from fiscal 2011 was attributable to a 1.0% decrease in gross profit as a percentage of revenue, partially offset by a 0.3% decrease in selling and marketing expenses and 0.1% decrease in administrative expenses.
 
Other income
 
The following table sets forth our other income for fiscal 2012 and fiscal 2011:
(Dollars in millions)
 
Fiscal 2012
Fiscal 2011
Change
Percentage Change
Other income, net
$397
$267
$130
48.7%
 
Other income for fiscal 2012 includes interest income on deposits and certificates of deposit of $374 million, foreign exchange gain of $70 million on translation of other assets and liabilities, and income from available-for-sale financial assets/investments of $6 million partially offset by a foreign exchange loss of $57 million on forward and options contracts. Other income for fiscal 2011 includes interest income on deposits and certificates of deposit of $250 million, foreign exchange gain of $13 million on forward and options contracts and income from available-for-sale financial assets/investments of $5 million, partially offset by a foreign exchange loss of $4 million on translation of other assets and liabilities.
 
We generate substantially all of our revenues in foreign currencies, particularly the U.S. dollar, the United Kingdom Pound Sterling, Euro and the Australian dollar, whereas we incur a majority of our expenses in Indian rupees. The exchange rate between the Indian rupee and the U.S. dollar has changed substantially in recent years and may fluctuate substantially in the future. Consequently, the results of our operations are adversely affected as the Indian rupee appreciates against the U.S. dollar. Foreign exchange gains and losses arise from the appreciation and depreciation of the Indian rupee against other currencies in which we transact business and from foreign exchange forward and option contracts.
 
The following table sets forth the currency in which our revenues for fiscal 2012 and fiscal 2011 were denominated:
 
 Currency
Percentage of Revenues
 
Fiscal 2012
Fiscal 2011
U.S. dollar
71.7%
72.8%
United Kingdom Pound Sterling
6.8%
7.2%
Euro
7.7%
6.9%
Australian dollar
7.6%
6.5%
Others
6.2%
6.6%
 
The following table sets forth information on the foreign exchange rates in Rupees per U.S. dollar, United Kingdom Pound Sterling, Euro and Australian dollar for fiscal 2012 and fiscal 2011:
 
 
Fiscal
Appreciation / (Depreciation)
in percentage
 
2012 (rupee-symbol)
2011 (rupee-symbol)
 
Average exchange rate during the period:
 
 
 
U.S. dollar
48.10
45.54
(5.6)%
United Kingdom Pound Sterling
76.79
70.77
(8.5)%
Euro
66.28
60.14
(10.2)%
Australian dollar
50.33
42.95
(17.2)%
 
 
 
Fiscal
 
2012  (rupee-symbol)
2011 (rupee-symbol)
Exchange rate at the beginning of the period:
 
 
U.S. dollar
 44.60
44.90
United Kingdom Pound Sterling
 71.80
67.96
Euro
 63.38
60.45
Australian dollar
 46.11
41.16
Exchange rate at the end of the period:
 
 
U.S. dollar
50.88
 44.60
United Kingdom Pound Sterling
81.46
 71.80
Euro
67.87
 63.38
Australian dollar
52.91
 46.11
Appreciation / (Depreciation) of the rupee against the relevant currency during the period (as a percentage):
 
 
U.S. dollar
(14.1)%
0.7%
United Kingdom Pound Sterling
(13.5)%
(5.7)%
Euro
(7.1)%
(4.8)%
Australian dollar
(14.7)%
(12.0)%
 
The following table sets forth information on the foreign exchange rates in U.S. dollar per United Kingdom Pound Sterling, Euro and Australian dollar for fiscal 2012 and fiscal 2011:
 
 
Fiscal
Appreciation / (Depreciation)
in percentage
 
2012 ($)
2011 ($)
 
Average exchange rate during the period:
 
 
 
United Kingdom Pound Sterling
1.60
 1.55
(3.2)%
Euro
1.38
 1.32
(4.5)%
Australian dollar
1.05
 0.94
(11.7)%
  
 
 
Fiscal
 
2012 ($)
2011 ($)
Exchange rate at the beginning of the period:
 
 
United Kingdom Pound Sterling
 1.61
1.51
Euro
 1.42
1.35
Australian dollar
 1.03
0.92
Exchange rate at the end of the period:
 
 
United Kingdom Pound Sterling
1.60
 1.61
Euro
1.33
 1.42
Australian dollar
1.04
 1.03
Appreciation / (Depreciation) of U.S. dollar against the relevant currency during the period:
 
 
United Kingdom Pound Sterling
0.6%
(6.6)%
Euro
6.3%
(5.2)%
Australian dollar
(1.0)%
(12.0)%
 
For fiscal 2012, every percentage point depreciation/appreciation in the exchange rate between the Indian rupee and the U.S. dollar has affected our operating margins by approximately 0.5%. The exchange rate between the Indian rupee and U.S. dollar has fluctuated substantially in recent years and may continue to do so in the future. We are unable to predict the impact that future fluctuations may have on our operating margins.
 
We have recorded a loss of $57 million and a gain of $13 million for fiscal 2012 and fiscal 2011, respectively, on account of foreign exchange forward and option contracts, which are included in total foreign currency exchange gains/ losses. Our accounting policy requires us to mark to market and recognize the effect in profit immediately of any derivative that is either not designated a hedge, or is so designated but is ineffective as per IAS 39.
 
Income tax expense
 
The following table sets forth our income tax expense and effective tax rate for fiscal 2012 and fiscal 2011:
(Dollars in millions)
 
Fiscal 2012
 Fiscal 2011
Change
Percentage Change
Income tax expense
$694
$547
$147
26.9%
Effective tax rate
28.8%
26.7%
 
 
 
The increase in the effective tax rate during fiscal 2012 from fiscal 2011 is primarily due to the expiration of the tax holiday period for all units operating under the Software Technology Park (STP) scheme and movement of one of the SEZ units from the 100% tax exempt category to the 50% tax exempt category, due to the completion of its first five years of operations and increase in taxes on non operating income.
 
Net profit
 
The following table sets forth our net profit for fiscal 2012 and fiscal 2011:
(Dollars in millions)
 
Fiscal 2012
Fiscal 2011
Change
Percentage Change
Net profit
$1,716
$1,499
$217
14.5%
As a percentage of revenues
24.5%
24.8%
 
 
 
The decrease in net profit as a percentage of revenues for fiscal 2012 from fiscal 2011 was attributable to a 0.6% decrease in operating profit as a percentage of revenue and an increase of 2.1% in our effective tax rate, partially offset by an increase in other income.
 
Results for Fiscal 2011 compared to Fiscal 2010
 
Effective the quarter ended June 30, 2011, the company reorganized its business to increase its client focus. Consequent to the internal reorganization there were changes effected in the reportable segments based on the “management approach” as defined in IFRS 8, Operating Segments.

Revenues
 
The following table sets forth the growth in our revenues in fiscal 2011 from fiscal 2010:
 
 (Dollars in millions)
 
Fiscal 2011
Fiscal 2010
Change
Percentage Change
Revenues
$6,041
$4,804
$1,237
25.7%
 
Revenues increased in almost all segments of our business. The increase in revenues was attributable primarily to an increase in business from existing clients, particularly in industries such as financial services, manufacturing and retail.
 
The following table sets forth our revenues by industry segments for fiscal 2011 and fiscal 2010:
 
Industry Segments
Percentage of Revenues
 
Fiscal 2011
Fiscal 2010
Financial services and insurance (FSI)
35.9%
  34.0%
Manufacturing enterprises (MFG)
19.6%
  19.8%
Energy, utilities and telecommunication services (ECS)
24.0%
  25.6%
Retail, logistics, consumer product group, life sciences and health care enterprises (RCL)
20.5%
  20.6%
 
The increase in the percentage of revenues from the financial services and insurance (FSI) segment during fiscal 2011 as compared to fiscal 2010 was due to an increase in business from existing clients and the addition of new clients. The decline in the percentage of revenues from the Energy, utilities and telecommunication services (ECS) segment during fiscal 2011 as compared to fiscal 2010 was due to a decrease in business from existing clients.
 
During fiscal 2011, the U.S. dollar appreciated against a majority of the currencies in which we transact business. The U.S. dollar appreciated by 3.1% and 6.4% against the United Kingdom Pound Sterling and Euro respectively and depreciated by 10.6% against the Australian dollar.
 
There were significant currency movements during fiscal 2011. Had the average exchange rate between each of these currencies and the U.S. dollar remained constant, during fiscal 2011 in comparison to fiscal 2010, our revenues in constant currency terms for fiscal 2011 would have been lower by $13 million at $6,028 million as against our reported revenues of $6,041 million, resulting in a growth of 25.5% as against a reported growth of 25.7%. The following table sets forth our revenues by industry segments for fiscal 2011, had the average exchange rate between each of the currencies namely, the United Kingdom Pound Sterling, Euro and Australian dollar, and the U.S. dollar remained constant, during fiscal 2011 in comparison to fiscal 2010, in constant currency terms:
 
Industry Segments
Fiscal 2011
Financial services and insurance (FSI)
35.8% 
Manufacturing enterprises (MFG)
  19.7%
Energy, utilities and telecommunication services (ECS)
  20.6%
Retail, logistics, consumer product group, life sciences and health care enterprises (RCL)
  23.9%
 
The following table sets forth our industry segment profit (revenues less identifiable operating expenses and allocated expenses) as a percentage of industry segment revenue for fiscal 2011 and fiscal 2010 (refer note 2.20.1 under Item 18 of this Annual Report):
 
Industry Segments
Fiscal 2011 Fiscal 2010
Financial services and insurance (FSI)
33.3%
35.1% 
Manufacturing enterprises (MFG)
31.6%
  30.5%
Energy, utilities and telecommunication services (ECS)
32.3%
  37.8%
Retail, logistics, consumer product group, life sciences and health care enterprises (RCL)
32.5%
  33.5%
 
Our revenues are also segmented into onsite and offshore revenues. Onsite revenues are for those services which are performed at client sites or at our global development centres outside India, as part of software projects, while offshore revenues are for services which are performed at our software development centers located in India. The table below sets forth the percentage of our revenues by location for fiscal 2011 and fiscal 2010:
 
 
Percentage of revenues
 
Fiscal 2011
Fiscal 2010
Onsite
49.2%
46.1%
Offshore
50.8%
53.9%
 
The services performed onsite typically generate higher revenues per-capita, but at lower gross margins in percentage as compared to the services performed at our own facilities. The table below sets forth details of billable hours expended as a percentage of revenue for onsite and offshore for fiscal 2011 and fiscal 2010:
 
 
Fiscal 2011
Fiscal 2010
Onsite
 24.2%
22.6%
Offshore
 75.8%
77.4%
 
Revenues from services represented 95.1% of total revenues for fiscal 2011 as compared to 95.8% for fiscal 2010. Sales of our software products represented 4.9% of our total revenues for fiscal 2011 as compared to 4.2% for fiscal 2010.
 
The following table sets forth the revenues from fixed-price, fixed-timeframe contracts and time-and-materials contracts as a percentage of total services revenues for fiscal 2011 and fiscal 2010:
 
 
Percentage of total services revenues
 
Fiscal 2011
Fiscal 2010
Fixed-price, fixed-time frame contracts
40.3%
38.5%
Time-and-materials contracts
59.7%
61.5%
 
The following table sets forth our revenues by geographic segments for fiscal 2011 and fiscal 2010:
 
 
Percentage of revenues
Geographic Segments
Fiscal 2011
Fiscal 2010
North America
65.3%
65.8%
Europe
21.5%
23.0%
India
2.2%
1.2%
Rest of the World
11.0%
10.0%
 
A focus of our growth strategy is to expand our business to parts of the world outside North America, including Europe, Australia and other parts of Asia, as we expect that increases in the proportion of revenues generated from customers outside of North America would reduce our dependence upon our sales to North America and the impact on us of economic downturns in that region.
 
There were significant currency movements during fiscal 2011. The following table sets forth our revenues by geographic segments for fiscal 2011, had the average exchange rate between each of the currencies namely, the United Kingdom Pound Sterling, Euro and Australian dollar, and the U.S. dollar remained constant, during fiscal 2011 in comparison to fiscal 2010, in constant currency terms:
 
Geographic Segments
Fiscal 2011
North America
65.3%
Europe
22.2%
India
2.2%
Rest of the World
10.3%
 
The following table sets forth our geographic segment profit (revenues less identifiable operating expenses and allocated expenses) as a percentage of geographic segment revenue for fiscal 2011 and fiscal 2010 (refer note 2.20.2 under Item 18 of this Annual Report):
 
Geographic Segments
Fiscal 2011
Fiscal 2010
North America
31.9%
34.2%
Europe
33.4%
34.8%
India
29.5%
44.8%
Rest of the World
35.5%
35.1%
 
The decline in geographic segment profit as a percentage of geographic segment revenue in the Indian geographic segment during fiscal 2011 as compared to fiscal 2010 was primarily due to the initial operational costs incurred in connection with certain projects.
 
During fiscal 2011 the total billed person-months for our services other than business process management grew by 23.4% compared to fiscal 2010. The onsite and offshore billed person-months growth for our services other than business process management were 25.3% and 22.6% during fiscal 2011 compared to fiscal 2010. During fiscal 2011 there was a 3.1% decrease in offshore revenue productivity compared to fiscal 2010 for our services other than business process management. There was a 5.4% increase in the onsite revenue productivity of fiscal 2011 when compared to fiscal 2010. On a blended basis, the revenue productivity increased by 1.8% in fiscal 2011 when compared to fiscal 2010.
 
Cost of sales
 
The following table sets forth our cost of sales for fiscal 2011 and fiscal 2010:
(Dollars in millions)
 
Fiscal 2011
Fiscal 2010
Change
Percentage Change
Cost of sales
$3,497
$2,749
$748
27.2%
As a percentage of revenues
57.9%
57.2%
 
 
 
(Dollars in millions)
 
Fiscal 2011
Fiscal 2010
Change
Employee benefit costs
 $2,850
$2,241
 $609
Depreciation and amortization
 189
199
 (10)
Travelling costs
 152
103
 49
Cost of technical sub-contractors
 132
79
 53
Software packages for own use
 77
71
 6
Third party items bought for service delivery to clients
 30
3
 27
Operating lease payments
 20
15
 5
Communication costs
 18
18
 –
Repairs and maintenance
 12
6
 6
Provision for post-sales client support
 1
 1
Other expenses
16
14
2
Total
$3,497
$2,749
$748
 
The increase in cost of sales as a percentage of revenues during fiscal 2011 from fiscal 2010 was attributable primarily to an increase in our employee benefit costs, travelling costs, cost of technical sub-contractors and third party items bought for service delivery to clients. The increase in employee benefit costs during fiscal 2011 from fiscal 2010 was due to an increase in employees, excluding sales and support personnel, from 106,900 as of fiscal 2010 to 123,800 as of fiscal 2011. Further, the offshore and onsite wages of our employees increased on an average by 15.5% and 2.0% to 3.0%, respectively, with effect from April 2010. The increase in the cost of technical sub-contractors was due to increased engagements of technical sub-contractors to meet specific skill requirements in certain large projects. Travelling cost increased during fiscal 2011 from fiscal 2010 due to an overall increase in business and increased spending for visas which has increased from $21 million in fiscal 2010 to $42 million in fiscal 2011. The increase in third party items bought for service delivery to clients is due to an increase in volume of system integration projects executed in the Indian market.
 
Gross profit
 
The following table sets forth our gross profit for fiscal 2011 and fiscal 2010:
(Dollars in millions)
 
Fiscal 2011
Fiscal 2010
Change
Percentage Change
Gross profit
$2,544
$2,055
$489
23.8%
As a percentage of revenues
42.1%
42.8%
 
 
 
The increase in gross profit during fiscal 2011 from fiscal 2010 was attributable to a 25.7% increase in revenue, marginally offset by a 0.7% increase in cost of sales as a percentage of revenue.
 
Revenues and gross profits are also affected by employee utilization rates. The following table sets forth the utilization rates of billable employees for services and software application products, excluding business process outsourcing services:
 
 
Fiscal
 
2011
2010
Including trainees
72.1%
67.5%
Excluding trainees
79.6%
74.2%
 
Selling and marketing expenses
 
The following table sets forth our selling and marketing expenses for fiscal 2011 and fiscal 2010:
(Dollars in millions)
 
Fiscal 2011
Fiscal 2010
Change
Percentage Change
Selling and marketing expenses
$332
$251
$81
32.3%
As a percentage of revenues
5.5%
5.2%
 
 
 
(Dollars in millions)
 
Fiscal 2011
Fiscal 2010
Change
Employee benefit costs
 $268
$198
 $70
Travelling costs
 28
23
 5
Branding and marketing
 21
16
 5
Operating lease payments
 4
3
 1
Commission
 3
3
 –
Consultancy and professional charges
3
5
(2)
Other expenses
5
3
2
Total
$332
$251
$81
 
The number of our sales and marketing personnel increased to 1,001 as of March 31, 2011 from 896 as of March 31, 2010. The increase in selling and marketing expenses during fiscal 2011 from fiscal 2010 was primarily attributable to an increase in employee benefit costs as a result of increased head count and the result of the salary increase in April 2010.
 
Administrative expenses
 
The following table sets forth our administrative expenses for fiscal 2011 and fiscal 2010:
(Dollars in millions)
 
Fiscal 2011
Fiscal 2010
Change
Percentage Change
Administrative expenses
$433
$344
$89
25.9%
As a percentage of revenues
7.2%
7.2%
 
 
 
(Dollars in millions)
 
Fiscal 2011
Fiscal 2010
Change
Employee benefit costs
 $147
$114
 $33
Consultancy and professional charges
 72
54
 18
Repairs and maintenance
 67
49
 18
Power and fuel
 37
30
 7
Communication costs
 30
27
 3
Travelling costs
 30
21
 9
Rates and taxes
 12
7
 5
Operating lease payments
 9
8
 1
Insurance charges
 7
7
 –
Postage and courier
 3
2
 1
Printing and stationery
 3
2
 1
Provisions for doubtful accounts receivable
 –
 –
Other expenses
 16
23
 (7)
Total
$433
$344
$89
 
The increase in administrative expenses for fiscal 2011 compared to fiscal 2010 was primarily due to an increase in employee benefit costs as a result of salary increases in April 2010. The increase in consultancy and professional charges is primarily due to an increase in hiring charges of employees. The gross and net addition of employees was 27,600 and 8,900 in fiscal 2010 and 43,000 and 17,000 in fiscal 2011. The increase in repairs and maintenance is due to an overall increase in the size of our business in fiscal 2011.
 
Operating profit
 
The following table sets forth our operating profit for fiscal 2011 and fiscal 2010:
(Dollars in millions)
 
Fiscal 2011
Fiscal 2010
Change
Percentage Change
Operating profit
$1,779
$1,460
$319
21.8%
As a percentage of revenues
29.4%
30.4%
 
 
 
The decrease in operating profit as a percentage of revenues for fiscal 2011 from fiscal 2010 was attributable to a 0.7% decrease in gross profit as a percentage of revenue and 0.3% increase in selling and marketing expenses as a percentage of revenue.
 
Other income
 
The following table sets forth our other income for fiscal 2011 and fiscal 2010:
(Dollars in millions)
 
Fiscal 2011
Fiscal 2010
Change
Percentage Change
Other income, net
$267
$209
$58
27.8%
 
Other income for fiscal 2011 includes interest income on deposits and certificates of deposit of $250 million, income from available-for-sale financial assets/investments of $5 million and foreign exchange gain of $13 million on forward and options contracts, partially offset by a foreign exchange loss of $4 million on translation of other assets and liabilities. Other income for fiscal 2010 includes interest income on deposits and certificates of deposit of $164 million, income from available-for-sale financial assets/investments of $34 million and foreign exchange gain of $63 million on forward and options contracts, partially offset by a foreign exchange loss of $57 million on translation of other assets and liabilities. Income from available-for-sale financials assets/investments for fiscal 2010 includes $11 million of income from sale of an unlisted equity securities.
 
We generate substantially all of our revenues in foreign currencies, particularly the U.S. dollar, the United Kingdom Pound Sterling, Euro and the Australian dollar, whereas we incur a majority of our expenses in Indian rupees. The exchange rate between the Indian rupee and the U.S. dollar has changed substantially in recent years and may fluctuate substantially in the future. Consequently, the results of our operations are adversely affected as the Indian rupee appreciates against the U.S. dollar. Foreign exchange gains and losses arise from the appreciation and depreciation of the Indian rupee against other currencies in which we transact business and from foreign exchange forward and option contracts.
 
The following table sets forth the currency in which our revenues for fiscal 2011 and fiscal 2010 were denominated:
 
 Currency
Percentage of Revenues
 
Fiscal 2011
Fiscal 2010
U.S. dollar
72.8%
73.3%
United Kingdom Pound Sterling
7.2%
9.2%
Euro
6.9%
6.9%
Australian dollar
6.5%
5.8%
Others
6.6%
4.8%
 
The following table sets forth information on the foreign exchange rates in Rupees per U.S. dollar, United Kingdom Pound Sterling, Euro and Australian dollar for fiscal 2011 and fiscal 2010:
 
 
Fiscal
Appreciation / (Depreciation)
in percentage
 
2011 (rupee-symbol)
2010 (rupee-symbol)
 
Average exchange rate during the period:
 
 
 
U.S. dollar
45.54
47.43
4.0%
United Kingdom Pound Sterling
70.77
75.74
6.6%
Euro
60.14
67.02
10.3%
Australian dollar
42.95
40.30
(6.6)%
 
 
 
Fiscal
 
2011 (rupee-symbol)
2010 (rupee-symbol)
Exchange rate at the beginning of the period:
 
 
U.S. dollar
44.90
50.72
United Kingdom Pound Sterling
67.96
72.49
Euro
60.45
67.44
Australian dollar
41.16
35.03
Exchange rate at the end of the period:
 
 
U.S. dollar
 44.60
44.90
United Kingdom Pound Sterling
 71.80
67.96
Euro
 63.38
60.45
Australian dollar
 46.11
41.16
Appreciation / (Depreciation) of the rupee against the relevant currency during the period (as a percentage):
 
 
U.S. dollar
0.7%
11.5%
United Kingdom Pound Sterling
(5.7)%
6.2%
Euro
(4.8)%
10.4%
Australian dollar
(12.0)%
(17.5)%
 
The following table sets forth information on the foreign exchange rates in U.S. dollar per United Kingdom Pound Sterling, Euro and Australian dollar for fiscal 2011 and fiscal 2010:
 
 
Fiscal
Appreciation / (Depreciation)
in percentage
 
2011 ($)
2010 ($)
 
Average exchange rate during the period:
 
 
 
United Kingdom Pound Sterling
 1.55
1.60
3.1%
Euro
 1.32
1.41
6.4%
Australian dollar
 0.94
0.85
(10.6)%
 
 
 
Fiscal
 
2011 ($)
2010 ($)
Exchange rate at the beginning of the period:
 
 
United Kingdom Pound Sterling
1.51
1.43
Euro
1.35
1.33
Australian dollar
0.92
0.69
Exchange rate at the end of the period:
 
 
United Kingdom Pound Sterling
 1.61
1.51
Euro
 1.42
1.35
Australian dollar
 1.03
0.92
Appreciation / (Depreciation) of U.S. dollar against the relevant currency during the period:
 
 
United Kingdom Pound Sterling
(6.6)%
(5.6)%
Euro
(5.2)%
(1.5)%
Australian dollar
(12.0)%
(33.3)%
 
For fiscal 2011, every percentage point depreciation/appreciation in the exchange rate between the Indian rupee and the U.S. dollar has affected our operating margins by approximately 0.5%. The exchange rate between the rupee and U.S. dollar has fluctuated substantially in recent years and may continue to do so in the future. We are unable to predict the impact that future fluctuations may have on our operating margins.
 
Income tax expense
 
The following table sets forth our income tax expense and effective tax rate for fiscal 2011 and fiscal 2010:
(Dollars in millions)
 
Fiscal 2011
Fiscal 2010
Change
Percentage Change
Income tax expense
$547
$356
$191
53.7%
Effective tax rate
26.7%
21.3%
 
 
 
The increase in the effective tax rate is primarily due to the expiration of the tax holiday period for approximately 15.4% of our revenues from STP and SEZ units that were benefiting from a tax holiday in fiscal 2010.
 
Net profit
 
The following table sets forth our net profit for fiscal 2011 and fiscal 2010:
(Dollars in millions)
 
Fiscal 2011
Fiscal 2010
Change
Percentage Change
Net profit
$1,499
$1,313
$186
14.2%
As a percentage of revenues
24.8%
27.3%
 
 
 
The decrease in net profit as a percentage of revenues for fiscal 2011 from fiscal 2010 was attributable to a 1.0% decrease in operating profit as a percentage of revenue and an increase of 5.4% in our effective tax rate.
 
Sensitivity analysis for significant defined benefit plans
 
In accordance with the Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972, we provide for gratuity, a defined benefit retirement plan (the Gratuity Plan) covering eligible employees. The Gratuity Plan provides a lump-sum payment to vested employees at retirement, death, incapacitation or termination of employment, of an amount based on the respective employee's salary and the tenure of employment.
 
The defined benefit obligations as of March 31, 2012 and March 31, 2011 are $118 million and $108 million respectively.
 
The weighted-average assumptions used to determine benefit obligations as of March 31, 2012 and March 31, 2011 is set out below:
 
Particulars
Fiscal 2012
Fiscal 2011
Discount rate
8.6%
8.0%
Weighted average rate of increase in compensation levels
7.3%
7.3%
 
As of March 31, 2012, every percentage point increase / decrease in discount rate will affect our gratuity benefit obligation by approximately $8 million.
 
As of March 31, 2012, every percentage point increase / decrease in weighted average rate of increase in compensation levels will affect our gratuity benefit obligation by approximately $8 million. 
 
Liquidity and capital resources
 
Our growth has been financed largely by cash generated from operations and, to a lesser extent, from the proceeds from the issuance of equity. In 1993, we raised approximately $4.4 million in gross aggregate proceeds from our initial public offering of equity shares in India. In 1994, we raised an additional $7.7 million through private placements of our equity shares with foreign institutional investors, mutual funds, Indian domestic financial institutions and corporations. On March 11, 1999, we raised $70.4 million in gross aggregate proceeds from our initial public offering of ADSs in the United States.
 
As of March 31, 2012, 2011 and 2010, we had $5,008 million, $4,496 million and $3,943 million in working capital, respectively. The working capital as of March 31, 2012, includes $4,047 million in cash and cash equivalents, $6 million in available-for-sale financial assets and $68 million in Investments in certificates of deposit. The working capital as of March 31, 2011, includes $3,737 million in cash and cash equivalents, $5 million in available-for-sale financial assets and $27 million in Investments in certificates of deposit. The working capital as of March 31, 2010, includes $2,698 million in cash and cash equivalents, $561 million in available-for-sale financial assets and $265 million in Investments in certificates of deposit. We have no outstanding bank borrowings. We believe that our current working capital is sufficient to meet our requirements for the next 12 months. We believe that a sustained reduction in IT spending, a longer sales cycle, or a continued economic downturn in any of the various geographic locations or industry segments in which we operate, could result in a decline in our revenue and negatively impact our liquidity and cash resources.
 
Our principal sources of liquidity are our cash and cash equivalents and the cash flow that we generate from our operations. Our cash and cash equivalents comprise of cash and bank deposits and deposits with corporations which can be withdrawn at any point of time without prior notice or penalty. These cash and cash equivalents included a restricted cash balance of $52 million, $24 million and $16 million as of March 31, 2012, March 31, 2011 and March 31, 2010, respectively. These restrictions are primarily on account of unclaimed dividends and cash balances held by irrevocable trusts controlled by us.
 
In summary, our cash flows were:
(Dollars in millions)
 
Fiscal
 
2012
2011
2010
Net cash provided by operating activities
 $1,681
$1,298
$1,452
Net cash provided / (used) in investing activities
 $(429)
$490
$(925)
Net cash (used) in financing activities
 $(500)
$(811)
$(310)
 
Net cash provided by operations consisted primarily of net profit adjusted for depreciation and amortization, deferred taxes and income taxes and changes in working capital.
 
Trade receivables increased by $247 million and $254 million during fiscal 2012 and fiscal 2011, respectively, compared to a decrease of $41 million during fiscal 2010. Trade receivables as a percentage of last 12 months revenues were 16.5%, 17.3% and 16.2% as of March 31, 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively. Days sales outstanding on the basis of last 12 months revenues were 60 days, 63 days and 59 days as of March 31, 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively. Prepayments and other assets increased by $13 million in fiscal 2012, compared to an increase of $52 million and $49 million during fiscal 2011 and fiscal 2010, respectively. There was an increase in unbilled revenues of $131 million during fiscal 2012, $88 million during fiscal 2011, of $19 million during fiscal 2010. Unbilled revenues represent revenues that are recognized but not yet invoiced. The increase in unbilled revenues is primarily due to efforts spent in certain large projects for which the billing milestones have not yet crystallized. Other liabilities and provisions increased by $123 million and $98 million during fiscal 2012 and fiscal 2011, respectively, as compared to a decrease of $23 million during fiscal 2010. Unearned revenues increased by $6 million during fiscal 2012, as compared to a decrease of $3 million during fiscal 2011, and increased by $42 million during fiscal 2010. Unearned revenue resulted primarily from advance client billings on fixed-price, fixed-timeframe contracts for which related efforts had not been expended. Revenues from fixed-price, fixed-timeframe contracts represented 39.3%, 40.3% and 38.5% of total services revenues for fiscal 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively, whereas revenues from time-and-materials contracts represented 60.7%, 59.7% and 61.5% of total services revenues for fiscal 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively.
 
Income taxes paid increased by $29 million, $257 million and $176 million during fiscal 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively.
 
We expect to contribute $29 million to our gratuity trusts during fiscal 2013 (refer to note 2.12.1 under Item 18 of this Annual Report on Form 20-F). We believe that our current working capital is sufficient to meet our gratuity obligations.
 
Net cash used in investing activities, relating to our acquisition business for fiscal 2012 was $41 million. Net cash used in investing activities, relating to acquisition of additional property, plant and equipment for fiscal 2012, 2011 and 2010 was $301 million, $285 million and $138 million, respectively for our software development centers. During fiscal 2012, we invested $1,247 million in available-for-sale financial assets, $75 million in certificates of deposit, $23 million in deposits with corporations and redeemed available-for-sale financial assets of $1,245 million and $31 million of certificates of deposit. During fiscal 2011, we invested $425 million in available-for-sale financial assets, $185 million in certificates of deposit, $22 million in non-current deposits with corporations and redeemed available-for-sale financial assets of $973 million and $436 million of certificates of deposit. During fiscal 2010 we invested $2,091 million in available-for-sale financial assets, $249 million in certificates of deposit, $6 million in non-current deposits with corporations and redeemed available-for-sale financial assets of $1,571 million. The proceeds realized from the redemption of available-for-sale financial assets were used in our day to day business activities.
 
On January 4, 2012, Infosys BPO acquired 100% of the voting interest in Portland Group Pty Ltd a strategic sourcing and category management services provider based in Australia. This business acquisition was conducted by entering into a share sale agreement for a cash consideration of $41 million. The entire amount was paid by March 31, 2012.
 
During fiscal 2010, Infosys BPO acquired 100% of the voting interests in McCamish Systems LLC (McCamish), a business process solutions provider based in Atlanta, Georgia, in the United States. The business acquisition was conducted by entering into Membership Interest Purchase Agreement for a cash consideration of $37 million. Of this contingent consideration, $12 million was outstanding as of March 31, 2012.
 
Previously, we provided various loans to employees including car loans, home loans, personal computer loans, telephone loans, medical loans, marriage loans, personal loans, salary advances, education loans and loans for rental deposits. These loans were provided primarily to employees in India who were not executive officers or directors. Housing and car loans were available only to middle level managers, senior managers and non-executive officers. These loans were generally collateralized against the assets of the loan and the terms of the loans ranged from 1 to 100 months.
 
We have discontinued fresh disbursements under all of these loan schemes except for personal loans and salary advances which we continue to provide primarily to employees in India who are not executive officers or directors.
 
The annual rates of interest for these loans vary between 0% and 4%. Loans aggregating $33 million, $32 million and $24 million were outstanding as of March 31, 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively.
 
The timing of required repayments of employee loans outstanding as of March 31, 2012 are as detailed below.
(Dollars in millions)
12 months ending March 31,
Repayment
2013
$32
2014
1
 
$33
 
Net cash used in financing activities for fiscal 2012 was $500 million, which was comprised primarily of dividend payments of $501 million, partially offset by $1 million of proceeds received from the issuance of 78,442 equity shares on exercise of share options by employees. Net cash used in financing activities for fiscal 2011 was $811 million, which was comprised primarily of dividend payments of $816 million, partially offset by $5 million of proceeds received from the issuance of 326,367 equity shares on exercise of share options by employees. Net cash used in financing activities for fiscal 2010 was $310 million, which was comprised primarily of dividend payments of $330 million, partially offset by $20 million of proceeds received from the issuance of 995,149 equity shares on exercise of share options by employees.
 
The Board of Directors, in their meeting on April 13, 2012, proposed a final dividend of approximately $0.43 per equity share (Rupee-Symbol22 per equity share) and a special dividend, recognizing ten years of Infosys BPO’s operations, of approximately $0.20 per equity share (Rupee-Symbol10 per equity share). The proposal is subject to the approval of shareholders at the Annual General Meeting to be held on June 9, 2012, and if approved, would result in a cash outflow of approximately $420 million, inclusive of corporate dividend tax of $59 million.
 
As of March 31, 2012, we had contractual commitments for capital expenditure of $205 million, as compared to $183 million and $67 million of contractual commitments as of March 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively. These commitments include approximately $164 million in commitments for domestic purchases as of March 31, 2012, as compared to $177 million and $53 million as of March 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively, and $41 million in commitments for imports of hardware, supplies and services to support our operations generally as of March 31, 2012, as compared to $6 million and $14 million as of March 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively. We expect our outstanding contractual commitments as of March 31, 2012 to be significantly completed by September 2012.
 
Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk
 
General
 
Market risk is attributable to all market sensitive financial instruments including foreign currency receivables and payables. The value of a financial instrument may change as a result of changes in the interest rates, foreign currency exchange rates, commodity prices, equity prices and other market changes that affect market risk sensitive instruments.
 
Our exposure to market risk is a function of our revenue generating activities and any future borrowing activities in foreign currency. The objective of market risk management is to avoid excessive exposure of our earnings and equity to loss. Most of our exposure to market risk arises out of our foreign currency accounts receivable.
 
We have chosen alternative 1 provided by Item 11 of Form 20-F to disclose quantitative information about market risk. All the required information under alternative 1 has been either included in components of market risk as given below or in note 2.7 under Item 18 of this Annual Report and such information has been incorporated herein by reference.
 
The following table provides the cross references to notes under Item 18 of this Annual Report which contains disclosures required under alternative 1 of Item 11 of Form 20-F.
 
Sl. No.
Requirements of Alternative 1 of Item 11
Cross reference to notes in the financial statements for instruments held for trading (Derivative financial instruments)
Cross reference to notes in the financial statements for instruments other than for trading purposes (All other financial instruments)
1.
Fair values of market risk sensitive instruments
Table: The carrying value and fair value of financial instruments by categories under Note 2.7, Financial Instruments, of Item 18 of this Annual Report.
Table: The carrying value and fair value of financial instruments by categories under Note 2.7, Financial Instruments, of Item 18 of this Annual Report.
2.
Contract terms to determine future cash flows, categorized by expected maturity terms
 
 
Section: Derivative Financial Instruments under Note 2.7, Financial Instruments, of Item 18 of this Annual Report describing the terms of forward and options contracts and the table depicting the relevant maturity groupings based on the remaining period as of March 31, 2012 and March 31, 2011.
We have provided the outstanding contract amounts in Note 2.7, Financial Instruments, of Item 18 of this Annual Report, table giving details in respect of outstanding foreign exchange forward and option contracts.
Current Financial Assets: The expected maturity of these assets falls within one year, hence no additional disclosures are required.
 
Non Current Financial Assets:
 
Prepayments and Other Assets - Primarily consist of deposit held with corporation to settle certain employee-related obligations as and when they arise during the normal course of business. Consequently, the period of maturity could not be estimated. (Refer to Note 2.4, Prepayments and Other Assets, of Item 18 of this Annual Report). Hence we have not made any additional disclosures for the maturity of non-current financial assets.
 
Financial Liabilities: Refer to Section “Liquidity Risk” under Note 2.7 of Item 18 of this Annual Report, table containing the details regarding the contractual maturities of significant financial liabilities as of March 31, 2012 and March 31, 2011.
3.
Contract terms to determine cash flows for each of the next five years and aggregate amount for remaining years.
Same table as above however as all our forward and option contracts mature between 1-12 months, we do not require further classification.
Refer to Section “Liquidity Risk” under Note 2.7 of Item 18 of this Annual Report, table containing the details regarding the contractual maturities of significant financial liabilities as of March 31, 2012 and March 31, 2011.
4.
Categorization of market risk sensitive instruments
We have categorized the forwards and option contracts based on the currency in which the forwards and option contracts were denominated in accordance with instruction to Item 11(a) 2 B (v). Refer to section entitled: Derivative Financial Instruments under Note 2.7, Financial Instruments, of Item 18 of this Annual Report; table giving details in respect of outstanding foreign exchange forward and option contracts.
We have categorized the financial assets and financial liabilities based on the currency in which the financial instruments were denominated in accordance with instruction to Item 11(a) 2 B (v). Refer to section entitled: Financial Risk Management under Note 2.7, Financial Instruments, under Item 18 of this Annual Report; table analyzing the foreign currency risk from financial instruments as of March 31, 2012 and March 31, 2011.
5.
Descriptions and assumptions to understand the above disclosures
All the tables given under Note 2.7, Financial Instruments, under Item 18 of this Annual Report have explanatory headings and the necessary details to understand the information contained in the tables.
All the tables given under Note 2.7, Financial Instruments, under Item 18 of this Annual Report have explanatory headings and the necessary details to understand the information contained in the tables.
 
Risk Management Procedures
 
We manage market risk through treasury operations. Our treasury operations' objectives and policies are approved by senior management and our Audit Committee. The activities of treasury operations include management of cash resources, implementing hedging strategies for foreign currency exposures, borrowing strategies, if any, and ensuring compliance with market risk limits and policies.
 
Components of Market Risk
 
Exchange rate risk. Our exposure to market risk arises principally from exchange rate risk. Even though our functional currency is the Indian rupee, we generate a major portion of our revenues in foreign currencies, particularly the U.S. dollar, the United Kingdom Pound Sterling, Euro and the Australian dollar, whereas we incur a majority of our expenses in Indian rupees. The exchange rate between the Indian rupee and the U.S. dollar has changed substantially in recent years and may fluctuate substantially in the future. Consequently, the results of our operations are adversely affected as the Indian rupee appreciates against the U.S. dollar. For fiscal 2012, 2011 and 2010, U.S. dollar denominated revenues represented 71.7%, 72.8% and 73.3% of total revenues, respectively. For the same periods, revenues denominated in United Kingdom Pound Sterling represented 6.8%, 7.2% and 9.2% of total revenues, revenues denominated in the Euro represented 7.7%, 6.9% and 6.9% of total revenues while revenues denominated in the Australian dollar represented 7.6%, 6.5% and 5.8% of total revenues. Our exchange rate risk primarily arises from our foreign currency revenues, receivables and payables.
 
We use derivative financial instruments such as foreign exchange forward and option contracts to mitigate the risk of changes in foreign exchange rates on accounts receivable and forecasted cash flows denominated in certain foreign currencies. The counterparty for these contracts is generally a bank.
 
As of March 31, 2012, we had outs